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Sample records for acetyltransferase cat reporter

  1. Application of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) diffusion assay to transgenic plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Peach, C; Velten, J

    1992-02-01

    Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity was quantified in crude extracts from tobacco callus tissues using a modification of a previously reported diffusion assay. We describe here the alterations necessary in applying this rapid and simple assay procedure to plant materials. Due to the high concentration of nonspecific oxidases present in most plant tissues, some type of protective agent is required to maintain enzyme activity. We have tested beta-mercaptoethanol, cysteine, dithiothreitol, ascorbic acid and polyvinyl pyrrolidone as protective agents within the initial extraction buffer. We also investigated the effect of heat (60 degrees C, 10 min) and 5 mM EDTA on CAT activity. The highest CAT activity was obtained using 5 mM cysteine plus 5 mM EDTA in 40 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.8) as the initial extraction buffer followed by a heat treatment. Using this buffer, CAT activity was stable on ice for more than two hours. In our hands, total acetyl-coenzyme A concentration within the assay mixture was found to be saturating at 250 microM and the Km determined to be 100 microM. Assays performed using the same crude plant extract indicate that 1) duplicate assays show less than 1.5% variation in activities and 2) CAT activity increases linearly with respect to volume of extract used. PMID:1616705

  2. Assaying the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Crabb, D.W.; Minth, C.D.; Dixon, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    These experiments document the presence of enzymatic activities in extracts of commonly used cell lines which interfere with the determination of CAT activity. We suspect that the deacetylase activity is the most important, as the extract of the H4IIE C3 cells was capable of completely deacetylating the mono- and diacetylchloramphenicol formed during a 2-hr incubation of CAT with chloramphenicol and acetyl-CoA. The results of the inhibitor experiments are consistent with the presence of proteases which degrade CAT, or a serine carboxylesterase. The interference was also reduced by about half by EDTA; a metalloenzyme (either a protease or esterase) may therefore be involved. This interference appears to be a common phenomenon. We have surveyed 23 different cell types for the presence of the interfering activity and found it in 15. The interference was particularly prominent in several neuroendocrine and hepatoma cells. We took advantage of the effect of EDTA and the heat stability of CAT to eliminate the interference. Addition of 5 mM EDTA and a 10-min incubation of the sonicated cell suspension at 60 degrees prior to centrifugation abolished the interference in all cell lines tested. It is important to note that in order to reveal any CAT activity in some of the extracts (e.g., PC-12 or Hep3B), it was necessary to run the CAT assay for 2 hr. The control assays were therefore run almost to completion, and were well beyond the linear range of the assay. Therefore, the small differences which we observed between the heat-treated and control samples in some instances (e.g., rice, corn, or HeLa cells) will be dramatically amplified when the CAT assay is performed under conditions in which only a small percentage of the substrate is converted to product.

  3. Cat Flea Infestation in a Hospital: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Norhayati, Moktar; Lee, Yin Yin

    2012-01-01

    Cat flea bite in humans results in extremely pruritic skin lesions. It has been reported to occur among those living in domiciliary accommodation. However, nosocomial infestation with cat flea has not been reported. We hereby report a case of nosocomial infestation of cat flea in a hospital facility. Identification of the parasite, its appropriate eradication, and adequate medical management of the patients resulted in a satisfactory outcome. PMID:22451739

  4. Cats

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Cats and other animals often can carry MRSA ...

  5. Lipoproteins of Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum activate cachectin/tumor necrosis factor synthesis. Analysis using a CAT reporter construct.

    PubMed

    Radolf, J D; Norgard, M V; Brandt, M E; Isaacs, R D; Thompson, P A; Beutler, B

    1991-09-15

    Lipoproteins from two pathogenic spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum) induced the biosynthesis of TNF in murine macrophages and in permanently transformed macrophages of the cell line RAW 264.7. Induction was studied by measuring the secretion of biologically active TNF and by measuring the activity of the reporter enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) produced within macrophages transfected with an endotoxin-responsive CAT construct. Several lines of evidence indicated that the induction of TNF and CAT was attributable to the spirochete lipoproteins rather than to contaminating or endogenous LPS: 1) the dose response curves observed for the lipoproteins were markedly different from those obtained with LPS; 2) lipoprotein-mediated activation was unaffected by amounts of polymyxin B that completely neutralized the induction of TNF and CAT by LPS, 3) low concentrations of the lipoproteins induced TNF in macrophages from endotoxin-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mice as effectively as in macrophages from normal C3H/HeN mice, and 4) isolated spirochete lipoproteins, but not a non-lipoprotein immunogen, were potent inducers of CAT in the transformed macrophages. Moreover, LPS was not detected in the B. burgdorferi lipoprotein mixtures by Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Proteolytic digestion of the intact bacterial protein preparations only modestly diminished their ability to activate the cells, suggesting that small lipopeptides comprise the biologically active portions of the molecules, as is the case with the murein lipoprotein of Escherichia coli. Through their ability to induce TNF production by macrophages, spirochete lipoproteins may play important roles in the development of the local inflammatory changes and the systemic manifestations that characterize syphilis and Lyme disease. PMID:1890308

  6. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    McEwen, S A; Valli, V E; Hulland, T J

    1985-07-01

    The clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings in three cats with hypereosinophilic syndrome are described. The cats chosen for the study had marked eosinophilia and evidence of tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Necropsies were performed on two cats, biopsy and blood samples were provided for the third cat. At necropsy, there was diffuse reddening of femoral bone marrow with ulceration and thickening of the duodenum. The livers had an enhanced lobular pattern with multiple, white, 1-3 mm nodules throughout the parenchyma. One cat had splenomegaly and the other had several enlarged, white, firm lymph nodes. Histopathologically, there was eosinophil infiltration of intestine, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, adrenal medulla and beneath the endocardium. Ultrastructurally, the eosinophils from lymph node and bone marrow of cat II were morphologically normal. The rigid criteria for eosinophilic leukemia were not fulfilled by these cases and the etiology of the eosinophilia in each case is not known. Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed. PMID:4041970

  7. Insights into the Specificity of Lysine Acetyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Alex C.; Taylor, Keenan C.; Rank, Katherine C.; Rayment, Ivan; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2014-01-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation by protein acetyltransferases is a conserved regulatory mechanism that controls diverse cellular pathways. Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferases (GNATs), named after their founding member, are found in all domains of life. GNATs are known for their role as histone acetyltransferases, but non-histone bacterial protein acetytransferases have been identified. Only structures of GNAT complexes with short histone peptide substrates are available in databases. Given the biological importance of this modification and the abundance of lysine in polypeptides, how specificity is attained for larger protein substrates is central to understanding acetyl-lysine-regulated networks. Here we report the structure of a GNAT in complex with a globular protein substrate solved to 1.9 Å. GNAT binds the protein substrate with extensive surface interactions distinct from those reported for GNAT-peptide complexes. Our data reveal determinants needed for the recognition of a protein substrate and provide insight into the specificity of GNATs. PMID:25381442

  8. Recombinant genomes which express chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, C.M.; Moffat, L.F.; Howard, B.H.

    1982-09-01

    The authors constructed a series of recombinant genomes which directed expression of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) in mammalian cells. The prototype recombinant in this series, pSV2-cat, consisted of the beta-lactamase gene and origin of replication from pBR322 coupled to a simian virus 40 (SV40) early transcription region into which CAT coding sequences were inserted. Readily measured levels of CAT accumulated within 48 h after the introduction of pSV2-cat DNA into African green monkey kidney CV-1 cells. Because endogenous CAT activity is not present in CV-1 or other mammalian cells, and because rapid, sensitive assays for CAT activity are available, these recombinants provided a uniquely convenient system for monitoring the expression of foreign DNAs in tissue culture cells. To demonstrate the usefulness of this system, we constructed derivatives of pSV2-cat from which part or all of the SV 40 promoter region was removed. Deletion of one copy of the 72-base-pair repeat sequence in the SV40 promoter caused no significant decrease in CAT synthesis in monkey kidney CV-1 cells; however, an additional deletion of 50 base pairs from the second copy of the repeats reduced CAT synthesis to 11% of its level in the wild type. They also constructed a recombinant, pSVO-cat, in which the entire SV40 promoter region was removed and a unique HindIII site was substituted for the insertion of other promoter sequences.

  9. Rapid quantitative assay for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, J.R.; Morency, C.A.; Russian, K.O.

    1987-05-01

    Measuring the expression of exogenous genetic material in mammalian cells is commonly done by fusing the DNA of interest to a gene encoding an easily-detected enzyme. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase(CAT) is a convenient marker because it is not normally found in eukaryotes. CAT activity has usually been detected using a thin-layer chromatographic separation followed by autoradiography. An organic solvent extraction-based method for CAT detection has also been described, as well as a procedure utilizing HPLC analysis. Building on the extraction technique, they developed a rapid sensitive kinetic method for measuring CAT activity in cell homogenates. The method exploits the differential organic solubility of the substrate ((/sup 3/H) or (/sup 14/C)acetyl CoA) and the product (labeled acetylchloramphenicol). The assay is a simple one-vial, two-phase procedure and requires no tedious manipulations after the initial setup. Briefly, a 0.25 ml reaction with 100mM Tris-HCL, 1mM chloramphenicol, 0.1mM (/sup 14/C)acetyl CoA and variable amounts of cell homogenate is pipetted into a miniscintillation vial, overlaid with 5 ml of a water-immiscible fluor, and incubated at 37/sup 0/C. At suitable intervals the vial is counted and the CAT level is quantitatively determined as the rate of increase in counts/min of the labeled product as it diffuses into the fluor phase, compared to a standard curve. When used to measure CAT in transfected Balb 3T3 cells the method correlated well with the other techniques.

  10. On-chip enzymatic assay for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inseong; Kim, Dong-Eun; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Yeo, Woon-Seok

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we report a chloramphenicol (CAP) acetyltransferase (CAT) activity assay based on self-assembled monolayers on gold as an alternative to conventional CAT reporter gene assay systems, which sometimes require toxic materials and complicated steps that limit their use. A CAP derivative presented on a monolayer was converted to the acetylated CAP by CAT in the presence of acetyl-CoA. The conversion was directly monitored by observing the molecular weight changes in CAP using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. CAT activity was determined under various reaction conditions by changing reaction times, CAT and acetyl-CoA concentrations. As a practical application, we identified gene expression in bacteria that were transformed with pCAT plasmid DNA. Our strategy can provide a simple and rapid assay that eliminates some commonly used but potentially detrimental steps in enzymatic assays, such as radioactive labeling and complicated separation and purification of analytes prior to detection. PMID:26448379

  11. Lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection acquired from a cat scratch: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Sachs, M K

    1992-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a bacterium that is most commonly found in the soil. Traumatic inoculation of N. brasiliensis into the skin is the most typical mode of acquisition of infection due to this organism. To the best of my knowledge, I report the first case of lymphocutaneous N. brasiliensis disease from a penetrating cat scratch of the skin, thereby establishing cats as vehicles for the transmission of this infection. Treatment with penicillin produced a rapid resolution of all signs and symptoms of infection. The efficacy of penicillin against the N. brasiliensis isolate recovered from this patient was highly unusual. In general, penicillin has limited therapeutic value since these organisms elaborate beta-lactamase. Sulfonamides remain the drugs of choice for the treatment of these infections. These soil-borne organisms are most likely carried on the claws of cats and may establish infection after percutaneous inoculation. A high index of suspicion for N. brasiliensis soft-tissue infection is required since a delayed or missed diagnosis may be associated with progressive local disease and/or widespread disseminated infection. PMID:1420688

  12. Rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive assay for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Nordeen, S.K.; Green, P.P. III; Fowlkes, D.M.

    1987-04-01

    We present a rapid, sensitive enzymatic assay for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) that does not require chromatography, HPLC, or autoradiography. The assay is based on the use of an inexpensive substrate, tritiated acetate, instead of (/sup 14/C)chloramphenicol. The method is adapted from one originally used by de Crombrugghe et al. and by Shaw, but with simplifications appropriate for routine use. In our hands, the method is as sensitive as the customary thin-layer chromatography assay and is far more efficient for the performance of many assays, both in terms of labor and expense.

  13. A method to detect transfected chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene expression in intact animals

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, R.; Jastreboff, M.M.; Chiu, Chang Fang; Ito, Etsuro; Bertino, J.R. )

    1988-01-01

    A rapid procedure is described for assaying chloramphenicol acetyltransferase enzyme activity in intact animals following transfection of the RSV CAT plasmid into mouse bone marrow cells by electroporation. The reconstituted mice were injected with ({sup 14}C)chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extracts of 24-h urine samples were analyzed by TLC autoradiography for the excretion of {sup 14}C-labeled metabolites. CAT expression in vivo can be detected by the presence of acetylated {sup 14}C-labeled metabolites in the urine within 1 week after bone marrow transplantation and, under the conditions described, these metabolites can be detected for at least 3 months. CAT expression in intact mice as monitored by the urine assay correlates with the CAT expression in the hematopoietic tissues assayed in vitro. This method offers a quick mode of screening for introduced CAT gene expression in vivo without sacrificing the mice.

  14. First report of Polycystic kidney disease occurrence in Persian cats in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vucicevic, Milos; Slijepcevic, Dajana; Davitkov, Darko; Avdalovic, Vladimir; Aleksic-Kovacevic, Sanja; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2016-03-31

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited autosomal disorder in cats, mostly diagnosed in Persian cats. Renal cysts can be diagnosed by ultrasound, but cats must be at least 16 weeks old. The goals of this study were to assess the occurrence of PKD in Serbia using a randomly selected group of Persian cats, to compare the diagnostic e cacy of ultrasound and genetic tests, and to measure haematological and selected biochemical parameters. We examined 70 cats of Persian breed, between 4 months and 8 years of age. Complete blood count and selected biochemical parameters were measured, renal ultrasound was performed. Swabs of the oral cavity were obtained for genetic testing. Percentage of PKD positive cats identi ed by genetic testing was 48.6%, whilst only 18.6% were detected through ultrasound. Animals that were polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) positive and ultrasound negative ranged from 4 months to 3.5 years. All haematological and biochemical parameters were within the the normal range values in all examined cats. Genetic methods proved to be the most e ective for reliable and early diagnosis of PKD in Persian cats. DNA analysis can be used right after birth, and excludes the need for other diagnostic procedures, such as ultrasound. PMID:27033530

  15. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes characterized in several bacteria and eukaryotic organisms. We report a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis employing an exhaustive dataset of NAT-homologous sequences recovered through inspection of 2445 genomes. We describe ...

  16. Structure and Biochemical Characterization of Protein Acetyltransferase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    SciTech Connect

    Brent, Michael M.; Iwata, Ayaka; Carten, Juliana; Zhao, Kehao; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2009-09-02

    The Sulfolobus solfataricus protein acetyltransferase (PAT) acetylates ALBA, an abundant nonspecific DNA-binding protein, on Lys{sup 16} to reduce its DNA affinity, and the Sir2 deacetylase reverses the modification to cause transcriptional repression. This represents a 'primitive' model for chromatin regulation analogous to histone modification in eukaryotes. We report the 1.84-{angstrom} crystal structure of PAT in complex with coenzyme A. The structure reveals homology to both prokaryotic GNAT acetyltransferases and eukaryotic histone acetyltransferases (HATs), with an additional 'bent helix' proximal to the substrate binding site that might play an autoregulatory function. Investigation of active site mutants suggests that PAT does not use a single general base or acid residue for substrate deprotonation and product reprotonation, respectively, and that a diffusional step, such as substrate binding, may be rate-limiting. The catalytic efficiency of PAT toward ALBA is low relative to other acetyltransferases, suggesting that there may be better, unidentified substrates for PAT. The structural similarity of PAT to eukaryotic HATs combined with its conserved role in chromatin regulation suggests that PAT is evolutionarily related to the eukaryotic HATs.

  17. Global Profiling of Acetyltransferase Feedback Regulation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, David C; Garlick, Julie M; Kulkarni, Rhushikesh A; Kennedy, Steven; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Kuo, Yin-Ming; Andrews, Andrew J; Wu, Hong; Vedadi, Masoud; Meier, Jordan L

    2016-05-25

    Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) are key mediators of cell signaling. Methods capable of providing new insights into their regulation thus constitute an important goal. Here we report an optimized platform for profiling KAT-ligand interactions in complex proteomes using inhibitor-functionalized capture resins. This approach greatly expands the scope of KATs, KAT complexes, and CoA-dependent enzymes accessible to chemoproteomic methods. This enhanced profiling platform is then applied in the most comprehensive analysis to date of KAT inhibition by the feedback metabolite CoA. Our studies reveal that members of the KAT superfamily possess a spectrum of sensitivity to CoA and highlight NAT10 as a novel KAT that may be susceptible to metabolic feedback inhibition. This platform provides a powerful tool to define the potency and selectivity of reversible stimuli, such as small molecules and metabolites, that regulate KAT-dependent signaling. PMID:27149119

  18. Molecular cloning, purification, and properties of a plasmid-encoded chloramphenicol acetyltransferase from Staphylococcus haemolyticus.

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, S; Cardoso, M

    1991-01-01

    A small chloramphenicol resistance (Cmr) plasmid of approximately 3.75 kb, designated pSCS5, was isolated from Staphylococcus haemolyticus. This plasmid encoded an inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT; EC 2.3.1.28). The cat gene of pSCS5 was cloned into the Escherichia coli plasmid vector pBluescript SKII+. It differed in its nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence from the cat genes described previously in staphylococci and other gram-positive bacteria. The CAT enzyme was purified from cell-free lysates by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and fast protein liquid chromatography. The native enzyme had an Mr of 70,000 and was composed of three identical subunits, each with an Mr of approximately 23,000. Its isoelectric point was at pH 6.15. CAT from pSCS5 exhibited Km values of 2.81 and 51.8 microM for chloramphenicol and acetyl coenzyme A, respectively. The optimum pH for activity was 7.8. CAT encoded by pSCS5 proved to be relatively heat stable, but sensitive to mercury ions. The observed differences in the nucleotide sequence and the biochemical characteristics of the enzyme allowed the identification of the pSCS5-encoded CAT from S. haemolyticus as a CAT variant different from those described previously in gram-positive bacteria. Images PMID:1929282

  19. Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). [Final Report, FY81-83].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Baldwin; And Others

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) offers the opportunity to replace paper-and-pencil aptitude tests such as the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery with shorter, more accurate, and more secure computer-administered tests. Its potential advantages need to be verified by experimental administration of automated tests to military recruit…

  20. Cat scratch disease in 9-year-old patient - a case report.

    PubMed

    Świątkowski, Wojciech; Rahnama, Mansur; Strzelczyk, Katarzyna; Baszak, Jakub; Sierocińska-Sawa, Jadwiga

    2016-03-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) - bartonellosis, is zoonosis caused by the intracellular gram negativebacterium Bartonellahenselae or Bartonellaquintana. The pathogens of this disease enter the human body usually as a consequence of a bite or scratch by young cats which are the natural source of such bacteria. The illness proceeds asymptomatically or with topical symptoms of infection such as a lump, spot or blister. Within 14 days a high fever and topical lymphadenopathy are observed. Lymph nodes are sore and start suppurating. In half of patients, these symptoms may resemble malignancy, and in single cases there are symptoms associated with the musculoskeletal system, such as: osteitis, arthitis and myositis. In paper presented case of 9 year-old girl patients, treated in Oral Surgery Unit due to odema and lymphadenopathy in right submandibular space. Primary surgical treatment of deciduous teeth was conducted without recovery. In few months follow-up, biopsy of lymph node of submandibular group was taken and provisional diagnosis of cat scratch disease was set. Patient was referred to the Infectious Diseases Unit where serological test confirmed cat scratch disease, and pharmacological treatment was conducted with success and recovery of young patient. PMID:27213258

  1. A chromosomal chloramphenicol acetyltransferase determinant from a probiotic strain of Bacillus clausii.

    PubMed

    Galopin, Sébastien; Cattoir, Vincent; Leclercq, Roland

    2009-06-01

    The mechanism of resistance to chloramphenicol was studied in four strains of Bacillus clausii included in a probiotic mixture, which is administered to humans for prevention of gastrointestinal side effects due to oral antibiotic therapy. By cloning experiments, a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, cat(Bcl), coding for a putative 228-amino acid CAT protein was identified in B. clausii SIN. The deduced amino acid sequence displayed from 31% to 85% identity with 56 CAT proteins from other Gram-positive bacterial strains. The cat(Bcl) gene was also detected by PCR in the three other B. clausii strains resistant to chloramphenicol, whereas it was absent in the three control strains susceptible to chloramphenicol. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis of total DNA digested by I-CeuI followed by hybridization with a cat-specific probe as well as unsuccessful repeated attempts of in vitro transfer of chloramphenicol resistance to various recipient cells indicated that cat(Bcl) was chromosomally located in all four resistant B. clausii strains. PMID:19459958

  2. Chloramphenicol Selection of IS10 Transposition in the cat Promoter Region of Widely Used Cloning Vectors.

    PubMed

    González-Prieto, Coral; Agúndez, Leticia; Llosa, Matxalen

    2015-01-01

    The widely used pSU8 family of cloning vectors is based on a p15A replicon and a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene conferring chloramphenicol resistance. We frequently observed an increase in the size of plasmids derived from these vectors. Analysis of the bigger molecular species shows that they have an IS10 copy inserted at a specific site between the promoter and the cat open reading frame. Promoter activity from both ends of IS10 has been reported, suggesting that the insertion events could lead to higher CAT production. Insertions were observed in certain constructions containing inserts that could lead to plasmid instability. To test the possibility that IS10 insertions were selected as a response to chloramphenicol selection, we have grown these constructs in the presence of different amounts of antibiotic and we observed that insertions arise promptly under higher chloramphenicol selective pressure. IS10 is present in many E. coli laboratory strains, so the possibility of insertion in constructions involving cat-containing vectors should be taken into account. Using lower chloramphenicol concentrations could solve this problem. PMID:26375469

  3. Chloramphenicol Selection of IS10 Transposition in the cat Promoter Region of Widely Used Cloning Vectors

    PubMed Central

    González-Prieto, Coral; Agúndez, Leticia; Llosa, Matxalen

    2015-01-01

    The widely used pSU8 family of cloning vectors is based on a p15A replicon and a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene conferring chloramphenicol resistance. We frequently observed an increase in the size of plasmids derived from these vectors. Analysis of the bigger molecular species shows that they have an IS10 copy inserted at a specific site between the promoter and the cat open reading frame. Promoter activity from both ends of IS10 has been reported, suggesting that the insertion events could lead to higher CAT production. Insertions were observed in certain constructions containing inserts that could lead to plasmid instability. To test the possibility that IS10 insertions were selected as a response to chloramphenicol selection, we have grown these constructs in the presence of different amounts of antibiotic and we observed that insertions arise promptly under higher chloramphenicol selective pressure. IS10 is present in many E. coli laboratory strains, so the possibility of insertion in constructions involving cat-containing vectors should be taken into account. Using lower chloramphenicol concentrations could solve this problem. PMID:26375469

  4. South African report of first case of chromoblastomycosis caused by Cladosporium (syn Cladophialophora) carrionii infection in a cat with feline immunodeficiency virus and lymphosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Zambelli, Anthony B; Griffiths, Catherine A

    2015-04-01

    This report describes a 6-year-old neutered male feline immunodeficiency-positive cat with repeated abdominal and thoracic effusions. The cat was diagnosed with and treated for lymphosarcoma but remission was short-lived and, on re-evaluation, a fungal peritoneal exudate was noted. Cytology of the organisms is described and the culture elucidated Cladosporium carrionii, an important cause of chromoblastomycosis. Treatment with itraconazole was unsuccessful in this case. PMID:25425600

  5. Cat Batiks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buban, Marcia H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)

  6. Paramecium bursaria Chlorella Virus 1 Encodes a Polyamine Acetyltransferase*

    PubMed Central

    Charlop-Powers, Zachary; Jakoncic, Jean; Gurnon, James R.; Van Etten, James L.; Zhou, Ming-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1), a large DNA virus that infects green algae, encodes a histone H3 lysine 27-specific methyltransferase that functions in global transcriptional silencing of the host. PBCV-1 has another gene a654l that encodes a protein with sequence similarity to the GCN5 family histone acetyltransferases. In this study, we report a 1.5 Å crystal structure of PBCV-1 A654L in a complex with coenzyme A. The structure reveals a unique feature of A654L that precludes its acetylation of histone peptide substrates. We demonstrate that A654L, hence named viral polyamine acetyltransferase (vPAT), acetylates polyamines such as putrescine, spermidine, cadaverine, and homospermidine present in both PBCV-1 and its host through a reaction dependent upon a conserved glutamate 27. Our study suggests that as the first virally encoded polyamine acetyltransferase, vPAT plays a possible key role in the regulation of polyamine catabolism in the host during viral replication. PMID:22277659

  7. Inhibition of Histone Acetyltransferase by Glycosaminoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Buczek-Thomas, Jo Ann; Hsia, Edward; Rich, Celeste B.; Foster, Judith A.; Nugent, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are a class of enzymes that participate in modulating chromatin structure and gene expression. Altered HAT activity has been implicated in a number of diseases, yet little is known about the regulation of HATs. In this study, we report that glycosaminoglycans are potent inhibitors of p300 and pCAF HAT activities in vitro, with heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans being the most potent inhibitors. The mechanism of inhibition by heparin was investigated. The ability of heparin to inhibit HAT activity was in part dependent upon its size and structure, as small heparin-derived oligosaccharides (> 8 sugars) and N-desulfated or O-desulfated heparin showed reduced inhibitory activity. Heparin was shown to bind to pCAF; and enzyme assays indicated that heparin shows the characteristics of a competitive-like inhibitor causing an ~50-fold increase in the apparent Km of pCAF for histone H4. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans isolated from corneal and pulmonary fibroblasts inhibited HAT activity with similar effectiveness as heparin. As evidence that endogenous glycosaminoglycans might be involved in modulating histone acetylation, the direct addition of heparin to pulmonary fibroblasts resulted in an ~50% reduction of histone H3 acetylation after 6 hours of treatment. In addition, Chinese hamster ovary cells deficient in glycosaminoglycan synthesis showed increased levels of acetylated histone H3 compared to wild-type parent cells. Glycosaminoglycans represent a new class of HAT inhibitors that might participate in modulating cell function by regulating histone acetylation. PMID:18459114

  8. Over-expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiqing; Vath, Gregory M; Kawamura, Akane; Bates, Caleb A; Sim, Edith; Hanna, Patrick E; Wagner, Carston R

    2005-02-01

    Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) has been overexpressed in E. coli as a mutant dihydrofolic acid reductase (DHFR) fusion protein with a thrombin sensitive linker. An initial DEAE anion-exchange chromatography resulted in partial purification of the fusion protein. The fusion protein was cleaved with thrombin, and human rNAT1 was purified with a second DEAE column. A total of 8 mg of human rNAT1 from 2 1 of cell culture was purified to homogeneity with this methodology. Arylamine substrate specificities were determined for human rNATI and hamster rNAT2. With both NATs, the second order rate constants (k(cat)/ Kmb) for p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) were several thousand-fold higher than those for procainamide (PA), consistent with the expected substrate specificities of the enzymes. However, p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), previously reported to be a human NAT1 and hamster NAT2 selective substrate, exhibits 20-fold higher specificity for hamster rNAT2 (k(cat)/Kmb 3410 microM(-1) s(-1)) than for human rNAT1 (k(cat)/Kmb 169.4 microM(-1) s(-1)). p-aminobenzoyl-glutamic acid (pABglu) was acetylated 10-fold more efficiently by human rNAT1 than by hamster rNAT2. Inhibition studies of human rNAT1 and hamster rNAT2 revealed that folic acid and methotrexate (MTX) are competitive inhibitors of both the unacetylated and acetylated forms of the enzymes, with K(I) values in 50 - 300 micro range. Dihydrofolic acid (DHF) was a much poorer inhibitor of human rNAT1 than of hamster rNAT2. The combined results demonstrate that human rNAT1 and hamster rNAT2 have similar but distinct kinetic properties with certain substrates, and suggest that folic acid, at least in the non-polyglutamate form, may not have an effect on human NAT1 activity in vivo. PMID:16003948

  9. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, David S.; Gudlavalleti, Seshu K.; Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Datta, Anup K.; Carlson, Russell W.

    2011-02-08

    Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

  10. Defining the Orphan Functions of Lysine Acetyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Long known for their role in histone acetylation, recent studies have demonstrated that lysine acetyltransferases also carry out distinct “orphan” functions. These activities impact a wide range of biological phenomena including metabolism, RNA modification, nuclear morphology, and mitochondrial function. Here, we review the discovery and characterization of orphan lysine acetyltransferase functions. In addition to highlighting the evidence and biological role for these functions in human disease, we discuss the part emerging chemical tools may play in investigating this versatile enzyme superfamily. PMID:25591746

  11. Cat-scratch disease: report of a case with liver lesions and no lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Delbeke, D.; Sandler, M.P.; Shaff, M.I.; Miller, S.F.

    1988-08-01

    The usual presentation of cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a subacute regional lymphadenitis following cutaneous inoculation. We present the case of a 10-yr-old white female with a 4-wk history of abdominal pain and fever, without associated lymphadenopathy. A /sup 67/Ga scintigram showed inhomogenous uptake by the liver. An abdominal computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed multiple low density lesions in the liver and the spleen, that were confirmed at laparotomy. Stellate microabscesses were seen on a wedge biopsy of the liver and a CSD antigen skin test was positive. CSD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of liver lesions, even in the absence of lymphadenopathy. This case emphasizes the importance of inhomogeneous /sup 67/Ga uptake by the liver.

  12. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of ...

  13. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry ... infection does not make cats sick. However, the scratch or bite of an infected cat can cause ...

  14. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic ...

  15. A clinical report of entangled neonates' umbilical cord with queen's fur in Persian cat

    PubMed Central

    Azari, O; Akhtardanesh, B

    2011-01-01

    A 3-year-old Persian queen was referred to Teaching Veterinary Hospital while 3 neonates' umbilical cords were entangled with the queen's tail hair. Close inspection of the cat showed that the umbilical cords of 3 kittens had twisted around together and entangled with the moms' hairs in the base of tail region. Also this complex has been warped around the left tarsus of one of the involved kittens and caused swelling and skin darkness in the involved limb. Operation was carried out urgently. After cutting the queen's involved hairs the kittens were released. Then the twisted umbilical cords and the hairs were isolated from the umbilical cord and the involved leg was released from the umbilical cords and the twisted umbilical cords were separated from each other. During one week follow up, dry gangrene occurred in the distal extremity of the injured limb and consequently, amputation was performed on the distal part of tibia. Our clinical findings suggest that long hair coats of queens could be a maternal life threatening factor for neonates' life. PMID:23569823

  16. Intervertebral disc extrusion in six cats.

    PubMed

    Knipe, M F; Vernau, K M; Hornof, W J; LeCouteur, R A

    2001-09-01

    Existing reports concerning intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) have focused almost exclusively on dogs, although a small number of individual case reports of IVDD of cats has been published. The medical records of six cats with IVDD were reviewed. Radiographic studies confirmed narrowed intervertebral disc spaces, mineralised intervertebral discs, and one or more extradural compressive lesions of the spinal cord in each cat. All disc extrusions were located in the thoracolumbar region. Surgical decompression of the spinal cord was achieved in all cats by means of hemilaminectomy and removal of compressive extradural material confirmed to be degenerative disc material. Good to excellent neurological recovery was noted in five of the six cats included in this report. Based on this review, it appears that IVDD of cats has many similarities to IVDD of dogs, and that healthy cats with acute intervertebral disc extrusion(s) respond favourably to surgical decompression of the spinal cord. PMID:11876633

  17. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  18. In vitro developmental competence of domestic cat embryos after somatic cloning: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Skrzyszowska, Maria; Katska, Lucyna; Ryńska, Bozenna; Kania, Gabriela; Smorag, Zdzisław; Pieńkowski, Marek

    2002-11-01

    fibroblast and cumulus cells, respectively. In conclusion, a prolonged maturation period of cat oocytes decreases developmental competence of reconstructed embryos, especially the ability to reach the blastocyst stage. The in vitro development of reconstructed embryos with either nuclei of fetal fibroblasts or cumulus cells was at approximately the same level. PMID:12374131

  19. Basins and Wepp Climate Assessment Tools (Cat): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tool: Case Study Final <span class=report"> This final report supports application of two recently developed...

  20. [Treatment of inter-specific aggression in cats with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine. A case report].

    PubMed

    Sprauer, S

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the redirected, inter-specific aggression of a Maine Coon cat, which was principally directed towards the owners. The cat reacted towards different, nonspecific sounds with abrupt aggressive behaviour and injured the victims at this juncture with moderate scratching and biting. Exclusively using behaviour therapy did not achieve the desired result, thus the therapy was supported with pharmaceuticals. The cat orally received the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluvoxamine at an initial dosage of 0.5mg/kg BW once daily. After 4 weeks the application rate was increased to 1.0 mg/kg BW once daily. The medication did not cause any side effects. Together with the behaviour-modulating therapy, carried out parallel to the medication therapy, the aggressive behaviour problem of the cat was resolved. After administration for a period of 63 weeks the fluvoxamine therapy was discontinued by gradually reducing the dose without recurrence of the aggressive behaviour. PMID:23242225

  1. The Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) - Reporting from the Nationion’s Largest College-Level, Astronomy Education Research Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Edward E.; Brissenden, G.; Impey, C. D.; Lee, K. M.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS)

    2014-01-01

    The NSF CCLI Phase III Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) National Implementation Program for Learner-Centered Astronomy Teaching began as an ambitious and far-reaching effort focused on building and mobilizing a community of teaching scholars who are engaged with designing, disseminating, and institutionalizing innovative and effective approaches to the teaching and learning of undergraduate Earth, Astronomy, and Space Science. The goals for the CATS program are to increase the number of faculty who embrace and successfully implement learner-centered astronomy teaching strategies, and who treat their teaching as a scholarly endeavor, by systematically studying the teaching and learning in their own classrooms and expanding the astronomy edcuation literature base by publishing the results of their community-focused, national-level, collaborative research projects. Led by members of the Center for Astronomy Education (CAE), in Steweard Observatory, at the University of Arizona, CATS has developed into a sustainable national collaboration bringing together the efforts and infrastructure of hundreds of college and university faculty, postdocs, and graduate and undergraduate students from institutions all across the United States. In this talk, I will report on the research projects, people, and transformations of undergraduate college-level astronomy teaching and learning that have been achieved during the first 6 years of CATS. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, & conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors & do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  2. A human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus, as a eucaryotic vector: Transient expression and encapsidation of the procaryotic gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Tratschin, J.D.; West, M.H.P.; Sandbank, T.; Carter, B.J.

    1984-10-01

    The authors have used the defective human parvovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a novel eurocaryotic vector (parvector) for the expression of a foreign gene in human cells. The recombinant, pAV2, contains the AAV genome in a pBR322-derived bacterial plasmid. When pAV2 is transfected into human cells together with helper adenovirus particles, the AAV genome is rescued from the recombinant plasmid and replicated to produce infectious AAV particles at high efficiency. To create a vector, we inserted a procaryotic sequence coding for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) into derivatives of pAV2 following either of the AAV promoters p/sub 40/ (pAVHiCAT) and p/sub 19/ (pAVBcCAT). When transfected into human 293 cells or HeLa cells, pAVHiCAT expressed CAT activity in the absence of adenovirus. In the presence of adenovirus, this vector produced increased amounts of CAT activity and the recombinant AAV-CAT genome was replicated. In 293 cells, pAVBcCAT expressed a similar amount of CAT activity in the absence or presence of adenovirus and the recombinant AAV-CAT genome was not replicated. In HeLa cells, pAVBcCAT expressed low levels of CAT activity, but this level was elevated by coinfection with adenovirus particles or by cotransfection with a plasmid which expressed the adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) product. The E1A product is a transcriptional activator and is expressed in 293 cells. Thus, expression from two AAV promoters is differentially regulated: expression from p/sub 19/ is increased by E1A, whereas p/sub 40/ yields high levels of constitutive expression in the absence of E1A. Both AAV vectors were packaged into AAV particles by complementation with wild-type AAV and yielded CAT activity when subsequently infected into cells in the presence of adenovirus.

  3. Cat scratch disease of the eye: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Alaan, Kristina; Fisher, Melanie; Ellis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This is the case of a middle-aged male with no other medical issues who presented with acute, unilateral visual disturbance. In lieu of specific ophthalmologic findings, his age and presentation, he was treated for presumed inflammatory process. It was only after steroids and the results of serological testing that an infectious agent was determined. He was eventually diagnosed with ocular Bartonellosis. He was treated with oral doxycycline and rifampin and slowly improved. The thesis of this case report is that a thorough history prior to rapid and somewhat presumptive treatment may have prevented unnecessary immunosuppression and delay in appropriate antimicrobial therapy. PMID:25643469

  4. Crystal structure of homoserine O-acetyltransferase from Leptospira interrogans

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Mingzhu; Liu Lin; Wang Yanli; Wei Zhiyi; Zhang Ping; Li Yikun; Jiang Xiaohua; Xu Hang Gong Weimin

    2007-11-30

    Homoserine O-acetyltransferase (HTA, EC 2.3.1.31) initiates methionine biosynthesis pathway by catalyzing the transfer of acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to homoserine. This study reports the crystal structure of HTA from Leptospira interrogans determined at 2.2 A resolution using selenomethionyl single-wavelength anomalous diffraction method. HTA is modular and consists of two structurally distinct domains-a core {alpha}/{beta} domain containing the catalytic site and a helical bundle called the lid domain. Overall, the structure fold belongs to {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase superfamily with the characteristic 'catalytic triad' residues in the active site. Detailed structure analysis showed that the catalytic histidine and serine are both present in two conformations, which may be involved in the catalytic mechanism for acetyl transfer.

  5. Regulation and function of histone acetyltransferase MOF.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Han, Xiaofei; Guan, Jingyun; Li, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    The mammalian MOF (male absent on the first), a member of the MYST (MOZ, YBF2, SAS2, and Tip60) family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs), is the major enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of histone H4 on lysine 16. Acetylation of K16 is a prevalent mark associated with chromatin decondensation. MOF has recently been shown to play an essential role in maintaining normal cell functions. In this study, we discuss the important roles of MOF in DNA damage repair, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. We also analyze the role of MOF as a key regulator of the core transcriptional network of embryonic stem cells. PMID:24452550

  6. Structure of Mesorhizobium loti arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, Simon J.; Dairou, Julien; Sandy, James; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Noble, Martin E. M.; Sim, Edith

    2005-01-01

    The crystal structure of a M. loti arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes have been found in a broad range of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. The NAT enzymes catalyse the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl Co-enzyme A onto the terminal nitrogen of a range of arylamine, hydrazine and arylhydrazine compounds. Recently, several NAT structures have been reported from different prokaryotic sources including Salmonella typhimurium, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bioinformatics analysis of the Mesorhizobium loti genome revealed two NAT paralogues, the first example of multiple NAT isoenzymes in a eubacterial organism. The M. loti NAT 1 enzyme was recombinantly expressed and purified for X-ray crystallographic studies. The purified enzyme was crystallized in 0.5 M Ca(OAc){sub 2}, 16% PEG 3350, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. A data set diffracting to 2.0 Å was collected from a single crystal at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic spacegroup P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.2, b = 97.3, c = 114.3 Å. The structure was refined to a final free-R factor of 24.8%. The structure reveals that despite low sequence homology, M. loti NAT1 shares the common fold as reported in previous NAT structures and exhibits the same catalytic triad of residues (Cys-His-Asp) in the active site.

  7. A report of cat scratch disease in Korea confirmed by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region of Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Suh, Borum; Chun, Jin-Kyoung; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Yang Soon; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Dong Soo

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of cat scratch disease in an 8-yr-old girl who presented with fever and enlargement of both axillary lymph nodes. Both aerobic and anaerobic cultures of the lymph node aspirate were negative for microbial growth. Gram staining and Warthin-Starry silver staining did not reveal any organism. Purified DNA from the PCR-amplicon of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region was sequenced and showed 99.7% identity with the corresponding sequence of Bartonella henselae strain Houston-1. Our findings suggest that the internal transcribed spacer is a reliable region for PCR identification of Bartonella species. In patients with lymphadenitis, a history of contact with cats or dogs necessitates the use of diagnostic approaches that employ not only the conventional staining and culture but also molecular methods to detect B. henselae. PMID:20197720

  8. Protein N-terminal acetyltransferases in cancer.

    PubMed

    Kalvik, T V; Arnesen, T

    2013-01-17

    The human N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) catalyze the transfer of acetyl moieties to the N-termini of 80-90% of all human proteins. Six NAT types are present in humans, NatA-NatF, each is composed of specific subunits and each acetylates a set of substrates defined by the N-terminal amino-acid sequence. NATs have been suggested to act as oncoproteins as well as tumor suppressors in human cancers, and NAT expression may be both elevated and decreased in cancer versus non-cancer tissues. Manipulation of NATs in cancer cells induced cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis or autophagy, implying that these enzymes target a variety of pathways. Of particular interest is hNaa10p (human ARD1), the catalytic subunit of the NatA complex, which was coupled to a number of signaling molecules including hypoxia inducible factor-1α, β-catenin/cyclin D1, TSC2/mammalian target of rapamycin, myosin light chain kinase , DNA methyltransferase1/E-cadherin and p21-activated kinase-interacting exchange factors (PIX)/Cdc42/Rac1. The variety of mechanistic links where hNaa10p acts as a NAT, a lysine acetyltransferase or displaying a non-catalytic role, provide insights to how hNaa10p may act as both a tumor suppressor and oncoprotein. PMID:22391571

  9. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and how do people get it? Cat-scratch disease is an infection caused by a type of bacteria (germs) carried in cat saliva. This bacteria is called Bartonella henselae and can be passed from a cat to a human. Doctors and ... from fleas. Cat-scratch disease is not a severe illness in people who ...

  10. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  11. A Comparative Study of Online Pretest Item Calibration/Scaling Methods in CAT. ACT Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ban, Jae-Chun; Hanson, Bradley A.; Wang, Tianyou; Yi, Qing; Harris, Deborah J.

    The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate five online pretest item calibration/scaling methods in computerized adaptive testing (CAT): (1) the marginal maximum likelihood estimate with one-EM cycle (OEM); (2) the marginal maximum likelihood estimate with multiple EM cycles (MEM); (3) Stocking's Method A (M. Stocking, 1988); (4)…

  12. A case of eosinophilic pneumonia simultaneously diagnosed in a patient and a tame cat: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is an idiopathic disorder of unknown etiology. Corticosteroid treatment provides a good response but recurrence frequently occurs after tapering of corticosteroid. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia occurs predominantly in middle-aged women and non-cigarette smokers, which leads to the speculation that environmental antigens, particularly in the home, contribute to the etiology. Case presentation A 66-year-old Japanese woman was given a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia for 8 years and was treated with prednisone. She developed respiratory symptoms again with tapering of prednisone (10mg/day). A chest radiograph revealed patchy shadows in her bilateral upper lung fields, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed marked eosinophilia. Based on negative findings for other causes of eosinophilia, the diagnosis of the recurrence of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was established. She was treated with prednisone (20mg/day), which demonstrated rapid improvement. Around the same time, her tame cat developed oral breathing, tachypnea and peripheral eosinophilia. Chest radiography of the cat revealed ground-glass opacity in its bilateral upper lung fields. Eosinophilic pneumonia was also diagnosed in the cat that was treated by prednisone (3mg/day). Since eosinophilic pneumonia was diagnosed simultaneously in the patient and her tame cat, it can be suggested that inhaled environmental antigens in the home caused the eosinophilic pneumonia. After moving out of her home, she and the cat had no recurrence of eosinophilic pneumonia. Conclusions Although chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is an idiopathic disorder of unknown etiology, our case suggests that inhaled environmental antigens in the home may be associated with the causes of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. A pet’s disease may give us an important clue for the therapeutic approach of the owner’s disease. PMID:24594228

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of Bacillus cereus arylamine N-acetyltransferase 3 [(BACCR)NAT3].

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Xavier; Pluvinage, Benjamin; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inès; Weber, Patrick; Haouz, Ahmed; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) that catalyze the acetylation of arylamines. All functional NATs described to date possess a strictly conserved Cys-His-Asp catalytic triad. Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of Bacillus cereus arylamine N-acetyltransferase 3 [(BACCR)NAT3], a putative NAT isoenzyme that possesses a unique catalytic triad containing a glutamate residue, is reported. The crystal diffracted to 2.42 Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group C121, with unit-cell parameters a = 90.44, b = 44.52, c = 132.98 Å, β = 103.8°. PMID:22297998

  14. Escherichia coli N-Acetylglucosamine-1-Phosphate-Uridyltransferase/Glucosamine-1-Phosphate-Acetyltransferase (GlmU) Inhibitory Activity of Terreic Acid Isolated from Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rashmi; Lambu, Mallikharjuna Rao; Jamwal, Urmila; Rani, Chitra; Chib, Reena; Wazir, Priya; Mukherjee, Debaraj; Chaubey, Asha; Khan, Inshad Ali

    2016-04-01

    Secondary metabolite of Aspergillus terreus, terreic acid, is a reported potent antibacterial that was identified more than 60 years ago, but its cellular target(s) are still unknown. Here we screen its activity against the acetyltransferase domain of a bifunctional enzyme, Escherichia coli N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase/glucosamine-1-phosphate-acetyltransferase (GlmU). An absorbance-based assay was used to screen terreic acid against the acetyltransferase activity of E. coli GlmU. Terreic acid was found to inhibit the acetyltransferase domain of E. coli GlmU with an IC50 of 44.24 ± 1.85 µM. Mode of inhibition studies revealed that terreic acid was competitive with AcCoA and uncompetitive with GlcN-1-P. It also exhibited concentration-dependent killing of E. coli ATCC 25922 up to 4× minimum inhibitory concentration and inhibited the growth of biofilms generated by E. coli. Characterization of resistant mutants established mutation in the acetyltransferase domain of GlmU. Terreic acid was also found to be metabolically stable in the in vitro incubations with rat liver microsome in the presence of a NADPH regenerating system. The studies reported here suggest that terreic acid is a potent antimicrobial agent and support that E. coli GlmU acetyltransferase is a molecular target of terreic acid, resulting in its antibacterial activity. PMID:26762501

  15. Minimal change glomerulopathy in a cat.

    PubMed

    Backlund, Brianna; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Cook, Audrey K; Clubb, Fred J; Lees, George E

    2011-04-01

    A 6-year-old domestic shorthair male castrated cat was evaluated for sudden onset of vomiting and anorexia. A diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) was made, and the cat was treated with imatinib mesylate. The cat had an initial clinical improvement with the normalization of the peripheral eosinophil count. After approximately 8 weeks of treatment, lethargy and anorexia recurred despite the normal eosinophil count and a significant proteinuric nephropathy was identified. Treatment with imatinib was discontinued. Ultrasound guided renal biopsies exhibited histologic, ultrastructural, and immunostaining changes indicative of a minimal change glomerulopathy (MCG) which has not previously been reported in the literature in a cat. The proteinuria and HES initially improved while the cat was treated with more traditional medications; however, both the problems persisted for 30 months that the cat was followed subsequently. Previous studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of imatinib in cats do not report any glomerular injury or significant adverse drug reactions, and the exact cause of this cat's proteinuric nephropathy is uncertain. Nonetheless, the possibility of an adverse drug reaction causing proteinuria should be considered when initiating treatment with imatinib in a cat. PMID:21414552

  16. Application of a High-throughput Fluorescent Acetyltransferase Assay to Identify Inhibitors of Homocitrate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; McQuade, Thomas J.; Larsen, Martha J.; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2011-01-01

    Homocitrate synthase (HCS) catalyzes the first step of L-lysine biosynthesis in fungi by condensing acetyl-Coenzyme A and 2-oxoglutarate to form 3R-homocitrate and Coenzyme A. Due to its conservation in pathogenic fungi, HCS has been proposed as a candidate for antifungal drug design. Here we report the development and validation of a robust, fluorescent assay for HCS that is amenable to high-throughput screening for inhibitors in vitro. Using this assay, Schizosaccharomyces pombe HCS was screened against a diverse library of ~41,000 small molecules. Following confirmation, counter screens, and dose-response analysis, we prioritized over 100 compounds for further in vitro and in vivo analysis. This assay can be readily adapted to screen for small molecule modulators of other acyl-CoA-dependent acyltransferases or enzymes that generate a product with a free sulfhydryl group, including histone acetyltransferases, aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferases, thioesterases and enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:21073853

  17. Coal air turbine {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} program, Invention 604. Third quarter project report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Foster-Pegg, R.W.

    1995-07-31

    The primary objective of this {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} project is to complete a conceptual design of this unique new combination of existing technology with cost estimates to show that the {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} system offers the economic incentive with low technical risk for a plant to be built which will demonstrate its viability. The technologies involved in the components of a {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} plant are proven, and the integration of the components into a complete plant is the only new development activity involved. Industry and the Federal General Services Administration (GSA), require the demonstration of a {open_quotes}commercial plant{close_quotes} before the viability of a new concept is accepted. To satisfy this requirement and construction of a plant of commercially viable size in excess of 15 MW if cogeneration and above 30 MW if all power, is proposed. This plant will produce economical power and heat for the owner. The plant will operate a full commercial life and continue as an operating demonstration of the viability of the technology, gathering long term life and maintenance data, all adding to the credibility of the concept.

  18. Magnetic stimulation of the radial nerve in dogs and cats with brachial plexus trauma: a report of 53 cases.

    PubMed

    Van Soens, Iris; Struys, Michel M; Polis, Ingeborgh E; Bhatti, Sofie F; Van Meervenne, Sofie A; Martlé, Valentine A; Nollet, Heidi; Tshamala, Mulenda; Vanhaesebrouck, An E; Van Ham, Luc M

    2009-10-01

    Brachial plexus trauma is a common clinical entity in small animal practice and prognostic indicators are essential early in the course of the disease. Magnetic stimulation of the radial nerve and consequent recording of the magnetic motor evoked potential (MMEP) was examined in 36 dogs and 17 cats with unilateral brachial plexus trauma. Absence of deep pain perception (DPP), ipsilateral loss of panniculus reflex, partial Horner's syndrome and a poor response to MMEP were related to the clinical outcome in 29 of the dogs and 13 of the cats. For all animals, a significant difference was found in MMEP between the normal and the affected limb. Absence of DPP and unilateral loss of the panniculus reflex were indicative of an unsuccessful outcome in dogs. Additionally, the inability to evoke a MMEP was associated with an unsuccessful outcome in all animals. It was concluded that magnetic stimulation of the radial nerve in dogs and cats with brachial plexus trauma may provide an additional diagnostic and prognostic tool. PMID:18602850

  19. The histone acetyltransferase MOF overexpression blunts cardiac hypertrophy by targeting ROS in mice.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Weiwei; Zhang, Weili; Gai, Yusheng; Zhao, Lan; Fan, Juexin

    2014-06-13

    Imbalance between histone acetylation/deacetylation critically participates in the expression of hypertrophic fetal genes and development of cardiac hypertrophy. While histone deacetylases play dual roles in hypertrophy, current evidence reveals that histone acetyltransferase such as p300 and PCAF act as pro-hypertrophic factors. However, it remains elusive whether some histone acetyltransferases can prevent the development of hypertrophy. Males absent on the first (MOF) is a histone acetyltransferase belonging to the MYST (MOZ, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2 and TIP60) family. Here in this study, we reported that MOF expression was down-regulated in failing human hearts and hypertrophic murine hearts at protein and mRNA levels. To evaluate the roles of MOF in cardiac hypertrophy, we generated cardiac-specific MOF transgenic mice. MOF transgenic mice did not show any differences from their wide-type littermates at baseline. However, cardiac-specific MOF overexpression protected mice from transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced cardiac hypertrophy, with reduced radios of heart weight (HW)/body weight (BW), lung weight/BW and HW/tibia length, decreased left ventricular wall thickness and increased fractional shortening. We also observed lower expression of hypertrophic fetal genes in TAC-challenged MOF transgenic mice compared with that of wide-type mice. Mechanically, MOF overexpression increased the expression of Catalase and MnSOD, which blocked TAC-induced ROS and ROS downstream c-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway that promotes hypertrophy. Taken together, our findings identify a novel anti-hypertrophic role of MOF, and MOF is the first reported anti-hypertrophic histone acetyltransferase. PMID:24802406

  20. New mobile gene cassettes containing an aminoglycoside resistance gene, aacA7, and a chloramphenicol resistance gene, catB3, in an integron in pBWH301.

    PubMed Central

    Bunny, K L; Hall, R M; Stokes, H W

    1995-01-01

    The multidrug resistance plasmid pBWH301 was shown to contain a sull-associated integron with five inserted gene cassettes, aacA7-catB3-aadB-oxa2-orfD, all of which can be mobilized by the integron-encoded DNA integrase. The aadB, oxa2, and orfD cassettes are identical to known cassettes. The aacA7 gene encodes a protein that is a member of one of the three known families of aminoglycoside acetyltransferases classified as AAC(6')-I. The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase encoded by the catB3 gene is closely related to members of a recently identified family of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases. The catB3 gene displays a relatively high degree of sequence identity to a chromosomally located open reading frame in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and this may represent evidence for the acquisition by a cassette of a chromosomal gene. PMID:7793874

  1. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  2. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  3. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Cat-Scratch Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ( ... play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected Kitten playing with a ...

  4. Getting a CAT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  5. Human Neural Stem Cells Overexpressing Choline Acetyltransferase Restore Unconditioned Fear in Rats with Amygdala Injury

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Yeseul; Kim, Kwang Sei; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Choi, Youngjin; Guo, Haiyu; Ban, Young-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Choon; Park, Dongsun; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala is involved in the fear memory that recognizes certain environmental cues predicting threatening events. Manipulation of neurotransmission within the amygdala affects the expression of conditioned and unconditioned emotional memories such as fear freezing behaviour. We previously demonstrated that F3.ChAT human neural stem cells (NSCs) overexpressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) improve cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease model rats with hippocampal or cholinergic nerve injuries by increasing acetylcholine (ACh) level. In the present study, we examined the effect of F3.ChAT cells on the deficit of unconditioned fear freezing. Rats given N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in their amygdala 2 weeks prior to cat odor exposure displayed very short resting (freezing) time compared to normal animals. NMDA induced neuronal degeneration in the amygdala, leading to a decreased ACh concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. However, intracerebroventricular transplantation of F3.ChAT cells attenuated amygdala lesions 4 weeks after transplantation. The transplanted cells were found in the NMDA-injury sites and produced ChAT protein. In addition, F3.ChAT-receiving rats recuperated freezing time staying remote from the cat odor source, according to the recovery of brain ACh concentration. The results indicate that human NSCs overexpressing ChAT may facilitate retrieval of unconditioned fear memory by increasing ACh level. PMID:27087745

  6. Human Neural Stem Cells Overexpressing Choline Acetyltransferase Restore Unconditioned Fear in Rats with Amygdala Injury.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Yeseul; Kim, Kwang Sei; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Choi, Youngjin; Guo, Haiyu; Ban, Young-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Choon; Park, Dongsun; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala is involved in the fear memory that recognizes certain environmental cues predicting threatening events. Manipulation of neurotransmission within the amygdala affects the expression of conditioned and unconditioned emotional memories such as fear freezing behaviour. We previously demonstrated that F3.ChAT human neural stem cells (NSCs) overexpressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) improve cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease model rats with hippocampal or cholinergic nerve injuries by increasing acetylcholine (ACh) level. In the present study, we examined the effect of F3.ChAT cells on the deficit of unconditioned fear freezing. Rats given N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in their amygdala 2 weeks prior to cat odor exposure displayed very short resting (freezing) time compared to normal animals. NMDA induced neuronal degeneration in the amygdala, leading to a decreased ACh concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. However, intracerebroventricular transplantation of F3.ChAT cells attenuated amygdala lesions 4 weeks after transplantation. The transplanted cells were found in the NMDA-injury sites and produced ChAT protein. In addition, F3.ChAT-receiving rats recuperated freezing time staying remote from the cat odor source, according to the recovery of brain ACh concentration. The results indicate that human NSCs overexpressing ChAT may facilitate retrieval of unconditioned fear memory by increasing ACh level. PMID:27087745

  7. Autoacetylation of the Histone Acetyltransferase Rtt109*

    PubMed Central

    Albaugh, Brittany N.; Arnold, Kevin M.; Lee, Susan; Denu, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Rtt109 is a yeast histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that associates with histone chaperones Asf1 and Vps75 to acetylate H3K56, H3K9, and H3K27 and is important in DNA replication and maintaining genomic integrity. Recently, mass spectrometry and structural studies of Rtt109 have shown that active site residue Lys-290 is acetylated. However, the functional role of this modification and how the acetyl group is added to Lys-290 was unclear. Here, we examined the mechanism of Lys-290 acetylation and found that Rtt109 catalyzes intramolecular autoacetylation of Lys-290 ∼200-times slower than H3 acetylation. Deacetylated Rtt109 was prepared by reacting with a sirtuin protein deacetylase, producing an enzyme with negligible HAT activity. Autoacetylation of Rtt109 restored full HAT activity, indicating that autoacetylation is necessary for HAT activity and is a fully reversible process. To dissect the mechanism of activation, biochemical, and kinetic analyses were performed with Lys-290 variants of the Rtt109-Vps75 complex. We found that autoacetylation of Lys-290 increases the binding affinity for acetyl-CoA and enhances the rate of acetyl-transfer onto histone substrates. This study represents the first detailed investigation of a HAT enzyme regulated by single-site intramolecular autoacetylation. PMID:21606491

  8. Pulmonary thromboembolism in cats.

    PubMed

    Schermerhorn, Thomas; Pembleton-Corbett, Julie R; Kornreich, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is rarely diagnosed in cats, and the clinical features of the disease are not well known. PTE was diagnosed at postmortem examination in 17 cats, a prevalence of 0.06% over a 24-year period. The age of affected cats ranged from 10 months to 18 years, although young (<4 years) and old (>10 years) cats were more commonly affected than were middle-aged cats. Males and females were equally affected. The majority of cats with PTE (n = 16) had concurrent disease, which was often severe. The most common diseases identified in association with PTE were neoplasia, anemia of unidentified cause, and pancreatitis. Cats with glomerulonephritis, encephalitis, pneumonia, heart disease, and hepatic lipidosis were also represented in this study. Most cats with PTE demonstrated dyspnea and respiratory distress before death or euthanasia, but PTE was not recognized ante mortem in any cat studied. In conclusion, PTE can affect cats of any age and is associated with a variety of systemic and inflammatory disorders. It is recommended that the same clinical criteria used to increase the suspicion of PTE in dogs should also be applied to cats. PMID:15320593

  9. Incomplete dominant osteochondrodysplasia in heterozygous Scottish Fold cats.

    PubMed

    Takanosu, M; Takanosu, T; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K

    2008-04-01

    This report describes an autosomal incomplete dominant pattern of inheritance for osteochondrodysplasia in the Scottish Fold cats. A three-generation pedigree was analysed. Cats with folded ears were mated with cats with normal ears. All cats with folded ears, which were presumably heterozygous for the mutated allele, developed osteochondrodysplasia in distal fore- and hindlimbs but not in other bones, including the tail in which bone deformity had been demonstrated in previous studies. The severity of the skeletal lesions of osteochondrodysplasia was different in each affected cat. Most of the cats with severe osteochondrodysplasia showed some clinical signs, but cats with mild disease were clinically unaffected. All Scottish Fold-related cats with folded-ear phenotype, even if heterozygotes, suffered from some degree of osteochondrodysplasia of the distal limbs. PMID:18339089

  10. Histone acetyltransferase inhibitors block neuroblastoma cell growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gajer, J M; Furdas, S D; Gründer, A; Gothwal, M; Heinicke, U; Keller, K; Colland, F; Fulda, S; Pahl, H L; Fichtner, I; Sippl, W; Jung, M

    2015-01-01

    We have previously described novel histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors that block neuroblastoma cell growth in vitro. Here we show that two selected pyridoisothiazolone HAT inhibitors, PU139 and PU141, induce cellular histone hypoacetylation and inhibit growth of several neoplastic cell lines originating from different tissues. Broader in vitro selectivity profiling shows that PU139 blocks the HATs Gcn5, p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), CREB (cAMP response element-binding) protein (CBP) and p300, whereas PU141 is selective toward CBP and p300. The pan-inhibitor PU139 triggers caspase-independent cell death in cell culture. Both inhibitors block growth of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma xenografts in mice and the PU139 was shown to synergize with doxorubicin in vivo. The latter also reduces histone lysine acetylation in vivo at concentrations that block neoplastic xenograft growth. This is one of the very few reports on hypoacetylating agents with in vivo anticancer activity. PMID:25664930

  11. Substrate Binding and Catalytic Mechanism of Human Choline Acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Kim,A.; Rylett, J.; Shilton, B.

    2006-01-01

    Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) catalyzes the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from choline and acetyl-CoA, and its presence is a defining feature of cholinergic neurons. We report the structure of human ChAT to a resolution of 2.2 {angstrom} along with structures for binary complexes of ChAT with choline, CoA, and a nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA analogue, S-(2-oxopropyl)-CoA. The ChAT-choline complex shows which features of choline are important for binding and explains how modifications of the choline trimethylammonium group can be tolerated by the enzyme. A detailed model of the ternary Michaelis complex fully supports the direct transfer of the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to choline through a mechanism similar to that seen in the serine hydrolases for the formation of an acyl-enzyme intermediate. Domain movements accompany CoA binding, and a surface loop, which is disordered in the unliganded enzyme, becomes localized and binds directly to the phosphates of CoA, stabilizing the complex. Interactions between this surface loop and CoA may function to lower the K{sub M} for CoA and could be important for phosphorylation-dependent regulation of ChAT activity.

  12. Small molecule modulators of histone acetyltransferase p300.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanyam, Karanam; Swaminathan, V; Ranganathan, Anupama; Kundu, Tapas K

    2003-05-23

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are a group of enzymes that play a significant role in the regulation of gene expression. These enzymes covalently modify the N-terminal lysine residues of histones by the addition of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA. Dysfunction of these enzymes is often associated with the manifestation of several diseases, predominantly cancer. Here we report that anacardic acid from cashew nut shell liquid is a potent inhibitor of p300 and p300/CBP-associated factor histone acetyltranferase activities. Although it does not affect DNA transcription, HAT-dependent transcription from a chromatin template was strongly inhibited by anacardic acid. Furthermore, we describe the design and synthesis of an amide derivative N-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-2-ethoxy-6-pentadecyl-benzamide (CTPB) using anacardic acid as a synthon, which remarkably activates p300 HAT activity but not that of p300/CBP-associated factor. Although CTPB does not affect DNA transcription, it enhances the p300 HAT-dependent transcriptional activation from in vitro assembled chromatin template. However, it has no effect on histone deacetylase activity. These compounds would be useful as biological switching molecules for probing into the role of p300 in transcriptional studies and may also be useful as new chemical entities for the development of anticancer drugs. PMID:12624111

  13. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease. PMID:17493900

  14. Role of Carnitine Acetyltransferases in Acetyl Coenzyme A Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Michael J.; Murray, Sandra L.; Andrianopoulos, Alex; Davis, Meryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The flow of carbon metabolites between cellular compartments is an essential feature of fungal metabolism. During growth on ethanol, acetate, or fatty acids, acetyl units must enter the mitochondrion for metabolism via the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the cytoplasm is essential for the biosynthetic reactions and for protein acetylation. Acetyl-CoA is produced in the cytoplasm by acetyl-CoA synthetase during growth on acetate and ethanol while β-oxidation of fatty acids generates acetyl-CoA in peroxisomes. The acetyl-carnitine shuttle in which acetyl-CoA is reversibly converted to acetyl-carnitine by carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT) enzymes is important for intracellular transport of acetyl units. In the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans, a cytoplasmic CAT, encoded by facC, is essential for growth on sources of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA while a second CAT, encoded by the acuJ gene, is essential for growth on fatty acids as well as acetate. We have shown that AcuJ contains an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence and a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS) and is localized to both peroxisomes and mitochondria, independent of the carbon source. Mislocalization of AcuJ to the cytoplasm does not result in loss of growth on acetate but prevents growth on fatty acids. Therefore, while mitochondrial AcuJ is essential for the transfer of acetyl units to mitochondria, peroxisomal localization is required only for transfer from peroxisomes to mitochondria. Peroxisomal AcuJ was not required for the import of acetyl-CoA into peroxisomes for conversion to malate by malate synthase (MLS), and export of acetyl-CoA from peroxisomes to the cytoplasm was found to be independent of FacC when MLS was mislocalized to the cytoplasm. PMID:21296915

  15. The cat fur mite, Lynxacarus radovskyi Tenorio, 1974 (Acarina: Astigmata: Listrophoridae) from cat, Felis catus in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, J; Norhidayu, S; Mohd Zain, S N; Noor Hayati, M I; Nurazila, B

    2012-06-01

    The cat fur mite, Lynxacarus radovskyi Tenorio, 1974 (Acarina: Astigmata: Listrophoridae) is reported from cats, Felis catus from three sites in peninsular Malaysia. The first site is a Malay village, Kampong Menteri in Taiping, Perak, where the mites were found on local pet cats. The other two sites are urban cities of Kuala Lumpur, in the Federal Territory and Georgetown, in the island of Penang. Mites from the urban areas were collected from stray cats. Although several ectoparasites (fleas, mites, ticks and lice) have been previously reported, L. radovskyi is recorded herein for the first time on cats from peninsular Malaysia. PMID:22735855

  16. Synthesis of 4'-aminopantetheine and derivatives to probe aminoglycoside N-6'-acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuxu; Akinnusi, T Olukayode; Larsen, Aaron T; Auclair, Karine

    2011-03-01

    A convenient synthesis of 4'-aminopantetheine from commercial D-pantethine is reported. The amino group was introduced by reductive amination in order to avoid substitution at a sterically congested position. Derivatives of 4'-aminopantetheine were also prepared to evaluate the effect of O-to-N substitution on inhibitors of the resistance-causing enzyme aminoglycoside N-6'-acetyltransferase. The biological results combined with docking studies indicate that in spite of its reported unusual flexibility and ability to adopt different folds, this enzyme is highly specific for AcCoA. PMID:21225062

  17. Synthesis of 4′-aminopantetheine and derivatives to probe aminoglycoside N-6′-acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuxu; Akinnusi, T. Olukayode; Larsen, Aaron T.; Auclair, Karine

    2011-01-01

    Summary A convenient synthesis of 4′-aminopantetheine from commercial D-pantethine is reported. The amino group was introduced by reductive amination in order to avoid substitution at a sterically congested position. Derivatives of 4′-aminopantetheine were also prepared to evaluate the effect of O-to-N substitution on inhibitors of the resistance-causing enzyme aminoglycoside N-6′-acetyltransferase. The biological results combined with docking studies indicate that in spite of its reported unusual flexibility and ability to adopt different folds, this enzyme is highly specific for AcCoA. PMID:21225062

  18. Structure of a putative acetyltransferase (PA1377) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Anna M.; Tata, Renée; Chauviac, François-Xavier; Sutton, Brian J.; Brown, Paul R.

    2008-05-01

    The crystal structure of an acetyltransferase encoded by the gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been determined at 2.25 Å resolution. Comparison with a related acetyltransferase revealed a structural difference in the active site that was taken to reflect a difference in substrate binding and/or specificity between the two enzymes. Gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a 177-amino-acid conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function. The structure of this protein (termed pitax) has been solved in space group I222 to 2.25 Å resolution. Pitax belongs to the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase family and contains all four sequence motifs conserved among family members. The β-strand structure in one of these motifs (motif A) is disrupted, which is believed to affect binding of the substrate that accepts the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA.

  19. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred. PMID:24698667

  20. Molecular basis for the CAT-2 null phenotype in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Bethards, L.A.; Scandalios, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have described several maize lines whose developmental patterns of catalase gene expression vary from the typical maize line, W64A. Among these variants are the lines A16 and A338, both found to be null for the CAT-2 protein. Identification of a third CAT-2 null line, designated A340, is described. RNA blots and S1 nuclease protection analysis, using (/sup 32/P)-labeled dCTP, indicate that all three CAT-2 null lines produce a similarly shortened Cat2 transcript. The molecular basis for this aberrant Cat2 transcript is discussed.

  1. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  2. Dual reporter transgene driven by 2.3Col1a1 promoter is active in differentiated osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marijanovic, Inga; Jiang, Xi; Kronenberg, Mark S.; Stover, Mary Louise; Erceg, Ivana; Lichtler, Alexander C.; Rowe, David W.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: As quantitative and spatial analyses of promoter reporter constructs are not easily performed in intact bone, we designed a reporter gene specific to bone, which could be analyzed both visually and quantitatively by using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and a cyan version of green fluorescent protein (GFPcyan), driven by a 2.3-kb fragment of the rat collagen promoter (Col2.3). METHODS: The construct Col2.3CATiresGFPcyan was used for generating transgenic mice. Quantitative measurement of promoter activity was performed by CAT analysis of different tissues derived from transgenic animals; localization was performed by visualized GFP in frozen bone sections. To assess transgene expression during in vitro differentiation, marrow stromal cell and neonatal calvarial osteoblast cultures were analyzed for CAT and GFP activity. RESULTS: In mice, CAT activity was detected in the calvaria, long bone, teeth, and tendon, whereas histology showed that GFP expression was limited to osteoblasts and osteocytes. In cell culture, increased activity of CAT correlated with increased differentiation, and GFP activity was restricted to mineralized nodules. CONCLUSION: The concept of a dual reporter allows a simultaneous visual and quantitative analysis of transgene activity in bone.

  3. Cat-scratch disease simulating lyphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, T.Z.; Kruskal, J.; Kane, R.A.; Trey, G.

    1996-01-01

    Cat-scratch disease is the most common cause of benign lymphadenopathy in children and young adults. Rare cases of systemic involvement with deep adenopathy with or without hepatic and/or splenic involvement have been reported. We present an unusual case of cat-scratch disease with imaging findings indistinguishable from lymphoma. Cat-scratch disease should be considered as a possible benign etiology for adenopathy with hepatic or splenic nodules in a young patient, especially if the involved nodes are tender. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  4. New substrate analogues of human serotonin N-acetyltransferase produce in situ specific and potent inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Gilles; Ubeaud, Caroline; Mozo, Julien; Péan, Christophe; Hennig, Philippe; Rodriguez, Marianne; Scoul, Catherine; Bonnaud, Anne; Nosjean, Olivier; Galizzi, Jean-Pierre; Delagrange, Philippe; Renard, Pierre; Volland, Jean-Paul; Yous, Said; Lesieur, Daniel; Boutin, Jean A

    2004-01-01

    Melatonin is synthesized by an enzymatic pathway, in which arylalkylamine (serotonin) N-acetyltransferase catalyzes the rate-limiting step. A previous study reported the discovery of bromoacetyltryptamine (BAT), a new type of inhibitor of this enzyme. This compound is the precursor of a potent bifunctional inhibitor (analogue of the transition state), capable of interfering with both the substrate and the cosubstrate binding sites. This inhibitor is biosynthesized by the enzyme itself in the presence of free coenzyme A. In the present report, we describe the potency of new N-halogenoacetyl derivatives leading to a strong in situ inhibition of serotonin N-acetyltransferase. The new concept behind the mechanism of action of these precursors was studied by following the biosynthesis of the inhibitor from tritiated-BAT in a living cell. The fate of tritiated-phenylethylamine (PEA), a natural substrate of the enzyme, in the presence or absence of [(3)H]BAT was also followed, leading to their incorporation into the reaction product or the inhibitor (N-acetyl[(3)H]PEA and coenzyme A-S[(3)H]acetyltryptamine, respectively). The biosynthesis of this bifunctional inhibitor derived from BAT was also followed by nuclear magnetic resonance during its catalytic production by the pure enzyme. In a similar manner we studied the production of another inhibitor generated from N-[2-(7-hydroxynaphth-1-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide. New derivatives were also screened for their capacity to inhibit a purified enzyme, in addition to enzyme overexpressed in a cellular model. Some of these compounds proved to be extremely potent, with IC(50)s of approximately 30 nM. As these compounds, by definition, closely resemble the natural substrates of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, we also show that they are potent ligands at the melatonin receptors. Nevertheless, these inhibitors form a series of pharmacological tools that could be used to understand more closely the inhibition of pineal melatonin

  5. Human NAT10 Is an ATP-dependent RNA Acetyltransferase Responsible for N4-Acetylcytidine Formation in 18 S Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)*

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Satoshi; Horikawa, Sayuri; Suzuki, Tateki; Kawauchi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Takeo; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Human N-acetyltransferase 10 (NAT10) is known to be a lysine acetyltransferase that targets microtubules and histones and plays an important role in cell division. NAT10 is highly expressed in malignant tumors, and is also a promising target for therapies against laminopathies and premature aging. Here we report that NAT10 is an ATP-dependent RNA acetyltransferase responsible for formation of N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C) at position 1842 in the terminal helix of mammalian 18 S rRNA. RNAi-mediated knockdown of NAT10 resulted in growth retardation of human cells, and this was accompanied by high-level accumulation of the 30 S precursor of 18 S rRNA, suggesting that ac4C1842 formation catalyzed by NAT10 is involved in rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis. PMID:25411247

  6. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  7. Diseases Transmitted by Cats.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Abrahamian, Fredrick M

    2015-10-01

    Humans and cats have shared a close relationship since ancient times. Millions of cats are kept as household pets, and 34% of households have cats. There are numerous diseases that may be transmitted from cats to humans. General modes of transmission, with some overlapping features, can occur through inhalation (e.g., bordetellosis); vector-borne spread (e.g., ehrlichiosis); fecal-oral route (e.g., campylobacteriosis); bite, scratch, or puncture (e.g., rabies); soil-borne spread (e.g., histoplasmosis); and direct contact (e.g., scabies). It is also likely that the domestic cat can potentially act as a reservoir for many other zoonoses that are not yet recognized. The microbiology of cat bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial with a broad mixture of aerobic (e.g., Pasteurella, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and anaerobic (e.g., Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Bacteroides) microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected cat bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the cat, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. PMID:26542039

  8. N-Alpha-Acetyltransferases and Regulation of CFTR Expression

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Anna E.; Hudson, Henry; Thomas, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) lead to the misfolding, mistrafficking, and degradation of the mutant protein. Inhibition of degradation does not effectively increase the amount of trafficking competent CFTR, but typically leads to increased ER retention of misfolded forms. Thus, the initial off pathway steps occur early in the processing of the protein. To identify proteins that interact with these early forms of CFTR, in vitro crosslink experiments identified cotranslational partners of the nascent chain of the severe misfolded mutant, G85E CFTR. The mutant preferentially interacts with a subunit of an N-alpha-acetyltransferase A. Based on recent reports that acetylation of the N-termini of some N-end rule substrates control their ubiquitination and subsequent degradation, a potential role for this modification in regulation of CFTR expression was assessed. Knockdown experiments identified two complexes, which affect G85E CFTR proteins levels, NatA and NatB. Effects of the knockdowns on mRNA levels, translation rates, and degradation rates established that the two complexes regulate G85E CFTR through two separate mechanisms. NatA acts indirectly by regulating transcription levels and NatB acts through a previously identified, but incompletely understood posttranslational mechanism. This regulation did not effect trafficking of G85E CFTR, which remains retained in the ER, nor did it alter the degradation rate of CFTR. A mutation predicted to inhibit N-terminal acetylation of CFTR, Q2P, was without effect, suggesting neither system acts directly on CFTR. These results contradict the prediction that N-terminal acetylation of CFTR determines its fitness as a proteasome substrate, but rather NatB plays a role in the conformational maturation of CFTR in the ER through actions on an unidentified protein. PMID:27182737

  9. Polymorphisms of human N-acetyltransferases and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Agúndez, José A G

    2008-07-01

    Human arylamine N-acetyltransferases (CoASAc; NAT, EC 2.3.1.5) NAT1 and NAT2 play a key role in the metabolism of drugs and environmental chemicals and in the metabolic activation and detoxification of procarcinogens. Phenotyping analyses have revealed an association between NAT enzyme activities and the risk of developing several forms of cancer. As genotyping procedures have become available for NAT1 and NAT2 gene variations, hundreds of association studies on NAT polymorphisms and cancer risk have been conducted. Here we review the findings obtained from these studies. Evidence for a putative association of NAT1 polymorphism and myeloma, lung and bladder cancer, as well as association of NAT2 polymorphisms with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, liver, colorectal and bladder cancer have been reported. In contrast, no consistent evidence for a relevant association of NAT polymorphisms with brain, head & neck, breast, gastric, pancreatic or prostate cancer have been described. Although preliminary data are available, further well-powered studies are required to fully elucidate the role of NAT1 in most human cancers, and that of NAT2 in astrocytoma, meningioma, esophageal, renal, cervical and testicular cancers, as well as in leukaemia and myeloma. This review discusses controversial findings on cancer risk and putative causes of heterogeneity in the proposed associations, and it identifies topics that require further investigation, particularly mechanisms underlying association of NAT polymorphisms and risk for subsets of cancer patients with specific exposures, putative epistatic contribution of polymorphism for other xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes such as glutathione S-transferases of Cytochrome P450 enzymes, and genetic plus environmental interaction. PMID:18680472

  10. N-Alpha-Acetyltransferases and Regulation of CFTR Expression.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Ali J; Karamyshev, Andrey L; Patrick, Anna E; Hudson, Henry; Thomas, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) lead to the misfolding, mistrafficking, and degradation of the mutant protein. Inhibition of degradation does not effectively increase the amount of trafficking competent CFTR, but typically leads to increased ER retention of misfolded forms. Thus, the initial off pathway steps occur early in the processing of the protein. To identify proteins that interact with these early forms of CFTR, in vitro crosslink experiments identified cotranslational partners of the nascent chain of the severe misfolded mutant, G85E CFTR. The mutant preferentially interacts with a subunit of an N-alpha-acetyltransferase A. Based on recent reports that acetylation of the N-termini of some N-end rule substrates control their ubiquitination and subsequent degradation, a potential role for this modification in regulation of CFTR expression was assessed. Knockdown experiments identified two complexes, which affect G85E CFTR proteins levels, NatA and NatB. Effects of the knockdowns on mRNA levels, translation rates, and degradation rates established that the two complexes regulate G85E CFTR through two separate mechanisms. NatA acts indirectly by regulating transcription levels and NatB acts through a previously identified, but incompletely understood posttranslational mechanism. This regulation did not effect trafficking of G85E CFTR, which remains retained in the ER, nor did it alter the degradation rate of CFTR. A mutation predicted to inhibit N-terminal acetylation of CFTR, Q2P, was without effect, suggesting neither system acts directly on CFTR. These results contradict the prediction that N-terminal acetylation of CFTR determines its fitness as a proteasome substrate, but rather NatB plays a role in the conformational maturation of CFTR in the ER through actions on an unidentified protein. PMID:27182737

  11. A unique GCN5-related glucosamine N-acetyltransferase region exist in the fungal multi-domain glycoside hydrolase family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhen; Xiao, Yibei; Yang, Xinbin; Mesters, Jeroen R.; Yang, Shaoqing; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidases widely exist in the filamentous fungi, which may play a key role in chitin metabolism of fungi. A multi-domain GH family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Rhizomucor miehei (RmNag), exhibiting a potential N-acetyltransferase region, has been recently reported to show great potential in industrial applications. In this study, the crystal structure of RmNag was determined at 2.80 Å resolution. The three-dimensional structure of RmNag showed four distinctive domains, which belong to two distinguishable functional regions — a GH family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase region (N-terminal) and a N-acetyltransferase region (C-terminal). From structural and functional analysis, the C-terminal region of RmNag was identified as a unique tandem array linking general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT), which displayed glucosamine N-acetyltransferase activity. Structural analysis of this glucosamine N-acetyltransferase region revealed that a unique glucosamine binding pocket is located in the pantetheine arm binding terminal region of the conserved CoA binding pocket, which is different from all known GNAT members. This is the first structural report of a glucosamine N-acetyltransferase, which provides novel structural information about substrate specificity of GNATs. The structural and functional features of this multi-domain β-N-acetylglucosaminidase could be useful in studying the catalytic mechanism of GH family 3 proteins. PMID:26669854

  12. A unique GCN5-related glucosamine N-acetyltransferase region exist in the fungal multi-domain glycoside hydrolase family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhen; Xiao, Yibei; Yang, Xinbin; Mesters, Jeroen R; Yang, Shaoqing; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidases widely exist in the filamentous fungi, which may play a key role in chitin metabolism of fungi. A multi-domain GH family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Rhizomucor miehei (RmNag), exhibiting a potential N-acetyltransferase region, has been recently reported to show great potential in industrial applications. In this study, the crystal structure of RmNag was determined at 2.80 Å resolution. The three-dimensional structure of RmNag showed four distinctive domains, which belong to two distinguishable functional regions--a GH family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase region (N-terminal) and a N-acetyltransferase region (C-terminal). From structural and functional analysis, the C-terminal region of RmNag was identified as a unique tandem array linking general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT), which displayed glucosamine N-acetyltransferase activity. Structural analysis of this glucosamine N-acetyltransferase region revealed that a unique glucosamine binding pocket is located in the pantetheine arm binding terminal region of the conserved CoA binding pocket, which is different from all known GNAT members. This is the first structural report of a glucosamine N-acetyltransferase, which provides novel structural information about substrate specificity of GNATs. The structural and functional features of this multi-domain β-N-acetylglucosaminidase could be useful in studying the catalytic mechanism of GH family 3 proteins. PMID:26669854

  13. Spermidine induces autophagy by inhibiting the acetyltransferase EP300

    PubMed Central

    Pietrocola, F; Lachkar, S; Enot, D P; Niso-Santano, M; Bravo-San Pedro, J M; Sica, V; Izzo, V; Maiuri, M C; Madeo, F; Mariño, G; Kroemer, G

    2015-01-01

    Several natural compounds found in health-related food items can inhibit acetyltransferases as they induce autophagy. Here we show that this applies to anacardic acid, curcumin, garcinol and spermidine, all of which reduce the acetylation level of cultured human cells as they induce signs of increased autophagic flux (such as the formation of green fluorescent protein-microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) puncta and the depletion of sequestosome-1, p62/SQSTM1) coupled to the inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). We performed a screen to identify the acetyltransferases whose depletion would activate autophagy and simultaneously inhibit mTORC1. The knockdown of only two acetyltransferases (among 43 candidates) had such effects: EP300 (E1A-binding protein p300), which is a lysine acetyltranferase, and NAA20 (N(α)-acetyltransferase 20, also known as NAT5), which catalyzes the N-terminal acetylation of methionine residues. Subsequent studies validated the capacity of a pharmacological EP300 inhibitor, C646, to induce autophagy in both normal and enucleated cells (cytoplasts), underscoring the capacity of EP300 to repress autophagy by cytoplasmic (non-nuclear) effects. Notably, anacardic acid, curcumin, garcinol and spermidine all inhibited the acetyltransferase activity of recombinant EP300 protein in vitro. Altogether, these results support the idea that EP300 acts as an endogenous repressor of autophagy and that potent autophagy inducers including spermidine de facto act as EP300 inhibitors. PMID:25526088

  14. [Tritrichomonas fetus: a new intestinal parasite in Swiss cats].

    PubMed

    Burgener, I; Frey, C; Kook, P; Gottstein, B

    2009-08-01

    Recent reports identified Tritrichomonas fetus, the causative agent of bovine trichomonosis, in cats with large-bowel diarrhea in the US. Between July 2007 and August 2008, a total of 105 Swiss cats were tested for T. fetus with the InPouchTM culture system and/or PCR, whereof 27 (26%) yielded positive results. All positive cats were pedigree cats, whereof 22 (81%) were less than 1 year of age (median 5 months). 25 (93%) of these cats lived in multi-cat households, and all but one were kept indoor. The clinical picture was dominated by large bowel diarrhea with increased frequency of defecation and fresh blood and mucus. Furthermore, inflamed anus and fecal incontinence was common. 52% of the T. fetus-positive cats were tested positive for Giardia before, but the treatment with fenbendazole or metronidazole only temporarily alleviated the clinical signs. The treatment with 30 mg/kg of ronidazole q12h p.o. was successful in all but 1 cat with only minor transient adverse effects in 3 cats. In conclusion, T. fetus has to be considered an important causative agent of large bowel diarrhea in cats in Switzerland, especially in young indoor pedigree cats. PMID:19653162

  15. The molecular structure of ornithine acetyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis bound to ornithine, a competitive inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Ramasamy; Cherney, Maia M; Garen, Craig; Garen, Grace; Niu, Chunying; Yuan, Marshall; James, Michael N G

    2010-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis ornithine acetyltransferase (Mtb OAT; E.C. 2.3.1.35) is a key enzyme of the acetyl recycling pathway during arginine biosynthesis. It reversibly catalyzes the transfer of the acetyl group from N-acetylornithine (NAORN) to L-glutamate. Mtb OAT is a member of the N-terminal nucleophile fold family of enzymes. The crystal structures of Mtb OAT in native form and in its complex with ornithine (ORN) have been determined at 1.7 and 2.4 A resolutions, respectively. ORN is a competitive inhibitor of this enzyme against L-glutamate as substrate. Although the acyl-enzyme complex of Streptomyces clavuligerus ornithine acetyltransferase has been determined, ours is the first crystal structure to be reported of an ornithine acetyltransferase in complex with an inhibitor. ORN binding does not alter the structure of Mtb OAT globally. However, its presence stabilizes the three C-terminal residues that are disordered and not observed in the native structure. Also, stabilization of the C-terminal residues by ORN reduces the size of the active-site pocket volume in the structure of the ORN complex. The interactions of ORN and the protein residues of Mtb OAT unambiguously delineate the active-site residues of this enzyme in Mtb. Moreover, modeling studies carried out with NAORN based on the structure of the ORN-Mtb OAT complex reveal important interactions of the carbonyl oxygen of the acetyl group of NAORN with the main-chain nitrogen atom of Gly128 and with the side-chain oxygen of Thr127. These interactions likely help in the stabilization of oxyanion formation during enzymatic reaction and also will polarize the carbonyl carbon-oxygen bond, thereby enabling the side-chain atom O(gamma 1) of Thr200 to launch a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl-carbon atom of the acetyl group of NAORN. PMID:20184895

  16. Bilateral calcaneal stress fractures in two cats.

    PubMed

    Cantatore, M; Clements, D N

    2015-06-01

    Two cats that developed bilateral calcaneal stress fractures are reported. One cat developed lameness associated with incomplete fractures at the base of both calcanei, both of which progressed to acute, complete fractures 2 months later. The second cat presented with acute complete calcaneal fracture, with evidence of remodelling of the contralateral calcaneus, which subsequently fractured two years later. The calcaneal fractures were successfully stabilised with lateral bone plates in each case. Stress fractures were suspected because of the bilateral nature, the simple and similar configuration, the consistent location of the fractures, the absence of other signs of trauma in both cases and the suspected insidious onset of the lameness. The feline calcaneus is susceptible to stress fracture, and cats presenting with calcaneal fractures without evidence of trauma should be evaluated for concurrent skeletal pathology. PMID:25929309

  17. Sarcocystid organisms found in bile from a dog with acute hepatitis: a case report and review of intestinal and hepatobiliary Sarcocystidae infections in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Katherine L; Walker, Julie M; Friedrichs, Kristen R

    2016-03-01

    Sarcocystidae is a family of coccidian protozoa from the phylum Apicomplexa that includes Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Hammondia, and Besnoitia spp. All species undergo a 2-host sexual and asexual cycle. In the definitive host, replication is enteroepithelial, and infection is typically asymptomatic or less commonly causes mild diarrhea. Clinical disease is most frequently observed in the intermediate host, often as an aberrant infection, and is mostly associated with neurologic, muscular, or hepatic inflammation. Here, we review the literature regarding intestinal Sarcocystidae infections in dogs and cats, with emphasis on the life cycle stages and the available diagnostic assays and their limitations. We also report the diagnostic findings for an 11-year-old dog with acute neutrophilic hepatitis, biliary protozoa, and negative biliary culture. Although Toxoplasma and Neospora IgG titers were both high, PCR for these 2 organisms was negative for bile. The organisms were identified by 18S rDNA PCR as most consistent with Hammondia, either H heydorni or H triffittae. This is the first report of presumed Hammondia organisms being found in canine bile. PMID:26870918

  18. Experimental cochlear hydrops in cats.

    PubMed

    Eby, T L

    1986-11-01

    An experimental model of cochlear hydrops was created in cats. Ten cats underwent surgical procedures to obliterate the saccule, and their temporal bones were studied by light microscopy after sacrifice at 10 weeks. In one group the saccules were destroyed by maceration and aspiration. However, in these ears the saccular lumens were not obliterated and endolymphatic hydrops did not develop. Obliteration of the saccules was achieved in the second group after fascia was introduced into the area of the injured saccules. Cochlear endolymphatic hydrops was a consistent finding in these ears except when a fistula of the membranous labyrinth was present. However, in addition to fibrosis and new bone formation in the vestibules there were also degenerative changes in the hair cells, tectorial membranes, and striae vasculares of these cochleae. The results supported the longitudinal flow theory of endolymph and are consistent with the reported examples of cochlear endolymphatic hydrops in man. PMID:3812642

  19. Characterization of two metagenome-derived esterases that reactivate chloramphenicol by counteracting chloramphenicol acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weixin; Lee, Myung Hwan; Yoon, Mi-Young; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Malhotra, Shweta; Wu, Jing; Hwang, Eul Chul; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2011-12-01

    Function-driven metagenomic analysis is a powerful approach to screening for novel biocatalysts. In this study, we investigated lipolytic enzymes selected from an alluvial soil metagenomic library, and identified two novel esterases, EstDL26 and EstDL136. EstDL26 and EstDL136 reactivated chloramphenicol from its acetyl derivates by counteracting the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in Escherichia coli. These two enzymes showed only 27% identity in amino acid sequence to each other; however both preferentially hydrolyzed short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (< or =C5) and showed mesophilic properties. In vitro, EstDL136 catalyzed the deacetylation of 1- and 3- acetyl and 1,3-diacetyl derivates; in contrast, EstDL26 was not capable of the deacetylation at C1, indicating a potential regioselectivity. EstDL26 and EstDL136 were similar to microbial hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and since chloramphenicol acetate esterase (CAE) activity was detected from two other soil esterases in the HSL family, this suggests a distribution of CAE among the soil microorganisms. The isolation and characterization of EstDL26 and EstDL136 in this study may be helpful in understanding the diversity of CAE enzymes and their potential role in releasing active chloramphenicol in the producing bacteria. PMID:22210605

  20. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  1. Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections in stray cats from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Alexandra D; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Kass, Philip H; Chomel, Bruno B

    2013-12-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  2. Radioenzymatic assays for aminoglycosides with kanamycin 6'- acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.; Smith, A.L.; Opheim, K.E.

    1985-03-01

    To facilitate the rapid and accurate quantitation of parenterally administered aminoglycosides, the optimum conditions (pH, duration of incubation, and cofactor concentrations) were defined to permit radioenzymatic assays with kanamycin acetyltransferase. The accuracy in quantitating tobramycin, netilmicin, kanamycin, and amikacin at concentrations in the therapeutic range was greater than 90%, with a mean recovery of 102.8%. The mean of the interassay coefficient of variation was 7.8%. Typical standard curves at six different concentrations resulted in a correlation coefficient (r value) of greater than 0.99 for each aminoglycoside. The radioenzymatic assay correlates well with the bioassay (tobramycin and netilmicin) and radioimmunoassay (amikacin and kanamycin); the correlation coefficient is greater than 0.90 for all. The authors conclude that the radioenzymatic assay utilizing kanamycin 6'-acetyltransferase is feasible for all commercially available parenterally administered aminoglycosides.

  3. Chemoproteomic Profiling of Lysine Acetyltransferases Highlights an Expanded Landscape of Catalytic Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) play a critical role in the regulation of gene expression, metabolism, and other key cellular functions. One shortcoming of traditional KAT assays is their inability to study KAT activity in complex settings, a limitation that hinders efforts at KAT discovery, characterization, and inhibitor development. To address this challenge, here we describe a suite of cofactor-based affinity probes capable of profiling KAT activity in biological contexts. Conversion of KAT bisubstrate inhibitors to clickable photoaffinity probes enables the selective covalent labeling of three phylogenetically distinct families of KAT enzymes. Cofactor-based affinity probes report on KAT activity in cell lysates, where KATs exist as multiprotein complexes. Chemical affinity purification and unbiased LC–MS/MS profiling highlights an expanded landscape of orphan lysine acetyltransferases present in the human genome and provides insight into the global selectivity and sensitivity of CoA-based proteomic probes that will guide future applications. Chemoproteomic profiling provides a powerful method to study the molecular interactions of KATs in native contexts and will aid investigations into the role of KATs in cell state and disease. PMID:24836640

  4. Diurnal cycles in serotonin acetyltransferase activity and cyclic GMP content of cultured chick pineal glands.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, S D

    1980-06-12

    Levels of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT: acetul CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.5.) activity in the chick pineal gland exhibit a marked diurnal variation in birds kept under a diurnal cycle of ilumination. Activity begins to rise rapidly at the start of the dark phase of the cycle and reaches maximum levels at mid-dark phase about 25-fold greater than the minimum basal level at mid-light phase. Thereafter, the level of activity declines to the basal level about the start of the light phase. This diurnal cycle in chick pineal NAT activity found in vivo has recently been reproduced in vitro with intact glands incubated in organ culture. The mechanism of the 'biological clock' which regulates these variations in level of chick pineal NAT activity is unknown. However, I now report that chick pineal glands cultured under a diurnal cycle of illumination exhibit a diurnal cycle in content of cyclic GMP which roughly parallels the cycles in NAT activity. In contrast, there was no correlation between variations in pineal content of cyclic AMP and in level of NAT activity. PMID:6250035

  5. Exchange of associated factors directs a switch in HBO1 acetyltransferase histone tail specificity.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Marie-Eve; Avvakumov, Nikita; Glass, Karen C; Joncas, France-Hélène; Saksouk, Nehmé; Holliday, Michael; Paquet, Eric; Yan, Kezhi; Tong, Qiong; Klein, Brianna J; Tan, Song; Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Kutateladze, Tatiana G; Côté, Jacques

    2013-09-15

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) assemble into multisubunit complexes in order to target distinct lysine residues on nucleosomal histones. Here, we characterize native HAT complexes assembled by the BRPF family of scaffold proteins. Their plant homeodomain (PHD)-Zn knuckle-PHD domain is essential for binding chromatin and is restricted to unmethylated H3K4, a specificity that is reversed by the associated ING subunit. Native BRPF1 complexes can contain either MOZ/MORF or HBO1 as catalytic acetyltransferase subunit. Interestingly, while the previously reported HBO1 complexes containing JADE scaffold proteins target histone H4, the HBO1-BRPF1 complex acetylates only H3 in chromatin. We mapped a small region to the N terminus of scaffold proteins responsible for histone tail selection on chromatin. Thus, alternate choice of subunits associated with HBO1 can switch its specificity between H4 and H3 tails. These results uncover a crucial new role for associated proteins within HAT complexes, previously thought to be intrinsic to the catalytic subunit. PMID:24065767

  6. Identification and Functional Characterization of Arylamine N-Acetyltransferases in Eubacteria: Evidence for Highly Selective Acetylation of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Deloménie, Claudine; Fouix, Sylvaine; Longuemaux, Sandrine; Brahimi, Naïma; Bizet, Chantal; Picard, Bertrand; Denamur, Erick; Dupret, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity has been described in various bacterial species. Bacterial N-acetyltransferases, including those from bacteria of the gut flora, may be involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, thereby exerting physiopathological effects. We characterized these enzymes further by steady-state kinetics, time-dependent inhibition, and DNA hybridization in 40 species, mostly from the human intestinal microflora. We report for the first time N-acetyltransferase activity in 11 species of Proteobacteriaceae from seven genera: Citrobacter amalonaticus, Citrobacter farmeri, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella ozaenae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, Morganella morganii, Serratia marcescens, Shigella flexneri, Plesiomonas shigelloides, and Vibrio cholerae. We estimated apparent kinetic parameters and found that 5-aminosalicylic acid, a compound efficient in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, was acetylated with a catalytic efficiency 27 to 645 times higher than that for its isomer, 4-aminosalicylic acid. In contrast, para-aminobenzoic acid, a folate precursor in bacteria, was poorly acetylated. Of the wild-type strains studied, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the best acetylator in terms of both substrate spectrum and catalytic efficiency. DNA hybridization with a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-derived probe suggested the presence of this enzyme in eight proteobacterial and four gram-positive species. Molecular aspects together with the kinetic data suggest distinct functional features for this class of microbial enzymes. PMID:11344150

  7. Pinch-induced behavioral inhibition ('clipnosis') in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Pozza, Megan E; Stella, Judi L; Chappuis-Gagnon, Anne-Claire; Wagner, Susan O; Buffington, C A Tony

    2008-02-01

    Research has documented immobilization of rodents, rabbits, guinea pigs and dogs by mechanical means, typically using neck clips or inversion ('animal hypnosis'). In contrast, only a few studies of mechanical immobilization of cats are available, although some success has been reported in the literature. Domestic cats may be effectively immobilized by clips placed along the animal's dorsum. We use the term 'pinch-induced behavioral inhibition' (PIBI) for this behavior because it describes both the method and the response, while avoiding the more anthropomorphic term 'hypnosis'. We investigated the effectiveness of PIBI and its neurological and habituation effects in healthy cats and cats with idiopathic cystitis (IC). Although not all cats were susceptible to PIBI and effectiveness varied among individuals, PIBI was useful for gentle restraint in most cats. PMID:18222719

  8. Straelensiosis in two cats and ten dogs from Israel.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, R; Bourdeau, P; Waldman, L; Amiel, S; Zur, G

    2015-12-01

    Straelensiosis is uncommonly described outside Europe. This report describes straelensiosis in two cats and in ten dogs diagnosed with the disease outside Europe. Both cats displayed erythematous macules or nodules on the abdominal skin. One cat was extremely pruritic, while in the other the lesions were incidental findings when the cat was presented for neutering. The mites were noted in skin scrapings in both cats and histopathologically in one cat. All dogs showed a general distribution of papules, and intense pruritus was noted in six dogs. The diagnosis in all dogs was based on histopathology. Treatment of the animals in this study varied, and among the various administrated treatments, amitraz showed promising results. PMID:26735777

  9. Clinical management of pregnancy in cats.

    PubMed

    Root Kustritz, Margaret V

    2006-07-01

    Average gestation length in domestic cats is 65.6 days, with a range of 52-74 days. Average reported litter size is 4.0 kittens per litter; litter size is not correlated with number of matings in a given estrus. Superfecundation is common in domestic cats; superfetation never has been definitively proven to occur. Eclampsia may occur during pregnancy in queens, with non-specific clinical signs. Ectopic pregnancy and uterine torsion have been reported. Pregnancy loss may be due to infectious causes, including bacteria, viruses or protozoa, or non-infectious causes, such as hypoluteoidism and chromosome errors. PMID:16620942

  10. Final Report: X-ray Studies of Materials Dynamics at MHATT-CAT Sector 7 , Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Clarke

    2006-04-25

    This Final Report describes the scientific accomplishments that have been achieved with support from grant DE-FG02-03ER46023 during the period 12/01/02 ? 11/30/05. The funding supported a vigorous scientific program allowing the PI to achieve leadership in a number of important areas. In particular, research carried out during this period has opened way to ultrafast dynamics studies of materials by combining the capabilities of synchrotron radiation with those of ultrafast lasers. This enables the initiation of laser-induced excitations and studies of their subsequent dynamics using laser-pump/x-ray probe techniques. Examples of such excitations include phonons, shock waves, excitons, spin-waves, and polaritons. The breadth of phenomena that can now be studied in the time-domain is very broad, revealing new phenomena and mechanisms that are critical to many applications of materials.

  11. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems. PMID:15998496

  12. Evolutionary Genomics Reveals Lineage-Specific Gene Loss and Rapid Evolution of a Sperm-Specific Ion Channel Complex: CatSpers and CatSperβ

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xinjiang; Clapham, David E.

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian CatSper ion channel family consists of four sperm-specific voltage-gated Ca2+ channels that are crucial for sperm hyperactivation and male fertility. All four CatSper subunits are believed to assemble into a heteromultimeric channel complex, together with an auxiliary subunit, CatSperβ. Here, we report a comprehensive comparative genomics study and evolutionary analysis of CatSpers and CatSperβ, with important correlation to physiological significance of molecular evolution of the CatSper channel complex. The development of the CatSper channel complex with four CatSpers and CatSperβ originated as early as primitive metazoans such as the Cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. Comparative genomics revealed extensive lineage-specific gene loss of all four CatSpers and CatSperβ through metazoan evolution, especially in vertebrates. The CatSper channel complex underwent rapid evolution and functional divergence, while distinct evolutionary constraints appear to have acted on different domains and specific sites of the four CatSper genes. These results reveal unique evolutionary characteristics of sperm-specific Ca2+ channels and their adaptation to sperm biology through metazoan evolution. PMID:18974790

  13. Cats: their history and our evolving relationship with them.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Cats have had a long relationship with people, and their history as a domesticated animal can be traced back as far as 2000 BC. Delegates at a recent conference titled 'People, cats and vets through history' delved a little deeper into the changing nature of this relationship. Georgina Mills reports. PMID:27389749

  14. Bilateral congenital ureteral strictures in a young cat

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namsoon; Choi, Mihyun; Keh, Seoyeon; Oh, Yein; Seo, Jimin; Choi, Heeyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Yoon, Junghee

    2014-01-01

    An 8-month-old cat was presented with bilateral hydronephrosis. Bilateral ureteral obstructions were identified by diagnostic imaging and confirmed by necropsy. Histopathologic findings revealed polypoid transitional epithelial hyperplasia with chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. This report documents congenital ureteral strictures as a cause of ureteral obstruction in a young cat. PMID:25183890

  15. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Wanke, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis. PMID:16485488

  16. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    PubMed

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. PMID:25143047

  17. Faecal microbiota of cats with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bell, Erin T; Suchodolski, Jan S; Isaiah, Anitha; Fleeman, Linda M; Cook, Audrey K; Steiner, Jörg M; Mansfield, Caroline S

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract significantly influence metabolic processes within their mammalian host, and recently several groups have sought to characterise the gastrointestinal microbiota of individuals affected by metabolic disease. Differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota have been reported in mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in human patients. Diabetes mellitus in cats has many similarities to type 2 diabetes in humans. No studies of the gastrointestinal microbiota of diabetic cats have been previously published. The objectives of this study were to compare the composition of the faecal microbiota of diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and secondarily to determine if host signalment and dietary factors influence the composition of the faecal microbiota in cats. Faecal samples were collected from insulin-treated diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR were performed on each sample. ANOSIM based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric identified no difference in the composition of the faecal microbiota between diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and no significant differences in the proportions of dominant bacteria by phylum, class, order, family or genus as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were identified between diabetic and non-diabetic cats. qPCR identified a decrease in Faecalibacterium spp. in cats aged over ten years. Cat breed or gender, dietary carbohydrate, protein or fat content, and dietary formulation (wet versus dry food) did not affect the composition of the faecal microbiota. In conclusion, the composition of the faecal microbiota was not altered by the presence of diabetes mellitus in cats. Additional studies that compare the functional products of the microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic cats are warranted to further investigate the potential impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on metabolic diseases such as

  18. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human–cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500–4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560–5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The δ13C and δ15N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats. PMID:24344279

  19. Development and Application of the CAT-RPM Report for Strengths-Based Case Management of At-Risk Youth in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, J. M.; Carroll, A.; Ashman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Contextualised Assessment Tool for Risk and Protection Management (CAT-RPM) has been established as a valid and reliable tool for differentiating groups across age, sex and behaviour and assisting young people to find their strengths [Bower, J., A. Carroll, and A. Ashman. 2014. "The Development and Validation of the Contextualised…

  20. Membranous nephropathy in sibling cats.

    PubMed

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G

    1983-08-20

    Membranous nephropathy was diagnosed in two sibling cats from the same household. Both cases presented with the nephrotic syndrome but 33 months elapsed before the second cat became ill, by which time the first cat had been in full clinical remission for over a year. PMID:6623883

  1. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A Text Size ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  2. Serological survey of paracoccidioidomycosis in cats.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gabriela Gonçalves de; Belitardo, Donizeti Rodrigues; Balarin, Mara Regina Stipp; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate infection of cats by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Serum samples of 136 cats from rural (n = 86) and urban areas (n = 50) were analyzed by indirect ELISA and immunodiffusion test using P. brasiliensis gp43 and exoantigen as antigens, respectively, and an overall reactivity of 31.6 % was observed by ELISA although no reactivity was detected by immunodiffusion. The positivity observed in animals living in rural areas (48.8 %) with free access to soil was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than among urban animals (2 %) with limited access to soil, although no significant difference was observed in relation to age or sex. The high rates of positivity observed in cats from rural areas suggest that not diagnosed cases of this mycosis may be occurring in cats living in endemic areas for human paracoccidioidomycosis. This is the first report showing serological evidence of P. brasiliensis infection in cats. PMID:23912468

  3. Dural tear and myelomalacia caused by an airgun pellet in a cat

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Cristian; Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old cat was presented with severe neurological deficits secondary to a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury caused by an airgun pellet. This report describes, for the first time, the myelographic findings of a dural rupture in a cat and also describes a bilateral Horner’s syndrome in a cat. PMID:24155462

  4. Dural tear and myelomalacia caused by an airgun pellet in a cat.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Cristian; Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

    2013-07-01

    An 8-year-old cat was presented with severe neurological deficits secondary to a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury caused by an airgun pellet. This report describes, for the first time, the myelographic findings of a dural rupture in a cat and also describes a bilateral Horner's syndrome in a cat. PMID:24155462

  5. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  6. Vibrational Schroedinger Cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kis, Z.; Janszky, J.; Vinogradov, An. V.; Kobayashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    The optical Schroedinger cat states are simple realizations of quantum states having nonclassical features. It is shown that vibrational analogues of such states can be realized in an experiment of double pulse excitation of vibrionic transitions. To track the evolution of the vibrational wave packet we derive a non-unitary time evolution operator so that calculations are made in a quasi Heisenberg picture.

  7. Factor X deficiency in a cat.

    PubMed

    Gookin, J L; Brooks, M B; Catalfamo, J L; Bunch, S E; Muñana, K R

    1997-09-01

    Severe congenital deficiency of factor X was diagnosed in a 3-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat with clinical signs of generalized seizures and prolonged bleeding after venipuncture. Heritability of factor X deficiency was suspected because of a prolonged Russell's viper venom time in the dam and reductions in factor X activity in the dam and 1 sibling. To our knowledge, factor X deficiency in cats has not been reported previously. Definitive diagnosis for animals with clinical signs of coagulopathy may require repetition of coagulation screening tests using different assay methods or specific coagulation factor analyses. PMID:9290823

  8. Parathyroid adenocarcinoma in a nephropathic Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Cavana, Paola; Vittone, Valentina; Capucchio, Maria T; Farca, Anna M

    2006-10-01

    This report describes an uncommon clinical case of cystic parathyroid adenocarcinoma. A 17-year-old male Persian cat was presented for evaluation of a ventral cervical mass. The cat was inappetent and showed weight loss, polydipsia and vomiting. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed moderate hypercalcaemia, a mild increase of creatinine, isosthenuria and proteinuria. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis showed a mixed tubular proteinuric pattern, in accordance with histological examination that revealed interstitial nephritis and glomerulonephritis. Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was based on histopathological findings. PMID:16651017

  9. Biochemical and structural analysis of aminoglycoside acetyltransferase Eis from Anabaena variabilis.

    PubMed

    Pricer, Rachel E; Houghton, Jacob L; Green, Keith D; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2012-10-30

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis enhanced intracellular survival (Eis_Mtb) protein is a clinically important aminoglycoside (AG) multi-acetylating enzyme. Eis homologues are found in a variety of mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial species. Variation of the residues lining the AG-binding pocket and positions of the loops bearing these residues in the Eis homologues dictates the substrate specificity and, thus, Eis homologues are Nature-made tools for elucidating principles of AG recognition by Eis. Here, we demonstrate that the Eis from Anabaena variabilis (Eis_Ava), the first non-mycobacterial Eis homologue reported, is a multi-acetylating AG-acetyltransferase. Eis_Ava, Eis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Eis_Mtb), and Eis from Mycobacterium smegmatis (Eis_Msm) have different structures of their AG-binding pockets. We perform comparative analysis of these differences and investigate how they dictate the substrate and cosubstrate recognition and acetylation of AGs by Eis. PMID:23090428

  10. Dacryocystography in a cat with orbital pneumatosis.

    PubMed

    Meomartino, Leonardo; Pasolini, Maria P; Lamagna, Francesco; Santangelo, Bruna; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Della Valle, Giovanni; Lamagna, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    A 2-year-old neutered male European short-haired cat was presented for a persistent discharge from the scar of previous left eye enucleation, performed 6 months prior by the referring veterinarian. A surgical exploration of the orbit was performed and retained nictitating membrane glandular and conjunctival tissues were removed. Eleven days later, the cat developed an orbital pneumatosis caused by retrograde movement of air through a patent nasolacrimal system and diagnosed by survey radiographic examination of the skull. Nasolacrimal system patency was assessed by dacryocystography performed by injection of iodinated contrast medium under pressure into the orbital cavity. Computed tomography dacryocystography confirmed the radiographic findings. The condition resolved following dacryocystography, possibly as an inflammatory response to the contrast medium. To our knowledge, this is the first case of orbital pneumatosis reported in a cat. PMID:24118801

  11. [Passive immunization in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Michèle; Friedl, Yvonne; Hartmann, Katrin

    2016-08-17

    Antibodies play an important role in the defense against infectious diseases. Passive immunization provides immediate protection through transfer of exogenous antibodies to a recipient. It is mainly used for prophylaxis in dogs and cats that failed to receive maternal antibodies through the colostrum or when there is an acute risk to acquire infectious diseases. Only a small number of placebo-controlled studies have been published regarding the therapeutic use of passive immunization in small animals. While positive effects were reported in cats with acute virus infections of the upper respiratory tract and in dogs with distemper, no statistically significant influence could be demonstrated in the treatment of canine parvovirosis. Prospective, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled studies using adequate numbers of patients are warranted for a definitive statement regarding the therapeutic and prophylactic use of passive immunization in dogs and cats. PMID:27410719

  12. Postanesthetic death in a cat with myopathy.

    PubMed

    Remmers, G; Hayden, D W; Jaeger, M A; Ervasti, J M; Valberg, S J

    2015-01-01

    There are few reports of naturally occurring muscular dystrophy in domestic animals. Herein, we describe a case of muscular dystrophy in a 4-year-old neutered male American domestic shorthair cat that died unexpectedly following anesthesia for an elective surgical procedure. Macroscopic muscular hypertrophy and histologic evidence of myofiber size variation, mineralization, myofiber degeneration, and necrosis were compatible with a diagnosis of muscular dystrophy. Extensive endomysial fibrosis was noted histologically in the diaphragm. A complete absence of dystrophin protein in Western blot confirmed the diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed reduced levels of dystrophin-associated proteins and an upregulation of utrophin at the sarcolemma. Anesthetic deaths can occur in dystrophin-deficient cats, and therefore muscular dystrophy and the associated cardiomyopathy should be considered in the differential diagnoses for perianesthetic death in cats. PMID:24577720

  13. Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT). System Description and users guide (revision 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W.; Taylor, W.; Mcgarry, F. E.; Merwarth, P.

    1982-01-01

    A system description of, and user's guide for, the Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT) are presented. As a configuration management tool, CAT enhances the control of large software systems by providing a repository for information describing the current status of a project. CAT provides an editing capability to update the information and a reporting capability to present the information. CAT is an interactive program available in versions for the PDP-11/70 and VAX-11/780 computers.

  14. Regulatory region in choline acetyltransferase gene directs developmental and tissue-specific expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lönnerberg, P; Lendahl, U; Funakoshi, H; Arhlund-Richter, L; Persson, H; Ibáñez, C F

    1995-01-01

    Acetylcholine, one of the main neurotransmitters in the nervous system, is synthesized by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; acetyl-CoA:choline O-acetyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.6). The molecular mechanisms controlling the establishment, maintenance, and plasticity of the cholinergic phenotype in vivo are largely unknown. A previous report showed that a 3800-bp, but not a 1450-bp, 5' flanking segment from the rat ChAT gene promoter directed cell type-specific expression of a reporter gene in cholinergic cells in vitro. Now we have characterized a distal regulatory region of the ChAT gene that confers cholinergic specificity on a heterologous downstream promoter in a cholinergic cell line and in transgenic mice. A 2342-bp segment from the 5' flanking region of the ChAT gene behaved as an enhancer in cholinergic cells but as a repressor in noncholinergic cells in an orientation-independent manner. Combined with a heterologous basal promoter, this fragment targeted transgene expression to several cholinergic regions of the central nervous system of transgenic mice, including basal forebrain, cortex, pons, and spinal cord. In eight independent transgenic lines, the pattern of transgene expression paralleled qualitatively and quantitatively that displayed by endogenous ChAT mRNA in various regions of the rat central nervous system. In the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord, 85-90% of the transgene expression was targeted to the ventral part of the cord, where cholinergic alpha-motor neurons are located. Transgene expression in the spinal cord was developmentally regulated and responded to nerve injury in a similar way as the endogenous ChAT gene, indicating that the 2342-bp regulatory sequence contains elements controlling the plasticity of the cholinergic phenotype in developing and injured neurons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7732028

  15. Serological response of cats to experimental Besnoitia darlingi and Besnoitia neotomofelis infections and prevalence of antibodies to these parasites in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Houk, Alice E; Rosypal, Alexa C; Grant, David C; Dubey, J P; Zajac, Anne M; Yabsley, Michael J; Lindsay, David S

    2011-04-01

    Besnoitia darlingi and Besnoitia neotomofelis are cyst-forming tissue apicomplexan parasites that use domestic cats (Felis domesticus) as definitive hosts and opossums (Didelphis virginiana ) and Southern Plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) as intermediate hosts, respectively. Nothing is known about the prevalence of B. darlingi or B. neotomofelis in cats from the United States. Besnoitia darlingi infections have been reported in naturally infected opossums from many states in the United States, and B. neotomofelis infections have been reported from Southern Plains woodrats from Texas, but naturally infected cats have not been identified. The present study examined the IgG antibody response of cats to experimental infection (B. darlingi n  =  1 cat; B. neotomofelis n  =  3 cats). Samples from these cats were used to develop an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), which was then used to examine seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to tachyzoites of B. darlingi and B. neotomofelis in a population of domestic cats from Virginia (N  =  232 cats) and Pennsylvania (N  =  209). The serum from cats inoculated with B. darlingi or B. neotomofelis cross-reacted with each other's tachyzoites. The titers to heterologous tachyzoites were 1 to 3 dilutions lower than to homologous tachyzoites. Sera from B. darlingi- or B. neotomofelis-infected cats did not react with tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii or Neospora caninum or merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona using the IFAT. Antibodies to B. darlingi were found in 14% and 2% of cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania, respectively. Antibodies to B. neotomofelis were found in 5% and 4% of cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania, respectively. Nine cats from Virginia and 1 cat from Pennsylvania were positive for both. PMID:21506782

  16. Cat and Dog Exposure and Respiratory Morbidities in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Christopher B.; Raraigh, Karen S.; Green, Deanna M.; Blackman, Scott M.; Cutting, Garry R.; Collaco, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the triggers that may impact respiratory health in cystic fibrosis (CF), including the effects of pets, because environmental factors contribute to one-half of the variation in lung function in patients with CF. Study design A total of 703 subjects with CF were recruited through the U.S. CF Twin-Sibling Study. Questionnaires were used to determine the presence/absence of cats and dogs in households with a child with CF. Questionnaires, chart review, and U.S. CF Foundation Patient Registry data were used to track respiratory and infection outcomes. Results Within the sample 47% of subjects reported owning a dog, and 28% reported owning a cat. After adjustment for demographic factors, dog ownership was not associated with any adverse clinical outcomes, and cat ownership was associated an increased risk in developing nasal polyps (adjusted OR 1.66; p=0.024) compared with non-cat owners. Subjects who owned both cats and dogs were twice as likely to report wheezing compared with other subjects (adjusted OR: 2.01; p=0.009). There were no differences in prevalence and age of acquisition for the common CF respiratory pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus between cat/dog owners and non-cat/dog owners. Conclusions Cat ownership was associated with a higher frequency of developing nasal polyps and combined cat-dog ownership was associated with a higher rate of wheezing. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations and the potential psychosocial benefits of cat and/or dog ownership. PMID:25027361

  17. Enzyme kinetics and inhibition of histone acetyltransferase KAT8

    PubMed Central

    Wapenaar, Hannah; van der Wouden, Petra E.; Groves, Matthew R.; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Dekker, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8) is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) responsible for acetylating lysine 16 on histone H4 (H4K16) and plays a role in cell cycle progression as well as acetylation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Further studies on its biological function and drug discovery initiatives will benefit from the development of small molecule inhibitors for this enzyme. As a first step towards this aim we investigated the enzyme kinetics of this bi-substrate enzyme. The kinetic experiments indicate a ping-pong mechanism in which the enzyme binds Ac-CoA first, followed by binding of the histone substrate. This mechanism is supported by affinity measurements of both substrates using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Using this information, the KAT8 inhibition of a focused compound collection around the non-selective HAT inhibitor anacardic acid has been investigated. Kinetic studies with anacardic acid were performed, based on which a model for the catalytic activity of KAT8 and the inhibitory action of AA was proposed. This enabled the calculation of the inhibition constant Ki of anacardic acid derivatives using an adaptation of the Cheng-Prusoff equation. The results described in this study give insight into the catalytic mechanism of KAT8 and present the first well-characterized small-molecule inhibitors for this HAT. PMID:26505788

  18. Molecular mechanism underlying promiscuous polyamine recognition by spermidine acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Sae; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Niiyama, Mayumi; Hirose, Mika; Miyazaki, Yuma; Higashi, Kyohei; Murata, Michio; Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Spermidine acetyltransferase (SAT) from Escherichia coli, which catalyses the transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to spermidine, is a key enzyme in controlling polyamine levels in prokaryotic cells. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of SAT in complex with spermidine (SPD) and CoA at 2.5Å resolution. SAT is a dodecamer organized as a hexamer of dimers. The secondary structural element and folding topology of the SAT dimer resemble those of spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT), suggesting an evolutionary link between SAT and SSAT. However, the polyamine specificity of SAT is distinct from that of SSAT and is promiscuous. The SPD molecule is also located at the inter-dimer interface. The distance between SPD and CoA molecules is 13Å. A deep, highly acidic, water-filled cavity encompasses the SPD and CoA binding sites. Structure-based mutagenesis and in-vitro assays identified SPD-bound residues, and the acidic residues lining the walls of the cavity are mostly essential for enzymatic activities. Based on mutagenesis and structural data, we propose an acetylation mechanism underlying promiscuous polyamine recognition for SAT. PMID:27163532

  19. Enzyme kinetics and inhibition of histone acetyltransferase KAT8.

    PubMed

    Wapenaar, Hannah; van der Wouden, Petra E; Groves, Matthew R; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Dekker, Frank J

    2015-11-13

    Lysine acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8) is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) responsible for acetylating lysine 16 on histone H4 (H4K16) and plays a role in cell cycle progression as well as acetylation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Further studies on its biological function and drug discovery initiatives will benefit from the development of small molecule inhibitors for this enzyme. As a first step towards this aim we investigated the enzyme kinetics of this bi-substrate enzyme. The kinetic experiments indicate a ping-pong mechanism in which the enzyme binds Ac-CoA first, followed by binding of the histone substrate. This mechanism is supported by affinity measurements of both substrates using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Using this information, the KAT8 inhibition of a focused compound collection around the non-selective HAT inhibitor anacardic acid has been investigated. Kinetic studies with anacardic acid were performed, based on which a model for the catalytic activity of KAT8 and the inhibitory action of anacardic acid (AA) was proposed. This enabled the calculation of the inhibition constant Ki of anacardic acid derivatives using an adaptation of the Cheng-Prusoff equation. The results described in this study give insight into the catalytic mechanism of KAT8 and present the first well-characterized small-molecule inhibitors for this HAT. PMID:26505788

  20. A Bacterial Acetyltransferase Destroys Plant Microtubule Networks and Blocks Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Amy Huei-Yi; Hurley, Brenden; Felsensteiner, Corinna; Yea, Carmen; Ckurshumova, Wenzislava; Bartetzko, Verena; Wang, Pauline W.; Quach, Van; Lewis, Jennifer D.; Liu, Yulu C.; Börnke, Frederik; Angers, Stephane; Wilde, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is essential for structural support and intracellular transport, and is therefore a common target of animal pathogens. However, no phytopathogenic effector has yet been demonstrated to specifically target the plant cytoskeleton. Here we show that the Pseudomonas syringae type III secreted effector HopZ1a interacts with tubulin and polymerized microtubules. We demonstrate that HopZ1a is an acetyltransferase activated by the eukaryotic co-factor phytic acid. Activated HopZ1a acetylates itself and tubulin. The conserved autoacetylation site of the YopJ / HopZ superfamily, K289, plays a critical role in both the avirulence and virulence function of HopZ1a. Furthermore, HopZ1a requires its acetyltransferase activity to cause a dramatic decrease in Arabidopsis thaliana microtubule networks, disrupt the plant secretory pathway and suppress cell wall-mediated defense. Together, this study supports the hypothesis that HopZ1a promotes virulence through cytoskeletal and secretory disruption. PMID:22319451

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Vasha; Grant, David C; Dubey, J P; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2010-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is best known as the causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis of horses in the Americas. Domestic cats ( Felis domesticus ) were the first animals described as an intermediate host for S. neurona . However, S. neurona -associated encephalitis has also been reported in naturally infected cats in the United States. Thus, cats can be implicated in the life cycle of S. neurona as natural intermediate hosts. The present study examined the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to merozoites of S. neurona in populations of domestic cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania. Overall, sera or plasma from 441 cats (Virginia = 232, Pennsylvania = 209) were tested by an indirect immunofluorescent assay at a 1ratio50 dilution. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 32 (7%) of 441 cats. Of these, 22 (9%) of the 232 cats from Virginia and 10 (5%) of the 209 cats from Pennsylvania were seropositive for S. neurona . PMID:20476809

  2. Renal leiomyosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dawn; Fowlkes, Natalie

    2016-05-01

    Renal leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed in a 10-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat with a 3-year history of clinically managed, chronic renal disease. Sudden death was preceded by a brief episode of mental dullness and confusion. At postmortem examination, the gross appearance of the left kidney was suggestive of hydronephrosis, and a nephrolith was present in the contralateral kidney. However, histology revealed an infiltrative, poorly differentiated, spindle cell sarcoma bordering the grossly cavitated area. Neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, which led to a diagnosis of renal leiomyosarcoma; neoplastic cells were not immunoreactive for desmin. Leiomyosarcoma arising in the kidney is a rare occurrence in humans and an even rarer occurrence in veterinary medicine with no prior cases being reported in cats in the English literature. The macroscopic appearance of the tumor at postmortem examination was misleadingly suggestive of hydronephrosis as a result of the large cavitation and may be similar to particularly unusual cases of renal leiomyosarcomas in humans that have a cystic or cavitated appearance. PMID:26975352

  3. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-03-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  4. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes. PMID:26932268

  5. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in wild Pallas' cats.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meredith A; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E; Swanson, William F; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2010-03-15

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas' cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIV(Oma) in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas' cats sampled from 2000 to 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIV(Oma) isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas' cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas' cats suggests that FIV(Oma) causes immune depletion in its' native host. PMID:19926144

  6. Investigation of Bartonella henselae in cats in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Celebi, B; Kilic, S; Aydin, N; Tarhan, G; Carhan, A; Babur, C

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine Bartonella henselae prevalance in cats in Ankara. Whole bloods and sera collected from 256 cats were investigated for the presence feline Bartonella species by culture and sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against B. henselae IgG using immunofluorescence assay. Bartonella species were isolated by blood culture from 24 (9.4%) cats. Bartonella isolates were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) by using TaqI and HhaI endonucleases to identify species. Twenty-one isolates were determined as B. henselae and three of 24 isolates were determined as Bartonella clarridgeiae with RFLP. The bacteraemia prevalence and seroprevalence of B. henselae IgG antibodies in cats was detected as 8.2% and 18.6% respectively. This is the first report on B. henselea and B. clarridgeiae in cats in Turkey. PMID:18990198

  7. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E; Johnson, Christopher N

    2016-01-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia's tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes. PMID:26932268

  8. Function and subcellular localization of Gcn5, a histone acetyltransferase in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Peng; Fan, Xueyi; Chen, Jiangye

    2015-08-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen commonly found in humans. It has the ability to switch reversibly between three growth forms: budding yeast, pseudohypha, and hypha. The transition between yeast and hyphal growth forms is critical for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. During the yeast-to-hypha morphologic transition, gene expression is regulated by transcriptional regulators including histone modifying complexes and chromatin remodeling complexes. We previously reported that Esa1, a catalytic subunit in the histone acetyltransferase complex NuA4, is essential for the hyphal development of C. albicans. In this study, we analyzed the functional roles of Gcn5, a catalytic subunit in the histone acetyltransferase complex SAGA, in C. albicans. Gcn5 is required for the invasive and filamentous growth of C. albicans. Deletion of GCN5 impaired hyphal elongation in sensing serum and attenuated the virulence of C. albicans in a mouse systemic infection model. The C. albicans gcn5/gcn5 mutant cells also exhibited sensitivity to cell wall stress. Functional analysis showed that the HAT domain and Bromodomain in Gcn5 play distinct roles in morphogenesis and cell wall stress response of C. albicans. Our results show that the conserved residue Glu188 is crucial for the Gcn5 HAT activity and for Gcn5 function during filamentous growth. In addition, the subcellular distribution of ectopically expressed GFP-Gcn5 correlates with the different growth states of C. albicans. In stationary phase, Gcn5 accumulated in the nucleus, while during vegetative growth it localized in the cytoplasm in a morpha-independent manner. Our results suggest that the nuclear localization of Gcn5 depends on the existence of its N-terminal NLS and HAT domains. PMID:25656079

  9. Suppression of exogenous gene expression by spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1 (SSAT1) cotransfection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Bum; Park, Jong Hwan; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A; Park, Myung Hee

    2010-05-14

    Spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1 (SSAT1), which catalyzes the N(1)-acetylation of spermidine and spermine to form acetyl derivatives, is a rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine catabolism. We now report a novel activity of transiently transfected SSAT1 in suppressing the exogenous expression of other proteins, i.e. green fluorescent protein (GFP) or GFP-eIF5A. Spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 2 (SSAT2) or inactive SSAT1 mutant enzymes (R101A or R101K) were without effect. The loss of exogenous gene expression is not due to accelerated protein degradation, because various inhibitors of proteases, lysosome, or autophagy did not mitigate the effects. This SSAT1 effect cannot be attributed to the depletion of overall cellular polyamines or accumulation of N(1)-acetylspermidine (N(1)-AcSpd) because of the following: (i) addition of putrescine, spermidine, spermine, or N(1)-AcSpd did not restore the expression of GFP or GFP-eIF5A; (ii) depletion of cellular polyamines with alpha-difluoromethylornithine, an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, did not inhibit exogenous gene expression; and (iii) N(1),N(11)-bis(ethyl)norspermine caused a drastic depletion of cellular polyamines through induction of endogenous SSAT1 but did not block exogenous gene expression. SSAT1 transient transfection did not affect stable expression of GFP, and stably expressed SSAT1 did not affect exogenous expression of GFP, suggesting that only transiently (episomally) expressed SSAT1 blocks exogenous (episomal) expression of other proteins. SSAT1 may regulate exogenous gene expression by blocking steps involved in transcription/translation from an episomal vector by targeting non-polyamine substrate(s) critical for this pathway. PMID:20212040

  10. Structural and Functional Role of Acetyltransferase hMOF K274 Autoacetylation.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Cheryl E; Song, Shufei; Shin, Michael H; Johnson, F Brad; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2016-08-26

    Many histone acetyltransferases undergo autoacetylation, either through chemical or enzymatic means, to potentiate enzymatic cognate substrate lysine acetylation, although the mode and molecular role of such autoacetylation is poorly understood. The MYST family of histone acetyltransferases is autoacetylated at an active site lysine residue to facilitate cognate substrate lysine binding and acetylation. Here, we report on a detailed molecular investigation of Lys-274 autoacetylation of the human MYST protein Males Absent on the First (hMOF). A mutational scan of hMOF Lys-274 reveals that all amino acid substitutions of this residue are able to bind cofactor but are significantly destabilized, both in vitro and in cells, and are catalytically inactive for cognate histone H4 peptide lysine acetylation. The x-ray crystal structure of a hMOF K274P mutant suggests that the reduced stability and catalytic activity stems from a disordering of the residue 274-harboring a α2-β7 loop. We also provide structural evidence that a C316S/E350Q mutant, which is defective for cognate substrate lysine acetylation; and biochemical evidence that a K268M mutant, which is defective for Lys-274 chemical acetylation in the context of a K274-peptide, can still undergo quantitative K274 autoacetylation. Together, these studies point to the critical and specific role of hMOF Lys-274 autoacetylation in hMOF stability and cognate substrate acetylation and argues that binding of Ac-CoA to hMOF likely drives Lys-274 autoacetylation for subsequent cognate substrate acetylation. PMID:27382063

  11. Congenital factor XI deficiency in a domestic shorthair cat.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Mark T; Brooks, Marjory B; Esterline, Meredith L

    2002-01-01

    A 6-month-old, female, domestic shorthair cat was examined after onychectomy and ovariohysterectomy because of bleeding from the paws. Prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time was discovered, Coagulation factor analyses revealed deficiency of factor XI coagulant activity. Plasma mixing studies indicated factor deficiency or dysfunction rather than factor inhibition. Feline factor XI deficiency in one adult cat has been previously reported but was attributed to factor XI inhibitors. The signalment, lack of primary disease, and the finding of persistent factor XI deficiency in the absence of coagulation inhibitors were considered compatible with congenital factor XI deficiency in the cat of this report. PMID:12428887

  12. Cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bozhkov, V; Madjov, R; Plachkov, I; Arnaudov, P; Chernopolsky, P; Krasnaliev, I

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 24,000 people are infected with cat scratch disease (CSD) every year. CSD is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacteria most often transmitted to humans through a bite or scratch from an infected cat or kitten. Although CSD is often a benign and self-limiting condition, it can affect any major organ system in the body, manifesting in different ways and sometimes leading to lifelong sequelae. It is a disease that is often overlooked in primary care because of the wide range of symptom presentation and relative rarity of serious complications. It is important for health care providers to recognize patients at risk for CSD, know what laboratory testing and treatments are available, and be aware of complications that may arise from this disease in the future. PMID:25199244

  13. The square cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putterman, E.; Raz, O.

    2008-11-01

    We present a simple two-dimensional model of a "cat"—a body with zero angular momentum that can rotate itself with no external forces. The model is used to explain the nature of a gauge theory and to illustrate the importance of noncommutative operators. We compare the free-space cat in Newtonian mechanics and the same problem in Aristotelian mechanics at low Reynolds numbers (with the velocity proportional to the force rather than to the acceleration). This example shows the analogy between (angular) momentum in Newtonian mechanics and (torque) force in Aristotelian mechanics. We discuss a topological invariant common to the model in free space and at low Reynolds number.

  14. Big cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2005-01-01

    Advances in population and quantitative genomics, aided by the computational algorithms that employ genetic theory and practice, are now being applied to biological questions that surround free-ranging species not traditionally suitable for genetic enquiry. Here we review how applications of molecular genetic tools have been used to describe the natural history, present status, and future disposition of wild cat species. Insight into phylogenetic hierarchy, demographic contractions, geographic population substructure, behavioral ecology, and infectious diseases have revealed strategies for survival and adaptation of these fascinating predators. Conservation, stabilization, and management of the big cats are important areas that derive benefit from the genome resources expanded and applied to highly successful species, imperiled by an expanding human population. PMID:16124868

  15. Neutering of cats and dogs in Ireland; pet owner self-reported perceptions of enabling and disabling factors in the decision to neuter

    PubMed Central

    Devitt, Catherine; Downes, Marie T.; More, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Failure among pet owners to neuter their pets results in increased straying and overpopulation problems. Variations in neutering levels can be explained by cultural differences, differences in economic status in rural and urban locations, and owner perceptions about their pet. There are also differences between male and female pet owners. There is no research pertaining to Irish pet owner attitudes towards neutering their pets. This paper identified the perceptions of a sample of Irish cat and dog owners that influenced their decisions on pet neutering. Methods. This study was conducted using social science (qualitative) methods, including an interview-administered survey questionnaire and focus group discussions. Data was coded and managed using Nvivo 8 qualitative data analysis software. Results. Focus groups were conducted with 43 pet (cats and dogs) owners. Two major categories relating to the decision to neuter were identified: (1) enabling perceptions in the decision to neuter (subcategories were: controlling unwanted pet behaviour; positive perceptions regarding pet health and welfare outcomes; perceived owner responsibility; pet function; and the influence of veterinary advice), and (2) disabling perceptions in the decision to neuter (subcategories were: perceived financial cost of neutering; perceived adequacy of existing controls; and negative perceptions regarding pet health and welfare outcomes). Discussion. Pet owner sense of responsibility and control are two central issues to the decision to neuter their pets. Understanding how pet owners feel about topics such as pet neutering, can help improve initiatives aimed at emphasising the responsibility of population control of cats and dogs. PMID:26312187

  16. Neutering of cats and dogs in Ireland; pet owner self-reported perceptions of enabling and disabling factors in the decision to neuter.

    PubMed

    Downes, Martin J; Devitt, Catherine; Downes, Marie T; More, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Background. Failure among pet owners to neuter their pets results in increased straying and overpopulation problems. Variations in neutering levels can be explained by cultural differences, differences in economic status in rural and urban locations, and owner perceptions about their pet. There are also differences between male and female pet owners. There is no research pertaining to Irish pet owner attitudes towards neutering their pets. This paper identified the perceptions of a sample of Irish cat and dog owners that influenced their decisions on pet neutering. Methods. This study was conducted using social science (qualitative) methods, including an interview-administered survey questionnaire and focus group discussions. Data was coded and managed using Nvivo 8 qualitative data analysis software. Results. Focus groups were conducted with 43 pet (cats and dogs) owners. Two major categories relating to the decision to neuter were identified: (1) enabling perceptions in the decision to neuter (subcategories were: controlling unwanted pet behaviour; positive perceptions regarding pet health and welfare outcomes; perceived owner responsibility; pet function; and the influence of veterinary advice), and (2) disabling perceptions in the decision to neuter (subcategories were: perceived financial cost of neutering; perceived adequacy of existing controls; and negative perceptions regarding pet health and welfare outcomes). Discussion. Pet owner sense of responsibility and control are two central issues to the decision to neuter their pets. Understanding how pet owners feel about topics such as pet neutering, can help improve initiatives aimed at emphasising the responsibility of population control of cats and dogs. PMID:26312187

  17. Zoonotic diseases associated with free-roaming cats.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, R W; Jessup, D A

    2013-05-01

    Free-roaming cat populations have been identified as a significant public health threat and are a source for several zoonotic diseases including rabies, toxoplasmosis, cutaneous larval migrans because of various nematode parasites, plague, tularemia and murine typhus. Several of these diseases are reported to cause mortality in humans and can cause other important health issues including abortion, blindness, pruritic skin rashes and other various symptoms. A recent case of rabies in a young girl from California that likely was transmitted by a free-roaming cat underscores that free-roaming cats can be a source of zoonotic diseases. Increased attention has been placed on trap-neuter-release (TNR) programmes as a viable tool to manage cat populations. However, some studies have shown that TNR leads to increased immigration of unneutered cats into neutered populations as well as increased kitten survival in neutered groups. These compensatory mechanisms in neutered groups leading to increased kitten survival and immigration would confound rabies vaccination campaigns and produce naïve populations of cats that can serve as source of zoonotic disease agents owing to lack of immunity. This manuscript is a review of the various diseases of free-roaming cats and the public health implications associated with the cat populations. PMID:22830565

  18. Insight into the secondary structure of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase type I — computer analysis and FT-IR spectroscopic characterization of the protein structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, A. E.; Karamancheva, I. R.

    2001-05-01

    The secondary structure of chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase type I (CAT I) and an N-terminal deleted mutant has been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The analysis of the amide I band of different samples (KBr, hydrated films and buffer solution) by Fourier self-deconvolution followed by a curve fitting was performed. The spectroscopic data have been utilized to determine the α-helix and β-structure % contents, which depend strongly on the protein sample preparation. Furthermore, the secondary structure of the enzyme-inhibitor Crystal Violet complex was analyzed. The observed difference in the secondary structural contents suggests that some conformational changes of the enzyme are induced by the inhibitor after binding.

  19. Atomic resolution structure of human α-tubulin acetyltransferase bound to acetyl-CoA

    PubMed Central

    Taschner, Michael; Vetter, Melanie; Lorentzen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    Acetylation of lysine residues is an important posttranslational modification found in all domains of life. α-tubulin is specifically acetylated on lysine 40, a modification that serves to stabilize microtubules of axons and cilia. Whereas histone acetyltransferases have been extensively studied, there is no structural and mechanistic information available on α-tubulin acetyltransferases. Here, we present the structure of the human α-tubulin acetyltransferase catalytic domain bound to its cosubstrate acetyl-CoA at 1.05 Å resolution. Compared with other lysine acetyltransferases of known structure, α-tubulin acetyltransferase displays a relatively well-conserved cosubstrate binding pocket but is unique in its active site and putative α-tubulin binding site. Using acetylation assays with structure-guided mutants, we map residues important for acetyl-CoA binding, substrate binding, and catalysis. This analysis reveals a basic patch implicated in substrate binding and a conserved glutamine residue required for catalysis, demonstrating that the family of α-tubulin acetyltransferases uses a reaction mechanism different from other lysine acetyltransferases characterized to date. PMID:23071318

  20. Relationship between the Presence of Bartonella Species and Bacterial Loads in Cats and Cat Fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) under Natural Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit

    2015-01-01

    Cats are considered the main reservoir of three zoonotic Bartonella species: Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella koehlerae. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) have been experimentally demonstrated to be a competent vector of B. henselae and have been proposed as the potential vector of the two other Bartonella species. Previous studies have reported a lack of association between the Bartonella species infection status (infected or uninfected) and/or bacteremia levels of cats and the infection status of the fleas they host. Nevertheless, to date, no study has compared the quantitative distributions of these bacteria in both cats and their fleas under natural conditions. Thus, the present study explored these relationships by identifying and quantifying the different Bartonella species in both cats and their fleas. Therefore, EDTA-blood samples and fleas collected from stray cats were screened for Bartonella bacteria. Bacterial loads were quantified by high-resolution melt real-time quantitative PCR assays. The results indicated a moderate correlation between the Bartonella bacterial loads in the cats and their fleas when both were infected with the same Bartonella species. Moreover, a positive effect of the host infection status on the Bartonella bacterial loads of the fleas was observed. Conversely, the cat bacterial loads were not affected by the infection status of their fleas. Our results suggest that the Bartonella bacterial loads of fleas are positively affected by the presence of the bacteria in their feline host, probably by multiple acquisitions/accumulation and/or multiplication events. PMID:26070666

  1. Biochemical pathways that regulate acetyltransferase and deacetylase activity in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Mellert, Hestia S.; McMahon, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is dynamically regulated in eukaryotic cells via modulation of the enzymatic activity of kinases and phosphatases. Like phosphorylation, acetylation has emerged as a critical regulatory protein modification that is dynamically altered in response to diverse cellular cues. Moreover, acetyltransferases and deacetylases are tightly linked to cellular signaling pathways. Recent studies provide clues about the mechanisms utilized to regulate acetyltransferases and deacetylases. The therapeutic value of deacetylase inhibitors suggests that understanding acetylation pathways will directly impact our ability to rationally target these enzymes in patients. Recently discovered mechanisms which directly regulate the catalytic activity of acetyltransferases and deacetylases provide exciting new insights about these enzymes. PMID:19819149

  2. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in two cats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Matsuura, Shinobu; Fujino, Yasuhito; Nakajima, Mayumi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakashima, Ko; Sakai, Yusuke; Uetsuka, Koji; Ohno, Koichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2008-10-01

    Two cats showing chronic vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss were found to have leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia. Both cats were diagnosed with hypereosinophilic syndrome by the findings of increased eosinophils and their precursors in the bone marrow, eosinophilic infiltration into multiple organs, and exclusion of other causes for eosinophilia. Although cytoreductive chemotherapy with hydroxycarbamide and prednisolone was performed, these two cats died 48 days and 91 days after the initial presentation. PMID:18981665

  3. [The biological role of prokaryotic and eukaryotic N-acetyltransferase].

    PubMed

    Zabost, Anna; Zwolska, Zofia; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The N-acetyltransferases (NAT; E.C.2.3.1.5) are involved in the metabolism of drugs and environmental toxins. They catalyse the acetyl transfer from acetyl coenzyme A to an aromatic amine, heterocyclic amine, or hydrazine compound. NAT homologues are present in numerous species from bacteria to human. Sequence variations in the human NAT1 and NAT2 result in the production of NAT proteins with variable enzyme activity or stability, leading to slow or rapid acetylation. Therefore, genetic polymorphisms in NAT1 and NAT2 influence drug metabolism and drug-related toxicity. Epidemiological studies suggest that the NAT1 and NAT2 acetylation polymorphisms modify the risk of developing cancers of the urinary bladder, colorectal, breast, head and neck, and lung. PMID:23420430

  4. The Role of Histone Acetyltransferases in Normal and Malignant Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Jian; Man, Na; Tan, Yurong; Nimer, Stephen D.; Wang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Histone, and non-histone, protein acetylation plays an important role in a variety of cellular events, including the normal and abnormal development of blood cells, by changing the epigenetic status of chromatin and regulating non-histone protein function. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which are the enzymes responsible for histone and non-histone protein acetylation, contain p300/CBP, MYST, and GNAT family members. HATs are not only protein modifiers and epigenetic factors but also critical regulators of cell development and carcinogenesis. Here, we will review the function of HATs such as p300/CBP, Tip60, MOZ/MORF, and GCN5/PCAF in normal hematopoiesis and the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. The inhibitors that have been developed to target HATs will also be reviewed here. Understanding the roles of HATs in normal/malignant hematopoiesis will provide the potential therapeutic targets for the hematological malignancies. PMID:26075180

  5. The Role of Histone Acetyltransferases in Normal and Malignant Hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Jian; Man, Na; Tan, Yurong; Nimer, Stephen D; Wang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Histone, and non-histone, protein acetylation plays an important role in a variety of cellular events, including the normal and abnormal development of blood cells, by changing the epigenetic status of chromatin and regulating non-histone protein function. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which are the enzymes responsible for histone and non-histone protein acetylation, contain p300/CBP, MYST, and GNAT family members. HATs are not only protein modifiers and epigenetic factors but also critical regulators of cell development and carcinogenesis. Here, we will review the function of HATs such as p300/CBP, Tip60, MOZ/MORF, and GCN5/PCAF in normal hematopoiesis and the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. The inhibitors that have been developed to target HATs will also be reviewed here. Understanding the roles of HATs in normal/malignant hematopoiesis will provide the potential therapeutic targets for the hematological malignancies. PMID:26075180

  6. The MOZ histone acetyltransferase in epigenetic signaling and disease.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Samuel; Glass, Karen C

    2014-11-01

    The monocytic leukemic zinc finger (MOZ) histone acetyltransferase (HAT) plays a role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It functions as a quaternary complex with the bromodomain PHD finger protein 1 (BRPF1), the human Esa1-associated factor 6 homolog (hEAF6), and the inhibitor of growth 5 (ING5). Each of these subunits contain chromatin reader domains that recognize specific post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histone tails, and this recognition directs the MOZ HAT complex to specific chromatin substrates. The structure and function of these epigenetic reader modules has now been elucidated, and a model describing how the cooperative action of these domains regulates HAT activity in response to the epigenetic landscape is proposed. The emerging role of epigenetic reader domains in disease, and their therapeutic potential for many types of cancer is also highlighted. PMID:24633655

  7. KATching-Up on Small Molecule Modulators of Lysine Acetyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Simon, Roman P; Robaa, Dina; Alhalabi, Zayan; Sippl, Wolfgang; Jung, Manfred

    2016-02-25

    The reversible acetylation of lysines is one of the best characterized epigenetic modifications. Its involvement in many key physiological and pathological processes has been documented in numerous studies. Lysine deacetylases (KDACs) and acetyltransferases (KATs) maintain the acetylation equilibrium at histones but also many other proteins. Besides acetylation, also other acyl groups are reversibly installed at the side chain of lysines in proteins. Because of their involvement in disease, KDACs and KATs were proposed to be promising drug targets, and for KDACs, indeed, five inhibitors are now approved for human use. While there is a similar level of evidence for the potential of KATs as drug targets, no inhibitor is in clinical trials. Here, we review the evidence for the diverse roles of KATs in disease pathology, provide an overview of structural features and the available modulators, including those targeting the bromodomains of KATs, and present an outlook. PMID:26701186

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of arylamine N-acetyltransferase C (BanatC) from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Pluvinage, Benjamin; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inés; Martins, Marta; Ragunathan, Nilusha; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2007-10-01

    Bacillus anthracis arylamine N-acetyltransferase C (BanatC) is an enzyme that metabolizes the drug sulfamethoxazole. Crystals of the purified enzyme that diffract at 1.95 Å are reported. The arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes that have been found in a large range of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These enzymes catalyse the acetylation of arylamine drugs and/or pollutants. Recently, a Bacillus anthracis NAT isoform (BanatC) has been cloned and shown to acetylate the sulfonamide antimicrobial sulfamethoxazole (SMX). Subsequently, it was shown that BanatC contributes to the resistance of this bacterium to SMX. Here, the crystallization and the X-ray characterization of BanatC (Y38F mutant) are reported. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 53.70, c = 172.40 Å, and diffract to 1.95 Å resolution on a synchrotron source.

  9. Structure of a bacterial putative acetyltransferase defines the fold of the human O-GlcNAcase C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Francesco V.; Schüttelkopf, Alexander W.; Dorfmueller, Helge C.; Ferenbach, Andrew T.; Navratilova, Iva; van Aalten, Daan M. F.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic modification of proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is an essential posttranslational modification present in higher eukaryotes. Removal of O-GlcNAc is catalysed by O-GlcNAcase, a multi-domain enzyme that has been reported to be bifunctional, possessing both glycoside hydrolase and histone acetyltransferase (AT) activity. Insights into the mechanism, protein substrate recognition and inhibition of the hydrolase domain of human OGA (hOGA) have been obtained via the use of the structures of bacterial homologues. However, the molecular basis of AT activity of OGA, which has only been reported in vitro, is not presently understood. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a putative acetyltransferase (OgpAT) that we identified in the genome of the marine bacterium Oceanicola granulosus, showing homology to the hOGA C-terminal AT domain (hOGA-AT). The structure of OgpAT in complex with acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) reveals that, by homology modelling, hOGA-AT adopts a variant AT fold with a unique loop creating a deep tunnel. The structures, together with mutagenesis and surface plasmon resonance data, reveal that while the bacterial OgpAT binds AcCoA, the hOGA-AT does not, as explained by the lack of key residues normally required to bind AcCoA. Thus, the C-terminal domain of hOGA is a catalytically incompetent ‘pseudo’-AT. PMID:24088714

  10. Enhancer of Acetyltransferase Chameau (EAChm) Is a Novel Transcriptional Co-Activator

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Yuko; Higashi, Miki; Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Acetylation of nucleosomal histones by diverse histone acetyltransferases (HAT) plays pivotal roles in many cellular events. Discoveries of novel HATs and HAT related factors have provided new insights to understand the roles and mechanisms of histone acetylation. In this study, we identified prominent Histone H3 acetylation activity in vitro and purified its activity, showing that it is composed of the MYST acetyltransferase Chameau and Enhancer of the Acetyltransferase Chameau (EAChm) family. EAChm is a negatively charged acidic protein retaining aspartate and glutamate. Furthermore, we identified that Chameau and EAChm stimulate transcription in vitro together with purified general transcription factors. In addition, RNA-seq analysis of Chameu KD and EAChm KD S2 cells suggest that Chameau and EAChm regulate transcription of common genes in vivo. Our results suggest that EAChm regulates gene transcription in Drosophila embryos by enhancing Acetyltransferase Chameau activity. PMID:26555228

  11. Survey of dietary and medication practices of owners of cats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Markovich, Jessica E; Freeman, Lisa M; Labato, Mary A; Heinze, Cailin R

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the dietary and medication patterns of cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study, owners of cats with CKD were asked to complete a web-based survey. The study was advertised on CKD-, pet-, veterinary- and breed-associated websites and list serves. Owners of 1089 cats with CKD participated in the study. The mean reported age of the cats with CKD was 13.7 ± 4.2 years. Forty percent (430/1089) of cats had concurrent diseases, with hyperthyroidism, heart disease and inflammatory bowel disease being the most common. Veterinarian recommendation was the most common reason reported (684/1032; 66%) for diet selection, and 51% (556/1089) of owners fed a veterinary therapeutic diet formulated for kidney disease as some component of the diet. Many owners (466/1079; 43%) reported that their cats had an abnormal appetite; of these owners, 52% responded that their cats had a poor appetite or required coaxing to eat 5-7 days per week. Forty-seven percent and 51% of cats were receiving subcutaneous fluids and oral medications, respectively; however, most cats (811/1036; 78%) were not receiving phosphorus-binding medications. Fifty-six percent and 38% of cats received commercial cat treats and dietary supplements, respectively. Anorexia or hyporexia is a common problem in cats with CKD and may lead to cats being fed suboptimal diets for their disease. This information may be useful for treating or designing nutritional studies for cats with CKD. PMID:25535212

  12. Noncongophilic fibrillary glomerulonephritis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Cavana, P; Capucchio, M T; Bovero, A; Ripanti, D; Catalano, D; Scaglione, F E; Miller, J; Blunden, T; Farca, A M

    2008-05-01

    This report describes an uncommon case of nonamyloidotic fibrillary glomerulonephritis. A 5-year-old female European cat was presented with nephrotic syndrome. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed a mild increase in cholesterol, low total protein, severe hypoalbuminemia, and high proteinuria with a high protein-to-creatinine ratio. An histologic examination revealed an interstitial nephritis and a diffuse glomerulonephritis, with multifocal thickening of the Bowman's capsule. Transmission electron microscopy showed widespread fibrillary deposits in the glomerular basement membrane and in the mesangium. These fibrils ranged between 18 and 26 nm in diameter and were Congo red negative, which allowed their differentiation from amyloid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) within the mesangium. Renal deposits of Congo red-negative amyloid-like fibrils have been described in humans, horses, monkeys, and dogs. This is the first report of noncongophilic fibrillary glomerulopathy in a cat. PMID:18487491

  13. [Glomerulonephritis in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M; Frese, K

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistology and special staining of plastic sections allow diagnosis and differentiation of subtypes of glomerulonephritis in dogs. Frequency and clinical importance of these forms of glomerulonephritis vary significantly. In cats, glomerulonephritis occurs frequently in FIV-positive cats but is rare in animals suffering from persistent FeLV infection or FIP. PMID:2068715

  14. College Students and Their Cats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  15. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  16. A Study on Borna Disease Virus Infection in Domestic Cats in Japan

    PubMed Central

    SOMEYA, Azusa; FUKUSHIMA, Ryoko; YOSHIDA, Michiko; TANAHASHI, Yasuyuki; PRAPEUK, Tangmunkhong; IIZUKA, Reiko; HIRAMI, Hiroshi; MATSUDA, Atsushi; TAKAHASHI, Shunichi; KURITA, Goro; KIMURA, Takashi; SEO, Misuzu; FUNABA, Masayuki; NISHINO, Yoshii

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Borna disease virus (BDV) infection causes neurological disease in cats. Here, we report BDV infection in 199 hospitalized domestic cats in the Tokyo area. BDV infection was evaluated by detection of plasma antibodies against BDV-p24 or -p40. BDV-specific antibodies were detected in 54 cats (27.1%). Interestingly, the percentage of seropositive cats was not significantly different among the three clinical groups, i.e., healthy (29.8%), neurologically asymptomatic disease (22.2%) and neurological disease (33.3%). The specific antibodies were present even in cats aged below one year. The seropositive ratio was constant, irrespective of age and sampling season. The present study suggests that additional factors are required for onset of Borna disease in naturally infected cats and that BDV is transmitted through vertical routes in cats. PMID:24805904

  17. Severe hypoglycaemia in a cat with primary hypoadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Kasabalis, Dimitris; Bodina, Efi; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2012-10-01

    This case report describes a 3-year-old, castrated male, mixed-breed cat with historical, clinical and laboratory findings compatible with primary hypoadrenocorticism, confirmed by adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test. Severe but asymptomatic hypoglycaemia was an unexpected biochemical finding and resolved after fludrocortisone acetate and prednisolone treatment. This case demonstrates that hypoadrenocorticism should be included in the differentials list of severe hypoglycaemia in cats. PMID:22628270

  18. Novel ligands of Choline Acetyltransferase designed by in silico molecular docking, hologram QSAR and lead optimization

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajnish; Långström, Bengt; Darreh-Shori, Taher

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have brought back the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in the mainstream research in dementia and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report, a specific strategy for the design of novel ChAT ligands based on molecular docking, Hologram Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (HQSAR) and lead optimization. Molecular docking was performed on a series of ChAT inhibitors to decipher the molecular fingerprint of their interaction with the active site of ChAT. Then robust statistical fragment HQSAR models were developed. A library of novel ligands was generated based on the pharmacophoric and shape similarity scoring function, and evaluated in silico for their molecular interactions with ChAT. Ten of the top scoring invented compounds are reported here. We confirmed the activity of α-NETA, the only commercially available ChAT inhibitor, and one of the seed compounds in our model, using a new simple colorimetric ChAT assay (IC50 ~ 88 nM). In contrast, α-NETA exhibited an IC50 of ~30 μM for the ACh-degrading cholinesterases. In conclusion, the overall results may provide useful insight for discovering novel ChAT ligands and potential positron emission tomography tracers as in vivo functional biomarkers of the health of central cholinergic system in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:27507101

  19. Novel ligands of Choline Acetyltransferase designed by in silico molecular docking, hologram QSAR and lead optimization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajnish; Långström, Bengt; Darreh-Shori, Taher

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have brought back the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in the mainstream research in dementia and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report, a specific strategy for the design of novel ChAT ligands based on molecular docking, Hologram Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (HQSAR) and lead optimization. Molecular docking was performed on a series of ChAT inhibitors to decipher the molecular fingerprint of their interaction with the active site of ChAT. Then robust statistical fragment HQSAR models were developed. A library of novel ligands was generated based on the pharmacophoric and shape similarity scoring function, and evaluated in silico for their molecular interactions with ChAT. Ten of the top scoring invented compounds are reported here. We confirmed the activity of α-NETA, the only commercially available ChAT inhibitor, and one of the seed compounds in our model, using a new simple colorimetric ChAT assay (IC50 ~ 88 nM). In contrast, α-NETA exhibited an IC50 of ~30 μM for the ACh-degrading cholinesterases. In conclusion, the overall results may provide useful insight for discovering novel ChAT ligands and potential positron emission tomography tracers as in vivo functional biomarkers of the health of central cholinergic system in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27507101

  20. Chloroplast-encoded serotonin N-acetyltransferase in the red alga Pyropia yezoensis: gene transition to the nucleus from chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Yeong; Yool Lee, Hyoung; Choi, Dong-Woog; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2015-02-01

    Melatonin biosynthesis involves the N-acetylation of arylalkylamines such as serotonin, which is catalysed by serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), the penultimate enzyme of melatonin biosynthesis in both animals and plants. Here, we report the functional characterization of a putative N-acetyltransferase gene in the chloroplast genome of the alga laver (Pyropia yezoensis, formerly known as Porphyra yezoensis) with homology to the rice SNAT gene. To confirm that the putative Pyropia yezoensis SNAT (PySNAT) gene encodes an SNAT, we cloned the full-length chloroplastidic PySNAT gene by PCR and purified the recombinant PySNAT protein from Escherichia coli. PySNAT was 174 aa and had 50% amino acid identity with cyanobacteria SNAT. Purified recombinant PySNAT showed a peak activity at 55 °C with a K m of 467 µM and V max of 28 nmol min-1 mg(-1) of protein. Unlike other plant SNATs, PySNAT localized to the cytoplasm due to a lack of N-terminal chloroplast transit peptides. Melatonin was present at 0.16ng g(-1) of fresh mass but increased during heat stress. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence suggested that PySNAT has evolved from the cyanobacteria SNAT gene via endosymbiotic gene transfer. Additionally, the chloroplast transit peptides of plant SNATs were acquired 1500 million years ago, concurrent with the appearance of green algae. PMID:25183745

  1. A novel role for the histone acetyltransferase Hat1 in the CENP-A/CID assembly pathway in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Boltengagen, Mark; Huang, Anming; Boltengagen, Anastasiya; Trixl, Lukas; Lindner, Herbert; Kremser, Leopold; Offterdinger, Martin; Lusser, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation of CENP-A into centromeric chromatin is an essential prerequisite for kinetochore formation. Yet, the molecular mechanisms governing this process are surprisingly divergent in different organisms. While CENP-A loading mechanisms have been studied in some detail in mammals, there are still large gaps to our understanding of CENP-A/Cid loading pathways in Drosophila. Here, we report on the characterization and delineation of at least three different CENP-A preloading complexes in Drosophila. Two complexes contain the CENP-A chaperones CAL1, FACT and/or Caf1/Rbap48. Notably, we identified a novel complex consisting of the histone acetyltransferase Hat1, Caf1 and CENP-A/H4. We show that Hat1 is required for proper CENP-A loading into chromatin, since knock-down in S2 cells leads to reduced incorporation of newly synthesized CENP-A. In addition, we demonstrate that CENP-A/Cid interacts with the HAT1 complex via an N-terminal region, which is acetylated in cytoplasmic but not in nuclear CENP-A. Since Hat1 is not responsible for acetylation of CENP-A/Cid, these results suggest a histone acetyltransferase activity-independent escort function for Hat1. Thus, our results point toward intriguing analogies between the complex processing pathways of newly synthesized CENP-A and canonical histones. PMID:26586808

  2. Structure and function of human Naa60 (NatF), a Golgi-localized bi-functional acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji-Yun; Liu, Liang; Cao, Chun-Ling; Li, Mei-Jun; Tan, Kemin; Yang, Xiaohan; Yun, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation), carried out by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is a conserved and primary modification of nascent peptide chains. Naa60 (also named NatF) is a recently identified NAT found only in multicellular eukaryotes. This protein was shown to locate on the Golgi apparatus and mainly catalyze the Nt-acetylation of transmembrane proteins, and it also harbors lysine Nε-acetyltransferase (KAT) activity to catalyze the acetylation of lysine ε-amine. Here, we report the crystal structures of human Naa60 (hNaa60) in complex with Acetyl-Coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) or Coenzyme A (CoA). The hNaa60 protein contains an amphipathic helix following its GNAT domain that may contribute to Golgi localization of hNaa60, and the β7-β8 hairpin adopted different conformations in the hNaa60(1-242) and hNaa60(1-199) crystal structures. Remarkably, we found that the side-chain of Phe 34 can influence the position of the coenzyme, indicating a new regulatory mechanism involving enzyme, co-factor and substrates interactions. Moreover, structural comparison and biochemical studies indicated that Tyr 97 and His 138 are key residues for catalytic reaction and that a non-conserved β3-β4 long loop participates in the regulation of hNaa60 activity. PMID:27550639

  3. Chloroplast-encoded serotonin N-acetyltransferase in the red alga Pyropia yezoensis: gene transition to the nucleus from chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Yeong; Yool Lee, Hyoung; Choi, Dong-Woog; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin biosynthesis involves the N-acetylation of arylalkylamines such as serotonin, which is catalysed by serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), the penultimate enzyme of melatonin biosynthesis in both animals and plants. Here, we report the functional characterization of a putative N-acetyltransferase gene in the chloroplast genome of the alga laver (Pyropia yezoensis, formerly known as Porphyra yezoensis) with homology to the rice SNAT gene. To confirm that the putative Pyropia yezoensis SNAT (PySNAT) gene encodes an SNAT, we cloned the full-length chloroplastidic PySNAT gene by PCR and purified the recombinant PySNAT protein from Escherichia coli. PySNAT was 174 aa and had 50% amino acid identity with cyanobacteria SNAT. Purified recombinant PySNAT showed a peak activity at 55 °C with a K m of 467 µM and V max of 28 nmol min–1 mg–1 of protein. Unlike other plant SNATs, PySNAT localized to the cytoplasm due to a lack of N-terminal chloroplast transit peptides. Melatonin was present at 0.16ng g–1 of fresh mass but increased during heat stress. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence suggested that PySNAT has evolved from the cyanobacteria SNAT gene via endosymbiotic gene transfer. Additionally, the chloroplast transit peptides of plant SNATs were acquired 1500 million years ago, concurrent with the appearance of green algae. PMID:25183745

  4. Structure and function of human Naa60 (NatF), a Golgi-localized bi-functional acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Yun; Liu, Liang; Cao, Chun-Ling; Li, Mei-Jun; Tan, Kemin; Yang, Xiaohan; Yun, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation), carried out by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is a conserved and primary modification of nascent peptide chains. Naa60 (also named NatF) is a recently identified NAT found only in multicellular eukaryotes. This protein was shown to locate on the Golgi apparatus and mainly catalyze the Nt-acetylation of transmembrane proteins, and it also harbors lysine N(ε)-acetyltransferase (KAT) activity to catalyze the acetylation of lysine ε-amine. Here, we report the crystal structures of human Naa60 (hNaa60) in complex with Acetyl-Coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) or Coenzyme A (CoA). The hNaa60 protein contains an amphipathic helix following its GNAT domain that may contribute to Golgi localization of hNaa60, and the β7-β8 hairpin adopted different conformations in the hNaa60(1-242) and hNaa60(1-199) crystal structures. Remarkably, we found that the side-chain of Phe 34 can influence the position of the coenzyme, indicating a new regulatory mechanism involving enzyme, co-factor and substrates interactions. Moreover, structural comparison and biochemical studies indicated that Tyr 97 and His 138 are key residues for catalytic reaction and that a non-conserved β3-β4 long loop participates in the regulation of hNaa60 activity. PMID:27550639

  5. Oridonin, a novel lysine acetyltransferases inhibitor, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in gastric cancer cells through p53- and caspase-3-mediated mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Diao, Hua; Li, Guangming; Xu, Ling; Wang, Ting; Wei, Jue; Meng, Wenying; Ma, Jia-Li; Yu, Heguo; Wang, Yu-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation has been reported to involve in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases including cancer. In our screening study to identify natural compounds with lysine acetyltransferase inhibitor (KATi) activity, oridonin was found to possess acetyltransferase-inhibitory effects on multiple acetyltransferases including P300, GCN5, Tip60, and pCAF. In gastric cancer cells, oridonin treatment inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner and down-regulated the expression of p53 downstream genes, whereas p53 inhibition by PFT-α reversed the antiproliferative effects of oridonin. Moreover, oridonin treatment induced cell apoptosis, increased the levels of activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in gastric cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Caspase-3 inhibition by Ac-DEVD-CHO reversed the proapoptosis effect of oridonin. In conclusion, our study identified oridonin as a novel KATi and demonstrated its tumor suppressive effects in gastric cancer cells at least partially through p53-and caspase-3-mediated mechanisms. PMID:26980707

  6. Polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats with successful treatment of bacterial cyst infection.

    PubMed

    Nivy, R; Lyons, L A; Aroch, I; Segev, G

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited disorder in cats. Renal cysts progressively increase in size and number, resulting in a gradual decrease in kidney function. An autosomal dominant mutation in exon 29 of the polycystin-1 gene has been identified, mostly in Persian and Persian-related breeds. This case study describes polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats, of which two had the same genetic mutation reported in Persian and Persian-related cats. This likely reflects introduction of this mutation into the British shorthair breeding line because of previous outcrossing with Persian cats. An infected renal cyst was diagnosed and successfully treated in one of the cats. This is a commonly reported complication in human polycystic kidney disease, and to the authors' knowledge has not previously been reported in cats with polycystic kidney disease. PMID:25677715

  7. Neurolymphomatosis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    SAKURAI, Masashi; AZUMA, Kazushi; NAGAI, Arata; FUJIOKA, Toru; SUNDEN, Yuji; SHIMADA, Akinori; MORITA, Takehito

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old male mixed breed cat showed chronic progressive neurological symptoms, which are represented by ataxia and seizures. At necropsy, spinal roots and spinal ganglions at the level of sixth cervical nerve to second thoracic nerve were bilaterally swollen and replaced by white mass lesions. Right brachial plexus and cranial nerves (III, V and VII) were also swollen. A mass lesion was found in the right frontal lobe of the cerebrum. Histologically, neoplastic lymphocytes extensively involved the peripheral nerves, and they infiltrated into the cerebral and spinal parenchyma according to the peripheral nerve tract. Immunohistochemically, most neoplastic lymphocytes were positive for CD20. The clinical and histological features in this case resemble those of neurolymphomatosis in humans. PMID:26960326

  8. Like herding cats.

    PubMed

    Muller-Smith, P

    1997-12-01

    In an effort to be a good manager, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that knowledge workers require a unique approach from their manager. Because nurses are independent and capable individuals that prosper in an environment that recognizes them as knowledge workers, nurse managers often find that traditional management techniques are not sufficient. Trying to manage all of the nurses on a unit as a single group is much like trying to herd cats. It might be less frustrating for the nurse manager to lead gently rather than manage with a firm hand. Warren Bennis suggests that this approach may provide a valuable key to successfully managing in a world of constant change. PMID:9464034

  9. Neurolymphomatosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masashi; Azuma, Kazushi; Nagai, Arata; Fujioka, Toru; Sunden, Yuji; Shimada, Akinori; Morita, Takehito

    2016-07-01

    A 9-year-old male mixed breed cat showed chronic progressive neurological symptoms, which are represented by ataxia and seizures. At necropsy, spinal roots and spinal ganglions at the level of sixth cervical nerve to second thoracic nerve were bilaterally swollen and replaced by white mass lesions. Right brachial plexus and cranial nerves (III, V and VII) were also swollen. A mass lesion was found in the right frontal lobe of the cerebrum. Histologically, neoplastic lymphocytes extensively involved the peripheral nerves, and they infiltrated into the cerebral and spinal parenchyma according to the peripheral nerve tract. Immunohistochemically, most neoplastic lymphocytes were positive for CD20. The clinical and histological features in this case resemble those of neurolymphomatosis in humans. PMID:26960326

  10. Targeting of a histone acetyltransferase domain to a promoter enhances protein expression levels in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kwaks, T H J; Sewalt, R G A B; van Blokland, R; Siersma, T J; Kasiem, M; Kelder, A; Otte, A P

    2005-01-12

    Silencing of transfected genes in mammalian cells is a fundamental problem that probably involves the (in)accessibility status of chromatin. A potential solution to this problem is to provide a cell with protein factors that make the chromatin of a promoter more open or accessible for transcription. We tested this by targeting such proteins to different promoters. We found that targeting the p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain to strong viral or cellular promoters is sufficient to result in higher expression levels of a reporter protein. In contrast, targeting the chromatin-remodeling factor Brahma does not result in stable, higher protein expression levels. The long-term effects of the targeted p300HAT domain on protein expression levels are positively reinforced, when also anti-repressor elements are applied to flank the reporter construct. These elements were previously shown to be potent blockers of chromatin-associated repressors. The simultaneous application of the targeted p300HAT domain and anti-repressor elements conveys long-term stability to protein expression. Whereas no copy number dependency is achieved by targeting of the p300HAT domain alone, copy number dependency is improved when anti-repressor elements are included. We conclude that targeting of protein domains such as HAT domains helps to facilitate expression of transfected genes in mammalian cells. However, the simultaneous application of other genomic elements such as the anti-repressor elements prevents silencing more efficiently. PMID:15607223

  11. Acceptance of domestic cat mitochondrial DNA in a criminal proceeding.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Kun, Teri J; Netzel, Linda R; Wictum, Elizabeth E; Halverson, Joy L

    2014-11-01

    Shed hair from domestic animals readily adheres to clothing and other contact items, providing a source of transfer evidence for criminal investigations. Mitochondrial DNA is often the only option for DNA analysis of shed hair. Human mitochondrial DNA analysis has been accepted in the US court system since 1996. The murder trial of the State of Missouri versus Henry L. Polk, Jr. represents the first legal proceeding where cat mitochondrial DNA analysis was introduced into evidence. The mitochondrial DNA evidence was initially considered inadmissible due to concerns about the cat dataset and the scientific acceptance of the marker. Those concerns were subsequently addressed, and the evidence was deemed admissible. This report reviews the case in regards to the cat biological evidence and its ultimate admission as generally accepted and reliable. Expansion and saturation analysis of the cat mitochondrial DNA control region dataset supported the initial interpretation of the evidence. PMID:25086413

  12. Acceptance of Domestic Cat Mitochondrial DNA in a Criminal Proceeding

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Leslie A.; Grahn, Robert A.; Kun, Teri J.; Netzel, Linda R.; Wictum, Elizabeth E.; Halverson, Joy L.

    2014-01-01

    Shed hair from domestic animals readily adheres to clothing and other contact items, providing a source of transfer evidence for criminal investigations. Mitochondrial DNA is often the only option for DNA analysis of shed hair. Human mitochondrial DNA analysis has been accepted in the US court system since 1996. The murder trial of the State of Missouri versus Henry L. Polk, Jr. represents the first legal proceeding where cat mitochondrial DNA analysis was introduced into evidence. The mitochondrial DNA evidence was initially considered inadmissible due to concerns about the cat dataset and the scientific acceptance of the marker. Those concerns were subsequently addressed, and the evidence was deemed admissible. This report reviews the case in regards to the cat biological evidence and its ultimate admission as generally accepted and reliable. Expansion and saturation analysis of the cat mitochondrial DNA control region dataset supported the initial interpretation of the evidence. PMID:25086413

  13. Use of bacterial and firefly luciferases as reporter genes in DEAE-dextran-mediated transfection of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Pazzagli, M; Devine, J H; Peterson, D O; Baldwin, T O

    1992-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three different luciferase genes by placing them in a single reporter vector and expressing them in the same mammalian cell type. The luciferase genes investigated were the luc genes from the fireflies Photinus pyralis (PP) and Luciola mingrelica (LM) and the lux AB5 gene, a translational fusion of the two subunits of the bacterial luciferase from Vibrio harveyi (VH). The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene was also included in this study for comparison. The performances of the assay methods of the corresponding enzymes were evaluated using reference materials and the results of the expressed enzymes following transfection were calculated using calibration curves. All of the bioluminescent assays possess high reproducibility both within and between the batches (less than 15%). The comparison of the assay methods shows that firefly luciferases have the highest detection sensitivity (0.05 and 0.08 amol for PP and LM, respectively) whereas the VH bacterial luciferase has 5 amol and CAT 100 amol. On the other hand, the transfection of the various plasmids shows that the content of the expressed enzyme within the cells is much higher for CAT than for the other luciferase genes. VH luciferase is expressed at very low levels in mammalian cells due to the relatively high temperature of growing of the mammalian cells that seems to impair the correct folding of the active enzyme. PP and LM luciferases are both expressed at picomolar level but usually 10 to 70 times less in content with respect to CAT within the transfected cells. On the basis of these results the overall improvement in sensitivity related to the use of firefly luciferases as reporter genes in mammalian cells is about 30 to 50 times with respect to that of CAT. PMID:1443530

  14. Hepatosplenic Cat Scratch Disease in Immunocompetent Adults

    PubMed Central

    García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062

  15. Atypical membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Kami-ie, J; Ohtake, S; Wakui, S; Machida, S; Shirota, K

    2001-07-01

    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis was observed in a 2-year-old male Japanese domestic cat with clinical renal failure. In the glomeruli, moderate mesangial hypercellularity with an increased mesangial matrix and thickening of the capillary walls were prominent. In addition, frequent duplication of the capillary walls, splitting, and spike formation were observed in the glomerular basement membrane. Granular cat IgG and complement component deposition were detected globally along the glomerular capillary walls and in the mesangium. Transmission electron microscopy revealed dense deposits in the subendothelial and subepithelial regions and the mesangium. Mesangial interposition was also observed. These glomerular lesions are also found in humans with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type III, which has not been reported in animals. PMID:11467485

  16. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  17. CATS landline installed beneath the river Tees

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Press Construction Ltd. has completed installation of the land portion of a new gas pipeline from the North Sea, including a tunnel beneath the River Tees in the north of England. The work was carried out under a multi-million dollar contract from Amoco (UK) Exploration Co. The pipeline is the land portion of the Central Area Transmission System. The 4.6-mile, 36-in. onshore pipeline connects a valve station at the CATS landfall at Coatham Sands, just south of Tees Bay, to a gas terminal north of the River Tees. This paper reports on the entire CATS system which runs for nearly 250 miles from a riser platform in the Central Graben area of the North Sea to the Coatham Sands landfall and then overland to the gas terminal. The gas will fuel a new combined heat-and-power generating plant on Teesside, currently under construction by Teesside Power.

  18. The Functional Analysis of Histone Acetyltransferase MOF in Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiaming; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yong; Jin, Jingji

    2016-01-01

    Changes in chromatin structure and heritably regulating the gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone post-translational modification, are involved in most cellular biological processes. Thus, abnormal regulation of epigenetics is implicated in the occurrence of various diseases, including cancer. Human MOF (males absent on the first) is a member of the MYST (Moz-Ybf2/Sas3-Sas2-Tip60) family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs). As a catalytic subunit, MOF can form at least two distinct multiprotein complexes (MSL and NSL) in human cells. Both complexes can acetylate histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16); however, the NSL complex possesses broader substrate specificity and can also acetylate histone H4 at lysines 5 and 8 (H4K5 and H4K8), suggesting the complexity of the intracellular functions of MOF. Silencing of MOF in cells leads to genomic instability, inactivation of gene transcription, defective DNA damage repair and early embryonic lethality. Unbalanced MOF expression and its corresponding acetylation of H4K16 have been found in certain primary cancer tissues, including breast cancer, medulloblastoma, ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, gastric cancer, as well as non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we provide a brief overview of MOF and its corresponding histone acetylation, introduce recent research findings that link MOF functions to tumorigenesis and speculate on the potential role that may be relevant to tumorigenic pathways. PMID:26784169

  19. N-acetyltransferase 2 activity and folate levels

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wen; Strnatka, Diana; McQueen, Charlene A.; Hunter, Robert J.; Erickson, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To determine whether increased N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity might have a toxic effect during development and an influence on folate levels since previous work has shown that only low levels of exogenous NAT can be achieved in constitutionally transgenic mice (Cao, et al, 2005) Main Methods A human NAT1 tet-inducible construct was used that would not be expressed until the inducer was delivered. Human NAT1 cDNA was cloned into pTRE2 and injected into mouse oocytes. Two transgenic lines were crossed to mouse line TgN(rtTahCMV)4Uh containing the CMV promoted “teton.”Measurements of red blood cell folate levels in inbred strains of mice were performed. Key findings Only low levels of human NAT1 could be achieved in kidney (highly responsive in other studies) whether the inducer, doxycycline, was given by gavage or in drinking water.An inverse correlation of folate levels with Nat2 enzyme activity was found. Significance Since increasing NAT1 activity decrease folate in at least one tissue, the detrimental effect of expression of human NAT1 in combination with endogenous mouse Nat2 may be a consequence of increased catabolism of folate. PMID:19932120

  20. Reconstruction of N-acetyltransferase 2 haplotypes using PHASE.

    PubMed

    Golka, Klaus; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Samimi, Mirabutaleb; Bolt, Hermann M; Selinski, Silvia

    2008-04-01

    The genotyping of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) by PCR/RFLP methods yields in a considerable percentage ambiguous results. To resolve this methodical problem a statistical approach was applied. PHASE v2.1.1, a statistical program for haplotype reconstruction was used to estimate haplotype pairs from NAT2 genotyping data, obtained by the analysis of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms relevant for Caucasians. In 1,011 out of 2,921 (35%) subjects the haplotype pairs were clearcut by the PCR/RFLP data only. For the majority of the data the applied method resulted in a multiplicity (2-4) of possible haplotype pairs. Haplotype reconstruction using PHASE v2.1.1 cleared this ambiguity in all cases but one, where an alternative haplotype pair was considered with a probability of 0.029. The estimation of the NAT2 haplotype is important because the assignment of the NAT2 alleles *12A, *12B, *12C or *13 to the rapid or slow NAT2 genotype has been discussed controversially. A clear assignment is indispensable in surveys of human bladder cancer caused by aromatic amine exposures. In conclusion, PHASE v2.1.1 software allowed an unambiguous haplotype reconstruction in 2,920 of 2,921 cases (>99.9%). PMID:17879084

  1. Obesity and lipid stress inhibit carnitine acetyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Sarah E; Martin, Ola J; Noland, Robert C; Slentz, Dorothy H; DeBalsi, Karen L; Ilkayeva, Olga R; An, Jie; Newgard, Christopher B; Koves, Timothy R; Muoio, Deborah M

    2014-04-01

    Carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine. Emerging evidence suggests that this enzyme functions as a positive regulator of total body glucose tolerance and muscle activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), a mitochondrial enzyme complex that promotes glucose oxidation and is feedback inhibited by acetyl-CoA. Here, we used tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling to identify a negative relationship between CrAT activity and muscle content of lipid intermediates. CrAT specific activity was diminished in muscles from obese and diabetic rodents despite increased protein abundance. This reduction in enzyme activity was accompanied by muscle accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines (LCACs) and acyl-CoAs and a decline in the acetylcarnitine/acetyl-CoA ratio. In vitro assays demonstrated that palmitoyl-CoA acts as a direct mixed-model inhibitor of CrAT. Similarly, in primary human myocytes grown in culture, nutritional and genetic manipulations that promoted mitochondrial influx of fatty acids resulted in accumulation of LCACs but a pronounced decrease of CrAT-derived short-chain acylcarnitines. These results suggest that lipid-induced antagonism of CrAT might contribute to decreased PDH activity and glucose disposal in the context of obesity and diabetes. PMID:24395925

  2. Inhibition of aminoglycoside acetyltransferase resistance enzymes by metal salts.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijia; Green, Keith D; Johnson, Brooke R; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    Aminoglycosides (AGs) are clinically relevant antibiotics used to treat infections caused by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as Mycobacteria. As with all current antibacterial agents, resistance to AGs is an increasing problem. The most common mechanism of resistance to AGs is the presence of AG-modifying enzymes (AMEs) in bacterial cells, with AG acetyltransferases (AACs) being the most prevalent. Recently, it was discovered that Zn(2+) metal ions displayed an inhibitory effect on the resistance enzyme AAC(6')-Ib in Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli. In this study, we explore a wide array of metal salts (Mg(2+), Cr(3+), Cr(6+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Au(3+) with different counter ions) and their inhibitory effect on a large repertoire of AACs [AAC(2')-Ic, AAC(3)-Ia, AAC(3)-Ib, AAC(3)-IV, AAC(6')-Ib', AAC(6')-Ie, AAC(6')-IId, and Eis]. In addition, we determine the MIC values for amikacin and tobramycin in combination with a zinc pyrithione complex in clinical isolates of various bacterial strains (two strains of A. baumannii, three of Enterobacter cloacae, and four of Klebsiella pneumoniae) and one representative of each species purchased from the American Type Culture Collection. PMID:25941215

  3. Inhibition of Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase Resistance Enzymes by Metal Salts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijia; Green, Keith D.; Johnson, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    Aminoglycosides (AGs) are clinically relevant antibiotics used to treat infections caused by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as Mycobacteria. As with all current antibacterial agents, resistance to AGs is an increasing problem. The most common mechanism of resistance to AGs is the presence of AG-modifying enzymes (AMEs) in bacterial cells, with AG acetyltransferases (AACs) being the most prevalent. Recently, it was discovered that Zn2+ metal ions displayed an inhibitory effect on the resistance enzyme AAC(6′)-Ib in Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli. In this study, we explore a wide array of metal salts (Mg2+, Cr3+, Cr6+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Au3+ with different counter ions) and their inhibitory effect on a large repertoire of AACs [AAC(2′)-Ic, AAC(3)-Ia, AAC(3)-Ib, AAC(3)-IV, AAC(6′)-Ib′, AAC(6′)-Ie, AAC(6′)-IId, and Eis]. In addition, we determine the MIC values for amikacin and tobramycin in combination with a zinc pyrithione complex in clinical isolates of various bacterial strains (two strains of A. baumannii, three of Enterobacter cloacae, and four of Klebsiella pneumoniae) and one representative of each species purchased from the American Type Culture Collection. PMID:25941215

  4. The histone acetyltransferase hMOF suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Hui; Pan, Hao; Yang, Yuan; Huang, Gang; Yang, Yun; Zhou, Wei-Ping; Pan, Ze-Ya

    2014-09-26

    Males absent on the first (MOF) is a histone acetyltransferase belongs to the MYST (MOZ, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2 and TIP60) family. In mammals, MOF plays critical roles in transcription activation by acetylating histone H4K16, a prevalent mark associated with chromatin decondensation. MOF can also acetylate transcription factor p53 on K120, which is important for activation of pro-apoptotic genes; and TIP5, the largest subunit of NoRC, on K633. However, the role of hMOF in hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown. Here we find that the expression of hMOF is significantly down-regulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma and cell lines. Furthermore, our survival analysis indicates that low hMOF expression predicts poor overall and disease-free survival. We demonstrate that hMOF knockdown promotes hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo, while hMOF overexpression reduces hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Mechanically, we show that hMOF regulates the expression of SIRT6 and its downstream genes. In summary, our findings demonstrate that hMOF participates in human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting SIRT6, and hMOF activators may serve as potential drug candidates for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy. PMID:25181338

  5. The Functional Analysis of Histone Acetyltransferase MOF in Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiaming; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yong; Jin, Jingji

    2016-01-01

    Changes in chromatin structure and heritably regulating the gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone post-translational modification, are involved in most cellular biological processes. Thus, abnormal regulation of epigenetics is implicated in the occurrence of various diseases, including cancer. Human MOF (males absent on the first) is a member of the MYST (Moz-Ybf2/Sas3-Sas2-Tip60) family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs). As a catalytic subunit, MOF can form at least two distinct multiprotein complexes (MSL and NSL) in human cells. Both complexes can acetylate histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16); however, the NSL complex possesses broader substrate specificity and can also acetylate histone H4 at lysines 5 and 8 (H4K5 and H4K8), suggesting the complexity of the intracellular functions of MOF. Silencing of MOF in cells leads to genomic instability, inactivation of gene transcription, defective DNA damage repair and early embryonic lethality. Unbalanced MOF expression and its corresponding acetylation of H4K16 have been found in certain primary cancer tissues, including breast cancer, medulloblastoma, ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, gastric cancer, as well as non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we provide a brief overview of MOF and its corresponding histone acetylation, introduce recent research findings that link MOF functions to tumorigenesis and speculate on the potential role that may be relevant to tumorigenic pathways. PMID:26784169

  6. Nitrergic ventro-medial medullary neurons activated during cholinergically induced active (rapid eye movement) sleep in the cat.

    PubMed

    Pose, I; Sampogna, S; Chase, M H; Morales, F R

    2011-01-13

    The rostral ventro-medial medullary reticular formation is a complex structure that is involved with a variety of motor functions. It contains glycinergic neurons that are activated during active (rapid eye movement (REM)) sleep (AS); these neurons appear to be responsible for the postsynaptic inhibition of motoneurons that occurs during this state. We have reported that neurons in this same region contain nitric oxide (NO) synthase and that they innervate brainstem motor pools. In the present study we examined the c-fos expression of these neurons after carbachol-induced active sleep (C-AS). Three control and four experimental cats were employed to identify c-fos expressing nitrergic neurons using immunocytochemical techniques to detect the Fos protein together with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase activity. The classical neurotransmitter content of the nitrergic cells in this region was examined through the combination of immunocytochemical techniques for the detection of glutamate, glycine, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxilase (TH) or GABA together with nNOS. During C-AS, there was a 1074% increase in the number of nitrergic neurons that expressed c-fos. These neurons did not contain glycine, ChAT, TH or GABA, but a subpopulation (15%) of them displayed glutamate-like immunoreactivity. Therefore, some of these neurons contain both an excitatory neurotransmitter (glutamate) and an excitatory neuromodulator (NO); the neurotransmitter content of the rest of them remains to be determined. Because some of the nitrergic neurons innervate brainstem motoneurons it is possible that they participate in the generation of tonic and excitatory phasic motor events that occur during AS. We also suggest that these nitrergic neurons may be involved in autonomic regulation during this state. In addition, because NO has trophic effects on target neurons, the present findings represent the

  7. [Feline leishmaniasis: what's the epidemiological role of the cat?].

    PubMed

    Mancianti, F

    2004-06-01

    Feline leishmaniasis (FL) is a quite uncommon feature. Clinical disease has been described in cats since nineties begin. More than 40 reports in world literature have been referred, but the clinical cases have been only recently well defined. Most of the reports focus on infected cats living in endemic areas, even if, more recently FL due to Leishmania infantum was found in Sao Paulo State, in Brazil where autochthonous human or canine leishmaniasis cases have never reported. In Europe clinical cases of FL have been described from Portugal, France, Spain and Italy from 1996 to 2002. When a typing of the etiological agent was performed L. infantum was identified in all reported cases. In some endemic areas serological surveys have also been carried out in cats, using IHAT in Egypt, Western blot in France or IFAT in Italy. Sixty Egyptian cats had low serological antibody titers, from 1/32 to 1/128, in the endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis of Alpes Maritimes 12 out of 97 (12.5%) cats showed antibodies versus antigens 14 and/or 18 kDa of L. infantum. A previous survey by means of IFAT in Liguria and Toscana on 110 and 158 feline sera respectively reports a seroprevalence of 0.9% with low titer, while sera from Sicily seem to be positive at higher dilutions. Animals living in an endemic area can develop specific antibodies against leishmania and, in our experience, they can be evidentiated by means of IFAT. The antibody titers appear to be lower in affected cats than in dogs, even if the number of clinical cases is very scanty. PCR tests on feline blood samples are in progress, but preliminary results confirm the presence of leishmania DNA in such specimens. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the more frequent form in cats and it was reported from several countries. Typical signs include nodular to ulcer or crusty lesions on the nose, lips, ears, eyelids, alopecia: clinical signs of cutaneous FL are unspecific and in endemic area this infection must be taken into account

  8. An aminoglycoside sensing riboswitch controls the expression of aminoglycoside resistance acetyltransferase and adenyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongrong; Murchie, Alastair I H

    2014-10-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens is an increasing threat to public health. The fundamental mechanisms that control the high levels of expression of antibiotic resistance genes are not yet completely understood. The aminoglycosides are one of the earliest classes of antibiotics that were introduced in the 1940s. In the clinic aminoglycoside resistance is conferred most commonly through enzymatic modification of the drug although resistance through enzymatic modification of the target rRNA through methylation or the overexpression of efflux pumps is also appearing. An aminoglycoside sensing riboswitch has been identified that controls expression of the aminoglycoside resistance genes that encode the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (AAC) and aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase (ANT) (adenyltransferase (AAD)) enzymes. AAC and ANT cause resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics through modification of the drugs. Expression of the AAC and ANT resistance genes is regulated by aminoglycoside binding to the 5' leader RNA of the aac/aad genes. The aminoglycoside sensing RNA is also associated with the integron cassette system that captures antibiotic resistance genes. Specific aminoglycoside binding to the leader RNA induces a structural transition in the leader RNA, and consequently induction of resistance protein expression. Reporter gene expression, direct measurements of drug RNA binding, chemical probing and UV cross-linking combined with mutational analysis demonstrated that the leader RNA functioned as an aminoglycoside sensing riboswitch in which drug binding to the leader RNA leads to the induction of aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Riboswitches. PMID:24631585

  9. Disubstituted naphthyl β-D-xylopyranosides: Synthesis, GAG priming, and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibition.

    PubMed

    Thorsheim, Karin; Persson, Andrea; Siegbahn, Anna; Tykesson, Emil; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Mani, Katrin; Ellervik, Ulf

    2016-04-01

    Xylosides are a group of compounds that can induce glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain synthesis independently of a proteoglycan core protein. We have previously shown that the xyloside 2-(6-hydroxynaphthyl)β-D-xylopyranoside has a tumor-selective growth inhibitory effect both in vitro and in vivo, and that the effect in vitro was correlated to a reduction in histone H3 acetylation. In addition, GAG chains have previously been reported to inhibit histone acetyltransferases (HAT). To investigate if xylosides, or the corresponding xyloside-primed GAG chains, can be used as HAT inhibitors, we have synthesized a series of naphthoxylosides carrying structural motifs similar to the aromatic moieties of the known HAT inhibitors garcinol and curcumin, and studied their biological activities. Here, we show that the disubstituted naphthoxylosides induced GAG chain synthesis, and that the ones with at least one free phenolic group exhibited moderate HAT inhibition in vitro, without affecting histone H3 acetylation in cell culture. The xyloside-primed GAG chains, on the other hand, had no effect on HAT activity, possibly explaining why the effect of the xylosides on histone H3 acetylation was absent in cell culture as the xylosides were recruited for GAG chain synthesis. Further investigations are required to find xylosides that are effective HAT inhibitors or xylosides producing GAG chains with HAT inhibitory effects. PMID:27023911

  10. Fungal Rtt109 Histone Acetyltransferase is an Unexpected Structural Homolog of Metazoan p300/CBP

    SciTech Connect

    Tang,Y.; Holbert, M.; Wurtele, H.; Meeth, K.; Rocha, W.; Gharib, M.; Jiang, E.; Thibault, P.; Verreault, A.; et al

    2008-01-01

    Rtt109, also known as KAT11, is a recently characterized fungal-specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that modifies histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56) to promote genome stability. Rtt109 does not show sequence conservation with other known HATs and depends on association with either of two histone chaperones, Asf1 or Vps75, for HAT activity. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of an Rtt109-acetyl coenzyme A complex and carry out structure-based mutagenesis, combined with in vitro biochemical studies of the Rtt109-Vps75 complex and studies of Rtt109 function in vivo. The Rtt109 structure reveals noteworthy homology to the metazoan p300/CBP HAT domain but exhibits functional divergence, including atypical catalytic properties and mode of cofactor regulation. The structure reveals a buried autoacetylated lysine residue that we show is also acetylated in the Rtt109 protein purified from yeast cells. Implications for understanding histone substrate and chaperone binding by Rtt109 are discussed.

  11. Implication of ornithine acetyltransferase activity on l-ornithine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ning; Mu, Jingrui; Hu, Nan; Xu, Sheng; Shen, Peng; Yan, Ming; Li, Yan; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    l-Ornithine is an intermediate of the l-arginine biosynthetic pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum. The effect of ornithine acetyltransferase (OATase; ArgJ) on l-ornithine production was investigated, and C. glutamicum 1006 was engineered to overproduce l-ornithine as a major product by inactivating regulatory repressor argR gene and overexpressing argJ gene. A genome sequence analysis indicated that the argF gene encoding ornithine carbamoyltransferase in C. glutamicum 1006 was mutated, resulting in the accumulation of a certain amount of l-ornithine (20.5 g/L). The assays using a crude extract of C. glutamicum 1006 indicated that the l-ornithine concentration for 50% inhibition of OAT was 5 mM. To enhance l-ornithine production, the argJ gene from C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 was overexpressed. In flask cultures, the resulting strain, C. glutamicum 1006∆argR-argJ, produced 31.6 g/L l-ornithine, which is 54.15% more than that produced by C. glutamicum 1006. The OAT activity of C. glutamicum 1006∆argR-argJ was significantly greater than that of C. glutamicum 1006, and this study achieved the highest conversion ratio of sugar to acid (0.396 g/g) compared with those of previous reports. ArgJ strongly influences the production of l-ornithine in C. glutamicum. PMID:25630515

  12. Acceptor substrate binding revealed by crystal structure of human glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Liu, Xiang; Liang, Yu-He; Li, Lan-Fen; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2008-09-01

    Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNA1) is a key enzyme in the pathway toward biosynthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, an important donor substrate for N-linked glycosylation. GNA1 catalyzes the formation of N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc6P) from acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) and the acceptor substrate GlcN6P. Here, we report crystal structures of human GNA1, including apo GNA1, the GNA1-GlcN6P complex and an E156A mutant. Our work showed that GlcN6P binds to GNA1 without the help of AcCoA binding. Structural analyses and mutagenesis studies have shed lights on the charge distribution in the GlcN6P binding pocket, and an important role for Glu156 in the substrate binding. Hence, these findings have broadened our knowledge of structural features required for the substrate affinity of GNA1. PMID:18675810

  13. N-Acetyltransferase 2 genotype, exfoliated urothelial cells and benzidine exposure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing-wen; Lin, Guo-fang; Chen, Ji-gang; Guo, Wei-Chao; Qin, Yi-qiu; Golka, Klaus; Shen, Jian-hua

    2012-01-01

    Most studies report an association of the slow N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) status with elevated bladder cancer risk. In this study, NAT2 genotypes and the decades-long records of Papanicolaou's grading of exfoliated urothelial cells in a former benzidine-exposed cohort of the Shanghai dyestuff industry (29 bladder cancer patients; 307 non-cancer cohort members, some of them presenting different grades of pre-malignant alterations of exfoliated urothelial cells) were investigated. The cohort members had been enrolled in regular medical surveillance since mid-1980s. No overall increase of slow NAT2 genotypes in the former benzidine-exposed bladder cancer patients was found, compared with non-diseased members of the same cohort. A lower presentation of the homozygous wild genotype NAT2 4/4 was observed in bladder cancer patients, compared with non-diseased members with averaged Papanicolaou's grading (APG)3 II (OR=0.31, 95 percent CI 0.10-0.96, p=0.034) or with APG less than II (OR=0.36,95 percent CI 0.12-1.10, p=0.063). Nevertheless, neither a protective influence of rapid NAT2 genotypes on bladder cancer risk nor on pre-malignant cytological alterations could be confirmed by the present data. PMID:22202012

  14. Retinal, pineal and diencephalic expression of frog arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase-1.

    PubMed

    Isorna, Esther; Besseau, Laurence; Boeuf, Gilles; Desdevises, Yves; Vuilleumier, Robin; Alonso-Gómez, Angel L; Delgado, María J; Falcón, Jack

    2006-06-27

    The arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is a key enzyme in the rhythmic production of melatonin. Two Aanats are expressed in Teleost fish (Aanat1 in the retina and Aanat2 in the pineal organ) but only Aanat1 is found in tetrapods. This study reports the cloning of Aanat1 from R. perezi. Transcripts were mainly expressed in the retina, diencephalon, intestine and testis. In the retina and pineal organ, Aanat1 expression was in the photoreceptor cells. Expression was also seen in ependymal cells of the 3rd ventricle and discrete cells of the suprachiasmatic area. The expression of Aanat1 in both the retina and pineal organ, and the absence of Aanat2 suggests that green frog resembles more to birds and mammals than to Teleost fish, as far as Aanat is concerned. The significance of Aanat1 in extra-pineal and extra-retinal tissues remains to be elucidated; in the diencephalon, it might be associated to the so-called deep brain photoreceptor cells. PMID:16687207

  15. Polyamine-regulated translation of spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Perez-Leal, Oscar; Barrero, Carlos A; Clarkson, Allen B; Casero, Robert A; Merali, Salim

    2012-04-01

    Rapid synthesis of the polyamine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine-N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) in response to increased polyamines is an important polyamine homeostatic mechanism. Indirect evidence has suggested that there is an important control mechanism involving the release of a translational repressor protein that allows the immediate initiation of SSAT protein synthesis without RNA transcription, maturation, or translocation. To identify a repressor protein, we used a mass spectroscopy-based RNA-protein interaction system and found six proteins that bind to the coding region of SSAT mRNA. Individual small interfering RNA (siRNA) experiments showed that nucleolin knockdown enhances SSAT translation. Nucleolin exists in several isoforms, and we report that the isoform that binds to SSAT mRNA undergoes autocatalysis in the presence of polyamines, a result suggesting that there is a negative feedback system that helps control the cellular content of polyamines. Preliminary molecular interaction data show that a nucleolin isoform binds to a 5' stem-loop of the coding region of SSAT mRNA. The glycine/arginine-rich C terminus of nucleolin is required for binding, and the four RNA recognition motif domains are included in the isoform that blocks SSAT translation. Understanding SSAT translational control mechanisms has the potential for the development of therapeutic strategies against cancer and obesity. PMID:22354986

  16. Microfluidic Mobility Shift Profiling of Lysine Acetyltransferases Enables Screening and Mechanistic Analysis of Cellular Acetylation Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sorum, Alexander W; Shrimp, Jonathan H; Roberts, Allison M; Montgomery, David C; Tiwari, Neil K; Lal-Nag, Madhu; Simeonov, Anton; Jadhav, Ajit; Meier, Jordan L

    2016-03-18

    Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) are critical regulators of signaling in many diseases, including cancer. A major challenge in establishing the targetable functions of KATs in disease is a lack of well-characterized, cell-active KAT inhibitors. To confront this challenge, here we report a microfluidic mobility shift platform for the discovery and characterization of small molecule KAT inhibitors. Novel fluorescent peptide substrates were developed for four well-known KAT enzymes (p300, Crebbp, Morf, and Gcn5). Enzyme-catalyzed acetylation alters the electrophoretic mobility of these peptides in a microfluidic chip, allowing facile and direct monitoring of KAT activity. A pilot screen was used to demonstrate the utility of microfluidic mobility shift profiling to identify known and novel modulators of KAT activity. Real-time kinetic monitoring of KAT activity revealed that garcinol, a natural product KAT inhibitor used in cellular studies, exhibits time-dependent and detergent-sensitive inhibition, consistent with an aggregation-based mechanism. In contrast, the cell-permeable bisubstrate inhibitor Tat-CoA exhibited potent and time-independent KAT inhibition, highlighting its potential utility as a cellular inhibitor of KAT activity. These studies define microfluidic mobility shift profiling as a powerful platform for the discovery and characterization of small molecule inhibitors of KAT activity, and provide mechanistic insights potentially important for the application of KAT inhibitors in cellular contexts. PMID:26428393

  17. Effect of maternal deprivation on N-acetyltransferase activity rhythm in blinded rat pups.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Yamazaki, K; Takahashi, K

    1998-02-15

    It has been reported that the rhythms of infant rats synchronize with the mother's rhythm until the light-dark cycle comes and has strong effects on their endogenous clocks. We found that periodic maternal deprivation (PMD) was able to cause a phase shift of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) in neonatal blinded rat pups. PMD in which contact with the mother was allowed for only 4 h caused a phase shift of NAT rhythm, irrespective of the timing of contact with the mother in a day. Acute single mother deprivation caused an excess of NAT activity for more hours than usual and contact with the mother prevented such an excessive response. Mother deprivation may act as a cold stress, since artificial warming of pups gave the same results as contact with the mother. When the pups were artificially warmed by a heater during a 1-week deprivation period, a flat 24-h pattern of NAT was observed. The mechanism causing a phase shift of NAT activity rhythm of rat pups may be complicated. PMID:9523895

  18. Assessment of left ventricular longitudinal function in cats with subclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    SUGIMOTO, Keisuke; FUJII, Yoko; SUNAHARA, Hiroshi; AOKI, Takuma

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in cats is characterized by concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and both diastolic and systolic dysfunction. Although impaired cardiac function detected by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in cats with HCM was previously reported, reference ranges of TDI in normal cats and cats with HCM have been reported as widely variable. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) was useful for assessment of cardiac function in human patients with HCM, but clinical utility was not known in cats. The aim of this study was to assess global and segmental LV myocardial function using STE in cats with HCM whose TDI variables were within the reference range. A total of 35 cats of different breeds were enrolled in this study. The HCM group (n=22) was cats diagnosed as HCM without left atrial enlargement and with normal TDI measurements. HCM cats were further divided into a segmental hypertrophy (S-HCM) group and a diffuse hypertrophy (D-HCM) group. The control group consisted of 13 clinically healthy cats. No cats in any group showed any clinical symptoms. Conventional echocardiography, TDI, and global and segmental STE indices were evaluated and compared between groups. Only the longitudinal strain rate during early diastole was significantly decreased in both HCM groups, even in all segments including those without hypertrophy in S-HCM group. This study suggests that STE parameters are the more sensitive variables compared with conventional TDI parameters to detect early myocardial diastolic dysfunction in cats with HCM. PMID:25877405

  19. Error Generation in CATS-Based Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd

    2003-01-01

    This research presents a methodology for generating errors from a model of nominally preferred correct operator activities, given a particular operational context, and maintaining an explicit link to the erroneous contextual information to support analyses. It uses the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) model as the basis for error generation. This report describes how the process works, and how it may be useful for supporting agent-based system safety analyses. The report presents results obtained by applying the error-generation process and discusses implementation issues. The research is supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention Element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  20. Feeders of Free-Roaming Cats: Personal Characteristics, Feeding Practices, and Data on Cat Health and Welfare in an Urban Setting of Israel

    PubMed Central

    Gunther, Idit; Raz, Tal; Even Zor, Yehonatan; Bachowski, Yuval; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRCs) and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR) campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices, and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to 5 cats, group 2: fed 6–10 cats, group 3: fed 11–20 cats, and group 4: fed ≥21 cats). Most feeders were women (81%), with a median age of 58 years (range 18–81). The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised 15.31% (n = 34) of all feeders but fed 56% (n = 1869) of the FRC in 37.42% (n = 128) of the feeding locations. “Heavy” feeders (groups 3 and 4) reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, “heavy” feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets, and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders’ reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337) cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337) were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337) of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337) suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337) had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337) were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity

  1. Feeders of Free-Roaming Cats: Personal Characteristics, Feeding Practices, and Data on Cat Health and Welfare in an Urban Setting of Israel.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Idit; Raz, Tal; Even Zor, Yehonatan; Bachowski, Yuval; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRCs) and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR) campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices, and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to 5 cats, group 2: fed 6-10 cats, group 3: fed 11-20 cats, and group 4: fed ≥21 cats). Most feeders were women (81%), with a median age of 58 years (range 18-81). The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised 15.31% (n = 34) of all feeders but fed 56% (n = 1869) of the FRC in 37.42% (n = 128) of the feeding locations. "Heavy" feeders (groups 3 and 4) reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, "heavy" feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets, and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders' reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337) cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337) were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337) of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337) suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337) had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337) were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity rate were

  2. Acquired retinal folds in the cat.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, A D

    1976-06-01

    Retinal folds were found in 5 cats. The apparent cause of the folding was varied: in 1 cat the folds appeared after a localized retinal detachment; in 2 cats the condition accompanied other intraocular abnormalities associated with feline infectious peritonitis; 1 cat had active keratitis, and the retinal changes were thought to have been injury related; and 1 cat, bilaterally affected, had chronic glomerulonephritis. PMID:945253

  3. Primary hypoadrenocorticism in ten cats.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M E; Greco, D S; Orth, D N

    1989-01-01

    Primary hypoadrenocorticism was diagnosed in ten young to middle-aged cats of mixed breeding. Five of the cats were male, and five were female. Historic signs included lethargy (n = 10), anorexia (n = 10), weight loss (n = 9), vomiting (n = 4), and polyuria (n = 3). Dehydration (n = 9), hypothermia (n = 8), prolonged capillary refill time (n = 5), weak pulse (n = 5), collapse (n = 3), and sinus bradycardia (n = 2) were found on physical examination. Results of initial laboratory tests revealed anemia (n = 3), absolute lymphocytosis (n = 2), absolute eosinophilia (n = 1), and azotemia and hyperphosphatemia (n = 10). Serum electrolyte changes included hyponatremia (n = 10), hyperkalemia (n = 9), hypochloremia (n = 9), and hypercalcemia (n = 1). The diagnosis of primary adrenocortical insufficiency was established on the basis of results of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests (n = 10) and endogenous plasma ACTH determinations (n = 7). Initial therapy for hypoadrenocorticism included intravenous administration of 0.9% saline and dexamethasone and intramuscular administration of desoxycorticosterone acetate in oil. Three cats were euthanatized shortly after diagnosis because of poor clinical response. Results of necropsy examination were unremarkable except for complete destruction of both adrenal cortices. Seven cats were treated chronically with oral prednisone or intramuscular methylprednisolone acetate for glucocorticoid supplementation and with oral fludrocortisone acetate or intramuscular injections of repository desoxycorticosterone pivalate for mineralocorticoid replacement. One cat died after 47 days of therapy from unknown causes; the other six cats are still alive and well after 3 to 70 months of treatment. PMID:2469793

  4. Feline hepatic biotransformation of diazepam: Differences between cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    van Beusekom, Cyrina D; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Koenderink, Jan B; Russel, Frans G M; Schrickx, Johannes A

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to humans and dogs, diazepam has been reported to induce severe hepatic side effects in cats, particularly after repeated dosing. With the aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this apparent sensitivity of cats to drug-induced liver injury, in a series of in vitro experiments, the feline-specific biotransformation of diazepam was studied with liver microsomes obtained from cats and dogs and the possible inhibition of the bile salt export pump (Bsep) was measured in isolated membrane vesicles overexpressing feline and canine Bsep. In line with previous in vivo studies, the phase I metabolites nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam were measurable in microsomal incubations, although enzyme velocity of demethylases and hydroxylases differed significantly between cats and dogs. In cats, the main metabolite was temazepam, which also could be glucuronidated. In contrast to dogs, no other glucuronidated metabolites could be observed. In addition, in the membrane vesicles an inhibition of the transport of the Bsep substrate taurocholic acid could be observed in the presence of diazepam and its metabolites. It was concluded that both mechanisms, the slow biotransformation of diazepam as well the inhibition of the bile acid efflux that results in an accumulation of bile acids in the hepatocytes, seem to contribute to the liver injury observed in cats following repetitive treatment with diazepam. PMID:26679806

  5. Adverse events in 50 cats with allergic dermatitis receiving ciclosporin.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Nicole A; McKeever, Patrick J; Eisenschenk, Melissa C

    2011-12-01

    Ciclosporin is an immunosuppressive drug that has been used to treat allergies and other immune-mediated diseases in cats, dogs and humans. Information about the adverse effects of ciclosporin in cats has been limited to smaller studies and case reports. Adverse effects in dogs are mainly gastrointestinal in nature, but humans can also experience hypertension and altered renal function. The aim of this retrospective case series study was to document the occurrence and clinical appearance of adverse events in cats receiving ciclosporin to treat allergic skin disease. The medical records of 50 cats with allergic dermatitis treated with oral ciclosporin (1.9-7.3 mg/kg/day) were reviewed. Adverse events occurred in 66% (33 cats). Adverse events likely to be associated with ciclosporin included the following: vomiting or diarrhoea within 1-8 weeks of receiving ciclosporin (24%), weight loss (16%), anorexia and subsequent hepatic lipidosis (2%) and gingival hyperplasia (2%). Other adverse events less likely to be associated with ciclosporin therapy included the following: weight gain (14%), dental tartar and gingivitis (10%), otitis (4%), chronic diarrhoea (4%), inflammatory bowel disease with indolent gastrointestinal lymphoma (2%), urinary tract infection (2%), cataract (2%), elevated liver enzymes (2%), hyperthyroidism and renal failure (2%) and transient inappropriate urination (2%). Some cats experienced multiple adverse events. Case-control studies are needed to prove cause and effect of ciclosporin with regard to these adverse events. PMID:21545660

  6. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in household cats in Korea and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Hee; Jeong, Young-Il; Kim, Jae-Young; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Lee, Sang-Eun

    2013-06-01

    Several epidemiological surveys have reported the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in stray cats in Korea, but little information is available on T. gondii infection in household cats. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of T. gondii infection among household cats reared in Seoul, Korea. A total of 474 blood samples were collected from clinically healthy household cats. All samples were tested using ELISA and PCR. The risk factor analysis was based on a questionnaire filled out by the owners. The overall positive rate for ELISA and PCR assays was 2.2% (10/437) and 2.1% (10/474), respectively. With regard to the origin of cats, the positive rates among cats adopted from the animal shelter and veterinary clinic for stray cats were significantly different (P<0.05). Our study demonstrated that the positive rate of T. gondii infection in household cats was low and that this low prevalence was assumed to be associated with keeping the cats indoors and restriction of eating raw food and uncooked meat. Therefore, we suggest that the owners check the origin of the cats prior to adoption to prevent infection of other animals, including humans. PMID:23864749

  7. An Acetyltransferase Conferring Tolerance to Toxic Aromatic Amine Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Marta; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dairou, Julien; Lamouri, Aazdine; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe; Dupret, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic amines (AA) are a major class of environmental pollutants that have been shown to have genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials toward most living organisms. Fungi are able to tolerate a diverse range of chemical compounds including certain AA and have long been used as models to understand general biological processes. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying this tolerance may improve our understanding of the adaptation of organisms to stressful environments and pave the way for novel pharmaceutical and/or biotechnological applications. We have identified and characterized two arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes (PaNAT1 and PaNAT2) from the model fungus Podospora anserina that acetylate a wide range of AA. Targeted gene disruption experiments revealed that PaNAT2 was required for the growth and survival of the fungus in the presence of toxic AA. Functional studies using the knock-out strains and chemically acetylated AA indicated that tolerance of P. anserina to toxic AA was due to the N-acetylation of these chemicals by PaNAT2. Moreover, we provide proof-of-concept remediation experiments where P. anserina, through its PaNAT2 enzyme, is able to detoxify the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline in experimentally contaminated soil samples. Overall, our data show that a single xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme can mediate tolerance to a major class of pollutants in a eukaryotic species. These findings expand the understanding of the role of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme and in particular of NATs in the adaptation of organisms to their chemical environment and provide a basis for new systems for the bioremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:19416981

  8. Structural Studies on a Glucosamine/Glucosaminide N-Acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Dopkins, Brandon J; Tipton, Peter A; Thoden, James B; Holden, Hazel M

    2016-08-16

    Glucosamine/glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase or GlmA catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl CoA to the primary amino group of glucosamine. The enzyme from Clostridium acetobutylicum is thought to be involved in cell wall rescue. In addition to glucosamine, GlmA has been shown to function on di- and trisaccharides of glucosamine as well. Here we present a structural and kinetic analysis of the enzyme. For this investigation, eight structures were determined to resolutions of 2.0 Å or better. The overall three-dimensional fold of GlmA places it into the tandem GNAT superfamily. Each subunit of the dimer folds into two distinct domains which exhibit high three-dimensional structural similarity. Whereas both domains bind acetyl CoA, it is the C-terminal domain that is catalytically competent. On the basis of the various structures determined in this investigation, two amino acid residues were targeted for further study: Asp 287 and Tyr 297. Although their positions in the active site suggested that they may play key roles in catalysis by functioning as active site bases and acids, respectively, this was not borne out by characterization of the D287N and Y297F variants. The kinetic properties revealed that both residues were important for substrate binding but had no critical roles as acid/base catalysts. Kinetic analyses also indicated that GlmA follows an ordered mechanism with acetyl CoA binding first followed by glucosamine. The product N-acetylglucosamine is then released prior to CoA. The investigation described herein provides significantly new information on enzymes belonging to the tandem GNAT superfamily. PMID:27348258

  9. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  10. Characterization of a Trypanosoma cruzi acetyltransferase: cellular location, activity and structure.

    PubMed

    Ochaya, Stephen; Respuela, Patricia; Simonsson, Maria; Saraswathi, Abhiman; Branche, Carole; Lee, Jennifer; Búa, Jacqueline; Nilsson, Daniel; Aslund, Lena; Bontempi, Esteban J; Andersson, Björn

    2007-04-01

    Trypanosomatids are widespread parasites that cause three major tropical diseases. In trypanosomatids, as in most other organisms, acetylation is a common protein modification that is important in multiple, diverse processes. This paper describes a new member of the Trypanosoma cruzi acetyltransferase family. The gene is single copy and orthologs are also present in the other two sequenced trypanosomatids, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania major. This protein (TcAT-1) has the essential motifs present in members of the GCN5-related acetyltransferase (GNAT) family, as well as an additional motif also found in some enzymes from plant and animal species. The protein is evolutionarily more closely related to this group of enzymes than to histone acetyltransferases. The native protein has a cytosolic cellular location and is present in all three life-cycle stages of the parasite. The recombinant protein was shown to have autoacetylation enzymatic activity. PMID:17270289

  11. Co-infection with Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' in three cats from Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Helio A; Guimarães, Ana Marcia S; Vidotto, Odilon; Baumann, Aline; Biondo, Alexander W; Messick, Joanne B

    2007-12-01

    The two most common haemotropic Mycoplasma of cats, Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' have been identified using molecular techniques in all continents, except Antarctica. We report the first molecular characterization in South America of a dual infection with M haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' in three domestic cats. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified in three anaemic cats in which haemoplasma organisms were seen attached to the erythrocytes in the peripheral blood smear. Bands of the expected size for M haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' were observed in all three cats. The 393 bp segment of one of the amplicons had a similarity value of 100% to M haemofelis, whereas the other amplicon, a 192 bp segment, was 100% similar to 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum'. After diagnosis, two cats received blood transfusion and they were all treated with doxycycline. All three cats recovered uneventfully. PMID:17693111

  12. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  13. The Endoplasmic Reticulum-based Acetyltransferases, ATase1 and ATase2, Associate with the Oligosaccharyltransferase to Acetylate Correctly Folded Polypeptides*

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yun; Dellisanti, Cosma D.; Ko, Mi Hee; Czajkowski, Cynthia; Puglielli, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has two membrane-bound acetyltransferases responsible for the endoluminal Nϵ-lysine acetylation of ER-transiting and -resident proteins. Mutations that impair the ER-based acetylation machinery are associated with developmental defects and a familial form of spastic paraplegia. Deficient ER acetylation in the mouse leads to defects of the immune and nervous system. Here, we report that both ATase1 and ATase2 form homo- and heterodimers and associate with members of the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex. In contrast to the OST, the ATases only modify correctly folded polypetides. Collectively, our studies suggest that one of the functions of the ATases is to work in concert with the OST and “select” correctly folded from unfolded/misfolded transiting polypeptides. PMID:25301944

  14. Assessment of five formulae to predict post-transfusion packed cell volume in cats.

    PubMed

    Reed, Nicki; Espadas, Irene; Lalor, Stephanie M; Kisielewicz, Caroline

    2014-08-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify the most accurate formula for estimating the increase in packed cell volume (PCV) after whole blood transfusion of cats, as several formulae have been reported but not validated. Forty cats, of varying breeds and gender, were included from two referral institutions after database searches over a 13 year period. Five formulae were used to calculate an estimated post-transfusion PCV based on the re-working of formulae for determining the volume of donor blood to be transfused; three formulae were derived from those previously reported in the feline literature and two from human paediatric medicine, where a similar mean blood volume has been described. Cats were subdivided into two groups, the first consisting of 17 cats with non-regenerative anaemia and the second consisting of 23 cats with ongoing losses such as haemolysis and haemorrhage; it was hypothesised that formulae could be more accurate for group 1 cats, whereas formulae applied to group 2 cats could have overestimated the post-transfusion PCV. Bland-Altman analysis was performed for all cats to compare the actual increase in PCV with the calculated increase for the five formulae. Formula 1 (PCV % increase = volume of blood transfused in ml/2 × bodyweight in kg) performed best overall and is easy to calculate; however, no single formula was highly accurate at predicting the PCV increase after whole blood transfusion in cats and, owing to the wide confidence intervals, these formulae should be applied judiciously in the clinical setting. PMID:24393778

  15. Dermatitis caused by Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea) in human

    PubMed Central

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Ebrahimpour, Soheil; Rezaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Rakhshanpour, Arash; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human infestation to ectoparasites such as ticks, lice, cimex, fleas, mites and others agents may result in intensive allergic reaction with symptoms of itching, skin infection and severe irritation. In this case report, we present a case of dermatitis caused by cat flea. Case presentation: A three-member family referred to dermatology clinic in Babol due to dermal complications. They complained of irritation and the unrest caused by intense itching. Samples of tiny live insects were detected from their clothing which was recognized as C. felis (cat flea). Conclusion: This report highlights the importance of ectoparasites causing dermatitis. PMID:25489439

  16. Genetic testing in domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat’s appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat’s genome. PMID:22546621

  17. Osteochondrodysplasia in three Scottish Fold cats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinhwa; Jung, Joohyun; Oh, Sunkyoung; Lee, Sungok; Kim, Gyeongmin; Kim, Haksang; Kweon, Ohkyeong; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Mincheol

    2007-09-01

    This report explains typical radiographic features of Scottish Fold osteochondrodysplasia. Three Scottish Fold cats suffering from lameness were referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Seoul National University, Korea. Based on the breed predisposition, history, clinical signs, physical examination, and radiographic findings, Scottish Fold osteochondrodysplasia was confirmed in three cases. Radiographic changes mainly included exostosis and secondary arthritis around affected joint lesions, and defective conformation in the phalanges and caudal vertebrae. The oral chondroprotective agents such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate make the patients alleviate their pain without adverse effects. PMID:17679781

  18. Surveillance of upper respiratory tract disease in owned cats in Australia, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Wong, W T; Kelman, M; Ward, M P

    2013-10-01

    Reported cases of feline upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) - presumptively diagnosed as feline herpesvirus (FHV) or feline calicivirus (FCV) - throughout Australia (2010-2012) were obtained from Disease WatchDog, a companion animal disease surveillance system. This surveillance system is based on voluntary reporting of cases by veterinarians, using a web-based program. Animal factors, location and vaccination information are also reported. Cases reported were mapped and seasonal patterns were described. A total of 131 FHV cases and 120 FCV cases were reported. Excluding euthanasia, case fatality rates were 1.12% and 1.28%, respectively. The largest proportion of cases was reported in winter. Young cats (≤ 2 years), intact cats, unvaccinated cats and (for FHV) male cats appeared to be over-represented in the cases reported. The distributions of cases reported in this surveillance system provide information to aid the diagnosis of infectious feline URTD and to develop client educational programs. PMID:23910025

  19. Beyond the Distributional Input? A Developmental Investigation of Asymmetry in Infants' Categorization of Cats and Dogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furrer, Stephanie D.; Younger, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments are reported using a visual familiarization categorization procedure. In both experiments, infants were familiarized with sets of stimuli previously shown to contain asymmetric feature distributions that support an asymmetry in young infants' categorization of cats and dogs (i.e. infants' cat category excludes dogs but their dog…

  20. Pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection in a Canadian cat.

    PubMed

    Knight, Cameron G; Davies, Jennifer L; Joseph, Tomy; Ondrich, Sarah; Rosa, Brielle V

    2016-05-01

    A cat was presented for necropsy after being found dead at home. Histologic findings suggested viral pneumonia. Polymerase chain reaction and viral typing revealed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. This is the first report of influenza in a Canadian cat and highlights the importance of considering influenza virus in the differential diagnosis for feline respiratory distress. PMID:27152036

  1. A Novel Assay Platform for the Detection of Translation Modulators of Spermidine/Spermine Acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Leal, Oscar; Abou-Gharbia, Magid; Gordon, John; Childers, Wayne E.; Merali, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) is a mitochondrial-localized enzyme that is highly inducible and tightly controlled and is the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine catabolism. It is known that SSAT is induced when polyamine level increases. Although multiple mechanisms have been implicated, translational control is thought to be paramount. Previous studies with transgenic and knockout mice suggested that for certain human conditions, the modulation of SSAT levels could offer therapeutic benefits. Besides polyamines and their analogs, certain stimuli can increase SSAT levels, suggesting that the development of reporters for high throughput screening can lead to the identification of novel pharmacophores that can modulate SSAT translation. Here we report the development and validation of a luciferase-based biosensor system for the identification of compounds that are able to either promote or prevent the translation of SSAT. The system uses HEK293T cells transfected with a construct composed of SSAT mRNA modified to lack upstream open reading frame (uORF) function, is mutated to reduce translational repression and is linked with luciferase. As a proof of principle of the utility of the SSAT translation sensor, we screened the Prestwick drug library (1,200 FDA Approved compounds). The library contained 14 compounds that activated SSAT translation by at least 40% more than the basal expression, but none exceeded the positive control N1, N11-diethylnorspermine. On the other hand, 38 compounds were found to strongly inhibit SSAT translation. We conclude that this biosensor can lead to the identification of novel pharmacophores that are able to modulate the translation of SSAT. PMID:23701549

  2. Spatial Stream Segregation by Cats.

    PubMed

    Javier, Lauren K; McGuire, Elizabeth A; Middlebrooks, John C

    2016-06-01

    Listeners can perceive interleaved sequences of sounds from two or more sources as segregated streams. In humans, physical separation of sound sources is a major factor enabling such stream segregation. Here, we examine spatial stream segregation with a psychophysical measure in domestic cats. Cats depressed a pedal to initiate a target sequence of brief sound bursts in a particular rhythm and then released the pedal when the rhythm changed. The target bursts were interleaved with a competing sequence of bursts that could differ in source location but otherwise were identical to the target bursts. This task was possible only when the sources were heard as segregated streams. When the sound bursts had broad spectra, cats could detect the rhythm change when target and competing sources were separated by as little as 9.4°. Essentially equal levels of performance were observed when frequencies were restricted to a high, 4-to-25-kHz, band in which the principal spatial cues presumably were related to sound levels. When the stimulus band was restricted from 0.4 to 1.6 kHz, leaving interaural time differences as the principal spatial cue, performance was severely degraded. The frequency sensitivity of cats in this task contrasts with that of humans, who show better spatial stream segregation with low- than with high-frequency sounds. Possible explanations for the species difference includes the smaller interaural delays available to cats due to smaller sizes of their heads and the potentially greater sound-level cues available due to the cat's frontally directed pinnae and higher audible frequency range. PMID:26993807

  3. Treatment with Suprelorin in a pregnant cat.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Georgiev, Plamen; Atanasov, Anatoli; Wehrend, Axel

    2013-04-01

    Suppression of oestrus is of major interest in feral cat populations, but also in breeding queens temporarily not intended for breeding. Slow release gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist implants are a new off-label approach for reproduction control in cats. However, initially, oestrus induction may occur and no data exist regarding what happens if previously mated queens are treated. This case report presents a queen mismated 9 and 8 days before treatment with a 4.7 mg deslorelin implant. The queen delivered four healthy kittens 66 days after mismating, but showed no interest in the kittens and lactation was not adequate. Progesterone and oestradiol concentrations were monitored and the queen was followed until the return of oestrus and subsequent breeding. The next oestrus was observed 498 days after treatment and the queen was mated in the second oestrus afterwards, became pregnant and delivered two healthy kittens, both of which were raised successfully by the queen. This case report clearly shows that pregnancy following a GnRH-agonist implant may go to term, but maternal care might be influenced owing to hormonal changes induced by treatment. In addition, this is the first report demonstrating reversibility of effects induced by long-term treatment with a deslorelin implant (return to oestrus, fertility and normal maternal care). PMID:23186637

  4. Entrainment of the circadian rhythm in the rat pineal N-acetyltransferase activity by prolonged periods of light.

    PubMed

    Illnerová, H; Vanĕcek, J

    1987-08-01

    Entertainment of the circadian rhythm in the pineal N-acetyltranferase activity by prolonged periods of light was studied in rats synchronized with a light:dark regime of 12:12 h by observing phase-shifts in rhythm after delays in switching off the light in the evening or after bringing forward of the morning onset of light. When rats were subjected to delays in switching off the light of up to 10 h and then were released into darkness, phase-delays of the evening N-acetyltransferase rise during the same night corresponded roughly to delays in the light switch off. However, phase-delays of the morning decline were much smaller. After a delay in the evening switch off of 11 h, no N-acetyltransferase rhythm was found in the subsequent darkness. The evening N-acetyltransferase rise was phase-delayed by 6.2 h at most 1 day after delays. Phase-delays of the morning N-acetyltransferase decline were shorter than phase-delays of the N-acetyltransferase rise by only 0.7 h to 0.9 h at most. Hence, 1 day after delays in the evening switch off, the period of the high night N-acetyltransferase activity may be shortened only slightly. The N-acetyltransferase rhythm was abolished only after a 12 h delay in switching off the light. Rats were subjected to a bringing forward of the morning light onset and then were released into darkness 4 h before the usual switch off of light. In the following night, the morning N-acetyltransferase decline, but not the evening rise, was phase advanced considerably. Moreover, when the onset of light was brought forward to before midnight, the N-acetyltransferase rise was even phase-delayed. Hence, 1 day after bringing forward the morning onset of light, the period of the high night N-acetyltransferase activity may be drastically reduced. When rats were subjected to a 4 h light pulse around midnight and then released into darkness, the N-acetyltransferase rhythm in the next night was abolished. The data are discussed in terms of a two

  5. The paradox of Schrodinger's cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villars, C. N.

    1986-07-01

    Erwin Schrodinger first described the thought-experiment which has since become known as 'the paradox of Schrodinger's cat' 51 years ago. In recent years, popular accounts of quantum mechanics have tended to adopt one or other of the philosophically most extreme solutions to this paradox, i.e. the consciousness hypothesis or the many worlds interpretation. The author attempts to redress the balance by describing what he takes to be the orthodox solution to the paradox which explains the paradox, without recourse to such counterintuitive notions as a cat simultaneously dead and alive or a universe continually splitting into multiple worlds, as being due to a misapplication of the quantum formalism.

  6. Unusual hyperparathyroidism in a cat.

    PubMed

    Gnudi, G; Bertoni, G; Luppi, A; Cantoni, A M

    2001-01-01

    A 5 month-old, male, domestic short hair cat was presented with inappetence and vomiting. it was depressed and reluctant to move. The cat had difficulties in keeping the standing position and grossly deformed thighs. Lytic changes and disruption of normal architecture of the bone were observed, involving mainly the femoral diaphyses. An inverse Ca/P ratio and kidney failure were diagnosed. The possibility of whether the bone changes could have been related to primary or secondary renal hyperparathyroidism is discussed. PMID:11405269

  7. The Candida albicans Histone Acetyltransferase Hat1 Regulates Stress Resistance and Virulence via Distinct Chromatin Assembly Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tscherner, Michael; Zwolanek, Florian; Jenull, Sabrina; Sedlazeck, Fritz J.; Petryshyn, Andriy; Frohner, Ingrid E.; Mavrianos, John; Chauhan, Neeraj; von Haeseler, Arndt; Kuchler, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Human fungal pathogens like Candida albicans respond to host immune surveillance by rapidly adapting their transcriptional programs. Chromatin assembly factors are involved in the regulation of stress genes by modulating the histone density at these loci. Here, we report a novel role for the chromatin assembly-associated histone acetyltransferase complex NuB4 in regulating oxidative stress resistance, antifungal drug tolerance and virulence in C. albicans. Strikingly, depletion of the NuB4 catalytic subunit, the histone acetyltransferase Hat1, markedly increases resistance to oxidative stress and tolerance to azole antifungals. Hydrogen peroxide resistance in cells lacking Hat1 results from higher induction rates of oxidative stress gene expression, accompanied by reduced histone density as well as subsequent increased RNA polymerase recruitment. Furthermore, hat1Δ/Δ cells, despite showing growth defects in vitro, display reduced susceptibility to reactive oxygen-mediated killing by innate immune cells. Thus, clearance from infected mice is delayed although cells lacking Hat1 are severely compromised in killing the host. Interestingly, increased oxidative stress resistance and azole tolerance are phenocopied by the loss of histone chaperone complexes CAF-1 and HIR, respectively, suggesting a central role for NuB4 in the delivery of histones destined for chromatin assembly via distinct pathways. Remarkably, the oxidative stress phenotype of hat1Δ/Δ cells is a species-specific trait only found in C. albicans and members of the CTG clade. The reduced azole susceptibility appears to be conserved in a wider range of fungi. Thus, our work demonstrates how highly conserved chromatin assembly pathways can acquire new functions in pathogenic fungi during coevolution with the host. PMID:26473952

  8. Structural and functional analysis of the yeast N-acetyltransferase Mpr1 involved in oxidative stress tolerance via proline metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nasuno, Ryo; Hirano, Yoshinori; Itoh, Takafumi; Hakoshima, Toshio; Hibi, Takao; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-07-16

    Mpr1 (sigma1278b gene for proline-analog resistance 1), which was originally isolated as N-acetyltransferase detoxifying the proline analog L-azetidine-2-carboxylate, protects yeast cells from various oxidative stresses. Mpr1 mediates the L-proline and L-arginine metabolism by acetylating L-Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, leading to the L-arginine-dependent production of nitric oxide, which confers oxidative stress tolerance. Mpr1 belongs to the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily, but exhibits poor sequence homology with the GNAT enzymes and unique substrate specificity. Here, we present the X-ray crystal structure of Mpr1 and its complex with the substrate cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline at 1.9 and 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. Mpr1 is folded into α/β-structure with eight-stranded mixed β-sheets and six α-helices. The substrate binds to Asn135 and the backbone amide of Asn172 and Leu173, and the predicted acetyl-CoA-binding site is located near the backbone amide of Phe138 and the side chain of Asn178. Alanine substitution of Asn178, which can interact with the sulfur of acetyl-CoA, caused a large reduction in the apparent kcat value. The replacement of Asn135 led to a remarkable increase in the apparent Km value. These results indicate that Asn178 and Asn135 play an important role in catalysis and substrate recognition, respectively. Such a catalytic mechanism has not been reported in the GNAT proteins. Importantly, the amino acid substitutions in these residues increased the L-Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate level in yeast cells exposed to heat stress, indicating that these residues are also crucial for its physiological functions. These studies provide some benefits of Mpr1 applications, such as the breeding of industrial yeasts and the development of antifungal drugs. PMID:23818613

  9. Secnidazole for the treatment of giardiasis in naturally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Castro, Verônica S P; Tonin, Alexandre A; Brendler, Sabrina; Costa, Marcio M; Jaques, Jeandre A; Bertoletti, Bianca; Zanette, Régis A; Raiser, Alceu G; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Lopes, Sonia T A; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2011-12-01

    Giardia duodenalis causes enteric infections in humans and animals worldwide. Inefficiency of metronidazole is commonly reported in the veterinary clinic routine in the treatment of giardiasis in dogs and cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of secnidazole in the control of infection caused by G. duodenalis in naturally infected cats. For this purpose two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment seven cats were infected with G. duodenalis and treated orally with a single dose of secnidazole (30 mg kg(-1)). In the second experiment a total of 16 cats were used, 11 naturally infected with G. duodenalis and five negative for the parasite. Animals were divided into three groups: group A (n=5) was composed by non-infected animals (negative control), group B (n=5) consisted of infected but untreated animals and group C (n=6) was composed by cats treated orally with a single dose of secnidazole (30 mg kg(-1)). Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before and after treatment. The first experiment reached 100% of efficacy because no cysts were found in the feces after treatment. However, doubts about intoxication and interference with hematological and biochemical parameters came to light. No side effects were observed, and the biochemical and hematological parameters of treated animals remained within physiological range, except for one feline which had elevation of liver enzymes. Based on these results, the utilization of secnidazole could be suggested for the treatment of giardiasis in cats. The main advantage of this treatment is that only a single dose is required, which is interesting in animals hard to handle like cats. PMID:21763779

  10. l-Methionine sulfoximine, but not phosphinothricin, is a substrate for an acetyltransferase (gene PA4866) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: structural and functional studies.

    PubMed

    Davies, Anna M; Tata, Renée; Beavil, Rebecca L; Sutton, Brian J; Brown, Paul R

    2007-02-20

    The gene PA4866 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is documented in the Pseudomonas genome database as encoding a 172 amino acid hypothetical acetyltransferase. We and others have described the 3D structure of this protein (termed pita) [Davies et al. (2005) Proteins: Struct., Funct., Bioinf. 61, 677-679; Nocek et al., unpublished results], and structures have also been reported for homologues from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rajashankar et al., unpublished results) and Bacillus subtilis [Badger et al. (2005) Proteins: Struct., Funct., Bioinf. 60, 787-796]. Pita homologues are found in a large number of bacterial genomes, and while the majority of these have been assigned putative phosphinothricin acetyltransferase activity, their true function is unknown. In this paper we report that pita has no activity toward phosphinothricin. Instead, we demonstrate that pita acts as an acetyltransferase using the glutamate analogues l-methionine sulfoximine and l-methionine sulfone as substrates, with Km(app) values of 1.3 +/- 0.21 and 1.3 +/- 0.13 mM and kcat(app) values of 505 +/- 43 and 610 +/- 23 s-1 for l-methionine sulfoximine and l-methionine sulfone, respectively. A high-resolution (1.55 A) crystal structure of pita in complex with one of these substrates (l-methionine sulfoximine) has been solved, revealing the mode of its interaction with the enzyme. Comparison with the apoenzyme structure has also revealed how certain active site residues undergo a conformational change upon substrate binding. To investigate the role of pita in P. aeruginosa, a mutant strain, Depp4, in which pita was inactivated through an in-frame deletion, was constructed by allelic exchange. Growth of strain Depp4 in the absence of glutamine was inhibited by l-methionine sulfoximine, suggesting a role for pita in protecting glutamine synthetase from inhibition. PMID:17253769

  11. Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cats with diarrhea from densely housed origins.

    PubMed

    Arranz-Solís, David; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana; Miró, Guadalupe; Rojo-Montejo, Silvia; Hernández, Leticia; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Collantes-Fernández, Esther

    2016-05-15

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a protozoan parasite that has been recently identified as a causative agent of chronic diarrhea in domestic cats. Transmission of infection occurs by the fecal-oral route through direct contact among animals. Consequently, feline trichomonosis (FT) is more likely to be present in multi-cat environments. The objective of this work was to study the presence of T. foetus and some associated risk factors in cats from densely housed origins and with a reported history of chronic diarrhea. Animals enrolled in this study were family cats (n=15) acquired from pet shops, shelters or breeding centers and cattery cats belonging to one breeding center (n=28) and two cat shelters (A and B, n=25 each). In the catteries, a follow-up analysis for a period of up to 2 months was also performed to determine the parasite shedding pattern in feces and the incidence of infection. Fecal samples were analyzed using in vitro culture and a PCR technique. T. foetus was detected in a total of 38.7% (36/93) of the cats with chronic diarrhea. Parasite infection was similarly detected in family cats and cattery animals (40% versus 38.4%). In the catteries, the parasite was detected in 50%, 44% and 20% of the animals from the breeding center and shelters A and B, respectively. The follow-up analysis showed that 58.3% of infected cats intermittently shed trophozoites in their feces, with an incidence of 23.1%. Investigation of potential risk factors showed that cats ≤1 year old were more likely to be infected than older cats (57.1% versus 27.3%; P<0.05). No significant differences were found when sex and breed factors were studied. These results confirm the importance of FT as a cause of chronic diarrhea in cats and highlight the relevance of close contact conditions for T. foetus transmission. PMID:27084482

  12. Lethal outbreak of disease associated with feline calicivirus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P; Jones, B R D; Kipar, A; Chantrey, J; Porter, C J; Barber, P J; Dawson, S; Gaskell, R M; Radford, A D

    2006-04-22

    Recently, in the USA, virulent mutants of feline calicivirus (FCV) have been identified as the cause of a severe and acute virulent systemic disease, characterised by jaundice, oedema and high mortality in groups of cats. This severe manifestation of FCV disease has so far only been reported in the USA. However, in 2003, an outbreak of disease affected a household of four adult cats and an adult cat from a neighbouring household in the UK. Three of the adult cats in the household and the neighbouring cat developed clinical signs including pyrexia (39.5 to 40.5 degrees C), lameness, voice loss, inappetence and jaundice. One cat was euthanased in extremis, two died and one recovered. A postmortem examination of one of the cats revealed focal cellulitis around the right hock and right elbow joints. The principal finding of histopathological examinations of selected organs from two of the cats was disseminated hepatocellular necrosis with mild inflammatory infiltration. Immunohistology identified FCV antigen in parenchymal and Kupffer cells in the liver of both animals and in alveolar macrophages of one of them. In addition, calicivirus-like particles were observed by electron microscopy within the hepatocytes of one cat. FCV was isolated from two of the dead cats and from the two surviving cats. Sequence analysis showed that they were all infected with the same strain of virus, but that it was different from strains of FCV associated with the virulent systemic disease in cats in the USA. The outbreak was successfully controlled by quarantine in the owner's house. PMID:16632527

  13. A serological study of Dirofilaria immitis in feral cats in Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, C; Chikweto, A; Mofya, S; Lanum, L; Flynn, P; Burnett, J P; Doherty, D; Sharma, R N

    2010-12-01

    A study to determine the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis was carried out in feral cats in Grenada. Of the 137 feral cats tested for circulating antibodies (IgG; lateral-flow immunoassay) and circulating antigens (Ag; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-12.5%) were antibody positive and 5.1% (95% CI 1.4-8.8%) were antigen positive. No significant difference between cats aged>1 to 4 years and cats less than 1 year of age was found (P>0.05, χ²). There was also no significant difference (P>0.05, χ²) between male and female cats. Dirofilaria immitis prevalence is relatively high in the feral cat population of Grenada. Evidence of D. immitis infection in feral cats coupled with the endemic nature of heartworm disease in dogs in Grenada leads us to suggest the introduction of heartworm prophylaxis in cats. To the authors' knowledge, this serological evidence of heartworm infection in feral cats in Grenada is the first report from the Caribbean region. PMID:20144260

  14. Observed occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus and other enteric parasites in Australian cattery and shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Bissett, Sally A; Stone, Maria L; Malik, Richard; Norris, Jacqueline M; O'Brien, Carolyn; Mansfield, Caroline S; Nicholls, Julia M; Griffin, Alison; Gookin, Jody L

    2009-10-01

    Cattery-housed pedigree cats, located mostly within the USA, have the highest reported prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus (T foetus) to date. This prospective, multi-institutional, cross sectional study examines the occurrence of T foetus and other enteric parasites in cattery-housed and shelter cats within Australia, where T foetus has only recently been identified. Faecal specimens were collected from 134 cats, including 82 cattery-housed pedigree cats and 52 shelter cats. Faecal examinations performed for most cats included concentration techniques, Snap Giardia test, culture in InPouch medium, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of T foetus ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) genes using species-specific primers. Observed occurrence of T foetus, Giardia species, Isospora species and Toxascaris leonina for cattery-housed cats (and catteries) were 0%, 7.4 (13.8)%, 10.9 (22.6)% and 1.6 (3.2)%, respectively. Observed occurrence of T foetus, Giardia species, Isospora species and hookworms for shelter cats were 0%, 11.5%, 9.8% and 4.9%, respectively. These results suggest the prevalence of T foetus in cattery-housed cats is currently much lower in Australia than in the USA, while Isospora and Giardia species infections are common. PMID:19285895

  15. Osteoma of the oral and maxillofacial regions in cats: 7 cases (1999-2009).

    PubMed

    Fiani, Nadine; Arzi, Boaz; Johnson, Eric G; Murphy, Brian; Verstraete, Frank J M

    2011-06-01

    Objective-To describe clinical features of oral and maxillofacial osteomas in cats. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-7 cats with oral or maxillofacial osteoma or both. Procedures-Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, history, clinical signs, physical examination findings, diagnostic imaging findings, results of serum biochemical analyses and histologic testing, surgical procedures performed, and perioperative complications. Outcome was determined on the basis of follow-up telephone interviews of owners. Results-Cats ranged from 1 to 23 years of age. Clinical signs were observed in 5 cats and were attributed to the presence of the mass. Diagnostic imaging (radiography and computed tomography) and histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteoma. Three cats were euthanatized; 1 cat was treated by mandibulectomy, 1 was treated by maxillectomy, and 2 were treated by debulking. At the time of follow-up at least 1 year after surgery, all 4 treated cats were alive, with owners reporting an acceptable quality of life. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Osteoma of the oral and maxillofacial regions is an uncommon tumor in cats. Most cats are examined during an advanced stage of the disease, when treatment options may be limited. Although osteoma is a benign tumor, the recommendation is to perform a clinical evaluation, diagnostic imaging, biopsy, and treatment early in the disease process, when less invasive surgical approaches may be feasible. PMID:21627511

  16. Comparative investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family among fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes well-characterized in several bacteria and higher eukaryotes. The role of NATs in fungal biology has only recently been investigated. The NAT1 gene of Gibberella moniliformis was the first NAT cloned and characterized from fun...

  17. Structure of soybean serine acetyltransferase and formation of the cysteine regulatory complex as a molecular chaperone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) catalyzes the limiting reaction in plant and microbial biosynthesis of cysteine. In addition to its enzymatic function, SAT forms a macromolecular complex with O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS). Formation of the cysteine regulatory complex (CRC) is a critical biochem...

  18. Unintended Consequences: High phosphinothricin acetyltransferase activity causes reduced fitness in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selectable markers used in plant transformation, such as phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) derived from the bar gene, have been chosen for selection efficacy as well as for the absence of pleiotropic effects. Recent research has suggested that expression of bar in Arabidopsis affects the tran...

  19. AAC(3)-XI, a new aminoglycoside 3-N-acetyltransferase from Corynebacterium striatum.

    PubMed

    Galimand, Marc; Fishovitz, Jennifer; Lambert, Thierry; Barbe, Valérie; Zajicek, Jaroslav; Mobashery, Shahriar; Courvalin, Patrice

    2015-09-01

    Corynebacterium striatum BM4687 was resistant to gentamicin and tobramycin but susceptible to kanamycin A and amikacin, a phenotype distinct among Gram-positive bacteria. Analysis of the entire genome of this strain did not detect any genes for known aminoglycoside resistance enzymes. Yet, annotation of the coding sequences identified 12 putative acetyltransferases or GCN5-related N-acetyltransferases. A total of 11 of these coding sequences were also present in the genomes of other Corynebacterium spp. The 12th coding sequence had 55 to 60% amino acid identity with acetyltransferases in Actinomycetales. The gene was cloned in Escherichia coli, where it conferred resistance to aminoglycosides by acetylation. The protein was purified to homogeneity, and its steady-state kinetic parameters were determined for dibekacin and kanamycin B. The product of the turnover of dibekacin was purified, and its structure was elucidated by high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), indicating transfer of the acetyl group to the amine at the C-3 position. Due to the unique profile of the reaction, it was designated aminoglycoside 3-N-acetyltransferase type XI. PMID:26149994

  20. Phylogenetic and biological investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family among fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes well-characterized in several bacteria and eukaryotic organisms. The role of NATs in fungal biology has only recently been investigated. The NAT1 (FDB2) gene of Fusarium verticillioides was the first NAT cloned and character...

  1. AAC(3)-XI, a New Aminoglycoside 3-N-Acetyltransferase from Corynebacterium striatum

    PubMed Central

    Galimand, Marc; Fishovitz, Jennifer; Lambert, Thierry; Barbe, Valérie; Zajicek, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium striatum BM4687 was resistant to gentamicin and tobramycin but susceptible to kanamycin A and amikacin, a phenotype distinct among Gram-positive bacteria. Analysis of the entire genome of this strain did not detect any genes for known aminoglycoside resistance enzymes. Yet, annotation of the coding sequences identified 12 putative acetyltransferases or GCN5-related N-acetyltransferases. A total of 11 of these coding sequences were also present in the genomes of other Corynebacterium spp. The 12th coding sequence had 55 to 60% amino acid identity with acetyltransferases in Actinomycetales. The gene was cloned in Escherichia coli, where it conferred resistance to aminoglycosides by acetylation. The protein was purified to homogeneity, and its steady-state kinetic parameters were determined for dibekacin and kanamycin B. The product of the turnover of dibekacin was purified, and its structure was elucidated by high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), indicating transfer of the acetyl group to the amine at the C-3 position. Due to the unique profile of the reaction, it was designated aminoglycoside 3-N-acetyltransferase type XI. PMID:26149994

  2. Genetic Variation at the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) Genes in Global Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Functional variability at the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) genes is associated with adverse drug reactions and cancer susceptibility in humans. Previous studies of small sets of ethnic groups have indicated that the NAT genes have high levels of amino acid variation that differ in f...

  3. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    MedlinePlus

    ... a s t is O : wAnneIrmsportant What role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, birds ... animals, or anything contaminated with feces from another cat that is shedding the microscopic parasite in its ...

  4. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  5. Practical Physical and Behavioral Measures to Assess the Socialization Spectrum of Cats in a Shelter-Like Setting during a Three Day Period

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha; Mirontshuk, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Animal welfare organizations accept large numbers of cats with no known history. Because shelters are often highly stressful environments for cats, it is likely to be difficult to differentiate a frightened cat that is socialized to humans from a feral cat that is not. However, this distinction can help channel cats into appropriate dispositions. We conducted structured assessments to measure various behaviors and their potential to distinguish socialization levels. Our results show that a specific set of behaviors are only exhibited by more socialized cats. Many cats needed time to adjust to the shelter-type setting to show these socialized behaviors. Abstract Animal welfare organizations routinely accept large numbers of cats with unknown histories, and whose backgrounds vary from well-socialized pets to cats that have had little or no contact with humans. Agencies are challenged with making the determination of socialization level in a highly stressful environment where cats are often too frightened to show typical behaviors. A variety of structured behavioral assessments were conducted in a shelter-like environment, from intake through a three day holding period, on cats from the full range of socialization as reported by their caregivers. Our results show that certain behaviors such as rubbing, playing, chirping, having the tail up or being at the front of the cage were found to be unique to More Socialized cats. While not all more socialized cats showed these behaviors, cats that did were socialized. Assessing the cats throughout the three day period was beneficial in eliciting key behaviors from shyer and more frightened cats. These results will be used in future work to develop an assessment tool to identify the socialization status of cats as a standardized guide for transparent and reliable disposition decisions and higher live release rates for cats in animal shelters. PMID:26479757

  6. Ronidazole in the treatment of trichomonad infections in cats.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gigi S

    2006-01-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus, a microscopic single-celled flagellated protozoan parasite, traditionally identified as a cause of reproductive disease in cattle, has been demonstrated as an important cause of diarrhea in cats. Until recently, an effective antimicrobial treatment for feline Tritrichomonas foetus had not been idnetified. Since recommended dosages of antimicrobial drugs have failed in cats infected with Tritrichomonas foetus and in vitro studies have revealed multiple drug resistance, investigations continue in the effort to find an effective treatment. One particular study by Dr.Jody Gookin noted no clinicopathological abnormalities or adverse effects with the use of ronidazole, and the research concluded that ronidazole administered at 30 to 50 mg/kg orally twice daily for 2 weeks was capable of resolving diarrhea and eradicating infections of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats. Clinical use of ronidazole has revealed a reversible, possibly dose-related, neurotoxicity. Cats receiving ronidazole should be monitored for signs of nystagmus, ataxia, or behavior change, and ronidazole should be discontinued immediately if any of these signs are observed. Many compounding pharmacists have begun stocking pure ronidazole powder to prepare veterinarian prescriptions for the treatnment of Tritrichomonas foetus. Doses of ronidazole are usually prepared as capsules, the most desirable dosage form because (1)the capsules mask the extremely bitter taste of ronidazole, (2)exact dosing reduces the risk of neurotoxicity that has been reported at higher doses, and (3)the owner can be assured that the entire dose is ingested by the cat after administration of a capsule. PMID:23974416

  7. DNA hybridization and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase gene sequence detection based on zirconia/nanogold film modified electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Tao; Jiang, Chen; Jiao, Kui

    2008-05-01

    This study reports a novel electrochemical DNA biosensor based on zirconia (ZrO 2) and gold nanoparticles (NG) film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). NG was electrodeposited onto the glassy carbon electrode at 1.5 V, and then zirconia thin film on the NG/GCE was fabricated by cyclic voltammetric method (CV) in an aqueous electrolyte of ZrOCl 2 and KCl at a scan rate of 20 mV/s. DNA probes were attached onto the ZrO 2/NG/GCE due to the strong binding of the phosphate group of DNA with the zirconia film and the excellent biocompatibility of nanogold with DNA. CV and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to characterize the modification of the electrode and the probe DNA immobilization. The electrochemical response of the DNA hybridization was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the electroactive indicator. After the hybridization of DNA probe (ssDNA) with the complementary DNA (cDNA), the cathodic peak current of MB decreased obviously. The difference of the cathodic peak currents of MB between before and after the hybridization of the probe DNA was used as the signal for the detection of the target DNA. The sequence-specific DNA of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene in the transgenic plants was detected with a detection range from 1.0 × 10 -10 to 1.0 × 10 -6 mol/L, and a detection limit of 3.1 × 10 -11 mol/L.

  8. Managing feral cats on a university's campuses: how many are there and is sterilization having an effect?

    PubMed

    Jones, Amanda L; Downs, Colleen T

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide domestic and feral cat (Felis catus) numbers have increased. Concerns regarding high populations of feral cats in urban areas include wildlife predation, public nuisance, and disease. This study aimed to estimate the size of the feral cat population on 5 campuses of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to determine whether sterilization has an effect and to make management recommendations. The study used both the total count and mark-recapture methods to estimate the feral cat population on each campus. The study chose a noninvasive method of taking photographs to "mark" individuals and record those who were sterilized. The study estimated a total of 186 cats on all campuses and density at 161 cats km(-2). There was a negative relationship between sterilization and numbers. Sites with higher sterilization showed a lower proportion of younger cats. At the average sterilization of 55%, the population, according to predictions, would remain stable at fecundity, survival, and immigration rates reported by cat caretakers. However, caretakers underestimated cat abundance by 7 ± 37 SD%. Caretakers' feral cat sterilization and feeding programs appear to provide a service to the university community. Key management recommendations were to increase sterilization to 90% to reduce the population over the long term and to raise funds to support the costs incurred by voluntary cat caretakers. PMID:21932945

  9. A strange cat in Dublin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  10. Lessons from the Cheshire Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinberg, Donna

    2012-01-01

    "If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you tell me, please,…

  11. Chyloabdomen in a mature cat.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, K L

    2001-01-01

    A mature, castrated male cat presented with progressive lethargy and a severely distended abdomen. Abdominal radiographs, abdominocentesis, and evaluation of the fluid obtained led to a diagnosis of chyloabdomen. The underlying pathology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment associated with this disease are discussed. PMID:11360862

  12. Assessing CAT Test Security Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Zhang, Jinming; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its precision superiority over nonadaptive tests, another known advantage of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) is that they can be offered on a continuous basis. This is advantageous to examinees in terms of flexibility of test scheduling, as well as advantageous to schools and other testing centers in terms of both space and…

  13. CATS Data and Information Page

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-05

    ... of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS).   CATS will provide vertical profiles at three ... with nearly a three-day repeat cycle.  For the first time, it will allow scientist to study diurnal (day-to-night) changes in cloud ...

  14. A CAT scan for cells

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a team of scientists from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the University of California, San Francisco used Berkeley Lab's National Center for X-ray Tomography to capture the changes that occur when Candida albicans is exposed to a new and promising antifungal therapy. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/12/10/cat-scan-cells/

  15. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analyses of two N-terminal acetyltransferase-related proteins from Thermoplasma acidophilum

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Sang Hee; Ha, Jun Yong; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Oh, Sung Jin; Kim, Do Jin; Kang, Ji Yong; Yoon, Hye Jin; Kim, Se-Hee; Seo, Ji Hae; Kim, Kyu-Won; Suh, Se Won

    2006-11-01

    An N-terminal acetyltransferase ARD1 subunit-related protein (Ta0058) and an N-terminal acetyltransferase-related protein (Ta1140) from T. acidophilum were crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.17 and 2.40 Å, respectively. N-terminal acetylation is one of the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes, occurring in approximately 80–90% of cytosolic mammalian proteins and about 50% of yeast proteins. ARD1 (arrest-defective protein 1), together with NAT1 (N-acetyltransferase protein 1) and possibly NAT5, is responsible for the NatA activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In mammals, ARD1 is involved in cell proliferation, neuronal development and cancer. Interestingly, it has been reported that mouse ARD1 (mARD1{sup 225}) mediates ∊-acetylation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and thereby enhances HIF-1α ubiquitination and degradation. Here, the preliminary X-ray crystallographic analyses of two N-terminal acetyltransferase-related proteins encoded by the Ta0058 and Ta1140 genes of Thermoplasma acidophilum are reported. The Ta0058 protein is related to an N-terminal acetyltransferase complex ARD1 subunit, while Ta1140 is a putative N-terminal acetyltransferase-related protein. Ta0058 shows 26% amino-acid sequence identity to both mARD1{sup 225} and human ARD1{sup 235}.The sequence identity between Ta0058 and Ta1140 is 28%. Ta0058 and Ta1140 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli fused with an N-terminal purification tag. Ta0058 was crystallized at 297 K using a reservoir solution consisting of 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6, 8%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 4000 and 35%(v/v) glycerol. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.17 Å. The Ta0058 crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 49.334, c = 70.384 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The asymmetric unit contains a monomer, giving a calculated crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 2.13 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 42

  16. Transitional cell carcinoma forming a perirenal cyst in a cat.

    PubMed

    Raffan, E; Kipar, A; Barber, P J; Freeman, A I

    2008-03-01

    An eight-year-old, neutered male Burmese cat presented with five days vomiting and anorexia. Physical examination, clinical pathology and diagnostic imaging findings suggested a perirenal pseudocyst. After partial resection of the perirenal capsule clinical signs temporarily resolved, but the cat was euthanased 34 days postoperatively as a result of seizures and recurrence of vomiting. Postoperative histopathology showed neoplastic transitional cells within and lining the resected perirenal capsule; a diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma was confirmed post-mortem. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of this presentation of transitional cell carcinoma. Transitional cell carcinoma should be a differential diagnosis for the aetiology of perirenal pseudocyst. PMID:17784930

  17. Reversible myocardial failure in a cat with primary hypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Lie, Andrew R; MacDonald, Kristin A

    2013-10-01

    A 4-year-old domestic shorthair cat presented with tetany. Laboratory testing confirmed severe hypocalcemia and primary hypoparathyroidism. The cat subsequently developed congestive heart failure secondary to myocardial failure and was treated with pimobendan, enalapril, furosemide, calcitriol and calcium salts. All clinical signs resolved and cardiac function returned to normal within 1 month, and remained normal after cessation of all medications except calcitriol. Hypocalcemia-associated cardiomyopathy is a rare, reversible condition that has not previously been reported in a veterinary patient, and it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with myocardial failure. PMID:23492352

  18. Thyroglossal Duct Carcinoma in a Cat.

    PubMed

    Moorer, Jeremiah D; Breshears, Melanie A; Dugat, Danielle R

    2016-01-01

    A 14 yr old castrated domestic shorthair cat presented for a fluid-filled structure in the ventral cervical region that had been present for 1 yr and had not resolved after repeated aspiration and drainage. Cervical computed tomography showed an approximately 10 cm, fluid-filled, multilobulated mass located on the ventrolateral right side of the cervical region extending into the thoracic inlet. Cytologic examination of the fluid revealed cystic fluid with evidence of chronic hemorrhage. The mass was surgically removed, and histopathologic examination revealed a thyroglossal duct carcinoma. Thyroid and parathyroid gland origin were ruled out by negative immunohistochemical staining for thyroglobulin, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and synaptophysin. No adjunctive treatment was performed and no recurrence was noted at 14 mo. Thyroglossal duct carcinoma has not been previously reported in a cat. There are two previous reports of squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroglossal duct in dogs. In humans, with complete removal and no evidence of metastasis, carcinoma of the thyroglossal duct has a good prognosis for recovery. PMID:27259027

  19. Regulation of a Protein Acetyltransferase in Myxococcus xanthus by the Coenzyme NADP+

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Xin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT NADP+ is a vital cofactor involved in a wide variety of activities, such as redox potential and cell death. Here, we show that NADP+ negatively regulates an acetyltransferase from Myxococcus xanthus, Mxan_3215 (MxKat), at physiologic concentrations. MxKat possesses an NAD(P)-binding domain fused to the Gcn5-type N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) domain. We used isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a coupled enzyme assay to show that NADP+ bound to MxKat and that the binding had strong effects on enzyme activity. The Gly11 residue of MxKat was confirmed to play an important role in NADP+ binding using site-directed mutagenesis and circular dichroism spectrometry. In addition, using mass spectrometry, site-directed mutagenesis, and a coupling enzymatic assay, we demonstrated that MxKat acetylates acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase (Mxan_2570) at Lys622 in response to changes in NADP+ concentration. Collectively, our results uncovered a mechanism of protein acetyltransferase regulation by the coenzyme NADP+ at physiological concentrations, suggesting a novel signaling pathway for the regulation of cellular protein acetylation. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms have developed various protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs), which enable cells to respond quickly to changes in the intracellular and extracellular milieus. This work provides the first biochemical characterization of a protein acetyltransferase (MxKat) that contains a fusion between a GNAT domain and NADP+-binding domain with Rossmann folds, and it demonstrates a novel signaling pathway for regulating cellular protein acetylation in M. xanthus. We found that NADP+ specifically binds to the Rossmann fold of MxKat and negatively regulates its acetyltransferase activity. This finding provides novel insight for connecting cellular metabolic status (NADP+ metabolism) with levels of protein acetylation, and it extends our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying PTMs. PMID:26598367

  20. Congenital hypothyroidism of dogs and cats: a review.

    PubMed

    Bojanic, K; Acke, E; Jones, B R

    2011-05-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a rare and underdiagnosed congenital endocrine disorder in dogs and cats and the true incidence is unknown. The disorder may cause a range of clinical signs depending on the primary defect, which affect production of thyroid hormones; some cases present when adult. Hallmark clinical signs of congenital hypothyroidism are mental impairment and skeletal developmental abnormalities, resulting in disproportionate dwarfism; goitre may or may not be present. Documented causes of congenital hypothyroidism in dogs include deficiency of, or unresponsiveness to, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid dysgenesis, dyshormonogenesis and iodine deficiency. In cats, TSH unresponsiveness, thyroid dysgenesis, dyshormonogenesis and iodine deficiency have been confirmed. Adequate replacement therapy results in a successful outcome in the majority of cases, especially when started early in life, as permanent developmental abnormalities can be prevented. This review describes reported cases in dogs and cats, diagnostic investigation, and recommendations for treatment. PMID:21541884

  1. Symptomatic Capillaria plica infection in a young European cat.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Moreno; Messina, Nicoletta; Ariti, Gaetano; Riggio, Francesca; Perrucci, Stefania

    2011-10-01

    An 8-month-old owned European cat showing abdominal pain, fever, distended painful bladder and urinary blockage was presented. Intravenous fluids were immediately administered and, after sedation, a urinary catheter was applied. Blood and urine analysis revealed cystitis and a moderate-to-severe degree of renal failure. About 20 thread-like nematodes, identified as Capillaria plica larvae and fragments of adult stages, were found in the urine sediment. After treatment with an oral formulation of fenbendazole at 25 mg/kg q 12 h for 10 days, urinary signs and bladder worms disappeared. Cases of Capillaria species bladder worms in cats are rarely reported and most infected cats show no clinical signs, presumably because of a low parasite burden. In the present study, feline capillariosis was associated to urethral obstruction, severe difficulties in urination, cystitis and renal failures. PMID:21835667

  2. Actinomyces endogenous endophthalmitis in a cat following multiple dental extractions.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Hans D; Ward, Daniel A; Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Lyons, Jeremiah A

    2013-11-01

    An 8-year-old, brachycephalic, mixed breed cat underwent full mouth tooth extractions for the treatment of tooth root abscessation. Subsequently, the cat developed anterior uveitis refractory to topical therapy that eventually necessitated enucleation. Actinomyces species were isolated from both the tooth root abscesses and the anterior chamber after enucleation. Histopathology of the enucleated eye revealed panophthalmitis with abundant intralesional bacteria morphologically consistent with Actinomyces. Between the time of tooth root extraction and enucleation (20 weeks), the cat was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and treated with oral steroids for inflammatory bowel syndrome. We believe this report represents a rare case of endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to dental disease, possibly precipitated by concurrent immunosuppression. PMID:23281798

  3. Molecular cloning, spatial and temporal expression analysis of CatSper genes in the Chinese Meishan pigs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    and onward till sexual maturity (Day 150 of age). Conclusions The spatial and temporal expression profiles of CatSper genes were reported herein for the first time in pigs. CatSper1, CatSper2 and CatSper4 were primarily expressed in testes, while CatSper3 transcript was prevalent in a variety of organs. CatSper3 and CatSper4 mRNAs were present in mature sperm cells. Substantial upregulation of CatSper genes was initiated at Day 60 and maintained this marked production until sexual maturity. PMID:21970684

  4. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  5. Evaluation of the electroencephalogram in young cats

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa J.; Williams, D. Colette; Vite, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize the electroencephalogram (EEG) in young cats. Animals 23 clinically normal cats. Procedures Cats were sedated with medetomidine hydrochloride and butorphanol tartrate at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks of age and an EEG was recorded. Recordings were visually inspected for electrical continuity, interhemispheric synchrony, amplitude and frequency of background electrical activity, and frequency of transient activity. Computer-aided analysis was used to perform frequency spectral analysis and to calculate absolute and relative power of the background activity at each age. Results Electrical continuity was evident in cats ≥ 4 weeks old, and interhemispheric synchrony was evident in cats at all ages evaluated. Analysis of amplitude of background activity and absolute power revealed significant elevations in 6-week-old cats, compared with results for 2-, 20-, and 24-week-old cats. No association between age and relative power or frequency was identified. Transient activity, consisting of sleep spindles and K complexes, was evident at all ages, but spike and spike or wave discharges were observed in cats at 2 weeks of age. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Medetomidine and butorphanol were administered in accordance with a sedation protocol that allowed investigators to repeatedly obtain EEG data from cats. Age was an important consideration when interpreting EEG data. These data on EEG development in clinically normal cats may be used for comparison in future studies conducted to examine EEGs in young cats with diseases that affect the cerebral cortex. PMID:21355743

  6. Histologic features associated with tritrichomonas foetus-induced colitis in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Yaeger, M J; Gookin, J L

    2005-11-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a venereal pathogen of naturally bred cattle. In domestic cats, T. foetus colonizes the colon, resulting in chronic, large-bowel diarrhea. The infection is prevalent among young, densely housed cats, and there is no effective treatment. To the authors' knowledge, the characteristic microscopic lesions of T. foetus infection in naturally infected cats have not been described. The aim of the study reported here was to characterize the histologic changes in the colon of seven cats with T. foetus infection and chronic diarrhea. All cats were 1 year old or younger (mean, 6.7 +/- 1.7 months), and a diagnosis of T. foetus infection was made on the basis of direct fecal smear examination (five cats), fecal culture in InPouch TF medium (four cats), single-tube nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of DNA extracted from feces (two cats), or observation of trichomonads in sections of colon followed by PCR confirmation on DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue (two cats). The presence of colonic trichomonads was the most diagnostic histologic feature. Organisms were identified in all cats, but in only 24 of 43 (56%) sections of colon. Trichomonads were generally present in close proximity to the mucosal surface and less frequently in the lumen of colonic crypts. The presence of colonic trichomonads was consistently associated with mild-to-moderate lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic colitis, crypt epithelial cell hypertrophy, hyperplasia and increased mitotic activity, loss of goblet cells, crypt microabscesses, and attenuation of the superficial colonic mucosa. In two of the cats, histologic lesions were more severe and were associated with invasion of trichomonads into the lamina propria and/or deeper layers of the colon. PMID:16301576

  7. The Fecal Microbiome in Cats with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Suchodolski, Jan S.; Foster, Mary L.; Sohail, Muhammad U.; Leutenegger, Christian; Queen, Erica V.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Marks, Stanley L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21) and cats with acute (n = 19) or chronic diarrhea (n = 29) and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration), while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001) altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or therapeutic

  8. Severe Psychomotor Delay in a Severe Presentation of Cat-Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jedraszak, Guillaume; Receveur, Aline; Andrieux, Joris; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Copin, Henri; Morin, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Cat-eye syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome of chromosomal origin. Individuals with cat-eye syndrome are characterized by the presence of preauricular pits and/or tags, anal atresia, and iris coloboma. Many reported cases also presented with variable congenital anomalies and intellectual disability. Most patients diagnosed with CES carry a small supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome, resulting in partial tetrasomy of 22p-22q11.21. There are two types of small supernumerary marker chromosome, depending on the breakpoint site. In a very small proportion of cases, other cytogenetic anomalies are reportedly associated with the cat-eye syndrome phenotype. Here, we report a patient with cat-eye syndrome caused by a type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. The phenotype was atypical and included a severe developmental delay. The use of array comparative genomic hybridization ruled out the involvement of another chromosomal imbalance in the neurological phenotype. In the literature, only a few patients with cat-eye syndrome present with a severe developmental delay, and all of the latter carried an atypical partial trisomy 22 or an uncharacterized small supernumerary marker chromosome. Hence, this is the first report of a severe neurological phenotype in cat-eye syndrome with a typical type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. Our observation clearly complicates prognostic assessment, particularly when cat-eye syndrome is diagnosed prenatally. PMID:25648072

  9. Cat scratch disease: The story continues

    PubMed Central

    Opavsky, Mary Anne

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a perspective on the current state of knowledge of cat scratch disease (CSD), including the evidence for Bartonella henselae as the etiological agent, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the disease, available diagnostic tests and current therapeutic options. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE search of the literature published from 1966 to 1995 using ‘cat scratch disease’, ‘Bartonella henselae’, ‘Rochalimaea henselae’ as key words and bibliographies of selected papers. DATA EXTRACTION: Selected studies reporting data on etiology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and therapy of CSD were evaluated. DATA SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSIONS: Evidence accumulated to date supports B henselae as the etiological agent of CSD. The most significant risk factors for CSD are being licked on the face, scratched or bitten by a kitten and owning a kitten with fleas. Available serological tests can confirm classic CSD and identify B henselae as the cause of more atypical presentations, such as fever of unknown origin, granulomatous hepatitis, encephalitis and osteomyelitis. Symptomatic management is appropriate for isolated lymphadenopathy caused by CSD in healthy individuals; however, antibiotic therapy may be indicated for patients with more severe manifestations of the disease and immunocompromised hosts. Further study of CSD, in particular the epidemiology and therapy, is warranted. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of B henselae infection will have important implications in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. PMID:22514476

  10. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in cats and dogs in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-seok; Seo, Kyoung-won; Lee, Jong-hwa; Choi, Eun-wha; Lee, Hee-woo; Hwang, Cheol-yong; Shin, Nam-shik; Youn, Hee-jeong; Youn, Hwa Young

    2009-03-01

    Blood, saliva, and nail samples were collected from 54 dogs and 151 cats and analyzed for the presence of Bartonella henselae with a novel nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Bartonella (B.) henselae was detected in feral cat blood (41.8%), saliva (44.1%), and nail (42.7%) samples. B. henselae was also detected in pet cat blood (33.3%), saliva (43.5%), and nail (29.5%) samples and in pet dog blood (16.6%), saliva (18.5%), and nail (29.6%) samples. Nine samples were infected with B. clarridgeiae and 2 were co-infected with B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae of blood samples of dogs. This report is the first to investigate the prevalence of B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in dogs and cats in Korea, and suggests that dogs and cats may serve as potential Bartonella reservoirs. PMID:19255530

  11. The Fungal Sexual Pheromone Sirenin Activates the Human CatSper Channel Complex.

    PubMed

    Syeda, Shameem Sultana; Carlson, Erick J; Miller, Melissa R; Francis, Rawle; Clapham, David E; Lishko, Polina V; Hawkinson, Jon E; Hook, Derek; Georg, Gunda I

    2016-02-19

    The basal fungus Allomyces macrogynus (A. macrogynus) produces motile male gametes displaying well-studied chemotaxis toward their female counterparts. This chemotaxis is driven by sirenin, a sexual pheromone released by the female gametes. The pheromone evokes a large calcium influx in the motile gametes, which could proceed through the cation channel of sperm (CatSper) complex. Herein, we report the total synthesis of sirenin in 10 steps and 8% overall yield and show that the synthetic pheromone activates the CatSper channel complex, indicated by a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular calcium in human sperm. Sirenin activation of the CatSper channel was confirmed using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology with human sperm. Based on this proficient synthetic route and confirmed activation of CatSper, analogues of sirenin can be designed as blockers of the CatSper channel that could provide male contraceptive agents. PMID:26674547

  12. The Fungal Sexual Pheromone Sirenin Activates the Human CatSper Channel Complex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The basal fungus Allomyces macrogynus (A. macrogynus) produces motile male gametes displaying well-studied chemotaxis toward their female counterparts. This chemotaxis is driven by sirenin, a sexual pheromone released by the female gametes. The pheromone evokes a large calcium influx in the motile gametes, which could proceed through the cation channel of sperm (CatSper) complex. Herein, we report the total synthesis of sirenin in 10 steps and 8% overall yield and show that the synthetic pheromone activates the CatSper channel complex, indicated by a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular calcium in human sperm. Sirenin activation of the CatSper channel was confirmed using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology with human sperm. Based on this proficient synthetic route and confirmed activation of CatSper, analogues of sirenin can be designed as blockers of the CatSper channel that could provide male contraceptive agents. PMID:26674547

  13. Radiographic measurements of the trachea in domestic shorthair and Persian cats.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Gawain; Geary, Mary; Coleman, Erica; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle

    2011-12-01

    Tracheal diameter can be assessed from a thoracic radiograph, with assessment of tracheal diameter in dogs based on ratios between tracheal diameter and a skeletal measurement. Reference intervals are not, however, available for the cat. Tracheal narrowing may cause significant clinical problems, although tracheal hypoplasia in dogs may be clinically silent, and is rarely reported in cats (both mesati- and brachycephalic). The tracheal diameter and trachea:thoracic inlet and trachea:rib ratios were calculated for populations of domestic shorthair (DSH) (n = 68) and Persian (n = 40) cats. This gave reference intervals for radiographic tracheal measurements in these breeds. It is proposed that the tracheal diameter in a normal DSH cat should be 18% of the diameter of the thoracic inlet, and compared to 20% in Persian cats. PMID:22100014

  14. Nickel and cobalt resistance engineered in Escherichia coli by overexpression of serine acetyltransferase from the nickel hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi goesingense.

    PubMed

    Freeman, John L; Persans, Michael W; Nieman, Ken; Salt, David E

    2005-12-01

    The overexpression of serine acetyltransferase from the Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Thlaspi goesingense causes enhanced nickel and cobalt resistance in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, overexpression of T. goesingense serine acetyltransferase results in enhanced sensitivity to cadmium and has no significant effect on resistance to zinc. Enhanced nickel resistance is directly related to the constitutive overactivation of sulfur assimilation and glutathione biosynthesis, driven by the overproduction of O-acetyl-L-serine, the product of serine acetyltransferase and a positive regulator of the cysteine regulon. Nickel in the serine acetyltransferase-overexpressing strains is not detoxified by coordination or precipitation with sulfur, suggesting that glutathione is involved in reducing the oxidative damage imposed by nickel. PMID:16332856

  15. Nickel and Cobalt Resistance Engineered in Escherichia coli by Overexpression of Serine Acetyltransferase from the Nickel Hyperaccumulator Plant Thlaspi goesingense

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, John L.; Persans, Michael W.; Nieman, Ken; Salt, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The overexpression of serine acetyltransferase from the Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Thlaspi goesingense causes enhanced nickel and cobalt resistance in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, overexpression of T. goesingense serine acetyltransferase results in enhanced sensitivity to cadmium and has no significant effect on resistance to zinc. Enhanced nickel resistance is directly related to the constitutive overactivation of sulfur assimilation and glutathione biosynthesis, driven by the overproduction of O-acetyl-l-serine, the product of serine acetyltransferase and a positive regulator of the cysteine regulon. Nickel in the serine acetyltransferase-overexpressing strains is not detoxified by coordination or precipitation with sulfur, suggesting that glutathione is involved in reducing the oxidative damage imposed by nickel. PMID:16332856

  16. Dynamic tracheal collapse associated with disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Bell, R; Philbey, A W; Martineau, H; Nielsen, L; Pawson, P; Dukes-McEwan, J

    2006-08-01

    This case report describes an unusual presentation of histiocytic sarcoma in a domestic shorthair cat. Initial investigation revealed a haemodynamically insignificant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, bronchitis and a mild irregularity of the cervical trachea. The cat's disease progressed over a two-week period. Repeat radiography and tracheoscopy revealed a marked dynamic tracheal collapse associated with a raised plaque-like lesion within the cervical trachea. Subsequent post-mortem examination and histopathology revealed disseminated histiocytic sarcoma involving the trachea and kidneys. This is the first reported case of a histiocytic sarcoma involving the trachea in either dogs or cats. PMID:16911115

  17. Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

    2014-12-01

    Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nölleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 ±  1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection. PMID:23719370

  18. Differences between vocalization evoked by social stimuli in feral cats and house cats.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Seong C; Kim, Young K; Park, Se J; Lee, Scott S; Lee, Seung Y; Suh, Euy H; Houpt, Katherine A; Chang, Hong H; Lee, Hee C; Yang, Byung G; Lee, Hyo J

    2011-06-01

    To investigate how socialization can affect the types and characteristics of vocalization produced by cats, feral cats (n=25) and house cats (n=13) were used as subjects, allowing a comparison between cats socialized to people and non-socialized cats. To record vocalization and assess the cats' responses to behavioural stimuli, five test situations were used: approach by a familiar caretaker, by a threatening stranger, by a large doll, by a stranger with a dog and by a stranger with a cat. Feral cats showed extremely aggressive and defensive behaviour in most test situations, and produced higher call rates than those of house cats in the test situations, which could be attributed to less socialization to other animals and to more sensitivity to fearful situations. Differences were observed in the acoustic parameters of feral cats in comparison to those of house cats. The feral cat produced significantly higher frequency in fundamental frequency, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, 3rd quartile frequency of growls and hisses in agonistic test situations. In contrast to the growls and hisses, in meow, all acoustic parameters like fundamental frequency, first formant, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, and 3rd quartile frequency of house cats were of significantly higher frequency than those of feral cats. Also, house cats produced calls of significantly shorter in duration than feral cats in agonistic test situations. These results support the conclusion that a lack of socialization may affect usage of types of vocalizations, and the vocal characteristics, so that the proper socialization of cat may be essential to be a suitable companion house cat. PMID:21443933

  19. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats. PMID:17669677

  20. System-wide Studies of N-Lysine Acetylation in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Reveals Substrate Specificity of Protein Acetyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Heidi A; Pelletier, Dale A; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein acetylation is widespread in prokaryotes. Results: Six new acyl-CoA synthetases whose activities are controlled by acetylation were identified, and their substrate preference established. A new protein acetyltransferase was also identified and its substrate specificity determined. Conclusion: Protein acetyltransferases acetylate a conserved lysine residue in protein substrates. Significance: The R. palustris Pat enzyme specifically acetylates AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases and regulates fatty acid metabolism.

  1. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  2. Flat Feline Faces: Is Brachycephaly Associated with Respiratory Abnormalities in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus)?

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Rowena M. A.; Caney, Sarah M. A.; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A.

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research into brachycephalism and associated disorders in cats. A questionnaire aimed at cat owners was used to determine the relationship between feline facial conformation and owner-reported cat management requirements and respiratory abnormalities. Owner-submitted photographs of cats were used to develop novel measures of skull conformation. One thousand valid questionnaires were received. Within these there were 373 valid photographs that allowed measurement of muzzle ratio (M%) and 494 that allowed nose position ratio (NP%). The data included 239 cats for which both measurements were available. Owners reported lifestyle factors (e.g. feeding type, grooming routine, activity level), physical characteristics (e.g. hair length) and other health characteristics of their cat (e.g. tear staining, body condition score). A composite respiratory score (RS) was calculated for each cat using their owner’s assessment of respiratory noise whilst their cat was asleep and then breathing difficulty following activity. Multivariate analyses were carried out using linear models to explore the relationship between RS and facial conformation, and lifestyle risk factors. The results showed that reductions in NP% and M% were significantly associated with RS (P < 0.001 and P = 0.026, respectively) and that the relationship was significantly negatively correlated (r = -0.56, P < 0.001 for both). Respiratory score was also significantly associated with increased presence of tear staining (P < 0.001) and a sedentary lifestyle (P = 0.01). This study improves current knowledge concerning cats with breeding-related alterations in skull confirmation and indicates that brachycephalism may have negative respiratory implications for cat health and welfare, as has been previously shown in dogs. PMID:27574987

  3. Flat Feline Faces: Is Brachycephaly Associated with Respiratory Abnormalities in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus)?

    PubMed

    Farnworth, Mark J; Chen, Ruoning; Packer, Rowena M A; Caney, Sarah M A; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research into brachycephalism and associated disorders in cats. A questionnaire aimed at cat owners was used to determine the relationship between feline facial conformation and owner-reported cat management requirements and respiratory abnormalities. Owner-submitted photographs of cats were used to develop novel measures of skull conformation. One thousand valid questionnaires were received. Within these there were 373 valid photographs that allowed measurement of muzzle ratio (M%) and 494 that allowed nose position ratio (NP%). The data included 239 cats for which both measurements were available. Owners reported lifestyle factors (e.g. feeding type, grooming routine, activity level), physical characteristics (e.g. hair length) and other health characteristics of their cat (e.g. tear staining, body condition score). A composite respiratory score (RS) was calculated for each cat using their owner's assessment of respiratory noise whilst their cat was asleep and then breathing difficulty following activity. Multivariate analyses were carried out using linear models to explore the relationship between RS and facial conformation, and lifestyle risk factors. The results showed that reductions in NP% and M% were significantly associated with RS (P < 0.001 and P = 0.026, respectively) and that the relationship was significantly negatively correlated (r = -0.56, P < 0.001 for both). Respiratory score was also significantly associated with increased presence of tear staining (P < 0.001) and a sedentary lifestyle (P = 0.01). This study improves current knowledge concerning cats with breeding-related alterations in skull confirmation and indicates that brachycephalism may have negative respiratory implications for cat health and welfare, as has been previously shown in dogs. PMID:27574987

  4. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  5. Identification of the satA gene encoding a streptogramin A acetyltransferase in Enterococcus faecium BM4145.

    PubMed Central

    Rende-Fournier, R; Leclercq, R; Galimand, M; Duval, J; Courvalin, P

    1993-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium BM4145, a clinical isolate from urine, was resistant to streptogramin group A antibiotics by inactivation. The strain harbored a plasmid containing a gene, satA, responsible for this resistance; this gene was cloned and sequenced. It encoded SatA, a protein deduced to be 23,634 Da in mass and homologous with a new family of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases described in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. The similarity of SatA to other acetyltransferases, LacA (thiogalactoside acetyltransferase) and CysE (serine acetyltransferase) from E. coli, and to two putative acetyltransferases, NodL from Rhizobium leguminosarum and Urf1 from E. coli, was also observed in a region considered to be the enzyme's active site. Acetylation experiments indicated that acetyl coenzyme A was necessary for SatA activity and that a single acetylated derivative of pristinamycin IIA was produced. Other members of the streptogramin A group such as virginiamycin M and RP54476 were also substrates for the enzyme. We conclude that resistance to the streptogramin A group of antibiotics in E. faecium BM4145 is due to acetylation by an enzyme related to the novel chloramphenicol acetyltransferase family. Images PMID:8257133

  6. Herpes simplex virus infection selectively stimulates accumulation of beta interferon reporter gene mRNA by a posttranscriptional mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, J D; Pitha, P M; Hayward, G S

    1992-01-01

    To study the mechanism of a novel herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity that stimulates expression of reporter genes containing beta interferon (IFN-beta)-coding sequences, we have established permanent DNA-transfected cell lines that each contain two distinct hybrid genes encoding mRNA species with different half-lives. These reporter genes comprised either the human IFN-beta- or bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT)-coding and 3' untranslated regions placed under the transcriptional control of the powerful major immediate-early promoter-enhancer region (IE94) from simian cytomegalovirus. Most of the dual-transfected cell lines yielded significant levels of steady-state IE94-CAT mRNA and abundant constitutive synthesis of CAT enzyme activity, whereas no accumulation of IE94-IFN mRNA could be detected. However, infection with HSV type 1 resulted in a 300-fold increase in IE94-IFN-specific mRNA transcripts, compared with no more than 3- to 5-fold stimulation of IE94-CAT-specific mRNA. In contrast, cycloheximide treatment increased stable mRNA levels and transcription initiation rates from both the IE94-IFN and IE94-CAT hybrid genes. Run-on transcription assays in isolated nuclei suggested that induction of IE94-IFN gene expression by HSV type 1 occurred predominantly at the posttranscriptional level. Enhancement of the unstable IFN mRNA species after HSV infection was also observed in cell lines containing a simian virus 40 enhancer-driven IFN gene (SV2-IFN). Similarly, in transient-transfection assays, both SV2-IFN and IE94-IFN gave only low basal mRNA synthesis, but superinfection with HSV again led to high-level accumulation of IFN mRNA. Finally, substitution of the SV2-IFN gene 3' region with poly(A) and splicing signals from the SV2-CAT gene cassette led to stabilization of the IFN mRNA even in the absence of HSV. Therefore, we conclude that HSV infection leads to selective accumulation of IFN-beta mRNA by a posttranscriptional mechanism that is

  7. Systemic xanthomatosis associated with hyperchylomicronaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Chanut, F; Colle, M-A; Deschamps, J-Y; Albaric, O; Wyers, M

    2005-08-01

    We report a case of systemic xanthomatosis in a 4-month-old domestic cat. The kitten presented with multiple cutaneous lesions and 'cream tomato soup' coloured blood. Necropsy revealed multiple, whitish, nodular lesions, compatible with xanthomas, on most of the abdominal organs (liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal glands, mesentery and colon). The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. This is the first report of granulomatous colitis associated with feline xanthomatosis. PMID:16050907

  8. Cephalopagus conjoined twins in a leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).

    PubMed

    Kompanje, Erwin J O; Hermans, John J

    2008-01-01

    Case reports of conjoined twins ("Siamese twins") in wild mammals are scarce. Most published reports of conjoined twins in mammals concern cases in man and domestic mammals. This article describes a case of cephalopagus conjoined twins in a leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) collected on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, in the period 1873-76. A review of known cases of conjoined twinning in wild mammals is given. PMID:18263837

  9. A review of the studies using buprenorphine in cats.

    PubMed

    Steagall, P V M; Monteiro-Steagall, B P; Taylor, P M

    2014-01-01

    Pain management is a crucial component of feline medicine and surgery. This review critically evaluates studies using buprenorphine in cats and highlights the clinical application of the opioid in this species. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling of IV buprenorphine has been best described by a combined effect compartmental/receptor association-dissociation model with negative hysteresis. Therefore, plasma concentrations of the drug are not correlated with analgesia, and clinicians should not expect to observe pain relief immediately after drug administration. In addition, a ceiling effect has not been demonstrated after administration of clinical doses of buprenorphine in cats; dosages of up to 0.04 mg/kg have been reported. The route of administration influences the onset, duration, and magnitude of antinociception and analgesia when using this drug in cats. At clinical dosages, the SC route of administration does not appear to provide adequate antinociception and analgesia whereas the buccal route has produced inconsistent results. Intravenous or IM administration at a dosage of 0.02-0.04 mg/kg is the preferred for treatment of pain in the acute setting. A literature search found 14 clinical trials evaluating buprenorphine sedation, analgesia, or both in cats. There were 22 original research studies reporting the antinociceptive effects of buprenorphine by means of thermal threshold, mechanical threshold, or both, minimal alveolar concentration, or PK-PD. Individual variability in response to buprenorphine administration has been reported, indicating that buprenorphine may not provide sufficient analgesia in some cats. Pain assessment is important when evaluating the efficacy of buprenorphine and determining whether additional analgesic treatment is needed. PMID:24655078

  10. Kinesin-II Is Required for Axonal Transport of Choline Acetyltransferase in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Krishanu; Perez, Sharon E.; Yang, Zhaohuai; Xu, Jenny; Ritchings, Bruce W.; Steller, Hermann; Goldstein, Lawrence S.B.

    1999-01-01

    KLP64D and KLP68D are members of the kinesin-II family of proteins in Drosophila. Immunostaining for KLP68D and ribonucleic acid in situ hybridization for KLP64D demonstrated their preferential expression in cholinergic neurons. KLP68D was also found to accumulate in cholinergic neurons in axonal obstructions caused by the loss of kinesin light chain. Mutations in the KLP64D gene cause uncoordinated sluggish movement and death, and reduce transport of choline acetyltransferase from cell bodies to the synapse. The inviability of KLP64D mutations can be rescued by expression of mammalian KIF3A. Together, these data suggest that kinesin-II is required for the axonal transport of a soluble enzyme, choline acetyltransferase, in a specific subset of neurons in Drosophila. Furthermore, the data lead to the conclusion that the cargo transport requirements of different classes of neurons may lead to upregulation of specific pathways of axonal transport. PMID:10545496

  11. Crystallization of ornithine acetyltransferase from yeast by counter-diffusion and preliminary X-ray study

    SciTech Connect

    Maes, Dominique Crabeel, Marjolaine; Van de Weerdt, Cécile; Martial, Joseph; Peeters, Eveline; Charlier, Daniël; Decanniere, Klaas; Vanhee, Celine; Wyns, Lode; Zegers, Ingrid

    2006-12-01

    A study on the crystallization of ornithine acetyltransferase from yeast, catalysing the fifth step in microbial arginine synthesis, is presented. The use of the counter-diffusion technique removes the disorder present in one dimension in crystals grown by either batch or hanging-drop techniques. A study is presented on the crystallization of ornithine acetyltransferase from yeast, which catalyzes the fifth step in microbial arginine synthesis. The use of the counter-diffusion technique removes the disorder present in one dimension in crystals grown by either the batch or hanging-drop techniques. This makes the difference between useless crystals and crystals that allow successful determination of the structure of the protein. The crystals belong to space group P4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.98, c = 427.09 Å, and a data set was collected to 2.76 Å.

  12. Structural and biochemical characterization of an active arylamine N-acetyltransferase possessing a non-canonical Cys-His-Glu catalytic triad.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Xavier; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inès; Chaffotte, Alain F; Pluvinage, Benjamin; Weber, Patrick; Haouz, Ahmed; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs), a class of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, catalyze the acetylation of aromatic amine compounds through a strictly conserved Cys-His-Asp catalytic triad. Each residue is essential for catalysis in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic NATs. Indeed, in (HUMAN)NAT2 variants, mutation of the Asp residue to Asn, Gln, or Glu dramatically impairs enzyme activity. However, a putative atypical NAT harboring a catalytic triad Glu residue was recently identified in Bacillus cereus ((BACCR)NAT3) but has not yet been characterized. We report here the crystal structure and functional characterization of this atypical NAT. The overall fold of (BACCR)NAT3 and the geometry of its Cys-His-Glu catalytic triad are similar to those present in functional NATs. Importantly, the enzyme was found to be active and to acetylate prototypic arylamine NAT substrates. In contrast to (HUMAN) NAT2, the presence of a Glu or Asp in the triad of (BACCR)NAT3 did not significantly affect enzyme structure or function. Computational analysis identified differences in residue packing and steric constraints in the active site of (BACCR)NAT3 that allow it to accommodate a Cys-His-Glu triad. These findings overturn the conventional view, demonstrating that the catalytic triad of this family of acetyltransferases is plastic. Moreover, they highlight the need for further study of the evolutionary history of NATs and the functional significance of the predominant Cys-His-Asp triad in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic forms. PMID:23770703

  13. Structure-based molecular design for thermostabilization of N-acetyltransferase Mpr1 involved in a novel pathway of L-arginine synthesis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Nasuno, Ryo; Hirase, Saeka; Norifune, Saki; Watanabe, Daisuke; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Previously, N-Acetyltransferase Mpr1 was suggested to be involved in a novel pathway of L-arginine biosynthesis in yeast. Our recent crystallographic analysis demonstrated that the overall structure of Mpr1 is a typical folding among proteins in the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily, and also provided clues to the design of mutations for improvement of the enzymatic functions. Here, we constructed new stable variants, Asn203Lys- and Asn203Arg-Mpr1, which exhibited 2.4-fold and 2.2-fold longer activity half-lives than wild-type Mpr1, respectively, by structure-based molecular design. The replacement of Asn203 with a basic amino acid was suggested to stabilize α-helix 2, which is important for the Mpr1 structure, probably by neutralizing its dipole. In addition, the combination of two amino acid substitutions at positions 65 and 203 in Mpr1, Phe65Leu, which was previously isolated by the screening from PCR random mutagenesis library of MPR1, and Asn203Lys or Asn203Arg, led to further stabilization of Mpr1. Our growth assay suggests that overexpression of the stable Mpr1 variants increase L-arginine synthesis in yeast cells. Our finding is the first report on the rational engineering of Mpr1 for thermostabilization and could be useful in the construction of new yeast strains with higher L-arginine synthetic activity and also improved fermentation ability. PMID:26454877

  14. Mechanism of the lysosomal membrane enzyme acetyl coenzyme A: alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA:..cap alpha..-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase is a lysosomal membrane enzyme, deficient in the genetic disease Sanfilippo C syndrome. The enzyme catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA to terminal ..cap alpha..-glucosamine residues of heparan sulfate within the organelle. The reaction mechanism was examined using high purified lysosomal membranes from rat liver and human fibroblasts. The N-acetyltransferase reaction is optimal above pH 5.5 and a 2-3 fold stimulation of activity is observed in the presence of 0.1% taurodeoxycholate. Double reciprocal analysis and product inhibition studies indicate that the enzyme works by a Di-Iso Ping Pong Bi Bi mechanism. The binding of acetyl-CoA to the enzyme is measured by exchange label from (/sup 3/H)CoA to acetyl-CoA, and is optimal at pH's above 7.0. The acetyl-enzyme intermediate is formed by incubating membranes with (/sup 3/H)acetyl-CoA. The acetyl group can be transferred to glucosamine, forming (/sup 3/H)N-acetylglucosamine; the transfer is optimal between pH 4 and 5. Lysosomal membranes from Sanfilippo C fibroblasts confirm that these half reactions carried out by the N-acetyltransferase. The enzyme is inactivated by N-bromosuccinimide and diethylpyrocarbonate, indicating that a histidine is involved in the reaction. These results suggest that the histidine residue is at the active site of the enzyme. The properties of the N-acetyltransferase in the membrane, the characterization of the enzyme kinetics, the chemistry of a histidine mediated acetylation and the pH difference across the lysosomal membrane all support a transmembrane acetylation mechanism.

  15. Effect of high-dose ciclosporin on the immune response to primary and booster vaccination in immunocompetent cats.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Elizabeth S; VanLare, Karen A; Roycroft, Linda M; King, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Ciclosporin (Atopica oral solution for cats 100 mg/ml; Novartis Animal Health) was recently approved for use in cats with feline hypersensitivity dermatitis. The immunosuppressant effect of ciclosporin on the ability of cats to mount an immune response following vaccination was determined. Thirty-two healthy, immunocompetent adult cats (16 cats/group) were treated with either ciclosporin for 56 days at a dose of 24 mg/kg once daily or sham dosed. Prior to treatment, cats had an adequate antibody response to primary vaccination against feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and rabies. Booster vaccination or novel vaccination with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was administered 28 days after initiation of treatment with ciclosporin. There were no differences between the ciclosporin-treated and control cats for FCV and FPV antibody titers following booster vaccination. There were delays/reductions in antibody response to FHV-1, FeLV and rabies in treated cats; however, adequate protection was achieved in response to all booster vaccinations. Following primary vaccination with FIV, control cats showed a response, but treated cats showed no antibody production. Adverse events commonly associated with ciclosporin treatment, including diarrhea/loose stool, vomiting, salivation and regurgitation, were reported. In adult cats treated with 24 mg/kg/day of ciclosporin (more than three times the therapeutic dose), vaccine titer levels were adequate for protection following booster vaccination. In contrast, treated cats failed to mount a humoral response to a novel (FIV) vaccination, suggesting that memory B-cell immune responses remain intact during repeated high-dose ciclosporin administration in cats, but that primary immune responses are impaired. PMID:24820998

  16. A review of feral cat control.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sheilah A

    2008-08-01

    Animal overpopulation including feral cats is an important global problem. There are many stakeholders involved in the feral cat debate over 'what to do about the problem', including those who consider them a nuisance, the public at risk from zoonotic disease, people who are concerned about the welfare of feral cats, those concerned with wildlife impacts, and the cats themselves. How best to control this population is controversial and has ranged from culling, relocation, and more recently 'trap neuter return' (TNR) methods. Data support the success of TNR in reducing cat populations, but to have a large impact it will have to be adopted on a far greater scale than it is currently practised. Non-surgical contraception is a realistic future goal. Because the feral cat problem was created by humans, concerted educational efforts on responsible pet ownership and the intrinsic value of animals is an integral part of a solution. PMID:17913531

  17. RNA Cytidine Acetyltransferase of Small-Subunit Ribosomal RNA: Identification of Acetylation Sites and the Responsible Acetyltransferase in Fission Yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Taoka, Masato; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Nobe, Yuko; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Terukina, Goro; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Hirota, Kouji; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Isobe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) has two evolutionarily conserved acetylcytidines. However, the acetylation sites and the acetyltransferase responsible for the acetylation have not been identified. We performed a comprehensive MS-based analysis covering the entire sequence of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, SSU rRNA and identified two acetylcytidines at positions 1297 and 1815 in the 3′ half of the rRNA. To identify the enzyme responsible for the cytidine acetylation, we searched for an S. pombe gene homologous to TmcA, a bacterial tRNA N-acetyltransferase, and found one potential candidate, Nat10. A temperature-sensitive strain of Nat10 with a mutation in the Walker A type ATP-binding motif abolished the cytidine acetylation in SSU rRNA, and the wild-type Nat10 supplemented to this strain recovered the acetylation, providing evidence that Nat10 is necessary for acetylation of SSU rRNA. The Nat10 mutant strain showed a slow-growth phenotype and was defective in forming the SSU rRNA from the precursor RNA, suggesting that cytidine acetylation is necessary for ribosome assembly. PMID:25402480

  18. Conformational flexibility and subunit arrangement of the modular yeast Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase complex.

    PubMed

    Setiaputra, Dheva; Ross, James D; Lu, Shan; Cheng, Derrick T; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Yip, Calvin K

    2015-04-17

    The Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex is a highly conserved, 19-subunit histone acetyltransferase complex that activates transcription through acetylation and deubiquitination of nucleosomal histones in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because SAGA has been shown to display conformational variability, we applied gradient fixation to stabilize purified SAGA and systematically analyzed this flexibility using single-particle EM. Our two- and three-dimensional studies show that SAGA adopts three major conformations, and mutations of specific subunits affect the distribution among these. We also located the four functional modules of SAGA using electron microscopy-based labeling and transcriptional activator binding analyses and show that the acetyltransferase module is localized in the most mobile region of the complex. We further comprehensively mapped the subunit interconnectivity of SAGA using cross-linking mass spectrometry, revealing that the Spt and Taf subunits form the structural core of the complex. These results provide the necessary restraints for us to generate a model of the spatial arrangement of all SAGA subunits. According to this model, the chromatin-binding domains of SAGA are all clustered in one face of the complex that is highly flexible. Our results relate information of overall SAGA structure with detailed subunit level interactions, improving our understanding of its architecture and flexibility. PMID:25713136

  19. Conformational Flexibility and Subunit Arrangement of the Modular Yeast Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Setiaputra, Dheva; Ross, James D.; Lu, Shan; Cheng, Derrick T.; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Yip, Calvin K.

    2015-01-01

    The Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex is a highly conserved, 19-subunit histone acetyltransferase complex that activates transcription through acetylation and deubiquitination of nucleosomal histones in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because SAGA has been shown to display conformational variability, we applied gradient fixation to stabilize purified SAGA and systematically analyzed this flexibility using single-particle EM. Our two- and three-dimensional studies show that SAGA adopts three major conformations, and mutations of specific subunits affect the distribution among these. We also located the four functional modules of SAGA using electron microscopy-based labeling and transcriptional activator binding analyses and show that the acetyltransferase module is localized in the most mobile region of the complex. We further comprehensively mapped the subunit interconnectivity of SAGA using cross-linking mass spectrometry, revealing that the Spt and Taf subunits form the structural core of the complex. These results provide the necessary restraints for us to generate a model of the spatial arrangement of all SAGA subunits. According to this model, the chromatin-binding domains of SAGA are all clustered in one face of the complex that is highly flexible. Our results relate information of overall SAGA structure with detailed subunit level interactions, improving our understanding of its architecture and flexibility. PMID:25713136

  20. MOZ and MORF acetyltransferases: Molecular interaction, animal development and human disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Jiao

    2015-08-01

    Lysine residues are subject to many forms of covalent modification and one such modification is acetylation of the ε-amino group. Initially identified on histone proteins in the 1960s, lysine acetylation is now considered as an important form of post-translational modification that rivals phosphorylation. However, only about a dozen of human lysine acetyltransferases have been identified. Among them are MOZ (monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein; a.k.a. MYST3 and KAT6A) and its paralog MORF (a.k.a. MYST4 and KAT6B). Although there is a distantly related protein in Drosophila and sea urchin, these two enzymes are vertebrate-specific. They form tetrameric complexes with BRPF1 (bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1) and two small non-catalytic subunits. These two acetyltransferases and BRPF1 play key roles in various developmental processes; for example, they are important for development of hematopoietic and neural stem cells. The human KAT6A and KAT6B genes are recurrently mutated in leukemia, non-hematologic malignancies, and multiple developmental disorders displaying intellectual disability and various other abnormalities. In addition, the BRPF1 gene is mutated in childhood leukemia and adult medulloblastoma. Therefore, these two acetyltransferases and their partner BRPF1 are important in animal development and human disease. PMID:25920810

  1. Assay for peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase: a potential new antibacterial target.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Patrick J; Clarke, Anthony J

    2013-08-15

    The O-acetylation of peptidoglycan occurs at the C-6 hydroxyl group of muramoyl residues in many human pathogens, both gram positive and gram negative, such as Staphylococcus aureus and species of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Neisseria, and Bacillus, including Bacillus anthracis. The process is a maturation event being catalyzed either by integral membrane O-acetylpeptidoglycan transferase (Oat) of gram-positive bacteria or by a two-component peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase system (PatA/PatB) in gram-negative cells. Here, we describe the development of the first in vitro assay for any peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase using PatB from Neisseria gonorrhoeae as the model enzyme. This assay is based on the use of chromogenic p-nitrophenyl acetate as the donor substrate and chitooligosaccharides as model acceptor substrates in place of peptidoglycan. The identity of the O-acetylated chitooligosaccharides was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Rates of transacetylations were determined spectrophotometrically by monitoring p-nitrophenol release after accounting for both spontaneous and enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of the acetate donor. Conditions were established for use of the assay in microtiter plate format, and its applicability was demonstrated by determining the first Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters for PatB. The assay is readily amenable for application in the high-throughput screening for potential inhibitors of peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferases that may prove to be leads for novel classes of antibiotics. PMID:23660013

  2. Suspected epidural morphine analgesia induced chronic urinary and bowel dysfunction in a cat.

    PubMed

    Song, Rachel B; Cross, Johnny R; Golder, Francis J; Callan, Mary Beth

    2011-08-01

    A 12-year-old male castrated domestic shorthair developed chronic urinary retention, constipation and a decreased perineal reflex following a single lumbo-sacral epidural injection of morphine during general anesthesia. Similar adverse effects have been reported in humans following epidural analgesia, but this is the first reported case of both urinary and bowel dysfunction in a cat purportedly from an epidural. The cat was medically managed with manual bladder expressions, intermittent enemas, and various medications including bethanechol, cisapride and stool softeners. The cat continues to have long-term neurologic dysfunction 15 months post-onset. This case report describes a rare but serious potential risk of lumbo-sacral epidural injections in cats. PMID:21571562

  3. Parasite meningomyelitis in cats in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Rodolfo; Matto, Carolina; Adrien, María de Lourdes; Nan, Fernando; Bell, Todd; Gardiner, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Two outbreaks of progressive hind limb paresis in cats (Felis catus) caused by parasitic meningomyelitis in Uruguay are reported. The case studies occurred in 2008 and 2009 respectively, in the rural areas of Fray Bentos (33° 07' 40.39'' S) and were characterized by hindquarter paralysis. This paralysis was progressive and had a chronic progression of approximately 12 months until the death or euthanasia of the animals. Clinical symptoms started with ataxia of the hindquarters with lateral side-to-side swaying and culminated in total paralysis. Two animals were sent for necropsy in 2009. The main histopathological findings were severe myelitis in the lumbar spinal cord with perivascular cuffing and white matter necrosis, severe nonsuppurative meningitis with thrombi in subarachnoid blood vessels, and intravascular presence of multiple adult parasites. From the morphological characteristics of the parasites and location in the leptomeninges, the parasite was identified as the nematode Gurltia paralysans. PMID:21961761

  4. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh. PMID:26901499

  5. Axial pattern skin flaps in cats.

    PubMed

    Remedios, A M; Bauer, M S; Bowen, C V; Fowler, J D

    1991-01-01

    The major direct cutaneous vessels identified in the cat include the omocervical, thoracodorsal, deep circumflex iliac, and caudal superficial epigastric arteries. Axial pattern skin flaps based on the thoracodorsal and caudal superficial epigastric arteries have been developed in cats. Rotation of these flaps as islands allows skin coverage to the carpus and metatarsus, respectively. The thoracodorsal and caudal superficial epigastric flaps provide a practical, one-step option in the reconstruction of large skin defects involving the distal extremities of cats. PMID:2011063

  6. Cats and Toxoplasma: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Dabritz, H A; Conrad, P A

    2010-02-01

    Cats are popular as pets worldwide because they are easy to care for and provide companionship that enriches the lives of human beings. Little attention has been focused on their potential to contaminate the environment with zoonotic pathogens. One such pathogen, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, rarely causes clinical manifestations in cats or immunocompetent humans; however, it can have serious adverse effects on human foetuses and immunocompromised patients. Many human infections are believed to be acquired from eating undercooked or raw meat, such as pork and lamb (Tenter et al. Int. J. Parasitol., 30, 2000, 1217; Dubey et al. J. Parasitol. 91, 2005, 1082). However, the prevalence of T. gondii infection in human populations that do not consume meat or eat it well-cooked suggests that the acquisition of infection from the environment, via oocysts in soil, water or on uncooked vegetables, is also important (Rawal. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 53, 1959, 61; Roghmann et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60, 1999, 790; Chacin-Bonilla et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 65, 2001, 131). In the past 20 years, two changes occurred that significantly increased the size of the cat population in the USA. Pet cat ownership grew from 50 million to 90 million animals, and animal welfare activists created feeding stations for abandoned and free-roaming cats. As many cat owners allow their cats to deposit faeces outside and cats maintained in colonies always defecate outside, ample opportunity exists for T. gondii oocysts to enter the environment and be transmitted to humans. Prevention efforts should focus on educating cat owners about the importance of collecting cat faeces in litter boxes, spaying owned cats to reduce overpopulation, reducing the numbers of feral cats and promoting rigorous hand hygiene after gardening or soil contact. PMID:19744306

  7. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  8. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  9. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  10. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  11. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  12. Contrasting clinical outcomes in two cohorts of cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

    PubMed Central

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M.; Litster, Annette; Lin, Tsang Long; Mellor, Dominic J.; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite over 25 years of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) research, relatively little is known about the longitudinal course of FIV infection following natural infection. In contrast to published reports of experimental infections using lethal strains of the virus, clinical signs of naturally acquired FIV infection can be mild or inapparent, rather than life-threatening. In this prospective, longitudinal controlled study, based in Chicago, IL (n = 17) and Memphis, TN (n = 27), we investigated two cohorts of privately owned, naturally infected cats kept under different housing conditions. Cats in the Chicago cohort (Group 1) were kept in households of ≤2 cats, while the Memphis cohort (Group 2) comprised part of a large multi-cat household of over 60 cats kept indoors only, with unrestricted access to one another. The majority of cats from Group 1 did not display clinical signs consistent with immunodeficiency during the 22-month observation period. In contrast, the outcome of infection in Group 2 was dramatically different; 17/27 (63%) of cats lost a median of 51.3% of their bodyweight (P < 0.0005) and died during the study period, with lymphoma being the most common cause of mortality. Although the decrease in CD4+ T cell count between enrolment and terminal disease was significant (P = 0.0017), the CD4:CD8 ratio at the time of enrolment did not reliably distinguish FIV-positive cats classified as ‘healthy’ and ‘not healthy’ at either cohort. FIV load at enrolment was significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P < 0.0001), but there were no significant differences at enrolment between healthy and not healthy cats at either group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that management and housing conditions impact on disease progression and survival times of FIV-positive cats. PMID:25595267

  13. Detection of seasonal weight loss and a serologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Pallas' cats (Felis [Otocolobus] manul) of the Daurian Steppe, Russia.

    PubMed

    Naidenko, Sergey V; Pavlova, Ekaterina V; Kirilyuk, Vadim E

    2014-04-01

    We measured seasonal changes in body mass and pathogen exposure in wild Pallas' cats (Felis [Otocolobus] manul) in the Daurian Steppe of Russia in 2010-11. Pallas' cats lost about 30% of body mass over winter. Tests for antibodies to 15 potential pathogens showed that Pallas' cats were exposed to four pathogens. Two of 16 cats had antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Two had antibodies to Mycoplasma sp., and one each had antibodies to Influenza A virus and Feline leukemia virus. The percentage of antibody-positive wild Pallas' cats was lower than results reported for other wild felids in the Russian Far East. PMID:24484481

  14. Molecular detection and characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. among breeding cattery cats in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoichi; Itoh, Naoyuki; Kimura, Yuya; Kanai, Kazutaka

    2016-05-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. are pathogenic protozoan that can cause gastrointestinal illness in mammalian hosts. As a result of the close contact between humans and cats, there is concern regarding the potential zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. from infected cats; however, few data have been reported regarding the prevalence of this pathogen among cats. Here, we report the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. among breeding cattery cats in Japan. A total of 286 fresh fecal samples were collected from breeding cattery cats at seven facilities located across Japan. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene was employed for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. Four cats (1.4 %), from two catteries, were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. Age and fecal condition were not significantly associated with prevalence. The four positive samples displayed 99-100 % sequence similarity to Cryptosporidium felis sequences. Our findings indicated that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was low among breeding cattery cats in Japan, and therefore the risk of zoonotic transmission to humans was also likely to be low. PMID:26960959

  15. The Enok acetyltransferase complex interacts with Elg1 and negatively regulates PCNA unloading to promote the G1/S transition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fu; Saraf, Anita; Florens, Laurence; Kusch, Thomas; Swanson, Selene K; Szerszen, Leanne T; Li, Ge; Dutta, Arnob; Washburn, Michael P; Abmayr, Susan M; Workman, Jerry L

    2016-05-15

    KAT6 histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are highly conserved in eukaryotes and are involved in cell cycle regulation. However, information regarding their roles in regulating cell cycle progression is limited. Here, we report the identification of subunits of the Drosophila Enok complex and demonstrate that all subunits are important for its HAT activity. We further report a novel interaction between the Enok complex and the Elg1 proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-unloader complex. Depletion of Enok in S2 cells resulted in a G1/S cell cycle block, and this block can be partially relieved by depleting Elg1. Furthermore, depletion of Enok reduced the chromatin-bound levels of PCNA in both S2 cells and early embryos, suggesting that the Enok complex may interact with the Elg1 complex and down-regulate its PCNA-unloading function to promote the G1/S transition. Supporting this hypothesis, depletion of Enok also partially rescued the endoreplication defects in Elg1-depleted nurse cells. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the roles of KAT6 HATs in cell cycle regulation through modulating PCNA levels on chromatin. PMID:27198229

  16. Large granular lymphocyte leukemia/lymphoma in six cats.

    PubMed

    Darbès, J; Majzoub, M; Breuer, W; Hermanns, W

    1998-09-01

    This report describes six cases of feline large granular lymphocyte lymphoma identified by light microscopy on the basis of their characteristic azurophilic granulation in Giemsa-stained plastic sections and by electron microscopy on the basis of their typical granules. Although the granules of all the tumor cells were negative for peroxidase activity, they all demonstrated chloroacetate-esterase and acid phosphatase activity. All the tumors reacted with cross-reacting antibodies against the CD3 antigen (epsilon chain) and did not react with a cross-reacting monoclonal antibody directed against epitopes on cytoplasmic domains of the CD20 antigen. Three tumors had a positive reaction with a monoclonal human CD57-like antibody. This is highly suggestive of either a cytotoxic T cell or a natural killer cell origin of the neoplasias. In three cats, although other abdominal organs were affected to a variable extent, the main neoplastic lesions were localized in the gastrointestinal tract and the jejunal lymph nodes. In contrast, in the other three cats, organ involvement was more widespread, affecting the lung (two), myocardium (two), precardiac mediastinum (one), salivary gland (one), and spinal cord (one); in addition, leukemia was present in two of these cats. The data presented indicate that tumors made up of large granular lymphocytes occur more frequently in cats than previously assumed and that they share many characteristic features with specific subtypes of clonal disorders of large granular lymphocytes in humans. PMID:9754542

  17. Retrobulbar lymphoma associated with a ballistic foreign body in a cat.

    PubMed

    Robat, C; Bemelmans, I; Marescaux, L

    2016-04-01

    A seven-year-old domestic shorthair cat, adopted 5 years previously with a corneal perforation of the left eye, was presented for investigation of a left orbital mass. Computed tomography revealed a metallic foreign body within a contrast-enhancing, heterogeneous orbital mass. Large cell lymphoma was diagnosed from a fine needle aspirate. The cat staged negatively and was treated with L-asparaginase, prednisolone and three fractions of radiation therapy. A rapid clinical remission was obtained and the cat remained in remission for 3 years after therapy. This is the first report of large cell lymphoma likely occurring secondary to a foreign body. PMID:26290463

  18. Clinical signs, MRI features, and outcomes of two cats with thiamine deficiency secondary to diet change

    PubMed Central

    Moon, So-Jeung; Kang, Min-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Two cats were presented with vestibular signs and seizures. Both cats were diagnosed with thiamine deficiency. The transverse and dorsal T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed the presence of bilateral hyperintense lesions at specific nuclei of the midbrain, cerebellum, and brainstem. After thiamine supplementation, the clinical signs gradually improved. Repeated MR images taken 3 weeks after thiamine supplementation had started showed that the lesions were nearly resolved. This case report describes the clinical and MR findings associated with thiamine deficiency in two cats. PMID:23820206

  19. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  20. Proteinuria in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  1. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-07-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats' impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on "predation awareness" campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  2. The D-Optimality Item Selection Criterion in the Early Stage of CAT: A Study with the Graded Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E. S.

    2008-01-01

    During the early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), item selection criteria based on Fisher"s information often produce less stable latent trait estimates than the Kullback-Leibler global information criterion. Robustness against early stage instability has been reported for the D-optimality criterion in a polytomous CAT with the…

  3. Experimental proliferative glomerulonephritis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Bishop, S A; Stokes, C R; Lucke, V M

    1992-01-01

    A model of chronic serum sickness was used to induce immune-complex glomerulonephritis in seven experimental cats, by daily intravenous inoculation of an increasing dose (5 to 35 mg) of human serum albumin (HSA). At week four, two of the seven animals developed anterior uveitis. At week 23, two different animals developed the subcutaneous oedema characteristic of the nephrotic syndrome (NS), whilst the other five cats appeared clinically normal. The kidneys were examined at necropsy by light microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy. The glomeruli of four animals (three with both proteinuria and uraemia, and one with proteinuria only) showed morphological changes under light microscopy. The abnormalities suggested that a diffuse mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) had been induced in three cats and diffuse membranoproliferative GN induced in another. Ultrastructural studies revealed electron-dense deposits (immune-complexes) in six of the seven cats. Two cats without glomerular abnormalities by light microscopy had mesangial deposits and three cats with mesangial proliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial and/or subepithelial sites. The single cat with membranoproliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial, subepithelial and intramembranous sites. Immunohistological examination (peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique) showed that HSA and immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM) were deposited in the glomeruli of these cats. Deposits were the most dense in cats with more severe renal lesions. Deposits of IgM were most abundant. An extensive cellular infiltrate, comprising macrophages, neutrophils and plasma cells, was observed only in the four animals which showed abnormalities in glomerular ultrastructure. The disease induced in these cats thus appears to differ from the membranous nephropathy previously described in the cat and bears a close resemblance to immune complex (IC) disease in man. In view of the relatively few specific

  4. Adrenocortical suppression in cats given megestrol acetate.

    PubMed

    Chastain, C B; Graham, C L; Nichols, C E

    1981-12-01

    Megestrol acetate was given orally to 8 cats at a dose of 2.5 mg every other day for 2 weeks and to 8 cats at a dose of 5.0 mg every day for 2 weeks. Four cats were designated nontreated controls. Pre-ACTH-stimulated plasma concentrations of cortisol (hydrocortisone) and ACTH-stimulated cortisol and tolerance to large-dose glucose infusion (IV) were determined on each of the 20 cats given megestrol acetate. Cats were restrained with acepromazine maleate and ketamine hydrochloride during blood sample collection and large-dose glucose infusion. Adrenocortical function and tolerance to large-dose glucose infusion were reevaluated for 4 weeks--after 1st and 2nd weeks of megestrol acetate treatment of the treated groups, and after 1st and 2nd weeks when treatment was stopped (ie, experiment weeks 3 and 4). Each week a cat from the control group and 2 cats from the 2 treated groups were selected to determine the changes occurring during the experiment for that week; after collection of plasma samples, each week's 5 selected cats were euthanatized and necropsied. Significant impairment of adrenocortical function and alteration of adrenocortical morphology occurred with both treated groups. The most severe adrenocortical alterations occurred in the cats 1 week after megestrol acetate was no longer given (ie, experiment week 3). Megestrol acetate-induced adrenocortical suppression contributed to the death of 1 cat. It was concluded that if stress occurs to cats on treatment or soon after treatment with megestrol acetate, glucocorticoids should be supplemented. The effects of megestrol acetate on glucose tolerance were overshadowed by the unforeseen intolerance caused by chemical restraint with acepromazine maleate and ketamine hydrochloride. PMID:6280517

  5. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views. PMID:26319524

  6. Reproductive patterns of pedigree cats.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, I

    1987-07-01

    A survey of Brisbane catteries was carried out to investigate reproductive patterns of pedigree cats. Eighteen breeders supplied data on 751 litters with a total of 3171 kittens covering the Persian, Chinchilla, Siamese, Burmese and Abyssinian breeds. The overall sex ratio at birth was 100 males to 92 females. There was a significant seasonal effect on sex ratio with litters conceived during the wet season (September to February) producing more males than expected and litters conceived during the dry season producing more females than expected. Litter size and breed had no significant effect on the sex ratio. The average litter size varied with the breed with the most prolific being the Burmese (5.0) then the Siamese (4.5), Persian (3.9), Abyssinian (3.5) and Chinchilla (2.8). The average litter size was smaller for the first litter than for the subsequent 3 litters. The maximum average litter size was reached at 6 years with only a moderate decline thereafter. There was a seasonal fluctuation in births with the greatest numbers being born in spring and the least in late autumn. Longhair cats showed a more marked seasonal distribution of births than the shorthairs which reproduced for most of the year, particularly the Burmese breed. PMID:3675409

  7. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek, and chives), macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas, and currants), products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages, and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature. PMID:27047944

  8. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats

    PubMed Central

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek, and chives), macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas, and currants), products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages, and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature. PMID:27047944

  9. Primary hyperaldosteronism, a mediator of progressive renal disease in cats.

    PubMed

    Javadi, S; Djajadiningrat-Laanen, S C; Kooistra, H S; van Dongen, A M; Voorhout, G; van Sluijs, F J; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Boer, W H; Rijnberk, A

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in primary hyperaldosteronism, particularly because of its possible role in the progression of kidney disease. While most studies have concerned humans and experimental animal models, we here report on the occurrence of a spontaneous form of (non-tumorous) primary hyperaldosteronism in cats. At presentation, the main physical features of 11 elderly cats were hypokalemic paroxysmal flaccid paresis and loss of vision due to retinal detachment with hemorrhages. Primary hyperaldosteronism was diagnosed on the basis of plasma concentrations of aldosterone (PAC) and plasma renin activity (PRA), and the calculation of the PAC:PRA ratio. In all animals, PACs were at the upper end or higher than the reference range. The PRAs were at the lower end of the reference range, and the PAC:PRA ratios exceeded the reference range. Diagnostic imaging by ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed no or only very minor changes in the adrenals compatible with nodular hyperplasia. Adrenal gland histopathology revealed extensive micronodular hyperplasia extending from zona glomerulosa into the zona fasciculata and reticularis. In three cats, plasma urea and creatinine concentrations were normal when hyperaldosteronism was diagnosed but thereafter increased to above the upper limit of the respective reference range. In the other eight cats, urea and creatinine concentrations were raised at first examination and gradually further increased. Even in end-stage renal insufficiency, there was a tendency to hypophosphatemia rather than to hyperphosphatemia. The histopathological changes in the kidneys mimicked those of humans with hyperaldosteronism: hyaline arteriolar sclerosis, glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The non-tumorous form of primary hyperaldosteronism in cats has many similarities with "idiopathic" primary hyperaldosteronism in humans. The condition is associated with progressive renal disease

  10. Himalayan fossils of the oldest known pantherine establish ancient origin of big cats

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Z. Jack; Wang, Xiaoming; Slater, Graham J.; Takeuchi, Gary T.; Li, Qiang; Liu, Juan; Xie, Guangpu

    2014-01-01

    Pantherine felids (‘big cats’) include the largest living cats, apex predators in their respective ecosystems. They are also the earliest diverging living cat lineage, and thus are important for understanding the evolution of all subsequent felid groups. Although the oldest pantherine fossils occur in Africa, molecular phylogenies point to Asia as their region of origin. This paradox cannot be reconciled using current knowledge, mainly because early big cat fossils are exceedingly rare and fragmentary. Here, we report the discovery of a fossil pantherine from the Tibetan Himalaya, with an age of Late Miocene–Early Pliocene, replacing African records as the oldest pantherine. A ‘total evidence’ phylogenetic analysis of pantherines indicates that the new cat is closely related to the snow leopard and exhibits intermediate characteristics on the evolutionary line to the largest cats. Historical biogeographic models provide robust support for the Asian origin of pantherines. The combined analyses indicate that 75% of the divergence events in the pantherine lineage extended back to the Miocene, up to 7 Myr earlier than previously estimated. The deeper evolutionary origin of big cats revealed by the new fossils and analyses indicate a close association between Tibetan Plateau uplift and diversification of the earliest living cats. PMID:24225466

  11. Clinical evaluation of medetomidine, a novel sedative and analgesic drug for dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Vähä-Vahe, T

    1989-01-01

    Medetomidine, a potent alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, was investigated in open, multicenter clinical trials with patients of various canine and feline breeds (1736 dogs and 678 cats). The purpose of the study was to find an optimal dose of medetomidine for sedation and analgesia in clinical practice and to study how well the intended procedure could be performed under the influence of the drug. The mean dose (i.m.) of medetomidine used for examinations, clinical procedures and minor surgical interventions was 40 micrograms/kg, and for radiography 30 micrograms/kg. In cats the dose was 80-110 micrograms/kg. On the doses chosen, almost all animals were recumbent and 72% of the dogs and 85% of the cats were in a slight anaesthetic stage, unable to rise. The evaluation of the overall suitability of medetomidine (% of cases) in different indications was "very satisfactory" or "satisfactory" in 95% of dogs and 81-96% of cats. Side effects reported were limited almost exclusively to vomiting and muscle jerking in dogs (12% and 0.5% of the cases) and to vomiting in cats (65%). Medetomidine seems to suffice for pharmacological restraint of dogs and cats. The concomitant use of medetomidine (80-100 micrograms/kg) and ketamine (7 mg/kg) in cats (n = 295) provided a good anaesthesia (20-40 min). The recovery was smooth. The present study shows that medetomidine provides an effective level of sedation and analgesia for clinical use. PMID:2698057

  12. Peribronchiolar fibrosis in lungs of cats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, D.M.; Plopper, C.G.; Weir, A.J.; Murnane, R.D.; Warren, D.L.; Last, J.A.; Pepelko, W.E.

    1985-02-01

    This study reports the quantitative changes in the pulmonary proximal acinar region following chronic exposure to diesel exhaust and following an additional 6 months in clean air. Cats (13 months of age) from a minimum disease colony were exposed to clean air (eight cats for 27 months and nine cats for 33 months), diesel exhaust for 8 hours/day, 7 days/week (nine cats for 27 months), or diesel exhaust for 27 months followed by 6 months in clean air (10 cats). Morphologic and morphometric evaluation using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed two major exposure-related lesions in proximal acinar regions of lungs of cats: peribronchiolar fibrosis associated with significant increases in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and interstitial macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions and bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia associated with the presence of ciliated and basal cells and alveolar macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions. Peribronchiolar fibrosis was greater at the end of the 6 months in clean air following exposure, whereas the bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia was most severe at the end of exposure. Following an additional 6 months in clean air the epithelium more closely resembled the control epithelial cell population. The labeling index of terminal bronchiolar epithelium was significantly increased at the end of exposure but was not significantly different from controls or exposed cats following an additional 6 months in clean air. The ultrastructural appearance of epithelial cells remained relatively unchanged following diesel exhaust exposure with the exception of diesel particulate-like inclusions.

  13. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  14. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of cats on Mars, the…

  15. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  16. Severe congenital myasthenia gravis of the presynaptic type with choline acetyltransferase mutation in a Chinese infant with respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Wai L; Lam, Ching W; Fung, Lai W E; Hon, Kam L E; Ng, Pak C

    2009-01-01

    We report a severe case of congenital myasthenia gravis in a Chinese newborn who presented with complete ptosis, severe hypotonia, dysphagia and respiratory insufficiency with recurrent apnea that required mechanical ventilatory support since birth. Routine neurophysiologic studies, including the 3-Hz repetitive stimulation test and electromyogram were normal. Neostigmine and edrophonium tests were also negative. However, decremental response to 3-Hz stimulation became apparent after depleting the muscles with trains of 10-Hz stimuli for 10 min. The infant was subsequently confirmed to have heterozygous mutations in the choline acetyltransferase genes, p.T553N and p.S704P. Both missense mutations are novel mutations. The child remained on positive pressure ventilation at 3 years of age despite treatment with high-dose anticholinesterase. This case highlights the difficulty of making an early diagnosis based on clinical presentation and routine electrophysiologic tests, especially when neonatologists are not familiar with this condition. Further, as there are different genetic defects causing different types of congenital myasthenia gravis, anticholinesterase therapy may be beneficial to some but detrimental to others. Therefore, the exact molecular diagnosis is an important guide to therapy. A high index of suspicion coupled with extended electrodiagnostic tests in clinically suspected patients will ensure the selection of appropriate genetic molecular study for confirming the diagnosis. PMID:18797171

  17. Nuclear Arc Interacts with the Histone Acetyltransferase Tip60 to Modify H4K12 Acetylation1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Caroline L.; Teo, Shaun; Oey, Nicodemus E.; Wright, Graham D.; VanDongen, Hendrika M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arc is an immediate-early gene whose genetic ablation selectively abrogates long-term memory, indicating a critical role in memory consolidation. Although Arc protein is found at synapses, it also localizes to the neuronal nucleus, where its function is less understood. Nuclear Arc forms a complex with the β-spectrin isoform βSpIVΣ5 and associates with PML bodies, sites of epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We report here a novel interaction between Arc and Tip60, a histone-acetyltransferase and subunit of a chromatin-remodelling complex, using biochemistry and super-resolution microscopy in primary rat hippocampal neurons. Arc and βSpIVΣ5 are recruited to nuclear Tip60 speckles, and the three proteins form a tight complex that localizes to nuclear perichromatin regions, sites of transcriptional activity. Neuronal activity-induced expression of Arc (1) increases endogenous nuclear Tip60 puncta, (2) recruits Tip60 to PML bodies, and (3) increases histone acetylation of Tip60 substrate H4K12, a learning-induced chromatin modification. These mechanisms point to an epigenetic role for Arc in regulating memory consolidation. PMID:26464963

  18. Acetyl-L-carnitine restores choline acetyltransferase activity in the hippocampus of rats with partial unilateral fimbria-fornix transection.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, P; Quatrini, G; Pacifici, L; Taglialatela, G; Angelucci, L

    1995-02-01

    Transection of the fimbria-fornix bundle in adult rats results in degeneration of the septohippocampal cholinergic pathway, reminiscent of that occurring in aging as well as Alzheimer disease. We report here a study of the effect of a treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) in three-month-old Fischer 344 rats bearing a partial unilateral fimbria-fornix transection. ALCAR is known to ameliorate some morphological and functional disturbances in the aged central nervous system (CNS). We used choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) as markers of central cholinergic function, and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels as indicative of the trophic regulation of the medio-septal cholinergic system. ChAT and AChE activities were significantly reduced in the hippocampus (HIPP) ipsilateral to the lesion as compared to the contralateral one, while no changes were observed in the septum (SPT), nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) or frontal cortex (FCX). ALCAR treatment restored ChAT activity in the ipsilateral HIPP, while AChE levels were not different from those of untreated animals, and did not affect NGF content in either SPT or HIPP. PMID:7793306

  19. Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies of specific, small molecule activator of histone acetyltransferase p300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Partha P.; Pavan Kumar, G. V.; Mantelingu, Kempegowda; Kundu, Tapas K.; Narayana, Chandrabhas

    2011-07-01

    We report for the first time, the Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of N-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-2-ethoxy-benzamide (CTB). This molecule is specific activator of human histone acetyltransferase (HAT), p300, and serves as lead molecule to design anti-neoplastic therapeutics. A detailed Raman and SERS band assignments have been performed for CTB, which are compared with the density functional theory calculations. The observed red shift of N sbnd H stretching frequency from the computed wavenumber indicates the weakening of N sbnd H bond resulting from proton transfer to the neighboring oxygen atom. We observe Ag sbnd N vibrational mode at 234 cm -1 in SERS of CTB. This indicates there is a metal-molecule bond leading to chemical enhancement in SERS. We also observe, enhancement in the modes pertaining to substituted benzene rings and methyl groups. Based on SERS analysis we propose the adsorption sites and the orientation of CTB on silver surface.

  20. Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity in rat cranial parasympathetic neurons: coexistence with vasoactive intestinal peptide and choline acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Leblanc, G.C.; Trimmer, B.A.; Landis, S.C.

    1987-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely distributed in the sympathetic nervous system, where it is colocalized with norepinephrine. The authors report here that NPY-immunoreactive neurons are also abundant in three cranial parasympathetic ganglia, the otic, sphenopalatine, and ciliary, in the rat measured by radioimmunoassay. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the immunoreactive material present in the otic ganglion indicates that this material is very similar to porcine NPY and indistinguishable from the NPY-like immunoreactivity present in rat sympathetic neurons. These findings raise the possibility that NPY acts as a neuromodulator in the parasympathetic as well as the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast to what had been observed for sympathetic neurons, NPY-immunoreactive neurons in cranial parasympathetic ganglia do not contain detectable catecholamines or tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, and many do contain immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal peptide and/or choline acetyltransferase. These findings suggest that there is no simple rule governing coexpression of NPY with norepinephrine, acetylcholine, or vasoactive intestinal peptide in autonomic neurons. Further, while functional studies have indicated that NPY exerts actions on the peripheral vasculature which are antagonistic to those of acetylcholine and vasoactive intestinal peptide, the present results raise the possibility that these three substances may have complementary effects on other target tissues.

  1. Survival of a cat with pneumonia due to cowpox virus and feline herpesvirus infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M S; Martin, M; Stone, B; Hetzel, U; Kipar, A

    2009-09-01

    Cowpox virus infection in cats is rare and usually leads to cutaneous lesions alone. Pulmonary infection and pneumonia have been documented occasionally but all such cases described to date have been fatal. Although usually affecting the upper respiratory tract, feline herpesvirus can also induce pneumonia. The present report describes the case of a cat that recovered from a pneumonia in which both poxvirus and feline herpesvirus were demonstrated. PMID:19769672

  2. The first record of American visceral leishmaniasis in domestic cats from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Alba Valéria Machado; de Souza Cândido, Claudia Dias; de Pita Pereira, Daniela; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Carreira, João Carlos Araujo

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the first to report visceral leishmaniasis in domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A relatively high seroprevalence of 25% was observed although none of them have presented any symptom. Our results support the observation of previous authors, suggesting that cats may be considered as alternative domestic hosts of visceral leishmaniasis and should be included in serological investigations performed in endemic areas. PMID:17953938

  3. Development of Cellular Absorptive Tracers (CATs) for a Quantitative Characterization of Microbial Mass in Flow Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Saripalli, Prasad; Brown, Christopher F.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2005-03-16

    We report on a new Cellular Absorptive Tracers (CATs) method, for a simple, non-destructive characterization of bacterial mass in flow systems. Results show that adsorption of a CAT molecule into the cellular mass results in its retardation during flow, which is a good, quantitative measure of the biomass quantity and distribution. No such methods are currently available for a quantitative characterization of cell mass.

  4. Primary immune-mediated neutropenia in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, Carly E.; Scott, Katherine D.; Bryan, Laura K.

    2014-01-01

    An 18-month-old male castrated indoor Himalayan cat was presented for recurrent fever, lethargy, and uveitis. Persistent neutropenia was identified and tests for infectious disease and bone marrow cytology were performed. Primary immune-mediated neutropenia was diagnosed and successfully treated. At the time of writing this report, 24 mo after the initial diagnosis. the patient was clinically normal and not receiving therapy. PMID:25392551

  5. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  6. Spontaneous occurrence of chromosome abnormality in cats.

    PubMed

    THULINE, H C; NORBY, D W

    1961-08-25

    A syndrome in male cats analogous to chromatin-positive Klinefelter's syndrome in human males has been demonstrated. The physical characteristics which suggested an abnormality of chromosome number in cats were "calico" or "tortoise-shell" coat colors in a male. Buccal mucosal smears were found to have "female-type" patterns in two out of 12 such male cats screened, and these two were found to have a diploid chromosome number of 39 rather than the normal 38. Testicular biopsy performed on one revealed an abnormal pattern; no gonadal tissue was found in the other cat with an abnormal chromosome number. These findings indicate that the cat, in addition to the mouse, is available for experimental study of chromosome number abnormalities. PMID:13776765

  7. New N-Acetyltransferase Fold in the Structure and Mechanism of the Phosphonate Biosynthetic Enzyme FrbF

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Brian; Cobb, Ryan E.; DeSieno, Matthew A.; Zhao, Huimin; Nair, Satish K.

    2015-10-15

    The enzyme FrbF from Streptomyces rubellomurinus has attracted significant attention due to its role in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial phosphonate FR-900098. The enzyme catalyzes acetyl transfer onto the hydroxamate of the FR-900098 precursors cytidine 5'-monophosphate-3-aminopropylphosphonate and cytidine 5'-monophosphate-N-hydroxy-3-aminopropylphosphonate. Despite the established function as a bona fide N-acetyltransferase, FrbF shows no sequence similarity to any member of the GCN5-like N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily. Here, we present the 2.0 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of FrbF in complex with acetyl-CoA, which demonstrates a unique architecture that is distinct from those of canonical GNAT-like acetyltransferases. We also utilized the co-crystal structure to guide structure-function studies that identified the roles of putative active site residues in the acetyltransferase mechanism. The combined biochemical and structural analyses of FrbF provide insights into this previously uncharacterized family of N-acetyltransferases and also provide a molecular framework toward the production of novel N-acyl derivatives of FR-900098.

  8. New N-acetyltransferase fold in the structure and mechanism of the phosphonate biosynthetic enzyme FrbF.

    PubMed

    Bae, Brian; Cobb, Ryan E; DeSieno, Matthew A; Zhao, Huimin; Nair, Satish K

    2011-10-14

    The enzyme FrbF from Streptomyces rubellomurinus has attracted significant attention due to its role in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial phosphonate FR-900098. The enzyme catalyzes acetyl transfer onto the hydroxamate of the FR-900098 precursors cytidine 5'-monophosphate-3-aminopropylphosphonate and cytidine 5'-monophosphate-N-hydroxy-3-aminopropylphosphonate. Despite the established function as a bona fide N-acetyltransferase, FrbF shows no sequence similarity to any member of the GCN5-like N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily. Here, we present the 2.0 Å resolution crystal structure of FrbF in complex with acetyl-CoA, which demonstrates a unique architecture that is distinct from those of canonical GNAT-like acetyltransferases. We also utilized the co-crystal structure to guide structure-function studies that identified the roles of putative active site residues in the acetyltransferase mechanism. The combined biochemical and structural analyses of FrbF provide insights into this previously uncharacterized family of N-acetyltransferases and also provide a molecular framework toward the production of novel N-acyl derivatives of FR-900098. PMID:21865168

  9. Minimization of Basis Risk in Parametric Earthquake Cat Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, G.

    2009-12-01

    A catastrophe -cat- bond is an instrument used by insurance and reinsurance companies, by governments or by groups of nations to cede catastrophic risk to the financial markets, which are capable of supplying cover for highly destructive events, surpassing the typical capacity of traditional reinsurance contracts. Parametric cat bonds, a specific type of cat bonds, use trigger mechanisms or indices that depend on physical event parameters published by respected third parties in order to determine whether a part or the entire bond principal is to be paid for a certain event. First generation cat bonds, or cat-in-a-box bonds, display a trigger mechanism that consists of a set of geographic zones in which certain conditions need to be met by an earthquake’s magnitude and depth in order to trigger payment of the bond principal. Second generation cat bonds use an index formulation that typically consists of a sum of products of a set of weights by a polynomial function of the ground motion variables reported by a geographically distributed seismic network. These instruments are especially appealing to developing countries with incipient insurance industries wishing to cede catastrophic losses to the financial markets because the payment trigger mechanism is transparent and does not involve the parties ceding or accepting the risk, significantly reducing moral hazard. In order to be successful in the market, however, parametric cat bonds have typically been required to specify relatively simple trigger conditions. The consequence of such simplifications is the increase of basis risk. This risk represents the possibility that the trigger mechanism fails to accurately capture the actual losses of a catastrophic event, namely that it does not trigger for a highly destructive event or vice versa, that a payment of the bond principal is caused by an event that produced insignificant losses. The first case disfavors the sponsor who was seeking cover for its losses while the

  10. Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: How to Bring Cell-Based Medicinal Products Successfully to the Market – Report from the CAT-DGTI-GSCN Workshop at the DGTI Annual Meeting 2014

    PubMed Central

    Celis, Patrick; Ferry, Nicolas; Hystad, Marit; Schüßler-Lenz, Martina; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Flory, Egbert; Beuneu, Claire; Reischl, Ilona; Salmikangas, Paula

    2015-01-01

    On September 11, 2014, a workshop entitled ‘Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: How to Bring Cell-Based Medicinal Product Successfully to the Market’ was held at the 47th annual meeting of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI), co-organised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the DGTI in collaboration with the German Stem Cell Network (GSCN). The workshop brought together over 160 participants from academia, hospitals, small- or medium-sized enterprise developers and regulators. At the workshop, speakers from EMA, the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT), industry and academia addressed the regulatory aspects of development and authorisation of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), classification of ATMPs and considerations on cell-based therapies for cardiac repair. The open forum discussion session allowed for a direct interaction between ATMP developers and the speakers from EMA and CAT. PMID:26195933

  11. Nonchromatographic assay for expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in eukaryotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sleigh, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid procedure is described for assaying chloramphenicol acetyltranserase (CAT) enzyme activity following transfection of the CAT gene into eukaryotic cells. CAT enzyme activity in cell extracts catalyzes the transfer of (/sup 14/C)acetyl groups from labeled acetyl coenzyme A to unlabeled chloramphenicol. Labeled reaction product is quantitated by liquid scintillation counting after extraction into ethyl acetate. The method is valid for use with transfected cell extracts only if the extracts are first heated to 65/sup 0/C to remove a factor which degrades acetyl coenzyme A. The revised procedure offers considerable advantages in speed and ease of performance over the chromatographic assay in current use.

  12. Lesions of structures showing FOS expression to cat presentation: effects on responsivity to a Cat, Cat odor, and nonpredator threat.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, D Caroline; Canteras, Newton S; Markham, Chris M; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Blanchard, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of rats to a cat elicits Fos activity in a number of brain areas or structures. Based on hodological relationships of these, Canteras has proposed a medial hypothalamic defense system, with input from several forebrain sites. Both electrolytic and neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal premammillary nucleus, which shows the strongest Fos response to cat exposure, produce striking decrements in a number of defensive behaviors to a cat or to cat odor stimuli, but do not have a major effect on either postshock freezing, or responsivity to the odor of a female in estrus. Neurotoxic lesions of the medial amygdala produce decrements in defensiveness to predator stimuli, particularly odor stimuli, that are consistent with a view of this structure as involved with allomonal cues. While dorsal hippocampal lesions had little effect on responsivity to predator stimuli, neurotoxic lesions of the ventral hippocampus reduced freezing and enhanced a variety of nondefensive behaviors to both cat odor and footshock, with similar reductions in defensiveness during context conditioning tests for cat odor, cat exposure and footshock. These results support the view that the dorsal premammillary nucleus is strongly and selectively involved in control of responsivity to predator stimuli. Structures with important input into the medial hypothalamic defense system appear also to be functionally involved with antipredator defensive behaviors, and these lesion studies may suggest specific hypotheses as to the particular defense functions of different areas. PMID:16084591

  13. Is There a Threshold Concentration of Cat Allergen Exposure on Respiratory Symptoms in Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Zock, Jan-Paul; Villani, Simona; Olivieri, Mario; Modig, Lars; Jarvis, Deborah; Norbäck, Dan; Verlato, Giuseppe; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Cat allergen concentrations higher than 8 μg/g in settled house dust, have been suggested to provoke exacerbation of allergic respiratory symptoms. However, whether the 8μg/g of indoor cat allergen concentration is indeed the minimal exposure required for triggering the asthma related respiratory symptoms or the development of sensitization has not yet been confirmed. We studied the associations between domestic cat allergen concentrations and allergic symptoms in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II, with the aim of confirming this suggested threshold. Methods Cat allergen concentrations were measured in the mattress dust of 3003 participants from 22 study centres. Levels of specific immunoglobulin E to cat allergens were measured in serum samples using an immunoassay. Information on allergic symptoms, medication use, home environment and smoking was obtained from a face-to-face interview. Results Domestic cat allergen concentrations were not associated with allergic/ asthmatic symptoms in the entire study population, nor in the subset sensitized to cat allergen. We also found no association among individuals exposed to concentrations higher than 8 μg/g. However, exposure to medium cat allergen concentrations (0.24-0.63 μg/g) was positively associated with reported asthmatic respiratory symptoms in subjects who have experienced allergic symptoms when near animals. Conclusions The proposed 8 μg/g threshold of cat allergen concentrations for the exacerbation of allergic/ respiratory symptoms was not confirmed in a general European adult population. Potential biases attributable to avoidance behaviours and an imprecise exposure assessment cannot be excluded. PMID:26035304

  14. Practical Physical and Behavioral Measures to Assess the Socialization Spectrum of Cats in a Shelter-Like Setting during a Three Day Period.

    PubMed

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha; Mirontshuk, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Animal welfare organizations routinely accept large numbers of cats with unknown histories, and whose backgrounds vary from well-socialized pets to cats that have had little or no contact with humans. Agencies are challenged with making the determination of socialization level in a highly stressful environment where cats are often too frightened to show typical behaviors. A variety of structured behavioral assessments were conducted in a shelter-like environment, from intake through a three day holding period, on cats from the full range of socialization as reported by their caregivers. Our results show that certain behaviors such as rubbing, playing, chirping, having the tail up or being at the front of the cage were found to be unique to More Socialized cats. While not all more socialized cats showed these behaviors, cats that did were socialized. Assessing the cats throughout the three day period was beneficial in eliciting key behaviors from shyer and more frightened cats. These results will be used in future work to develop an assessment tool to identify the socialization status of cats as a standardized guide for transparent and reliable disposition decisions and higher live release rates for cats in animal shelters. PMID:26479757

  15. Mutations in HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE1 affect sugar response and gene expression in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Heisel, Timothy J.; Li, Chun Yao; Grey, Katia M.; Gibson, Susan I.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient response networks are likely to have been among the first response networks to evolve, as the ability to sense and respond to the levels of available nutrients is critical for all organisms. Although several forward genetic screens have been successful in identifying components of plant sugar-response networks, many components remain to be identified. Toward this end, a reverse genetic screen was conducted in Arabidopsis thaliana to identify additional components of sugar-response networks. This screen was based on the rationale that some of the genes involved in sugar-response networks are likely to be themselves sugar regulated at the steady-state mRNA level and to encode proteins with activities commonly associated with response networks. This rationale was validated by the identification of hac1 mutants that are defective in sugar response. HAC1 encodes a histone acetyltransferase. Histone acetyltransferases increase transcription of specific genes by acetylating histones associated with those genes. Mutations in HAC1 also cause reduced fertility, a moderate degree of resistance to paclobutrazol and altered transcript levels of specific genes. Previous research has shown that hac1 mutants exhibit delayed flowering. The sugar-response and fertility defects of hac1 mutants may be partially explained by decreased expression of AtPV42a and AtPV42b, which are putative components of plant SnRK1 complexes. SnRK1 complexes have been shown to function as central regulators of plant nutrient and energy status. Involvement of a histone acetyltransferase in sugar response provides a possible mechanism whereby nutritional status could exert long-term effects on plant development and metabolism. PMID:23882272

  16. Activation Domain-Specific and General Transcription Stimulation by Native Histone Acetyltransferase Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Keiko; Steger, David J.; Eberharter, Anton; Workman, Jerry L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress in identifying the catalytic subunits of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes has implicated histone acetylation in the regulation of transcription. Here, we have analyzed the function of two native yeast HAT complexes, SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase) and NuA4 (nucleosome acetyltransferase of H4), in activating transcription from preassembled nucleosomal array templates in vitro. Each complex was tested for the ability to enhance transcription driven by GAL4 derivatives containing either acidic, glutamine-rich, or proline-rich activation domains. On nucleosomal array templates, the SAGA complex selectively stimulates transcription driven by the VP16 acidic activation domain in an acetyl coenzyme A-dependent manner. In contrast, the NuA4 complex facilitates transcription mediated by any of the activation domains tested if allowed to preacetylate the nucleosomal template, indicating a general stimulatory effect of histone H4 acetylation. However, when the extent of acetylation by NuA4 is limited, the complex also preferentially stimulates VP16-driven transcription. SAGA and NuA4 interact directly with the VP16 activation domain but not with a glutamine-rich or proline-rich activation domain. These data suggest that recruitment of the SAGA and NuA4 HAT complexes by the VP16 activation domain contributes to HAT-dependent activation. In addition, extensive H4/H2B acetylation by NuA4 leads to a general activation of transcription, which is independent of activator-NuA4 interactions. PMID:9858608

  17. Chronic methylmercurialism in the cat.

    PubMed

    Gruber, T A; Costigan, P; Wilkinson, G T; Seawright, A A

    1978-04-01

    The mercury levels in 69 muscle samples from fish weighing from 0.3 to 200 kg caught in Moreton Bay, Queensland, in the latter half of 1976 ranged from less than 10 to 2,030 ng/g. Mercury levels in blood samples from 53 humans and 100 dogs in Brisbane almost all contained less than 10 ng/ml while the level in 162 cats sampled ranged from less than 10 to 329 ng/ml. Chronic methylmercurialism developed in 2 cats dosed daily with methylmercury, bound to cysteine, at the rate of 0.6 mg/kg body weight for 74 and 77 days respectively. Terminal clinical signs included anorexia, weight loss, knuckling over at the carpus and tarsus, hypermetria initially involving the forelegs and later the hindlegs, sluggish reflexes, paresis involving all limbs, persistent crying, apparent blindness, tonic and clonic convulsions and salivation. Pathological changes were confined to the nervous system and included degeneration of neurones and perivascular cuffing in the cerebrocortical grey matter, focal atrophy of the granular layer, focal spongiosus of the molecular layer and degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and demyelination in the fibre tracts of the dorsal funiculus, mainly the fasciculus cuneatus and in the lateral and ventral corticospinal tracts. Terminal blood methylmercury levels were in excess of 18 microgram/ml, while brain methylmercury levels ranged from 21.0 to 28.4 microgram/g. The liver and kidney contained the highest total levels of mercury of 50 to 80 microgram/g, of which 23 to 37% was inorganic. PMID:687273

  18. Albendazole therapy for experimentally induced Paragonimus kellicotti infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hoover, E A; Stromberg, P C; Toussant, M J

    1978-06-01

    The effect of albendazole therapy was studied in 6 cats with pulmonary paragonimiasis induced by experimental inoculation of metacercariae (25/cat) of Paragonimus kellicotti. At 76 to 101 days after they were inoculated, 5 cats were administered an oral aqueous suspension of albendazole in 2 divided doses totaling 20 mg (2 cats), 50 mg (1 cat), or 100 mg (2 cats)/kg of body weight each day for 14 to 21 days. The 6th cat (control) was not administered albendazole. Nine days after cats were given the 50- and 100-mg/kg dosages, Paragonimus ova were not seen in the feces of 3 cats. There was marked reduction in ova production in the feces of the 2 cats administered 20 mg/kg of albendazole. Live flukes were not recovered from the lungs of 3 cats necropsied 4 or 5 weeks after dosing with 50 or 100 mg/kg, but the lungs of the 2 cats administered 20 mg of albendazole/kg yielded 9 and 7 apparently viable flukes. Seventeen live flukes were recovered from the control cat not treated with albendazole. In 4 noninoculated normal cats administered 20 mg (1 cat), 100 mg (1 cat), and 200 mg (2 cats) of albendazole/kg of body weight each day for 14 days, there were no gross or microscopic lesions attributable to the drug. PMID:666077

  19. Reduction of feral cat (Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) colony size following hysterectomy of adult female cats.

    PubMed

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Remy, Gabriella L; Gershony, Liza C; Rodrigues, Daniela P; Chame, Marcia; Labarthe, Norma V

    2011-06-01

    The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats. PMID:21440475

  20. Crystallization of ornithine acetyltransferase from yeast by counter-diffusion and preliminary X-ray study

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Dominique; Crabeel, Marjolaine; Van de Weerdt, Cécile; Martial, Joseph; Peeters, Eveline; Charlier, Daniël; Decanniere, Klaas; Vanhee, Celine; Wyns, Lode; Zegers, Ingrid

    2006-01-01

    A study is presented on the crystallization of ornithine acetyltransferase from yeast, which catalyzes the fifth step in microbial arginine synthesis. The use of the counter-diffusion technique removes the disorder present in one dimension in crystals grown by either the batch or hanging-drop techniques. This makes the difference between useless crystals and crystals that allow successful determination of the structure of the protein. The crystals belong to space group P4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.98, c = 427.09 Å, and a data set was collected to 2.76 Å. PMID:17142921

  1. Choline Acetyltransferase Activity in Striatum of Neonatal Rats Increased by Nerve Growth Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobley, William C.; Rutkowski, J. Lynn; Tennekoon, Gihan I.; Buchanan, Karen; Johnston, Michael V.

    1985-07-01

    Some neurodegenerative disorders may be caused by abnormal synthesis or utilization of trophic molecules required to support neuronal survival. A test of this hypothesis requires that trophic agents specific for the affected neurons be identified. Cholinergic neurons in the corpus striatum of neonatal rats were found to respond to intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor with prominent, dose-dependent, selective increases in choline acetyltransferase activity. Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain also respond to nerve growth factor in this way. These actions of nerve growth factor may indicate its involvement in the normal function of forebrain cholinergic neurons as well as in neurodegenerative disorders involving such cells.

  2. One-step purification of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase using reactive dye-affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cunxi; Lee, Thomas C; Crowley, Kathleen S; Bell, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Reactive dye purification is an affinity purification technique offering unique selectivity and high purification potential. Historically, purification of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) has involved several steps of precipitation and column chromatography. Here, we describe a novel purification method that is simple, time-saving, inexpensive, and reproducible. The novel method employs a single chromatography step using a reactive dye resin, Reactive brown 10-agarose. Reactive brown 10 preferentially binds the PAT protein, which can then be specifically released by one of its substrates, acetyl-CoA. Using Reactive brown 10-agarose, PAT protein can be purified to homogeneity from E. coli or plant tissue with high recovery efficiency. PMID:25749943

  3. Cinnamoyl compounds as simple molecules that inhibit p300 histone acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Costi, Roberta; Di Santo, Roberto; Artico, Marino; Miele, Gaetano; Valentini, Paola; Novellino, Ettore; Cereseto, Anna

    2007-04-19

    Cinnamoly compounds 1a-c and 2a-d were designed, synthesized, and in vitro tested as p300 inhibitors. At different degrees, all tested compounds were proven to inactivate p300, particularly, derivative 2c was the most active inhibitor, also showing high specificity for p300 as compared to other histone acetyltransferases. Most notably, 2c showed anti-acetylase activity in mammalian cells. These compounds represent a new class of synthetic inhibitors of p300, characterized by simple chemical structures. PMID:17348637

  4. Sepsis puerperalis caused by a genotypically proven cat-derived Pasteurella multocida strain.

    PubMed

    Voss, A; van Zwam, Y H; Meis, J F; Melchers, W; Steegers, E A

    1998-01-01

    We report a disseminated intrauterine Pasteurella multocida infection in a puerperal woman who could not remember any traumatic exposure to her cat. An oral swab taken from the cat, just 2 days after the patient's admission, grew Pasteurella multocida, with an PCR-fingerprinting pattern identical to the patient's isolate. Hand-washing after every contact with cats and dogs and if feasible separation of in-house pets from mother and infant should be applied to prevent this uncommon but serious occurrence of post-partum infections. To our knowledge this is the first case of Pasteurella multocida 'child-bed fever', with a genotypically identical strain isolated from the in-house cat. PMID:9481551

  5. Experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis and the nephrotic syndrome in cats immunised with cationised bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Nash, A S; Mohammed, N A; Wright, N G

    1990-11-01

    Membranous nephropathy was induced in four cats by repeated intravenous injections of 120 mg cationic bovine serum albumin (BSA, pI 9.5). All four cats developed diffuse granular deposits of IgG and C3 along the glomerular capillary walls as early as five weeks which persisted until the end of the experiment at 17 weeks. Ultrastructural studies revealed many subepithelial electron dense deposits. Two cats developed severe proteinuria and the nephrotic syndrome characterised by hypoalbuminaemia and oedema. An additional four cats received repeated injections of unmodified native BSA (pI 4.5) and remained basically normal. This is the first report of membranous nephropathy and the nephrotic syndrome in an experimental animal model which, unlike other animal models, is subject to the spontaneously occurring disease. PMID:2148430

  6. Wide-complex tachycardia associated with severe hyperkalemia in three cats.

    PubMed

    Norman, Brian C; Côté, Etienne; Barrett, Kirstie A

    2006-12-01

    The well recognized cardiac effects of severe hyperkalemia include progressive rhythm and conduction disturbances such as bradycardia, spiked and narrow T waves, widening QRS complex, widening and flattening P wave, disappearance of the P wave, and cardiac arrest. Paradoxically, a heart rate greater than 200 beats/min may coexist with hyperkalemia in some cats. This report describes three cats with moderate to severe hyperkalemia and concurrent rapid heart rate. In each cat, the serum potassium (K(+)) concentration was > or =7.5 mEq/dl with a concurrent heart rate > 200 beats/min. In each cat, nine-lead electrocardiograms demonstrate an absence of P waves and a wide-complex tachycardia. Hyperkalemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a feline electrocardiogram demonstrates a wide-complex tachycardia without identifiable P waves. PMID:16877021

  7. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia secondary to 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency in a domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Knighton, Elizabeth L

    2004-07-15

    A calico-colored domestic shorthair cat was examined because of possible cryptorchidism. The cat had a fully formed penis, prepuce, and scrotum, but no descended testes, and exploratory laparotomy revealed a grossly normal female internal genital tract (ie, 2 ovaries, 2 uterine horns, and uterine body). Chromosomal analysis revealed a normal female (38,XX) karyotype. Four months later, the cat was examined because of polyuria, polydipsia, and inappropriate urination. Serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations were low, and results of an ACTH stimulation test were suggestive of decreased adrenal gland function. Serum ACTH, testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and deoxycorticosterone concentrations were high, and a diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia secondary to 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency was made. Treatment with prednisone diminished clinical signs but had a variable effect on corticosteroids hormone concentrations. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in a cat. PMID:15323380

  8. Biochemical Analysis and Structure Determination of Bacterial Acetyltransferases Responsible for the Biosynthesis of UDP-N,N′-Diacetylbacillosamine*

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Michael J.; Imperiali, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    UDP-N,N′-diacetylbacillosamine (UDP-diNAcBac) is a unique carbohydrate produced by a number of bacterial species and has been implicated in pathogenesis. The terminal step in the formation of this important bacterial sugar is catalyzed by an acetyl-CoA (AcCoA)-dependent acetyltransferase in both N- and O-linked protein glycosylation pathways. This bacterial acetyltransferase is a member of the left-handed β-helix family and forms a homotrimer as the functional unit. Whereas previous endeavors have focused on the Campylobacter jejuni acetyltransferase (PglD) from the N-linked glycosylation pathway, structural characterization of the homologous enzymes in the O-linked glycosylation pathways is lacking. Herein, we present the apo-crystal structures of the acetyltransferase domain (ATD) from the bifunctional enzyme PglB (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and the full-length acetyltransferase WeeI (Acinetobacter baumannii). Additionally, a PglB-ATD structure was solved in complex with AcCoA. Surprisingly, this structure reveals a contrasting binding mechanism for this substrate when compared with the AcCoA-bound PglD structure. A comparison between these findings and the previously solved PglD crystal structures illustrates a dichotomy among N- and O-linked glycosylation pathway enzymes. Based upon these structures, key residues in the UDP-4-amino and AcCoA binding pockets were mutated to determine their effect on binding and catalysis in PglD, PglB-ATD, and WeeI. Last, a phylogenetic analysis of the aforementioned acetyltransferases was employed to illuminate the diversity among N- and O-linked glycosylation pathway enzymes. PMID:24064219

  9. Biochemical analysis and structure determination of bacterial acetyltransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of UDP-N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Michael J; Imperiali, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    UDP-N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine (UDP-diNAcBac) is a unique carbohydrate produced by a number of bacterial species and has been implicated in pathogenesis. The terminal step in the formation of this important bacterial sugar is catalyzed by an acetyl-CoA (AcCoA)-dependent acetyltransferase in both N- and O-linked protein glycosylation pathways. This bacterial acetyltransferase is a member of the left-handed β-helix family and forms a homotrimer as the functional unit. Whereas previous endeavors have focused on the Campylobacter jejuni acetyltransferase (PglD) from the N-linked glycosylation pathway, structural characterization of the homologous enzymes in the O-linked glycosylation pathways is lacking. Herein, we present the apo-crystal structures of the acetyltransferase domain (ATD) from the bifunctional enzyme PglB (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and the full-length acetyltransferase WeeI (Acinetobacter baumannii). Additionally, a PglB-ATD structure was solved in complex with AcCoA. Surprisingly, this structure reveals a contrasting binding mechanism for this substrate when compared with the AcCoA-bound PglD structure. A comparison between these findings and the previously solved PglD crystal structures illustrates a dichotomy among N- and O-linked glycosylation pathway enzymes. Based upon these structures, key residues in the UDP-4-amino and AcCoA binding pockets were mutated to determine their effect on binding and catalysis in PglD, PglB-ATD, and WeeI. Last, a phylogenetic analysis of the aforementioned acetyltransferases was employed to illuminate the diversity among N- and O-linked glycosylation pathway enzymes. PMID:24064219

  10. Genetic characterization of feline bocavirus detected in cats in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomomi; Takadate, Yoshihiro; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2016-10-01

    Feline bocavirus (FBoV) has been classified into three genotypes (FBoV1-FBoV3). FBoVs are mainly detected in feces. In the present study, we collected rectal swabs from cats in Japan and examined the samples for the presence of FBoV. The FBoV infection rate was 9.9 % in 101 cats. No significant association was observed between FBoV infection and clinical symptoms. Based on the full-length NS1 protein, the three strains of FBoVs detected in the present study shared high homologies with the genotype 2 FBoV POR1 strain. This is the first study to report FBoV in Japan. PMID:27388369

  11. GT-CATS: Tracking Operator Activities in Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Mitchell, Christine M.; Palmer, Everett A.

    1999-01-01

    Human operators of complex dynamic systems can experience difficulties supervising advanced control automation. One remedy is to develop intelligent aiding systems that can provide operators with context-sensitive advice and reminders. The research reported herein proposes, implements, and evaluates a methodology for activity tracking, a form of intent inferencing that can supply the knowledge required for an intelligent aid by constructing and maintaining a representation of operator activities in real time. The methodology was implemented in the Georgia Tech Crew Activity Tracking System (GT-CATS), which predicts and interprets the actions performed by Boeing 757/767 pilots navigating using autopilot flight modes. This report first describes research on intent inferencing and complex modes of automation. It then provides a detailed description of the GT-CATS methodology, knowledge structures, and processing scheme. The results of an experimental evaluation using airline pilots are given. The results show that GT-CATS was effective in predicting and interpreting pilot actions in real time.

  12. Outcome and prognostic indicators in 20 cats with surgically treated primary lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Maritato, Karl C; Schertel, Eric R; Kennedy, Shawn C; Dudley, Robert; Lamm, Catherine; Barnhart, Matthew; Kass, Phillip

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study of 20 client-owned cats was to describe the clinical signs, surgical interventions, histological features, stage and treatments of primary lung tumors removed by surgical excision, and to determine which factors significantly influence survival. Any cat that underwent surgical resection of a primary lung tumor between 2000 and 2007 was included in the study. Patient records were reviewed and signalment, clinical signs, preoperative diagnostics, surgical findings and histopathological results recorded. Histological reports were reviewed and scored using World Health Organization criteria. The Kaplan-Meier test was used to evaluate each potential prognostic factor with survival. Twenty cats met the inclusion criteria. The presence of clinical signs (such as dyspnea) at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.032), pleural effusion (P = 0.046), stage M1 (P = 0.015), and moderately and poorly differentiated tumors on histopathology (P = 0.011) were factors that were significantly correlated with reduced survival times. The median survival time of the 20 cats was 11 days. Cats presenting with no clinical signs had a median survival time of 578 days post-surgery vs 4 days post-surgery when presented with clinical signs. Cats staged T1N0M0 lived longer than cats at other stages (P = 0.044). Of the cats that survived to the time of suture removal, median survival time was 64 days. The results indicate that the presence of clinical signs, pleural effusion, moderately and poorly differentiated tumors on histopathology, evidence of metastasis and any stage beyond T1N0M0 are negative prognostic indicators for cats with primary lung tumors. The findings demonstrate that cats that presented with clinical signs, pleural effusion, any stage other than T1N0M0, or moderately and poorly differentiated tumors on histopathology had a poor prognosis. Therefore, extensive preoperative diagnostics, including computed tomography scans, should be performed

  13. Exocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Ferro, S; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Cavicchioli, L; Reusch, C E

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis has been described in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. In addition, ketoacidosis has been hypothesized to be associated with pancreatitis in diabetic cats. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether diabetic cats have pancreatitis and to determine if pancreatitis is more frequent with ketoacidosis. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic cats, including 15 with ketoacidosis, and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, double-labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/PCNA, and glucagon/Ki67, and single-labeled for Iba1. A previously proposed semiquantitative score was used to characterize pancreatitis, along with counts of inflammatory cells. Scores of pancreatitis and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the exocrine pancreas did not differ between diabetic and control cats or between diabetic cats with and without ketoacidosis. Of note, PCNA-positive acinar cells were increased (P = .002) in diabetic cats, particularly near islets (P < .001). Ki67-positive acinar cells were increased only near islets (P = .038). Ketoacidosis was not linked to proliferation. The results suggest that histopathologic evidence of pancreatitis may not be more frequent in diabetic cats and that ketoacidosis may not be associated with it at the time of death. Augmented PCNA-positive acinar cells might indicate increased proliferation due to chronic pancreatitis. The reason behind the prevalent proliferation of acinar cells surrounding pancreatic islets deserves further investigation. PMID:26319779

  14. Endocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Ferro, S; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Cavicchioli, L

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic amyloidosis and loss of α and β cells have been shown to occur in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. Furthermore, it is not known whether pancreatic islet inflammation is a common feature. The aims of the present study were to characterize islet lesions and to investigate whether diabetic cats have inflammation of the pancreatic islets. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Congo red; double labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and glucagon/Ki67; and single labeled for amylin and Iba1. Mean insulin-positive cross-sectional area was approximately 65% lower in diabetic than control cats (P = .009), while that of amylin and glucagon was similar. Surprisingly, amyloid deposition was similar between groups (P = .408). Proliferation of insulin- and glucagon-positive cells and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and T (CD3) and B (CD20) lymphocytes in the islets did not differ. The presence of T and B lymphocytes combined tended to be more frequent in diabetic cats (n = 8 of 37; 21.6%) than control cats (n = 1 of 20; 5.0%). The results confirm previous observations that loss of β cells but not α cells occurs in diabetic cats. Islet amyloidosis was present in diabetic cats but was not greater than in controls. A subset of diabetic cats had lymphocytic infiltration of the islets, which might be associated with β-cell loss. PMID:26113611

  15. Caring for the retrovirus infected cat.

    PubMed

    McCaw, D

    1995-11-01

    No commercial vaccine [correction of vacine] exists for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and although feline leukemia virus (FeLV) vaccines are available, they are neither 100% effective nor used in all cats. These realities clearly indicate the veterinarian will be required to treat either FeLV- or FIV-positive cats for some time to come. The management of FIV- or FeLV-positive cats may require supportive therapies as well as virus-specific therapies such as zidovudine (AZT; Retrovir, Burroughs Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC). PMID:8820595

  16. Cytauxzoon sp. infection in the first endemic focus described in domestic cats in Europe.

    PubMed

    Carli, E; Trotta, M; Chinelli, R; Drigo, M; Sinigoi, L; Tosolini, P; Furlanello, T; Millotti, A; Caldin, M; Solano-Gallego, L

    2012-02-10

    Information about epidemiological and clinicopathological aspects of domestic cat infection by species of Cytauxzoon other than Cytauxzoon felis is limited and it has rarely been reported. Following the detection of clinical cytauxzoonosis in three cats from Trieste (Italy), an epidemiological study was carried out in colony (n=63) and owned (n=52) cats from the same city to investigate the presence of Cytauxzoon sp. infection and to assess clinicopathological findings and variables associated with this infection. Cytauxzoon sp. infection was detected by 18S rRNA gene PCR in 23% (27/118) and by blood smear examination in 15% (18/118) of domestic cats. The 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained were 99% identical to the Cytauxzoon sp. sequences deposited in GenBank(®) from Spanish, French and Mongolian wild and domestic cats. Erythroparasitemia was observed mainly in apparently healthy cats. Cytauxzoon sp. infection was statistically associated with the colony group and the outdoor life style. No statistical association was found between positivity by PCR and breed, gender, age, presence of ticks and/or fleas, clinical status, laboratory findings such as anemia, FIV and/or FeLV status and mortality rate. Persistence of the infection was monitored and documented in four clinical cases. We reported the first clinicopathological description of naturally occurring Cytauxzoon sp. infection in domestic cats living in Italy. The predominance of subclinical erythroparasitemia and the evidence of persistent infection support the hypothesis that the domestic cat might serve as a reservoir host for this infection. PMID:21839583

  17. Criterion Validation Testing of Clinical Metrology Instruments for Measuring Degenerative Joint Disease Associated Mobility Impairment in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Margaret E.; Griffith, Emily H.; Thomson, Andrea E.; Simpson, Wendy; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM). Methods Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period. Results Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (p<0.0001) compared to baseline. The FMPI results and activity count data offer concurrent validation for the FMPI, though the relationship between baseline activity counts and FMPI scores at baseline was poor (R2=0.034). The CSOM did not show responsiveness for improvement in this study, and the relationship between baseline activity counts and CSOM scores at baseline was similarly poor (R2=0.042). Conclusions Refinements to the FMPI, including abbreviation of the instrument and scoring as percent of possible score are recommended. This study offered further validation of the FMPI as a clinical metrology instrument for use in detecting therapeutic efficacy in cats with degenerative joint disease. PMID:26162101

  18. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  19. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  20. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  1. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  2. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  3. Reliability and Validity of a Survey of Cat Caregivers on Their Cats' Socialization Level in the Cat's Normal Environment.

    PubMed

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Stray cats routinely enter animal welfare organizations each year and shelters are challenged with determining the level of human socialization these cats may possess as quickly as possible. However, there is currently no standard process to guide this determination. This study describes the development and validation of a caregiver survey designed to be filled out by a cat's caregiver so it accurately describes a cat's personality, background, and full range of behavior with people when in its normal environment. The results from this survey provided the basis for a socialization score that ranged from unsocialized to well socialized with people. The quality of the survey was evaluated based on inter-rater and test-retest reliability and internal consistency and estimates of construct and criterion validity. In general, our results showed moderate to high levels of inter-rater (median of 0.803, range 0.211-0.957) and test-retest agreement (median 0.92, range 0.211-0.999). Cronbach's alpha showed high internal consistency (0.962). Estimates of validity did not highlight any major shortcomings. This survey will be used to develop and validate an effective assessment process that accurately differentiates cats by their socialization levels towards humans based on direct observation of cats' behavior in an animal shelter. PMID:26479758

  4. Birth and death rate estimates of cats and dogs in U.S. households and related factors.

    PubMed

    New, John C; Kelch, William J; Hutchison, Jennifer M; Salman, Mo D; King, Mike; Scarlett, Janet M; Kass, Philip H

    2004-01-01

    Studies report variable factors associated with dog and cat surpluses in the United States. Estimates of cat and dog birth and death rates help understand the problem. This study collected data through a commercial survey company, distributing questionnaires to 7,399 cat- and dog-owning households (HHs) in 1996. The study used an unequal probability sampling plan and reported estimates of means and variances as weighted averages. The study used estimates of HHs and companion animals for national projections. More than 9 million owned cats and dogs died during 1996-yielding crude death rates of 8.3 cat deaths/100 cats in HHs and 7.9 dog deaths/100 dogs in HHs. The study reported twice as many kitten as puppy litters, with an average litter size of 5.73 and 7.57, respectively. The study reported data on planned versus unplanned litters, reasons caregivers did not spay females, disposition of litters, and sources of animals added to HHs. These first national estimates indicate the magnitude of, and reasons for, animals leaving HHs. The crude birth rate was estimated to be 11.2 kittens/100 cats in HHs and 11.4 puppies/100 dogs in HHs. PMID:15857809

  5. "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" infections in 21 client-owned cats.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Caryn Alice; Lappin, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    Medical records were reviewed for 21 clinically ill cats testing positive for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" in their blood. Fever, anorexia, lethargy, and anemia were among the most common abnormalities recorded. Thirteen cats were anemic; seven had evidence of other diseases that could have been the primary cause of anemia or activated hemoplasmosis. For six cats, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" was the only recognizable cause of the anemia. Of these cats, anemia resolved in one cat without treatment and in three cats that were treated with doxycycline, with or without prednisone. Results of the study suggest that this hemoplasma species can be a primary pathogen in cats. PMID:17823473

  6. The N-terminal acetyltransferase Naa10 is essential for zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Ree, Rasmus; Myklebust, Line M.; Thiel, Puja; Foyn, Håvard; Fladmark, Kari E.; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation, catalysed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is among the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes and involves the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the α-amino group of the first amino acid. Functions of N-terminal acetylation include protein degradation and sub-cellular targeting. Recent findings in humans indicate that a dysfunctional Nα-acetyltransferase (Naa) 10, the catalytic subunit of NatA, the major NAT, is associated with lethality during infancy. In the present study, we identified the Danio rerio orthologue zebrafish Naa 10 (zNaa10). In vitro N-terminal acetylation assays revealed that zNaa10 has NAT activity with substrate specificity highly similar to that of human Naa10. Spatiotemporal expression pattern was determined by in situ hybridization, showing ubiquitous expression with especially strong staining in brain and eye. By morpholino-mediated knockdown, we demonstrated that naa10 morphants displayed increased lethality, growth retardation and developmental abnormalities like bent axis, abnormal eyes and bent tails. In conclusion, we identified the zebrafish Naa10 orthologue and revealed that it is essential for normal development and viability of zebrafish. PMID:26251455

  7. Intracellular localization of α-tubulin acetyltransferase ATAT1 in rat ciliated cells.

    PubMed

    Nakakura, Takashi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Asano-Hoshino, Anshin; Arisawa, Kenjiro; Nishijima, Yoshimi; Kiuchi, Yoshiko; Hagiwara, Haruo

    2016-09-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based hair-like organelles on basal bodies located beneath the cell membrane in various tissues of multicellular animals, and are usually classified into motile cilia and primary cilia. Microtubules are assembled from the heterodimers of α- and β-tubulin. The lysine residue at position 40 (K40) of α-tubulin is an important site for acetylation, and this site is acetylated in the cilium. α-Tubulin N-acetyltransferase 1 (ATAT1) is an acetyltransferase specific to the K40 residue of α-tubulin; however, its intracellular distribution in mammalian tissues remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed ATAT1 localization in rat trachea, oviduct, kidney, retina, testis and the third ventricle of the brain by immunohistochemical techniques using a specific antibody against ATAT1. ATAT1 was distributed to the motile cilia of multiciliated cells of the trachea, third ventricle of the brain and oviduct, and in the primary cilia of the renal medullary collecting duct. ATAT1 also localized to the primary cilia, inner and outer segments of retinal photoreceptor cells, and at the Golgi apparatus of spermatocytes and spermatids of testis. These results indicated that α-tubulin acetylation by ATAT1 at distinct subcellular positions may influence the functional regulation of microtubules and cilia in a variety of ciliated cells. PMID:26700226

  8. K-Lysine acetyltransferase 2a regulates a hippocampal gene expression network linked to memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Stilling, Roman M; Rönicke, Raik; Benito, Eva; Urbanke, Hendrik; Capece, Vincenzo; Burkhardt, Susanne; Bahari-Javan, Sanaz; Barth, Jonas; Sananbenesi, Farahnaz; Schütz, Anna L; Dyczkowski, Jerzy; Martinez-Hernandez, Ana; Kerimoglu, Cemil; Dent, Sharon YR; Bonn, Stefan; Reymann, Klaus G; Fischer, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal histone acetylation has been linked to memory consolidation, and targeting histone acetylation has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for neuropsychiatric diseases. However, the role of histone-modifying enzymes in the adult brain is still far from being understood. Here we use RNA sequencing to screen the levels of all known histone acetyltransferases (HATs) in the hippocampal CA1 region and find that K-acetyltransferase 2a (Kat2a)—a HAT that has not been studied for its role in memory function so far—shows highest expression. Mice that lack Kat2a show impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and long-term memory consolidation. We furthermore show that Kat2a regulates a highly interconnected hippocampal gene expression network linked to neuroactive receptor signaling via a mechanism that involves nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). In conclusion, our data establish Kat2a as a novel and essential regulator of hippocampal memory consolidation. PMID:25024434

  9. Structure and Functional Diversity of GCN5-Related N-Acetyltransferases (GNAT).

    PubMed

    Salah Ud-Din, Abu Iftiaf Md; Tikhomirova, Alexandra; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    General control non-repressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferases (GNAT) catalyze the transfer of an acyl moiety from acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) to a diverse group of substrates and are widely distributed in all domains of life. This review of the currently available data acquired on GNAT enzymes by a combination of structural, mutagenesis and kinetic methods summarizes the key similarities and differences between several distinctly different families within the GNAT superfamily, with an emphasis on the mechanistic insights obtained from the analysis of the complexes with substrates or inhibitors. It discusses the structural basis for the common acetyltransferase mechanism, outlines the factors important for the substrate recognition, and describes the mechanism of action of inhibitors of these enzymes. It is anticipated that understanding of the structural basis behind the reaction and substrate specificity of the enzymes from this superfamily can be exploited in the development of novel therapeutics to treat human diseases and combat emerging multidrug-resistant microbial infections. PMID:27367672

  10. Cysteine biosynthesis in Lactobacillus casei: identification and characterization of a serine acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Bogicevic, Biljana; Berthoud, Hélène; Portmann, Reto; Bavan, Tharmatha; Meile, Leo; Irmler, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    In bacteria, cysteine can be synthesized from serine by two steps involving an L-serine O-acetyltransferase (SAT) and a cysteine synthase (CysK). While CysK is found in the publicly available annotated genome from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, a gene encoding SAT (cysE) is missing. In this study, we found that various strains of L. casei grew in a chemically defined medium containing sulfide as the sole sulfur source, indicating the presence of a serine O-acetyltransferase. The gene lying upstream of cysK is predicted to encode a homoserine trans-succinylase (metA). To study the function of this gene, it was cloned from L. casei FAM18110. The purified, recombinant protein did not acylate L-homoserine in vitro. Instead, it catalyzed the formation of O-acetyl serine from L-serine and acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, the plasmid expressing the L. casei gene complemented an Escherichia coli cysE mutant strain but not an E. coli metA mutant. This clearly demonstrated that the gene annotated as metA in fact encodes the SAT function and should be annotated as cysE. PMID:26790714

  11. Improvement of L-citrulline production in Corynebacterium glutamicum by ornithine acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Hao, N; Mu, J; Hu, N; Xu, S; Yan, M; Li, Y; Guo, K; Xu, L

    2015-02-01

    In this study, Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 was engineered to produce L-citrulline through a metabolic engineering strategy. To prevent the flux away from L-citrulline and to increase the expression levels of genes involved in the citrulline biosynthesis pathway, the argininosuccinate synthase gene (argG) and the repressor gene (argR) were inactivated. The engineered C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 ∆argG ∆argR (CIT 2) produced higher amounts of L-citrulline (5.43 g/L) compared to the wildtype strain (0.15 g/L). To determine new strategies for further enhancement of L-citrulline production, the effect of L-citrulline on ornithine acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.35; OATase; ArgJ) was first investigated. Citrulline was determined to inhibit Ornithine acetyltransferase; for 50 % inhibition, citrulline concentration was 30 mM. The argJ gene from C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 was cloned, and the recombinant shuttle plasmid pXMJ19-argJ was constructed and expressed in C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 ∆argG ∆argR (CIT 2). Overexpression of the argJ gene exhibited increased OAT activity and resulted in a positive effect on citrulline production (8.51 g/L). These results indicate that OAT plays a vital role during L-citrulline production in C. glutamicum. PMID:25492493

  12. Purification and characterization of glutamate N-acetyltransferase involved in citrulline accumulation in wild watermelon.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Kentaro; Akashi, Kinya; Yokota, Akiho

    2005-10-01

    Citrulline is an efficient hydroxyl radical scavenger that can accumulate at concentrations of up to 30 mm in the leaves of wild watermelon during drought in the presence of strong light; however, the mechanism of this accumulation remains unclear. In this study, we characterized wild watermelon glutamate N-acetyltransferase (CLGAT) that catalyses the transacetylation reaction between acetylornithine and glutamate to form acetylglutamate and ornithine, thereby functioning in the first and fifth steps in citrulline biosynthesis. CLGAT enzyme purified 7000-fold from leaves was composed of two subunits with different N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analysis of the corresponding cDNA revealed that these two subunits have molecular masses of 21.3 and 23.5 kDa and are derived from a single precursor polypeptide, suggesting that the CLGAT precursor is cleaved autocatalytically at the conserved ATML motif, as in other glutamate N-acetyltransferases of microorganisms. A green fluorescence protein assay revealed that the first 26-amino acid sequence at the N-terminus of the precursor functions as a chloroplast transit peptide. The CLGAT exhibited thermostability up to 70 degrees C, suggesting an increase in enzyme activity under high leaf temperature conditions during drought/strong-light stresses. Moreover, CLGAT was not inhibited by citrulline or arginine at physiologically relevant high concentrations. These findings suggest that CLGAT can effectively participate in the biosynthesis of citrulline in wild watermelon leaves during drought/strong-light stress. PMID:16218965

  13. Histone acetyltransferase PCAF is required for Hedgehog-Gli-dependent transcription and cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, Martina; Steinhauer, Cornelia; Mohammad, Faizaan; Pandey, Deo P; Squatrito, Massimo; Helin, Kristian

    2013-10-15

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role in embryonic patterning and development of many tissues and organs as well as in maintaining and repairing mature tissues in adults. Uncontrolled activation of the Hh-Gli pathway has been implicated in developmental abnormalities as well as in several cancers, including brain tumors like medulloblastoma and glioblastoma. Inhibition of aberrant Hh-Gli signaling has, thus, emerged as an attractive approach for anticancer therapy; however, the mechanisms that mediate Hh-Gli signaling in vertebrates remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the histone acetyltransferase PCAF/KAT2B is an important factor of the Hh pathway. Specifically, we show that PCAF depletion impairs Hh activity and reduces expression of Hh target genes. Consequently, PCAF downregulation in medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cells leads to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. In addition, we found that PCAF interacts with GLI1, the downstream effector in the Hh-Gli pathway, and that PCAF or GLI1 loss reduces the levels of H3K9 acetylation on Hh target gene promoters. Finally, we observed that PCAF silencing reduces the tumor-forming potential of neural stem cells in vivo. In summary, our study identified the acetyltransferase PCAF as a positive cofactor of the Hh-Gli signaling pathway, leading us to propose PCAF as a candidate therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with medulloblastoma and glioblastoma. PMID:23943798

  14. Cysteine biosynthesis in Lactobacillus casei: identification and characterization of a serine acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Bogicevic, Biljana; Berthoud, Hélène; Portmann, Reto; Bavan, Tharmatha; Meile, Leo; Irmler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, cysteine can be synthesized from serine by two steps involving an L-serine O-acetyltransferase (SAT) and a cysteine synthase (CysK). While CysK is found in the publicly available annotated genome from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, a gene encoding SAT (cysE) is missing. In this study, we found that various strains of L. casei grew in a chemically defined medium containing sulfide as the sole sulfur source, indicating the presence of a serine O-acetyltransferase. The gene lying upstream of cysK is predicted to encode a homoserine trans-succinylase (metA). To study the function of this gene, it was cloned from L. casei FAM18110. The purified, recombinant protein did not acylate L-homoserine in vitro. Instead, it catalyzed the formation of O-acetyl serine from L-serine and acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, the plasmid expressing the L. casei gene complemented an Escherichia coli cysE mutant strain but not an E. coli metA mutant. This clearly demonstrated that the gene annotated as metA in fact encodes the SAT function and should be annotated as cysE. PMID:26790714

  15. Studying aminoglycoside modification by the acetyltransferase class of resistance-causing enzymes via microarray

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Olivia J.; Pushechnikov, Alexei; Wu, Meilan; Disney, Matthew D.

    2008-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are broad-spectrum antibacterials to which some bacteria have acquired resistance. The most common mode of resistance to aminoglycosides is enzymatic modification of the drug by different classes of enzymes including acetyltransferases (AAC’s). Thus, the modification of aminoglycosides by AAC(2’) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and AAC(3) from Escherichia coli was studied using aminoglycoside microarrays. Results show that both enzymes modify their substrates displayed on an array surface in a manner that mimics their relative levels of modification in solution. Because aminoglycosides that are modified by resistance-causing enzymes have reduced affinities for binding their therapeutic target, the bacterial rRNA aminoacyl-tRNA site (A-site), arrays were probed for binding to a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide mimic of the A-site after modification. A decrease in binding was observed when aminoglycosides were modified by AAC(3). In contrast, a decrease in binding of the A-site is not observed when aminoglycosides are modified by AAC(2’). Interestingly, these effects mirror the biological functions of these enzymes: the AAC(3) used in this study is known to confer aminoglycoside resistance while the AAC(2’) is chromosomally encoded and unlikely to play a role in resistance. These studies lay a direct foundation for studying resistance to aminoglycosides and can also have more broad applications in identifying and studying non-aminoglycoside carbohydrates or proteins as substrates for acetyltransferase enzymes. PMID:18774127

  16. Crystal structure of bacillus subtilis YdaF protein : a putative ribosomal N-acetyltransferase.

    SciTech Connect

    Brunzelle, J. S.; Wu, R.; Korolev, S. V.; Collart, F. R.; Joachimiak, A.; Anderson, W. F.; Biosciences Division; Northwestern Univ.; Saint Louis Univ. School of Medicine

    2004-12-01

    Comparative sequence analysis suggests that the ydaF gene encodes a protein (YdaF) that functions as an N-acetyltransferase, more specifically, a ribosomal N-acetyltransferase. Sequence analysis using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) suggests that YdaF belongs to a large family of proteins (199 proteins found in 88 unique species of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes). YdaF also belongs to the COG1670, which includes the Escherichia coli RimL protein that is known to acetylate ribosomal protein L12. N-acetylation (NAT) has been found in all kingdoms. NAT enzymes catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) to a primary amino group. For example, NATs can acetylate the N-terminal {alpha}-amino group, the {epsilon}-amino group of lysine residues, aminoglycoside antibiotics, spermine/speridine, or arylalkylamines such as serotonin. The crystal structure of the alleged ribosomal NAT protein, YdaF, from Bacillus subtilis presented here was determined as a part of the Midwest Center for Structural Genomics. The structure maintains the conserved tertiary structure of other known NATs and a high sequence similarity in the presumed AcCoA binding pocket in spite of a very low overall level of sequence identity to other NATs of known structure.

  17. Structure and Functional Diversity of GCN5-Related N-Acetyltransferases (GNAT)

    PubMed Central

    Salah Ud-Din, Abu Iftiaf Md; Tikhomirova, Alexandra; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    General control non-repressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferases (GNAT) catalyze the transfer of an acyl moiety from acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) to a diverse group of substrates and are widely distributed in all domains of life. This review of the currently available data acquired on GNAT enzymes by a combination of structural, mutagenesis and kinetic methods summarizes the key similarities and differences between several distinctly different families within the GNAT superfamily, with an emphasis on the mechanistic insights obtained from the analysis of the complexes with substrates or inhibitors. It discusses the structural basis for the common acetyltransferase mechanism, outlines the factors important for the substrate recognition, and describes the mechanism of action of inhibitors of these enzymes. It is anticipated that understanding of the structural basis behind the reaction and substrate specificity of the enzymes from this superfamily can be exploited in the development of novel therapeutics to treat human diseases and combat emerging multidrug-resistant microbial infections. PMID:27367672

  18. Specific alkylation of a histidine residue in carnitine acetyltransferase by bromoacetyl-l-carnitine

    PubMed Central

    Chase, J. F. A.; Tubbs, P. K.

    1970-01-01

    Incubation of carnitine acetyltransferase with low concentrations of bromoacetyl-l-carnitine causes a rapid and irreversible loss of enzyme activity; one mol of inhibitor can inactivate one mol of enzyme. Bromoacetyl-d-carnitine, iodoacetate or iodoacetamide are ineffective. l-Carnitine protects the transferase from bromoacetyl-l-carnitine. Investigation shows that the enzyme first reversibly binds bromoacetyl-l-carnitine with an affinity similar to that shown for the normal substrate acetyl-l-carnitine; this binding is followed by an alkylation reaction, forming the carnitine ester of a monocarboxymethyl-protein, which is catalytically inactive. The carnitine is released at an appreciable rate by spontaneous hydrolysis, and the resulting carboxymethyl-enzyme is also inactive. Total acid hydrolysis of enzyme after treatment with 2-[14C]bromoacetyl-l-carnitine yields N-3-carboxy[14C]methylhistidine as the only labelled amino acid. These findings, taken in conjunction with previous work, suggest that the single active centre of carnitine acetyltransferase contains a histidine residue. PMID:5461620

  19. Characterization and transcriptional regulation of the 2'-N-acetyltransferase gene from Providencia stuartii.

    PubMed Central

    Rather, P N; Orosz, E; Shaw, K J; Hare, R; Miller, G

    1993-01-01

    We have cloned the chromosomally encoded 2'-N-acetyltransferase gene [aac(2')-Ia] from Providencia stuartii. DNA sequence analysis of the cloned insert identified a single open reading frame, which is capable of encoding a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 20,073 Da. The deduced AAC(2')-Ia protein showed no significant homology to other proteins, including all of the AAC(3) and AAC(6') proteins. Primer extension analysis was used to identify the aac(2')-Ia promoter, which contained an unusual sequence (CTTTTT) at the -35 region. Expression of the aac(2')-Ia gene occurs at low levels in wild-type P. stuartii strains; therefore, they are aminoglycoside susceptible. We have isolated mutants with high-level AAC(2')-Ia expression at a frequency of 4.8 x 10(-6). Detailed analysis of one mutant demonstrated a 12.2-fold increase in the accumulation of aac(2')-Ia mRNA. In addition, the levels of beta-galactosidase expression from a plasmid-encoded aac(2')-lacZ transcriptional fusion were increased 11.5-fold in this mutant relative to those in an isogenic wild-type strain. These results suggested that a trans-acting factor, designated aar (for aminoglycoside acetyltransferase regulator), controls AAC(2')-Ia expression in P. stuartii. Images PMID:8407825

  20. Crystal Structure Analysis of the Polysialic Acid Specific O-Acetyltransferase NeuO

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Eike C.; Bergfeld, Anne K.; Ficner, Ralf; Mühlenhoff, Martina

    2011-01-01

    The major virulence factor of the neuroinvasive pathogen Escherichia coli K1 is the K1 capsule composed of α2,8-linked polysialic acid (polySia). K1 strains harboring the CUS-3 prophage modify their capsular polysaccharide by phase-variable O-acetlyation, a step that is associated with increased virulence. Here we present the crystal structure of the prophage-encoded polysialate O-acetyltransferase NeuO. The homotrimeric enzyme belongs to the left-handed β-helix (LβH) family of acyltransferases and is characterized by an unusual funnel-shaped outline. Comparison with other members of the LβH family allowed the identification of active site residues and proposal of a catalytic mechanism and highlighted structural characteristics of polySia specific O-acetyltransferases. As a unique feature of NeuO, the enzymatic activity linearly increases with the length of the N-terminal poly-ψ-domain which is composed of a variable number of tandem copies of an RLKTQDS heptad. Since the poly-ψ-domain was not resolved in the crystal structure it is assumed to be unfolded in the apo-enyzme. PMID:21390252

  1. Mutations in KAT6B, Encoding a Histone Acetyltransferase, Cause Genitopatellar Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Campeau, Philippe M.; Kim, Jaeseung C.; Lu, James T.; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A.; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Schlaubitz, Silke; Murdock, David M.; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Lammer, Edward J.; Enns, Gregory M.; Rhead, William J.; Rowland, Jon; Robertson, Stephen P.; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Bainbridge, Matthew N.; Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Gibbs, Richard A.; Rosenblatt, David S.; Majewski, Jacek; Lee, Brendan H.

    2012-01-01

    Genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) is a skeletal dysplasia with cerebral and genital anomalies for which the molecular basis has not yet been determined. By exome sequencing, we found de novo heterozygous truncating mutations in KAT6B (lysine acetyltransferase 6B, formerly known as MYST4 and MORF) in three subjects; then by Sanger sequencing of KAT6B, we found similar mutations in three additional subjects. The mutant transcripts do not undergo nonsense-mediated decay in cells from subjects with GPS. In addition, human pathological analyses and mouse expression studies point to systemic roles of KAT6B in controlling organismal growth and development. Myst4 (the mouse orthologous gene) is expressed in mouse tissues corresponding to those affected by GPS. Phenotypic differences and similarities between GPS, the Say-Barber-Biesecker variant of Ohdo syndrome (caused by different mutations of KAT6B), and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (caused by mutations in other histone acetyltransferases) are discussed. Together, the data support an epigenetic dysregulation of the limb, brain, and genital developmental programs. PMID:22265014

  2. Mutations in KAT6B, encoding a histone acetyltransferase, cause Genitopatellar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Campeau, Philippe M; Kim, Jaeseung C; Lu, James T; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Schlaubitz, Silke; Murdock, David M; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Lammer, Edward J; Enns, Gregory M; Rhead, William J; Rowland, Jon; Robertson, Stephen P; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Gibbs, Richard A; Rosenblatt, David S; Majewski, Jacek; Lee, Brendan H

    2012-02-10

    Genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) is a skeletal dysplasia with cerebral and genital anomalies for which the molecular basis has not yet been determined. By exome sequencing, we found de novo heterozygous truncating mutations in KAT6B (lysine acetyltransferase 6B, formerly known as MYST4 and MORF) in three subjects; then by Sanger sequencing of KAT6B, we found similar mutations in three additional subjects. The mutant transcripts do not undergo nonsense-mediated decay in cells from subjects with GPS. In addition, human pathological analyses and mouse expression studies point to systemic roles of KAT6B in controlling organismal growth and development. Myst4 (the mouse orthologous gene) is expressed in mouse tissues corresponding to those affected by GPS. Phenotypic differences and similarities between GPS, the Say-Barber-Biesecker variant of Ohdo syndrome (caused by different mutations of KAT6B), and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (caused by mutations in other histone acetyltransferases) are discussed. Together, the data support an epigenetic dysregulation of the limb, brain, and genital developmental programs. PMID:22265014

  3. Structural and functional characterization of the α-tubulin acetyltransferase MEC-17

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Andrew M.; Collins, Leslie N.; Chiu, Hui; Minor, Paul J.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Hoelz, André

    2014-01-01

    Tubulin protomers undergo an extensive array of post-translational modifications to tailor microtubules to specific tasks. One such modification, the acetylation of lysine-40 of α-tubulin, located in the lumen of microtubules, is associated with stable, long-living microtubule structures. MEC-17 was recently identified as the acetyltransferase that mediates this event. We have determined the crystal structure of the catalytic core of human MEC-17 in complex with its cofactor acetyl-CoA at 1.7 Å resolution. The structure reveals that the MEC-17 core adopts a canonical Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) fold that is decorated with extensive surface loops. An enzymatic analysis of 33 MEC-17 surface mutants identifies hot-spot residues for catalysis and substrate recognition. A large, evolutionarily conserved hydrophobic surface patch is identified that is critical for enzymatic activity, suggesting that specificity is achieved by interactions with the α-tubulin substrate that extend outside of the modified surface loop. An analysis of MEC-17 mutants in C. elegans shows that enzymatic activity is dispensable for touch sensitivity. PMID:24846647

  4. DNA Binding by Sgf11 Protein Affects Histone H2B Deubiquitination by Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase (SAGA)*

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Christian; Bonnet, Jacques; Stierle, Matthieu; Romier, Christophe; Devys, Didier; Kieffer, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex is a transcription coactivator that contains a histone H2B deubiquitination activity mediated by its Ubp8 subunit. Full enzymatic activity requires the formation of a quaternary complex, the deubiquitination module (DUBm) of SAGA, which is composed of Ubp8, Sus1, Sgf11, and Sgf73. The crystal structures of the DUBm have shed light on the structure/function relationship of this complex. Specifically, both Sgf11 and Sgf73 contain zinc finger domains (ZnF) that appear essential for the DUBm activity. Whereas Sgf73 N-terminal ZnF is important for DUBm stability, Sgf11 C-terminal ZnF appears to be involved in DUBm function. To further characterize the role of these two zinc fingers, we have solved their structure by NMR. We show that, contrary to the previously reported structures, Sgf73 ZnF adopts a C2H2 coordination with unusual tautomeric forms for the coordinating histidines. We further report that the Sgf11 ZnF, but not the Sgf73 ZnF, binds to nucleosomal DNA with a binding interface composed of arginine residues located within the ZnF α-helix. Mutational analyses both in vitro and in vivo provide evidence for the functional relevance of our structural observations. The combined interpretation of our results leads to an uncommon ZnF-DNA interaction between the SAGA DUBm and nucleosomes, thus providing further functional insights into SAGA's epigenetic modulation of the chromatin structure. PMID:24509845

  5. The Chromatin Regulator BRPF3 Preferentially Activates the HBO1 Acetyltransferase but Is Dispensable for Mouse Development and Survival.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kezhi; You, Linya; Degerny, Cindy; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Liu, Xin; Chen, Lulu; Li, Lin; Miao, Dengshun; Yang, Xiang-Jiao

    2016-02-01

    To interpret epigenetic information, chromatin readers utilize various protein domains for recognition of DNA and histone modifications. Some readers possess multidomains for modification recognition and are thus multivalent. Bromodomain- and plant homeodomain-linked finger-containing protein 3 (BRPF3) is such a chromatin reader, containing two plant homeodomain-linked fingers, one bromodomain and a PWWP domain. However, its molecular and biological functions remain to be investigated. Here, we report that endogenous BRPF3 preferentially forms a tetrameric complex with HBO1 (also known as KAT7) and two other subunits but not with related acetyltransferases such as MOZ, MORF, TIP60, and MOF (also known as KAT6A, KAT6B, KAT5, and KAT8, respectively). We have also characterized a mutant mouse strain with a lacZ reporter inserted at the Brpf3 locus. Systematic analysis of β-galactosidase activity revealed dynamic spatiotemporal expression of Brpf3 during mouse embryogenesis and high expression in the adult brain and testis. Brpf3 disruption, however, resulted in no obvious gross phenotypes. This is in stark contrast to Brpf1 and Brpf2, whose loss causes lethality at E9.5 and E15.5, respectively. In Brpf3-null mice and embryonic fibroblasts, RT-quantitative PCR uncovered no changes in levels of Brpf1 and Brpf2 transcripts, confirming no compensation from them. These results indicate that BRPF3 forms a functional tetrameric complex with HBO1 but is not required for mouse development and survival, thereby distinguishing BRPF3 from its paralogs, BRPF1 and BRPF2. PMID:26677226

  6. No evidence for role of extracellular choline-acetyltransferase in generation of gamma oscillations in rat hippocampal slices in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hollnagel, J O; ul Haq, R; Behrens, C J; Maslarova, A; Mody, I; Heinemann, U

    2015-01-22

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is well known to induce persistent γ-oscillations in the hippocampus when applied together with physostigmine, an inhibitor of the ACh degrading enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Here we report that physostigmine alone can also dose-dependently induce γ-oscillations in rat hippocampal slices. We hypothesized that this effect was due to the presence of choline in the extracellular space and that this choline is taken up into cholinergic fibers where it is converted to ACh by the enzyme choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT). Release of ACh from cholinergic fibers in turn may then induce γ-oscillations. We therefore tested the effects of the choline uptake inhibitor hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) on persistent γ-oscillations either induced by physostigmine alone or by co-application of ACh and physostigmine. We found that HC-3 itself did not induce γ-oscillations and also did not prevent physostigmine-induced γ-oscillation while washout of physostigmine and ACh-induced γ-oscillations was accelerated. It was recently reported that ChAT might also be present in the extracellular space (Vijayaraghavan et al., 2013). Here we show that the effect of physostigmine was prevented by the ChAT inhibitor (2-benzoylethyl)-trimethylammonium iodide (BETA) which could indicate extracellular synthesis of ACh. However, when we tested for effects of extracellularly applied acetyl-CoA, a substrate of ChAT for synthesis of ACh, physostigmine-induced γ-oscillations were attenuated. Together, these findings do not support the idea that ACh can be synthesized by an extracellularly located ChAT. PMID:25453770

  7. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, Jennifer D; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California - Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies' mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  8. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    PubMed Central

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  9. Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-05

    ... build-to-cost project development with streamlined management structure.  Conducted successful underflights of opportunity ... build-to-cost project development with streamlined management structure.  For more information, please see the  CATS ...

  10. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  11. Sonographic pleural fluid volume estimation in cats.

    PubMed

    Shimali, Jerry; Cripps, Peter J; Newitt, Anna L M

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a recently published study used to objectively monitor pleural fluid volumes in dogs could be successfully employed in cats and secondly to assess its accuracy. Eleven feline cadavers were selected. Using the trans-sternal view employed in dogs, linear measurements from the pleural surface of the midline of the sternebra at the centre of the heart to the furthest ventro-lateral point of both right and left lung edges were recorded. Isotonic saline was injected using ultrasound guidance into both right and left pleural spaces and the measurements were repeated using standard increments until 400 ml total volume was reached. The mean measurement increased in a linear relationship with the cube root of fluid volume for all cats individually. An equation was produced to predict the volume of fluid from the mean linear measurement for all cats combined: Volume=[-3.75+2.41(mean)](3)(P<0.001) but variability in the slope of the curve for individual cats limited the accuracy of the combined equation. Equations were derived to predict the constant and slope of the curve for individual cats using the thoracic measurements made, but the residual diagnostic graphs demonstrated considerable variability. As in dogs, good correlation was found between the ultrasonographic measurement and fluid volume within individual cats. An accurate equation to predict absolute pleural fluid volume was not identified. Further analysis with reference to thoracic measurements did not increase accuracy. In conclusion, this study does provide a method of estimating absolute pleural fluid volume in cats, which may be clinical useful for pleural fluid volume monitoring but this is yet to be validated in live cats. PMID:19744872

  12. Evaluation of Oral Robenacoxib for the Treatment of Postoperative Pain and Inflammation in Cats: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    King, Stephen; Roberts, Elizabeth S.; Roycroft, Linda M.; King, Jonathan N.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of robenacoxib were assessed for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats. The study was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded, and parallel group clinical trial. A total of 249 client-owned cats scheduled for forelimb onychectomy plus either ovariohysterectomy or castration surgeries were included. All cats received butorphanol prior to anesthesia and forelimb four-point regional nerve blocks with bupivacaine after induction of general anesthesia. Cats were randomized to receive daily oral tablet robenacoxib, at a mean (range) dosage of 1.84 (1.03–2.40) mg/kg (n = 167), or placebo (n = 82), once prior to surgery and for two days postoperatively. Significantly (P < 0.05) fewer robenacoxib cats received additional analgesia rescue therapy (16.5%) than placebo cats (46.3%). Pain elicited on palpation of the soft tissue incision site, behavior following social interaction, and posture assessed during the first 8 hours after extubation were significantly (P < 0.05) improved in cats receiving robenacoxib. Frequency of reported adverse clinical signs, hematology, serum chemistry and urinalysis variables, and body weight changes weresimilar between groups. In conclusion, robenacoxib was effective and well tolerated in the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats undergoing onychectomy with ovariohysterectomy or castration. PMID:23738129

  13. Evaluation of oral robenacoxib for the treatment of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    King, Stephen; Roberts, Elizabeth S; Roycroft, Linda M; King, Jonathan N

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of robenacoxib were assessed for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats. The study was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded, and parallel group clinical trial. A total of 249 client-owned cats scheduled for forelimb onychectomy plus either ovariohysterectomy or castration surgeries were included. All cats received butorphanol prior to anesthesia and forelimb four-point regional nerve blocks with bupivacaine after induction of general anesthesia. Cats were randomized to receive daily oral tablet robenacoxib, at a mean (range) dosage of 1.84 (1.03-2.40) mg/kg (n = 167), or placebo (n = 82), once prior to surgery and for two days postoperatively. Significantly (P < 0.05) fewer robenacoxib cats received additional analgesia rescue therapy (16.5%) than placebo cats (46.3%). Pain elicited on palpation of the soft tissue incision site, behavior following social interaction, and posture assessed during the first 8 hours after extubation were significantly (P < 0.05) improved in cats receiving robenacoxib. Frequency of reported adverse clinical signs, hematology, serum chemistry and urinalysis variables, and body weight changes weresimilar between groups. In conclusion, robenacoxib was effective and well tolerated in the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats undergoing onychectomy with ovariohysterectomy or castration. PMID:23738129

  14. Identification and characterization of novel small molecule inhibitors of the acetyltransferase activity of Escherichia coli N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase/glucosamine-1-phosphate-acetyltransferase (GlmU).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rashmi; Rani, Chitra; Mehra, Rukmankesh; Nargotra, Amit; Chib, Reena; Rajput, Vikrant S; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Samsher; Sharma, Parduman R; Khan, Inshad A

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at identifying novel chemical scaffolds as inhibitors specific to the acetyltransferase domain of a bifunctional enzyme, Escherichia coli GlmU, involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Gram-negative organisms. A two-pronged approach was used to screen a 50,000 small-molecule library. Using the first approach, the library was in silico screened by docking the library against acetyltransferase domain of E. coli GlmU studies. In the second approach, complete library was screened against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 to identify the whole cell active compounds. Active compounds from both the screens were screened in a colorimetric absorbance-based assay to identify inhibitors of acetyltransferase domain of E. coli GlmU which resulted in the identification of 1 inhibitor out of 56 hits identified by in silico screening and 4 inhibitors out of 35 whole cell active compounds on Gram-negative bacteria with the most potent inhibitor showing IC50 of 1.40 ± 0.69 μM. Mode of inhibition studies revealed these inhibitors to be competitive with AcCoA and uncompetitive with GlcN-1-P. These selected inhibitors were also tested for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Compounds 5175178 and 5215319 exhibited antibacterial activity that co-related with GlmU inhibition. These compounds, therefore, represent novel chemical scaffolds targeting acetyltransferase activity of E. coli GlmU. PMID:26563552

  15. Comprehensive analysis of interacting proteins and genome-wide location studies of the Sas3-dependent NuA3 histone acetyltransferase complex

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Muñoz, Sara; Romero, Paco; Magraner-Pardo, Lorena; Martinez-Jimenez, Celia P.; Tordera, Vicente; Pamblanco, Mercè

    2014-01-01

    Histone acetylation affects several aspects of gene regulation, from chromatin remodelling to gene expression, by modulating the interplay between chromatin and key transcriptional regulators. The exact molecular mechanism underlying acetylation patterns and crosstalk with other epigenetic modifications requires further investigation. In budding yeast, these epigenetic markers are produced partly by histone acetyltransferase enzymes, which act as multi-protein complexes. The Sas3-dependent NuA3 complex has received less attention than other histone acetyltransferases (HAT), such as Gcn5-dependent complexes. Here, we report our analysis of Sas3p-interacting proteins using tandem affinity purification (TAP), coupled with mass spectrometry. This analysis revealed Pdp3p, a recently described component of NuA3, to be one of the most abundant Sas3p-interacting proteins. The PDP3 gene, was TAP-tagged and protein complex purification confirmed that Pdp3p co-purified with the NuA3 protein complex, histones, and several transcription-related and chromatin remodelling proteins. Our results also revealed that the protein complexes associated with Sas3p presented HAT activity even in the absence of Gcn5p and vice versa. We also provide evidence that Sas3p cannot substitute Gcn5p in acetylation of lysine 9 in histone H3 in vivo. Genome-wide occupancy of Sas3p using ChIP-on-chip tiled microarrays showed that Sas3p was located preferentially within the 5′-half of the coding regions of target genes, indicating its probable involvement in the transcriptional elongation process. Hence, this work further characterises the function and regulation of the NuA3 complex by identifying novel post-translational modifications in Pdp3p, additional Pdp3p-co-purifying chromatin regulatory proteins involved in chromatin-modifying complex dynamics and gene regulation, and a subset of genes whose transcriptional elongation is controlled by this complex. PMID:25473596

  16. Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Isolates and Toxoplasmosis Seroprevalence in Stray Cats of İzmir, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Can, Hüseyin; Döşkaya, Mert; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Özdemir, H. Gökhan; Caner, Ayşe; İz, Sultan Gülce; Döşkaya, Aysu Değirmenci; Atalay, Esra; Çetinkaya, Çağdaş; Ürgen, Saygun; Karaçalı, Sabire; Ün, Cemal; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    Currently, some Toxoplasma gondii genotypes are being associated with serious clinical presentations. A recent report showing the Africa 1 genotype in two local congenital toxoplasmosis cases acquired in Turkey formed the basis of this study because atypical Africa 1 genotype is most frequently detected in animals and patients from sub-Saharan Africa. Since stray cats are considered as the linkage between wild life and urban life in T. gondii transmission, the present study aimed to isolate and characterize T. gondii strains circulating in stray cats of İzmir (Western Turkey). A secondary objective was to determine toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in this cat population. Tissues obtained from 100 deceased stray cats were bioassayed and isolated strains were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers. In addition, toxoplasmosis seroprevalence was analyzed in 1121 cat sera collected from several large veterinary clinics in İzmir. Among the 22 isolates, 19 were Type II (86.3%), two were Type III (9%) and one was Africa 1 genotype (4.5%). The overall seropositivity rates in cats were 42–48% and 33.4–34.4% according to IFA and ELISA, respectively. Seroprevalence in deceased cats was significantly higher than in healthy cats (P = 0.0033). Finding both the major clonal Type II lineage together with the Type III lineage also found in Middle East, and an atypical genotype, Africa 1 appears consistent with the specific geographic location of Turkey between three continents and raises the possibility of transportation of these strains between continents through trade routes or long distance migratory birds. In addition, the first large study of toxoplasma seroprevalence in a stray cat population was also reported. The relatively high seropositivity rates and the variety of T. gondii genotypes confirm the local stray cat population as a risk factor for human toxoplasmosis in İzmir. PMID:25127360

  17. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates and toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in stray cats of İzmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Hüseyin; Döşkaya, Mert; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Özdemir, H Gökhan; Caner, Ayşe; İz, Sultan Gülce; Döşkaya, Aysu Değirmenci; Atalay, Esra; Çetinkaya, Çağdaş; Ürgen, Saygun; Karaçalı, Sabire; Ün, Cemal; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    Currently, some Toxoplasma gondii genotypes are being associated with serious clinical presentations. A recent report showing the Africa 1 genotype in two local congenital toxoplasmosis cases acquired in Turkey formed the basis of this study because atypical Africa 1 genotype is most frequently detected in animals and patients from sub-Saharan Africa. Since stray cats are considered as the linkage between wild life and urban life in T. gondii transmission, the present study aimed to isolate and characterize T. gondii strains circulating in stray cats of İzmir (Western Turkey). A secondary objective was to determine toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in this cat population. Tissues obtained from 100 deceased stray cats were bioassayed and isolated strains were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers. In addition, toxoplasmosis seroprevalence was analyzed in 1121 cat sera collected from several large veterinary clinics in İzmir. Among the 22 isolates, 19 were Type II (86.3%), two were Type III (9%) and one was Africa 1 genotype (4.5%). The overall seropositivity rates in cats were 42-48% and 33.4-34.4% according to IFA and ELISA, respectively. Seroprevalence in deceased cats was significantly higher than in healthy cats (P = 0.0033). Finding both the major clonal Type II lineage together with the Type III lineage also found in Middle East, and an atypical genotype, Africa 1 appears consistent with the specific geographic location of Turkey between three continents and raises the possibility of transportation of these strains between continents through trade routes or long distance migratory birds. In addition, the first large study of toxoplasma seroprevalence in a stray cat population was also reported. The relatively high seropositivity rates and the variety of T. gondii genotypes confirm the local stray cat population as a risk factor for human toxoplasmosis in İzmir. PMID:25127360

  18. Granulomatous rhinitis due to Candida parapsilosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Catherine G; Grune, Sterrett C; Estrada, Marko M; McIlwain, Mary B; Leutenegger, Christian M

    2013-09-01

    A 9-year-old female spayed Domestic Medium Hair cat presented to the referring veterinarian with a 2-week history of sneezing, which progressed to swelling over the nasal planum. The cat had been under veterinary care for inflammatory bowel disease and had been treated with 1.25 mg/kg prednisolone once a day for approximately 1 year. On physical examination, an approximately 2-3 mm diameter, round polypoid pink soft-tissue mass was protruding slightly from the right nostril. Through histologic examination of representative sections from the mass, there was a severe diffuse infiltrate of epithelioid macrophages and neutrophils that surrounded frequent 15-20 µm yeast organisms. A Grocott methenamine silver stain revealed the presence of pseudohyphae in addition to the previously noted yeast forms. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Cryptococcus neoformans, Ajellomyces dermatitidis (syn. Blastomyces dermatitidis), Coccidioides immitis, Ajellomyces capsulatus (syn. Histoplasma capsulatum), Malassezia spp., and Candida spp. was performed on the paraffin-embedded sample. The PCR for Candida spp. was positive; the product was then sequenced and was determined to be consistent with Candida parapsilosis. Following the PCR diagnosis and prior to treatment of the infection, C. parapsilosis was cultured from a nasal swab. The infection in the cat in the current report was considered opportunistic and secondary to immunosuppression, following treatment for the inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23883665

  19. Contributions of cat posterior parietal cortex to visuospatial discrimination.

    PubMed

    Lomber, S G; Payne, B R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the contributions made by cat posterior parietal cortex to the analyses of the relative position of objects in visual space. Two cats were trained on a landmark task in which they learned to report the position of a landmark object relative to a right or left food-reward chamber. Subsequently, three pairs of cooling loops were implanted bilaterally in contact with visuoparietal cortices forming the crown of the middle suprasylvian gyrus (MSg; architectonic area 7) and the banks of the posterior-middle suprasylvian sulcus (pMS sulcal cortex) and in contact with the ventral-posterior suprasylvian (vPS) region of visuotemporal cortex. Bilateral deactivation of pMS sulcal cortex resulted in a profound impairment for all six tested positions of the landmark, yet bilateral deactivation of neither area 7 nor vPS cortex yielded any deficits. In control tasks (visual orienting and object discrimination), there was no evidence for any degree of attentional blindness or impairment of form discrimination during bilateral deactivation of pMS cortex. Therefore, we conclude that bilateral cooling of pMS cortex, but neither area 7 nor vPS cortex, induces a specific deficit in spatial localization as examined with the landmark task. These observations have significant bearing on our understanding of visuospatial processing in cat, monkey, and human cortices. PMID:11153650

  20. The Relationship Between Coat Color and Aggressive Behaviors in the Domestic Cat.

    PubMed

    Stelow, Elizabeth A; Bain, Melissa J; Kass, Philip H

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored a possible relationship between coat color and aggressive behaviors in the domestic cat. This study used an Internet-based survey to collect information on coat color, affiliative behaviors toward cats/humans, agonistic behaviors toward cats/humans, other "problem" behaviors, and cat and guardian demographic data. A total of 1,432 cat guardians completed the online survey; after exclusions based on study protocol, data analysis included 1,274 completed surveys. Guardians reported sex-linked orange female (tortoiseshells, calicos, and "torbies"), black-and-white, and gray-and-white cats to be more frequently aggressive toward humans in 3 settings: during everyday interactions, during handling, and during veterinary visits. Kruskal-Wallis 1-way analysis of variance was used to compare possible differences between the 2 sexes and among different coat colors. Analyses of aggression due to handling, as well as aggression displayed during veterinarian visits, showed little difference among coat colors in these settings. PMID:26467020

  1. Detection of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica in domestic cats in the Ege Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Paşa, Serdar; Tetik Vardarlı, Aslı; Erol, Nural; Karakuş, Mehmet; Töz, Seray; Atasoy, Abidin; Balcıoğlu, İ Cüneyt; Emek Tuna, Gülten; Ermiş, Özge V; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Özbel, Yusuf

    2015-09-15

    Leishmaniosis is a group of diseases caused by different species of Leishmania parasites in mammalian species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in cats using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays targeting internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) and heat-shock protein 70 gene (Hsp70) regions with Leishmania species-specific primers and probes. Blood samples were collected from 147 cats (73 female; 74 male) in the endemic regions for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the western provinces of Turkey and analyzed using two RT-PCR assays. Additionally, Hsp70 RT-PCR products were sequenced. ELISA assays for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) were also carried out for 145 of the 147 samples. Overall, 13/147 (8.84%) cats were positive for Leishmania by RT-PCR (4 L. major and 9 L. tropica). FIV and FeLV antibody and/or antigen was detected in 4 and 5 cats among Leishmania DNA positives, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate and report the presence of L. major and L. tropica infections in a large group of domestic cats in Turkey. The results obtained indicate that species identification of Leishmania is essential for epidemiological understanding and that clinical signs alone are not indicative for leishmaniosis in cats, as it is in dogs. This study suggests that extensive research should be carried out in cat populations in order to fully understand the role of cats in the epidemiology of the disease. PMID:26277567

  2. Chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat: cytochemical and immunophenotypical features.

    PubMed

    Gelain, Maria Elena; Antoniazzi, Elisa; Bertazzolo, Walter; Zaccolo, Maurizia; Comazzi, Stefano

    2006-12-01

    A 3-year-old, male, domestic shorthaired cat was presented with a 3-day history of anorexia and depression. The cat was moderately dehydrated, had pale, slightly icteric, mucous membranes, oral ulcerations, and mild hepatosplenomegaly. A feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen test was positive. CBC results obtained at initial presentation included severe normocytic, normochromic, nonregenerative anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and marked leukocytosis (>100,000/microL) with 77% eosinophils. After 15 days of treatment with prednisone and doxycycline, the cat had persistent severe nonregenerative anemia (HCT 3.4%), thrombocytopenia (28,000/microL), and extreme eosinophilia (total eosinophils, 123.1 x 10(3)/microL; segmented 103.0 x 10(3)/microL; immature 20.1 X 10(3)/microL). Cytologic examination of aspirates from bone marrow, liver, lymph nodes, and spleen revealed a predominance of mature and immature eosinophils, many with dysplastic changes. The M:E ratio was 96.4. On histopathologic examination, multiple organs were infiltrated by eosinophilic granulocytes. Neoplastic cells in blood and bone marrow stained positive for alkaline phosphatase and were negative for myeloperoxidase, chloroacetate esterase, and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase. On flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood, the neoplastic cells were positive for CD11b and CD14. These findings were consistent with chronic eosinophilic leukemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat associated with naturally acquired FeLV infection, in which flow cytometry was used to characterize the neoplastic cells. PMID:17123254

  3. Spatial Memory Consolidation is Associated with Induction of Several Lysine-Acetyltransferase (Histone Acetyltransferase) Expression Levels and H2B/H4 Acetylation-Dependent Transcriptional Events in the Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Bousiges, Olivier; Vasconcelos, Anne Pereira de; Neidl, Romain; Cosquer, Brigitte; Herbeaux, Karine; Panteleeva, Irina; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Boutillier, Anne-Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Numerous genetic studies have shown that the CREB-binding protein (CBP) is an essential component of long-term memory formation, through its histone acetyltransferase (HAT) function. E1A-binding protein p300 and p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) have also recently been involved in memory formation. By contrast, only a few studies have reported on acetylation modifications during memory formation, and it remains unclear as to how the system is regulated during this dynamic phase. We investigated acetylation-dependent events and the expression profiles of these HATs during a hippocampus-dependent task taxing spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze. We found a specific increase in H2B and H4 acetylation in the rat dorsal hippocampus, while spatial memory was being consolidated. This increase correlated with the degree of specific acetylated histones enrichment on some memory/plasticity-related gene promoters. Overall, a global increase in HAT activity was measured during this memory consolidation phase, together with a global increase of CBP, p300, and PCAF expression. Interestingly, these regulations were altered in a model of hippocampal denervation disrupting spatial memory consolidation, making it impossible for the hippocampus to recruit the CBP pathway (CBP regulation and acetylated-H2B-dependent transcription). CBP has long been thought to be present in limited concentrations in the cells. These results show, for the first time, that CBP, p300, and PCAF are dynamically modulated during the establishment of a spatial memory and are likely to contribute to the induction of a specific epigenetic tagging of the genome for hippocampus-dependent (spatial) memory consolidation. These findings suggest the use of HAT-activating molecules in new therapeutic strategies of pathological aging, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:20811339

  4. Free-roaming dogs and cats in central Italy: public perceptions of the problem.

    PubMed

    Slater, Margaret R; Di Nardo, Antonio; Pediconi, Ombretta; Villa, Paolo Dalla; Candeloro, Luca; Alessandrini, Barbara; Del Papa, Stefania

    2008-04-17

    A cross-sectional telephone survey of randomly selected households examined the extent and types of problems associated with free-roaming dogs and cats in the Teramo province of Italy. The households were sampled randomly within each municipality; municipalities were combined into coastal, central hills and mountain regions for analysis. The survey was conducted in May and June of 2004 with a response rate of 74% (397/536). Ninety percent of respondents (N=356) believed that free-roaming dogs and cats were a problem. They were most commonly concerned about personal safety, followed by animal welfare, public health and environmental sanitation. Sixty-nine percent of respondents (274) actually saw free-roaming dogs or cats where they live. While dogs were most commonly seen, cats were seen in greater numbers. Overall, 10% (39/297) and 5% (21/397) of respondents cared for free-roaming cats and dogs, respectively. Two-thirds of the respondents (251/397) believed that animals were abandoned because the owners lost interest. About 2/3 of respondents (251/397) reported that the community government should have the responsibility for dealing with free-roaming dogs and cats. The respondents supported the idea of building more shelters and controlling the birth rate as control measures rather than euthanizing dogs and cats. The results suggest that free-roaming dogs and cats are a very common sight in this part of Italy with substantial concerns by the residents. However, concerns about the animals' welfare were clearly raised, supporting the laws that make it illegal to euthanize a healthy dog or cat in Italy. Using the information from this study, research on the underlying causes of abandonment of dogs and cats or failing to sterilize them should be undertaken to begin to address this problem. Further, national and regional funding must be provided to support existing laws which should help protect and eventually decrease the numbers of free-roaming and homeless dogs and

  5. Comparative genomic, phylogenetic, and functional investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family among fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes well-characterized in several bacteria and higher eukaryotes. The role of NATs in fungal biology has only recently been investigated (Glenn and Bacon, 2009; Glenn et al., 2010). The NAT1 gene of Gibberella moniliformis was the...

  6. Construction and Use of a Replication-Competent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) that Expresses the Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase Enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terwilliger, E. F.; Godin, B.; Sodroski, J. G.; Haseltine, W. A.

    1989-05-01

    The construction and properties of an infectious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that expresses the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase are described. This virus can be used in vitro to screen for drugs that inhibit HIV infection. The marked virus may also be used to trace the routes of infection from the site of inoculation in animal experiments.

  7. Homologues of xenobiotic metabolizing N-acetyltransferases in plant-associated fungi: Novel functions for an old enzyme family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-pathogenic fungi and their hosts engage in chemical warfare, attacking each other with toxic products of secondary metabolism and defending themselves via an arsenal of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. One such enzyme is homologous to arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and has been identified...

  8. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase should not provide methanogens with resistance to chloramphenicol. [Methanococcus voltae; Methanococcus vannielii; Methanococcus deltae; Methanobrevibacter smithii

    SciTech Connect

    Beckler, G.S.; Hook, L.A.; Reeve, J.N.

    1984-04-01

    Growth of the four methanogens investigated was inhibitied by chloramphenicol-3-acetate; therefore, introduction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase-encoding genes should not confer chloramphenicol resistance on these methanogens. Reduction of the aryl nitro group of chloramphenicol produced a compound which did not inhibit the growth of these methanogens. 9 references.

  9. Structural and Functional Evidence for Bacillus subtilis PaiA as a Novel N1-spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Forouhar,F.; Lee, I.; Vujcic, J.; Vujcic, S.; Shen, J.; Vorobiev, S.; Xiao, R.; Acton, T.; Montelione, G.; et al.

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis PaiA has been implicated in the negative control of sporulation as well as production of degradative enzymes. PaiA shares recognizable sequence homology with N-acetyltransferases, including those that can acetylate spermidine/spermine substrates (SSATs). We have determined the crystal structure of PaiA in complex with CoA at 1.9 Angstrom resolution and found that PaiA is a member of the N-acetyltransferase superfamily of enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observed the binding of an oxidized CoA dimer in the active site of PaiA, and the structural information suggests the substrates of the enzyme could be linear, positively charged compounds. Our biochemical characterization is also consistent with this possibility since purified PaiA possesses N1-acetyltransferase activity towards polyamine substrates including spermidine and spermine. Further, conditional over-expression of PaiA in bacteria results in increased acetylation of endogenous spermidine pools. Thus, our structural and biochemical analyses indicate that PaiA is a novel N-acetyltransferase capable of acetylating both spermidine and spermine. In this way, the pai operon may function in regulating intracellular polyamine concentrations and/or binding capabilities. In addition to preventing toxicity due to polyamine excess, this function may also serve to regulate expression of certain bacterial gene products such as those involved in sporulation.

  10. Notch2 transduction by feline leukemia virus in a naturally infected cat.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinya; Ito, Jumpei; Baba, Takuya; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Kuse, Kyohei; Ochi, Haruyo; Anai, Yukari; Hisasue, Masaharu; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2014-04-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) induces neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases in cats. The transduction of cellular genes by FeLV is sometimes observed and associated with neoplastic diseases including lymphoma and sarcoma. Here, we report the first natural case of feline Notch2 transduction by FeLV in an infected cat with multicentric lymphoma and hypercalcemia. We cloned recombinant FeLVs harboring Notch2 in the env gene. Notch2 was able to activate expression of a reporter gene, similar to what was previously reported in cats with experimental FeLV-induced thymic lymphoma. Our findings suggest that the transduction of Notch2 strongly correlates with FeLV-induced lymphoma. PMID:24317268

  11. System-wide Studies of N-Lysine Acetylation in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Reveal Substrate Specificity of Protein Acetyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Heidi A.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Hurst, Gregory B.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2012-01-01

    N-Lysine acetylation is a posttranslational modification that has been well studied in eukaryotes and is likely widespread in prokaryotes as well. The central metabolic enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase is regulated in both bacteria and eukaryotes by acetylation of a conserved lysine residue in the active site. In the purple photosynthetic α-proteobacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris, two protein acetyltransferases (RpPat and the newly identified RpKatA) and two deacetylases (RpLdaA and RpSrtN) regulate the activities of AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases. In this work, we used LC/MS/MS to identify other proteins regulated by the N-lysine acetylation/deacetylation system of this bacterium. Of the 24 putative acetylated proteins identified, 14 were identified more often in a strain lacking both deacetylases. Nine of these proteins were members of the AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetase family. RpPat acetylated all nine of the acyl-CoA synthetases identified by this work, and RpLdaA deacetylated eight of them. In all cases, acetylation occurred at the conserved lysine residue in the active site, and acetylation decreased activity of the enzymes by >70%. Our results show that many different AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases are regulated by N-lysine acetylation. Five non-acyl-CoA synthetases were identified as possibly acetylated, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Rpa1177, a putative 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase. Neither RpPat nor RpKatA acetylated either of these proteins in vitro. It has been reported that Salmonella enterica Pat (SePat) can acetylate a number of metabolic enzymes, including GAPDH, but we were unable to confirm this claim, suggesting that the substrate range of SePat is not as broad as suggested previously. PMID:22416131

  12. Absence of Association between N-Acetyltransferase 2 Acetylator Status and Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility: Based on Evidence from 40 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Liang, Guo dong; Li, Jing ying; Zhu, Yi dan; Su, Yun tao

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives N-Acetyltransferase (NAT) 2 is an important enzyme involved in the metabolism of different xenobiotics, including potential carcinogens, whose phenotypes were reported to be related to individual susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the results remain conflicting. To assess the relationship between NAT2 phenotypes and CRC risk, we performed this meta-analysis. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all case-control or cohort studies of NAT2 acetylator status on the susceptibility of CRC by searching of PubMed and EMBASE, up to May 20, 2011. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. Results A total of over 40,000 subjects from 40 published literatures were identified by searching the databases. No significantly elevated CRC risk in individuals with NAT2 slow acetylators compared with fast acetylators was found when all studies pooled (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.87–1.04, I2 = 52.6%). While three studies contributed to the source of heterogeneity were removed, there was still null result observed (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.90–1.03, P = 0.17 for heterogeneity, I2 = 17.8%). In addition, we failed to detect any associations in the stratified analyses by race, sex, source of controls, smoking status, genotyping methods or tumor localization. No publication bias was observed in this study. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that the NAT2 phenotypes may not be associated with colorectal cancer development. PMID:22403658

  13. Identification and functional characterization of novel polymorphisms associated with the genes for arylamine N-acetyltransferases in mice.

    PubMed

    Boukouvala, Sotiria; Price, Naomi; Sim, Edith

    2002-07-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) polymorphism in humans has been associated with variation in susceptibility to drug toxicity and cancer. In mice, three NAT isoenzymes are encoded by Nat1, Nat2 and Nat3 genes. Only Nat2 has been shown previously to be polymorphic, a single nucleotide substitution causing the slow acetylator phenotype in the A/J strain. We sequenced the Nat genes from inbred (CBA and 129/Ola), outbred (PO and TO) and wild-derived inbred (Mus spretus and Mus musculus castaneus) mouse strains and report polymorphism in all three Nat genes of M. spretus and in Nat2 and Nat3 genes of M. m. castaneus. Enzymatic activity assays using liver homogenates demonstrated that M. m. castaneus is a 'fast' and M. spretus a 'slow' acetylator. Western blot analysis indicated that hepatic NAT2 protein is less abundant in M. spretus than M. m. castaneus. The new allozymes were expressed in a mammalian cell line and NAT enzymatic activity was measured with a series of substrates. NAT1 and NAT2 isoenzymes of M. m. castaneus exhibited a higher rate of acetylation, compared with those of M. spretus. Activity of the NAT3 allozymes was hardly detectable, although the Nat3 gene does appear to be transcribed, since mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in the spleen. Additional polymorphisms, useful for Nat-related genetic studies, have been identified between BALB/c, C57Bl/6J, A/J, 129/Ola, CBA, PO, TO, M. m. castaneus and M. spretus strains in four microsatellite repeats located close to the Nat genes. PMID:12142728

  14. Cloning and characterization of the serotonin N-acetyltransferase-2 gene (SNAT2) in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Byeon, Yeong; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2016-09-01

    The penultimate enzyme in melatonin synthesis is serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), which exists as a single copy in mammals and plants. Our recent studies of the Arabidopsis snat-knockout mutant and SNAT RNAi rice (Oryza sativa) plants predicted the presence of at least one other SNAT isogene in plants; that is, the snat-knockout mutant of Arabidopsis and the SNAT RNAi rice plants still produced melatonin, even in the absence or the suppression of SNAT expression. Here, we report a molecular cloning of an SNAT isogene (OsSNAT2) from rice. The mature amino acid sequences of SNAT proteins indicated that OsSNAT2 and OsSNAT1 proteins had 39% identity values and 60% similarity. The Km and Vmax values of the purified recombinant OsSNAT2 were 371 μm and 4700 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively; the enzyme's optimal activity temperature was 45°C. Confocal microscopy showed that the OsSNAT2 protein was localized to both the cytoplasm and chloroplasts. The in vitro enzyme activity of OsSNAT2 was severely inhibited by melatonin, but the activities of sheep SNAT (OaSNAT) and rice OsSNAT1 proteins were not. The enzyme activity of OsSNAT2 was threefold higher than that of OsSNAT1, but 232-fold lower than that of OaSNAT. The OsSNAT1 and OsSNAT2 transcripts were similarly suppressed in rice leaves during the melatonin induction after cadmium treatment. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that OsSNAT1 and OsSNAT2 are distantly related, suggesting that they evolved independently from Cyanobacteria prior to the endosymbiosis event. PMID:27121038

  15. DEMONSTRATION/EVALUATION OF THE CAT-OX FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a comprehensive summary of the experience gained and the problems encountered during the Cat-Ox demonstration program. The report outlines the process design and construction, as well as operating experience and problems. Test results and conclusions derived from...

  16. Dissociable roles for histone acetyltransferases p300 and PCAF in hippocampus and perirhinal cortex-mediated object memory.

    PubMed

    Mitchnick, K A; Creighton, S D; Cloke, J M; Wolter, M; Zaika, O; Christen, B; Van Tiggelen, M; Kalisch, B E; Winters, B D

    2016-07-01

    The importance of histone acetylation for certain types of memory is now well established. However, the specific contributions of the various histone acetyltransferases to distinct memory functions remain to be determined; therefore, we employed selective histone acetyltransferase protein inhibitors and short-interference RNAs to evaluate the roles of CREB-binding protein (CBP), E1A-binding protein (p300) and p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) in hippocampus and perirhinal cortex (PRh)-mediated object memory. Rats were tested for short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) in the object-in-place task, which relies on the hippocampus and PRh for spatial memory and object identity processing, respectively. Selective inhibition of these histone acetyltransferases by small-interfering RNA and pharmacological inhibitors targeting the HAT domain produced dissociable effects. In the hippocampus, CBP or p300 inhibition impaired long-term but not short-term object memory, while inhibition of PCAF impaired memory at both delays. In PRh, HAT inhibition did not impair STM, and only CBP and PCAF inhibition disrupted LTM; p300 inhibition had no effects. Messenger RNA analyses revealed findings consistent with the pattern of behavioral effects, as all three enzymes were upregulated in the hippocampus (dentate gyrus) following learning, whereas only CBP and PCAF were upregulated in PRh. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the necessity of histone acetyltransferase activity for PRh-mediated object memory and indicate that the specific mnemonic roles of distinctive histone acetyltransferases can be dissociated according to specific brain regions and memory timeframe. PMID:27251651

  17. Population characteristics of feral cats admitted to seven trap-neuter-return programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jennifer L; Levy, Julie K

    2006-08-01

    Internationally, large populations of feral cats constitute an important and controversial issue due to their impact on cat overpopulation, animal welfare, public health, and the environment, and to disagreement about what are the best methods for their control. Trap-neuter-return (TNR) programs are an increasingly popular alternative to mass euthanasia. The objective of this study was to determine the population characteristics of feral cats admitted to large-scale TNR programs from geographically diverse locations in the United States. Data from 103,643 feral cats admitted to TNR programs from 1993 to 2004 were evaluated. All groups reported more intact females (53.4%) than intact males (44.3%); only 2.3% of the cats were found to be previously sterilized. Overall, 15.9% of female cats were pregnant at the time of surgery. Pregnancy was highly seasonal and peaked between March and April for all of the groups. The average prenatal litter size was 4.1+/-0.1 fetuses per litter. Cryptorchidism was observed in 1.3% of male cats admitted for sterilization. A total of 0.4% of cats was euthanased because of the presence of debilitating conditions, and 0.4% died during the TNR clinics. Remarkably similar populations of cats with comparable seasonal variability were seen at each program, despite their wide geographical distribution. These results suggest that it is feasible to safely sterilize large numbers of feral cats and that the experiences of existing programs are a consistent source of information upon which to model new TNR programs. PMID:16603400

  18. Clinical findings and treatment outcomes for cats diagnosed with patent ductus arteriosus in the UK: a retrospective study of 19 cases (2004-2012).

    PubMed

    Wustefeld-Janssens, B G; Burrow, R; Mõtsküla, P; Martin, M; Dukes-McEwan, J

    2016-07-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is infrequently reported in cats and represents between 1-7.3 per cent of left to right shunting cardiac congenital anomalies. The objective of this study was to report the presenting complaints, clinical examination findings, diagnostic findings, treatment outcomes and survival times in cats diagnosed with a PDA in the UK. Medical records from three major UK referral centres were searched for cats that were diagnosed with PDA from January 2004 to December 2012. Data obtained for analysis included: signalment, clinical examination findings including murmur characteristics, diagnostic imaging findings, treatment outcomes and survival times. Nineteen cats were included in the analysis. The most common reason for referral was investigation of an incidentally detected heart murmur without clinical signs (13/19; 68 per cent). Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was diagnosed in seven (37 per cent) cats and those cats with PAH were significantly more likely to present with signs of disease (P=0.004). Median survival time in cats that were diagnosed with PDA and died due to cardiac causes was 898 days (interquartile range 459-1011 days). The median survival time of those cats that had an additional congenital anomaly was significantly shorter to those cats without a congenital anomaly (P=0.008). PMID:27302919

  19. Isolation of bacteria producing chloramphenicol acetyltransferase from soil and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Datta, K; Mukherjee, S K; Majumdar, M K; Roy, S K

    1982-07-01

    After screening 107 soil samples collected from different spots around Calcutta, 579 chloramphenicol resistant colonies were isolated. Out of these only 58 colonies could inactivate chloramphenicol in detectable amounts. By noting the production of inactivating factor, 5 high yielding strains were further characterized to species level. Three of them were Escherichia coli strains, the two others were Alcaligenes faecalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. All strains inactivated chloramphenicol by acetylation, with the production of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. Production of this latter enzyme was not inducible. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for these 5 strains were studied against 14 antimicrobial agents. All strains were found to be resistant to most antimicrobial agents, but sensitive to polymyxin B. The strain A. faecalis was also sensitive to carbenicillin but other four strains were resistant to this antibiotic. PMID:6956790

  20. Unusual regioversatility of acetyltransferase Eis, a cause of drug resistance in XDR-TB

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenjing; Biswas, Tapan; Porter, Vanessa R.; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2011-09-06

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) is a serious global threat. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used as a last resort to treat XDR-TB. Resistance to the aminoglycoside kanamycin is a hallmark of XDR-TB. Here, we reveal the function and structure of the mycobacterial protein Eis responsible for resistance to kanamycin in a significant fraction of kanamycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates. We demonstrate that Eis has an unprecedented ability to acetylate multiple amines of many aminoglycosides. Structural and mutagenesis studies of Eis indicate that its acetylation mechanism is enabled by a complex tripartite fold that includes two general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase regions. An intricate negatively charged substrate-binding pocket of Eis is a potential target of new antitubercular drugs expected to overcome aminoglycoside resistance.

  1. Purification and characterization of aspartate N-acetyltransferase: A critical enzyme in brain metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinzhe; Zhao, Mojun; Parungao, Gwenn G; Viola, Ronald E

    2016-03-01

    Canavan disease (CD) is a neurological disorder caused by an interruption in the metabolism of N-acetylaspartate (NAA). Numerous mutations have been found in the enzyme that hydrolyzes NAA, and the catalytic activity of aspartoacylase is significantly impaired in CD patients. Recent studies have also supported an important role in CD for the enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of NAA in the brain. However, previous attempts to study this enzyme had not succeeded in obtaining a soluble, stable and active form of this membrane-associated protein. We have now utilized fusion constructs with solubilizing protein partners to obtain an active and soluble form of aspartate N-acetyltransferase. Characterization of the properties of this enzyme has set the stage for the development of selective inhibitors that can lower the elevated levels of NAA that are observed in CD patients and potentially serve as a new treatment therapy. PMID:26550943

  2. Inhibition of lyso-PAF: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase by salicylates and other compounds.

    PubMed

    White, H L; Faison, L D

    1988-06-01

    Diflunisal and benoxaprofen (20-100 microM) produced dose-dependent inhibitions of lyso-platelet activating factor: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase in a lysate of rat pleural neutrophils. Salicylate and aspirin were inhibitory at concentrations of 1 mM and above. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid was a relatively potent inhibitor (I50 = 6 microM). Other compounds, including anti-inflammatory steroids, cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, appeared ineffective at relevant concentrations. Inhibitions by diflunisal and salicylate occurred at concentrations similar to expected plasma levels in humans at therapeutic doses. An inhibition of platelet-activating factor synthesis may contribute to the antiinflammatory, analgesic, or antipyretic actions of these compounds. PMID:2903520

  3. Integration of Bioorthogonal Probes and Q-FRET for the Detection of Histone Acetyltransferase Activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhen; Luan, Yepeng; Zheng, Yujun George

    2015-12-01

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are key players in the epigenetic regulation of gene function. The recent discovery of diverse HAT substrates implies a broad spectrum of cellular functions of HATs. Many pathological processes are also intimately associated with the dysregulation of HAT levels and activities. However, detecting the enzymatic activity of HATs has been challenging, and this has significantly impeded drug discovery. To advance the field, we developed a convenient one-pot, mix-and-read strategy that is capable of directly detecting the acylated histone product through a fluorescent readout. The strategy integrates three technological platforms-bioorthogonal HAT substrate labeling, alkyne-azide click chemistry, and quenching FRET-into one system for effective probing of HAT enzyme activity. PMID:26455821

  4. Potent Inhibitors of Acetyltransferase Eis Overcome Kanamycin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Willby, Melisa J; Green, Keith D; Gajadeera, Chathurada S; Hou, Caixia; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Posey, James E; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-06-17

    A major cause of tuberculosis (TB) resistance to the aminoglycoside kanamycin (KAN) is the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) acetyltransferase Eis. Upregulation of this enzyme is responsible for inactivation of KAN through acetylation of its amino groups. A 123 000-compound high-throughput screen (HTS) yielded several small-molecule Eis inhibitors that share an isothiazole S,S-dioxide heterocyclic core. These were investigated for their structure-activity relationships. Crystal structures of Eis in complex with two potent inhibitors show that these molecules are bound in the conformationally adaptable aminoglycoside binding site of the enzyme, thereby obstructing binding of KAN for acetylation. Importantly, we demonstrate that several Eis inhibitors, when used in combination with KAN against resistant Mtb, efficiently overcome KAN resistance. This approach paves the way toward development of novel combination therapies against aminoglycoside-resistant TB. PMID:27010218

  5. Interferon-Induced Spermidine-Spermine Acetyltransferase and Polyamine Depletion Restrict Zika and Chikungunya Viruses.

    PubMed

    Mounce, Bryan C; Poirier, Enzo Z; Passoni, Gabriella; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Cesaro, Teresa; Prot, Matthieu; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2016-08-10

    Polyamines are small, positively charged molecules derived from ornithine and synthesized through an intricately regulated enzymatic pathway. Within cells, they are abundant and play several roles in diverse processes. We find that polyamines are required for the life cycle of the RNA viruses chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Depletion of spermidine and spermine via type I interferon signaling-mediated induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1), a key catabolic enzyme in the polyamine pathway, restricts CHIKV and ZIKV replication. Polyamine depletion restricts these viruses in vitro and in vivo, due to impairment of viral translation and RNA replication. The restriction is released by exogenous replenishment of polyamines, further supporting a role for these molecules in virus replication. Thus, SAT1 and, more broadly, polyamine depletion restrict viral replication and suggest promising avenues for antiviral therapies. PMID:27427208

  6. Structural Basis of Substrate-Binding Specificity of Human Arylamine N-acetyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Wu,H.; Dombrovsky, L.; Tempel, W.; Martin, F.; Loppnau, P.; Goodfellow, G.; Grant, D.; Plotnikov, A.

    2007-01-01

    The human arylamine N-acetyltransferases NAT1 and NAT2 play an important role in the biotransformation of a plethora of aromatic amine and hydrazine drugs. They are also able to participate in the bioactivation of several known carcinogens. Each of these enzymes is genetically variable in human populations, and polymorphisms in NAT genes have been associated with various cancers. Here we have solved the high resolution crystal structures of human NAT1 and NAT2, including NAT1 in complex with the irreversible inhibitor 2-bromoacetanilide, a NAT1 active site mutant, and NAT2 in complex with CoA, and have refined them to 1.7-, 1.8-, and 1.9- Angstroms resolution, respectively. The crystal structures reveal novel structural features unique to human NATs and provide insights into the structural basis of the substrate specificity and genetic polymorphism of these enzymes.

  7. Primary structure of the human M2 mitochondrial autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis: Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Coppel, R.L.; McNeilage, L.J.; Surh, C.D.; Van De Water, J.; Spithill, T.W.; Whittingham, S.; Gershwin, M.E. )

    1988-10-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic, destructive autoimmune liver disease of humans. Patient sera are characterized by a high frequency of autoantibodies to a M{sub r} 70,000 mitochondrial antigen a component of the M2 antigen complex. The authors have identified a human cDNA clone encoding the complete amino acid sequence of this autoantigen. The predicted structure has significant similarity with the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. The human sequence preserves the Glu-Thr-Asp-Lys-Ala motif of the lipoyl-binding site and has two potential binding sites. Expressed fragments of the cDNA react strongly with sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis but not with sera from patients with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis or sera from healthy subjects.

  8. Role of histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases in adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuanfei; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2014-04-01

    Adipogenesis is a complex process strictly regulated by a well-established cascade that has been thoroughly studied in the last two decades. This process is governed by complex regulatory networks that involve the activation/inhibition of multiple functional genes, and is controlled by histone-modifying enzymes. Among such modification enzymes, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in the transcriptional regulation and post-translational modification of protein acetylation. HATs and HDACs have been shown to respond to signals that regulate cell differentiation, participate in the regulation of protein acetylation, mediate transcription and post-translation modifications, and directly acetylate/deacetylate various transcription factors and regulatory proteins. In this paper, we review the role of HATs and HDACs in white and brown adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis, to expand our knowledge on fat formation and adipose tissue biology. PMID:24810880

  9. Structure of homoserine O-acetyltransferase from Staphylococcus aureus: the first Gram-positive ortholog structure

    PubMed Central

    Thangavelu, Bharani; Pavlovsky, Alexander G.; Viola, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Homoserine O-acetyltransferase (HTA) catalyzes the formation of l-O-acetyl-homoserine from l-homoserine through the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA. This is the first committed step required for the biosynthesis of methionine in many fungi, Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negative bacteria. The structure of HTA from Staphylococcus aureus (SaHTA) has been determined to a resolution of 2.45 Å. The structure belongs to the α/β-hydrolase superfamily, consisting of two distinct domains: a core α/β-domain containing the catalytic site and a lid domain assembled into a helical bundle. The active site consists of a classical catalytic triad located at the end of a deep tunnel. Structure analysis revealed some important differences for SaHTA compared with the few known structures of HTA. PMID:25286936

  10. Structure of homoserine O-acetyltransferase from Staphylococcus aureus: the first Gram-positive ortholog structure.

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, Bharani; Pavlovsky, Alexander G; Viola, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Homoserine O-acetyltransferase (HTA) catalyzes the formation of L-O-acetyl-homoserine from L-homoserine through the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA. This is the first committed step required for the biosynthesis of methionine in many fungi, Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negative bacteria. The structure of HTA from Staphylococcus aureus (SaHTA) has been determined to a resolution of 2.45 Å. The structure belongs to the α/β-hydrolase superfamily, consisting of two distinct domains: a core α/β-domain containing the catalytic site and a lid domain assembled into a helical bundle. The active site consists of a classical catalytic triad located at the end of a deep tunnel. Structure analysis revealed some important differences for SaHTA compared with the few known structures of HTA. PMID:25286936

  11. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of ornithine acetyltransferase (Rv1653) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Garen, C R; Cherney, M M; Yuan, M; Lee, C; James, M N G

    2009-02-01

    The gene product of open reading frame Rv1653 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is annotated as encoding a probable ornithine acetyltransferase (OATase; EC 2.3.1.35), an enzyme that catalyzes two steps in the arginine-biosynthesis pathway. It transfers an acetyl group from N-acetylornithine to L-glutamate to produce N-acetylglutamate and L-ornithine. Rv1653 was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The native crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.7 A and belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 60.1, b = 99.7, c = 155.3 A. The preliminary X-ray study showed the presence of a dimer in the asymmetric unit of the crystals, which had a Matthews coefficient V(M) of 2.8 A(3) Da(-1). PMID:19194014

  12. Coenzyme A Binding to the Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase (3)-IIIb Increases Conformational Sampling of Antibiotic Binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaohu; Norris, Adrianne; Baudry, Jerome Y; Serpersu, Engin H

    2011-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy experiments and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to describe the dynamic properties of the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (3)-IIIb (AAC) in its apo and coenzyme A (CoASH) bound forms. The {sup 15}N-{sup 1}H HSQC spectra indicate a partial structural change and coupling of the CoASH binding site with another region in the protein upon the CoASH titration into the apo enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate a significant structural and dynamic variation of the long loop in the antibiotic binding domain in the form of a relatively slow (250 ns), concerted opening motion in the CoASH enzyme complex and that binding of the CoASH increases the structural flexibility of the loop, leading to an interchange between several similar equally populated conformations.

  13. First Things First: Vital Protein Marks by N-Terminal Acetyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Aksnes, Henriette; Drazic, Adrian; Marie, Michaël; Arnesen, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    N-terminal (Nt) acetylation is known to be a highly abundant co-translational protein modification, but the recent discovery of Golgi- and chloroplast-resident N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) revealed that it can also be added post-translationally. Nt-acetylation may act as a degradation signal in a novel branch of the N-end rule pathway, whose functions include the regulation of human blood pressure. Nt-acetylation also modulates protein interactions, targeting, and folding. In plants, Nt-acetylation plays a role in the control of resistance to drought and in regulation of immune responses. Mutations of specific human NATs that decrease their activity can cause either the lethal Ogden syndrome or severe intellectual disability and cardiovascular defects. In sum, recent advances highlight Nt-acetylation as a key factor in many biological pathways. PMID:27498224

  14. Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Creighton, J.A.; Rudeen, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effect upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity.

  15. Absence of N-terminal acetyltransferase diversification during evolution of eukaryotic organisms

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Om Singh; Faustino, Alexandra; Prudêncio, Pedro; Van Damme, Petra; Cox, Cymon J.; Martinho, Rui Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    Protein N-terminal acetylation is an ancient and ubiquitous co-translational modification catalyzed by a highly conserved family of N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). Prokaryotes have at least 3 NATs, whereas humans have six distinct but highly conserved NATs, suggesting an increase in regulatory complexity of this modification during eukaryotic evolution. Despite this, and against our initial expectations, we determined that NAT diversification did not occur in the eukaryotes, as all six major human NATs were most likely present in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA). Furthermore, we also observed that some NATs were actually secondarily lost during evolution of major eukaryotic lineages; therefore, the increased complexity of the higher eukaryotic proteome occurred without a concomitant diversification of NAT complexes. PMID:26861501

  16. CBP histone acetyltransferase activity is a critical component of memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Korzus, Edward; Rosenfeld, Michael G; Mayford, Mark

    2004-06-24

    The stabilization of learned information into long-term memories requires new gene expression. CREB binding protein (CBP) is a coactivator of transcription that can be independently regulated in neurons. CBP functions both as a platform for recruiting other required components of the transcriptional machinery and as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that alters chromatin structure. To dissect the chromatin remodeling versus platform function of CBP or the developmental versus adult role of this gene, we generated transgenic mice that express CBP in which HAT activity is eliminated. Acquisition of new information and short-term memory is spared in these mice, while the stabilization of short-term memory into long-term memory is impaired. The behavioral phenotype is due to an acute requirement for CBP HAT activity in the adult as it is rescued by both suppression of transgene expression or by administration of the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) in adult animals. PMID:15207240

  17. ParCAT: Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian E.; Steed, Chad A.; Shipman, Galen M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wehner, Michael; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-01-01

    Climate science is employing increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of Earth s climate. This growth in complexity is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the ability to analyze the datasets. Parallel computing tools are necessary to analyze, compare, and interpret the simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools to efficiently use parallel computing techniques to make analysis of these datasets manageable. The toolkit provides the ability to compute spatio-temporal means, differences between runs or differences between averages of runs, and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is implemented as a command-line utility written in C. This allows for easy integration in other tools and allows for use in scripts. This also makes it possible to run ParCAT on many platforms from laptops to supercomputers. ParCAT outputs NetCDF files so it is compatible with existing utilities such as Panoply and UV-CDAT. This paper describes ParCAT and presents results from some example runs on the Titan system at ORNL.

  18. [Acute total knee replacement infection after a cat bite and scratch: a clinical case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Miranda, I; Angulo, M; Amaya, J V

    2013-01-01

    In the last 15 years only few cases of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) total knee arthroplasty infection have been published, mostly related to cat or dog bites or scratches. We report a case of P. multocida total knee arthroplasty infection in a 64-year- old patient, 10 days after being scratched and bitten by his cat. The patient was successfully treated with debridement and tibial interspacer exchange and antibiotic treatment for 6 weeks. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered in cat or dog bites or scratches victims with prosthetic joints. PMID:23885657

  19. Are cats (Felis catus) from multi-cat households more stressed? Evidence from assessment of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramos, D; Reche-Junior, A; Fragoso, P L; Palme, R; Yanasse, N K; Gouvêa, V R; Beck, A; Mills, D S

    2013-10-01

    Given the social and territorial features described in feral cats, it is commonly assumed that life in multi-cat households is stressful for domestic cats and suggested that cats kept as single pets are likely to have better welfare. On the other hand, it has been hypothesized that under high densities cats can organize themselves socially thus preventing stress when spatial dispersion is unavailable. This study was aimed at comparing the general arousal underpinning emotional distress in single housed cats and in cats from multi-cat households (2 and 3-4 cats) on the basis of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) measured via enzyme immunoassay (EIA). GCM did not significantly vary as a function of living style (single, double or group-housing); highly stressed individuals were equally likely in the three groups. Young cats in multi-cat households had lower GCM, and overall cats that tolerate (as opposed to dislike) petting by the owners tended to have higher GCM levels. Other environmental aspects within cat houses (e.g. relationship with humans, resource availability) may play a more important role in day to day feline arousal levels than the number of cats per se. PMID:24021924

  20. Oral Mucosa Bleeding Times of Normal Cats and Cats with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome or Hageman Trait (Factor XII Deficiency).

    PubMed

    Parker, M T; Collier, L L; Kier, A B; Johnson, G S

    1988-01-01

    A commercially available, disposable blade in a spring-loaded cassette was used to measure oral mucosa bleeding times (OMBT) of ketamine/acepromazine-anesthetized cats. The OMBT were determined in cats homozygous for Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS, n = 7), cats heterozygous for CHS (n = 6), and cats homozygous for Hageman factor (factor XII) deficiency (n = 5). In addition, OMBT were determined in three groups of normal cats: random-source cats (n = 14), inbred normal relatives of the cats with CHS (n = 7), and inbred normal relatives of Hageman factor deficient cats (n = 9). No significant differences were found in the OMBT of the three groups of normal cats. The mean OMBT for all 30 normal cats was 1.9 minutes +/- 0.5 minutes s.d. Compared to the normal cats, those homozygous for CHS had significantly prolonged OMBT (14.1 +/- 3.3 minutes; p < 0.05). The mean OMBT of cats heterozygous for CHS (2.6 +/- 0.8 minutes) was also significantly longer than the OMBT of the combined normal group. The mean OMBT of the CHS heterozygotes, however, was not significantly longer than that of their normal relatives (OMBT = 1.8 +/- 0.5 minutes), probably because of the low number of cats in this subgroup of normals. As expected, the OMBT of cats homozygous for Hageman factor deficiency (2.3 +/- 0.3 minutes) were not significantly prolonged. PMID:15162339

  1. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. PMID:26603046

  2. Sulphoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase yields acetyl phosphate: purification from Alcaligenes defragrans and gene clusters in taurine degradation.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Jürgen; Denger, Karin; Cook, Alasdair M

    2003-01-15

    The facultatively anaerobic bacterium Alcaligenes defragrans NKNTAU was found to oxidize taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonate) with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. Taurine was transaminated to 2-sulphoacetaldehyde. This was not converted into sulphite and acetate by a "sulphoacetaldehyde sulpho-lyase" (EC 4.4.1.12), but into sulphite and acetyl phosphate, which was identified by three methods. The enzyme, which required the addition of phosphate, thiamin diphosphate and Mg(2+) ions for activity, was renamed sulphoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase (Xsc; EC 2.3.1.-). Inducible Xsc was expressed at high levels, and a three-step 11-fold purification yielded an essentially homogeneous soluble protein, which was a homotetramer in its native form; the molecular mass of the subunit was found to be between about 63 kDa (SDS/PAGE) and 65.3 kDa (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS). The N-terminal and two internal amino acid sequences were determined, and PCR primers were generated. The xsc gene was amplified and sequenced; the derived molecular mass of the processed protein was 65.0 kDa. The downstream gene presumably encoded the inducible phosphate acetyltransferase (Pta) found in crude extracts. The desulphonative enzymes ("EC 4.4.1.12") from Achromobacter xylosoxidans NCIMB 10751 and Desulfonispora thiosulfatigenes GKNTAU were shown to be Xscs. We detected at least three subclasses of xsc in Proteobacteria and in Gram-positive bacteria, and they comprised a distinct group within the acetohydroxyacid synthase supergene family. Genome sequencing data revealed xsc genes in Burkholderia fungorum (80% sequence identity) and Sinorhizobium meliloti (61%) with closely linked pta genes. Different patterns of regulation for the transport and dissimilation of taurine were hypothesized for S. meliloti and B. fungorum. PMID:12358600

  3. Histone acetyltransferase inhibitor CPTH6 preferentially targets lung cancer stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Di Martile, Marta; Desideri, Marianna; De Luca, Teresa; Gabellini, Chiara; Buglioni, Simonetta; Eramo, Adriana; Sette, Giovanni; Milella, Michele; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Carradori, Simone; Secci, Daniela; De Maria, Ruggero; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Trisciuoglio, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in tumor initiation, progression, therapeutic failure and tumor relapse. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the thiazole derivative 3-methylcyclopentylidene-[4-(4′-chlorophenyl)thiazol-2-yl]hydrazone (CPTH6), a novel pCAF and Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase inhibitor, as a small molecule that preferentially targets lung cancer stem-like cells (LCSCs) derived from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Notably, although CPTH6 inhibits the growth of both LCSC and NSCLC cell lines, LCSCs exhibit greater growth inhibition than established NSCLC cells. Growth inhibitory effect of CPTH6 in LCSC lines is primarily due to apoptosis induction. Of note, differentiated progeny of LCSC lines is more resistant to CPTH6 in terms of loss of cell viability and reduction of protein acetylation, when compared to their undifferentiated counterparts. Interestingly, in LCSC lines CPTH6 treatment is also associated with a reduction of stemness markers. By using different HAT inhibitors we provide clear evidence that inhibition of HAT confers a strong preferential inhibitory effect on cell viability of undifferentiated LCSC lines when compared to their differentiated progeny. In vivo, CPTH6 is able to inhibit the growth of LCSC-derived xenografts and to reduce cancer stem cell content in treated tumors, as evidenced by marked reduction of tumor-initiating capacity in limiting dilution assays. Strikingly, the ability of CPTH6 to inhibit tubulin acetylation is also confirmed in vivo. Overall, our studies propose histone acetyltransferase inhibition as an attractive target for cancer therapy of NSCLC. PMID:26870991

  4. A new arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase in silkworm (Bombyx mori) affects integument pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Long, Yaohang; Li, Jiaorong; Zhao, Tianfu; Li, Guannan; Zhu, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Dopamine is a precursor for melanin synthesis. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is involved in the melatonin formation in insects because it could catalyze the transformation from dopamine to dopamine-N-acetyldopamine. In this study, we identified a new AANAT gene in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and assessed its role in the silkworm. The cDNA of this gene encodes 233 amino acids that shares 57 % amino acid identity with the Bm-iAANAT protein. We thus refer to this gene as Bm-iAANAT2. To investigate the role of Bm-iAANAT2, we constructed a transgenic interference system using a 3xp3 promoter to suppress the expression of Bm-iAANAT2 in the silkworm. We observed that melanin deposition occurs in the head and integument in transgenic lines. To verify the melanism pattern, dopamine content and the enzyme activity of AANAT were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We found that an increase in dopamine levels affects melanism patterns on the heads of transgenic B. mori. A reduction in the enzyme activity of AANAT leads to changes in dopamine levels. We analyzed the expression of the Bm-iAANAT2 genes by qPCR and found that the expression of Bm-iAANAT2 gene is significantly lower in transgenic lines. Our results lead us to conclude that Bm-iAANAT2 is a new arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene in the silkworm and is involved in the metabolism of the dopamine to avoid the generation of melanin. PMID:25712907

  5. Structural and functional characterization of TRI3 trichothecene 15-O-acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, Graeme S.; McCormick, Susan P.; Alexander, Nancy J.; Rayment, Ivan

    2009-08-14

    Fusarium head blight is a devastating disease of cereal crops whose worldwide incidence is increasing and at present there is no satisfactory way of combating this pathogen or its associated toxins. There is a wide variety of trichothecene mycotoxins and they all contain a 12,13-epoxytrichothecene skeleton but differ in their substitutions. Indeed, there is considerable variation in the toxin profile across the numerous Fusarium species that has been ascribed to differences in the presence or absence of biosynthetic enzymes and their relative activity. This article addresses the source of differences in acetylation at the C15 position of the trichothecene molecule. Here, we present the in vitro structural and biochemical characterization of TRI3, a 15-O-trichothecene acetyltransferase isolated from F. sporotrichioides and the 'in vivo' characterization of Deltatri3 mutants of deoxynivalenol (DON) producing F. graminearum strains. A kinetic analysis shows that TRI3 is an efficient enzyme with the native substrate, 15-decalonectrin, but is inactive with either DON or nivalenol. The structure of TRI3 complexed with 15-decalonectrin provides an explanation for this specificity and shows that Tri3 and Tri101 (3-O-trichothecene acetyltransferase) are evolutionarily related. The active site residues are conserved across all sequences for TRI3 orthologs, suggesting that differences in acetylation at C15 are not due to differences in Tri3. The tri3 deletion mutant shows that acetylation at C15 is required for DON biosynthesis even though DON lacks a C15 acetyl group. The enzyme(s) responsible for deacetylation at the 15 position of the trichothecene mycotoxins have not been identified.

  6. Sulphoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase yields acetyl phosphate: purification from Alcaligenes defragrans and gene clusters in taurine degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Jürgen; Denger, Karin; Cook, Alasdair M

    2003-01-01

    The facultatively anaerobic bacterium Alcaligenes defragrans NKNTAU was found to oxidize taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonate) with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. Taurine was transaminated to 2-sulphoacetaldehyde. This was not converted into sulphite and acetate by a "sulphoacetaldehyde sulpho-lyase" (EC 4.4.1.12), but into sulphite and acetyl phosphate, which was identified by three methods. The enzyme, which required the addition of phosphate, thiamin diphosphate and Mg(2+) ions for activity, was renamed sulphoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase (Xsc; EC 2.3.1.-). Inducible Xsc was expressed at high levels, and a three-step 11-fold purification yielded an essentially homogeneous soluble protein, which was a homotetramer in its native form; the molecular mass of the subunit was found to be between about 63 kDa (SDS/PAGE) and 65.3 kDa (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS). The N-terminal and two internal amino acid sequences were determined, and PCR primers were generated. The xsc gene was amplified and sequenced; the derived molecular mass of the processed protein was 65.0 kDa. The downstream gene presumably encoded the inducible phosphate acetyltransferase (Pta) found in crude extracts. The desulphonative enzymes ("EC 4.4.1.12") from Achromobacter xylosoxidans NCIMB 10751 and Desulfonispora thiosulfatigenes GKNTAU were shown to be Xscs. We detected at least three subclasses of xsc in Proteobacteria and in Gram-positive bacteria, and they comprised a distinct group within the acetohydroxyacid synthase supergene family. Genome sequencing data revealed xsc genes in Burkholderia fungorum (80% sequence identity) and Sinorhizobium meliloti (61%) with closely linked pta genes. Different patterns of regulation for the transport and dissimilation of taurine were hypothesized for S. meliloti and B. fungorum. PMID:12358600

  7. Epigenetic change in kidney tumor: downregulation of histone acetyltransferase MYST1 in human renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MYST1 (also known as hMOF), a member of the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) as an epigenetic mark of active genes, is mainly responsible for histone H4K16 acetylation in the cells. Recent studies have shown that the abnormal gene expression of hMOF is involved in certain primary cancers. Here we examined the involvement of hMOF expression and histone H4K16 acetylation in primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Simultaneously, we investigated the correlation between the expression of hMOF and clear cell RCC (ccRCC) biomarker carbohydrase IX (CA9) in RCC. Materials and methods The frozen RCC tissues and RCC cell lines as materials, the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting and immunohistochemical staining approaches were used. Results RT-PCR results indicate that hMOF gene expression levels frequently downregulated in 90.5% of patients (19/21) with RCC. The reduction of hMOF protein in both RCC tissues and RCC cell lines is tightly correlated with acetylation of histone H4K16. In addition, overexpression of CA9 was detected in 100% of ccRCC patients (21/21). However, transient transfection of hMOF in ccRCC 786–0 cells did not affect both the gene and protein expression of CA9. Conclusion hMOF as an acetyltransferase of H4K16 might be involved in the pathogenesis of kidney cancer, and this epigenetic changes might be a new CA9-independent RCC diagnostic maker. PMID:23394073

  8. Histone acetyltransferase inhibitor CPTH6 preferentially targets lung cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Di Martile, Marta; Desideri, Marianna; De Luca, Teresa; Gabellini, Chiara; Buglioni, Simonetta; Eramo, Adriana; Sette, Giovanni; Milella, Michele; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Carradori, Simone; Secci, Daniela; De Maria, Ruggero; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Trisciuoglio, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in tumor initiation, progression, therapeutic failure and tumor relapse. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the thiazole derivative 3-methylcyclopentylidene-[4-(4'-chlorophenyl)thiazol-2-yl]hydrazone (CPTH6), a novel pCAF and Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase inhibitor, as a small molecule that preferentially targets lung cancer stem-like cells (LCSCs) derived from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Notably, although CPTH6 inhibits the growth of both LCSC and NSCLC cell lines, LCSCs exhibit greater growth inhibition than established NSCLC cells. Growth inhibitory effect of CPTH6 in LCSC lines is primarily due to apoptosis induction. Of note, differentiated progeny of LCSC lines is more resistant to CPTH6 in terms of loss of cell viability and reduction of protein acetylation, when compared to their undifferentiated counterparts. Interestingly, in LCSC lines CPTH6 treatment is also associated with a reduction of stemness markers. By using different HAT inhibitors we provide clear evidence that inhibition of HAT confers a strong preferential inhibitory effect on cell viability of undifferentiated LCSC lines when compared to their differentiated progeny. In vivo, CPTH6 is able to inhibit the growth of LCSC-derived xenografts and to reduce cancer stem cell content in treated tumors, as evidenced by marked reduction of tumor-initiating capacity in limiting dilution assays. Strikingly, the ability of CPTH6 to inhibit tubulin acetylation is also confirmed in vivo. Overall, our studies propose histone acetyltransferase inhibition as an attractive target for cancer therapy of NSCLC. PMID:26870991

  9. The transcriptional coactivator and acetyltransferase p300 in fibroblast biology and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Asish K; Varga, John

    2007-12-01

    The transcriptional coactivator p300 is a ubiquitous nuclear phosphoprotein and transcriptional cofactor with intrinsic acetyltransferase activity. p300 controls the expression of numerous genes in cell-type and signal-specific manner, and plays a pivotal role in cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and embryogenesis. By catalyzing acetylation of histones and transcription factors, p300 plays a significant role in epigenetic regulation. Recent evidence suggests that abnormal p300 function is associated with deregulated target gene expression, and is implicated in inflammation, cancer, cardiac hypertrophy, and genetic disorders such as the Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. The activity of p300 is regulated at multiple levels, including developmental stage-specific expression, post-translational modifications, subcellular localization, and cell-type and gene-specific interactions with transcription factors. Although p300 has been investigated extensively in epithelial and hematopoietic cells, its role in fibroblast biology and tissue repair has received little attention to date. Recent studies implicate p300 in the regulation of collagen synthesis by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Both the acetyltransferase activity of p300 and its inducible interaction with Smad3 are essential for mediating TGF-beta-induced stimulation of collagen synthesis. As a signal integrator whose availability for intracellular interactions with transcription factors is strictly limiting, p300 mediates the antagonistic regulation of TGF-beta-induced collagen synthesis by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha via intracellular competition for limiting amount of p300. Significantly, p300 is itself a direct transcriptional target of TGF-beta in normal fibroblasts, and its levels are significantly elevated in fibrotic lesions as well as in experimental models of fibrosis. The emerging appreciation of the importance of p300 in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and fibrosis and novel insights concerning

  10. Giardiasis in dogs and cats: update on epidemiology and public health significance.

    PubMed

    Ballweber, Lora R; Xiao, Lihua; Bowman, Dwight D; Kahn, Geoffrey; Cama, Vitaliano A

    2010-04-01

    Molecular data have defined seven genetic Assemblages of Giardia duodenalis, named A-G. Humans are infected with Assemblages A and B, dogs primarily with C and D, and cats with F. Assemblage A has been subclassified into subtypes A-I to A-IV: A-I has been reported in humans and animals, A-II in humans, and A-III and IV exclusively in animals. Assemblage B has broad host specificity infecting humans and animals. Recently, small numbers of dogs and cats have been reported to also carry Assemblages A-I or B. Because these genotypes are found primarily in humans, and no comprehensive studies to address zoonotic transmission of G. duodenalis are yet available, the potential role of dogs and cats cannot be conclusively excluded. PMID:20202906

  11. Molecular and biological characterization of first isolates of Hammondia hammondi from cats from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Tilahun, G; Boyle, J P; Schares, G; Verma, S K; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Gebreyes, W A

    2013-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are morphologically and antigenically similar to oocysts of another feline coccidian, Hammondia hammondi. The distinction between H. hammondi and T. gondii is important from an epidemiological perspective because all isolates of T. gondii are potentially pathogenic for humans and animals, whereas H. hammondi is not known to cause clinical disease in any naturally infected intermediate or definitive hosts. In the present report, H. hammondi (designated HhCatEt1 and HhCatEt2) oocysts were found microscopically in the feces of 2 of 36 feral domestic cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Oocysts were orally infective to Swiss Webster and gamma interferon gene knockout mice; the inoculated mice developed tissue cysts in their muscles. Laboratory-raised cats fed mouse tissues of infected mice shed H. hammondi oocysts with a prepatent period of 5 days. The DNA extracted from sporulated oocysts reacted with H. hammondi-specific primers, and sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession nos. JX477424, and KC223619). This is the first report of isolation of H. hammondi from cats from the African continent. PMID:23517380

  12. Altered platelet indices in dogs with hypothyroidism and cats with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P; Gompf, R; Schmeitzel, L; Clift, R; Cottrell, M; McDonald, T P

    1993-12-01

    Changes in platelet indices (platelet count and platelet size) and PCV associated with thyroid disease were studied in 7 dogs with hypothyroidism and 21 cats with hyperthyroidism that were admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital. Compared with control (euthyroid) dogs, dogs with hypothyroidism had higher platelet count (P = 0.003), smaller platelet size (P = 0.01), and lower PCV (P = 0.02). Comparison of the group of hyperthyroid cats with a group of similarly aged, clinically normal cats with normal thyroxine values indicated that the group of hyperthyroid cats had significantly (P = 0.03) higher mean platelet size than did control cats, but differences were not found in mean platelet count or PCV. Results of this investigation indicate that the changes in platelet size reported in human beings with thyroid endocrinopathies also are found in animals so-affected. Although the pathogenesis of platelet abnormalities in animals with thyroid derangement is unclear and likely is multifactorial, the observed relation between platelet and erythrocyte production in this group of dogs is consistent with reports of an inverse relation between thrombocytopoiesis and erythropoiesis in iatrogenically hyperthyroid mice and in mice exposed to hypoxia. PMID:8116929

  13. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats from northeastern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Cardoso, Luís; Rodrigues, Manuela

    2008-08-17

    Cats are very important hosts in the epidemiological cycle of Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic protozoan parasite that can infect humans and many other animal species worldwide. We report a serological survey of antibodies to T. gondii in domestic cats from northeastern Portugal, by means of the modified agglutination test. Three cats had titres of 20 (3.9%), 18 had titres of 40 (23.7%) and 55 animals had titres of > or =800 (72.4%). Results of three seropositive kittens with less than 4 months were not considered for determining the seroprevalence of infection, which was found to be 35.8% (73/204). Differences in the seroprevalence levels were not statistically significant between males (35.6%) and females (36.0%) or pure non-European (26.7%) and European or mixed-breed cats (39.6%). Animals aged 36-71 months and 72-180 months had the highest seroprevalences of infection, i.e. 51.7% and 51.2%, respectively, which significantly differ from the values observed in cats with 2-11 months (14.6%) and 12-35 months (26.3%). Infection levels were also significantly different between cats that lived totally indoors (7.7%) and those that had access to outdoors (45.4%), as well as between cats living alone (13.8%) and those that had contact with other cats (39.4%). Seroprevalence values in cats fed only commercial canned or dried food (22.9%) and animals whose diet included raw or undercooked viscera and/or meat (53.5%) were also significantly different. Furthermore, considering only 108 cats, differences of seropositivity to T. gondii were significant between feline immunodeficiency virus infected and non-infected animals, but this was not observed for feline leukaemia virus. Age, habitat and diet were identified as risk factors for the feline T. gondii infection by logistic regression analysis. Some control measures are suggested based on these findings. PMID:18571327

  14. A COLQ Missense Mutation in Sphynx and Devon Rex Cats with Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abitbol, Marie; Hitte, Christophe; Bossé, Philippe; Blanchard-Gutton, Nicolas; Thomas, Anne; Martignat, Lionel; Blot, Stéphane; Tiret, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    An autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by skeletal muscle weakness, fatigability and variable electromyographic or muscular histopathological features has been described in the two related Sphynx and Devon Rex cat breeds (Felis catus). Collection of data from two affected Sphynx cats and their relatives pointed out a single disease candidate region on feline chromosome C2, identified following a genome-wide SNP-based homozygosity mapping strategy. In that region, we further identified COLQ (collagen-like tail subunit of asymmetric acetylcholinesterase) as a good candidate gene, since COLQ mutations were identified in affected humans and dogs with endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency leading to a synaptic form of congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS). A homozygous c.1190G>A missense variant located in exon 15 of COLQ, leading to a C397Y substitution, was identified in the two affected cats. C397 is a highly-conserved residue from the C-terminal domain of the protein; its mutation was previously shown to produce CMS in humans, and here we confirmed in an affected Sphynx cat that it induces a loss of acetylcholinesterase clustering at the neuromuscular junction. Segregation of the c.1190G>A variant was 100% consistent with the autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of the disorder in our cat pedigree; in addition, an affected, unrelated Devon Rex cat recruited thereafter was also homozygous for the variant. Genotyping of a panel of 333 cats from 14 breeds failed to identify a single carrier in non-Sphynx and non-Devon Rex cats. Finally, the percentage of healthy carriers in a European subpanel of 81 genotyped Sphynx cats was estimated to be low (3.7%) and 14 control Devon Rex cats were genotyped as wild-type individuals. Altogether, these results strongly support that the neuromuscular disorder reported in Sphynx and Devon Rex breeds is a CMS caused by a unique c.1190G>A missense mutation, presumably transmitted through a founder effect, which

  15. Cytological and molecular detection of Leishmania infantum in different tissues of clinically normal and sick cats.

    PubMed

    Chatzis, Manolis K; Andreadou, Margarita; Leontides, Leonidas; Kasabalis, Dimitrios; Mylonakis, Mathios; Koutinas, Alexandros F; Rallis, Timoleon; Ikonomopoulos, John; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2014-05-28

    sign that had been previously reported in cats with leishmaniosis. PMID:24629427

  16. X monosomy in a virilized female cat.

    PubMed

    Szczerbal, I; Nizanski, W; Dzimira, S; Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Ochota, M; Switonski, M

    2015-04-01

    An infertile Siamese female cat was subjected for clinical, histological, cytogenetic and molecular studies due to ambiguous external genitalia (vulva, vagina, rudimentary penis and scrotum-like structure) and masculine behaviour. An elevated oestrogen activity and a detectable level of testosterone were found. The cat underwent laparotomy. The gonads and the uterus were removed and subjected for histological studies, which showed ovaries with corpora lutea and a some primordial follicles. Chromosome studies of lymphocyte and fibroblast cultures, with the use of Giemsa staining, G-banding and whole X chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization, revealed pure X monosomy. Molecular analysis showed the absence of the SRY gene. Our study revealed for the first time that X monosomy in cats may be associated with virilization, in spite of the lack of the SRY gene. PMID:25611903

  17. Thyroid tumors in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lisa G

    2007-07-01

    The clinical presentation and biologic behavior of thyroid tumors vary widely among dogs, cats, and human beings. Although thyroid tumors in dogs are rare, they are most likely to be malignant. Clinical signs are usually the result of impingement on surrounding structures, and clinical hyperthyroidism is rare. In contrast, hyperthyroidism resulting from benign thyroid proliferation is relatively common among older cats. Malignant tumors are extremely uncommon but have high metastatic potential. Irrespective of the tumor's ability to produce functional thyroid hormone, scintigraphy is often helpful in the diagnosis and staging of thyroid tumors in all three species. Treatment with surgery is a reasonable treatment option for noninvasive tumors. Iodine 131 is a well-established treatment for thyroid nodules in cats, but its effectiveness in dogs is controversial. In dogs, external beam radiation therapy has produced more consistent results in affording local tumor control when surgery is not possible. PMID:17619010

  18. Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food

    SciTech Connect

    Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

  19. Immune-mediated disorders of cats.

    PubMed

    Werner, L L; Gorman, N T

    1984-09-01

    Immune-mediated disorders in cats share many clinical and pathologic similarities with their counterparts in other species. Cats, however, are unique among domestic animals owing to the involvement of feline leukemia virus. In addition, a number of other infectious organisms can produce immune-mediated sequelae--that is, FIP virus, FeSFV, and H. felis. Therefore, the diagnostic and therapeutic aims in the management of feline immune-mediated disorders must take into account the probability of a primary or underlying disease process. PMID:6149649

  20. Laryngeal disease in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Macphail, Catriona

    2014-01-01

    The most common disease process involving the larynx is laryngeal paralysis, which occurs much more frequently in dogs than in cats. Diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis requires close attention to anesthetic plane and coordination of respiratory effort with laryngeal motion. Surgical arytenoid lateralization improves respiration and quality of life in dogs with laryngeal paralysis; however, aspiration pneumonia is a recognized complication, and generalized neuropathy can progress. Laryngeal collapse can result from any cause of chronic upper airway obstruction, but is most often associated with unaddressed brachycephalic airway syndrome. Laryngeal neoplasia, while generally uncommon, occurs more frequently in cats than in dogs. PMID:24268331