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Sample records for acetyltransferase cat reporter

  1. Erythromycin induces expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene cat-86.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, E J; Lovett, P S

    1990-01-01

    The plasmid gene cat-86 specifies chloramphenicol-inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in Bacillus subtilis. This gene, like the erythromycin-inducible erm genes, is regulated by translational attenuation. Here we show that cat-86 is also inducibly regulated by erythromycin. cat-86 does not confer resistance to erythromycin. PMID:2115875

  2. The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene of Tn2424: a new breed of cat.

    PubMed

    Parent, R; Roy, P H

    1992-05-01

    We have sequenced the gene coding for the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase of Tn2424 of plasmid NR79. This gene codes for a protein of 23,500 Da, and the derived protein sequence is similar to those of the chromosomal chloramphenicol acetyltransferases of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and of unidentified open reading frames, which may encode chloramphenicol acetyltransferases, adjacent to the ermG macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin resistance gene of Bacillus sphaericus and the vgb virginiamycin resistance gene of Staphylococcus aureus. Weaker similarity to the LacA (thiogalactoside acetyltransferase) and CysE (serine acetyltransferase) proteins of Escherichia coli and the NodL protein of Rhizobium leguminosarum is also observed. There is no significant similarity to any other chloramphenicol acetyltransferase genes, such as that of Tn9. The Tn2424 cat gene is part of a 4.5-kb region which also contains the aacA1a aminoglycoside-6'-N-acetyltransferase gene; Tn2424 is similar to Tn21 except for the presence of this region. Sequences flanking the cat gene are typical of those flanking other genes inserted into pVS1-derived "integrons" by a site-specific recombinational mechanism.

  3. [Histochemistry and choline acetyltransferase in cat spinal cord and spinal ganglia].

    PubMed

    Motavkin, P A; Okhotin, V E

    1978-09-01

    Cytochemical activity of choline acetyltransferase has been studied in the pericaryon of motor neurons of the spinal enlargement and sensitive neurocytes of the intervertebral ganglia in the cat by means of Burt's method. It has been demonstrated that cytoplasm of all motor neurons positively reacts with acetyl KoA. According to the activity of choline acetyltransferase, four groups of neurons have been determined. In cerebrospinal ganglia, the enzyme is present in 58% of pseudounipolar cells, which seem to be cholinergic neurocytes. It has been stated that for all nonspecific reactions the presence of massive and dense residue in all the neurons, walls of small blood vessels and sometimes in astrocytes is a characteristic feature. PMID:718431

  4. Cats

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Cats and other animals often can carry MRSA ...

  5. [Cat scratch disease with deradenoncus and high fever: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Meng, Jian

    2013-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial disease caused by Bartonella henselae. It is mainly characterized by self-limiting lymphadenopathy in the draining site after cat scratch or bite. This paper reported a case of cat scratch disease with deradenoncus and high fever, and discussed the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, pathology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment methods of CSD.

  6. Cat scratch disease during infliximab therapy: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Yin, Geng; Tan, Chunyu; Liu, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Cat scratch disease may occur during etanercept therapy, but there has been no report on infliximab-associated cat scratch disease. We report a case of a 23-year-old woman who developed right inguinal lymph node enlargement following a cat scratch. The patient had received infliximab therapy for spondyloarthropathy. She was successfully managed by discontinuing infliximab and by treatment with moxifloxacin and amikacin.

  7. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    McEwen, S A; Valli, V E; Hulland, T J

    1985-07-01

    The clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings in three cats with hypereosinophilic syndrome are described. The cats chosen for the study had marked eosinophilia and evidence of tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Necropsies were performed on two cats, biopsy and blood samples were provided for the third cat. At necropsy, there was diffuse reddening of femoral bone marrow with ulceration and thickening of the duodenum. The livers had an enhanced lobular pattern with multiple, white, 1-3 mm nodules throughout the parenchyma. One cat had splenomegaly and the other had several enlarged, white, firm lymph nodes. Histopathologically, there was eosinophil infiltration of intestine, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, adrenal medulla and beneath the endocardium. Ultrastructurally, the eosinophils from lymph node and bone marrow of cat II were morphologically normal. The rigid criteria for eosinophilic leukemia were not fulfilled by these cases and the etiology of the eosinophilia in each case is not known. Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed. PMID:4041970

  8. First report of Neotrombicula autumnalis infestation in a cat and a dog from Corfu (Greece) and in a cat from Limassol (Cyprus).

    PubMed

    Giannoulopoulos, Giorgos D; Desilla, Lora J S; Desilla, Eleni S; Papadopoulos, Ilias; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2012-12-01

    Neotrombicula autumnalis is the most common species of the family Trombiculidae that parasitizes dogs, cats, and humans in Europe. Besides the skin lesions it may cause, this mite is a possible vector of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Two cases of N. autumnalis infestation in a cat and a dog in the island of Corfu, Greece, and 1 case of infestation in a cat living in Limassol, Cyprus, are presented. To the best or our knowledge, these are the first cases of feline and canine trombiculosis reported in both countries, and their appearance in islands points out to the possibility of introduction through importation of infested dogs and cats. For this reason, parasiticides that are effective for both the treatment and prevention of trombiculosis should be recommended for all dogs and cats that live in areas where the parasite is present as well as for all traveling pets.

  9. Primary structure of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase specified by R plasmids.

    PubMed

    Shaw, W V; Packman, L C; Burleigh, B D; Dell, A; Morris, H R; Hartley, B S

    Naturally occurring isolates of chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria commonly synthesise chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.28; CAT) in amounts which are sufficient to account for the resistance phenotype and often harbour plasmids which carry the structural gene for CAT. The findings of CAT in such diverse prokaryotes as Proteus mirabilis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Streptomyces sp., and a soil Flavobacterium has led to speculation concerning the origin and evolution of the more commonly observed CAT variants specified by plasmids in clinically important bacteria. To provide a more solid basis for studying the evolution and spread of CAT within prokaryotes we chose to determine the complete amino acid sequence of a type I variant of CAT, the variant known to be associated with most F-like plasmids conferring chloramphenicol resistance. The sequence has been determined by combining the results obtained from manual and automated sequential degradation with those obtained by mass spectrometry of peptides generated by enzymatic digestion. The directly determined primary structure is identical with that predicted by the DNA sequence analysis of the chloramphenicol resistance transponson Tn9 known to specify a type I variant of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase.

  10. [Osteomyelitis in cat scratch disease: a case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Dusser, P; Eyssette-Guerreau, S; Koné-Paut, I

    2013-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is the most common zoonosis in humans and its typical expression is a persistent benign regional adenopathy. In some rare cases, mono- or multifocal osteomyelitis is described. In this paper, we report the case of bone lesions in a 13-year-old girl infected with cat scratch disease. We have also undertaken a literature review and analyzed 60 other such cases. The manifestation of a bone lesion associated with cat scratch disease was characterized by a mono- or multifocal infectious osteomyelitis, fever, and a general alteration of the patient's health. The most frequent location of osteomyelitis was in the spine. Magnetic resonance imaging appeared the most sensitive test to highlight the bone lesions. Serological findings help reinforce the diagnosis of cat scratch disease caused by Bartonella henselae infection. Osteomyelitis in cat scratch disease is rare but not exceptional. Therefore, it is essential to think about this hypothesis in case of osteomyelitis associated with a general alteration of the patient's health, especially if the lesions are multifocal and if there is a known history of cat contact.

  11. Stimulation of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase mRNA translation by reovirus capsid polypeptide sigma 3 in cotransfected COS cells.

    PubMed Central

    Giantini, M; Shatkin, A J

    1989-01-01

    The mammalian reovirus S4 gene has been implicated in the serotype-dependent inhibition of host cell protein synthesis during viral replication in mouse L cells. To examine the effect(s) of this gene on transcription or translation or both, a DNA copy of the serotype 3 S4 gene was inserted into a eucaryotic expression vector. Cotransfection of COS cells with plasmids containing S4 and the reporter gene, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), resulted in a marked stimulation of CAT expression, predominantly at the level of translation. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the double-stranded-RNA-binding activity of the S4 gene product, polypeptide sigma 3. Images PMID:2724407

  12. First report of Dracunculus insignis in two naturally infected cats from the northeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Lucio-Forster, Araceli; Eberhard, Mark L; Cama, Vitaliano A; Jenks, Mary H; Jones, Carroll; Sanders, Sara Y; Pongratz, Jennifer P; Bowman, Dwight D

    2014-02-01

    Dracunculiasis is rarely reported in cats, yet over the last few years we have identified two cats with filarioid-like spirurid infections. Case 1 was a 9-year-old cat with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism from New York tate from which four adult dracunculoid nematodes were isolated from its torso. Based on morphometric characteristics and parasite geographic distribution, the specimens were identified as Dracunculus insignis females; at least one of the females was gravid, suggestive of patent infection. Species identification was confirmed through amplification and sequence analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial loci. Case 2 was a 14-year-old diabetic cat from Massachusetts. Formalin-fixed sections were obtained from a subcutaneous mass excised from the left foreleg. Histopathological examination revealed a large nematode with morphometrical characteristics of Dracunculus, surrounded by lymphocytes and sheets of eosinophils. These two cases appear to be the first published reports of dracunculiasis in domestic cats in the USA, and based on the findings from case 1, D insignis may be the species associated with both infections. PMID:24027052

  13. [Cat-scratch disease. A report of 4 cases and a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Díaz, F; de la Viuda, J M; Urkijo, J C; Mendoza, F

    1997-01-01

    Four cases of cat-scratch diseases are here reported and a review of the literature is made. The disease, apart from its typical presentation form as a usually self-limited regional lymph node enlargement, can occasionally spread and involve several organs systems. Indirect immunofluorescence serological tests have been of help for its diagnosis and should be included among the diagnostic criteria for the disease. In particular cases, nuclear magnetic resonance can be useful to suggests the diagnosis.

  14. Cat-Scratch Disease: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gai, M; d'Onofrio, G; di Vico, M C; Ranghino, A; Nappo, A; Diena, D; Novero, D; Limerutti, G; Messina, M; Biancone, L

    2015-09-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is caused by Bartonella henselae and characterized by self-limited fever and granulomatous lymphadenopathy. In some cases signs of a visceral, neurologic, and ocular involvement can also be encountered. In this report we describe the development of CSD in a kidney transplant patient. Immunocompromised hosts are more susceptible to infection from Bartonella compared with the standard population. Infection of Bartonella should be considered as a differential diagnosis in kidney transplant patients with lymphadenopathy of unknown origin.

  15. Hepatosplenic cat scratch disease in immunocompetent adults: report of 3 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    García, Juan C; Núñez, Manuel J; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M; López, Asunción; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A

    2014-10-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%-20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin.

  16. Lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection acquired from a cat scratch: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Sachs, M K

    1992-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a bacterium that is most commonly found in the soil. Traumatic inoculation of N. brasiliensis into the skin is the most typical mode of acquisition of infection due to this organism. To the best of my knowledge, I report the first case of lymphocutaneous N. brasiliensis disease from a penetrating cat scratch of the skin, thereby establishing cats as vehicles for the transmission of this infection. Treatment with penicillin produced a rapid resolution of all signs and symptoms of infection. The efficacy of penicillin against the N. brasiliensis isolate recovered from this patient was highly unusual. In general, penicillin has limited therapeutic value since these organisms elaborate beta-lactamase. Sulfonamides remain the drugs of choice for the treatment of these infections. These soil-borne organisms are most likely carried on the claws of cats and may establish infection after percutaneous inoculation. A high index of suspicion for N. brasiliensis soft-tissue infection is required since a delayed or missed diagnosis may be associated with progressive local disease and/or widespread disseminated infection. PMID:1420688

  17. Cat-scratch disease presenting as a solitary splenic abscess in an immunocompetent adult: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Kastanakis, Miltiades; Papadomichelakis, Alexandros; Petrakis, Georgios; Bobolakis, Emmanouil

    2013-06-01

    Cat-scratch disease is a common zoonotic infectious disease caused by Bartonella henselae. It is generally characterized by regional lymphadenopathy following exposure to an infected cat. Organ systemic manifestations occur rarely in atypical forms of the disease. Abscess of the spleen represents a rare, life-threatening clinical entity. Here we report an unusual case of cat scratch disease presenting as an isolated splenic abscess in an immunocompetent adult. Comprehensive social history revealed retrospectively close contact with cats. Diagnosis of B. henselae infection was confirmed on the basis of positive serology, skin lesion and imaging findings. Initial efforts at spleen preserving management failed to improve clinical symptoms and classical splenectomy was finally performed. Splenic bartonellosis may become potentially fatal if not recognized. Since diagnosis is challenging, a high index of clinical suspicion is required.

  18. Biochemical characteristics of a novel vegetative tissue geraniol acetyltransferase from a monoterpene oil grass (Palmarosa, Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia) leaf.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj K; Sangwan, Neelam S; Bose, Subir K; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2013-04-01

    Plants synthesize volatile alcohol esters on environmental insult or as metabolic induction during flower/fruit development. However, essential oil plants constitutively produce them as the oil constituents. Their synthesis is catalyzed by BAHD family enzymes called alcohol acyltransferases (AATs). However, no AAT has been characterized from plant foliage synthesizing acyclic monoterpenoids containing essential oils. Therefore, we have purified and biochemically characterized a geraniol: acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase (GAAT) from Palmarosa aroma grass (Cymbopogon martinii) leaf. MALDI-assisted proteomic study of the 43kDa monomeric enzyme revealed its sequence motif novelties e.g. relaxed conservation at Phe and Trp in DFGWG'. This suggests permissiveness of variations in the conserved motif without loss of catalytic ability. Also, some new conserved/semi-conserved motifs of AATs were recognized. The GAAT k(cat)/K(m) values (300-700M(-1)s(-1)) were low (a generic characteristic for secondary metabolism enzyme) but higher than those of some floral AATs. Wide substrate acceptability for catalyzing acetylation of diverse primary alcohols (chain of ≥C(6)) implied its catalytic description as a 'primary aliphatic alcohol acetyltransferase'. It signifies metabolic ability to deliver diverse aroma esters, should the acceptor alcohols be available in planta. To our knowledge, this is the first report of detailed kinetics of a vegetal monoterpenol acyltransferase.

  19. Chloramphenicol induction of cat-86 requires ribosome stalling at a specific site in the leader.

    PubMed

    Alexieva, Z; Duvall, E J; Ambulos, N P; Kim, U J; Lovett, P S

    1988-05-01

    The plasmid gene cat-86 specifies chloramphenicol-inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in Bacillus subtilis. Induction by the antibiotic is primarily due to activation of the translation of cat-86-encoded mRNA. It has been suggested that the inducer stalls ribosomes at a discrete location in the leader region of cat-86 mRNA, which causes the destabilization of a downstream RNA secondary structure that normally sequesters the cat-86 ribosome binding site. It is the destabilization of this RNA secondary structure that permits translation of the cat-86 coding sequence. In the present report, we show that ribosomes that were stalled in the cat-86 leader by starvation of host cells for the amino acid specified by leader codon 6 induced gene expression to a level above that detected when cells were starved for the amino acids specified by leader codons 7 and 8. Starvation for amino acids specified by leader codons 3, 4, or 5 failed to activate cat-86 expression. These results indicate that the stalled ribosome that is most active in cat-86 induction has its aminoacyl site occupied by leader codon 6. To determine if chloramphenicol also stalled ribosomes in the cat-86 regulatory leader such that the aminoacyl site was occupied by codon 6, we separately changed leader codons 3, 4, 5, and 6 to the translation termination (ochre) codon TAA. Each of the mutated genes was tested for its ability to be induced by chloramphenicol. The results show that replacement of leader codons 3, 4, or 5 by the ochre codon blocked induction, whereas replacement of leader codon 6 by the ochre codon permitted induction. Collectively, these observations lead to the conclusion that cat-86 induction requires ribosome stalling in leader mRNA, and they identify leader codon 6 as the codon most likely to be occupied by the aminoacyl site of a stalled ribosome that is active in the induction.

  20. Chloramphenicol induction of cat-86 requires ribosome stalling at a specific site in the leader.

    PubMed Central

    Alexieva, Z; Duvall, E J; Ambulos, N P; Kim, U J; Lovett, P S

    1988-01-01

    The plasmid gene cat-86 specifies chloramphenicol-inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in Bacillus subtilis. Induction by the antibiotic is primarily due to activation of the translation of cat-86-encoded mRNA. It has been suggested that the inducer stalls ribosomes at a discrete location in the leader region of cat-86 mRNA, which causes the destabilization of a downstream RNA secondary structure that normally sequesters the cat-86 ribosome binding site. It is the destabilization of this RNA secondary structure that permits translation of the cat-86 coding sequence. In the present report, we show that ribosomes that were stalled in the cat-86 leader by starvation of host cells for the amino acid specified by leader codon 6 induced gene expression to a level above that detected when cells were starved for the amino acids specified by leader codons 7 and 8. Starvation for amino acids specified by leader codons 3, 4, or 5 failed to activate cat-86 expression. These results indicate that the stalled ribosome that is most active in cat-86 induction has its aminoacyl site occupied by leader codon 6. To determine if chloramphenicol also stalled ribosomes in the cat-86 regulatory leader such that the aminoacyl site was occupied by codon 6, we separately changed leader codons 3, 4, 5, and 6 to the translation termination (ochre) codon TAA. Each of the mutated genes was tested for its ability to be induced by chloramphenicol. The results show that replacement of leader codons 3, 4, or 5 by the ochre codon blocked induction, whereas replacement of leader codon 6 by the ochre codon permitted induction. Collectively, these observations lead to the conclusion that cat-86 induction requires ribosome stalling in leader mRNA, and they identify leader codon 6 as the codon most likely to be occupied by the aminoacyl site of a stalled ribosome that is active in the induction. PMID:3129723

  1. Structure and Biochemical Characterization of Protein Acetyltransferase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    SciTech Connect

    Brent, Michael M.; Iwata, Ayaka; Carten, Juliana; Zhao, Kehao; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2009-09-02

    The Sulfolobus solfataricus protein acetyltransferase (PAT) acetylates ALBA, an abundant nonspecific DNA-binding protein, on Lys{sup 16} to reduce its DNA affinity, and the Sir2 deacetylase reverses the modification to cause transcriptional repression. This represents a 'primitive' model for chromatin regulation analogous to histone modification in eukaryotes. We report the 1.84-{angstrom} crystal structure of PAT in complex with coenzyme A. The structure reveals homology to both prokaryotic GNAT acetyltransferases and eukaryotic histone acetyltransferases (HATs), with an additional 'bent helix' proximal to the substrate binding site that might play an autoregulatory function. Investigation of active site mutants suggests that PAT does not use a single general base or acid residue for substrate deprotonation and product reprotonation, respectively, and that a diffusional step, such as substrate binding, may be rate-limiting. The catalytic efficiency of PAT toward ALBA is low relative to other acetyltransferases, suggesting that there may be better, unidentified substrates for PAT. The structural similarity of PAT to eukaryotic HATs combined with its conserved role in chromatin regulation suggests that PAT is evolutionarily related to the eukaryotic HATs.

  2. Endoparasites of cats from the Tirana area and the first report on Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) in Albania.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimitër; Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Winter, Renate; Visser, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-10-01

    Following the recovery of first-stage nematode larvae indicative of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in the faeces of free-roaming cats from the greater Tirana area, examination of 18 cats at necropsy revealed nine of them harbouring adult A. abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) in the lungs (prevalence, 50%; range, 1-11). In addition to A. abstrusus, Eucoleus aerophilus (16.7%; 1-9) was isolated from the lungs, and Toxocara cati (83.3%; 2-33), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (44.4%; 1-20), Dipylidium caninum (83.3%; 1-164), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (11.1%; 1-3) and one specimen of an acanthocephalan (5.5%) were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, oocysts of Cystoisospora felis and C. rivolta were found in the rectal faeces of 5.6% and 11.1% of the cats, respectively. In conclusion, the prevalence of endoparasite infection in free-roaming cats in Tirana can be considered to be high. The occurrence of A. abstrusus, which may cause respiratory distress in cats, is reported for the first time in Albania.

  3. [Bartonella henselae infection-cat-scratch disease in children (case report)].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 11 year old patient with cat scratch disease. The diagnoes of this infection was based on detailed history, physical examenination and para-clinical data analyses. In case of cat-scratch disease (because it is rare diagnosis), a different approach is required to every specific occaison. A series of investigations (most informative is intrinsic factor antibody - IFA) should be conducted to determain the cat-scratch disease from the various reasons of the lymphocytic leukaemoid reaction.

  4. A chromosomal chloramphenicol acetyltransferase determinant from a probiotic strain of Bacillus clausii.

    PubMed

    Galopin, Sébastien; Cattoir, Vincent; Leclercq, Roland

    2009-06-01

    The mechanism of resistance to chloramphenicol was studied in four strains of Bacillus clausii included in a probiotic mixture, which is administered to humans for prevention of gastrointestinal side effects due to oral antibiotic therapy. By cloning experiments, a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, cat(Bcl), coding for a putative 228-amino acid CAT protein was identified in B. clausii SIN. The deduced amino acid sequence displayed from 31% to 85% identity with 56 CAT proteins from other Gram-positive bacterial strains. The cat(Bcl) gene was also detected by PCR in the three other B. clausii strains resistant to chloramphenicol, whereas it was absent in the three control strains susceptible to chloramphenicol. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis of total DNA digested by I-CeuI followed by hybridization with a cat-specific probe as well as unsuccessful repeated attempts of in vitro transfer of chloramphenicol resistance to various recipient cells indicated that cat(Bcl) was chromosomally located in all four resistant B. clausii strains. PMID:19459958

  5. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions

    DOEpatents

    Stephens, David S.; Gudlavalleti, Seshu K.; Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Datta, Anup K.; Carlson, Russell W.

    2011-02-08

    Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

  6. Conceptual design report for the UNI-CAT beam line proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Budai, J.D.; Ice, G.E.; Sparks, C.J.; Zschack, P. ); Chen, H.; Chiang, T.C.; Nelson, M.C.; Salamon, M.B.; Simmons, R.O. ); Robota, H. )

    1992-08-01

    The overall thrusts of UNI-CAT (University-National Laboratory- Industry Collaborative Access Team) are research at the cutting edge of physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, chemical engineering, polymer science, and geology; and education of a new generation of scientists in the use of synchrotron radiation to probe the structure, chemistry, and dynamic behavior of materials. The UNI-CAT proposal is to develop an APS sector that includes a bending magnet beam line and an insertion device beam line. The APS type-A undulator is the preferred choice for the insertion device. 8 figs, 6 refs. (DLC)

  7. Dog and cat exposures to hazardous substances reported to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Ali; Van der Merwe, Deon

    2013-06-01

    Pet dogs and cats in the USA are commonly exposed to potentially hazardous substances found in domestic environments. Requests for assistance and advice received by the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory regarding exposures in dogs and cats to substances perceived by their caretakers to be potentially harmful included 1,616 phone calls, over a 3-year period covering 2009-2012. Enquiries occurred more often during summer. Dogs were involved in 84.7 % of calls and cats in 15.3 %. Oral exposures were reported in 95.5 % of calls, dermal exposures in 3.7 % of calls, inhalation exposures in 0.6 % of calls, and parenteral exposures in 0.2 % of calls. Therapeutic drugs were the most frequently reported substances, accounting for 35.4 % of calls, followed by household chemicals (15.5 %); foods (14.8 %); pesticides (13.9 %); plants (12 %), industrial chemicals and fertilizers (3.6 %); cosmetics and personal care products (2.8 %); and animal, insect, and microorganism toxins (2.1 %). Although requests for information or assistance are not a measure of poisoning incidence, it can provide insight regarding relative exposure rates, help to identify changing exposure trends and emerging exposures, and reflect the public concern regarding actual or apparent harmful exposures in pets.

  8. Visceral bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis: possible manifestations of disseminated cat scratch disease in the immunocompromised host: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kemper, C A; Lombard, C M; Deresinski, S C; Tompkins, L S

    1990-08-01

    Opportunistic infection with the causative agent of cat scratch disease may be responsible for an unusual vascular proliferative lesion, referred to as bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis, previously described only in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. We present a case of an HIV-infected patient with bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis involving the liver and bone marrow causing progressive hepatic failure. We also report a case of a cardiac transplant recipient with hepatic and splenic bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis manifesting as a fever of unknown origin, a previously unreported event in a non-HIV-infected patient. These cases represent the first documentation of bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis with visualization of cat scratch-like organisms involving internal organs.

  9. Benzalkonium chloride exposure in cats: a retrospective analysis of 245 cases reported to the Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS).

    PubMed

    Bates, N; Edwards, N

    2015-02-28

    Benzalkonium chloride is commonly found in household products. This retrospective study examined 245 cases of feline exposure to benzalkonium chloride-containing products reported to the Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS). A single route of exposure was reported in 188 cats (ingestion 126, skin 58, buccal 4); 57 cats had multiple routes. The common products involved were household antibacterial cleaners (43.6 per cent), household disinfectants (22.3 per cent) and patio cleaners (17.5 per cent). The most common signs were hypersalivation/drooling (53.9 per cent), tongue ulceration (40.4 per cent), hyperthermia (40.4 per cent) and oral ulceration (22.9 per cent). The mean time recorded for onset of the first clinical sign was 6.4 hours (range five minutes to 48 hours, median 4.5 hours, n=60), however, the VPIS was not contacted until 14.0 ± 13.2 hours after exposure (n=120). This figure also reflects the time of presentation. The most common treatments given were antibiotics (82.0 per cent), fluids (50.2 per cent), analgesia (45.3 per cent), gastroprotectants (31.0 per cent), dermal decontamination (24.1 per cent) and steroids (22.7 per cent). 13 cats (5.3 per cent) received syringe or nasogastric feeding. Of 245 cats, 12 (4.9 per cent) remained asymptomatic, 230 (93.9 per cent) recovered and three died (1.2 per cent). The time to recovery ranged from 1 to 360 hours (n=67) with a mean of 100.4 ± 82.0 hours (4.2 ± 3.4 days, median 72 hours).

  10. Cat scratch disease in 9-year-old patient - a case report.

    PubMed

    Świątkowski, Wojciech; Rahnama, Mansur; Strzelczyk, Katarzyna; Baszak, Jakub; Sierocińska-Sawa, Jadwiga

    2016-03-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) - bartonellosis, is zoonosis caused by the intracellular gram negativebacterium Bartonellahenselae or Bartonellaquintana. The pathogens of this disease enter the human body usually as a consequence of a bite or scratch by young cats which are the natural source of such bacteria. The illness proceeds asymptomatically or with topical symptoms of infection such as a lump, spot or blister. Within 14 days a high fever and topical lymphadenopathy are observed. Lymph nodes are sore and start suppurating. In half of patients, these symptoms may resemble malignancy, and in single cases there are symptoms associated with the musculoskeletal system, such as: osteitis, arthitis and myositis. In paper presented case of 9 year-old girl patients, treated in Oral Surgery Unit due to odema and lymphadenopathy in right submandibular space. Primary surgical treatment of deciduous teeth was conducted without recovery. In few months follow-up, biopsy of lymph node of submandibular group was taken and provisional diagnosis of cat scratch disease was set. Patient was referred to the Infectious Diseases Unit where serological test confirmed cat scratch disease, and pharmacological treatment was conducted with success and recovery of young patient. PMID:27213258

  11. Cat scratch disease in 9-year-old patient - a case report.

    PubMed

    Świątkowski, Wojciech; Rahnama, Mansur; Strzelczyk, Katarzyna; Baszak, Jakub; Sierocińska-Sawa, Jadwiga

    2016-03-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) - bartonellosis, is zoonosis caused by the intracellular gram negativebacterium Bartonellahenselae or Bartonellaquintana. The pathogens of this disease enter the human body usually as a consequence of a bite or scratch by young cats which are the natural source of such bacteria. The illness proceeds asymptomatically or with topical symptoms of infection such as a lump, spot or blister. Within 14 days a high fever and topical lymphadenopathy are observed. Lymph nodes are sore and start suppurating. In half of patients, these symptoms may resemble malignancy, and in single cases there are symptoms associated with the musculoskeletal system, such as: osteitis, arthitis and myositis. In paper presented case of 9 year-old girl patients, treated in Oral Surgery Unit due to odema and lymphadenopathy in right submandibular space. Primary surgical treatment of deciduous teeth was conducted without recovery. In few months follow-up, biopsy of lymph node of submandibular group was taken and provisional diagnosis of cat scratch disease was set. Patient was referred to the Infectious Diseases Unit where serological test confirmed cat scratch disease, and pharmacological treatment was conducted with success and recovery of young patient.

  12. Simulating Nonmodel-Fitting Responses in a CAT Environment. ACT Research Report Series 98-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Nering, Michael L.

    This study developed a model to simulate nonmodel-fitting responses in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment, and to examine the effectiveness of the model. The underlying idea was to simulate examinees' test behaviors realistically. This study simulated a situation in which examinees are exposed to or are coached on test items before…

  13. South African report of first case of chromoblastomycosis caused by Cladosporium (syn Cladophialophora) carrionii infection in a cat with feline immunodeficiency virus and lymphosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Zambelli, Anthony B; Griffiths, Catherine A

    2015-04-01

    This report describes a 6-year-old neutered male feline immunodeficiency-positive cat with repeated abdominal and thoracic effusions. The cat was diagnosed with and treated for lymphosarcoma but remission was short-lived and, on re-evaluation, a fungal peritoneal exudate was noted. Cytology of the organisms is described and the culture elucidated Cladosporium carrionii, an important cause of chromoblastomycosis. Treatment with itraconazole was unsuccessful in this case.

  14. South African report of first case of chromoblastomycosis caused by Cladosporium (syn Cladophialophora) carrionii infection in a cat with feline immunodeficiency virus and lymphosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Zambelli, Anthony B; Griffiths, Catherine A

    2015-04-01

    This report describes a 6-year-old neutered male feline immunodeficiency-positive cat with repeated abdominal and thoracic effusions. The cat was diagnosed with and treated for lymphosarcoma but remission was short-lived and, on re-evaluation, a fungal peritoneal exudate was noted. Cytology of the organisms is described and the culture elucidated Cladosporium carrionii, an important cause of chromoblastomycosis. Treatment with itraconazole was unsuccessful in this case. PMID:25425600

  15. Generalized dermatitis associated with Malassezia overgrowth in cats: A report of six cases in France.

    PubMed

    Crosaz, Odile; Legras, Audrey; Vilaplana-Grosso, Federico; Debeaupuits, Julien; Chermette, René; Hubert, Blaise; Guillot, Jacques

    2013-02-13

    We recently observed six cases of generalized dermatitis associated with Malassezia overgrowth in cats presented to the Veterinary College of Alfort, France. Elevated numbers of yeasts were observed in lesional skin by cytology and culture. Skin lesions occurred on the face, ventral neck, abdomen and ear canals and were characterized by some degree of alopecia, erythema and crusting. In most cases, pruritus was intense. The species M. pachydermatis was systematically isolated.

  16. Generalized dermatitis associated with Malassezia overgrowth in cats: A report of six cases in France.

    PubMed

    Crosaz, Odile; Legras, Audrey; Vilaplana-Grosso, Federico; Debeaupuits, Julien; Chermette, René; Hubert, Blaise; Guillot, Jacques

    2013-02-13

    We recently observed six cases of generalized dermatitis associated with Malassezia overgrowth in cats presented to the Veterinary College of Alfort, France. Elevated numbers of yeasts were observed in lesional skin by cytology and culture. Skin lesions occurred on the face, ventral neck, abdomen and ear canals and were characterized by some degree of alopecia, erythema and crusting. In most cases, pruritus was intense. The species M. pachydermatis was systematically isolated. PMID:24432218

  17. Occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in a domestic cat (Felis catus) in Andradina, São Paulo, Brazil: case report.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix de; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do; Langoni, Helio; Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão Richini; Abdelnour, Aziz; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2010-01-01

    This work describes natural infection by Leishmania in a domestic cat where amastigote forms of the parasite were observed in the popliteal lymph node imprint. Positive and negative serological reactions were observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that the nucleotide sequence of the sample was identical to Leishmania (L.) chagasi. This is the first report of the disease in felines of the city of Andradina, SP, an area considered endemic for canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.

  18. Cat Batiks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buban, Marcia H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)

  19. Molecular Characterization of a Novel N-Acetyltransferase from Chryseobacterium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Kosei; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    N-Acetyltransferase from Chryseobacterium sp. strain 5-3B is an acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the enantioselective transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the amino group of l-2-phenylglycine to produce (2S)-2-acetylamino-2-phenylacetic acid. We purified the enzyme from strain 5-3B and deduced the N-terminal amino acid sequence. The gene, designated natA, was cloned with two other hypothetical protein genes; the three genes probably form a 2.5-kb operon. The deduced amino acid sequence of NatA showed high levels of identity to sequences of putative N-acetyltransferases of Chryseobacterium spp. but not to other known arylamine and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that NatA forms a distinct lineage from known N-acetyltransferases. We heterologously expressed recombinant NatA (rNatA) in Escherichia coli and purified it. rNatA showed high activity for l-2-phenylglycine and its chloro- and hydroxyl-derivatives. The Km and Vmax values for l-2-phenylglycine were 0.145 ± 0.026 mM and 43.6 ± 2.39 μmol · min−1 · mg protein−1, respectively. The enzyme showed low activity for 5-aminosalicylic acid and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which are reported as good substrates of a known arylamine N-acetyltransferase and an arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. rNatA had a comparatively broad acyl donor specificity, transferring acyl groups to l-2-phenylglycine and producing the corresponding 2-acetylamino-2-phenylacetic acids (relative activity with acetyl donors acetyl-CoA, propanoyl-CoA, butanoyl-CoA, pentanoyl-CoA, and hexanoyl-CoA, 100:108:122:10:<1). PMID:24375143

  20. N-hydroxyarylamine O-acetyltransferase of Salmonella typhimurium: proposal for a common catalytic mechanism of arylamine acetyltransferase enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, M; Igarashi, T; Kaminuma, T; Sofuni, T; Nohmi, T

    1994-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA:N-hydroxyarylamine O-acetyltransferase is an enzyme involved in the metabolic activation of N-hydroxyarylamines derived from mutagenic and carcinogenic aromatic amines and nitroarenes. The O-acetyltransferase gene of Salmonella typhimurium has been cloned, and new Ames tester substrains highly sensitive to mutagenic aromatic amines and nitroarenes have been established in our laboratory. The nucleotide sequence of the O-acetyltransferase gene was determined. There was an open reading frame of 843 nucleotides coding for a protein with a calculated molecular weight of 32,177, which was close to the molecular weight of the O-acetyltransferase protein determined by using the maxicell technique. Only the residue of Cys69 in O-acetyltransferase of S. typhimurium and its corresponding residue (Cys68) in N-acetyltransferase of higher organisms were conserved in all acetyltransferase enzymes sequenced so far. The amino acid sequence Arg-Gly-Gly-X-Cys, including the Cys69, was highly conserved. A mutant O-acetyltransferase of S. typhimurium, which contained Ala69 instead of Cys69, no longer showed the activities of O- and N-acetyltransferase. These results suggest that the Cys69 of S. typhimurium and the corresponding cysteine residues of the higher organisms are essential for the enzyme activities as an acetyl-CoA binding site. We propose a new catalytic model of acetyltransferase for S. typhimurium and the higher organisms. PMID:7889864

  1. Cat-scratch disease: report of a case with liver lesions and no lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Delbeke, D.; Sandler, M.P.; Shaff, M.I.; Miller, S.F.

    1988-08-01

    The usual presentation of cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a subacute regional lymphadenitis following cutaneous inoculation. We present the case of a 10-yr-old white female with a 4-wk history of abdominal pain and fever, without associated lymphadenopathy. A /sup 67/Ga scintigram showed inhomogenous uptake by the liver. An abdominal computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed multiple low density lesions in the liver and the spleen, that were confirmed at laparotomy. Stellate microabscesses were seen on a wedge biopsy of the liver and a CSD antigen skin test was positive. CSD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of liver lesions, even in the absence of lymphadenopathy. This case emphasizes the importance of inhomogeneous /sup 67/Ga uptake by the liver.

  2. Disseminated cat-scratch disease: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chen; Lee, Chia-Jie; Ou, Liang-Shiou; Wang, Chao-Jan; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-08-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) can present as a systemic disease in 5-10% of cases and lead to various disease entities. A previously healthy 16-month-old boy presented with fever for 7 days without other obvious symptoms. Abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated enlarged right inguinal lymph nodes and multiple small round hypodensities in the spleen. Despite antibiotic treatment for 1 week, the fever persisted and the intrasplenic lesions progressed. Inguinal lymph node biopsy confirmed CSD by immunohistochemistry staining. The diagnosis of CSD was also supported by a history of contact, imaging and serological findings. The patient recovered after treatment with azithromycin for a total of 5 weeks and, in serial follow-up, the hepatosplenic micro-abscesses resolved after 4th months.

  3. First Report of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, and Chlamydia felis Infection in Stray and Companion Cats in Northeastern and Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yuan-Huan; Cong, Wei; Qin, Si-Yuan; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Gao, Yun-Hang; Wang, Chun-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-10-01

    Feline vector-borne diseases have increasingly become a focus of interest in recent years. Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, and Chlamydia felis are common pathogens of cats that can affect humans among different countries all over the world. However, information about prevalence of T. gondii and C. felis is available in China, but information about coinfection of T. gondii, D. immitis, and C. felis in cats is limited. Thus, this study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of these pathogens' infection among stray and companion cats in northeastern and eastern China and identify the influence of age, gender, types, and regions on seropositivity. The circulating antigens of D. immitis and specific antibodies to T. gondii and C. felis were examined using kits commercially available. The overall prevalence of T. gondii, D. immitis, and C. felis was 15.43%, 1.93%, and 9.90%, respectively. Coinfection was common, and infection with both T. gondii and C. felis was the most common coinfection (22.32%). Stray cats have significantly higher seroprevalences than companion cats (p < 0.05). Moreover, the infection rates of these pathogens keep increasing year by year. This is the first report of T. gondii, D. immitis, and C. felis infection in cats in northeastern and eastern China. The findings of this study reveal that T. gondii, D. immitis, and C. felis are prevalent in stray and companion cats in northeastern China, which provided baseline data for the effective prevention and control of these parasites' prevalence in these regions and other parts of China. PMID:27463689

  4. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic ...

  5. Structure of Mesorhizobium loti arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, Simon J.; Dairou, Julien; Sandy, James; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Noble, Martin E. M.; Sim, Edith

    2005-01-01

    The crystal structure of a M. loti arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes have been found in a broad range of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. The NAT enzymes catalyse the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl Co-enzyme A onto the terminal nitrogen of a range of arylamine, hydrazine and arylhydrazine compounds. Recently, several NAT structures have been reported from different prokaryotic sources including Salmonella typhimurium, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bioinformatics analysis of the Mesorhizobium loti genome revealed two NAT paralogues, the first example of multiple NAT isoenzymes in a eubacterial organism. The M. loti NAT 1 enzyme was recombinantly expressed and purified for X-ray crystallographic studies. The purified enzyme was crystallized in 0.5 M Ca(OAc){sub 2}, 16% PEG 3350, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. A data set diffracting to 2.0 Å was collected from a single crystal at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic spacegroup P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.2, b = 97.3, c = 114.3 Å. The structure was refined to a final free-R factor of 24.8%. The structure reveals that despite low sequence homology, M. loti NAT1 shares the common fold as reported in previous NAT structures and exhibits the same catalytic triad of residues (Cys-His-Asp) in the active site.

  6. The molecular cat.

    PubMed

    Pedio, Maddalena; Chergui, Majed

    2009-02-23

    A manifestation of electronic entanglement in core-level spectroscopic measurements of diatomic molecules, reported recently by Schöffler and co-workers, is discussed. The results are reminiscent of Schrödinger's famous Gedanken experiment with the cat (see picture).

  7. A human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus, as a eucaryotic vector: Transient expression and encapsidation of the procaryotic gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Tratschin, J.D.; West, M.H.P.; Sandbank, T.; Carter, B.J.

    1984-10-01

    The authors have used the defective human parvovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a novel eurocaryotic vector (parvector) for the expression of a foreign gene in human cells. The recombinant, pAV2, contains the AAV genome in a pBR322-derived bacterial plasmid. When pAV2 is transfected into human cells together with helper adenovirus particles, the AAV genome is rescued from the recombinant plasmid and replicated to produce infectious AAV particles at high efficiency. To create a vector, we inserted a procaryotic sequence coding for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) into derivatives of pAV2 following either of the AAV promoters p/sub 40/ (pAVHiCAT) and p/sub 19/ (pAVBcCAT). When transfected into human 293 cells or HeLa cells, pAVHiCAT expressed CAT activity in the absence of adenovirus. In the presence of adenovirus, this vector produced increased amounts of CAT activity and the recombinant AAV-CAT genome was replicated. In 293 cells, pAVBcCAT expressed a similar amount of CAT activity in the absence or presence of adenovirus and the recombinant AAV-CAT genome was not replicated. In HeLa cells, pAVBcCAT expressed low levels of CAT activity, but this level was elevated by coinfection with adenovirus particles or by cotransfection with a plasmid which expressed the adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) product. The E1A product is a transcriptional activator and is expressed in 293 cells. Thus, expression from two AAV promoters is differentially regulated: expression from p/sub 19/ is increased by E1A, whereas p/sub 40/ yields high levels of constitutive expression in the absence of E1A. Both AAV vectors were packaged into AAV particles by complementation with wild-type AAV and yielded CAT activity when subsequently infected into cells in the presence of adenovirus.

  8. Basins and Wepp Climate Assessment Tools (Cat): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tool: Case Study Final <span class=report"> This final report supports application of two recently developed...

  9. [Treatment of inter-specific aggression in cats with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine. A case report].

    PubMed

    Sprauer, S

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the redirected, inter-specific aggression of a Maine Coon cat, which was principally directed towards the owners. The cat reacted towards different, nonspecific sounds with abrupt aggressive behaviour and injured the victims at this juncture with moderate scratching and biting. Exclusively using behaviour therapy did not achieve the desired result, thus the therapy was supported with pharmaceuticals. The cat orally received the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluvoxamine at an initial dosage of 0.5mg/kg BW once daily. After 4 weeks the application rate was increased to 1.0 mg/kg BW once daily. The medication did not cause any side effects. Together with the behaviour-modulating therapy, carried out parallel to the medication therapy, the aggressive behaviour problem of the cat was resolved. After administration for a period of 63 weeks the fluvoxamine therapy was discontinued by gradually reducing the dose without recurrence of the aggressive behaviour. PMID:23242225

  10. Arylamine N-acetyltransferases: a structural perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaotong; Ma, Zhiguo; Dong, Dong; Wu, Baojian

    2013-01-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) plays an important role in metabolism and detoxification of many compounds including drugs and environmental carcinogens through chemical modification of the amine group with an acetyl group. Recent studies have suggested that NATs are also involved in cancer cell growth and inhibition of the enzymes may be a potential target for cancer chemotherapy. Three-dimensional (3D) structures are available for NATs from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These structures provide valuable insights into the acetylation mechanism, features of the active site and the structural determinants that govern substrate/inhibitor-binding specificity. Such insights allow a more precise understanding of the structure–activity relationships for NAT substrates and inhibitors. Furthermore, the structural elucidation of NATs has generated powerful tools in the design of small molecule inhibitors that should alleviate cancer, based on the important role of the enzyme in cancer biology. PMID:23517104

  11. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  12. Histone acetyltransferase Hbo1 destabilizes estrogen receptor α by ubiquitination and modulates proliferation of breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Masayoshi; Susa, Takao; Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Kajitani, Takashi; Okinaga, Hiroko; Fukusato, Toshio; Okazaki, Tomoki

    2013-12-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) is a key molecule for growth of breast cancers. It has been a successful target for treatment of breast cancers. Elucidation of the ER expression mechanism is of importance for designing therapeutics for ER-positive breast cancers. However, the detailed mechanism of ER stability is still unclear. Here, we report that histone acetyltransferase Hbo1 promotes destabilization of estrogen receptor α (ERα) in breast cancers through lysine 48-linked ubiquitination. The acetyltransferase activity of Hbo1 is linked to its activity for ERα ubiquitination. Depletion of Hbo1 and anti-estrogen treatment displayed a potent growth suppression of breast cancer cell line. Hbo1 modulated transcription by ERα. Mutually exclusive expression of Hbo1 and ERα was observed in roughly half of the human breast tumors examined in the present study. Modulation of ER stability by Hbo1 in breast cancers may provide a novel therapeutic possibility.

  13. FOXP3 interactions with histone acetyltransferase and class II histone deacetylases are required for repression.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Samanta, Arabinda; Song, Xiaomin; Iacono, Kathryn T; Bembas, Kathryn; Tao, Ran; Basu, Samik; Riley, James L; Hancock, Wayne W; Shen, Yuan; Saouaf, Sandra J; Greene, Mark I

    2007-03-13

    The forkhead family protein FOXP3 acts as a repressor of transcription and is both an essential and sufficient regulator of the development and function of regulatory T cells. The molecular mechanism by which FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression occurs remains unclear. Here, we report that transcriptional repression by FOXP3 involves a histone acetyltransferase-deacetylase complex that includes histone acetyltransferase TIP60 (Tat-interactive protein, 60 kDa) and class II histone deacetylases HDAC7 and HDAC9. The N-terminal 106-190 aa of FOXP3 are required for TIP60-FOXP3, HDAC7-FOXP3 association, as well as for the transcriptional repression of FOXP3 via its forkhead domain. FOXP3 can be acetylated in primary human regulatory T cells, and TIP60 promotes FOXP3 acetylation in vivo. Overexpression of TIP60 but not its histone acetyltransferase-deficient mutant promotes, whereas knockdown of endogenous TIP60 relieved, FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression. A minimum FOXP3 ensemble containing native TIP60 and HDAC7 is necessary for IL-2 production regulation in T cells. Moreover, FOXP3 association with HDAC9 is antagonized by T cell stimulation and can be restored by the protein deacetylation inhibitor trichostatin A, indicating a complex dynamic aspect of T suppressor cell regulation. These findings identify a previously uncharacterized complex-based mechanism by which FOXP3 actively mediates transcriptional repression. PMID:17360565

  14. A Comparative Study of Online Pretest Item Calibration/Scaling Methods in CAT. ACT Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ban, Jae-Chun; Hanson, Bradley A.; Wang, Tianyou; Yi, Qing; Harris, Deborah J.

    The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate five online pretest item calibration/scaling methods in computerized adaptive testing (CAT): (1) the marginal maximum likelihood estimate with one-EM cycle (OEM); (2) the marginal maximum likelihood estimate with multiple EM cycles (MEM); (3) Stocking's Method A (M. Stocking, 1988); (4)…

  15. Human Neural Stem Cells Overexpressing Choline Acetyltransferase Restore Unconditioned Fear in Rats with Amygdala Injury

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Yeseul; Kim, Kwang Sei; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Choi, Youngjin; Guo, Haiyu; Ban, Young-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Choon; Park, Dongsun; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala is involved in the fear memory that recognizes certain environmental cues predicting threatening events. Manipulation of neurotransmission within the amygdala affects the expression of conditioned and unconditioned emotional memories such as fear freezing behaviour. We previously demonstrated that F3.ChAT human neural stem cells (NSCs) overexpressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) improve cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease model rats with hippocampal or cholinergic nerve injuries by increasing acetylcholine (ACh) level. In the present study, we examined the effect of F3.ChAT cells on the deficit of unconditioned fear freezing. Rats given N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in their amygdala 2 weeks prior to cat odor exposure displayed very short resting (freezing) time compared to normal animals. NMDA induced neuronal degeneration in the amygdala, leading to a decreased ACh concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. However, intracerebroventricular transplantation of F3.ChAT cells attenuated amygdala lesions 4 weeks after transplantation. The transplanted cells were found in the NMDA-injury sites and produced ChAT protein. In addition, F3.ChAT-receiving rats recuperated freezing time staying remote from the cat odor source, according to the recovery of brain ACh concentration. The results indicate that human NSCs overexpressing ChAT may facilitate retrieval of unconditioned fear memory by increasing ACh level. PMID:27087745

  16. Human Neural Stem Cells Overexpressing Choline Acetyltransferase Restore Unconditioned Fear in Rats with Amygdala Injury.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Yeseul; Kim, Kwang Sei; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Choi, Youngjin; Guo, Haiyu; Ban, Young-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Choon; Park, Dongsun; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala is involved in the fear memory that recognizes certain environmental cues predicting threatening events. Manipulation of neurotransmission within the amygdala affects the expression of conditioned and unconditioned emotional memories such as fear freezing behaviour. We previously demonstrated that F3.ChAT human neural stem cells (NSCs) overexpressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) improve cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease model rats with hippocampal or cholinergic nerve injuries by increasing acetylcholine (ACh) level. In the present study, we examined the effect of F3.ChAT cells on the deficit of unconditioned fear freezing. Rats given N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in their amygdala 2 weeks prior to cat odor exposure displayed very short resting (freezing) time compared to normal animals. NMDA induced neuronal degeneration in the amygdala, leading to a decreased ACh concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. However, intracerebroventricular transplantation of F3.ChAT cells attenuated amygdala lesions 4 weeks after transplantation. The transplanted cells were found in the NMDA-injury sites and produced ChAT protein. In addition, F3.ChAT-receiving rats recuperated freezing time staying remote from the cat odor source, according to the recovery of brain ACh concentration. The results indicate that human NSCs overexpressing ChAT may facilitate retrieval of unconditioned fear memory by increasing ACh level. PMID:27087745

  17. Misfolding of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase due to carboxy-terminal truncation can be corrected by second-site mutations.

    PubMed

    Van der Schueren, J; Robben, J; Volckaert, G

    1998-12-01

    Folding of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) in Escherichia coli is hampered by deletion of the carboxy-terminal tail including the last residue of the carboxy-terminal alpha-helix. Such truncated CAT polypeptides quantitatively aggregate into cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which results in absence of a chloramphenicol-resistant phenotype for the producing host. In this paper, a genetic approach is presented to examine this aggregation process in more detail. Random mutagenesis of inactive CAT followed by direct phenotypic selection for revertants with restored chloramphenicol resistance was used to isolate second-site suppressors of inactive truncation mutants of CAT. Two random mutagenesis procedures, independently of each other, yielded a unique substitution of Phe for Leu at amino acid position 145. This second-site mutation does not drastically affect the proteins' stability under normal growth conditions of E. coli. Hence, the introduction of Phe at amino acid position 145 improves the ability of the protein to fold into a soluble, enzymatically active conformation. The conservative character of the Leu145Phe replacement indicates that limited changes at crucial positions can have important effects on protein folding in vivo.

  18. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  19. Isolated mediastinal necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenopathy due to cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Lovis, A; Clerc, O; Lazor, R; Jaton, K; Greub, G

    2014-02-01

    We report a patient suffering from cat-scratch disease limited to mediastinal lymphadenitis. Although rare, cat-scratch disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenitis, especially when patients were exposed to cats.

  20. Synthesis of 4′-aminopantetheine and derivatives to probe aminoglycoside N-6′-acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuxu; Akinnusi, T. Olukayode; Larsen, Aaron T.; Auclair, Karine

    2011-01-01

    Summary A convenient synthesis of 4′-aminopantetheine from commercial D-pantethine is reported. The amino group was introduced by reductive amination in order to avoid substitution at a sterically congested position. Derivatives of 4′-aminopantetheine were also prepared to evaluate the effect of O-to-N substitution on inhibitors of the resistance-causing enzyme aminoglycoside N-6′-acetyltransferase. The biological results combined with docking studies indicate that in spite of its reported unusual flexibility and ability to adopt different folds, this enzyme is highly specific for AcCoA. PMID:21225062

  1. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    PubMed

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (< 2.5 mg/dL) subsequent to enteral alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  2. Relation of pontine choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive neurons with cells which increase discharge during REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Shiromani, P J; Armstrong, D M; Bruce, G; Hersh, L B; Groves, P M; Gillin, J C

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurons in the medial pontine reticular formation with high discharge rates during REM sleep could be localized in regions of the brainstem having neurons displaying choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity. Six cats were implanted with sleep recording electrodes and microwires to record extracellular potentials of neurons in the pontine reticular formation. Single-units with a S:N ratio greater than 2:1 were recorded for at least two REM sleep cycles. A total of 49 units was recorded from the pontine reticular formation at medial-lateral planes ranging from 0.8 to 3.7 mm. The greatest proportion of the units (28.6%) showed highest discharge during active waking and phasic REM sleep compared to quiet waking, non-REM sleep, transition into REM sleep or quiet REM sleep periods. A percentage (20.4%) of the cells had high discharge associated with phasic REM sleep periods while 8.2% of the cells showed a progressive increase in discharge from waking to REM sleep. Subsequent examination of the distribution of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the PRF revealed that cells showing high discharge during REM sleep were not localized near presumed cholinergic neurons. Indeed, we did not find any ChAT immunoreactive somata in the medial PRF, an area which has traditionally been implicated in the generation of REM sleep. These results suggest that while increased discharge of PRF cells may be instrumental to REM sleep generation, these cells are not cholinergic.

  3. Pulmonary nodules in an immunocompetent child with cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Anuja; Burrage, Lindsay C; Gonzalez, Blanca E

    2013-12-01

    We describe an immunocompetent child with cat scratch disease and pulmonary nodules as part of her initial presentation. Although pulmonary manifestations have been reported with cat scratch disease, nodules are rare in the normal host.

  4. Minimal change glomerulopathy in a cat.

    PubMed

    Backlund, Brianna; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Cook, Audrey K; Clubb, Fred J; Lees, George E

    2011-04-01

    A 6-year-old domestic shorthair male castrated cat was evaluated for sudden onset of vomiting and anorexia. A diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) was made, and the cat was treated with imatinib mesylate. The cat had an initial clinical improvement with the normalization of the peripheral eosinophil count. After approximately 8 weeks of treatment, lethargy and anorexia recurred despite the normal eosinophil count and a significant proteinuric nephropathy was identified. Treatment with imatinib was discontinued. Ultrasound guided renal biopsies exhibited histologic, ultrastructural, and immunostaining changes indicative of a minimal change glomerulopathy (MCG) which has not previously been reported in the literature in a cat. The proteinuria and HES initially improved while the cat was treated with more traditional medications; however, both the problems persisted for 30 months that the cat was followed subsequently. Previous studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of imatinib in cats do not report any glomerular injury or significant adverse drug reactions, and the exact cause of this cat's proteinuric nephropathy is uncertain. Nonetheless, the possibility of an adverse drug reaction causing proteinuria should be considered when initiating treatment with imatinib in a cat. PMID:21414552

  5. Energy requirements of adult cats.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Morris, Penelope J; Hawthorne, Amanda J

    2010-04-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out in order to establish the energy requirements of adult cats. Publications that identified cat body weight (BW) were used to generate allometric relationships between energy requirements and BW of healthy adult cats, using log-log linear regression. Energy requirements were expressed in kcal/kg BW to be consistent with those reported by the National Research Council. Mean maintenance energy requirements were 55.1 (se 1.2) kcal/kg BW (115 treatment groups). Three allometric equations were identified to predict the energy requirements for maintenance of BW in the cat based on BW: light (53.7 kcal/kg BW- 1.061), normal (46.8 kcal/kg BW- 1.115) and heavy (131.8 kcal/kg BW- 0 .366). When reported on lean mass, the allometric equation revealed maintenance requirements were 58.4 kcal/kg lean mass- 1.140 (adjusted R2 0.694; thirty-six treatment groups). The present review suggests that values for maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be an accurate prediction and more detailed information on the age, sex and neuter status, BW and composition would enhance the ability to interpret the maintenance energy requirements of cats.

  6. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Anthony E; Karagianni, Eleni P; Ulndreaj, Alphantigona; Boukouvala, Sotiria

    2010-07-16

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes characterized in several bacteria and eukaryotic organisms. We report a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis employing an exhaustive dataset of NAT-homologous sequences recovered through inspection of 2445 genomes. We describe the first NAT homologues in viruses, archaea, protists, many fungi and invertebrates, providing complete annotations in line with the consensus nomenclature. Contrary to the NAT genes of vertebrates, introns are commonly found within the homologous coding regions of lower eukaryotes. The NATs of fungi and higher animals are distinctly monophyletic, but evidence supports a mixed phylogeny of NATs among bacteria, protists and possibly some invertebrates.

  7. Straelensiosis in two cats and ten dogs from Israel.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, R; Bourdeau, P; Waldman, L; Amiel, S; Zur, G

    2015-12-01

    Straelensiosis is uncommonly described outside Europe. This report describes straelensiosis in two cats and in ten dogs diagnosed with the disease outside Europe. Both cats displayed erythematous macules or nodules on the abdominal skin. One cat was extremely pruritic, while in the other the lesions were incidental findings when the cat was presented for neutering. The mites were noted in skin scrapings in both cats and histopathologically in one cat. All dogs showed a general distribution of papules, and intense pruritus was noted in six dogs. The diagnosis in all dogs was based on histopathology. Treatment of the animals in this study varied, and among the various administrated treatments, amitraz showed promising results.

  8. Triglyceride response following an oral fat tolerance test in Burmese cats, other pedigree cats and domestic crossbred cats.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Elissa K; Hardman, Chloë; Govendir, Merran; Baral, Randolph M; Sullivan, David R; Snow, David; Malik, Richard

    2009-02-01

    Primary lipid disorders causing fasting triglyceridaemia have been documented infrequently in Burmese cats. Due to the known increased risk of diabetes mellitus and sporadic reports of lipid aqueous in this breed, the aim of this study was to determine whether healthy Burmese cats displayed a more pronounced pre- or post-prandial triglyceridaemia compared to other cats. Serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations were determined at baseline and variably at 2, 4 and 6h after ingestion of a high-fat meal (ie, an oral fat tolerance test) in a representative sample of Burmese and non-Burmese cats. The median 4 and 6h serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in Burmese cats (4h - 2.8mmol/l; 6h - 8.2mmol/l) than in other pedigree and domestic crossbred cats (4h - 1.5mmol/l; 6h - 1.0mmol/l). The non-Burmese group had post-prandial TG concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 3.9mmol/l. Seven Burmese cats had post-prandial TG concentrations between 6.6 and 19.0mmol/l, five had concentrations between 4.2 and 4.7mmol/l, while the remaining 15 had post-prandial concentrations between 0.5 and 2.8mmol/l. None of these Burmese cats had fasting triglyceridaemia. Most Burmese cats with a 4 h TG > 6.0 mmol/l had elevated fasting very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentrations. This study demonstrates that a proportion of Burmese cats in Australia have delayed TG clearance compared to other cats. The potential repercussions of this observation with reference to lipid aqueous, pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus in Burmese cats are discussed.

  9. Nuclear Rho kinase, ROCK2, targets p300 acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toru; Nishimura, Dai; Wu, Ray-Chang; Amano, Mutsuki; Iso, Tatsuya; Kedes, Larry; Nishida, Hiroshi; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Hamamori, Yasuo

    2006-06-01

    Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase (ROCK) is an effector for the small GTPase Rho and plays a pivotal role in diverse cellular activities, including cell adhesion, cytokinesis, and gene expression, primarily through an alteration of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Here, we show that ROCK2 is localized in the nucleus and associates with p300 acetyltransferase both in vitro and in cells. Nuclear ROCK2 is present in a large protein complex and partially cofractionates with p300 by gel filtration analysis. By immunofluorescence, ROCK2 partially colocalizes with p300 in distinct insoluble nuclear structures. ROCK2 phosphorylates p300 in vitro, and nuclear-restricted expression of constitutively active ROCK2 induces p300 phosphorylation in cells. p300 acetyltransferase activity is dependent on its phosphorylation status in cells, and p300 phosphorylation by ROCK2 results in an increase in its acetyltransferase activity in vitro. These observations suggest that nucleus-localized ROCK2 targets p300 for phosphorylation to regulate its acetyltransferase activity.

  10. New O-acetyltransferase-deficient Ames Salmonella strains generated by specific gene disruption.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Aguirre, J J; Yamada, M; Matsui, K; Watanabe, M; Sofuni, T; Nohmi, T

    1999-02-19

    CoASAc-dependent N-hydroxyarylamine O-acetyltransferase (OAT) is an enzyme involved in the intracellular metabolic activation of N-hydroxyarylamines derived from mutagenic nitroarenes and aromatic amines. The oat gene encoding the enzyme of S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 was specifically disrupted and the sensitivities of the resulting strains, i.e., YG7130 and YG7126, to mutagens were compared with those of the conventional oat-deficient strains, i.e., TA98/1,8DNP6 and TA100/1,8DNP, respectively. The new oat-deficient strains and the conventional strains exhibited similar sensitivity against most of the chemicals tested: both strains YG7130 and strain TA98/1,8-DNP6 were resistant to mutagenicity by 1,8-dinitropyrene (1, 8-DNP), 1-nitropyrene, 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-alpha:3', 2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) and 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4, 5-f]quinoline (IQ); neither strain YG7130 nor strain TA98/1,8-DNP6 was resistant to the mutagenicity of 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4, 3-b]indole (Trp-P-2); strain YG7126 and strain TA100/1,8-DNP were refractory to the mutagenicity of 1,8-DNP. However, the order of the sensitivity against 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF) was TA98>YG7130>TA98/1, 8-DNP6 and TA100>YG7126>TA100/1,8-DNP. Since the strains YG7130 and YG7126 have chloramphenicol resistance (Cmr) gene in place of the chromosomal oat gene for gene disruption, the possible involvement of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) encoded by the Cmr gene in the activation of 2-NF was examined. Strikingly, introduction of plasmid pACYC184 carrying the Cmr gene alone substantially enhanced the sensitivity of the conventional oat-deficient strains to 2-NF. These results suggest that the new strains as well as the conventional strains are useful to assess the roles of OAT in the metabolic activation of nitroaromatics and aromatic amines in S. typhimurium, and also that CAT has the ability to activate N-hydroxy aromatic amines to mutagens. PMID:10023048

  11. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Cat-Scratch Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ( ... play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected Kitten playing with a ...

  12. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  13. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  14. N-Alpha-Acetyltransferases and Regulation of CFTR Expression.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Ali J; Karamyshev, Andrey L; Patrick, Anna E; Hudson, Henry; Thomas, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) lead to the misfolding, mistrafficking, and degradation of the mutant protein. Inhibition of degradation does not effectively increase the amount of trafficking competent CFTR, but typically leads to increased ER retention of misfolded forms. Thus, the initial off pathway steps occur early in the processing of the protein. To identify proteins that interact with these early forms of CFTR, in vitro crosslink experiments identified cotranslational partners of the nascent chain of the severe misfolded mutant, G85E CFTR. The mutant preferentially interacts with a subunit of an N-alpha-acetyltransferase A. Based on recent reports that acetylation of the N-termini of some N-end rule substrates control their ubiquitination and subsequent degradation, a potential role for this modification in regulation of CFTR expression was assessed. Knockdown experiments identified two complexes, which affect G85E CFTR proteins levels, NatA and NatB. Effects of the knockdowns on mRNA levels, translation rates, and degradation rates established that the two complexes regulate G85E CFTR through two separate mechanisms. NatA acts indirectly by regulating transcription levels and NatB acts through a previously identified, but incompletely understood posttranslational mechanism. This regulation did not effect trafficking of G85E CFTR, which remains retained in the ER, nor did it alter the degradation rate of CFTR. A mutation predicted to inhibit N-terminal acetylation of CFTR, Q2P, was without effect, suggesting neither system acts directly on CFTR. These results contradict the prediction that N-terminal acetylation of CFTR determines its fitness as a proteasome substrate, but rather NatB plays a role in the conformational maturation of CFTR in the ER through actions on an unidentified protein. PMID:27182737

  15. N-Alpha-Acetyltransferases and Regulation of CFTR Expression.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Ali J; Karamyshev, Andrey L; Patrick, Anna E; Hudson, Henry; Thomas, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) lead to the misfolding, mistrafficking, and degradation of the mutant protein. Inhibition of degradation does not effectively increase the amount of trafficking competent CFTR, but typically leads to increased ER retention of misfolded forms. Thus, the initial off pathway steps occur early in the processing of the protein. To identify proteins that interact with these early forms of CFTR, in vitro crosslink experiments identified cotranslational partners of the nascent chain of the severe misfolded mutant, G85E CFTR. The mutant preferentially interacts with a subunit of an N-alpha-acetyltransferase A. Based on recent reports that acetylation of the N-termini of some N-end rule substrates control their ubiquitination and subsequent degradation, a potential role for this modification in regulation of CFTR expression was assessed. Knockdown experiments identified two complexes, which affect G85E CFTR proteins levels, NatA and NatB. Effects of the knockdowns on mRNA levels, translation rates, and degradation rates established that the two complexes regulate G85E CFTR through two separate mechanisms. NatA acts indirectly by regulating transcription levels and NatB acts through a previously identified, but incompletely understood posttranslational mechanism. This regulation did not effect trafficking of G85E CFTR, which remains retained in the ER, nor did it alter the degradation rate of CFTR. A mutation predicted to inhibit N-terminal acetylation of CFTR, Q2P, was without effect, suggesting neither system acts directly on CFTR. These results contradict the prediction that N-terminal acetylation of CFTR determines its fitness as a proteasome substrate, but rather NatB plays a role in the conformational maturation of CFTR in the ER through actions on an unidentified protein.

  16. Human NAT10 Is an ATP-dependent RNA Acetyltransferase Responsible for N4-Acetylcytidine Formation in 18 S Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)*

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Satoshi; Horikawa, Sayuri; Suzuki, Tateki; Kawauchi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Takeo; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Human N-acetyltransferase 10 (NAT10) is known to be a lysine acetyltransferase that targets microtubules and histones and plays an important role in cell division. NAT10 is highly expressed in malignant tumors, and is also a promising target for therapies against laminopathies and premature aging. Here we report that NAT10 is an ATP-dependent RNA acetyltransferase responsible for formation of N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C) at position 1842 in the terminal helix of mammalian 18 S rRNA. RNAi-mediated knockdown of NAT10 resulted in growth retardation of human cells, and this was accompanied by high-level accumulation of the 30 S precursor of 18 S rRNA, suggesting that ac4C1842 formation catalyzed by NAT10 is involved in rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis. PMID:25411247

  17. Getting a CAT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  18. Gallbladder mucocoele and concurrent hepatic lipidosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S L; Milne, M; Slocombe, R F; Landon, B P

    2007-10-01

    A 3-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat was presented with weight loss, anorexia and icterus. Feline hepatic lipidosis and gallbladder mucocoele were diagnosed; this is the first report of gallbladder mucocoele in the cat. The case was managed successfully with cholecystojejunostomy, gastrostomy tube placement and tube feeding for 3 months. The cat has survived over the long term with minimal complications.

  19. A unique GCN5-related glucosamine N-acetyltransferase region exist in the fungal multi-domain glycoside hydrolase family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhen; Xiao, Yibei; Yang, Xinbin; Mesters, Jeroen R.; Yang, Shaoqing; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidases widely exist in the filamentous fungi, which may play a key role in chitin metabolism of fungi. A multi-domain GH family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Rhizomucor miehei (RmNag), exhibiting a potential N-acetyltransferase region, has been recently reported to show great potential in industrial applications. In this study, the crystal structure of RmNag was determined at 2.80 Å resolution. The three-dimensional structure of RmNag showed four distinctive domains, which belong to two distinguishable functional regions — a GH family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase region (N-terminal) and a N-acetyltransferase region (C-terminal). From structural and functional analysis, the C-terminal region of RmNag was identified as a unique tandem array linking general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT), which displayed glucosamine N-acetyltransferase activity. Structural analysis of this glucosamine N-acetyltransferase region revealed that a unique glucosamine binding pocket is located in the pantetheine arm binding terminal region of the conserved CoA binding pocket, which is different from all known GNAT members. This is the first structural report of a glucosamine N-acetyltransferase, which provides novel structural information about substrate specificity of GNATs. The structural and functional features of this multi-domain β-N-acetylglucosaminidase could be useful in studying the catalytic mechanism of GH family 3 proteins. PMID:26669854

  20. Visceral cat scratch disease with endocarditis in an immunocompetent adult: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shasha, David; Gilon, Dan; Vernea, Fiona; Moses, Allon E; Strahilevitz, Jacob

    2014-03-01

    Infective endocarditis and hepatosplenic abscesses are rare manifestations of cat scratch disease (CSD), especially among immunocompetent adults. An otherwise healthy woman who presented with fever and abdominal pain was diagnosed with multiple abscesses in the spleen and the liver, as well as a mitral valve vegetation. PCR on spleen tissue was positive for Bartonella henselae. Prolonged treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin led to complete recovery. Review of the literature revealed 18 cases of hepatosplenic CSD in immunocompetent adults; the majority presented with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain. In most cases the causative organism was B. henselae and the pathological findings were necrotizing granulomas, similar to the pathological features in classic CSD. Concomitant endocarditis was diagnosed in one case. Because Bartonella is one of the leading pathogens of culture-negative endocarditis, we raise the question of whether a comprehensive evaluation for endocarditis is needed in cases of systemic CSD.

  1. Pulmonary thromboembolism in cats.

    PubMed

    Schermerhorn, Thomas; Pembleton-Corbett, Julie R; Kornreich, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is rarely diagnosed in cats, and the clinical features of the disease are not well known. PTE was diagnosed at postmortem examination in 17 cats, a prevalence of 0.06% over a 24-year period. The age of affected cats ranged from 10 months to 18 years, although young (<4 years) and old (>10 years) cats were more commonly affected than were middle-aged cats. Males and females were equally affected. The majority of cats with PTE (n = 16) had concurrent disease, which was often severe. The most common diseases identified in association with PTE were neoplasia, anemia of unidentified cause, and pancreatitis. Cats with glomerulonephritis, encephalitis, pneumonia, heart disease, and hepatic lipidosis were also represented in this study. Most cats with PTE demonstrated dyspnea and respiratory distress before death or euthanasia, but PTE was not recognized ante mortem in any cat studied. In conclusion, PTE can affect cats of any age and is associated with a variety of systemic and inflammatory disorders. It is recommended that the same clinical criteria used to increase the suspicion of PTE in dogs should also be applied to cats. PMID:15320593

  2. Virtual Ligand Screening of the p300/CBP Histone Acetyltransferase: Identification of a Selective Small Molecule Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Erin M.; Yan, Gai; Mukherjee, Chandrani; Orry, Andrew; Wang, Ling; Holbert, Marc A.; Crump, Nicholas T.; Hazzalin, Catherine A.; Liszczak, Glen; Yuan, Hua; Larocca, Cecilia; Saldanha, S. Adrian; Abagyan, Ruben; Sun, Yan; Meyers, David J.; Marmorstein, Ronen; Mahadevan, Louis C.; Alani, Rhoda M.; Cole, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300/CBP is a transcriptional coactivator implicated in many gene regulatory pathways and protein acetylation events. While p300 inhibitors have been reported, a potent, selective, and readily available active-site directed small molecule inhibitor is not yet known. Here we use a structure-based, in silico screening approach to identify a commercially available pyrazolone-containing small molecule p300 HAT inhibitor, C646. C646 is a competitive p300 inhibitor with a Ki of 400 nM and is selective versus other acetyltransferases. Studies on site-directed p300 HAT mutants and synthetic modifications of C646 confirm the importance of predicted interactions in conferring potency. Inhibition of histone acetylation and cell growth by C646 in cells validate its utility as a pharmacologic probe and suggest that p300/CBP HAT is a worthy anti-cancer target. PMID:20534345

  3. Incomplete dominant osteochondrodysplasia in heterozygous Scottish Fold cats.

    PubMed

    Takanosu, M; Takanosu, T; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K

    2008-04-01

    This report describes an autosomal incomplete dominant pattern of inheritance for osteochondrodysplasia in the Scottish Fold cats. A three-generation pedigree was analysed. Cats with folded ears were mated with cats with normal ears. All cats with folded ears, which were presumably heterozygous for the mutated allele, developed osteochondrodysplasia in distal fore- and hindlimbs but not in other bones, including the tail in which bone deformity had been demonstrated in previous studies. The severity of the skeletal lesions of osteochondrodysplasia was different in each affected cat. Most of the cats with severe osteochondrodysplasia showed some clinical signs, but cats with mild disease were clinically unaffected. All Scottish Fold-related cats with folded-ear phenotype, even if heterozygotes, suffered from some degree of osteochondrodysplasia of the distal limbs. PMID:18339089

  4. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    PubMed

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed. PMID:19716738

  5. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    PubMed

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed.

  6. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease.

  7. Characterization of two metagenome-derived esterases that reactivate chloramphenicol by counteracting chloramphenicol acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weixin; Lee, Myung Hwan; Yoon, Mi-Young; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Malhotra, Shweta; Wu, Jing; Hwang, Eul Chul; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2011-12-01

    Function-driven metagenomic analysis is a powerful approach to screening for novel biocatalysts. In this study, we investigated lipolytic enzymes selected from an alluvial soil metagenomic library, and identified two novel esterases, EstDL26 and EstDL136. EstDL26 and EstDL136 reactivated chloramphenicol from its acetyl derivates by counteracting the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in Escherichia coli. These two enzymes showed only 27% identity in amino acid sequence to each other; however both preferentially hydrolyzed short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (< or =C5) and showed mesophilic properties. In vitro, EstDL136 catalyzed the deacetylation of 1- and 3- acetyl and 1,3-diacetyl derivates; in contrast, EstDL26 was not capable of the deacetylation at C1, indicating a potential regioselectivity. EstDL26 and EstDL136 were similar to microbial hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and since chloramphenicol acetate esterase (CAE) activity was detected from two other soil esterases in the HSL family, this suggests a distribution of CAE among the soil microorganisms. The isolation and characterization of EstDL26 and EstDL136 in this study may be helpful in understanding the diversity of CAE enzymes and their potential role in releasing active chloramphenicol in the producing bacteria. PMID:22210605

  8. Dual reporter transgene driven by 2.3Col1a1 promoter is active in differentiated osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marijanovic, Inga; Jiang, Xi; Kronenberg, Mark S.; Stover, Mary Louise; Erceg, Ivana; Lichtler, Alexander C.; Rowe, David W.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: As quantitative and spatial analyses of promoter reporter constructs are not easily performed in intact bone, we designed a reporter gene specific to bone, which could be analyzed both visually and quantitatively by using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and a cyan version of green fluorescent protein (GFPcyan), driven by a 2.3-kb fragment of the rat collagen promoter (Col2.3). METHODS: The construct Col2.3CATiresGFPcyan was used for generating transgenic mice. Quantitative measurement of promoter activity was performed by CAT analysis of different tissues derived from transgenic animals; localization was performed by visualized GFP in frozen bone sections. To assess transgene expression during in vitro differentiation, marrow stromal cell and neonatal calvarial osteoblast cultures were analyzed for CAT and GFP activity. RESULTS: In mice, CAT activity was detected in the calvaria, long bone, teeth, and tendon, whereas histology showed that GFP expression was limited to osteoblasts and osteocytes. In cell culture, increased activity of CAT correlated with increased differentiation, and GFP activity was restricted to mineralized nodules. CONCLUSION: The concept of a dual reporter allows a simultaneous visual and quantitative analysis of transgene activity in bone.

  9. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    PubMed

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats. PMID:17845619

  10. Intestinal obstruction by trichobezoars in five cats.

    PubMed

    Barrs, V R; Beatty, J A; Tisdall, P L; Hunt, G B; Gunew, M; Nicoll, R G; Malik, R

    1999-12-01

    Between 1997 and 1999, five domestic crossbred cats (four long haired, one short haired) presented with a palpable abdominal mass and were shown to have small intestinal trichobezoars at laparotomy or necropsy. Hair balls were associated with partial or complete intestinal obstruction and were situated in the proximal jejunum to distal ileum. In four cats obstructions were simple, while the remaining cat had a strangulating obstruction. Three of the cats were 10 years or older, and two were less than 4 years. In the three older cats abdominal neoplasia was suspected and investigations were delayed or declined in two of these cats because of a perceived poor prognosis. Predisposing factors identified in this series of cats included a long-hair coat, flea allergy dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease and ingestion of non-digestible plant material. This report shows that the ingestion of hair is not always innocuous and that intestinal trichobezoars should be considered in the differential diagnoses of intestinal obstruction and intra-abdominal mass lesions, particularly in long-haired cats.

  11. Cat or Dog Ownership and Seroprevalence of Ehrlichiosis, Q Fever, and Cat-Scratch Disease

    PubMed Central

    Skerget, Martina; Daxboeck, Florian; Krause, Robert; Haberl, Renate; Stuenzner, Doris

    2003-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about the role of domestic cats or dogs in the acquisition of zoonoses, in particular in pregnant women or immune-suppressed persons. We report that cat or dog ownership is not associated with an increased seroprevalence of antibodies to Anaplasma phagozytophilum, Coxiella burnetii, and Bartonella henselae in symptom-free persons in Styria, Austria. PMID:14609477

  12. Structure of a pathogen effector reveals the enzymatic mechanism of a novel acetyltransferase family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Ma, Ka-Wai; Yuan, Shuguang; Luo, Youfu; Jiang, Shushu; Hawara, Eva; Pan, Songqin; Ma, Wenbo; Song, Jikui

    2016-09-01

    Effectors secreted by the type III secretion system are essential for bacterial pathogenesis. Members of the Yersinia outer-protein J (YopJ) family of effectors found in diverse plant and animal pathogens depend on a protease-like catalytic triad to acetylate host proteins and produce virulence. However, the structural basis for this noncanonical acetyltransferase activity remains unknown. Here, we report the crystal structures of the YopJ effector HopZ1a, produced by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae, in complex with the eukaryote-specific cofactor inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and/or coenzyme A (CoA). Structural, computational and functional characterizations reveal a catalytic core with a fold resembling that of ubiquitin-like cysteine proteases and an acetyl-CoA-binding pocket formed after IP6-induced structural rearrangements. Modeling-guided mutagenesis further identified key IP6-interacting residues of Salmonella effector AvrA that are required for acetylating its substrate. Our study reveals the structural basis of a novel class of acetyltransferases and the conserved allosteric regulation of YopJ effectors by IP6. PMID:27525589

  13. Exchange of associated factors directs a switch in HBO1 acetyltransferase histone tail specificity

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Marie-Eve; Avvakumov, Nikita; Glass, Karen C.; Joncas, France-Hélène; Saksouk, Nehmé; Holliday, Michael; Paquet, Eric; Yan, Kezhi; Tong, Qiong; Klein, Brianna J.; Tan, Song; Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Kutateladze, Tatiana G.; Côté, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) assemble into multisubunit complexes in order to target distinct lysine residues on nucleosomal histones. Here, we characterize native HAT complexes assembled by the BRPF family of scaffold proteins. Their plant homeodomain (PHD)–Zn knuckle–PHD domain is essential for binding chromatin and is restricted to unmethylated H3K4, a specificity that is reversed by the associated ING subunit. Native BRPF1 complexes can contain either MOZ/MORF or HBO1 as catalytic acetyltransferase subunit. Interestingly, while the previously reported HBO1 complexes containing JADE scaffold proteins target histone H4, the HBO1–BRPF1 complex acetylates only H3 in chromatin. We mapped a small region to the N terminus of scaffold proteins responsible for histone tail selection on chromatin. Thus, alternate choice of subunits associated with HBO1 can switch its specificity between H4 and H3 tails. These results uncover a crucial new role for associated proteins within HAT complexes, previously thought to be intrinsic to the catalytic subunit. PMID:24065767

  14. Conserved Molecular Interactions within the HBO1 Acetyltransferase Complexes Regulate Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Avvakumov, Nikita; Lalonde, Marie-Eve; Saksouk, Nehmé; Paquet, Eric; Glass, Karen C.; Landry, Anne-Julie; Doyon, Yannick; Cayrou, Christelle; Robitaille, Geneviève A.; Richard, Darren E.; Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Kutateladze, Tatiana G.

    2012-01-01

    Acetyltransferase complexes of the MYST family with distinct substrate specificities and functions maintain a conserved association with different ING tumor suppressor proteins. ING complexes containing the HBO1 acetylase are a major source of histone H3 and H4 acetylation in vivo and play critical roles in gene regulation and DNA replication. Here, our molecular dissection of HBO1/ING complexes unravels the protein domains required for their assembly and function. Multiple PHD finger domains present in different subunits bind the histone H3 N-terminal tail with a distinct specificity toward lysine 4 methylation status. We show that natively regulated association of the ING4/5 PHD domain with HBO1-JADE determines the growth inhibitory function of the complex, linked to its tumor suppressor activity. Functional genomic analyses indicate that the p53 pathway is a main target of the complex, at least in part through direct transcription regulation at the initiation site of p21/CDKN1A. These results demonstrate the importance of ING association with MYST acetyltransferases in controlling cell proliferation, a regulated link that accounts for the reported tumor suppressor activities of these complexes. PMID:22144582

  15. Biophysical analysis of the putative acetyltransferase SACOL2570 from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hai-Bin; Knapik, Aleksandra A.; Petkowski, Janusz J.; Demas, Matthew; Shumilin, Igor A.; Zheng, Heping; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of a myriad of insidious and intractable infections in humans, especially in patients with compromised immune systems and children. Here, we report the apo- and CoA-bound crystal structures of a member of the galactoside acetyltransferase superfamily from methicillin-resistant S. aureus SACOL2570 which was recently shown to be down regulated in S. aureus grown in the presence of fusidic acid, an antibiotic used to treat MRSA infections. SACOL2570 forms a homotrimerin solution, as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering and dynamic light scattering. The protein subunit consists of an N-terminal alpha-helical domain connected to a C-terminal LβH domain. CoA binds in the active site formed by the residues from adjacent LβH domains. After determination of CoA-bound structure, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to model the binding of AcCoA. Binding of both AcCoA and CoA to SACOL2570 was verified by isothermal titration calorimetry. SACOL2570 most likely acts as an acetyltransferase, using AcCoA as an acetyl group donor and an as-yet-undetermined chemical moiety as an acceptor. SACOL2570 was recently used as a scaffold for mutations that lead the generation of cage-like assemblies, and has the potential to be used for the generation of more complex nanostructures. PMID:23963951

  16. FOXP3 interactions with histone acetyltransferase and class II histone deacetylases are required for repression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Samanta, Arabinda; Song, Xiaomin; Iacono, Kathryn T.; Bembas, Kathryn; Tao, Ran; Basu, Samik; Riley, James L.; Hancock, Wayne W.; Shen, Yuan; Saouaf, Sandra J.; Greene, Mark I.

    2007-01-01

    The forkhead family protein FOXP3 acts as a repressor of transcription and is both an essential and sufficient regulator of the development and function of regulatory T cells. The molecular mechanism by which FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression occurs remains unclear. Here, we report that transcriptional repression by FOXP3 involves a histone acetyltransferase–deacetylase complex that includes histone acetyltransferase TIP60 (Tat-interactive protein, 60 kDa) and class II histone deacetylases HDAC7 and HDAC9. The N-terminal 106–190 aa of FOXP3 are required for TIP60–FOXP3, HDAC7–FOXP3 association, as well as for the transcriptional repression of FOXP3 via its forkhead domain. FOXP3 can be acetylated in primary human regulatory T cells, and TIP60 promotes FOXP3 acetylation in vivo. Overexpression of TIP60 but not its histone acetyltransferase-deficient mutant promotes, whereas knockdown of endogenous TIP60 relieved, FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression. A minimum FOXP3 ensemble containing native TIP60 and HDAC7 is necessary for IL-2 production regulation in T cells. Moreover, FOXP3 association with HDAC9 is antagonized by T cell stimulation and can be restored by the protein deacetylation inhibitor trichostatin A, indicating a complex dynamic aspect of T suppressor cell regulation. These findings identify a previously uncharacterized complex-based mechanism by which FOXP3 actively mediates transcriptional repression. PMID:17360565

  17. Exchange of associated factors directs a switch in HBO1 acetyltransferase histone tail specificity.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Marie-Eve; Avvakumov, Nikita; Glass, Karen C; Joncas, France-Hélène; Saksouk, Nehmé; Holliday, Michael; Paquet, Eric; Yan, Kezhi; Tong, Qiong; Klein, Brianna J; Tan, Song; Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Kutateladze, Tatiana G; Côté, Jacques

    2013-09-15

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) assemble into multisubunit complexes in order to target distinct lysine residues on nucleosomal histones. Here, we characterize native HAT complexes assembled by the BRPF family of scaffold proteins. Their plant homeodomain (PHD)-Zn knuckle-PHD domain is essential for binding chromatin and is restricted to unmethylated H3K4, a specificity that is reversed by the associated ING subunit. Native BRPF1 complexes can contain either MOZ/MORF or HBO1 as catalytic acetyltransferase subunit. Interestingly, while the previously reported HBO1 complexes containing JADE scaffold proteins target histone H4, the HBO1-BRPF1 complex acetylates only H3 in chromatin. We mapped a small region to the N terminus of scaffold proteins responsible for histone tail selection on chromatin. Thus, alternate choice of subunits associated with HBO1 can switch its specificity between H4 and H3 tails. These results uncover a crucial new role for associated proteins within HAT complexes, previously thought to be intrinsic to the catalytic subunit.

  18. Chemoproteomic Profiling of Lysine Acetyltransferases Highlights an Expanded Landscape of Catalytic Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) play a critical role in the regulation of gene expression, metabolism, and other key cellular functions. One shortcoming of traditional KAT assays is their inability to study KAT activity in complex settings, a limitation that hinders efforts at KAT discovery, characterization, and inhibitor development. To address this challenge, here we describe a suite of cofactor-based affinity probes capable of profiling KAT activity in biological contexts. Conversion of KAT bisubstrate inhibitors to clickable photoaffinity probes enables the selective covalent labeling of three phylogenetically distinct families of KAT enzymes. Cofactor-based affinity probes report on KAT activity in cell lysates, where KATs exist as multiprotein complexes. Chemical affinity purification and unbiased LC–MS/MS profiling highlights an expanded landscape of orphan lysine acetyltransferases present in the human genome and provides insight into the global selectivity and sensitivity of CoA-based proteomic probes that will guide future applications. Chemoproteomic profiling provides a powerful method to study the molecular interactions of KATs in native contexts and will aid investigations into the role of KATs in cell state and disease. PMID:24836640

  19. Cat-scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Stephen A; Ianas, Voichita; Elliott, Sean P

    2011-01-15

    Cat-scratch disease is a common infection that usually presents as tender lymphadenopathy. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and any lymphadenopathy syndrome. Asymptomatic, bacteremic cats with Bartonella henselae in their saliva serve as vectors by biting and clawing the skin. Cat fleas are responsible for horizontal transmission of the disease from cat to cat, and on occasion, arthropod vectors (fleas or ticks) may transmit the disease to humans. Cat-scratch disease is commonly diagnosed in children, but adults can present with it as well. The causative microorganism, B. henselae, is difficult to culture. Diagnosis is most often arrived at by obtaining a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titers (greater than 1:256) of immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, azithromycin has been shown in one small study to speed recovery. Infrequently, cat-scratch disease may present in a more disseminated form with hepatosplenomegaly or meningoencephalitis, or with bacillary angiomatosis in patients with AIDS.

  20. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  1. Molecular basis for the CAT-2 null phenotype in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Bethards, L.A.; Scandalios, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have described several maize lines whose developmental patterns of catalase gene expression vary from the typical maize line, W64A. Among these variants are the lines A16 and A338, both found to be null for the CAT-2 protein. Identification of a third CAT-2 null line, designated A340, is described. RNA blots and S1 nuclease protection analysis, using (/sup 32/P)-labeled dCTP, indicate that all three CAT-2 null lines produce a similarly shortened Cat2 transcript. The molecular basis for this aberrant Cat2 transcript is discussed.

  2. Maintaining Item and Test Security in a CAT Environment: A Simulation Study. Laboratory of Psychometric and Evaluative Research Report No. 309.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsula, Liane N.; Steffen, Mandred

    One challenge associated with computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is the maintenance of test and item security while allowing for daily testing. An alternative to continually creating new pools containing an independent set of items would be to consider each CAT pool as a sample of items from a larger collection (referred to as a VAT) rather than…

  3. Cat-scratch disease simulating lyphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, T.Z.; Kruskal, J.; Kane, R.A.; Trey, G.

    1996-01-01

    Cat-scratch disease is the most common cause of benign lymphadenopathy in children and young adults. Rare cases of systemic involvement with deep adenopathy with or without hepatic and/or splenic involvement have been reported. We present an unusual case of cat-scratch disease with imaging findings indistinguishable from lymphoma. Cat-scratch disease should be considered as a possible benign etiology for adenopathy with hepatic or splenic nodules in a young patient, especially if the involved nodes are tender. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  4. You See the Cat Walking...A Report on the Findings of the Michigan Project on Equal Education Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giese, Elizabeth H.

    Based on reports generated by the Michigan office of the Project on Equal Education Rights (PEER), this report documents how schools in Michigan perpetuate sex bias/discrimination, and describes what is being done to encourage sex equity. The report also examines the extent of school compliance with Title IX (Education Amendments of 1972), which…

  5. Hyperadrenocorticism in a cat.

    PubMed

    Zerbe, C A; Nachreiner, R F; Dunstan, R W; Dalley, J B

    1987-03-01

    A diabetic cat with hyperadrenocorticism had polydipsia, polyuria, ventral abdominal alopecia, thin dry skin, and a pendulous abdomen. Results of laboratory testing indicated persistent resting hypercortisolemia, hyperresponsiveness of the adrenal glands (increased cortisol concentration) to ACTH gel, and no suppression of cortisol concentrations after administration of dexamethasone at 0.01 or 1.0 mg/kg of body weight. Necropsy revealed a pituitary gland tumor, bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, hepatic neoplasia, and demodicosis. Adrenal gland function was concurrently assessed in 2 cats with diabetes mellitus. One cat had resting hypercortisolemia, and both had hyperresponsiveness to ACTH gel (increased cortisol concentration) at one hour. After administration of dexamethasone (0.01 and 1.0 mg/kg), the diabetic cats appeared to have normal suppression of cortisol concentrations. The effects of mitotane were investigated in 4 clinically normal cats. Adrenocortical suppression of cortisol production occurred in 2 of 4 cats after dosages of 25, 37, and 50 mg/kg. Three cats remained clinically normal throughout the study. One cat experienced vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia.

  6. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  7. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  8. Diseases Transmitted by Cats.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Abrahamian, Fredrick M

    2015-10-01

    Humans and cats have shared a close relationship since ancient times. Millions of cats are kept as household pets, and 34% of households have cats. There are numerous diseases that may be transmitted from cats to humans. General modes of transmission, with some overlapping features, can occur through inhalation (e.g., bordetellosis); vector-borne spread (e.g., ehrlichiosis); fecal-oral route (e.g., campylobacteriosis); bite, scratch, or puncture (e.g., rabies); soil-borne spread (e.g., histoplasmosis); and direct contact (e.g., scabies). It is also likely that the domestic cat can potentially act as a reservoir for many other zoonoses that are not yet recognized. The microbiology of cat bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial with a broad mixture of aerobic (e.g., Pasteurella, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and anaerobic (e.g., Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Bacteroides) microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected cat bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the cat, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. PMID:26542039

  9. Hairless cats in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Hendy-Ibbs, P M

    1984-01-01

    Ten hairless kittens are known to have been born in Britain since 1978. Pedigree study supports the hypothesis of a monogenic, recessive mode of inheritance proposed in previous reports. A review of the literature suggests the possibility of at least two mutations giving rise to hairless cats, one of which has normal whiskers and the other attenuated whiskers. For these, the gene symbols hi, and hr, respectively, have been proposed.

  10. State of cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren; Driscoll, Carlos; Pontius, Joan; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    Our knowledge of cat family biology was recently expanded to include a genomics perspective with the completion of a draft whole genome sequence of an Abyssinian cat. The utility of the new genome information has been demonstrated by applications ranging from disease gene discovery and comparative genomics to species conservation. Patterns of genomic organization among cats and inbred domestic cat breeds have illuminated our view of domestication, revealing linkage disequilibrium tracks consequent of breed formation, defining chromosome exchanges that punctuated major lineages of mammals and suggesting ancestral continental migration events that led to 37 modern species of Felidae. We review these recent advances here. As the genome resources develop, the cat is poised to make a major contribution to many areas in genetics and biology.

  11. [Salter-harris fractures in dogs and cats considering problems in radiological reports--a retrospective analysis of 245 cases between 1997 and 2012].

    PubMed

    Engel, Eva; Kneiss, Sibylle

    2014-01-01

    To identify typical trauma patterns or frequent radiological pitfalls that could help a radiologists in their daily routine, a retrospective study of Salter-Harris fractures in dogs and cats was performed. Radiographs obtained in the period 1991-2012 of 288 fractures in 245 patients with suspected injuries affecting growth plates in the appendicular skeleton were retrieved from the imaging archive. The femur was the bone most frequently affected (46.5%), followed by the humerus (19.8%), tibia (13.5%) and radius (11.8%). The distal growth plate was in all bones more often involved than the proximal growth plate (79.5% vs. 20.5%). The frequency of Salter-Harris fractures was 39.9% type I, 37.8% type II, 3.1% type III and 19.1% type IV. In dogs the most common physeal fracture was a type IV fracture of the of the distal femur. Radiographically, physeal fractures were recognized by at least two Roentgen signs, including change in opacity, displacement of the epiphysis or the Thurston-Holland sign. On the basis of the review, the original radiographic reports of 44/288 fractures were considered erroneous regarding the incorrect Salter Harris grouping. In 5/44 instances, the radiological examination had technical deficiencies that may have contributed to the errors, including 3 with oblique projections. Minimal variations in the projection was evident in the majority of reviewed cases. Measures to help optimize radiographic reports will be discussed.

  12. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity.

  13. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. PMID:24509255

  14. [Tritrichomonas fetus: a new intestinal parasite in Swiss cats].

    PubMed

    Burgener, I; Frey, C; Kook, P; Gottstein, B

    2009-08-01

    Recent reports identified Tritrichomonas fetus, the causative agent of bovine trichomonosis, in cats with large-bowel diarrhea in the US. Between July 2007 and August 2008, a total of 105 Swiss cats were tested for T. fetus with the InPouchTM culture system and/or PCR, whereof 27 (26%) yielded positive results. All positive cats were pedigree cats, whereof 22 (81%) were less than 1 year of age (median 5 months). 25 (93%) of these cats lived in multi-cat households, and all but one were kept indoor. The clinical picture was dominated by large bowel diarrhea with increased frequency of defecation and fresh blood and mucus. Furthermore, inflamed anus and fecal incontinence was common. 52% of the T. fetus-positive cats were tested positive for Giardia before, but the treatment with fenbendazole or metronidazole only temporarily alleviated the clinical signs. The treatment with 30 mg/kg of ronidazole q12h p.o. was successful in all but 1 cat with only minor transient adverse effects in 3 cats. In conclusion, T. fetus has to be considered an important causative agent of large bowel diarrhea in cats in Switzerland, especially in young indoor pedigree cats. PMID:19653162

  15. [Diarrhea in cats].

    PubMed

    Rutgers, H C

    1992-11-15

    Diarrhoea is regarded as the characteristic symptom of intestinal disturbances. However, cats with intestinal disturbances can also show other symptoms such as vomiting, increased or decreased appetite and loss of weight. Cats with diarrhoea are usually only referred to the clinic if they have a chronic problem. Acute diarrhoea reacts well to symptomatic treatment, but chronic diarrhoea requires a specific diagnosis for a directed therapy and prognosis. It is essential to examine faeces and blood when evaluating a cat with diarrhoea. In contrast to the situation for dogs, there are no good specific digestion and absorption tests available for cats to evaluate pancreatic and intestinal function. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency rarely occurs in cats. A preliminary diagnosis of small intestine disorders can be made on the basis of the faeces staining positive for fat, an oral fat absorption test and the response to therapy. The definitive diagnosis must usually await the results of histological examination of intestinal biopsy samples. Cats with acute diarrhoea often recover spontaneously, and symptomatic treatment is only necessary for severe cases. A specific diagnosis is needed for cats with chronic diarrhoea, to enable directed treatment. Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of chronic enteritis because of their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions. Antibiotics are only indicated for specific bacterial infections (such as Salmonella and Campylobacter), bloody diarrhoea, or rampant bacterial growth. Specially formulated diets play a major role in the treatment of both acute and chronic diarrhoea.

  16. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in two cats.

    PubMed

    Harvey, A M; Battersby, I A; Faena, M; Fews, D; Darke, P G G; Ferasin, L

    2005-03-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a disease characterised by infiltration of the myocardium by adipose and fibrous tissue. The disease is an important cause of sudden death in humans, but has rarely been described in animals. This report describes ARVC in two cats with right-sided congestive heart failure. One cat had also experienced previous episodes of syncope. Standard six-lead and 24-hour (Holter) electrocardiogram recording revealed complete atrioventricular block and multiform ventricular ectopics in both cats, with the addition of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bigeminy and R-on-T phenomenon in one of them. On echocardiography, the right ventricle and atrium were massively dilated and hypokinetic. The survival times of the cats were three days and 16 days following diagnosis. Histopathology in one case revealed fibro-fatty infiltration of the myocardium, predominantly affecting the right ventricular free wall. PMID:15789811

  17. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a hypothetical acetyltransferase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Biarrotte-Sorin, Sabrina; Mayer, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    The GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily has a primordial role in cellular processes such as transcription initiation and regulation by histone acetylation, aminoglycoside resistance and melatonin metabolism. To date, no acetyltransferase from the archaeal domain of life has been studied. This paper describes the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of a Pyrococcus furiosus hypothetical acetyltransferase PfGNAT (MW = 22 007 Da). The crystals belong to space group P622, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 82.6, c = 105.92 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Crystals diffract X-rays to 3.0 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source. Determination of this structure will provide new insights into the substrate-specificity of this acetyltransferase and the thermal stability of the N-acetyltransferase domain. PMID:16511014

  18. Regulatory region in choline acetyltransferase gene directs developmental and tissue-specific expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lönnerberg, P; Lendahl, U; Funakoshi, H; Arhlund-Richter, L; Persson, H; Ibáñez, C F

    1995-01-01

    Acetylcholine, one of the main neurotransmitters in the nervous system, is synthesized by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; acetyl-CoA:choline O-acetyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.6). The molecular mechanisms controlling the establishment, maintenance, and plasticity of the cholinergic phenotype in vivo are largely unknown. A previous report showed that a 3800-bp, but not a 1450-bp, 5' flanking segment from the rat ChAT gene promoter directed cell type-specific expression of a reporter gene in cholinergic cells in vitro. Now we have characterized a distal regulatory region of the ChAT gene that confers cholinergic specificity on a heterologous downstream promoter in a cholinergic cell line and in transgenic mice. A 2342-bp segment from the 5' flanking region of the ChAT gene behaved as an enhancer in cholinergic cells but as a repressor in noncholinergic cells in an orientation-independent manner. Combined with a heterologous basal promoter, this fragment targeted transgene expression to several cholinergic regions of the central nervous system of transgenic mice, including basal forebrain, cortex, pons, and spinal cord. In eight independent transgenic lines, the pattern of transgene expression paralleled qualitatively and quantitatively that displayed by endogenous ChAT mRNA in various regions of the rat central nervous system. In the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord, 85-90% of the transgene expression was targeted to the ventral part of the cord, where cholinergic alpha-motor neurons are located. Transgene expression in the spinal cord was developmentally regulated and responded to nerve injury in a similar way as the endogenous ChAT gene, indicating that the 2342-bp regulatory sequence contains elements controlling the plasticity of the cholinergic phenotype in developing and injured neurons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7732028

  19. Introduction of UAG, UAA, and UGA nonsense mutations at a specific site in the Escherichia coli chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene: use in measurement of amber, ochre, and opal suppression in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Capone, J P; Sedivy, J M; Sharp, P A; RajBhandary, U L

    1986-01-01

    We have used oligonucleotide-directed site-specific mutagenesis to convert serine codon 27 of the Escherichia coli chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene to UAG, UAA, and UGA nonsense codons. The mutant cat genes, under transcriptional control of the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat, were then introduced into mammalian cells by DNA transfection along with UAG, UAA, and UGA suppressor tRNA genes derived from a human serine tRNA. Assay for CAT enzymatic activity in extracts from such cells allowed us to detect and quantitate nonsense suppression in monkey CV-1 cells and mouse NIH3T3 cells. Using such an assay, we provide the first direct evidence that an opal suppressor tRNA gene is functional in mammalian cells. The pattern of suppression of the three cat nonsense mutations in bacteria suggests that the serine at position 27 of CAT can be replaced by a wide variety of amino acids without loss of enzymatic activity. Thus, these mutant cat genes should be generally useful for the quantitation of suppressor activity of suppressor tRNA genes introduced into cells and possibly for the detection of naturally occurring nonsense suppressors. Images PMID:3023959

  20. A Bacterial Acetyltransferase Destroys Plant Microtubule Networks and Blocks Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Amy Huei-Yi; Hurley, Brenden; Felsensteiner, Corinna; Yea, Carmen; Ckurshumova, Wenzislava; Bartetzko, Verena; Wang, Pauline W.; Quach, Van; Lewis, Jennifer D.; Liu, Yulu C.; Börnke, Frederik; Angers, Stephane; Wilde, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is essential for structural support and intracellular transport, and is therefore a common target of animal pathogens. However, no phytopathogenic effector has yet been demonstrated to specifically target the plant cytoskeleton. Here we show that the Pseudomonas syringae type III secreted effector HopZ1a interacts with tubulin and polymerized microtubules. We demonstrate that HopZ1a is an acetyltransferase activated by the eukaryotic co-factor phytic acid. Activated HopZ1a acetylates itself and tubulin. The conserved autoacetylation site of the YopJ / HopZ superfamily, K289, plays a critical role in both the avirulence and virulence function of HopZ1a. Furthermore, HopZ1a requires its acetyltransferase activity to cause a dramatic decrease in Arabidopsis thaliana microtubule networks, disrupt the plant secretory pathway and suppress cell wall-mediated defense. Together, this study supports the hypothesis that HopZ1a promotes virulence through cytoskeletal and secretory disruption. PMID:22319451

  1. Enzyme kinetics and inhibition of histone acetyltransferase KAT8

    PubMed Central

    Wapenaar, Hannah; van der Wouden, Petra E.; Groves, Matthew R.; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Dekker, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8) is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) responsible for acetylating lysine 16 on histone H4 (H4K16) and plays a role in cell cycle progression as well as acetylation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Further studies on its biological function and drug discovery initiatives will benefit from the development of small molecule inhibitors for this enzyme. As a first step towards this aim we investigated the enzyme kinetics of this bi-substrate enzyme. The kinetic experiments indicate a ping-pong mechanism in which the enzyme binds Ac-CoA first, followed by binding of the histone substrate. This mechanism is supported by affinity measurements of both substrates using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Using this information, the KAT8 inhibition of a focused compound collection around the non-selective HAT inhibitor anacardic acid has been investigated. Kinetic studies with anacardic acid were performed, based on which a model for the catalytic activity of KAT8 and the inhibitory action of AA was proposed. This enabled the calculation of the inhibition constant Ki of anacardic acid derivatives using an adaptation of the Cheng-Prusoff equation. The results described in this study give insight into the catalytic mechanism of KAT8 and present the first well-characterized small-molecule inhibitors for this HAT. PMID:26505788

  2. Molecular mechanism underlying promiscuous polyamine recognition by spermidine acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Sae; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Niiyama, Mayumi; Hirose, Mika; Miyazaki, Yuma; Higashi, Kyohei; Murata, Michio; Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Spermidine acetyltransferase (SAT) from Escherichia coli, which catalyses the transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to spermidine, is a key enzyme in controlling polyamine levels in prokaryotic cells. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of SAT in complex with spermidine (SPD) and CoA at 2.5Å resolution. SAT is a dodecamer organized as a hexamer of dimers. The secondary structural element and folding topology of the SAT dimer resemble those of spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT), suggesting an evolutionary link between SAT and SSAT. However, the polyamine specificity of SAT is distinct from that of SSAT and is promiscuous. The SPD molecule is also located at the inter-dimer interface. The distance between SPD and CoA molecules is 13Å. A deep, highly acidic, water-filled cavity encompasses the SPD and CoA binding sites. Structure-based mutagenesis and in-vitro assays identified SPD-bound residues, and the acidic residues lining the walls of the cavity are mostly essential for enzymatic activities. Based on mutagenesis and structural data, we propose an acetylation mechanism underlying promiscuous polyamine recognition for SAT. PMID:27163532

  3. Acute myopericarditis associated with cat scratch disease in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Barson, William J; Honegger, J Robert; Texter, Karen

    2014-09-01

    Cat scratch disease is generally characterized by a self-limited chronic regional lymphadenopathy, but numerous other clinical manifestations involving a variety of organ systems have been reported. Cardiac involvement is unusual and when reported, it has been associated with culture-negative endocarditis in adults. We present the case of an adolescent male with typical cat scratch disease and associated myopericarditis.

  4. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  5. Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections in stray cats from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Alexandra D; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Kass, Philip H; Chomel, Bruno B

    2013-12-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies.

  6. Cat-scratch disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sometimes, an infected lymph node may form a tunnel ( fistula ) through the skin and drain (leak fluid). ... disease: Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after playing with your cat. Especially wash any ...

  7. Regulatory regions that control expression of two chloramphenicol-inducible cat genes cloned in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Duvall, E J; Williams, D M; Mongkolsuk, S; Lovett, P S

    1984-01-01

    Plasmid pPL603 is a promoter cloning vector for Bacillus subtilis and consists of a 1.1-kilobase fragment of Bacillus pumilus DNA inserted between the EcoRI and BamHI sites of pUB110. The gene cat-86, specifying chloramphenicol-inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, is located on the 1.1-kilobase cloned DNA. When pPL603 is present in B. subtilis, cat-86 is unexpressed during vegetative growth but expressed during sporulation. The regulation of cat-86 in pPL603 is due to sequences within two restriction fragments, designated P1 and R1, that precede the main coding portion of the gene. The P1 fragment promotes transcription of cat-86 only during sporulation, whereas the adjacent R1 fragment lacks promoter function but contains sequences essential to chloramphenicol inducibility. A second B. pumilus gene, cat-66, was cloned in B. subtilis and is expressed throughout the vegetative growth and sporulation cycle. The cat-66 coding region is preceded by two adjacent restriction fragments designated as P2 and R2. P1 and P2 are identical in size and share 95% conservation of base sequence. R1 and R2 are also identical in size and share 91% conservation of base sequence. Fragment substitution experiments demonstrate that R2 can functionally replace R1. The substitution of P2 for P1 promotes cat-86 expression throughout vegetative growth and sporulation. Analysis of a derivative of pPL603 in which P2 has replaced P1 demonstrates that P2 promotes transcription of cat-86 during vegetative growth and that P2 contains the start site for transcription of cat-86. Thus, P1 and P2 differ strikingly in vegetative promoter function, yet they differ by single-base substitutions at only 11 positions of 203. Images PMID:6327638

  8. Intestinal obstruction caused by Taenia taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Rebbecca S; Bowman, Dwight D; Barr, Stephen C; Euclid, James M

    2009-01-01

    An adult domestic shorthair (DSH) cat was presented with acute vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and dyspnea. The cat's clinical status worsened over 24 hours with conservative medical management. An exploratory celiotomy was performed. Acute intestinal obstruction resulting from infection with Taenia (T.) taeniaeformis was diagnosed. Surgical removal of the cestodes via multiple enterotomies resolved the obstruction. This paper reports, for the first time, small intestinal obstruction caused by T. taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

  9. "Cat scratch colon" in a patient with ischemic colitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Eui Bae; Jeon, Seong Ran; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2015-03-01

    "Cat scratch colon" is a gross finding characterized by hemorrhagic mucosal scratches on colonoscopy. It is usually associated with a normal colon and is rarely associated with collagenous colitis. In a previous report, cat scratch colon was noted in the cecum and ascending colon, but has also been observed in the distal transverse colon. The patient in this study was also diagnosed with ischemic colitis that may have played a role in the development of cat scratch colon.

  10. Dog and cat bites.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  11. Structural and Functional Role of Acetyltransferase hMOF K274 Autoacetylation.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Cheryl E; Song, Shufei; Shin, Michael H; Johnson, F Brad; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2016-08-26

    Many histone acetyltransferases undergo autoacetylation, either through chemical or enzymatic means, to potentiate enzymatic cognate substrate lysine acetylation, although the mode and molecular role of such autoacetylation is poorly understood. The MYST family of histone acetyltransferases is autoacetylated at an active site lysine residue to facilitate cognate substrate lysine binding and acetylation. Here, we report on a detailed molecular investigation of Lys-274 autoacetylation of the human MYST protein Males Absent on the First (hMOF). A mutational scan of hMOF Lys-274 reveals that all amino acid substitutions of this residue are able to bind cofactor but are significantly destabilized, both in vitro and in cells, and are catalytically inactive for cognate histone H4 peptide lysine acetylation. The x-ray crystal structure of a hMOF K274P mutant suggests that the reduced stability and catalytic activity stems from a disordering of the residue 274-harboring a α2-β7 loop. We also provide structural evidence that a C316S/E350Q mutant, which is defective for cognate substrate lysine acetylation; and biochemical evidence that a K268M mutant, which is defective for Lys-274 chemical acetylation in the context of a K274-peptide, can still undergo quantitative K274 autoacetylation. Together, these studies point to the critical and specific role of hMOF Lys-274 autoacetylation in hMOF stability and cognate substrate acetylation and argues that binding of Ac-CoA to hMOF likely drives Lys-274 autoacetylation for subsequent cognate substrate acetylation. PMID:27382063

  12. Function and subcellular localization of Gcn5, a histone acetyltransferase in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Peng; Fan, Xueyi; Chen, Jiangye

    2015-08-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen commonly found in humans. It has the ability to switch reversibly between three growth forms: budding yeast, pseudohypha, and hypha. The transition between yeast and hyphal growth forms is critical for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. During the yeast-to-hypha morphologic transition, gene expression is regulated by transcriptional regulators including histone modifying complexes and chromatin remodeling complexes. We previously reported that Esa1, a catalytic subunit in the histone acetyltransferase complex NuA4, is essential for the hyphal development of C. albicans. In this study, we analyzed the functional roles of Gcn5, a catalytic subunit in the histone acetyltransferase complex SAGA, in C. albicans. Gcn5 is required for the invasive and filamentous growth of C. albicans. Deletion of GCN5 impaired hyphal elongation in sensing serum and attenuated the virulence of C. albicans in a mouse systemic infection model. The C. albicans gcn5/gcn5 mutant cells also exhibited sensitivity to cell wall stress. Functional analysis showed that the HAT domain and Bromodomain in Gcn5 play distinct roles in morphogenesis and cell wall stress response of C. albicans. Our results show that the conserved residue Glu188 is crucial for the Gcn5 HAT activity and for Gcn5 function during filamentous growth. In addition, the subcellular distribution of ectopically expressed GFP-Gcn5 correlates with the different growth states of C. albicans. In stationary phase, Gcn5 accumulated in the nucleus, while during vegetative growth it localized in the cytoplasm in a morpha-independent manner. Our results suggest that the nuclear localization of Gcn5 depends on the existence of its N-terminal NLS and HAT domains.

  13. Infection by bacterial pathogens expressing type III secretion decreases luciferase activity: ramifications for reporter gene studies.

    PubMed

    Savkovic, S D; Koutsouris, A; Wu, G; Hecht, G

    2000-09-01

    Pathogenic microbes influence gene regulation in eukaryotic hosts. Reporter gene studies can define the roles of promoter regulatory sequences. The effect of pathogenic bacteria on reporter genes has not been examined. The aim of this study was to identify which reporter genes are reliable in studies concerning host gene regulation by bacterial pathogens expressing type III secretory systems. Human intestinal epithelial cells, T84, Caco-2 and HT-29, were transfected with plasmids containing luciferase (luc), chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) or beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) as reporter genes driven by the inducible interleukin-8 (IL-8) or constitutively active simian virus 40 (SV40) promoter. Cells were infected with enteropathogenic E. coli or Salmonella typhimurium, and the reporter activity was assessed. Luc activity significantly decreased following infection, regardless of the promoter. The activity of recombinant luc was nearly ablated by incubation with either EPEC or Salmonella in a cell-free system. Activity was partially preserved by protease inhibitors, and immunoblot analysis showed a decreased amount and molecular weight of recombinant luc, suggesting protein degradation. Neither beta-gal nor CAT activity was altered by infection. Disruption of type III secretion prevented the loss of luc activity. We conclude that CAT or beta-gal, but not luc, can be used as reliable reporter genes to assess the impact of pathogenic microbes, especially those expressing type III secretion on host cell gene regulation.

  14. Final Report: X-ray Studies of Materials Dynamics at MHATT-CAT Sector 7 , Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Clarke

    2006-04-25

    This Final Report describes the scientific accomplishments that have been achieved with support from grant DE-FG02-03ER46023 during the period 12/01/02 ? 11/30/05. The funding supported a vigorous scientific program allowing the PI to achieve leadership in a number of important areas. In particular, research carried out during this period has opened way to ultrafast dynamics studies of materials by combining the capabilities of synchrotron radiation with those of ultrafast lasers. This enables the initiation of laser-induced excitations and studies of their subsequent dynamics using laser-pump/x-ray probe techniques. Examples of such excitations include phonons, shock waves, excitons, spin-waves, and polaritons. The breadth of phenomena that can now be studied in the time-domain is very broad, revealing new phenomena and mechanisms that are critical to many applications of materials.

  15. CAT5, a new gene necessary for derepression of gluconeogenic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Proft, M; Kötter, P; Hedges, D; Bojunga, N; Entian, K D

    1995-01-01

    PCK1 encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is transcriptionally regulated by two upstream activating elements. By screening for mutants that failed to derepress a UAS2PCK1-CYC1-lacZ reporter gene we isolated the new recessive derepression mutation cat5. The CAT5 gene encodes a protein of 272 amino acids showing a 42% identity to the ZC395.2 gene product of Caenorhabditis elegans whose function is unknown. Deletion of CAT5 caused a complete loss of glucose derepression affecting gluconeogenic key enzymes. Respiration, but not mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity, was also affected. CAT5 expression is 5- to 6-fold repressed by glucose, and CAT5 transcriptional activation was dependent on CAT1 (SNF1), CAT8 and CAT5 itself. The CAT5 gene is necessary for UAS1PCK1 and UAS2PCK1 protein binding since a carbon source-specific interaction was no longer detectable in cat5 mutants. Glucose derepression of gluconeogenesis depends on the active Cat1 (Snf1) protein kinase and the Cat8 zinc cluster activator. Mig1p-independent overexpression of CAT8 did not stimulate activation of gluconeogenic promoters in cat1 and in cat5 mutants. Since Cat8p multicopy expression suppresses the ethanol growth deficiency in cat1 (snf1) mutants, these results indicate that activation of Cat8p by the Cat1p (Snf1p) kinase and the Cat5p protein might be necessary for release from glucose repression. Images PMID:8557031

  16. Atomic resolution structure of human α-tubulin acetyltransferase bound to acetyl-CoA

    PubMed Central

    Taschner, Michael; Vetter, Melanie; Lorentzen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    Acetylation of lysine residues is an important posttranslational modification found in all domains of life. α-tubulin is specifically acetylated on lysine 40, a modification that serves to stabilize microtubules of axons and cilia. Whereas histone acetyltransferases have been extensively studied, there is no structural and mechanistic information available on α-tubulin acetyltransferases. Here, we present the structure of the human α-tubulin acetyltransferase catalytic domain bound to its cosubstrate acetyl-CoA at 1.05 Å resolution. Compared with other lysine acetyltransferases of known structure, α-tubulin acetyltransferase displays a relatively well-conserved cosubstrate binding pocket but is unique in its active site and putative α-tubulin binding site. Using acetylation assays with structure-guided mutants, we map residues important for acetyl-CoA binding, substrate binding, and catalysis. This analysis reveals a basic patch implicated in substrate binding and a conserved glutamine residue required for catalysis, demonstrating that the family of α-tubulin acetyltransferases uses a reaction mechanism different from other lysine acetyltransferases characterized to date. PMID:23071318

  17. [Report from the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT). Pitfalls on the way from concept to medical treatment with advanced therapy medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Reiss, M; Büttel, I C; Schneider, C K

    2011-07-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are highly innovative and complex medicines. They comprise gene therapy medicinal products, somatic cell therapy medicinal products, and tissue-engineered products (TEP). With the European Regulation on ATMP that came into force in 2008, a consolidated regulatory framework was created, where the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) plays a central role. This article discusses pitfalls and challenges that the CAT has experienced in its discussions of various procedures. Often ATMPs are developed by small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) which also face nonscientific challenges. The CAT wishes to meet these challenges on a scientific and regulatory level during its 2010-2015 work program.

  18. The MOZ Histone Acetyltransferase in Epigenetic Signaling and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Samuel; Glass, Karen C.

    2016-01-01

    The monocytic leukemic zinc finger (MOZ) histone acetyltransferase (HAT) plays a role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It functions as a quaternary complex with the bromodomain PHD finger protein 1 (BRPF1), the human Esa1-associated factor 6 homolog (hEAF6), and the inhibitor of growth 5 (ING5). Each of these subunits contain chromatin reader domains that recognize specific post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histone tails, and this recognition directs the MOZ HAT complex to specific chromatin substrates. The structure and function of these epigenetic reader modules has now been elucidated, and a model describing how the cooperative activity of these domains regulates HAT activity in response to the epigenetic landscape is proposed. The emerging role of epigenetic reader domains in disease, and their therapeutic potential for many types of cancer is also highlighted. PMID:24633655

  19. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems. PMID:15998496

  20. Pancreatitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, P Jane; Williams, David A

    2012-08-01

    Pancreatitis was considered a rare disease in the cat until a couple of decades ago when several retrospective studies of severe acute pancreatitis were published. It was apparent that few of the diagnostic tests of value in the dog were helpful in cats. With increasing clinical suspicion, availability of abdominal ultrasonography, and introduction of pancreas-specific blood tests of increasing utility, it is now accepted that acute pancreatitis is probably almost as common in cats as it is in dogs, although the etiology(s) remain more obscure. Pancreatitis in cats often co-exists with inflammatory bowel disease, less commonly with cholangitis, and sometimes with both. Additionally, pancreatitis may trigger hepatic lipidosis, while other diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, may be complicated by pancreatitis. Therapy is similar to that used in dogs, with added emphasis on early nutritional support to prevent hepatic lipidosis. Less is known about chronic pancreatitis than the acute form, but chronic pancreatitis is more common in cats than it is in dogs and may respond positively to treatment with corticosteroids.

  1. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  2. Microchip-associated fibrosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Carminato, Antonio; Vascellari, Marta; Marchioro, Wendy; Melchiotti, Erica; Mutinelli, Franco

    2011-12-01

    A 9-year-old, neutered male cat was presented for a subcutaneous mass on the neck. After surgical removal of the mass, a pet identification microchip was found within the tumour. Histological examination of the mass revealed typical features of the feline postinjection sarcoma. The cat had never received injections at the tumour site; all routine vaccinations were administered in the hindlimbs. Few cases of sarcomas developing at the site of microchip application have been reported in animals, although the contributory role of vaccine administrations has not been ruled out. This is the first report of a microchip-associated fibrosarcoma in a cat. Adherence to American Association of Feline Practitioners vaccination guidelines, avoiding the interscapular area, enabled confirmation of the definitive aetiology of the neoplasia.

  3. Induction of cat-86 by chloramphenicol and amino acid starvation in relaxed mutants of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Ambulos, N P; Rogers, E J; Alexieva, Z; Lovett, P S

    1988-01-01

    The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene cat-86 is induced through a mechanism that is a variation of classical attenuation. Induction results from the destabilization of an RNA stem-loop that normally sequesters the cat-86 ribosome-binding site. Destabilization of the stem-loop is due to the stalling of a ribosome in the leader region of cat-86 mRNA at a position that places the A site of the stalled ribosome at leader codon 6. Two events can stall ribosomes at the correct location to induce cat-86 translation: addition of chloramphenicol to cells and starvation of cells for the amino acid specified by leader codon 6. Induction by amino acid starvation is an anomaly because translation of the cat-86 coding sequence requires all 20 amino acids. To explain this apparent contradiction we postulated that amino acid starvation triggers intracellular proteolysis, thereby providing levels of the deprived amino acid sufficient for cat-86 translation. Here we show that a mutation in relA, the structural gene for stringent factor, blocks intracellular proteolysis that is normally triggered by amino acid starvation. The relA mutation also blocks induction of cat-86 by amino acid starvation, but the mutation does not interfere with chloramphenicol induction. Induction by amino acid starvation can be demonstrated in relA mutant cells if the depleted amino acid is restored at very low levels (e.g., 2 micrograms/ml). A mutation in relC, which may be the gene for ribosomal protein L11, blocks induction of cat-86 by either chloramphenicol or amino acid starvation. We believe this effect is due to a structural alteration of the ribosome resulting from the relC mutation and not to the relaxed phenotype of the cells. PMID:3142854

  4. Induction of cat-86 by chloramphenicol and amino acid starvation in relaxed mutants of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Ambulos, N P; Rogers, E J; Alexieva, Z; Lovett, P S

    1988-12-01

    The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene cat-86 is induced through a mechanism that is a variation of classical attenuation. Induction results from the destabilization of an RNA stem-loop that normally sequesters the cat-86 ribosome-binding site. Destabilization of the stem-loop is due to the stalling of a ribosome in the leader region of cat-86 mRNA at a position that places the A site of the stalled ribosome at leader codon 6. Two events can stall ribosomes at the correct location to induce cat-86 translation: addition of chloramphenicol to cells and starvation of cells for the amino acid specified by leader codon 6. Induction by amino acid starvation is an anomaly because translation of the cat-86 coding sequence requires all 20 amino acids. To explain this apparent contradiction we postulated that amino acid starvation triggers intracellular proteolysis, thereby providing levels of the deprived amino acid sufficient for cat-86 translation. Here we show that a mutation in relA, the structural gene for stringent factor, blocks intracellular proteolysis that is normally triggered by amino acid starvation. The relA mutation also blocks induction of cat-86 by amino acid starvation, but the mutation does not interfere with chloramphenicol induction. Induction by amino acid starvation can be demonstrated in relA mutant cells if the depleted amino acid is restored at very low levels (e.g., 2 micrograms/ml). A mutation in relC, which may be the gene for ribosomal protein L11, blocks induction of cat-86 by either chloramphenicol or amino acid starvation. We believe this effect is due to a structural alteration of the ribosome resulting from the relC mutation and not to the relaxed phenotype of the cells.

  5. The dog louse Heterodoxus spiniger from stray cats in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norhidayu, S; Mohd Zain, S N; Jeffery, J; Lewis, J W

    2012-06-01

    Stray cats collected from Georgetown, Penang from 2008 to 2010 were screened for ectoparasites via fine-tooth combing. Two cats from a total 102 examined were infested with the dog louse, Heterodoxus spiniger. Both cats, a juvenile male and female were found in close contact with each other prior to capture. The number of lice ranged from 5 and 14 in the male and female cat respectively. Other ectoparasites recovered included the common cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, one louse species Felicola subrostratus, one tick species Haemaphysalis bispinosa and one mite species of Listrophoridae. The present study reports for the first time the finding of H. spiniger on cats from peninsular Malaysia.

  6. Cats: their history and our evolving relationship with them.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Cats have had a long relationship with people, and their history as a domesticated animal can be traced back as far as 2000 BC. Delegates at a recent conference titled 'People, cats and vets through history' delved a little deeper into the changing nature of this relationship. Georgina Mills reports. PMID:27389749

  7. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Wanke, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis. PMID:16485488

  8. Raising awareness of common problems in older cats.

    PubMed

    2016-08-13

    The need to actively look for signs of disease in older cats was discussed during a recent conference held by the International Society of Feline Medicine (ISFM) in Malta. Delegates heard that many older cats could be suffering from diseases associated with ageing but might show only subtle clinical signs. Suzanne Jarvis reports. PMID:27516559

  9. Development and Application of the CAT-RPM Report for Strengths-Based Case Management of At-Risk Youth in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, J. M.; Carroll, A.; Ashman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Contextualised Assessment Tool for Risk and Protection Management (CAT-RPM) has been established as a valid and reliable tool for differentiating groups across age, sex and behaviour and assisting young people to find their strengths [Bower, J., A. Carroll, and A. Ashman. 2014. "The Development and Validation of the Contextualised…

  10. [Declawing in cats?].

    PubMed

    de Jonge, I

    1983-02-15

    Those forms of behaviour in which cats use their claws are reviewed. Forms of undesirable use of the claws and possible solutions to this problem are discussed. An inquiry among veterinary practitioners showed that nearly fifty per cent of these practitioners refused to declaw cats on principle. Approximately seventy-five per cent of the veterinarians taking part in the inquiry advocated that the Royal Netherlands Veterinary Association should state its position with regard to declawing. It is concluded by the present author that declawing is unacceptable for ethical and ethological reasons. PMID:6836550

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of arylamine N-acetyltransferase C (BanatC) from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Pluvinage, Benjamin; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inés; Martins, Marta; Ragunathan, Nilusha; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2007-10-01

    Bacillus anthracis arylamine N-acetyltransferase C (BanatC) is an enzyme that metabolizes the drug sulfamethoxazole. Crystals of the purified enzyme that diffract at 1.95 Å are reported. The arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes that have been found in a large range of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These enzymes catalyse the acetylation of arylamine drugs and/or pollutants. Recently, a Bacillus anthracis NAT isoform (BanatC) has been cloned and shown to acetylate the sulfonamide antimicrobial sulfamethoxazole (SMX). Subsequently, it was shown that BanatC contributes to the resistance of this bacterium to SMX. Here, the crystallization and the X-ray characterization of BanatC (Y38F mutant) are reported. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 53.70, c = 172.40 Å, and diffract to 1.95 Å resolution on a synchrotron source.

  12. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    PubMed

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. PMID:25143047

  13. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    PubMed

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats.

  14. Faecal microbiota of cats with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bell, Erin T; Suchodolski, Jan S; Isaiah, Anitha; Fleeman, Linda M; Cook, Audrey K; Steiner, Jörg M; Mansfield, Caroline S

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract significantly influence metabolic processes within their mammalian host, and recently several groups have sought to characterise the gastrointestinal microbiota of individuals affected by metabolic disease. Differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota have been reported in mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in human patients. Diabetes mellitus in cats has many similarities to type 2 diabetes in humans. No studies of the gastrointestinal microbiota of diabetic cats have been previously published. The objectives of this study were to compare the composition of the faecal microbiota of diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and secondarily to determine if host signalment and dietary factors influence the composition of the faecal microbiota in cats. Faecal samples were collected from insulin-treated diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR were performed on each sample. ANOSIM based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric identified no difference in the composition of the faecal microbiota between diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and no significant differences in the proportions of dominant bacteria by phylum, class, order, family or genus as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were identified between diabetic and non-diabetic cats. qPCR identified a decrease in Faecalibacterium spp. in cats aged over ten years. Cat breed or gender, dietary carbohydrate, protein or fat content, and dietary formulation (wet versus dry food) did not affect the composition of the faecal microbiota. In conclusion, the composition of the faecal microbiota was not altered by the presence of diabetes mellitus in cats. Additional studies that compare the functional products of the microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic cats are warranted to further investigate the potential impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on metabolic diseases such as

  15. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human-cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500-4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560-5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats.

  16. Faecal microbiota of cats with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bell, Erin T; Suchodolski, Jan S; Isaiah, Anitha; Fleeman, Linda M; Cook, Audrey K; Steiner, Jörg M; Mansfield, Caroline S

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract significantly influence metabolic processes within their mammalian host, and recently several groups have sought to characterise the gastrointestinal microbiota of individuals affected by metabolic disease. Differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota have been reported in mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in human patients. Diabetes mellitus in cats has many similarities to type 2 diabetes in humans. No studies of the gastrointestinal microbiota of diabetic cats have been previously published. The objectives of this study were to compare the composition of the faecal microbiota of diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and secondarily to determine if host signalment and dietary factors influence the composition of the faecal microbiota in cats. Faecal samples were collected from insulin-treated diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR were performed on each sample. ANOSIM based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric identified no difference in the composition of the faecal microbiota between diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and no significant differences in the proportions of dominant bacteria by phylum, class, order, family or genus as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were identified between diabetic and non-diabetic cats. qPCR identified a decrease in Faecalibacterium spp. in cats aged over ten years. Cat breed or gender, dietary carbohydrate, protein or fat content, and dietary formulation (wet versus dry food) did not affect the composition of the faecal microbiota. In conclusion, the composition of the faecal microbiota was not altered by the presence of diabetes mellitus in cats. Additional studies that compare the functional products of the microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic cats are warranted to further investigate the potential impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on metabolic diseases such as

  17. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human-cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500-4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560-5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats. PMID:24344279

  18. Molecular basis for histone acetyltransferase regulation by binding partners, associated domains, and autoacetylation

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Cheryl E.; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation is a post-translational modification (PTM) that regulates chromatin dynamics and function. Dysregulation of acetylation or acetyltransferase activity has been correlated with several human diseases. Many, if not all histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are regulated in part through tethered domains, association with binding partners or post-translational modification, including predominantly acetylation. This review focuses on what is currently understood at the molecular level of HAT regulation as it occurs via binding partners, associated domains, and autoacetylation. PMID:26555232

  19. Vibrational Schroedinger Cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kis, Z.; Janszky, J.; Vinogradov, An. V.; Kobayashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    The optical Schroedinger cat states are simple realizations of quantum states having nonclassical features. It is shown that vibrational analogues of such states can be realized in an experiment of double pulse excitation of vibrionic transitions. To track the evolution of the vibrational wave packet we derive a non-unitary time evolution operator so that calculations are made in a quasi Heisenberg picture.

  20. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  1. Membranous nephropathy in sibling cats.

    PubMed

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G

    1983-08-20

    Membranous nephropathy was diagnosed in two sibling cats from the same household. Both cases presented with the nephrotic syndrome but 33 months elapsed before the second cat became ill, by which time the first cat had been in full clinical remission for over a year. PMID:6623883

  2. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A Text Size ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  3. Prevalence of feline leukemia virus and antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus in cats in Norway.

    PubMed

    Ueland, K; Lutz, H

    1992-02-01

    Serum samples from 224 Norwegian cats were analyzed for the presence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) p27 common core antigen, and for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Ninety specimens originated from the serum bank at the central referral clinic at the Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine, which had been collected during the years 1983-1989; 67 sera were submitted from veterinarian practitioners; while 67 sera originated from cats presented for euthanasia. The cats were classified into one "healthy" and one "sick" group. Only 2.2% of sick cats and 1.2% of healthy cats showed FeLV antigenemia, a finding which is lower than which has been reported from many other countries. The prevalence of FIV antibodies was 10.1% in sick cats and 5.9% in healthy cats. Antibodies to FIV was most prevalent in male cats (14.7%) than in female cats (2.1%), and more prevalent among domestic cats (12.0%) compared to pedigree cats (2.4%). Antibodies to FIV in the cats demonstrated increasing prevalence with increasing age. It may be concluded that FeLV causes minor problems in Norwegian cats, while FIV is present in a similar prevalence to what is reported from other countries. PMID:1316024

  4. Parathyroid adenocarcinoma in a nephropathic Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Cavana, Paola; Vittone, Valentina; Capucchio, Maria T; Farca, Anna M

    2006-10-01

    This report describes an uncommon clinical case of cystic parathyroid adenocarcinoma. A 17-year-old male Persian cat was presented for evaluation of a ventral cervical mass. The cat was inappetent and showed weight loss, polydipsia and vomiting. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed moderate hypercalcaemia, a mild increase of creatinine, isosthenuria and proteinuria. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis showed a mixed tubular proteinuric pattern, in accordance with histological examination that revealed interstitial nephritis and glomerulonephritis. Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was based on histopathological findings. PMID:16651017

  5. Novel ligands of Choline Acetyltransferase designed by in silico molecular docking, hologram QSAR and lead optimization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajnish; Långström, Bengt; Darreh-Shori, Taher

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have brought back the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in the mainstream research in dementia and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report, a specific strategy for the design of novel ChAT ligands based on molecular docking, Hologram Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (HQSAR) and lead optimization. Molecular docking was performed on a series of ChAT inhibitors to decipher the molecular fingerprint of their interaction with the active site of ChAT. Then robust statistical fragment HQSAR models were developed. A library of novel ligands was generated based on the pharmacophoric and shape similarity scoring function, and evaluated in silico for their molecular interactions with ChAT. Ten of the top scoring invented compounds are reported here. We confirmed the activity of α-NETA, the only commercially available ChAT inhibitor, and one of the seed compounds in our model, using a new simple colorimetric ChAT assay (IC50 ~ 88 nM). In contrast, α-NETA exhibited an IC50 of ~30 μM for the ACh-degrading cholinesterases. In conclusion, the overall results may provide useful insight for discovering novel ChAT ligands and potential positron emission tomography tracers as in vivo functional biomarkers of the health of central cholinergic system in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Novel ligands of Choline Acetyltransferase designed by in silico molecular docking, hologram QSAR and lead optimization

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajnish; Långström, Bengt; Darreh-Shori, Taher

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have brought back the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in the mainstream research in dementia and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report, a specific strategy for the design of novel ChAT ligands based on molecular docking, Hologram Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (HQSAR) and lead optimization. Molecular docking was performed on a series of ChAT inhibitors to decipher the molecular fingerprint of their interaction with the active site of ChAT. Then robust statistical fragment HQSAR models were developed. A library of novel ligands was generated based on the pharmacophoric and shape similarity scoring function, and evaluated in silico for their molecular interactions with ChAT. Ten of the top scoring invented compounds are reported here. We confirmed the activity of α-NETA, the only commercially available ChAT inhibitor, and one of the seed compounds in our model, using a new simple colorimetric ChAT assay (IC50 ~ 88 nM). In contrast, α-NETA exhibited an IC50 of ~30 μM for the ACh-degrading cholinesterases. In conclusion, the overall results may provide useful insight for discovering novel ChAT ligands and potential positron emission tomography tracers as in vivo functional biomarkers of the health of central cholinergic system in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:27507101

  7. Novel ligands of Choline Acetyltransferase designed by in silico molecular docking, hologram QSAR and lead optimization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajnish; Långström, Bengt; Darreh-Shori, Taher

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have brought back the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in the mainstream research in dementia and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report, a specific strategy for the design of novel ChAT ligands based on molecular docking, Hologram Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (HQSAR) and lead optimization. Molecular docking was performed on a series of ChAT inhibitors to decipher the molecular fingerprint of their interaction with the active site of ChAT. Then robust statistical fragment HQSAR models were developed. A library of novel ligands was generated based on the pharmacophoric and shape similarity scoring function, and evaluated in silico for their molecular interactions with ChAT. Ten of the top scoring invented compounds are reported here. We confirmed the activity of α-NETA, the only commercially available ChAT inhibitor, and one of the seed compounds in our model, using a new simple colorimetric ChAT assay (IC50 ~ 88 nM). In contrast, α-NETA exhibited an IC50 of ~30 μM for the ACh-degrading cholinesterases. In conclusion, the overall results may provide useful insight for discovering novel ChAT ligands and potential positron emission tomography tracers as in vivo functional biomarkers of the health of central cholinergic system in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27507101

  8. Dural tear and myelomalacia caused by an airgun pellet in a cat

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Cristian; Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old cat was presented with severe neurological deficits secondary to a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury caused by an airgun pellet. This report describes, for the first time, the myelographic findings of a dural rupture in a cat and also describes a bilateral Horner’s syndrome in a cat. PMID:24155462

  9. Postanesthetic death in a cat with myopathy.

    PubMed

    Remmers, G; Hayden, D W; Jaeger, M A; Ervasti, J M; Valberg, S J

    2015-01-01

    There are few reports of naturally occurring muscular dystrophy in domestic animals. Herein, we describe a case of muscular dystrophy in a 4-year-old neutered male American domestic shorthair cat that died unexpectedly following anesthesia for an elective surgical procedure. Macroscopic muscular hypertrophy and histologic evidence of myofiber size variation, mineralization, myofiber degeneration, and necrosis were compatible with a diagnosis of muscular dystrophy. Extensive endomysial fibrosis was noted histologically in the diaphragm. A complete absence of dystrophin protein in Western blot confirmed the diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed reduced levels of dystrophin-associated proteins and an upregulation of utrophin at the sarcolemma. Anesthetic deaths can occur in dystrophin-deficient cats, and therefore muscular dystrophy and the associated cardiomyopathy should be considered in the differential diagnoses for perianesthetic death in cats.

  10. Dacryocystography in a cat with orbital pneumatosis.

    PubMed

    Meomartino, Leonardo; Pasolini, Maria P; Lamagna, Francesco; Santangelo, Bruna; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Della Valle, Giovanni; Lamagna, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    A 2-year-old neutered male European short-haired cat was presented for a persistent discharge from the scar of previous left eye enucleation, performed 6 months prior by the referring veterinarian. A surgical exploration of the orbit was performed and retained nictitating membrane glandular and conjunctival tissues were removed. Eleven days later, the cat developed an orbital pneumatosis caused by retrograde movement of air through a patent nasolacrimal system and diagnosed by survey radiographic examination of the skull. Nasolacrimal system patency was assessed by dacryocystography performed by injection of iodinated contrast medium under pressure into the orbital cavity. Computed tomography dacryocystography confirmed the radiographic findings. The condition resolved following dacryocystography, possibly as an inflammatory response to the contrast medium. To our knowledge, this is the first case of orbital pneumatosis reported in a cat.

  11. Cervical Vertebral Body Chordoma in a Cat.

    PubMed

    Hampel, R; Taylor-Brown, F; Priestnall, S L

    2016-05-01

    A 9-year-old, neutered female Maine Coon cat with a 6-week history of progressive ataxia was diagnosed with a cervical vertebral body mass using magnetic resonance imaging. The mass displaced and compressed the cervical spinal cord. The cat was humanely destroyed and necropsy examination confirmed a mass within the second cervical vertebral body. Microscopically, the mass was composed of large, clear, vacuolated ('physaliferous') cells. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed both cytokeratin and vimentin and the final diagnosis was a cervical, vertebral body chordoma. This is only the third report of a chordoma in this species and the first in this location. Chordoma should be considered as a potential differential diagnosis for tumours arising from the cervical vertebrae in the cat.

  12. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    PubMed

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed.

  13. A novel role for the histone acetyltransferase Hat1 in the CENP-A/CID assembly pathway in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Boltengagen, Mark; Huang, Anming; Boltengagen, Anastasiya; Trixl, Lukas; Lindner, Herbert; Kremser, Leopold; Offterdinger, Martin; Lusser, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation of CENP-A into centromeric chromatin is an essential prerequisite for kinetochore formation. Yet, the molecular mechanisms governing this process are surprisingly divergent in different organisms. While CENP-A loading mechanisms have been studied in some detail in mammals, there are still large gaps to our understanding of CENP-A/Cid loading pathways in Drosophila. Here, we report on the characterization and delineation of at least three different CENP-A preloading complexes in Drosophila. Two complexes contain the CENP-A chaperones CAL1, FACT and/or Caf1/Rbap48. Notably, we identified a novel complex consisting of the histone acetyltransferase Hat1, Caf1 and CENP-A/H4. We show that Hat1 is required for proper CENP-A loading into chromatin, since knock-down in S2 cells leads to reduced incorporation of newly synthesized CENP-A. In addition, we demonstrate that CENP-A/Cid interacts with the HAT1 complex via an N-terminal region, which is acetylated in cytoplasmic but not in nuclear CENP-A. Since Hat1 is not responsible for acetylation of CENP-A/Cid, these results suggest a histone acetyltransferase activity-independent escort function for Hat1. Thus, our results point toward intriguing analogies between the complex processing pathways of newly synthesized CENP-A and canonical histones. PMID:26586808

  14. Structure and function of human Naa60 (NatF), a Golgi-localized bi-functional acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Yun; Liu, Liang; Cao, Chun-Ling; Li, Mei-Jun; Tan, Kemin; Yang, Xiaohan; Yun, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation), carried out by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is a conserved and primary modification of nascent peptide chains. Naa60 (also named NatF) is a recently identified NAT found only in multicellular eukaryotes. This protein was shown to locate on the Golgi apparatus and mainly catalyze the Nt-acetylation of transmembrane proteins, and it also harbors lysine N(ε)-acetyltransferase (KAT) activity to catalyze the acetylation of lysine ε-amine. Here, we report the crystal structures of human Naa60 (hNaa60) in complex with Acetyl-Coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) or Coenzyme A (CoA). The hNaa60 protein contains an amphipathic helix following its GNAT domain that may contribute to Golgi localization of hNaa60, and the β7-β8 hairpin adopted different conformations in the hNaa60(1-242) and hNaa60(1-199) crystal structures. Remarkably, we found that the side-chain of Phe 34 can influence the position of the coenzyme, indicating a new regulatory mechanism involving enzyme, co-factor and substrates interactions. Moreover, structural comparison and biochemical studies indicated that Tyr 97 and His 138 are key residues for catalytic reaction and that a non-conserved β3-β4 long loop participates in the regulation of hNaa60 activity. PMID:27550639

  15. Chloroplast-encoded serotonin N-acetyltransferase in the red alga Pyropia yezoensis: gene transition to the nucleus from chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Yeong; Yool Lee, Hyoung; Choi, Dong-Woog; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2015-02-01

    Melatonin biosynthesis involves the N-acetylation of arylalkylamines such as serotonin, which is catalysed by serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), the penultimate enzyme of melatonin biosynthesis in both animals and plants. Here, we report the functional characterization of a putative N-acetyltransferase gene in the chloroplast genome of the alga laver (Pyropia yezoensis, formerly known as Porphyra yezoensis) with homology to the rice SNAT gene. To confirm that the putative Pyropia yezoensis SNAT (PySNAT) gene encodes an SNAT, we cloned the full-length chloroplastidic PySNAT gene by PCR and purified the recombinant PySNAT protein from Escherichia coli. PySNAT was 174 aa and had 50% amino acid identity with cyanobacteria SNAT. Purified recombinant PySNAT showed a peak activity at 55 °C with a K m of 467 µM and V max of 28 nmol min-1 mg(-1) of protein. Unlike other plant SNATs, PySNAT localized to the cytoplasm due to a lack of N-terminal chloroplast transit peptides. Melatonin was present at 0.16ng g(-1) of fresh mass but increased during heat stress. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence suggested that PySNAT has evolved from the cyanobacteria SNAT gene via endosymbiotic gene transfer. Additionally, the chloroplast transit peptides of plant SNATs were acquired 1500 million years ago, concurrent with the appearance of green algae.

  16. Structure and function of human Naa60 (NatF), a Golgi-localized bi-functional acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji-Yun; Liu, Liang; Cao, Chun-Ling; Li, Mei-Jun; Tan, Kemin; Yang, Xiaohan; Yun, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation), carried out by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is a conserved and primary modification of nascent peptide chains. Naa60 (also named NatF) is a recently identified NAT found only in multicellular eukaryotes. This protein was shown to locate on the Golgi apparatus and mainly catalyze the Nt-acetylation of transmembrane proteins, and it also harbors lysine Nε-acetyltransferase (KAT) activity to catalyze the acetylation of lysine ε-amine. Here, we report the crystal structures of human Naa60 (hNaa60) in complex with Acetyl-Coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) or Coenzyme A (CoA). The hNaa60 protein contains an amphipathic helix following its GNAT domain that may contribute to Golgi localization of hNaa60, and the β7-β8 hairpin adopted different conformations in the hNaa60(1-242) and hNaa60(1-199) crystal structures. Remarkably, we found that the side-chain of Phe 34 can influence the position of the coenzyme, indicating a new regulatory mechanism involving enzyme, co-factor and substrates interactions. Moreover, structural comparison and biochemical studies indicated that Tyr 97 and His 138 are key residues for catalytic reaction and that a non-conserved β3-β4 long loop participates in the regulation of hNaa60 activity. PMID:27550639

  17. Chloroplast-encoded serotonin N-acetyltransferase in the red alga Pyropia yezoensis: gene transition to the nucleus from chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Yeong; Yool Lee, Hyoung; Choi, Dong-Woog; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin biosynthesis involves the N-acetylation of arylalkylamines such as serotonin, which is catalysed by serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), the penultimate enzyme of melatonin biosynthesis in both animals and plants. Here, we report the functional characterization of a putative N-acetyltransferase gene in the chloroplast genome of the alga laver (Pyropia yezoensis, formerly known as Porphyra yezoensis) with homology to the rice SNAT gene. To confirm that the putative Pyropia yezoensis SNAT (PySNAT) gene encodes an SNAT, we cloned the full-length chloroplastidic PySNAT gene by PCR and purified the recombinant PySNAT protein from Escherichia coli. PySNAT was 174 aa and had 50% amino acid identity with cyanobacteria SNAT. Purified recombinant PySNAT showed a peak activity at 55 °C with a K m of 467 µM and V max of 28 nmol min–1 mg–1 of protein. Unlike other plant SNATs, PySNAT localized to the cytoplasm due to a lack of N-terminal chloroplast transit peptides. Melatonin was present at 0.16ng g–1 of fresh mass but increased during heat stress. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence suggested that PySNAT has evolved from the cyanobacteria SNAT gene via endosymbiotic gene transfer. Additionally, the chloroplast transit peptides of plant SNATs were acquired 1500 million years ago, concurrent with the appearance of green algae. PMID:25183745

  18. Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT). System Description and users guide (revision 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W.; Taylor, W.; Mcgarry, F. E.; Merwarth, P.

    1982-01-01

    A system description of, and user's guide for, the Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT) are presented. As a configuration management tool, CAT enhances the control of large software systems by providing a repository for information describing the current status of a project. CAT provides an editing capability to update the information and a reporting capability to present the information. CAT is an interactive program available in versions for the PDP-11/70 and VAX-11/780 computers.

  19. Spinal dural ossification causing neurological signs in a cat.

    PubMed

    Antila, Johanna M; Jeserevics, Janis; Rakauskas, Mindaugas; Anttila, Marjukka; Cizinauskas, Sigitas

    2013-06-19

    A six-year-old Ragdoll cat underwent examination due to a six-month history of slowly progressive gait abnormalities. The cat presented with an ambulatory tetraparesis with a neurological examination indicating a C1-T2 myelopathy. Radiographs of the spine showed a radiopaque irregular line ventrally in the vertebral canal dorsal to vertebral bodies C3-C5. In this area, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary/extradural lesion compressing the spinal cord. The spinal cord was surgically decompressed. The cause of the spinal cord compression was dural ossification, a diagnosis confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgically dissected sample of dura mater. The cat gradually improved after the procedure and was ambulating better than prior to the surgery. The cat's locomotion later worsened again due to ossified plaques in the dura causing spinal cord compression on the same cervical area as before. Oral prednisolone treatment provided temporary remission. Ten months after surgery, the cat was euthanized due to severe worsening of gait abnormalities, non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Necropsy confirmed spinal cord compression and secondary degenerative changes in the spinal cord on cervical and lumbar areas caused by dural ossification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spinal dural ossification in a cat. The reported cat showed neurological signs associated with these dural changes. Dural ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of compressive spinal cord disorders in cats.

  20. Neutering of cats and dogs in Ireland; pet owner self-reported perceptions of enabling and disabling factors in the decision to neuter.

    PubMed

    Downes, Martin J; Devitt, Catherine; Downes, Marie T; More, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Background. Failure among pet owners to neuter their pets results in increased straying and overpopulation problems. Variations in neutering levels can be explained by cultural differences, differences in economic status in rural and urban locations, and owner perceptions about their pet. There are also differences between male and female pet owners. There is no research pertaining to Irish pet owner attitudes towards neutering their pets. This paper identified the perceptions of a sample of Irish cat and dog owners that influenced their decisions on pet neutering. Methods. This study was conducted using social science (qualitative) methods, including an interview-administered survey questionnaire and focus group discussions. Data was coded and managed using Nvivo 8 qualitative data analysis software. Results. Focus groups were conducted with 43 pet (cats and dogs) owners. Two major categories relating to the decision to neuter were identified: (1) enabling perceptions in the decision to neuter (subcategories were: controlling unwanted pet behaviour; positive perceptions regarding pet health and welfare outcomes; perceived owner responsibility; pet function; and the influence of veterinary advice), and (2) disabling perceptions in the decision to neuter (subcategories were: perceived financial cost of neutering; perceived adequacy of existing controls; and negative perceptions regarding pet health and welfare outcomes). Discussion. Pet owner sense of responsibility and control are two central issues to the decision to neuter their pets. Understanding how pet owners feel about topics such as pet neutering, can help improve initiatives aimed at emphasising the responsibility of population control of cats and dogs. PMID:26312187

  1. Neutering of cats and dogs in Ireland; pet owner self-reported perceptions of enabling and disabling factors in the decision to neuter

    PubMed Central

    Devitt, Catherine; Downes, Marie T.; More, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Failure among pet owners to neuter their pets results in increased straying and overpopulation problems. Variations in neutering levels can be explained by cultural differences, differences in economic status in rural and urban locations, and owner perceptions about their pet. There are also differences between male and female pet owners. There is no research pertaining to Irish pet owner attitudes towards neutering their pets. This paper identified the perceptions of a sample of Irish cat and dog owners that influenced their decisions on pet neutering. Methods. This study was conducted using social science (qualitative) methods, including an interview-administered survey questionnaire and focus group discussions. Data was coded and managed using Nvivo 8 qualitative data analysis software. Results. Focus groups were conducted with 43 pet (cats and dogs) owners. Two major categories relating to the decision to neuter were identified: (1) enabling perceptions in the decision to neuter (subcategories were: controlling unwanted pet behaviour; positive perceptions regarding pet health and welfare outcomes; perceived owner responsibility; pet function; and the influence of veterinary advice), and (2) disabling perceptions in the decision to neuter (subcategories were: perceived financial cost of neutering; perceived adequacy of existing controls; and negative perceptions regarding pet health and welfare outcomes). Discussion. Pet owner sense of responsibility and control are two central issues to the decision to neuter their pets. Understanding how pet owners feel about topics such as pet neutering, can help improve initiatives aimed at emphasising the responsibility of population control of cats and dogs. PMID:26312187

  2. Flavour formation in fungi: characterisation of KlAtf, the Kluyveromyces lactis orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol acetyltransferases Atf1 and Atf2.

    PubMed

    Van Laere, Stijn D M; Saerens, Sofie M G; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Van Dijck, Patrick; Thevelein, Johan M; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2008-04-01

    Volatile aroma-active esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine. In the brewers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the major part of these esters is formed by two alcohol acetyltransferases, Atf1 and Atf2. In this paper, the existence of orthologues of these S. cerevisiae alcohol acetyltransferases in several ascomycetous fungi was investigated. Bioinformatic analysis of sequenced fungal genomes revealed the presence of multiple orthologues. The Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts all have two genes coding for orthologues. More distantly related fungi like Saccharomyces castelii, Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces waltii and Kluyveromyces lactis have only one orthologue in their genome. The homology between the identified proteins and the S. cerevisiae alcohol acetyltransferases suggests a role for these orthologues in the aroma-active ester formation. To verify this, the K. lactis orthologue KlAtf was cloned and expressed in S. cerevisiae. Gas chromatographic analysis of small-scale fermentations with the transformant strains showed that, while S. cerevisiae ATF1 overexpression resulted in a substantial increase in acetate ester levels, S. cerevisiae ATF2 and K. lactis ATF overexpression only caused a moderate increase in acetate esters. This study is the first report of the presence of an ester synthesis gene in K. lactis.

  3. Oridonin, a novel lysine acetyltransferases inhibitor, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in gastric cancer cells through p53- and caspase-3-mediated mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Diao, Hua; Li, Guangming; Xu, Ling; Wang, Ting; Wei, Jue; Meng, Wenying; Ma, Jia-Li; Yu, Heguo; Wang, Yu-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation has been reported to involve in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases including cancer. In our screening study to identify natural compounds with lysine acetyltransferase inhibitor (KATi) activity, oridonin was found to possess acetyltransferase-inhibitory effects on multiple acetyltransferases including P300, GCN5, Tip60, and pCAF. In gastric cancer cells, oridonin treatment inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner and down-regulated the expression of p53 downstream genes, whereas p53 inhibition by PFT-α reversed the antiproliferative effects of oridonin. Moreover, oridonin treatment induced cell apoptosis, increased the levels of activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in gastric cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Caspase-3 inhibition by Ac-DEVD-CHO reversed the proapoptosis effect of oridonin. In conclusion, our study identified oridonin as a novel KATi and demonstrated its tumor suppressive effects in gastric cancer cells at least partially through p53-and caspase-3-mediated mechanisms. PMID:26980707

  4. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome.

  5. Targeting of a histone acetyltransferase domain to a promoter enhances protein expression levels in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kwaks, T H J; Sewalt, R G A B; van Blokland, R; Siersma, T J; Kasiem, M; Kelder, A; Otte, A P

    2005-01-12

    Silencing of transfected genes in mammalian cells is a fundamental problem that probably involves the (in)accessibility status of chromatin. A potential solution to this problem is to provide a cell with protein factors that make the chromatin of a promoter more open or accessible for transcription. We tested this by targeting such proteins to different promoters. We found that targeting the p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain to strong viral or cellular promoters is sufficient to result in higher expression levels of a reporter protein. In contrast, targeting the chromatin-remodeling factor Brahma does not result in stable, higher protein expression levels. The long-term effects of the targeted p300HAT domain on protein expression levels are positively reinforced, when also anti-repressor elements are applied to flank the reporter construct. These elements were previously shown to be potent blockers of chromatin-associated repressors. The simultaneous application of the targeted p300HAT domain and anti-repressor elements conveys long-term stability to protein expression. Whereas no copy number dependency is achieved by targeting of the p300HAT domain alone, copy number dependency is improved when anti-repressor elements are included. We conclude that targeting of protein domains such as HAT domains helps to facilitate expression of transfected genes in mammalian cells. However, the simultaneous application of other genomic elements such as the anti-repressor elements prevents silencing more efficiently.

  6. Carnitine Acetyltransferase Mitigates Metabolic Inertia and Muscle Fatigue during Exercise.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Sarah E; Koves, Timothy R; Gooding, Jessica R; Wong, Kari E; Stevens, Robert D; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Wittmann, April H; DeBalsi, Karen L; Davies, Michael N; Lindeboom, Lucas; Schrauwen, Patrick; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B; Muoio, Deborah M

    2015-07-01

    Acylcarnitine metabolites have gained attention as biomarkers of nutrient stress, but their physiological relevance and metabolic purpose remain poorly understood. Short-chain carnitine conjugates, including acetylcarnitine, derive from their corresponding acyl-CoA precursors via the action of carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT), a bidirectional mitochondrial matrix enzyme. We show here that contractile activity reverses acetylcarnitine flux in muscle, from net production and efflux at rest to net uptake and consumption during exercise. Disruption of this switch in mice with muscle-specific CrAT deficiency resulted in acetyl-CoA deficit, perturbed energy charge, and diminished exercise tolerance, whereas acetylcarnitine supplementation produced opposite outcomes in a CrAT-dependent manner. Likewise, in exercise-trained compared to untrained humans, post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rates were positively associated with CrAT activity and coincided with dramatic shifts in muscle acetylcarnitine dynamics. These findings show acetylcarnitine serves as a critical acetyl buffer for working muscles and provide insight into potential therapeutic strategies for combatting exercise intolerance. PMID:26154055

  7. The Functional Analysis of Histone Acetyltransferase MOF in Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiaming; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yong; Jin, Jingji

    2016-01-01

    Changes in chromatin structure and heritably regulating the gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone post-translational modification, are involved in most cellular biological processes. Thus, abnormal regulation of epigenetics is implicated in the occurrence of various diseases, including cancer. Human MOF (males absent on the first) is a member of the MYST (Moz-Ybf2/Sas3-Sas2-Tip60) family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs). As a catalytic subunit, MOF can form at least two distinct multiprotein complexes (MSL and NSL) in human cells. Both complexes can acetylate histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16); however, the NSL complex possesses broader substrate specificity and can also acetylate histone H4 at lysines 5 and 8 (H4K5 and H4K8), suggesting the complexity of the intracellular functions of MOF. Silencing of MOF in cells leads to genomic instability, inactivation of gene transcription, defective DNA damage repair and early embryonic lethality. Unbalanced MOF expression and its corresponding acetylation of H4K16 have been found in certain primary cancer tissues, including breast cancer, medulloblastoma, ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, gastric cancer, as well as non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we provide a brief overview of MOF and its corresponding histone acetylation, introduce recent research findings that link MOF functions to tumorigenesis and speculate on the potential role that may be relevant to tumorigenic pathways. PMID:26784169

  8. Inhibition of aminoglycoside acetyltransferase resistance enzymes by metal salts.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijia; Green, Keith D; Johnson, Brooke R; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    Aminoglycosides (AGs) are clinically relevant antibiotics used to treat infections caused by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as Mycobacteria. As with all current antibacterial agents, resistance to AGs is an increasing problem. The most common mechanism of resistance to AGs is the presence of AG-modifying enzymes (AMEs) in bacterial cells, with AG acetyltransferases (AACs) being the most prevalent. Recently, it was discovered that Zn(2+) metal ions displayed an inhibitory effect on the resistance enzyme AAC(6')-Ib in Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli. In this study, we explore a wide array of metal salts (Mg(2+), Cr(3+), Cr(6+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Au(3+) with different counter ions) and their inhibitory effect on a large repertoire of AACs [AAC(2')-Ic, AAC(3)-Ia, AAC(3)-Ib, AAC(3)-IV, AAC(6')-Ib', AAC(6')-Ie, AAC(6')-IId, and Eis]. In addition, we determine the MIC values for amikacin and tobramycin in combination with a zinc pyrithione complex in clinical isolates of various bacterial strains (two strains of A. baumannii, three of Enterobacter cloacae, and four of Klebsiella pneumoniae) and one representative of each species purchased from the American Type Culture Collection. PMID:25941215

  9. Inhibition of Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase Resistance Enzymes by Metal Salts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijia; Green, Keith D.; Johnson, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    Aminoglycosides (AGs) are clinically relevant antibiotics used to treat infections caused by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as Mycobacteria. As with all current antibacterial agents, resistance to AGs is an increasing problem. The most common mechanism of resistance to AGs is the presence of AG-modifying enzymes (AMEs) in bacterial cells, with AG acetyltransferases (AACs) being the most prevalent. Recently, it was discovered that Zn2+ metal ions displayed an inhibitory effect on the resistance enzyme AAC(6′)-Ib in Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli. In this study, we explore a wide array of metal salts (Mg2+, Cr3+, Cr6+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Au3+ with different counter ions) and their inhibitory effect on a large repertoire of AACs [AAC(2′)-Ic, AAC(3)-Ia, AAC(3)-Ib, AAC(3)-IV, AAC(6′)-Ib′, AAC(6′)-Ie, AAC(6′)-IId, and Eis]. In addition, we determine the MIC values for amikacin and tobramycin in combination with a zinc pyrithione complex in clinical isolates of various bacterial strains (two strains of A. baumannii, three of Enterobacter cloacae, and four of Klebsiella pneumoniae) and one representative of each species purchased from the American Type Culture Collection. PMID:25941215

  10. Choline Acetyltransferase-Deficient Mutants of the Nematode CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS

    PubMed Central

    Rand, James B.; Russell, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    We have identified five independent allelic mutations, defining the gene cha-1, that result in decreased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Four of the mutant alleles, when homozygous, lead to ChAT reductions of>98%, as well as recessive phenotypes of uncoordinated behavior, small size, slow growth and resistance to cholinesterase inhibitors. Animals homozygous for the fifth allele retain approximately 10% of the wild-type enzyme level; purified enzyme from this mutant has altered Km values for both choline and acetyl-CoA and is more thermolabile than the wild-type enzyme. These qualitative alterations, together with gene dosage data, argue that cha-1 is the structural gene for ChAT. cha-1 has been mapped to the left arm of linkage group IV and is within 0.02 map unit of the gene unc-17, mutant alleles of which lead to all of the phenotypes of cha-1 mutants except for the ChAT deficiency. Extensive complementation studies of cha-1 and unc-17 alleles reveal a complex complementation pattern, suggesting that both loci may be part of a single complex gene. PMID:6698395

  11. Obesity and lipid stress inhibit carnitine acetyltransferase activity[S

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Sarah E.; Martin, Ola J.; Noland, Robert C.; Slentz, Dorothy H.; DeBalsi, Karen L.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; An, Jie; Newgard, Christopher B.; Koves, Timothy R.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine. Emerging evidence suggests that this enzyme functions as a positive regulator of total body glucose tolerance and muscle activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), a mitochondrial enzyme complex that promotes glucose oxidation and is feedback inhibited by acetyl-CoA. Here, we used tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling to identify a negative relationship between CrAT activity and muscle content of lipid intermediates. CrAT specific activity was diminished in muscles from obese and diabetic rodents despite increased protein abundance. This reduction in enzyme activity was accompanied by muscle accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines (LCACs) and acyl-CoAs and a decline in the acetylcarnitine/acetyl-CoA ratio. In vitro assays demonstrated that palmitoyl-CoA acts as a direct mixed-model inhibitor of CrAT. Similarly, in primary human myocytes grown in culture, nutritional and genetic manipulations that promoted mitochondrial influx of fatty acids resulted in accumulation of LCACs but a pronounced decrease of CrAT-derived short-chain acylcarnitines. These results suggest that lipid-induced antagonism of CrAT might contribute to decreased PDH activity and glucose disposal in the context of obesity and diabetes. PMID:24395925

  12. Reconstruction of N-acetyltransferase 2 haplotypes using PHASE.

    PubMed

    Golka, Klaus; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Samimi, Mirabutaleb; Bolt, Hermann M; Selinski, Silvia

    2008-04-01

    The genotyping of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) by PCR/RFLP methods yields in a considerable percentage ambiguous results. To resolve this methodical problem a statistical approach was applied. PHASE v2.1.1, a statistical program for haplotype reconstruction was used to estimate haplotype pairs from NAT2 genotyping data, obtained by the analysis of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms relevant for Caucasians. In 1,011 out of 2,921 (35%) subjects the haplotype pairs were clearcut by the PCR/RFLP data only. For the majority of the data the applied method resulted in a multiplicity (2-4) of possible haplotype pairs. Haplotype reconstruction using PHASE v2.1.1 cleared this ambiguity in all cases but one, where an alternative haplotype pair was considered with a probability of 0.029. The estimation of the NAT2 haplotype is important because the assignment of the NAT2 alleles *12A, *12B, *12C or *13 to the rapid or slow NAT2 genotype has been discussed controversially. A clear assignment is indispensable in surveys of human bladder cancer caused by aromatic amine exposures. In conclusion, PHASE v2.1.1 software allowed an unambiguous haplotype reconstruction in 2,920 of 2,921 cases (>99.9%).

  13. Renal leiomyosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dawn; Fowlkes, Natalie

    2016-05-01

    Renal leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed in a 10-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat with a 3-year history of clinically managed, chronic renal disease. Sudden death was preceded by a brief episode of mental dullness and confusion. At postmortem examination, the gross appearance of the left kidney was suggestive of hydronephrosis, and a nephrolith was present in the contralateral kidney. However, histology revealed an infiltrative, poorly differentiated, spindle cell sarcoma bordering the grossly cavitated area. Neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, which led to a diagnosis of renal leiomyosarcoma; neoplastic cells were not immunoreactive for desmin. Leiomyosarcoma arising in the kidney is a rare occurrence in humans and an even rarer occurrence in veterinary medicine with no prior cases being reported in cats in the English literature. The macroscopic appearance of the tumor at postmortem examination was misleadingly suggestive of hydronephrosis as a result of the large cavitation and may be similar to particularly unusual cases of renal leiomyosarcomas in humans that have a cystic or cavitated appearance.

  14. Cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bozhkov, V; Madjov, R; Plachkov, I; Arnaudov, P; Chernopolsky, P; Krasnaliev, I

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 24,000 people are infected with cat scratch disease (CSD) every year. CSD is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacteria most often transmitted to humans through a bite or scratch from an infected cat or kitten. Although CSD is often a benign and self-limiting condition, it can affect any major organ system in the body, manifesting in different ways and sometimes leading to lifelong sequelae. It is a disease that is often overlooked in primary care because of the wide range of symptom presentation and relative rarity of serious complications. It is important for health care providers to recognize patients at risk for CSD, know what laboratory testing and treatments are available, and be aware of complications that may arise from this disease in the future.

  15. Crystallized Schroedinger cat states

    SciTech Connect

    Castanos, O.; Lopez-Pena, R.; Man`ko, V.I.

    1995-11-01

    Crystallized Schroedinger cat states (male and female) are introduced on the base of extension of group construction for the even and odd coherent states of the electromagnetic field oscillator. The Wigner and Q functions are calculated and some are plotted for C{sub 2}, C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}, C{sub 3v} Schroedinger cat states. Quadrature means and dispersions for these states are calculated and squeezing and correlation phenomena are studied. Photon distribution functions for these states are given explicitly and are plotted for several examples. A strong oscillatory behavior of the photon distribution function for some field amplitudes is found in the new type of states.

  16. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E; Johnson, Christopher N

    2016-03-02

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia's tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  17. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes. PMID:26932268

  18. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-03-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  19. A case of indirect exposure to cat at school.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, M; Perfetti, L; Moscato, G

    2003-01-01

    Indirect exposure to cat allergens may exacerbate asthma in sensitized subjects. We report a case of a 13-year-old girl referred to our Unit for cough, dyspnea, wheezing, chest tightness, nasal itching and obstruction during the past six months, with improvement during summer holidays. Skin prick tests were positive for cat and Alternaria alternata. She had no cats at home. Spirometry was normal and methacoline bronchial challenge was negative. PEF monitoring showed a mean value of 80% of the predicted value with a variability higher than 20% in a few occasions. At a follow up visit PEF recording showed an increase of 80 litres/min during a 2 weeks Christmas holidays, and a subsequent reduction after being back at school. At a further questioning we found that in her class there was a girl who owned 23 cats. It is likely that PEF and symptoms in our patient were affected by indirect cat exposure at school.

  20. The "cat eye syndrome": dicentric small marker chromosome probably derived from a no.22 (tetrasomy 22pter to q11) associated with a characteristic phenotype. Report of 11 patients and delineation of the clinical picture.

    PubMed

    Schinzel, A; Schmid, W; Fraccaro, M; Tiepolo, L; Zuffardi, O; Opitz, J M; Lindsten, J; Zetterqvist, P; Enell, H; Baccichetti, C; Tenconi, R; Pagon, R A

    1981-01-01

    Eleven patients with the so-called Cat Eye syndrome are reported including a more detailed description of the original cases reported by Schmid and Fraccaro. All cases had, in addition to a normal karyotype, a small extra G-like chromosome which appeared to be an isochromosome for the juxtacentromeric region (pter to q11) of an acrocentric chromosome. None were mosaics. Clinical findings and further cytogenetic studies in a few cases suggest that these markers probably derive from a No. 22 chromosome. Characteristic features of the Cat Eye syndrome in these 11 patients and those reviewed from the literature are: ocular coloboma which may involve the iris, choroid and/or optic nerve, preauricular skin tags and/or pits which are probably the most consistent feature, congenital heart defect, anal atresia with a fistula, renal malformations such as unilateral absence, unilateral or bilateral hypoplasia, and cystic dysplasia, and antimongoloid position of eyes. Intelligence is usually low-normal, although moderate retardation is also seen. There is great variability in the clinical findings ranging from near normal to lethal malformations. Less frequent, but also characteristic findings are: microphthalmia, microtia with atresia of the external auditory canal, intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary atresia and malrotation of the gut. Direct transmission of the marker from one generation to the other was observed in both sexes. In those families, there was considerable variability in the clinical findings between affected family members. These cases show that there is a bias of ascertainment for patients who have the more striking malformations, especially those with ocular coloboma and anal atresia, a combination which appears to be present in only a minority of cases. Many mildly affected patients probably remain undetected. It is proposed that the term Cat Eye syndrome should be applied only to cases with trisomy or tetrasomy of not more than 22pter to q11 and without

  1. Changes in cell morphology and carnitine acetyltransferase activity in Candida albicans following growth on lipids and serum and after in vivo incubation in mice.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, R; Ratledge, C

    1996-11-01

    Candida albicans C316, maintained in the yeast form, showed a proliferation of peroxisomes when grown on triolein or serum as sole carbon source but these structures were absent from glucose-grown cells. Peroxisomes were also apparent in C. albicans obtained after injection into mice and recovery from intraperitoneal washings and kidneys; they may therefore be useful markers to assess a potential in vivo response in cells that are growing in vitro. Transcell-wall structures also occurred in C. albicans grown on triolein or serum, and in cells cultured in vivo, but were not seen in cells grown on glucose. These structures consisted of electron-dense fibrillar material penetrating through the cell wall from the plasmalemma side and protruded out to the exterior of the cell. Endoplasmic reticulum, located at the periphery of the cell, was found to be in close proximity with these cell wall structures. Carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT; EC 2.3.1.7), the key enzyme for the translocation of acetyl units between intracellular compartments, was present in low activities in glucose-grown cells; its activity was increased some 100-fold in triolein-grown cells but only 4-fold in serum-grown cells. It was not possible to assess this activity in the in vivo-cultured cells. Two separate CAT proteins, partially purifed from isolated microchondria and peroxisomes, respectively, were identified, with different specificities and kinetic properties. PMID:8969514

  2. Effect of maternal deprivation on N-acetyltransferase activity rhythm in blinded rat pups.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Yamazaki, K; Takahashi, K

    1998-02-15

    It has been reported that the rhythms of infant rats synchronize with the mother's rhythm until the light-dark cycle comes and has strong effects on their endogenous clocks. We found that periodic maternal deprivation (PMD) was able to cause a phase shift of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) in neonatal blinded rat pups. PMD in which contact with the mother was allowed for only 4 h caused a phase shift of NAT rhythm, irrespective of the timing of contact with the mother in a day. Acute single mother deprivation caused an excess of NAT activity for more hours than usual and contact with the mother prevented such an excessive response. Mother deprivation may act as a cold stress, since artificial warming of pups gave the same results as contact with the mother. When the pups were artificially warmed by a heater during a 1-week deprivation period, a flat 24-h pattern of NAT was observed. The mechanism causing a phase shift of NAT activity rhythm of rat pups may be complicated. PMID:9523895

  3. Retinal, pineal and diencephalic expression of frog arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase-1.

    PubMed

    Isorna, Esther; Besseau, Laurence; Boeuf, Gilles; Desdevises, Yves; Vuilleumier, Robin; Alonso-Gómez, Angel L; Delgado, María J; Falcón, Jack

    2006-06-27

    The arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is a key enzyme in the rhythmic production of melatonin. Two Aanats are expressed in Teleost fish (Aanat1 in the retina and Aanat2 in the pineal organ) but only Aanat1 is found in tetrapods. This study reports the cloning of Aanat1 from R. perezi. Transcripts were mainly expressed in the retina, diencephalon, intestine and testis. In the retina and pineal organ, Aanat1 expression was in the photoreceptor cells. Expression was also seen in ependymal cells of the 3rd ventricle and discrete cells of the suprachiasmatic area. The expression of Aanat1 in both the retina and pineal organ, and the absence of Aanat2 suggests that green frog resembles more to birds and mammals than to Teleost fish, as far as Aanat is concerned. The significance of Aanat1 in extra-pineal and extra-retinal tissues remains to be elucidated; in the diencephalon, it might be associated to the so-called deep brain photoreceptor cells.

  4. Fungal Rtt109 Histone Acetyltransferase is an Unexpected Structural Homolog of Metazoan p300/CBP

    SciTech Connect

    Tang,Y.; Holbert, M.; Wurtele, H.; Meeth, K.; Rocha, W.; Gharib, M.; Jiang, E.; Thibault, P.; Verreault, A.; et al

    2008-01-01

    Rtt109, also known as KAT11, is a recently characterized fungal-specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that modifies histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56) to promote genome stability. Rtt109 does not show sequence conservation with other known HATs and depends on association with either of two histone chaperones, Asf1 or Vps75, for HAT activity. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of an Rtt109-acetyl coenzyme A complex and carry out structure-based mutagenesis, combined with in vitro biochemical studies of the Rtt109-Vps75 complex and studies of Rtt109 function in vivo. The Rtt109 structure reveals noteworthy homology to the metazoan p300/CBP HAT domain but exhibits functional divergence, including atypical catalytic properties and mode of cofactor regulation. The structure reveals a buried autoacetylated lysine residue that we show is also acetylated in the Rtt109 protein purified from yeast cells. Implications for understanding histone substrate and chaperone binding by Rtt109 are discussed.

  5. Crystal Structures of Murine Carnitine Acetyltransferase in Ternary Complexes with Its Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine acyltransferases catalyze the reversible exchange of acyl groups between coenzyme A (CoA) and carnitine. They have important roles in many cellular processes, especially the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the mitochondria for energy production, and are attractive targets for drug discovery against diabetes and obesity. To help define in molecular detail the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes, we report here the high resolution crystal structure of wild-type murine carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) in a ternary complex with its substrates acetyl-CoA and carnitine, and the structure of the S554A/M564G double mutant in a ternary complex with the substrates CoA and hexanoylcarnitine. Detailed analyses suggest that these structures may be good mimics for the Michaelis complexes for the forward and reverse reactions of the enzyme, representing the first time that such complexes of CrAT have been studied in molecular detail. The structural information provides significant new insights into the catalytic mechanism of CrAT and possibly carnitine acyltransferases in general.

  6. N-acetyltransferase 2 genetic polymorphism: Effects of carcinogen and haplotype on urinary bladder cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Hein, David W.

    2006-01-01

    A role for the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genetic polymorphism in cancer risk has been the subject of numerous studies. Although comprehensive reviews of the NAT2 acetylation polymorphism have been published elsewhere, the objective of this paper is to briefly highlight some important features of the NAT2 acetylation polymorphism that are not universally accepted to better understand the role of NAT2 polymorphism in carcinogenic risk assessment. NAT2 slow acetylator phenotype(s) infer a consistent and robust increase in urinary bladder cancer risk following exposures to aromatic amine carcinogens. However, identification of specific carcinogens is important as the effect of NAT2 polymorphism on urinary bladder cancer differs dramatically between monoarylamines and aryldiamines. Misclassifications of carcinogen exposure and NAT2 genotype/phenotype confound evidence for a real biological effect. Functional understanding of the effects of NAT2 genetic polymorphisms on metabolism and genotoxicity, tissue-specific expression and the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms responsible are critical for interpretation of previous and future human molecular epidemiology investigations into the role of NAT2 polymorphism on cancer risk. Although associations have been reported for various cancers, this paper focuses on urinary bladder cancer, a cancer in which a role for NAT2 polymorphism was first proposed and for which evidence is accumulating that the effect is biologically significant with important public health implications. PMID:16550165

  7. N-Acetyltransferase 2 genotype, exfoliated urothelial cells and benzidine exposure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing-wen; Lin, Guo-fang; Chen, Ji-gang; Guo, Wei-Chao; Qin, Yi-qiu; Golka, Klaus; Shen, Jian-hua

    2012-01-01

    Most studies report an association of the slow N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) status with elevated bladder cancer risk. In this study, NAT2 genotypes and the decades-long records of Papanicolaou's grading of exfoliated urothelial cells in a former benzidine-exposed cohort of the Shanghai dyestuff industry (29 bladder cancer patients; 307 non-cancer cohort members, some of them presenting different grades of pre-malignant alterations of exfoliated urothelial cells) were investigated. The cohort members had been enrolled in regular medical surveillance since mid-1980s. No overall increase of slow NAT2 genotypes in the former benzidine-exposed bladder cancer patients was found, compared with non-diseased members of the same cohort. A lower presentation of the homozygous wild genotype NAT2 4/4 was observed in bladder cancer patients, compared with non-diseased members with averaged Papanicolaou's grading (APG)3 II (OR=0.31, 95 percent CI 0.10-0.96, p=0.034) or with APG less than II (OR=0.36,95 percent CI 0.12-1.10, p=0.063). Nevertheless, neither a protective influence of rapid NAT2 genotypes on bladder cancer risk nor on pre-malignant cytological alterations could be confirmed by the present data.

  8. Relationship between the Presence of Bartonella Species and Bacterial Loads in Cats and Cat Fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) under Natural Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Harrus, Shimon

    2015-08-15

    Cats are considered the main reservoir of three zoonotic Bartonella species: Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella koehlerae. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) have been experimentally demonstrated to be a competent vector of B. henselae and have been proposed as the potential vector of the two other Bartonella species. Previous studies have reported a lack of association between the Bartonella species infection status (infected or uninfected) and/or bacteremia levels of cats and the infection status of the fleas they host. Nevertheless, to date, no study has compared the quantitative distributions of these bacteria in both cats and their fleas under natural conditions. Thus, the present study explored these relationships by identifying and quantifying the different Bartonella species in both cats and their fleas. Therefore, EDTA-blood samples and fleas collected from stray cats were screened for Bartonella bacteria. Bacterial loads were quantified by high-resolution melt real-time quantitative PCR assays. The results indicated a moderate correlation between the Bartonella bacterial loads in the cats and their fleas when both were infected with the same Bartonella species. Moreover, a positive effect of the host infection status on the Bartonella bacterial loads of the fleas was observed. Conversely, the cat bacterial loads were not affected by the infection status of their fleas. Our results suggest that the Bartonella bacterial loads of fleas are positively affected by the presence of the bacteria in their feline host, probably by multiple acquisitions/accumulation and/or multiplication events.

  9. Cat-scratch disease in Northern Italy: atypical clinical manifestations in humans and prevalence of Bartonella infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, E; Fabbi, M; Ferraioli, G; Prati, P; Filice, C; Sassera, D; Dalla Valle, C; Bandi, C; Vicari, N; Marone, P

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we report an investigation on cat-scratch disease (CSD) in Northern Italy. Seventy-four cases of CSD were diagnosed at the San Matteo hospital, Pavia, during the period 2005-2010. Of these 74 patients, 18 (24.3 %) reported atypical clinical manifestations such as ocular papillitis, maculopapular eruptions, vertebral infection, pulmonary infiltrates, and granulomatous hepatitis. Contact with cats was documented for 61 patients (82.4 %), while cat-related trauma was reported for 49 patients (66.2 %). We subsequently investigated the presence of Bartonella infection in cats belonging to the above patients and in other domestic and stray cats from three provinces of Northern Italy. Among the 27 domestic cats tested, nine of the 11 belonging to the CSD patients and two of the remaining 16 were infected by B. henselae (81.8 % vs. 12.5 %). Out of over 1,300 stray cats examined, 23.1 % were seropositive for B. henselae; after culturing and genotyping, 17 % were found to be infected by B. henselae (15.5 %) or B. clarridgeiae (1.5 %).

  10. An Acetyltransferase Conferring Tolerance to Toxic Aromatic Amine Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Marta; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dairou, Julien; Lamouri, Aazdine; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe; Dupret, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic amines (AA) are a major class of environmental pollutants that have been shown to have genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials toward most living organisms. Fungi are able to tolerate a diverse range of chemical compounds including certain AA and have long been used as models to understand general biological processes. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying this tolerance may improve our understanding of the adaptation of organisms to stressful environments and pave the way for novel pharmaceutical and/or biotechnological applications. We have identified and characterized two arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes (PaNAT1 and PaNAT2) from the model fungus Podospora anserina that acetylate a wide range of AA. Targeted gene disruption experiments revealed that PaNAT2 was required for the growth and survival of the fungus in the presence of toxic AA. Functional studies using the knock-out strains and chemically acetylated AA indicated that tolerance of P. anserina to toxic AA was due to the N-acetylation of these chemicals by PaNAT2. Moreover, we provide proof-of-concept remediation experiments where P. anserina, through its PaNAT2 enzyme, is able to detoxify the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline in experimentally contaminated soil samples. Overall, our data show that a single xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme can mediate tolerance to a major class of pollutants in a eukaryotic species. These findings expand the understanding of the role of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme and in particular of NATs in the adaptation of organisms to their chemical environment and provide a basis for new systems for the bioremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:19416981

  11. Structural Studies on a Glucosamine/Glucosaminide N-Acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Dopkins, Brandon J; Tipton, Peter A; Thoden, James B; Holden, Hazel M

    2016-08-16

    Glucosamine/glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase or GlmA catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl CoA to the primary amino group of glucosamine. The enzyme from Clostridium acetobutylicum is thought to be involved in cell wall rescue. In addition to glucosamine, GlmA has been shown to function on di- and trisaccharides of glucosamine as well. Here we present a structural and kinetic analysis of the enzyme. For this investigation, eight structures were determined to resolutions of 2.0 Å or better. The overall three-dimensional fold of GlmA places it into the tandem GNAT superfamily. Each subunit of the dimer folds into two distinct domains which exhibit high three-dimensional structural similarity. Whereas both domains bind acetyl CoA, it is the C-terminal domain that is catalytically competent. On the basis of the various structures determined in this investigation, two amino acid residues were targeted for further study: Asp 287 and Tyr 297. Although their positions in the active site suggested that they may play key roles in catalysis by functioning as active site bases and acids, respectively, this was not borne out by characterization of the D287N and Y297F variants. The kinetic properties revealed that both residues were important for substrate binding but had no critical roles as acid/base catalysts. Kinetic analyses also indicated that GlmA follows an ordered mechanism with acetyl CoA binding first followed by glucosamine. The product N-acetylglucosamine is then released prior to CoA. The investigation described herein provides significantly new information on enzymes belonging to the tandem GNAT superfamily.

  12. Regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) in the retina.

    PubMed

    Tosini, Gianluca; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Michael Iuvone, P

    2006-01-01

    Melatonin synthesis in retinal photoreceptors is under photic and circadian control and is regulated primarily by changes in the activity of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). Previous investigations demonstrated that Aanat transcripts are predominantly expressed in the photoreceptor cells. AANAT activity is high at night and low during the day, and illumination of the retina during the night induces rapid reduction in the activity of this enzyme. The enzyme is subject to both transcriptional and post-translational regulatory mechanisms. AANAT transcription is regulated directly by the circadian clock via the E-box present in the promoter region of the gene; the photic environment and circadian clock also influence AANAT transcription via cAMP-responsive elements. The stability of AANAT is regulated by cAMP, and light, which decreases cAMP levels in photoreceptor cells, results in rapid degradation of AANAT protein by proteasomal proteolysis. The circadian rhythm in the levels of Aanat mRNA in the rat retina persists after the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus has been lesioned, indicative of its relative independence from the master clock in the brain. In non-mammalian vertebrates, the retinal clock controlling melatonin synthesis is in photoreceptor cells, but it has not been definitively localized in mammals. Several studies have also shown that dopamine plays an important role in the regulation of AANAT activity by acting via D2/D4-like receptors that are present on the photoreceptors. Finally, it is important to mention that AANAT, in addition to its role in melatonin synthesis, may play a detoxification role in the vertebrate retina by acetylating arylalkylamines that may react with retinaldehyde.

  13. Structural Studies on a Glucosamine/Glucosaminide N-Acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Dopkins, Brandon J; Tipton, Peter A; Thoden, James B; Holden, Hazel M

    2016-08-16

    Glucosamine/glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase or GlmA catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl CoA to the primary amino group of glucosamine. The enzyme from Clostridium acetobutylicum is thought to be involved in cell wall rescue. In addition to glucosamine, GlmA has been shown to function on di- and trisaccharides of glucosamine as well. Here we present a structural and kinetic analysis of the enzyme. For this investigation, eight structures were determined to resolutions of 2.0 Å or better. The overall three-dimensional fold of GlmA places it into the tandem GNAT superfamily. Each subunit of the dimer folds into two distinct domains which exhibit high three-dimensional structural similarity. Whereas both domains bind acetyl CoA, it is the C-terminal domain that is catalytically competent. On the basis of the various structures determined in this investigation, two amino acid residues were targeted for further study: Asp 287 and Tyr 297. Although their positions in the active site suggested that they may play key roles in catalysis by functioning as active site bases and acids, respectively, this was not borne out by characterization of the D287N and Y297F variants. The kinetic properties revealed that both residues were important for substrate binding but had no critical roles as acid/base catalysts. Kinetic analyses also indicated that GlmA follows an ordered mechanism with acetyl CoA binding first followed by glucosamine. The product N-acetylglucosamine is then released prior to CoA. The investigation described herein provides significantly new information on enzymes belonging to the tandem GNAT superfamily. PMID:27348258

  14. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in two cats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Matsuura, Shinobu; Fujino, Yasuhito; Nakajima, Mayumi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakashima, Ko; Sakai, Yusuke; Uetsuka, Koji; Ohno, Koichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2008-10-01

    Two cats showing chronic vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss were found to have leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia. Both cats were diagnosed with hypereosinophilic syndrome by the findings of increased eosinophils and their precursors in the bone marrow, eosinophilic infiltration into multiple organs, and exclusion of other causes for eosinophilia. Although cytoreductive chemotherapy with hydroxycarbamide and prednisolone was performed, these two cats died 48 days and 91 days after the initial presentation. PMID:18981665

  15. Spinal dural ossification causing neurological signs in a cat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A six-year-old Ragdoll cat underwent examination due to a six-month history of slowly progressive gait abnormalities. The cat presented with an ambulatory tetraparesis with a neurological examination indicating a C1-T2 myelopathy. Radiographs of the spine showed a radiopaque irregular line ventrally in the vertebral canal dorsal to vertebral bodies C3-C5. In this area, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary/extradural lesion compressing the spinal cord. The spinal cord was surgically decompressed. The cause of the spinal cord compression was dural ossification, a diagnosis confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgically dissected sample of dura mater. The cat gradually improved after the procedure and was ambulating better than prior to the surgery. The cat’s locomotion later worsened again due to ossified plaques in the dura causing spinal cord compression on the same cervical area as before. Oral prednisolone treatment provided temporary remission. Ten months after surgery, the cat was euthanized due to severe worsening of gait abnormalities, non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Necropsy confirmed spinal cord compression and secondary degenerative changes in the spinal cord on cervical and lumbar areas caused by dural ossification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spinal dural ossification in a cat. The reported cat showed neurological signs associated with these dural changes. Dural ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of compressive spinal cord disorders in cats. PMID:23777582

  16. In vitro activity assays for MYST histone acetyltransferases and adaptation for high-throughput inhibitor screening

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Cheryl E.; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification that is carried out by acetyltransferases. The MYST proteins form the largest and most diverse family of acetyltransferases, which regulate gene expression, DNA repair, and cell cycle homeostasis, among other activities, by acetylating both histone and non-histone proteins. This chapter will describe methods for the preparation and biochemical characterization of MYST family acetyltransferases, including protocols for the preparation of recombinant protein, enzyme assays for measuring steady state parameters and binding assays to measure cofactor and inhibitor binding. We also provide details on adapting these assays for high throughput screening for small molecule MYST inhibitors. This chapter seeks to prepare researchers for some hurdles that they may encounter when studying the MYST proteins so that there may be better opportunity to plan appropriate controls and obtain high quality data. PMID:27372752

  17. Inhibition of lysine acetyltransferase KAT3B/p300 activity by a naturally occurring hydroxynaphthoquinone, plumbagin.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Kodihalli C; Selvi, B Ruthrotha; Arif, Mohammed; Reddy, B A Ashok; Thanuja, Gali R; Agrawal, Shipra; Pradhan, Suman Kalyan; Nagashayana, Natesh; Dasgupta, Dipak; Kundu, Tapas K

    2009-09-01

    Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs), p300 (KAT3B), and its close homologue CREB-binding protein (KAT3A) are probably the most widely studied KATs with well documented roles in various cellular processes. Hence, the dysfunction of p300 may result in the dysregulation of gene expression leading to the manifestation of many disorders. The acetyltransferase activity of p300/CREB-binding protein is therefore considered as a target for new generation therapeutics. We describe here a natural compound, plumbagin (RTK1), isolated from Plumbago rosea root extract, that inhibits histone acetyltransferase activity potently in vivo. Interestingly, RTK1 specifically inhibits the p300-mediated acetylation of p53 but not the acetylation by another acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein -associated factor, PCAF, in vivo. RTK1 inhibits p300 histone acetyltransferase activity in a noncompetitive manner. Docking studies and site-directed mutagenesis of the p300 histone acetyltransferase domain suggest that a single hydroxyl group of RTK1 makes a hydrogen bond with the lysine 1358 residue of this domain. In agreement with this, we found that indeed the hydroxyl group-substituted plumbagin derivatives lost the acetyltransferase inhibitory activity. This study describes for the first time the chemical entity (hydroxyl group) required for the inhibition of acetyltransferase activity.

  18. An autosomal genetic linkage map of the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus.

    PubMed

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Tomlin, James F; Eizirik, Eduardo; Phillip, Cornel; Wells, David; Pontius, Joan U; Hannah, Steven S; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-04-01

    We report on the completion of an autosomal genetic linkage (GL) map of the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus). Unlike two previous linkage maps of the cat constructed with a hybrid pedigree between the domestic cat and the Asian leopard cat, this map was generated entirely with domestic cats, using a large multi-generational pedigree (n=256) maintained by the Nestlé Purina PetCare Company. Four hundred eighty-three simple tandem repeat (STR) loci have been assigned to linkage groups on the cat's 18 autosomes. A single linkage group spans each autosome. The length of the cat map, estimated at 4370 cM, is long relative to most reported mammalian maps. A high degree of concordance in marker order was observed between the third-generation map and the 1.5 Mb-resolution radiation hybrid (RH) map of the cat. Using the cat 1.9x whole-genome sequence, we identified map coordinates for 85% of the loci in the cat assembly, with high concordance observed in marker order between the linkage map and the cat sequence assembly. The present version represents a marked improvement over previous cat linkage maps as it (i) nearly doubles the number of markers that were present in the second-generation linkage map in the cat, (ii) provides a linkage map generated in a domestic cat pedigree which will more accurately reflect recombination distances than previous maps generated in a hybrid pedigree, and (iii) provides single linkage groups spanning each autosome. Marker order was largely consistent between this and the previous maps, though the use of a hybrid pedigree in the earlier versions appears to have contributed to some suppression of recombination. The improved linkage map will provide an added resource for the mapping of phenotypic variation in the domestic cat and the use of this species as a model system for biological research. PMID:19059333

  19. Single neuron transcriptomics identify SRSF/SR protein B52 as a regulator of axon growth and Choline acetyltransferase splicing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boyin; Bossing, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    We removed single identified neurons from living Drosophila embryos to gain insight into the transcriptional control of developing neuronal networks. The microarray analysis of the transcriptome of two sibling neurons revealed seven differentially expressed transcripts between both neurons (threshold: log21.4). One transcript encodes the RNA splicing factor B52. Loss of B52 increases growth of axon branches. B52 function is also required for Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT ) splicing. At the end of embryogenesis, loss of B52 function impedes splicing of ChAT, reduces acetylcholine synthesis, and extends the period of uncoordinated muscle twitches during larval hatching. ChAT regulation by SRSF proteins may be a conserved feature since changes in SRSF5 expression and increased acetylcholine levels in brains of bipolar disease patients have been reported recently. PMID:27725692

  20. Noncongophilic fibrillary glomerulonephritis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Cavana, P; Capucchio, M T; Bovero, A; Ripanti, D; Catalano, D; Scaglione, F E; Miller, J; Blunden, T; Farca, A M

    2008-05-01

    This report describes an uncommon case of nonamyloidotic fibrillary glomerulonephritis. A 5-year-old female European cat was presented with nephrotic syndrome. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed a mild increase in cholesterol, low total protein, severe hypoalbuminemia, and high proteinuria with a high protein-to-creatinine ratio. An histologic examination revealed an interstitial nephritis and a diffuse glomerulonephritis, with multifocal thickening of the Bowman's capsule. Transmission electron microscopy showed widespread fibrillary deposits in the glomerular basement membrane and in the mesangium. These fibrils ranged between 18 and 26 nm in diameter and were Congo red negative, which allowed their differentiation from amyloid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) within the mesangium. Renal deposits of Congo red-negative amyloid-like fibrils have been described in humans, horses, monkeys, and dogs. This is the first report of noncongophilic fibrillary glomerulopathy in a cat. PMID:18487491

  1. Use of bacterial and firefly luciferases as reporter genes in DEAE-dextran-mediated transfection of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Pazzagli, M; Devine, J H; Peterson, D O; Baldwin, T O

    1992-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three different luciferase genes by placing them in a single reporter vector and expressing them in the same mammalian cell type. The luciferase genes investigated were the luc genes from the fireflies Photinus pyralis (PP) and Luciola mingrelica (LM) and the lux AB5 gene, a translational fusion of the two subunits of the bacterial luciferase from Vibrio harveyi (VH). The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene was also included in this study for comparison. The performances of the assay methods of the corresponding enzymes were evaluated using reference materials and the results of the expressed enzymes following transfection were calculated using calibration curves. All of the bioluminescent assays possess high reproducibility both within and between the batches (less than 15%). The comparison of the assay methods shows that firefly luciferases have the highest detection sensitivity (0.05 and 0.08 amol for PP and LM, respectively) whereas the VH bacterial luciferase has 5 amol and CAT 100 amol. On the other hand, the transfection of the various plasmids shows that the content of the expressed enzyme within the cells is much higher for CAT than for the other luciferase genes. VH luciferase is expressed at very low levels in mammalian cells due to the relatively high temperature of growing of the mammalian cells that seems to impair the correct folding of the active enzyme. PP and LM luciferases are both expressed at picomolar level but usually 10 to 70 times less in content with respect to CAT within the transfected cells. On the basis of these results the overall improvement in sensitivity related to the use of firefly luciferases as reporter genes in mammalian cells is about 30 to 50 times with respect to that of CAT. PMID:1443530

  2. Survey of dietary and medication practices of owners of cats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Markovich, Jessica E; Freeman, Lisa M; Labato, Mary A; Heinze, Cailin R

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the dietary and medication patterns of cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study, owners of cats with CKD were asked to complete a web-based survey. The study was advertised on CKD-, pet-, veterinary- and breed-associated websites and list serves. Owners of 1089 cats with CKD participated in the study. The mean reported age of the cats with CKD was 13.7 ± 4.2 years. Forty percent (430/1089) of cats had concurrent diseases, with hyperthyroidism, heart disease and inflammatory bowel disease being the most common. Veterinarian recommendation was the most common reason reported (684/1032; 66%) for diet selection, and 51% (556/1089) of owners fed a veterinary therapeutic diet formulated for kidney disease as some component of the diet. Many owners (466/1079; 43%) reported that their cats had an abnormal appetite; of these owners, 52% responded that their cats had a poor appetite or required coaxing to eat 5-7 days per week. Forty-seven percent and 51% of cats were receiving subcutaneous fluids and oral medications, respectively; however, most cats (811/1036; 78%) were not receiving phosphorus-binding medications. Fifty-six percent and 38% of cats received commercial cat treats and dietary supplements, respectively. Anorexia or hyporexia is a common problem in cats with CKD and may lead to cats being fed suboptimal diets for their disease. This information may be useful for treating or designing nutritional studies for cats with CKD.

  3. College Students and Their Cats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  4. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  5. [Glomerulonephritis in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M; Frese, K

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistology and special staining of plastic sections allow diagnosis and differentiation of subtypes of glomerulonephritis in dogs. Frequency and clinical importance of these forms of glomerulonephritis vary significantly. In cats, glomerulonephritis occurs frequently in FIV-positive cats but is rare in animals suffering from persistent FeLV infection or FIP. PMID:2068715

  6. Malignant histiocytosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Court, E A; Earnest-Koons, K A; Barr, S C; Gould, W J

    1993-11-01

    A 13-year-old male domestic shorthair cat was found to have normocytic hypochromic regenerative anemia, lymphopenia, eosinopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Transfusions of packed RBC failed to maintain the PCV above 13% for > 8 hours. The cat was euthanatized. At necropsy, the spleen liver, lymph nodes, and bone marrow were infiltrated with malignant histiocytes undergoing erythrophagocytosis.

  7. Isoform-dependent feedback regulation of serine O-acetyltransferase isoenzymes involved in L-cysteine biosynthesis of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sarwar; Ali, Vahab; Jeelani, Ghulam; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Serine acetyltransferase (SAT; EC 2.3.1.30) catalyzes the CoA-dependent acetylation of the side chain hydroxyl group of l-serine to form O-acetyl serine, in the first step of the L-cysteine biosynthetic pathway. Since this pathway is selectively present in a few parasitic protists and absent in mammals, it represents a reasonable target to develop new chemotherapeutics. Entamoeba histolytica apparently possesses three SAT isotypes (EhSAT1-3) showing 48-73% mutual identity, a calculated molecular mass of 34.4-37.7 kDa, and an isoelectric point of 5.70-6.63. To better understand the role of individual SAT isotypes, we determined kinetic and inhibitory parameters of recombinant SAT isotypes. While the three SAT isotypes showed comparable Km and k(cat) for L-serine and acetyl-CoA, they showed remarkable differences in their sensitivity to inhibition by L-cysteine. The Ki values for L-cysteine varied by 100-fold (4.7-460 microM) among SAT isotypes (EhSAT1

  8. Communicative and psychological dimensions of the KiddyCAT

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Chagit E.; Conture, Edward G.; Frankel, Carl B.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate the underlying constructs of the Communication Attitude Test for Preschool and Kindergarten Children Who Stutter (KiddyCAT; Vanryckeghem & Brutten, 2007), especially those related to awareness of stuttering and negative speech-associated attitudes. Method Participants were 114 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS; n = 52; 15 females) and children who do not stutter (CWNS; n = 62; 31 females). Their scores on the KiddyCAT were assessed to determine whether they differed with respect to talker group (CWS vs. CWNS), chronological age, younger versus older age groups, and gender. A categorical data principal components factor analysis (CATPCA) assessed the quantity and quality of the KiddyCAT dimensions. Results Findings indicated that preschool-age CWS scored significantly higher than CWNS on the KiddyCAT, regardless of age or gender. Additionally, the extraction of a single factor from the CATPCA indicated that one dimension—speech difficulty—appears to underlie the KiddyCAT items. Conclusions As reported by its test developers, the KiddyCAT differentiates between CWS and CWNS. Furthermore, one factor, which appears related to participants’ attitudes towards speech difficulty, underlies the questionnaire. Findings were taken to suggest that children’s responses to the KiddyCAT are related to their perception that speech is difficult, which, for CWS, may be associated with relatively frequent experiences with their speaking difficulties (i.e., stuttering). PMID:22333753

  9. Testosterone locally increases vasopressin content but fails to restore choline acetyltransferase activity in other regions in the senescent male rat brain.

    PubMed

    Goudsmit, E; Luine, V N; Swaab, D F

    1990-05-01

    Age-related decreases have been reported in both vasopressinergic and cholinergic innervation in the rat brain. Since both systems are also sensitive to sex steroids, the effect of testosterone supplementation on vasopressin (AVP) levels and on choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity was investigated in the brains of young, middle-aged and aged male rats. Although no age-related changes in AVP levels were observed in the lateral septum or the medial amygdala (MA), peripheral testosterone administration raised AVP levels in the MA in all age groups. ChAT activity decreased with age in the medial preoptic area and was not restored by testosterone.

  10. The Candida albicans Histone Acetyltransferase Hat1 Regulates Stress Resistance and Virulence via Distinct Chromatin Assembly Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tscherner, Michael; Zwolanek, Florian; Jenull, Sabrina; Sedlazeck, Fritz J.; Petryshyn, Andriy; Frohner, Ingrid E.; Mavrianos, John; Chauhan, Neeraj; von Haeseler, Arndt; Kuchler, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Human fungal pathogens like Candida albicans respond to host immune surveillance by rapidly adapting their transcriptional programs. Chromatin assembly factors are involved in the regulation of stress genes by modulating the histone density at these loci. Here, we report a novel role for the chromatin assembly-associated histone acetyltransferase complex NuB4 in regulating oxidative stress resistance, antifungal drug tolerance and virulence in C. albicans. Strikingly, depletion of the NuB4 catalytic subunit, the histone acetyltransferase Hat1, markedly increases resistance to oxidative stress and tolerance to azole antifungals. Hydrogen peroxide resistance in cells lacking Hat1 results from higher induction rates of oxidative stress gene expression, accompanied by reduced histone density as well as subsequent increased RNA polymerase recruitment. Furthermore, hat1Δ/Δ cells, despite showing growth defects in vitro, display reduced susceptibility to reactive oxygen-mediated killing by innate immune cells. Thus, clearance from infected mice is delayed although cells lacking Hat1 are severely compromised in killing the host. Interestingly, increased oxidative stress resistance and azole tolerance are phenocopied by the loss of histone chaperone complexes CAF-1 and HIR, respectively, suggesting a central role for NuB4 in the delivery of histones destined for chromatin assembly via distinct pathways. Remarkably, the oxidative stress phenotype of hat1Δ/Δ cells is a species-specific trait only found in C. albicans and members of the CTG clade. The reduced azole susceptibility appears to be conserved in a wider range of fungi. Thus, our work demonstrates how highly conserved chromatin assembly pathways can acquire new functions in pathogenic fungi during coevolution with the host. PMID:26473952

  11. Dissecting the Molecular Roles of Histone Chaperones in Histone Acetylation by Type B Histone Acetyltransferases (HAT-B).

    PubMed

    Haigney, Allison; Ricketts, M Daniel; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2015-12-18

    The HAT-B enzyme complex is responsible for acetylating newly synthesized histone H4 on lysines K5 and K12. HAT-B is a multisubunit complex composed of the histone acetyltransferase 1 (Hat1) catalytic subunit and the Hat2 (rbap46) histone chaperone. Hat1 is predominantly localized in the nucleus as a member of a trimeric NuB4 complex containing Hat1, Hat2, and a histone H3-H4 specific histone chaperone called Hif1 (NASP). In addition to Hif1 and Hat2, Hat1 interacts with Asf1 (anti-silencing function 1), a histone chaperone that has been reported to be involved in both replication-dependent and -independent chromatin assembly. To elucidate the molecular roles of the Hif1 and Asf1 histone chaperones in HAT-B histone binding and acetyltransferase activity, we have characterized the stoichiometry and binding mode of Hif1 and Asf1 to HAT-B and the effect of this binding on the enzymatic activity of HAT-B. We find that Hif1 and Asf1 bind through different modes and independently to HAT-B, whereby Hif1 binds directly to Hat2, and Asf1 is only capable of interactions with HAT-B through contacts with histones H3-H4. We also demonstrate that HAT-B is significantly more active against an intact H3-H4 heterodimer over a histone H4 peptide, independent of either Hif1 or Asf1 binding. Mutational studies further demonstrate that HAT-B binding to the histone tail regions is not sufficient for this enhanced activity. Based on these data, we propose a model for HAT-B/histone chaperone assembly and acetylation of H3-H4 complexes.

  12. Neurolymphomatosis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    SAKURAI, Masashi; AZUMA, Kazushi; NAGAI, Arata; FUJIOKA, Toru; SUNDEN, Yuji; SHIMADA, Akinori; MORITA, Takehito

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old male mixed breed cat showed chronic progressive neurological symptoms, which are represented by ataxia and seizures. At necropsy, spinal roots and spinal ganglions at the level of sixth cervical nerve to second thoracic nerve were bilaterally swollen and replaced by white mass lesions. Right brachial plexus and cranial nerves (III, V and VII) were also swollen. A mass lesion was found in the right frontal lobe of the cerebrum. Histologically, neoplastic lymphocytes extensively involved the peripheral nerves, and they infiltrated into the cerebral and spinal parenchyma according to the peripheral nerve tract. Immunohistochemically, most neoplastic lymphocytes were positive for CD20. The clinical and histological features in this case resemble those of neurolymphomatosis in humans. PMID:26960326

  13. Polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats with successful treatment of bacterial cyst infection.

    PubMed

    Nivy, R; Lyons, L A; Aroch, I; Segev, G

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited disorder in cats. Renal cysts progressively increase in size and number, resulting in a gradual decrease in kidney function. An autosomal dominant mutation in exon 29 of the polycystin-1 gene has been identified, mostly in Persian and Persian-related breeds. This case study describes polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats, of which two had the same genetic mutation reported in Persian and Persian-related cats. This likely reflects introduction of this mutation into the British shorthair breeding line because of previous outcrossing with Persian cats. An infected renal cyst was diagnosed and successfully treated in one of the cats. This is a commonly reported complication in human polycystic kidney disease, and to the authors' knowledge has not previously been reported in cats with polycystic kidney disease. PMID:25677715

  14. Polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats with successful treatment of bacterial cyst infection.

    PubMed

    Nivy, R; Lyons, L A; Aroch, I; Segev, G

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited disorder in cats. Renal cysts progressively increase in size and number, resulting in a gradual decrease in kidney function. An autosomal dominant mutation in exon 29 of the polycystin-1 gene has been identified, mostly in Persian and Persian-related breeds. This case study describes polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats, of which two had the same genetic mutation reported in Persian and Persian-related cats. This likely reflects introduction of this mutation into the British shorthair breeding line because of previous outcrossing with Persian cats. An infected renal cyst was diagnosed and successfully treated in one of the cats. This is a commonly reported complication in human polycystic kidney disease, and to the authors' knowledge has not previously been reported in cats with polycystic kidney disease.

  15. Nitrergic ventro-medial medullary neurons activated during cholinergically induced active (rapid eye movement) sleep in the cat.

    PubMed

    Pose, I; Sampogna, S; Chase, M H; Morales, F R

    2011-01-13

    The rostral ventro-medial medullary reticular formation is a complex structure that is involved with a variety of motor functions. It contains glycinergic neurons that are activated during active (rapid eye movement (REM)) sleep (AS); these neurons appear to be responsible for the postsynaptic inhibition of motoneurons that occurs during this state. We have reported that neurons in this same region contain nitric oxide (NO) synthase and that they innervate brainstem motor pools. In the present study we examined the c-fos expression of these neurons after carbachol-induced active sleep (C-AS). Three control and four experimental cats were employed to identify c-fos expressing nitrergic neurons using immunocytochemical techniques to detect the Fos protein together with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase activity. The classical neurotransmitter content of the nitrergic cells in this region was examined through the combination of immunocytochemical techniques for the detection of glutamate, glycine, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxilase (TH) or GABA together with nNOS. During C-AS, there was a 1074% increase in the number of nitrergic neurons that expressed c-fos. These neurons did not contain glycine, ChAT, TH or GABA, but a subpopulation (15%) of them displayed glutamate-like immunoreactivity. Therefore, some of these neurons contain both an excitatory neurotransmitter (glutamate) and an excitatory neuromodulator (NO); the neurotransmitter content of the rest of them remains to be determined. Because some of the nitrergic neurons innervate brainstem motoneurons it is possible that they participate in the generation of tonic and excitatory phasic motor events that occur during AS. We also suggest that these nitrergic neurons may be involved in autonomic regulation during this state. In addition, because NO has trophic effects on target neurons, the present findings represent the

  16. Exposure circumstances and outcomes of 48 households with 57 cats exposed to toxic lily species.

    PubMed

    Slater, Margaret R; Gwaltney-Brant, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of Lilium or Hemerocallis spp. by cats can result in renal failure. The objectives of this study were to determine the foreknowledge of lily toxicity of owners of cats that were exposed to lilies and to obtain historical, clinical and outcome information on the exposures. A survey was done of cat owners reporting indoor exposures to lilies to the Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) during April 2009. Forty eight individuals, (57 cats) were included. Sixty nine percent of cat owners said they could recognize a lily and 27% knew that lilies were toxic prior to their cats' exposures. Most lilies were obtained from grocery or other stores, and were purchased by the owners or as gifts to the cat owners. Owners who were unaware of lily toxicity frequently left the flowers where the cats had access to them, whereas in households where the toxicity was known the cats actively sought out the flowers. Of the cats in this study 93% received prompt veterinary care, and 87% either developed no signs or had brief signs that resolved. Five percent had evidence of renal insufficiency at final follow-up and another 5 percent of cats were euthanized due to renal failure. PMID:22058344

  17. Structure of soybean serine acetyltransferase and formation of the cysteine regulatory complex as a molecular chaperone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) catalyzes the limiting reaction in plant and microbial biosynthesis of cysteine. In addition to its enzymatic function, SAT forms a macromolecular complex with O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS). Formation of the cysteine regulatory complex (CRC) is a critical biochem...

  18. Comparative investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family among fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes well-characterized in several bacteria and higher eukaryotes. The role of NATs in fungal biology has only recently been investigated. The NAT1 gene of Gibberella moniliformis was the first NAT cloned and characterized from fun...

  19. Genetic Variation at the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) Genes in Global Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Functional variability at the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) genes is associated with adverse drug reactions and cancer susceptibility in humans. Previous studies of small sets of ethnic groups have indicated that the NAT genes have high levels of amino acid variation that differ in f...

  20. Phenazopyridine toxicosis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J W; Kornick, H P

    1976-08-01

    Severe illness developed after the oral administration of several drugs, including large doses of phenazopyridine (100 mg TID for 4 days) to a cat with dysuria and hematuria. Hemolysis and icterus were evident in blood serum and plasma after day 4 of drug administration, and many hemolyzed red blood cell "ghosts" containing Heinz bodies were observed on a stained blood smear. The cat became anemic and died within 48 hours after the last dose was administered. In an attempt to confirm a cause-and-effect relationship between drug administration and disease, 100 mg of phenazopyridine was given TID (65 mg/kg/day) for 3 days to a clinically normal cat. Nearly 50% of the hemoglobin was oxidized to methemoglobin during the course of phenazopyridine administration. Lower dosages of phenazopyridine (10 and 20 mg/kg/day) for longer periods of administration to 2 other clinically normal cats did not result in illness or anemia; however, the number and size of Heinz bodies and blood methemoglobin content were increased. Evidence of hepatic injury was observed in the clinically affected cat and in 2 of the experimental cats. The relationship between hepatic injury and toxic signs was not determined. Combination products recommeneded for treatment of cystitis in man often contain phenazopyridine. Such products should be avoided in cats unless a safe, effective dosage for phenazopyridine can be established.

  1. Metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of aortic body origin in a cat.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Sonya C; Smith, Annette N; Kuo, Kendon W; Fish, Eric J; Koehler, Jey W; Martinez-Romero, Gisela; Bacek, Lenore M

    2016-09-01

    An 8-year-old, female spayed Domestic Shorthair cat was presented to the Auburn University Emergency and Critical Care service for evaluation of pleural effusion and a suspected intrathoracic mass. Computed tomography was performed which confirmed the presence of a large intrathoracic mass, likely heart-based. Fine-needle aspirates were obtained and a cytologic diagnosis of a neuroendocrine tumor was made. Treatment with toceranib phosphate was briefly attempted at home by the owners. The cat died at home approximately 6 weeks after diagnosis. Necropsy and subsequent histopathologic examination revealed a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of aortic body origin. Aortic body tumors are extremely rare in cats and to the authors' knowledge, a neuroendocrine carcinoma of aortic body origin with distant metastases has not yet been reported in a cat. PMID:27564688

  2. Acceptance of domestic cat mitochondrial DNA in a criminal proceeding.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Kun, Teri J; Netzel, Linda R; Wictum, Elizabeth E; Halverson, Joy L

    2014-11-01

    Shed hair from domestic animals readily adheres to clothing and other contact items, providing a source of transfer evidence for criminal investigations. Mitochondrial DNA is often the only option for DNA analysis of shed hair. Human mitochondrial DNA analysis has been accepted in the US court system since 1996. The murder trial of the State of Missouri versus Henry L. Polk, Jr. represents the first legal proceeding where cat mitochondrial DNA analysis was introduced into evidence. The mitochondrial DNA evidence was initially considered inadmissible due to concerns about the cat dataset and the scientific acceptance of the marker. Those concerns were subsequently addressed, and the evidence was deemed admissible. This report reviews the case in regards to the cat biological evidence and its ultimate admission as generally accepted and reliable. Expansion and saturation analysis of the cat mitochondrial DNA control region dataset supported the initial interpretation of the evidence. PMID:25086413

  3. q -deformed noncommutative cat states and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib

    2015-02-01

    We study several classical-like properties of q -deformed nonlinear coherent states as well as nonclassical behaviors of q -deformed version of the Schrödinger cat states in noncommutative space. Coherent states in q -deformed space are found to be minimum uncertainty states together with the squeezed photon distributions unlike the ordinary systems, where the photon distributions are always Poissonian. Several advantages of utilizing cat states in noncommutative space over the standard quantum mechanical spaces have been reported here. For instance, the q -deformed parameter has been utilized to improve the squeezing of the quadrature beyond the ordinary case. Most importantly, the parameter provides an extra degree of freedom by which we achieve both quadrature squeezed and number squeezed cat states at the same time in a single system, which is impossible to achieve from ordinary cat states.

  4. Hepatosplenic Cat Scratch Disease in Immunocompetent Adults

    PubMed Central

    García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062

  5. CATS landline installed beneath the river Tees

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Press Construction Ltd. has completed installation of the land portion of a new gas pipeline from the North Sea, including a tunnel beneath the River Tees in the north of England. The work was carried out under a multi-million dollar contract from Amoco (UK) Exploration Co. The pipeline is the land portion of the Central Area Transmission System. The 4.6-mile, 36-in. onshore pipeline connects a valve station at the CATS landfall at Coatham Sands, just south of Tees Bay, to a gas terminal north of the River Tees. This paper reports on the entire CATS system which runs for nearly 250 miles from a riser platform in the Central Graben area of the North Sea to the Coatham Sands landfall and then overland to the gas terminal. The gas will fuel a new combined heat-and-power generating plant on Teesside, currently under construction by Teesside Power.

  6. Atypical membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Kami-ie, J; Ohtake, S; Wakui, S; Machida, S; Shirota, K

    2001-07-01

    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis was observed in a 2-year-old male Japanese domestic cat with clinical renal failure. In the glomeruli, moderate mesangial hypercellularity with an increased mesangial matrix and thickening of the capillary walls were prominent. In addition, frequent duplication of the capillary walls, splitting, and spike formation were observed in the glomerular basement membrane. Granular cat IgG and complement component deposition were detected globally along the glomerular capillary walls and in the mesangium. Transmission electron microscopy revealed dense deposits in the subendothelial and subepithelial regions and the mesangium. Mesangial interposition was also observed. These glomerular lesions are also found in humans with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type III, which has not been reported in animals. PMID:11467485

  7. Congenital Paraesophageal Hernia in a Cat.

    PubMed

    Tong, Kim; Guillou, Reunan; Vét, Doc

    2015-01-01

    A 3 mo old male domestic shorthair weighing 2 kg was presented for acute onset of anorexia, lethargy, paradoxical breathing, and a palpable mass effect in the cranial abdomen. Initial diagnostics and imaging suggested a pleuroperitoneal or hiatal hernia. Emergency abdominal exploration was performed, and a complex type II paraesophageal hiatal hernia was identified. The entire stomach, greater and lesser omenta, spleen, left limb of the pancreas, and the proximal segment of the descending duodenum were herniated through a discrete defect in the phrenicoesophageal ligament. After reduction of the herniated organs back into the abdomen, a phrenicoplasty, esophagopexy, and left-sided fundic gastropexy were performed. The cat recovered uneventfully from the procedure and was free of any signs of disease for at least 30 mo postoperatively. This is the first detailed report of the findings and successful surgical treatment of a complex congenital, type II paraesophageal hiatal hernia with complete herniation of the stomach, omenta, and spleen in a cat.

  8. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  9. [Clinical relevance of N-acetyltransferase type 2 (NAT2) genetic polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Furet, Y; Bechtel, Y; Le Guellec, C; Bechtel, P R; Autret-Leca, E; Paintaud, G

    2002-01-01

    Polymorphic N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) is involved in the metabolism of several compounds relevant in pharmacology or toxicology, with diverse clinical consequences. Inter-ethnic variations in distribution of the acetylation phenotype are significant. The caffeine test is most often used to assess the acetylation phenotype and to identify rapid and slow acetylators. The NAT2 phenotype could account for the increased risk of certain side effects in slow acetylators treated with isoniazid (particularly peripheral neuropathies and lupus erythematosus), although therapeutic efficacy seems to be independent of the acetylation status. Hypersensibility reactions with sulfonamides (including Lyell and Stevens-Johnson syndromes) are more frequent in slow acetylators, who also show poor tolerance to sulfasalazine and dapsone. In contrast, myelotoxicity induced by amonafide is more frequent in rapid acetylators, probably because of increased production of a toxic metabolite of the drug. In carcinogenesis, NAT2 may play a protective role against bladder cancer, although studies have shown contradictory results. Slow acetylators may have a risk of developing primitive liver cancer. For lung cancer, data are not conclusive, but slow acetylation status may predispose to mesothelioma in subjects exposed to asbestos. No relation has been found between acetylation phenotype and breast cancer. Contradictory results were reported on its role in colorectal cancer. Non-smoking type 1 diabetics may be at increased risk of nephropathy if they are rapid acetylators. Parkinson's disease may be more frequent among slow acetylators, but again, data have shown contradictory results. Finally, a poor acetylator phenotype may predispose to atopic diseases. PMID:12611196

  10. DNA hybridization and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase gene sequence detection based on zirconia/nanogold film modified electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Tao; Jiang, Chen; Jiao, Kui

    2008-05-01

    This study reports a novel electrochemical DNA biosensor based on zirconia (ZrO 2) and gold nanoparticles (NG) film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). NG was electrodeposited onto the glassy carbon electrode at 1.5 V, and then zirconia thin film on the NG/GCE was fabricated by cyclic voltammetric method (CV) in an aqueous electrolyte of ZrOCl 2 and KCl at a scan rate of 20 mV/s. DNA probes were attached onto the ZrO 2/NG/GCE due to the strong binding of the phosphate group of DNA with the zirconia film and the excellent biocompatibility of nanogold with DNA. CV and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to characterize the modification of the electrode and the probe DNA immobilization. The electrochemical response of the DNA hybridization was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the electroactive indicator. After the hybridization of DNA probe (ssDNA) with the complementary DNA (cDNA), the cathodic peak current of MB decreased obviously. The difference of the cathodic peak currents of MB between before and after the hybridization of the probe DNA was used as the signal for the detection of the target DNA. The sequence-specific DNA of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene in the transgenic plants was detected with a detection range from 1.0 × 10 -10 to 1.0 × 10 -6 mol/L, and a detection limit of 3.1 × 10 -11 mol/L.

  11. Regulation of a Protein Acetyltransferase in Myxococcus xanthus by the Coenzyme NADP+

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Xin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT NADP+ is a vital cofactor involved in a wide variety of activities, such as redox potential and cell death. Here, we show that NADP+ negatively regulates an acetyltransferase from Myxococcus xanthus, Mxan_3215 (MxKat), at physiologic concentrations. MxKat possesses an NAD(P)-binding domain fused to the Gcn5-type N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) domain. We used isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a coupled enzyme assay to show that NADP+ bound to MxKat and that the binding had strong effects on enzyme activity. The Gly11 residue of MxKat was confirmed to play an important role in NADP+ binding using site-directed mutagenesis and circular dichroism spectrometry. In addition, using mass spectrometry, site-directed mutagenesis, and a coupling enzymatic assay, we demonstrated that MxKat acetylates acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase (Mxan_2570) at Lys622 in response to changes in NADP+ concentration. Collectively, our results uncovered a mechanism of protein acetyltransferase regulation by the coenzyme NADP+ at physiological concentrations, suggesting a novel signaling pathway for the regulation of cellular protein acetylation. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms have developed various protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs), which enable cells to respond quickly to changes in the intracellular and extracellular milieus. This work provides the first biochemical characterization of a protein acetyltransferase (MxKat) that contains a fusion between a GNAT domain and NADP+-binding domain with Rossmann folds, and it demonstrates a novel signaling pathway for regulating cellular protein acetylation in M. xanthus. We found that NADP+ specifically binds to the Rossmann fold of MxKat and negatively regulates its acetyltransferase activity. This finding provides novel insight for connecting cellular metabolic status (NADP+ metabolism) with levels of protein acetylation, and it extends our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying PTMs. PMID:26598367

  12. Dynamic sound localization in cats

    PubMed Central

    Ruhland, Janet L.; Jones, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Sound localization in cats and humans relies on head-centered acoustic cues. Studies have shown that humans are able to localize sounds during rapid head movements that are directed toward the target or other objects of interest. We studied whether cats are able to utilize similar dynamic acoustic cues to localize acoustic targets delivered during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. We trained cats with visual-auditory two-step tasks in which we presented a brief sound burst during saccadic eye-head gaze shifts toward a prior visual target. No consistent or significant differences in accuracy or precision were found between this dynamic task (2-step saccade) and the comparable static task (single saccade when the head is stable) in either horizontal or vertical direction. Cats appear to be able to process dynamic auditory cues and execute complex motor adjustments to accurately localize auditory targets during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. PMID:26063772

  13. Dynamic sound localization in cats.

    PubMed

    Ruhland, Janet L; Jones, Amy E; Yin, Tom C T

    2015-08-01

    Sound localization in cats and humans relies on head-centered acoustic cues. Studies have shown that humans are able to localize sounds during rapid head movements that are directed toward the target or other objects of interest. We studied whether cats are able to utilize similar dynamic acoustic cues to localize acoustic targets delivered during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. We trained cats with visual-auditory two-step tasks in which we presented a brief sound burst during saccadic eye-head gaze shifts toward a prior visual target. No consistent or significant differences in accuracy or precision were found between this dynamic task (2-step saccade) and the comparable static task (single saccade when the head is stable) in either horizontal or vertical direction. Cats appear to be able to process dynamic auditory cues and execute complex motor adjustments to accurately localize auditory targets during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. PMID:26063772

  14. [Feline leishmaniasis: what's the epidemiological role of the cat?].

    PubMed

    Mancianti, F

    2004-06-01

    Feline leishmaniasis (FL) is a quite uncommon feature. Clinical disease has been described in cats since nineties begin. More than 40 reports in world literature have been referred, but the clinical cases have been only recently well defined. Most of the reports focus on infected cats living in endemic areas, even if, more recently FL due to Leishmania infantum was found in Sao Paulo State, in Brazil where autochthonous human or canine leishmaniasis cases have never reported. In Europe clinical cases of FL have been described from Portugal, France, Spain and Italy from 1996 to 2002. When a typing of the etiological agent was performed L. infantum was identified in all reported cases. In some endemic areas serological surveys have also been carried out in cats, using IHAT in Egypt, Western blot in France or IFAT in Italy. Sixty Egyptian cats had low serological antibody titers, from 1/32 to 1/128, in the endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis of Alpes Maritimes 12 out of 97 (12.5%) cats showed antibodies versus antigens 14 and/or 18 kDa of L. infantum. A previous survey by means of IFAT in Liguria and Toscana on 110 and 158 feline sera respectively reports a seroprevalence of 0.9% with low titer, while sera from Sicily seem to be positive at higher dilutions. Animals living in an endemic area can develop specific antibodies against leishmania and, in our experience, they can be evidentiated by means of IFAT. The antibody titers appear to be lower in affected cats than in dogs, even if the number of clinical cases is very scanty. PCR tests on feline blood samples are in progress, but preliminary results confirm the presence of leishmania DNA in such specimens. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the more frequent form in cats and it was reported from several countries. Typical signs include nodular to ulcer or crusty lesions on the nose, lips, ears, eyelids, alopecia: clinical signs of cutaneous FL are unspecific and in endemic area this infection must be taken into account

  15. Error Generation in CATS-Based Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd

    2003-01-01

    This research presents a methodology for generating errors from a model of nominally preferred correct operator activities, given a particular operational context, and maintaining an explicit link to the erroneous contextual information to support analyses. It uses the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) model as the basis for error generation. This report describes how the process works, and how it may be useful for supporting agent-based system safety analyses. The report presents results obtained by applying the error-generation process and discusses implementation issues. The research is supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention Element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  16. Food hypersensitivity in a cat.

    PubMed

    Medleau, L; Latimer, K S; Duncan, J R

    1986-09-15

    Food hypersensitivity was diagnosed in a 4-year-old Siamese cat. Clinical signs included intense erythema, with alopecia, excoriations, erosions, and crusts involving the ventral portion of the abdomen, inguinal region, medial aspect of each thigh, and cranial and lateral aspects of all 4 limbs. The cat was intensely pruritic. Histologically, there was cutaneous mast cell hyperplasia and diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the dermis. Blood eosinophilia also was found. Clinical signs resolved after exclusive feeding of a hypoallergenic diet.

  17. Acquired retinal folds in the cat.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, A D

    1976-06-01

    Retinal folds were found in 5 cats. The apparent cause of the folding was varied: in 1 cat the folds appeared after a localized retinal detachment; in 2 cats the condition accompanied other intraocular abnormalities associated with feline infectious peritonitis; 1 cat had active keratitis, and the retinal changes were thought to have been injury related; and 1 cat, bilaterally affected, had chronic glomerulonephritis. PMID:945253

  18. Cat scratch disease in an immunosuppressed patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hitos, J A; Sabio, J M; Navarrete-Navarrete, N; Arenas-Miras, M del M; Zamora-Pasadas, M; Jiménez-Alonso, J

    2016-03-01

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious disorder transmitted by cats that typically affects children and young adults. Immunosuppression is a well-known risk factor for the development of severe and atypical forms of the disease; hence it is under-diagnosed in patients with compromised immunity. We are reporting the first case of cat scratch disease, which presented as fever and fatigue, in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus while receiving immunosuppressant therapy after a kidney transplant.

  19. Feeders of Free-Roaming Cats: Personal Characteristics, Feeding Practices, and Data on Cat Health and Welfare in an Urban Setting of Israel.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Idit; Raz, Tal; Even Zor, Yehonatan; Bachowski, Yuval; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRCs) and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR) campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices, and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to 5 cats, group 2: fed 6-10 cats, group 3: fed 11-20 cats, and group 4: fed ≥21 cats). Most feeders were women (81%), with a median age of 58 years (range 18-81). The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised 15.31% (n = 34) of all feeders but fed 56% (n = 1869) of the FRC in 37.42% (n = 128) of the feeding locations. "Heavy" feeders (groups 3 and 4) reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, "heavy" feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets, and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders' reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337) cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337) were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337) of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337) suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337) had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337) were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity rate were

  20. Feeders of Free-Roaming Cats: Personal Characteristics, Feeding Practices, and Data on Cat Health and Welfare in an Urban Setting of Israel

    PubMed Central

    Gunther, Idit; Raz, Tal; Even Zor, Yehonatan; Bachowski, Yuval; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRCs) and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR) campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices, and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to 5 cats, group 2: fed 6–10 cats, group 3: fed 11–20 cats, and group 4: fed ≥21 cats). Most feeders were women (81%), with a median age of 58 years (range 18–81). The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised 15.31% (n = 34) of all feeders but fed 56% (n = 1869) of the FRC in 37.42% (n = 128) of the feeding locations. “Heavy” feeders (groups 3 and 4) reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, “heavy” feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets, and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders’ reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337) cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337) were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337) of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337) suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337) had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337) were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity

  1. Feeders of Free-Roaming Cats: Personal Characteristics, Feeding Practices, and Data on Cat Health and Welfare in an Urban Setting of Israel.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Idit; Raz, Tal; Even Zor, Yehonatan; Bachowski, Yuval; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRCs) and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR) campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices, and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to 5 cats, group 2: fed 6-10 cats, group 3: fed 11-20 cats, and group 4: fed ≥21 cats). Most feeders were women (81%), with a median age of 58 years (range 18-81). The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised 15.31% (n = 34) of all feeders but fed 56% (n = 1869) of the FRC in 37.42% (n = 128) of the feeding locations. "Heavy" feeders (groups 3 and 4) reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, "heavy" feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets, and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders' reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337) cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337) were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337) of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337) suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337) had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337) were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity rate were

  2. Assessment of left ventricular longitudinal function in cats with subclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Keisuke; Fujii, Yoko; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Aoki, Takuma

    2015-09-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in cats is characterized by concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and both diastolic and systolic dysfunction. Although impaired cardiac function detected by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in cats with HCM was previously reported, reference ranges of TDI in normal cats and cats with HCM have been reported as widely variable. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) was useful for assessment of cardiac function in human patients with HCM, but clinical utility was not known in cats. The aim of this study was to assess global and segmental LV myocardial function using STE in cats with HCM whose TDI variables were within the reference range. A total of 35 cats of different breeds were enrolled in this study. The HCM group (n=22) was cats diagnosed as HCM without left atrial enlargement and with normal TDI measurements. HCM cats were further divided into a segmental hypertrophy (S-HCM) group and a diffuse hypertrophy (D-HCM) group. The control group consisted of 13 clinically healthy cats. No cats in any group showed any clinical symptoms. Conventional echocardiography, TDI, and global and segmental STE indices were evaluated and compared between groups. Only the longitudinal strain rate during early diastole was significantly decreased in both HCM groups, even in all segments including those without hypertrophy in S-HCM group. This study suggests that STE parameters are the more sensitive variables compared with conventional TDI parameters to detect early myocardial diastolic dysfunction in cats with HCM.

  3. Feline hepatic biotransformation of diazepam: Differences between cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    van Beusekom, Cyrina D; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Koenderink, Jan B; Russel, Frans G M; Schrickx, Johannes A

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to humans and dogs, diazepam has been reported to induce severe hepatic side effects in cats, particularly after repeated dosing. With the aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this apparent sensitivity of cats to drug-induced liver injury, in a series of in vitro experiments, the feline-specific biotransformation of diazepam was studied with liver microsomes obtained from cats and dogs and the possible inhibition of the bile salt export pump (Bsep) was measured in isolated membrane vesicles overexpressing feline and canine Bsep. In line with previous in vivo studies, the phase I metabolites nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam were measurable in microsomal incubations, although enzyme velocity of demethylases and hydroxylases differed significantly between cats and dogs. In cats, the main metabolite was temazepam, which also could be glucuronidated. In contrast to dogs, no other glucuronidated metabolites could be observed. In addition, in the membrane vesicles an inhibition of the transport of the Bsep substrate taurocholic acid could be observed in the presence of diazepam and its metabolites. It was concluded that both mechanisms, the slow biotransformation of diazepam as well the inhibition of the bile acid efflux that results in an accumulation of bile acids in the hepatocytes, seem to contribute to the liver injury observed in cats following repetitive treatment with diazepam.

  4. Adverse events in 50 cats with allergic dermatitis receiving ciclosporin.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Nicole A; McKeever, Patrick J; Eisenschenk, Melissa C

    2011-12-01

    Ciclosporin is an immunosuppressive drug that has been used to treat allergies and other immune-mediated diseases in cats, dogs and humans. Information about the adverse effects of ciclosporin in cats has been limited to smaller studies and case reports. Adverse effects in dogs are mainly gastrointestinal in nature, but humans can also experience hypertension and altered renal function. The aim of this retrospective case series study was to document the occurrence and clinical appearance of adverse events in cats receiving ciclosporin to treat allergic skin disease. The medical records of 50 cats with allergic dermatitis treated with oral ciclosporin (1.9-7.3 mg/kg/day) were reviewed. Adverse events occurred in 66% (33 cats). Adverse events likely to be associated with ciclosporin included the following: vomiting or diarrhoea within 1-8 weeks of receiving ciclosporin (24%), weight loss (16%), anorexia and subsequent hepatic lipidosis (2%) and gingival hyperplasia (2%). Other adverse events less likely to be associated with ciclosporin therapy included the following: weight gain (14%), dental tartar and gingivitis (10%), otitis (4%), chronic diarrhoea (4%), inflammatory bowel disease with indolent gastrointestinal lymphoma (2%), urinary tract infection (2%), cataract (2%), elevated liver enzymes (2%), hyperthyroidism and renal failure (2%) and transient inappropriate urination (2%). Some cats experienced multiple adverse events. Case-control studies are needed to prove cause and effect of ciclosporin with regard to these adverse events. PMID:21545660

  5. Occurrence and regional distribution of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats in Germany.

    PubMed

    Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland

    2013-02-01

    Infections with the metastrongyloid nematode Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats have been reported sporadically from Germany. To assess the occurrence and regional geographical distribution of A. abstrusus in Germany, faecal samples from 391 cats with symptoms of respiratory disease were collected from December 2009 to November 2011. The zinc chloride/sodium chloride flotation and Baermann funnel technique were used to examine the samples for the presence of lungworm larvae. The collected data were analyzed using a geographic information system (GIS). Infections with lungworms were diagnosed in 26 (6.6 %) of the examined cats. The infection rates did not show significant differences in the age groups up to 7 years. Only cats older than 7 were significantly less infected with lungworms than young cats. Sixteen of the 192 female cats examined and 7 of the 186 males were positive for A. abstrusus, but there were no significant differences for the variable 'gender infection rate'. Most of the A. abstrusus-positive cats were located in Baden-Wuerttemberg, followed by Lower Saxony, Bremen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Bavaria, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saarland, Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein. The majority of infected cats showed severe clinical symptoms characterised by coughing and dyspnoea, increased breathing rate, weight loss, bronchopneumonia, generally poor condition, sneezing and nasal discharge. The high number of lungworm-positive cats and the severe clinical symptoms should encourage veterinarians in Germany to consider infections with A. abstrusus as a differential diagnosis in cats with symptoms of respiratory disease. PMID:23239090

  6. Nickel and cobalt resistance engineered in Escherichia coli by overexpression of serine acetyltransferase from the nickel hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi goesingense.

    PubMed

    Freeman, John L; Persans, Michael W; Nieman, Ken; Salt, David E

    2005-12-01

    The overexpression of serine acetyltransferase from the Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Thlaspi goesingense causes enhanced nickel and cobalt resistance in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, overexpression of T. goesingense serine acetyltransferase results in enhanced sensitivity to cadmium and has no significant effect on resistance to zinc. Enhanced nickel resistance is directly related to the constitutive overactivation of sulfur assimilation and glutathione biosynthesis, driven by the overproduction of O-acetyl-L-serine, the product of serine acetyltransferase and a positive regulator of the cysteine regulon. Nickel in the serine acetyltransferase-overexpressing strains is not detoxified by coordination or precipitation with sulfur, suggesting that glutathione is involved in reducing the oxidative damage imposed by nickel. PMID:16332856

  7. Nickel and Cobalt Resistance Engineered in Escherichia coli by Overexpression of Serine Acetyltransferase from the Nickel Hyperaccumulator Plant Thlaspi goesingense

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, John L.; Persans, Michael W.; Nieman, Ken; Salt, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The overexpression of serine acetyltransferase from the Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Thlaspi goesingense causes enhanced nickel and cobalt resistance in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, overexpression of T. goesingense serine acetyltransferase results in enhanced sensitivity to cadmium and has no significant effect on resistance to zinc. Enhanced nickel resistance is directly related to the constitutive overactivation of sulfur assimilation and glutathione biosynthesis, driven by the overproduction of O-acetyl-l-serine, the product of serine acetyltransferase and a positive regulator of the cysteine regulon. Nickel in the serine acetyltransferase-overexpressing strains is not detoxified by coordination or precipitation with sulfur, suggesting that glutathione is involved in reducing the oxidative damage imposed by nickel. PMID:16332856

  8. Genetic polymorphism of six plasma proteins in the domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Juneja, R K; Niini, T; Larsson, H E; Sandberg, K

    1991-01-01

    Phenotypes of cat plasma apolipoprotein A4 (APOA4), antithrombin 3 (AT3), alpha 1B-glycoprotein (A1BG), transferrin (TF), vitamin D-binding protein (GC), and an unidentified pretransferrin (PTF) were determined by using simple methods of horizontal, nondenaturing gel electrophoresis followed by protein staining. The cat proteins were identified by immunoblotting using antisera for human plasma proteins. Three alleles were reported for each of TF and PTF, and two alleles were reported for each of GC, APOA4, AT3, and A1BG. The mongrels and Persians showed a high degree of polymorphism at most of the loci whereas the Birmans exhibited much less variation. Genetic evidence indicating the occurrence of a monomeric and a dimeric form of APOA4 in cat plasma was reported. PMID:2013693

  9. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  10. System-wide Studies of N-Lysine Acetylation in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Reveals Substrate Specificity of Protein Acetyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Heidi A; Pelletier, Dale A; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein acetylation is widespread in prokaryotes. Results: Six new acyl-CoA synthetases whose activities are controlled by acetylation were identified, and their substrate preference established. A new protein acetyltransferase was also identified and its substrate specificity determined. Conclusion: Protein acetyltransferases acetylate a conserved lysine residue in protein substrates. Significance: The R. palustris Pat enzyme specifically acetylates AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases and regulates fatty acid metabolism.

  11. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  12. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  13. Expression profiling of S. pombe acetyltransferase mutants identifies redundant pathways of gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs) are implicated in regulation of transcription. HATs from different families may overlap in target and substrate specificity. Results We isolated the elp3+ gene encoding the histone acetyltransferase subunit of the Elongator complex in fission yeast and characterized the phenotype of an Δelp3 mutant. We examined genetic interactions between Δelp3 and two other HAT mutants, Δmst2 and Δgcn5 and used whole genome microarray analysis to analyze their effects on gene expression. Conclusions Comparison of phenotypes and expression profiles in single, double and triple mutants indicate that these HAT enzymes have overlapping functions. Consistent with this, overlapping specificity in histone H3 acetylation is observed. However, there is no evidence for overlap with another HAT enzyme, encoded by the essential mst1+ gene. PMID:20096118

  14. Assessment of five formulae to predict post-transfusion packed cell volume in cats.

    PubMed

    Reed, Nicki; Espadas, Irene; Lalor, Stephanie M; Kisielewicz, Caroline

    2014-08-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify the most accurate formula for estimating the increase in packed cell volume (PCV) after whole blood transfusion of cats, as several formulae have been reported but not validated. Forty cats, of varying breeds and gender, were included from two referral institutions after database searches over a 13 year period. Five formulae were used to calculate an estimated post-transfusion PCV based on the re-working of formulae for determining the volume of donor blood to be transfused; three formulae were derived from those previously reported in the feline literature and two from human paediatric medicine, where a similar mean blood volume has been described. Cats were subdivided into two groups, the first consisting of 17 cats with non-regenerative anaemia and the second consisting of 23 cats with ongoing losses such as haemolysis and haemorrhage; it was hypothesised that formulae could be more accurate for group 1 cats, whereas formulae applied to group 2 cats could have overestimated the post-transfusion PCV. Bland-Altman analysis was performed for all cats to compare the actual increase in PCV with the calculated increase for the five formulae. Formula 1 (PCV % increase = volume of blood transfused in ml/2 × bodyweight in kg) performed best overall and is easy to calculate; however, no single formula was highly accurate at predicting the PCV increase after whole blood transfusion in cats and, owing to the wide confidence intervals, these formulae should be applied judiciously in the clinical setting.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity in an urban population of healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Colliard, Laurence; Paragon, Bernard-Marie; Lemuet, Béatrice; Bénet, Jean-Jacques; Blanchard, Géraldine

    2009-02-01

    The incidence of overweight in cats has been reported in various studies to range between 6 and 52% depending on such factors as gender, neutering, age, being cross-bred, living in a single or two-cat household, no dog living in the household, inactivity, feeding fresh meat or fish, eating a premium or therapeutic food, distribution of food on a free choice basis and owner underestimation of their cat's body weight or body condition (BC). The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and to determine the risk factors associated with excess body weight, including owners' perception of their cat's BC in the studied population. Between March and June 2006, all owners presenting healthy cats for vaccination at the National Veterinary School of Alfort were questioned by a veterinarian using a standardised and validated questionnaire. Owners and veterinarians gave an oral evaluation of the cat's BC first verbally and then by comparison with a legend free visual scale. Univariate analysis was performed for all variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to variables strongly associated with overweight or regarded as major risk factors. On a total population of 385 cats, 19.0% were found to be overweight and 7.8% to be obese. The evaluation of overweight cats' BC by their owner was better with the visual scale than with the verbal description. This study confirmed earlier reports identifying being male, neutering, and underestimation of the cat's BC by the owner, as risk factors for being overweight.

  16. Genetic testing in domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat’s appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat’s genome. PMID:22546621

  17. Mechanism of the lysosomal membrane enzyme acetyl coenzyme A: alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA:..cap alpha..-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase is a lysosomal membrane enzyme, deficient in the genetic disease Sanfilippo C syndrome. The enzyme catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA to terminal ..cap alpha..-glucosamine residues of heparan sulfate within the organelle. The reaction mechanism was examined using high purified lysosomal membranes from rat liver and human fibroblasts. The N-acetyltransferase reaction is optimal above pH 5.5 and a 2-3 fold stimulation of activity is observed in the presence of 0.1% taurodeoxycholate. Double reciprocal analysis and product inhibition studies indicate that the enzyme works by a Di-Iso Ping Pong Bi Bi mechanism. The binding of acetyl-CoA to the enzyme is measured by exchange label from (/sup 3/H)CoA to acetyl-CoA, and is optimal at pH's above 7.0. The acetyl-enzyme intermediate is formed by incubating membranes with (/sup 3/H)acetyl-CoA. The acetyl group can be transferred to glucosamine, forming (/sup 3/H)N-acetylglucosamine; the transfer is optimal between pH 4 and 5. Lysosomal membranes from Sanfilippo C fibroblasts confirm that these half reactions carried out by the N-acetyltransferase. The enzyme is inactivated by N-bromosuccinimide and diethylpyrocarbonate, indicating that a histidine is involved in the reaction. These results suggest that the histidine residue is at the active site of the enzyme. The properties of the N-acetyltransferase in the membrane, the characterization of the enzyme kinetics, the chemistry of a histidine mediated acetylation and the pH difference across the lysosomal membrane all support a transmembrane acetylation mechanism.

  18. Metabolism of triethylenetetramine and 1,12-diamino-3,6,9-triazadodecane by the spermidine/spermine-N(1)-acetyltransferase and thialysine acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Hyvönen, Mervi T; Weisell, Janne; Khomutov, Alex R; Alhonen, Leena; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Keinänen, Tuomo A

    2013-01-01

    Triethylenetetramine (TETA; Syprine; Merck Rahway, NJ), a drug for Wilson's disease, is a copper chelator and a charge-deficient analog of polyamine spermidine. We recently showed that TETA is metabolized in vitro by polyamine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine-N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT1) and by thialysine acetyltransferase (SSAT2) to its monoacetylated derivative (MAT). The acetylation of TETA is increased in SSAT1-overexpressing mice compared with wild-type mice. However, SSAT1-deficient mice metabolize TETA at the same rate as the wild-type mice, indicating the existence of another N-acetylase respons 2ible for its metabolism in mice. Here, we show that siRNA-mediated knockdown of SSAT2 in HEPG2 cells and in primary hepatocytes from the SSAT1-deficient or wild-type mice reduced the metabolism of TETA to MAT. By contrast, 1,12-diamino-3,6,9-triazadodecane(SpmTrien), a charge-deficient spermine analog, was an extremely poor substrate of human recombinant SSAT2 and was metabolized by SSAT1 in HEPG2 cells and in wild-type primary hepatocytes. Thus, despite the similar structures of TETA and SpmTrien, SSAT2 is the main acetylator of TETA, whereas SpmTrien is primarily acetylated by SSAT1.

  19. Structure-based molecular design for thermostabilization of N-acetyltransferase Mpr1 involved in a novel pathway of L-arginine synthesis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Nasuno, Ryo; Hirase, Saeka; Norifune, Saki; Watanabe, Daisuke; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Previously, N-Acetyltransferase Mpr1 was suggested to be involved in a novel pathway of L-arginine biosynthesis in yeast. Our recent crystallographic analysis demonstrated that the overall structure of Mpr1 is a typical folding among proteins in the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily, and also provided clues to the design of mutations for improvement of the enzymatic functions. Here, we constructed new stable variants, Asn203Lys- and Asn203Arg-Mpr1, which exhibited 2.4-fold and 2.2-fold longer activity half-lives than wild-type Mpr1, respectively, by structure-based molecular design. The replacement of Asn203 with a basic amino acid was suggested to stabilize α-helix 2, which is important for the Mpr1 structure, probably by neutralizing its dipole. In addition, the combination of two amino acid substitutions at positions 65 and 203 in Mpr1, Phe65Leu, which was previously isolated by the screening from PCR random mutagenesis library of MPR1, and Asn203Lys or Asn203Arg, led to further stabilization of Mpr1. Our growth assay suggests that overexpression of the stable Mpr1 variants increase L-arginine synthesis in yeast cells. Our finding is the first report on the rational engineering of Mpr1 for thermostabilization and could be useful in the construction of new yeast strains with higher L-arginine synthetic activity and also improved fermentation ability.

  20. Molecular cloning of rice serotonin N-acetyltransferase, the penultimate gene in plant melatonin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kiyoon; Lee, Kyungjin; Park, Sangkyu; Byeon, Yeong; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2013-08-01

    Because of the absence of an arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) homolog in the plant genome, the proposal was made that a GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily gene (GNAT) could be substituted for AANAT. To clone rice serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), we expressed 31 rice GNAT cDNAs in Escherichia coli and screened SNAT activity by measuring N-acetyltryptamine after application with 1 mm tryptamine. GNAT5 was shown to produce high levels of N-acetyltryptamine in E. coli, suggesting a possible rice SNAT. To confirm SNAT activity, the GNAT5 protein was purified through affinity purification from E. coli culture. The purified recombinant GNAT5 showed high SNAT enzyme activity catalyzing serotonin into N-acetylserotonin. The values for Km and Vmax were 385 μm and 282 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. An in vitro enzyme assay of purified SNAT showed N-acetylserotonin formation to be proportional to enzyme concentration and time, with peak activity at pH 8.8. High substrate concentrations above 1 mm serotonin inhibited SNAT activity. Finally, the mRNA level of SNAT was higher in shoots than in roots, but it was expressed constitutively, unlike N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT), the terminal enzyme in melatonin synthesis. These results suggest that ASMT rather than SNAT is the rate-limiting enzyme of melatonin biosynthesis in plants.

  1. Conformational flexibility and subunit arrangement of the modular yeast Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase complex.

    PubMed

    Setiaputra, Dheva; Ross, James D; Lu, Shan; Cheng, Derrick T; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Yip, Calvin K

    2015-04-17

    The Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex is a highly conserved, 19-subunit histone acetyltransferase complex that activates transcription through acetylation and deubiquitination of nucleosomal histones in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because SAGA has been shown to display conformational variability, we applied gradient fixation to stabilize purified SAGA and systematically analyzed this flexibility using single-particle EM. Our two- and three-dimensional studies show that SAGA adopts three major conformations, and mutations of specific subunits affect the distribution among these. We also located the four functional modules of SAGA using electron microscopy-based labeling and transcriptional activator binding analyses and show that the acetyltransferase module is localized in the most mobile region of the complex. We further comprehensively mapped the subunit interconnectivity of SAGA using cross-linking mass spectrometry, revealing that the Spt and Taf subunits form the structural core of the complex. These results provide the necessary restraints for us to generate a model of the spatial arrangement of all SAGA subunits. According to this model, the chromatin-binding domains of SAGA are all clustered in one face of the complex that is highly flexible. Our results relate information of overall SAGA structure with detailed subunit level interactions, improving our understanding of its architecture and flexibility.

  2. Osteochondrodysplasia in three Scottish Fold cats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinhwa; Jung, Joohyun; Oh, Sunkyoung; Lee, Sungok; Kim, Gyeongmin; Kim, Haksang; Kweon, Ohkyeong; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Mincheol

    2007-09-01

    This report explains typical radiographic features of Scottish Fold osteochondrodysplasia. Three Scottish Fold cats suffering from lameness were referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Seoul National University, Korea. Based on the breed predisposition, history, clinical signs, physical examination, and radiographic findings, Scottish Fold osteochondrodysplasia was confirmed in three cases. Radiographic changes mainly included exostosis and secondary arthritis around affected joint lesions, and defective conformation in the phalanges and caudal vertebrae. The oral chondroprotective agents such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate make the patients alleviate their pain without adverse effects. PMID:17679781

  3. Surveillance of upper respiratory tract disease in owned cats in Australia, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Wong, W T; Kelman, M; Ward, M P

    2013-10-01

    Reported cases of feline upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) - presumptively diagnosed as feline herpesvirus (FHV) or feline calicivirus (FCV) - throughout Australia (2010-2012) were obtained from Disease WatchDog, a companion animal disease surveillance system. This surveillance system is based on voluntary reporting of cases by veterinarians, using a web-based program. Animal factors, location and vaccination information are also reported. Cases reported were mapped and seasonal patterns were described. A total of 131 FHV cases and 120 FCV cases were reported. Excluding euthanasia, case fatality rates were 1.12% and 1.28%, respectively. The largest proportion of cases was reported in winter. Young cats (≤ 2 years), intact cats, unvaccinated cats and (for FHV) male cats appeared to be over-represented in the cases reported. The distributions of cases reported in this surveillance system provide information to aid the diagnosis of infectious feline URTD and to develop client educational programs. PMID:23910025

  4. Sex-dependent differences in estrogen regulation of choline acetyltransferase are altered by neonatal treatments.

    PubMed

    Luine, V N; Renner, K J; McEwen, B S

    1986-08-01

    We investigated whether estrogenic actions of testosterone during development which mediate the suppression of feminine reproductive behavior and cyclic gonadotropin secretion also contribute to reported sex differences in the induction of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) after estrogen priming in the diagonal band region of the preoptic area. Newborn female rats received estradiol (E2 females); newborn males received 1,4,6-androstatrien-3,17-dione (ATD), an inhibitor of aromatase (ATD males); and some of both sexes received vehicle treatment (control). In adulthood, feminine sexual behavior (lordosis) was tested after E2 plus progesterone priming. The neonatal treatments reversed the sex-specific response pattern; E2 females were defeminized and displayed minimal lordosis, as did control males, while ATD males showed maximal lordosis, as did control females. E2 was then administered, and ChAT activity was measured in the horizontal and vertical nuclei of the diagonal bands (hDB and vDB, respectively). Controls exhibited the normal sex-specific response to E2. Females showed increased ChAT activity in the hDB and unaltered activity in the vDB: males had unaltered ChAT activity in the hDB and decreased activity in the vDB. In neonatally treated males and females, ChAT activity after E2 administration was not altered from the normal sex-specific pattern in the hDB, i.e. all females showed increased hDB ChAT after E2, and no male responded. In the vDB, groups defeminized in terms of lordosis (E2 females and control males) showed higher ChAT activity in the absence of E2 priming, and E2 treatment decreased vDB ChAT in these groups. In addition, ATD males showed a unique response to E2 in the vDB, namely increased ChAT activity. Although neonatal E2 and ATD treatments did not completely reverse the sex-specific pattern of E2 priming on ChAT activity, the results obtained suggest that a net increase in diagonal band cholinergic function, as indexed by increased Ch

  5. Unusual hyperparathyroidism in a cat.

    PubMed

    Gnudi, G; Bertoni, G; Luppi, A; Cantoni, A M

    2001-01-01

    A 5 month-old, male, domestic short hair cat was presented with inappetence and vomiting. it was depressed and reluctant to move. The cat had difficulties in keeping the standing position and grossly deformed thighs. Lytic changes and disruption of normal architecture of the bone were observed, involving mainly the femoral diaphyses. An inverse Ca/P ratio and kidney failure were diagnosed. The possibility of whether the bone changes could have been related to primary or secondary renal hyperparathyroidism is discussed. PMID:11405269

  6. The paradox of Schrodinger's cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villars, C. N.

    1986-07-01

    Erwin Schrodinger first described the thought-experiment which has since become known as 'the paradox of Schrodinger's cat' 51 years ago. In recent years, popular accounts of quantum mechanics have tended to adopt one or other of the philosophically most extreme solutions to this paradox, i.e. the consciousness hypothesis or the many worlds interpretation. The author attempts to redress the balance by describing what he takes to be the orthodox solution to the paradox which explains the paradox, without recourse to such counterintuitive notions as a cat simultaneously dead and alive or a universe continually splitting into multiple worlds, as being due to a misapplication of the quantum formalism.

  7. Effect of Increased Yeast Alcohol Acetyltransferase Activity on Flavor Profiles of Wine and Distillates

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, M.; Lambrechts, M. G.; Pretorius, I. S.

    2000-01-01

    The distinctive flavor of wine, brandy, and other grape-derived alcoholic beverages is affected by many compounds, including esters produced during alcoholic fermentation. The characteristic fruity odors of the fermentation bouquet are primarily due to a mixture of hexyl acetate, ethyl caproate (apple-like aroma), iso-amyl acetate (banana-like aroma), ethyl caprylate (apple-like aroma), and 2-phenylethyl acetate (fruity, flowery flavor with a honey note). The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of improving the aroma of wine and distillates by overexpressing one of the endogenous yeast genes that controls acetate ester production during fermentation. The synthesis of acetate esters by the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation is ascribed to at least three acetyltransferase activities, namely, alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), ethanol acetyltransferase, and iso-amyl AAT. To investigate the effect of increased AAT activity on the sensory quality of Chenin blanc wines and distillates from Colombar base wines, we have overexpressed the alcohol acetyltransferase gene (ATF1) of S. cerevisiae. The ATF1 gene, located on chromosome XV, was cloned from a widely used commercial wine yeast strain of S. cerevisiae, VIN13, and placed under the control of the constitutive yeast phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK1) promoter and terminator. Chromoblot analysis confirmed the integration of the modified copy of ATF1 into the genome of three commercial wine yeast strains (VIN7, VIN13, and WE228). Northern blot analysis indicated constitutive expression of ATF1 at high levels in these yeast transformants. The levels of ethyl acetate, iso-amyl acetate, and 2-phenylethyl acetate increased 3- to 10-fold, 3.8- to 12-fold, and 2- to 10-fold, respectively, depending on the fermentation temperature, cultivar, and yeast strain used. The concentrations of ethyl caprate, ethyl caprylate, and hexyl acetate only showed minor changes, whereas the acetic acid

  8. Annotated features of domestic cat – Felis catus genome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic cats enjoy an extensive veterinary medical surveillance which has described nearly 250 genetic diseases analogous to human disorders. Feline infectious agents offer powerful natural models of deadly human diseases, which include feline immunodeficiency virus, feline sarcoma virus and feline leukemia virus. A rich veterinary literature of feline disease pathogenesis and the demonstration of a highly conserved ancestral mammal genome organization make the cat genome annotation a highly informative resource that facilitates multifaceted research endeavors. Findings Here we report a preliminary annotation of the whole genome sequence of Cinnamon, a domestic cat living in Columbia (MO, USA), bisulfite sequencing of Boris, a male cat from St. Petersburg (Russia), and light 30× sequencing of Sylvester, a European wildcat progenitor of cat domestication. The annotation includes 21,865 protein-coding genes identified by a comparative approach, 217 loci of endogenous retrovirus-like elements, repetitive elements which comprise about 55.7% of the whole genome, 99,494 new SNVs, 8,355 new indels, 743,326 evolutionary constrained elements, and 3,182 microRNA homologues. The methylation sites study shows that 10.5% of cat genome cytosines are methylated. An assisted assembly of a European wildcat, Felis silvestris silvestris, was performed; variants between F. silvestris and F. catus genomes were derived and compared to F. catus. Conclusions The presented genome annotation extends beyond earlier ones by closing gaps of sequence that were unavoidable with previous low-coverage shotgun genome sequencing. The assembly and its annotation offer an important resource for connecting the rich veterinary and natural history of cats to genome discovery. PMID:25143822

  9. Secnidazole for the treatment of giardiasis in naturally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Castro, Verônica S P; Tonin, Alexandre A; Brendler, Sabrina; Costa, Marcio M; Jaques, Jeandre A; Bertoletti, Bianca; Zanette, Régis A; Raiser, Alceu G; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Lopes, Sonia T A; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2011-12-01

    Giardia duodenalis causes enteric infections in humans and animals worldwide. Inefficiency of metronidazole is commonly reported in the veterinary clinic routine in the treatment of giardiasis in dogs and cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of secnidazole in the control of infection caused by G. duodenalis in naturally infected cats. For this purpose two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment seven cats were infected with G. duodenalis and treated orally with a single dose of secnidazole (30 mg kg(-1)). In the second experiment a total of 16 cats were used, 11 naturally infected with G. duodenalis and five negative for the parasite. Animals were divided into three groups: group A (n=5) was composed by non-infected animals (negative control), group B (n=5) consisted of infected but untreated animals and group C (n=6) was composed by cats treated orally with a single dose of secnidazole (30 mg kg(-1)). Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before and after treatment. The first experiment reached 100% of efficacy because no cysts were found in the feces after treatment. However, doubts about intoxication and interference with hematological and biochemical parameters came to light. No side effects were observed, and the biochemical and hematological parameters of treated animals remained within physiological range, except for one feline which had elevation of liver enzymes. Based on these results, the utilization of secnidazole could be suggested for the treatment of giardiasis in cats. The main advantage of this treatment is that only a single dose is required, which is interesting in animals hard to handle like cats. PMID:21763779

  10. Degenerative mucinotic mural folliculitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Gross, T L; Olivry, T; Vitale, C B; Power, H T

    2001-10-01

    A novel form of mural folliculitis is described in seven cats. Clinically, all cats exhibited generalized alopecia with scaling or crusting that was more pronounced over the head, neck, and shoulders. The face and muzzle of all cats was unusually thickened. Six of seven cats were progressively lethargic but did not demonstrate any other consistent systemic abnormalities. Histologically, there was severe mixed inflammation of the wall of the follicular isthmus in all cats, accompanied by some follicular destruction in five cats. Sebaceous glands were not affected. All cats had variable, but often striking, follicular mucin deposition, as well as epidermal hyperkeratosis and crusting. The cause of the severe mural folliculitis was not identified, and all cats responded poorly to immunomodulating therapy. Follicular mucinosis may be a nonspecific finding, likely reflective of the follicular lymphocytic milieu, and does not always herald follicular lymphoma.

  11. Osteolysis in cat-scratch fever

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.F.; Lehman, R.M.; Shiels, W.E.; Blaney, S.M.

    1985-08-01

    The osteolysis associated with cat-scratch fever resembles more ominous conditions. The combination of osteolysis and unilateral regional adenopathy in a child or adolescent should suggest cat-scratch disease. Bone scans and CT verified the diagnosis.

  12. Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cats with diarrhea from densely housed origins.

    PubMed

    Arranz-Solís, David; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana; Miró, Guadalupe; Rojo-Montejo, Silvia; Hernández, Leticia; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Collantes-Fernández, Esther

    2016-05-15

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a protozoan parasite that has been recently identified as a causative agent of chronic diarrhea in domestic cats. Transmission of infection occurs by the fecal-oral route through direct contact among animals. Consequently, feline trichomonosis (FT) is more likely to be present in multi-cat environments. The objective of this work was to study the presence of T. foetus and some associated risk factors in cats from densely housed origins and with a reported history of chronic diarrhea. Animals enrolled in this study were family cats (n=15) acquired from pet shops, shelters or breeding centers and cattery cats belonging to one breeding center (n=28) and two cat shelters (A and B, n=25 each). In the catteries, a follow-up analysis for a period of up to 2 months was also performed to determine the parasite shedding pattern in feces and the incidence of infection. Fecal samples were analyzed using in vitro culture and a PCR technique. T. foetus was detected in a total of 38.7% (36/93) of the cats with chronic diarrhea. Parasite infection was similarly detected in family cats and cattery animals (40% versus 38.4%). In the catteries, the parasite was detected in 50%, 44% and 20% of the animals from the breeding center and shelters A and B, respectively. The follow-up analysis showed that 58.3% of infected cats intermittently shed trophozoites in their feces, with an incidence of 23.1%. Investigation of potential risk factors showed that cats ≤1 year old were more likely to be infected than older cats (57.1% versus 27.3%; P<0.05). No significant differences were found when sex and breed factors were studied. These results confirm the importance of FT as a cause of chronic diarrhea in cats and highlight the relevance of close contact conditions for T. foetus transmission. PMID:27084482

  13. Osteoma of the oral and maxillofacial regions in cats: 7 cases (1999-2009).

    PubMed

    Fiani, Nadine; Arzi, Boaz; Johnson, Eric G; Murphy, Brian; Verstraete, Frank J M

    2011-06-01

    Objective-To describe clinical features of oral and maxillofacial osteomas in cats. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-7 cats with oral or maxillofacial osteoma or both. Procedures-Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, history, clinical signs, physical examination findings, diagnostic imaging findings, results of serum biochemical analyses and histologic testing, surgical procedures performed, and perioperative complications. Outcome was determined on the basis of follow-up telephone interviews of owners. Results-Cats ranged from 1 to 23 years of age. Clinical signs were observed in 5 cats and were attributed to the presence of the mass. Diagnostic imaging (radiography and computed tomography) and histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteoma. Three cats were euthanatized; 1 cat was treated by mandibulectomy, 1 was treated by maxillectomy, and 2 were treated by debulking. At the time of follow-up at least 1 year after surgery, all 4 treated cats were alive, with owners reporting an acceptable quality of life. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Osteoma of the oral and maxillofacial regions is an uncommon tumor in cats. Most cats are examined during an advanced stage of the disease, when treatment options may be limited. Although osteoma is a benign tumor, the recommendation is to perform a clinical evaluation, diagnostic imaging, biopsy, and treatment early in the disease process, when less invasive surgical approaches may be feasible.

  14. Lessons from the Cheshire Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinberg, Donna

    2012-01-01

    "If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you tell me, please,…

  15. Assessing CAT Test Security Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Zhang, Jinming; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its precision superiority over nonadaptive tests, another known advantage of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) is that they can be offered on a continuous basis. This is advantageous to examinees in terms of flexibility of test scheduling, as well as advantageous to schools and other testing centers in terms of both space and…

  16. A strange cat in Dublin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  17. A CAT scan for cells

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a team of scientists from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the University of California, San Francisco used Berkeley Lab's National Center for X-ray Tomography to capture the changes that occur when Candida albicans is exposed to a new and promising antifungal therapy. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/12/10/cat-scan-cells/

  18. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    MedlinePlus

    ... a s t is O : wAnneIrmsportant What role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, birds ... animals, or anything contaminated with feces from another cat that is shedding the microscopic parasite in its ...

  19. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  20. Vocalization in the cat and kitten.

    PubMed

    Brown, K A; Buchwald, J S; Johnson, J R; Mikolich, D J

    1978-11-01

    Vocal responses of kittens and mature cats were recorded in a variety of standard behavioral situations. Sonographic analysis of these responses showed similarities of responses obtained repeatedly from different cats within each recording situation. Marked differences in response patterns were noted in different recording situations. The kitten and cat vocal repertoires thus include a variety of specific responses to particular motivational or behavioral circumstances.

  1. The biological significance of PGO spikes in the sleeping cat.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A R; Bowker, R M

    1975-01-01

    Large-amplitude waves recorded in the pontine tegmentum, lateral geniculate body and visual cortex herald the onset and continue throughout paradoxical sleep. The role of these ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves, or spikes, has puzzled researchers since their discovery. This paper reports experiments in cats which have demonstrated that PGO spikes are essentially an epiphenomenon, an electrical sign of the activation of a "startle network" by the neural turmoil of paradoxical sleep. Internal stimulation provided by the bursts of neural activity which characterize paradoxical sleep produces PGO spikes in the lateral geniculate body which are identical in appearance to those elicited during synchronized and paradoxical sleep by 1.55 Hz tone bursts or taps on the cage in normal cats. Cerebellar lesions result in behavioral responses to the intrinsic startles during synchronized sleep in the form of extensor or flexor jerks of the forelimbs. The jerks occur in conjunction with each PGO spike. Identical movements can be induced in the same cats in wakefulness by such startling stimuli as dropping the cat or hissing with an aerosol can. Lesions involving the auditory-visual area permit cats to be stimulated by sound in synchronized sleep without arousal, but anterior lobe lesions produce an easily aroused animal. We postulate that the phenomena observed following cerebellar lesions are the result of alteration in the control of serotonergic neurons of the pontine raphe nuclei. PMID:174395

  2. Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) in the abdominal cavity of a domestic cat from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Verocai, Guilherme G; Measures, Lena N; Azevedo, Felipe D; Correia, Thais R; Fernandes, Julio I; Scott, Fabio B

    2009-05-12

    This study reports a case of parasitism by the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782), in the abdominal cavity of a domestic cat from Brazil. A female adult cat presenting prostration, dehydration, physical debility, pronounced jaundice and ascitis, was taken to the Department of Animal Parasitology of the Veterinary Institute of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Clinical signs suggested a case of peritonitis. The cat's clinical condition was grave and death occurred within a few days. During necropsy, a brownish-red nematode, 24.9cm long, was found in the abdominal cavity and was identified as a male adult D. renale. This study reports the first confirmed case of dioctophymatosis in the domestic cat. The parasite's aberrant location in the abdominal cavity suggests that the domestic cat is not a suitable host.

  3. Gastric perforation following endoscopic removal of a Bravo pH capsule in a cat.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, M Katherine; Odunayo, Adesola; Craig, Linden E

    2015-06-01

    A 7-year-old domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for hyporexia and weight loss following endoscopic placement of an intragastric pH monitoring device. Physical examination of the cat was unremarkable, and its blood work was notable for a mild hypoalbuminemia. The cat's acute hyporexia and weight loss was attributed to discomfort associated with the intragastric pH monitoring device, as has been reported in humans. Endoscopic removal of the intragastric pH monitoring device resulted in gastric perforation. The cat underwent exploratory laparotomy for surgical resection and repair of the perforated area. To our knowledge, this is the first report of gastric perforation secondary to removal of a Bravo pH capsule. Caution may be advised when considering intragastric pH capsule removal in cats.

  4. [Pericardial effusion in a cat with feline infectious peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Yvonne; Wess, G; Hartmann, K

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes the disease progression of a male cat with pericardial effusion. Clinical signs (dyspnea, lethargy, and weakness) started very acutely. The initial laboratory profile showed only an increase in alanine aminotransferase enzyme activity. Diagnostic imaging revealed pericardial effusion. Effusion analysis showed a Rivalta-positive, modified transudate. Detection of feline coronavirus antigen in macrophages was negative. General condition and laboratory parameters dramatically worsened within seven days. Therefore, the owners decided to euthanize the cat. Even if effusion variables are macroscopically and microscopically suspicious for FIP, a definitive diagnosis of FIP could only be made by histology (including immunhistochemical staining).

  5. Imaging diagnosis: fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva in a cat.

    PubMed

    Klang, Andrea; Kneissl, Sibylle; Glänzel, Romana; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    A 1-year-old female cat was presented for progressive alopecia, gait abnormalities, and stiffness. Radiography demonstrated multiple calcified lesions within the soft tissues of the cervical and thoracic spine, shoulder, and limbs. Postmortem computed tomography provided more detailed information on the distribution, pattern, and extension of lesions. In addition, computed tomography helped guide sample selection for histopathology. The final diagnosis was fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. This is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by fibrosis and heterotopic bone formation in connective tissues. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing this disease in a European cat.

  6. Silicone elastomer sling for rectal prolapse in cats

    PubMed Central

    Corgozinho, Katia Barão; Belchior, Cristiane; de Souza, Heloisa Justen Moreira; Ferreira, Ana Maria; Resende, Carolina; Damico, Brandão; Cunha, Simone

    2010-01-01

    This study reports 2 cases of recurrent rectal prolapse secondary to anal abnormality in cats. In both cases the anus was wide, leading to a rectal mucosal prolapse during defecation. A silicone elastomer sling was introduced around the anus, and the rectal prolapse was definitively resolved. PMID:20676293

  7. Surgical removal of heartworms from a cat with caval syndrome.

    PubMed

    Glaus, T M; Jacobs, G J; Rawlings, C A; Watson, E D; Calvert, C A

    1995-03-01

    Caval syndrome was diagnosed in a 4-year-old male domestic shorthair cat with severe dyspnea attributable to chylothorax. The diagnosis of heartworm infection was made on the basis of the ultrasonographic detection of a large number of adult heartworms in the right side of the heart and positive results for modified Knott's and heartworm antigen tests. Heartworms were surgically removed through an incision in the jugular vein, using a string-type horsehair brush and an alligator forceps. All clinical signs resolved after the surgery. Although treatment with agents that would kill the adult heartworms was considered, surgical treatment was used on the cat reported here. Surgical treatment may be the method of choice for use in cats with severe or persistent clinical signs attributable to infections with large numbers of heartworms.

  8. Congenital hypothyroidism of dogs and cats: a review.

    PubMed

    Bojanic, K; Acke, E; Jones, B R

    2011-05-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a rare and underdiagnosed congenital endocrine disorder in dogs and cats and the true incidence is unknown. The disorder may cause a range of clinical signs depending on the primary defect, which affect production of thyroid hormones; some cases present when adult. Hallmark clinical signs of congenital hypothyroidism are mental impairment and skeletal developmental abnormalities, resulting in disproportionate dwarfism; goitre may or may not be present. Documented causes of congenital hypothyroidism in dogs include deficiency of, or unresponsiveness to, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid dysgenesis, dyshormonogenesis and iodine deficiency. In cats, TSH unresponsiveness, thyroid dysgenesis, dyshormonogenesis and iodine deficiency have been confirmed. Adequate replacement therapy results in a successful outcome in the majority of cases, especially when started early in life, as permanent developmental abnormalities can be prevented. This review describes reported cases in dogs and cats, diagnostic investigation, and recommendations for treatment. PMID:21541884

  9. Lily toxicity in the cat.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2010-11-01

    Lilies are commonly kept flowering ornamental plants that are used in holiday celebrations, weddings, and funerals, and in various floral arrangements. Lilies of genera Lilium and Hemerocallis (day lilies) have been shown to cause nephrotoxicity in cats. Confusion arises because so many different plants are called lilies. Members of the genus Convallaria (lily of the valley), while sparing on the kidneys, elicit toxic effects because they possess potent cardiac glycosides similar to digitalis. Even more confusing as to which lilies are toxic is the fact that many hybrids exist. The majority of the public do not know that lilies can be dangerous to cats and, in fact, cannot correctly identify the plants in their own homes. Cats have been shown to be extremely sensitive to the toxic effects of lilies. As little as 2 leaves or part of a single flower have resulted in deaths. It should be pointed out that the whole plant-petals, stamen, leaves, and pollen are toxic. The exact toxic dose and the precise toxins responsible for renal damage are currently unknown. The quick onset of clinical signs suggests a rapid absorption rate of the toxin. The renal tubular epithelium appears to be the target of the toxin. Studies indicate that it is the water-soluble fraction of the lily that is nephrotoxic. In cats, clinical signs of lily intoxication include salivation, vomiting, anorexia, and depression. Polyuric renal failure leads to dehydration and anuric renal failure and death results. No analytic verification of lily ingestion is currently available. Successful treatment includes initiation of fluid diuresis before the onset of anuric renal failure. Once anuria develops, peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis is the only potential treatment. Differential diagnoses of lily poisoning include any potential cause of acute renal failure in a cat. Prognosis is excellent if fluid diuresis is started before anuric renal failure has developed. The public must be made aware of potentially

  10. Practical Physical and Behavioral Measures to Assess the Socialization Spectrum of Cats in a Shelter-Like Setting during a Three Day Period

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha; Mirontshuk, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Animal welfare organizations accept large numbers of cats with no known history. Because shelters are often highly stressful environments for cats, it is likely to be difficult to differentiate a frightened cat that is socialized to humans from a feral cat that is not. However, this distinction can help channel cats into appropriate dispositions. We conducted structured assessments to measure various behaviors and their potential to distinguish socialization levels. Our results show that a specific set of behaviors are only exhibited by more socialized cats. Many cats needed time to adjust to the shelter-type setting to show these socialized behaviors. Abstract Animal welfare organizations routinely accept large numbers of cats with unknown histories, and whose backgrounds vary from well-socialized pets to cats that have had little or no contact with humans. Agencies are challenged with making the determination of socialization level in a highly stressful environment where cats are often too frightened to show typical behaviors. A variety of structured behavioral assessments were conducted in a shelter-like environment, from intake through a three day holding period, on cats from the full range of socialization as reported by their caregivers. Our results show that certain behaviors such as rubbing, playing, chirping, having the tail up or being at the front of the cage were found to be unique to More Socialized cats. While not all more socialized cats showed these behaviors, cats that did were socialized. Assessing the cats throughout the three day period was beneficial in eliciting key behaviors from shyer and more frightened cats. These results will be used in future work to develop an assessment tool to identify the socialization status of cats as a standardized guide for transparent and reliable disposition decisions and higher live release rates for cats in animal shelters. PMID:26479757

  11. Plasma free metanephrines in healthy cats, cats with non-adrenal disease and a cat with suspected phaeochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Wimpole, Justin A; Adagra, Carl F M; Billson, Mark F; Pillai, Dilo N; Foster, Darren J

    2010-06-01

    Phaeochromocytomas are catecholamine-secreting tumours of the adrenal glands and are rare in cats. Plasma metanephrine levels are widely considered the diagnostic test of choice for phaeochromocytoma in people but have not been investigated in cats. In this study plasma free normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography in healthy cats, sick cats with non-adrenal disease and in a cat with a suspected phaeochromocytoma. Plasma normetanephrine was significantly higher in sick cats with non-adrenal disease compared to healthy cats (P<0.05) and markedly higher in the cat with a suspected phaeochromocytoma when compared to either group. Plasma metanephrine was not significantly different in any of the groups. This study establishes a first-line guide reference range for plasma metanephrine and normetanephrine levels in healthy cats and cats with non-adrenal disease. These results provide rationale for further studies to establish the use of plasma normetanephrine levels as a potential diagnostic test for phaeochromocytoma in the cat.

  12. N-acetyltransferase-2 and medical history in bladder cancer cases with a suspected occupational disease (BK 1301) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Weistenhofer, Wobbeke; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    In 187 bladder cancer cases reported to the employers' liability insurance association in Germany as suspected cases of an occupational disease produced by aromatic amines, N- acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) activity status, occupational exposure data, period of latency, and clinical parameters were determined. In 83 out of 187 cases surveyed within the period 1991-1999, the NAT2 acetylator status was investigated by determining the molar ratio of an acetylated and a nonacetylated caffeine metabolite in urine (phenotyping) and/or by NAT2 genotyping according to standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol. The proportion of slow NAT2 acetylators in the surveyed 83 bladder cancer cases was 67%. In the entire group of surveyed 187 cases, mean duration of exposure was 17.6 yr and mean period of latency was 34.7 yr. Occupational exposures to potential bladder carcinogens were observed in 73 occupations, including chemical industry (25%), and occupations as a painter and/or varnisher (23%) were most often encountered. In 12% of the surveyed bladder cancer cases, a second primary malignancy was observed. The NAT2 distribution observed in the 83 cases is comparable to the proportion in 40 occupationally exposed bladder cancer cases in a Department of Urology located close to a former German production site of benzidine-based azo dyes, but higher than in most studies involving NAT2 genetic status in bladder cancer cases.

  13. Projections of brainstem core cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons of cat to intralaminar and reticular thalamic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Paré, D; Smith, Y; Parent, A; Steriade, M

    1988-04-01

    We combined the retrograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated with horseradish peroxidase with choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry to study the projections of cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons of the upper brainstem core to rostral and caudal intralaminar thalamic nuclei, reticular thalamic complex and zona incerta in the cat. After wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase injections in the rostral pole of the reticular thalamic nucleus, the distribution and amount of retrogradely labeled brainstem neurons were similar to those found after tracer injection in thalamic relay nuclei (see preceding paper). After wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase injections in the caudal intralaminar centrum medianum-parafascicular complex, rostral intralaminar central lateral-paracentral wing, and zona incerta, the numbers of retrogradely labeled brainstem neurons were more than three times higher than those found after injections in thalamic relay nuclei. The larger numbers of horseradish peroxidase-positive brainstem reticular neurons after tracer injections in intralaminar or zona incerta injections results from a more substantial proportion of labeled neurons in the central tegmental field at rostral midbrain (perirubral) levels and in the ventromedial part of the pontine reticular formation, ipsi- and contralaterally to the injection site. Of all retrogradely labeled neurons in the caudal midbrain core at the level of the cholinergic peribrachial area and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, 45-50% were also choline acetyltransferase-positive after the injections into central lateral-paracentral and reticular nuclei, while only 25% were also choline acetyltransferase-positive after the injection into the centrum medianum-parafascicular complex. These findings are discussed in the light of physiological evidence of brainstem cholinergic mechanisms involved in the blockade of synchronized oscillations and in activation processes of

  14. New N-Acetyltransferase Fold in the Structure and Mechanism of the Phosphonate Biosynthetic Enzyme FrbF

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Brian; Cobb, Ryan E.; DeSieno, Matthew A.; Zhao, Huimin; Nair, Satish K.

    2015-10-15

    The enzyme FrbF from Streptomyces rubellomurinus has attracted significant attention due to its role in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial phosphonate FR-900098. The enzyme catalyzes acetyl transfer onto the hydroxamate of the FR-900098 precursors cytidine 5'-monophosphate-3-aminopropylphosphonate and cytidine 5'-monophosphate-N-hydroxy-3-aminopropylphosphonate. Despite the established function as a bona fide N-acetyltransferase, FrbF shows no sequence similarity to any member of the GCN5-like N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily. Here, we present the 2.0 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of FrbF in complex with acetyl-CoA, which demonstrates a unique architecture that is distinct from those of canonical GNAT-like acetyltransferases. We also utilized the co-crystal structure to guide structure-function studies that identified the roles of putative active site residues in the acetyltransferase mechanism. The combined biochemical and structural analyses of FrbF provide insights into this previously uncharacterized family of N-acetyltransferases and also provide a molecular framework toward the production of novel N-acyl derivatives of FR-900098.

  15. A comparison of Bahamian cat and dog caregivers on New Providence.

    PubMed

    Fielding, William J

    2009-01-01

    This article offers the first comparison of actions and attitudes of Afro-Caribbean caregivers who keep only cats or only dogs. A total of 330 Bahamian caregivers found that women primarily keep cats; men primarily keep dogs. Cat keepers were more attached to their companion animals but no more sensitive toward nonhuman animal-welfare issues than dog keepers. When considering actions toward pets, the study noted few differences between the two types of caregivers. Both types reported low neutering rates and lack of confinement. Findings suggest that although both cat and dog caregivers thought themselves good pet caregivers, both types would benefit from animal-welfare education. In communities where cat populations pose a threat to indigenous wildlife and current care-keeping practices may be a cause for concern, caregivers may need education as to the implications of their actions. Given the similarity in dog-keeping practices in the West Indies, the findings about cat caregivers reported here may be applicable to other Afro-Caribbean communities. Further research on cats should be done to allow better understanding of the dynamics and behavior of cat populations on small islands.

  16. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  17. Ovulation without cervical stimulation in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Lawler, D F; Johnston, S D; Hegstad, R L; Keltner, D G; Owens, S F

    1993-01-01

    Progesterone was measured by radioimmunoassay of serum collected at monthly intervals for 9 months (April-December) in 24 adult female American short-hair cats (age 2.5-11 years, mean 7.4 years); 20 cats were intact, and four were ovariohysterectomized controls. One of the 20 intact queens was ovariohysterectomized after 7 months, when pyometra was diagnosed. Cats could see and hear one another, and could see and hear male cats housed individually in the same room. Direct contact with other cats was prevented. Tactile stimulation of the cats' hindquarters and perineal regions by handlers was avoided. Serum progesterone concentration > or = 4.8 nmol l-1 was defined as evidence of ovulation. This concentration was exceeded in seven of 20 intact queens (35%) at one or more occurrences of non-coital ovulation; there were 13 such occurrences in all (1-3 per queen). Serum progesterone concentration ranged from 0.2 to 103.4 (mean 14.09 +/- 2.0) nmol l-1 in these seven cats, and was significantly greater than concentrations in the other intact and neutered cats. In the remaining 13 intact and four ovariohysterectomized cats, serum progesterone concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 3.2 (mean 1.24 +/- 1.46) nmol l-1. These data suggest that, at least as far as cats housed in proximity to one another are concerned, intact female cats do not always require cervical stimulation to induce ovulation. PMID:8229985

  18. [Organization of the Dutch Cat Fancy].

    PubMed

    Gerrits, P O

    1998-11-01

    The present study of the foundation 'Overleg Platform van de Nederlandse Cat Fancy' describes the organization and structure of the Dutch Cat Fancy, and is subdivided into three parts. The first part presents a survey of the number of cat clubs, date of their establishment, number of members, associated breed clubs and participation in the foundation 'Overleg Platform van de Nederlandse Cat Fancy'. The second part describes the basic organization of Dutch cat clubs, including their membership, cattery registration, breed registration, exhibitions and judges, cat magazines, health care and welfare, and breed clubs. The third part focuses attention on other organizational forms such as clubs for a particular breed, seen within the Dutch Cat Fancy.

  19. The Fecal Microbiome in Cats with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Suchodolski, Jan S.; Foster, Mary L.; Sohail, Muhammad U.; Leutenegger, Christian; Queen, Erica V.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Marks, Stanley L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21) and cats with acute (n = 19) or chronic diarrhea (n = 29) and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration), while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001) altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or therapeutic

  20. Transient expression of choline acetyltransferase-like immunoreactivity in Purkinje cells of the developing rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Gould, E; Butcher, L L

    1987-08-01

    The expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-like immunoreactivity was studied immunohistochemically in the cerebelli of developing rats. Brains were examined from the day of birth (postnatal day 1: P1) until adulthood. From P4 through P21, several Purkinje cells in the uvula, nodule, and flocculus of the cerebellum demonstrated ChAT-like immunoreactivity. After P23, no ChAT-positive neurons were observed in any region of the cerebellum. This finding paralleled the transient expression of acetylcholinesterase in Purkinje cells of these same cerebellar areas during development.

  1. One-step purification of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase using reactive dye-affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cunxi; Lee, Thomas C; Crowley, Kathleen S; Bell, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Reactive dye purification is an affinity purification technique offering unique selectivity and high purification potential. Historically, purification of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) has involved several steps of precipitation and column chromatography. Here, we describe a novel purification method that is simple, time-saving, inexpensive, and reproducible. The novel method employs a single chromatography step using a reactive dye resin, Reactive brown 10-agarose. Reactive brown 10 preferentially binds the PAT protein, which can then be specifically released by one of its substrates, acetyl-CoA. Using Reactive brown 10-agarose, PAT protein can be purified to homogeneity from E. coli or plant tissue with high recovery efficiency. PMID:25749943

  2. Inhibitors of acetyltransferase domain of N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase/glucosamine-1-phosphate-acetyltransferase (GlmU). Part 1: Hit to lead evaluation of a novel arylsulfonamide series.

    PubMed

    Green, Oluyinka M; McKenzie, Andrew R; Shapiro, Adam B; Otterbein, Ludovic; Ni, Haihong; Patten, Arthur; Stokes, Suzanne; Albert, Robert; Kawatkar, Sameer; Breed, Jason

    2012-02-15

    A novel arylsulfonamide-containing series of compounds represented by 1, discovered by highthroughput screening, inhibit the acetyltransferase domain of N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase/glucosamine-1-phosphate-acetyltransferase (GlmU). X-ray structure determination confirmed that inhibitor binds at the site occupied by acetyl-CoA, indicating that series is competitive with this substrate. This letter documents our early hit-to-lead evaluation of the chemical series and some of the findings that led to improvement in in-vitro potency against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial isozymes, exemplified by compound 40.

  3. Severe Psychomotor Delay in a Severe Presentation of Cat-Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jedraszak, Guillaume; Receveur, Aline; Andrieux, Joris; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Copin, Henri; Morin, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Cat-eye syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome of chromosomal origin. Individuals with cat-eye syndrome are characterized by the presence of preauricular pits and/or tags, anal atresia, and iris coloboma. Many reported cases also presented with variable congenital anomalies and intellectual disability. Most patients diagnosed with CES carry a small supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome, resulting in partial tetrasomy of 22p-22q11.21. There are two types of small supernumerary marker chromosome, depending on the breakpoint site. In a very small proportion of cases, other cytogenetic anomalies are reportedly associated with the cat-eye syndrome phenotype. Here, we report a patient with cat-eye syndrome caused by a type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. The phenotype was atypical and included a severe developmental delay. The use of array comparative genomic hybridization ruled out the involvement of another chromosomal imbalance in the neurological phenotype. In the literature, only a few patients with cat-eye syndrome present with a severe developmental delay, and all of the latter carried an atypical partial trisomy 22 or an uncharacterized small supernumerary marker chromosome. Hence, this is the first report of a severe neurological phenotype in cat-eye syndrome with a typical type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. Our observation clearly complicates prognostic assessment, particularly when cat-eye syndrome is diagnosed prenatally. PMID:25648072

  4. Severe psychomotor delay in a severe presentation of cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jedraszak, Guillaume; Receveur, Aline; Andrieux, Joris; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Copin, Henri; Morin, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Cat-eye syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome of chromosomal origin. Individuals with cat-eye syndrome are characterized by the presence of preauricular pits and/or tags, anal atresia, and iris coloboma. Many reported cases also presented with variable congenital anomalies and intellectual disability. Most patients diagnosed with CES carry a small supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome, resulting in partial tetrasomy of 22p-22q11.21. There are two types of small supernumerary marker chromosome, depending on the breakpoint site. In a very small proportion of cases, other cytogenetic anomalies are reportedly associated with the cat-eye syndrome phenotype. Here, we report a patient with cat-eye syndrome caused by a type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. The phenotype was atypical and included a severe developmental delay. The use of array comparative genomic hybridization ruled out the involvement of another chromosomal imbalance in the neurological phenotype. In the literature, only a few patients with cat-eye syndrome present with a severe developmental delay, and all of the latter carried an atypical partial trisomy 22 or an uncharacterized small supernumerary marker chromosome. Hence, this is the first report of a severe neurological phenotype in cat-eye syndrome with a typical type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. Our observation clearly complicates prognostic assessment, particularly when cat-eye syndrome is diagnosed prenatally.

  5. Inhibition of p300 histone acetyltransferase activity in palate mesenchyme cells attenuates Wnt signaling via aberrant E-cadherin expression.

    PubMed

    Warner, Dennis R; Smith, Scott C; Smolenkova, Irina A; Pisano, M Michele; Greene, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    p300 is a multifunctional transcriptional coactivator that interacts with numerous transcription factors and exhibits protein/histone acetyltransferase activity. Loss of p300 function in humans and in mice leads to craniofacial defects. In this study, we demonstrated that inhibition of p300 histone acetyltransferase activity with the compound, C646, altered the expression of several genes, including Cdh1 (E-cadherin) in mouse maxillary mesenchyme cells, which are the cells that give rise to the secondary palate. The increased expression of plasma membrane-bound E-cadherin was associated with reduced cytosolic β-catenin, that led to attenuated signaling through the canonical Wnt pathway. Furthermore, C646 reduced both cell proliferation and the migratory ability of these cells. These results suggest that p300 histone acetyltransferase activity is critical for Wnt-dependent palate mesenchymal cell proliferation and migration, both processes that play a significant role in morphogenesis of the palate.

  6. Myeloproliferative disease in a cat

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, R.W.; Weller, R.E.; Feldman, B.F.

    1984-10-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders, a complex of cytologic abnormalities arising in the bone marrow, are among domestic animals most frequently recognized in cats but are relatively uncommon. A 4-year-old female Siamese, with splenomegaly and weight loss, was listless, anorectic, pale and dehydrated. A hemogram showed severe, macrocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis and reticulocytosis, with abnormally high numbers of nucleated RBC and undifferentiated blast cells. Bone marrow smears contained predominantly undifferentiated blast cells, RBC precursors and myeloblasts. The fluorescent antibody test for FeLV was positive. The cat died 66 days later despite a blood transfusion and chemotherapy. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of myeloproliferative disease, with hepatic and splenic invasion. 15 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  7. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats. PMID:17669677

  8. The Fungal Sexual Pheromone Sirenin Activates the Human CatSper Channel Complex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The basal fungus Allomyces macrogynus (A. macrogynus) produces motile male gametes displaying well-studied chemotaxis toward their female counterparts. This chemotaxis is driven by sirenin, a sexual pheromone released by the female gametes. The pheromone evokes a large calcium influx in the motile gametes, which could proceed through the cation channel of sperm (CatSper) complex. Herein, we report the total synthesis of sirenin in 10 steps and 8% overall yield and show that the synthetic pheromone activates the CatSper channel complex, indicated by a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular calcium in human sperm. Sirenin activation of the CatSper channel was confirmed using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology with human sperm. Based on this proficient synthetic route and confirmed activation of CatSper, analogues of sirenin can be designed as blockers of the CatSper channel that could provide male contraceptive agents. PMID:26674547

  9. Pharmacodynamics of warfarin in cats.

    PubMed

    Smith, S A; Kraft, S L; Lewis, D C; Melethil, S; Freeman, L C

    2000-12-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacodynamic response to warfarin in cats. The specific aim was to determine if a log-linear indirect response model (Nagashima et al., 1969) used to describe the in vivo effect of warfarin in humans could be applied to cats. The pharmacokinetics of racemic warfarin were described using a non-compartmental approach. The relationship between prothrombin complex activity (PCA) and normalized prothrombin time (PTR) was defined for feline plasma under our experimental conditions, and determined to be: %PCA=12.38+648 e-PTR/0.492. These data were then integrated and used to predict the warfarin dose associated with therapeutic anti-coagulation defined as an International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 2.0-3.0. The maximum prothrombinopenic response to warfarin in cats after a single intravenous dose of 0.5 mg/kg occurred at 24-48 h. Pharmacodynamic modeling suggested that each cat had a narrow therapeutic range of the steady-state concentration of total warfarin required to appropriately block prothrombin complex synthesis (median: 265.2-358.7 ng/mL). The median daily dose range predicted to yield therapeutic concentrations of warfarin was 0.061-0.088 mg/kg per day. Wide inter-individual variations in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic response suggest that a more optimal dosing of warfarin may be possible with the development of individual pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic algorithms, analogous to those currently employed in human patients. PMID:11168910

  10. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E.; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of “ototoxicity” in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows us to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy. PMID:23122180

  11. Biochemical analysis and structure determination of bacterial acetyltransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of UDP-N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Michael J; Imperiali, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    UDP-N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine (UDP-diNAcBac) is a unique carbohydrate produced by a number of bacterial species and has been implicated in pathogenesis. The terminal step in the formation of this important bacterial sugar is catalyzed by an acetyl-CoA (AcCoA)-dependent acetyltransferase in both N- and O-linked protein glycosylation pathways. This bacterial acetyltransferase is a member of the left-handed β-helix family and forms a homotrimer as the functional unit. Whereas previous endeavors have focused on the Campylobacter jejuni acetyltransferase (PglD) from the N-linked glycosylation pathway, structural characterization of the homologous enzymes in the O-linked glycosylation pathways is lacking. Herein, we present the apo-crystal structures of the acetyltransferase domain (ATD) from the bifunctional enzyme PglB (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and the full-length acetyltransferase WeeI (Acinetobacter baumannii). Additionally, a PglB-ATD structure was solved in complex with AcCoA. Surprisingly, this structure reveals a contrasting binding mechanism for this substrate when compared with the AcCoA-bound PglD structure. A comparison between these findings and the previously solved PglD crystal structures illustrates a dichotomy among N- and O-linked glycosylation pathway enzymes. Based upon these structures, key residues in the UDP-4-amino and AcCoA binding pockets were mutated to determine their effect on binding and catalysis in PglD, PglB-ATD, and WeeI. Last, a phylogenetic analysis of the aforementioned acetyltransferases was employed to illuminate the diversity among N- and O-linked glycosylation pathway enzymes. PMID:24064219

  12. No association between apolipoprotein E or N‐Acetyltransferase 2 gene polymorphisms and age‐related hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Piers; Platt, Hazel; Horan, Michael; Ollier, William; Munro, Kevin; Pendleton, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Age‐related hearing loss has a genetic component, but there have been limited genetic studies in this field. Both N‐acetyltransferase 2 and apolipoprotein E genes have previously been associated. However, these studies have either used small sample sizes, examined a limited number of polymorphisms, or have produced conflicting results. Here we use a haplotype tagging approach to determine association with age‐related hearing loss and investigate epistasis between these two genes. Study Design Candidate gene association study of a continuous phenotype. Methods We investigated haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in the N‐acetyltransferase 2 gene and the presence/absence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele for association with age‐related hearing loss in a cohort of 265 Caucasian elderly volunteers from Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. Hearing phenotypes were generated using principal component analysis of the hearing threshold levels for the better ear (severity, slope, and concavity). Genotype data for the N‐acetyltransferase 2 gene was obtained from existing genome‐wide association study data from the Illumina 610‐Quadv1 chip. Apolipoprotein E genotyping was performed using Sequenom technology. Linear regression analysis was performed using Plink and Stata software. Results No significant associations (P value, > 0.05) were observed between the N‐acetyltransferase 2 or apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms and any hearing factor. No significant association was observed for epistasis analysis of apolipoprotein E ε4 and the N‐acetyltransferase 2 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1799930 (NAT2*6A). Conclusion We found no evidence to support that either N‐acetyltransferase 2 or apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms are associated with age‐related hearing loss in a cohort of 265 elderly volunteers. Level of Evidence N/A. Laryngoscope, 125:E33–E38, 2015 PMID:25155015

  13. Who’s behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat’s Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed

    PubMed Central

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-01-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (APbe) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. PMID:25143047

  14. Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

    2014-12-01

    Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nölleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 ±  1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection.

  15. Direct transmission of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) between cats exhibiting social behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Franc, Michel; Bouhsira, Émilie; Beugnet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    A study design was created to assess the potential for fleas to infest cats directly from other cats. In the first experiment, six cats were infested with 100 fleas each and then immediately put in contact with six flea-free cats for 24 h. After removal of all fleas the study was repeated and the contact between cats lasted 48 h. The total numbers of fleas recovered out of the 600 fleas deposited on the 6 donor cats after each infestation were 499 and 486 at 24 h and 48 h respectively. At 1 h post-contact, five fleas were found on the receiver cats, with three cats having one flea and one cat, two fleas. The number of fleas recovered on receiver cats increased towards the end of the study. At 24 h, 20% of the fleas were found on the receiver cats, and at 48 h, 23%. In a second experiment, the six flea-free cats were put in contact with the six donor cats which were each infested by 100 fleas 48 h before. Fewer fleas were found on the receiver cats (n = 15), representing 3.8% of all fleas recovered (n = 403). All the observed fleas had fed. The fleas collected on receiving cats comprised 10 males and 5 females, and 4 of the 5 females were engorged and contained eggs. The fleas collected on donor cats comprised 153 males and 235 females, they were all fed and all females contained eggs. This experiment demonstrated that gravid female fleas have a tendency to become permanently but not exclusively parasitic. Nevertheless, a few can change their cat host in as little as 1 h, which may play a role in the rapid introduction of a new flea population into a cat environment. PMID:24309021

  16. An open clinical trial on the efficacy of cetirizine hydrochloride in the management of allergic pruritus in cats

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Joya S.; Scott, Danny W.; Miller, William H.; Tranchina, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Cetirizine hydrochloride was administered orally at 5 mg/cat, q24h, to 32 cats with allergic skin disease. Pruritus was reduced in 41% (13/32) of the cats. The antipruritic effect was repeatable and sustainable. There was no significant association between patient age, disease severity, or cutaneous reaction pattern and improvement during cetirizine administration. No adverse side effects were reported. PMID:22753962

  17. Serum aldosterone and cortisol concentrations before and after suppression with fludrocortisone in cats: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Mayu; Behrend, Ellen N; Kemppainen, Robert; Refsal, Kent; Johnson, Aime; Lee, Hollie

    2015-05-01

    Primary hyperaldosteronism is an increasingly recognized syndrome in cats, and diagnosis can be difficult. A potential diagnostic method has been reported, utilizing oral fludrocortisone administered twice daily for 4 days followed by collection of urine. In the current study, we sought to determine if blood sampling and a shorter dosing period would provide a possible means to test for primary hyperaldosteronism. Also, cortisol concentrations were measured to assess the potential of fludrocortisone to act as a glucocorticoid in cats. In phase I, 8 healthy laboratory cats were studied in a placebo-controlled, crossover design. Serum aldosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured before and on the second, third, and fourth day of treatment and compared within groups. In phase II, based on the results obtained in phase I, 8 healthy client-owned cats were administered 3 doses of fludrocortisone or placebo. Serum aldosterone and cortisol concentrations were compared before and after treatment within groups. In both phases, serum aldosterone and cortisol concentrations were significantly suppressed in fludrocortisone-treated cats. Thus, it was determined that oral administration of fludrocortisone causes suppression of serum aldosterone in healthy adult cats after only 3 doses. Further research is needed to determine the effects of oral fludrocortisone in cats with primary hyperaldosteronism and cats with other disorders causing hypertension and/or hypokalemia to determine if this protocol can be used as a tool for the definitive diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism.

  18. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned. PMID:25242952

  19. Himalayan fossils of the oldest known pantherine establish ancient origin of big cats.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Z Jack; Wang, Xiaoming; Slater, Graham J; Takeuchi, Gary T; Li, Qiang; Liu, Juan; Xie, Guangpu

    2014-01-01

    Pantherine felids ('big cats') include the largest living cats, apex predators in their respective ecosystems. They are also the earliest diverging living cat lineage, and thus are important for understanding the evolution of all subsequent felid groups. Although the oldest pantherine fossils occur in Africa, molecular phylogenies point to Asia as their region of origin. This paradox cannot be reconciled using current knowledge, mainly because early big cat fossils are exceedingly rare and fragmentary. Here, we report the discovery of a fossil pantherine from the Tibetan Himalaya, with an age of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene, replacing African records as the oldest pantherine. A 'total evidence' phylogenetic analysis of pantherines indicates that the new cat is closely related to the snow leopard and exhibits intermediate characteristics on the evolutionary line to the largest cats. Historical biogeographic models provide robust support for the Asian origin of pantherines. The combined analyses indicate that 75% of the divergence events in the pantherine lineage extended back to the Miocene, up to 7 Myr earlier than previously estimated. The deeper evolutionary origin of big cats revealed by the new fossils and analyses indicate a close association between Tibetan Plateau uplift and diversification of the earliest living cats.

  20. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  1. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  2. Flat Feline Faces: Is Brachycephaly Associated with Respiratory Abnormalities in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus)?

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Rowena M. A.; Caney, Sarah M. A.; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A.

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research into brachycephalism and associated disorders in cats. A questionnaire aimed at cat owners was used to determine the relationship between feline facial conformation and owner-reported cat management requirements and respiratory abnormalities. Owner-submitted photographs of cats were used to develop novel measures of skull conformation. One thousand valid questionnaires were received. Within these there were 373 valid photographs that allowed measurement of muzzle ratio (M%) and 494 that allowed nose position ratio (NP%). The data included 239 cats for which both measurements were available. Owners reported lifestyle factors (e.g. feeding type, grooming routine, activity level), physical characteristics (e.g. hair length) and other health characteristics of their cat (e.g. tear staining, body condition score). A composite respiratory score (RS) was calculated for each cat using their owner’s assessment of respiratory noise whilst their cat was asleep and then breathing difficulty following activity. Multivariate analyses were carried out using linear models to explore the relationship between RS and facial conformation, and lifestyle risk factors. The results showed that reductions in NP% and M% were significantly associated with RS (P < 0.001 and P = 0.026, respectively) and that the relationship was significantly negatively correlated (r = -0.56, P < 0.001 for both). Respiratory score was also significantly associated with increased presence of tear staining (P < 0.001) and a sedentary lifestyle (P = 0.01). This study improves current knowledge concerning cats with breeding-related alterations in skull confirmation and indicates that brachycephalism may have negative respiratory implications for cat health and welfare, as has been previously shown in dogs. PMID:27574987

  3. Flat Feline Faces: Is Brachycephaly Associated with Respiratory Abnormalities in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus)?

    PubMed

    Farnworth, Mark J; Chen, Ruoning; Packer, Rowena M A; Caney, Sarah M A; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research into brachycephalism and associated disorders in cats. A questionnaire aimed at cat owners was used to determine the relationship between feline facial conformation and owner-reported cat management requirements and respiratory abnormalities. Owner-submitted photographs of cats were used to develop novel measures of skull conformation. One thousand valid questionnaires were received. Within these there were 373 valid photographs that allowed measurement of muzzle ratio (M%) and 494 that allowed nose position ratio (NP%). The data included 239 cats for which both measurements were available. Owners reported lifestyle factors (e.g. feeding type, grooming routine, activity level), physical characteristics (e.g. hair length) and other health characteristics of their cat (e.g. tear staining, body condition score). A composite respiratory score (RS) was calculated for each cat using their owner's assessment of respiratory noise whilst their cat was asleep and then breathing difficulty following activity. Multivariate analyses were carried out using linear models to explore the relationship between RS and facial conformation, and lifestyle risk factors. The results showed that reductions in NP% and M% were significantly associated with RS (P < 0.001 and P = 0.026, respectively) and that the relationship was significantly negatively correlated (r = -0.56, P < 0.001 for both). Respiratory score was also significantly associated with increased presence of tear staining (P < 0.001) and a sedentary lifestyle (P = 0.01). This study improves current knowledge concerning cats with breeding-related alterations in skull confirmation and indicates that brachycephalism may have negative respiratory implications for cat health and welfare, as has been previously shown in dogs. PMID:27574987

  4. Flat Feline Faces: Is Brachycephaly Associated with Respiratory Abnormalities in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus)?

    PubMed

    Farnworth, Mark J; Chen, Ruoning; Packer, Rowena M A; Caney, Sarah M A; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research into brachycephalism and associated disorders in cats. A questionnaire aimed at cat owners was used to determine the relationship between feline facial conformation and owner-reported cat management requirements and respiratory abnormalities. Owner-submitted photographs of cats were used to develop novel measures of skull conformation. One thousand valid questionnaires were received. Within these there were 373 valid photographs that allowed measurement of muzzle ratio (M%) and 494 that allowed nose position ratio (NP%). The data included 239 cats for which both measurements were available. Owners reported lifestyle factors (e.g. feeding type, grooming routine, activity level), physical characteristics (e.g. hair length) and other health characteristics of their cat (e.g. tear staining, body condition score). A composite respiratory score (RS) was calculated for each cat using their owner's assessment of respiratory noise whilst their cat was asleep and then breathing difficulty following activity. Multivariate analyses were carried out using linear models to explore the relationship between RS and facial conformation, and lifestyle risk factors. The results showed that reductions in NP% and M% were significantly associated with RS (P < 0.001 and P = 0.026, respectively) and that the relationship was significantly negatively correlated (r = -0.56, P < 0.001 for both). Respiratory score was also significantly associated with increased presence of tear staining (P < 0.001) and a sedentary lifestyle (P = 0.01). This study improves current knowledge concerning cats with breeding-related alterations in skull confirmation and indicates that brachycephalism may have negative respiratory implications for cat health and welfare, as has been previously shown in dogs.

  5. Cat Scratch Disease in a Renal Transplant Recipient.

    PubMed

    Yalin, Serkan Feyyaz; Sahin, Serdar; Yemisen, Mucahit; Tuzuner, Nukhet; Altiparmak, Mehmet Riza; Seyahi, Nurhan

    2016-09-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a disorder characterized by self-limited regional lymphadenopathy and fever. We reported a case of CSD in a kidney transplant recipient who presented with fever and lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy demonstrated bacterial histiocytic lymphadenitis. The patient was diagnosed with CSD. Patient had good clinical improvement after treatment. Therefore, CSD should also be borne in mind for kidney recipients though CSD had been infrequently reported in this group.

  6. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Casini, A.; Vaccaro, R.; D'Este, L.; Sakaue, Y.; Bellier, J.P.; Kimura, H.; Renda, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes. PMID:23027350

  7. Photoaffinity labelling of carnitine acetyltransferase with S-(p-azidophenacyl)thiocarnitine.

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, J M; Lewis, R V; Barden, R E

    1986-01-01

    A photolabile reagent, p-azidophenacyl-DL-thiocarnitine, was synthesized and tested as a photoaffinity label for carnitine acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.7) from pigeon breast. p-Azidophenacyl-DL-thiocarnitine is an active-site-directed reagent for this acetyltransferase, since it is a competitive inhibitor (Ki 10 microM) versus carnitine. U.v. irradiation of a mixture of p-azidophenacyl-DL-thiocarnitine and enzyme produces irreversible inhibition. Acetyl-DL-carnitine protects the enzyme from inhibition by photoactivated p-azidophenacyl-DL-thiocarnitine. In the presence of 30 mM-2-mercaptoethanol as a scavenger, the relationship between loss of activity and photoincorporation of reagent suggests that one molecule of reagent is incorporated per molecule of inhibited enzyme. However, peptide maps of enzyme labelled with p-azidophenacyl[14C]thiocarnitine indicate that several (about six) tryptic peptides (of a possible 60-65) are modified. The presence of 5 mM-acetyl-DL-carnitine significantly decreases the incorporation of reagent in each labelled tryptic peptide. PMID:3800901

  8. Structure and Functional Diversity of GCN5-Related N-Acetyltransferases (GNAT)

    PubMed Central

    Salah Ud-Din, Abu Iftiaf Md; Tikhomirova, Alexandra; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    General control non-repressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferases (GNAT) catalyze the transfer of an acyl moiety from acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) to a diverse group of substrates and are widely distributed in all domains of life. This review of the currently available data acquired on GNAT enzymes by a combination of structural, mutagenesis and kinetic methods summarizes the key similarities and differences between several distinctly different families within the GNAT superfamily, with an emphasis on the mechanistic insights obtained from the analysis of the complexes with substrates or inhibitors. It discusses the structural basis for the common acetyltransferase mechanism, outlines the factors important for the substrate recognition, and describes the mechanism of action of inhibitors of these enzymes. It is anticipated that understanding of the structural basis behind the reaction and substrate specificity of the enzymes from this superfamily can be exploited in the development of novel therapeutics to treat human diseases and combat emerging multidrug-resistant microbial infections. PMID:27367672

  9. Cysteine biosynthesis in Lactobacillus casei: identification and characterization of a serine acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Bogicevic, Biljana; Berthoud, Hélène; Portmann, Reto; Bavan, Tharmatha; Meile, Leo; Irmler, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    In bacteria, cysteine can be synthesized from serine by two steps involving an L-serine O-acetyltransferase (SAT) and a cysteine synthase (CysK). While CysK is found in the publicly available annotated genome from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, a gene encoding SAT (cysE) is missing. In this study, we found that various strains of L. casei grew in a chemically defined medium containing sulfide as the sole sulfur source, indicating the presence of a serine O-acetyltransferase. The gene lying upstream of cysK is predicted to encode a homoserine trans-succinylase (metA). To study the function of this gene, it was cloned from L. casei FAM18110. The purified, recombinant protein did not acylate L-homoserine in vitro. Instead, it catalyzed the formation of O-acetyl serine from L-serine and acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, the plasmid expressing the L. casei gene complemented an Escherichia coli cysE mutant strain but not an E. coli metA mutant. This clearly demonstrated that the gene annotated as metA in fact encodes the SAT function and should be annotated as cysE.

  10. Crystal structure of bacillus subtilis YdaF protein : a putative ribosomal N-acetyltransferase.

    SciTech Connect

    Brunzelle, J. S.; Wu, R.; Korolev, S. V.; Collart, F. R.; Joachimiak, A.; Anderson, W. F.; Biosciences Division; Northwestern Univ.; Saint Louis Univ. School of Medicine

    2004-12-01

    Comparative sequence analysis suggests that the ydaF gene encodes a protein (YdaF) that functions as an N-acetyltransferase, more specifically, a ribosomal N-acetyltransferase. Sequence analysis using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) suggests that YdaF belongs to a large family of proteins (199 proteins found in 88 unique species of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes). YdaF also belongs to the COG1670, which includes the Escherichia coli RimL protein that is known to acetylate ribosomal protein L12. N-acetylation (NAT) has been found in all kingdoms. NAT enzymes catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) to a primary amino group. For example, NATs can acetylate the N-terminal {alpha}-amino group, the {epsilon}-amino group of lysine residues, aminoglycoside antibiotics, spermine/speridine, or arylalkylamines such as serotonin. The crystal structure of the alleged ribosomal NAT protein, YdaF, from Bacillus subtilis presented here was determined as a part of the Midwest Center for Structural Genomics. The structure maintains the conserved tertiary structure of other known NATs and a high sequence similarity in the presumed AcCoA binding pocket in spite of a very low overall level of sequence identity to other NATs of known structure.

  11. Crystal structure analysis of the polysialic acid specific O-acetyltransferase NeuO.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Eike C; Bergfeld, Anne K; Ficner, Ralf; Mühlenhoff, Martina

    2011-01-01

    The major virulence factor of the neuroinvasive pathogen Escherichia coli K1 is the K1 capsule composed of α2,8-linked polysialic acid (polySia). K1 strains harboring the CUS-3 prophage modify their capsular polysaccharide by phase-variable O-acetylation, a step that is associated with increased virulence. Here we present the crystal structure of the prophage-encoded polysialate O-acetyltransferase NeuO. The homotrimeric enzyme belongs to the left-handed β-helix (LβH) family of acyltransferases and is characterized by an unusual funnel-shaped outline. Comparison with other members of the LβH family allowed the identification of active site residues and proposal of a catalytic mechanism and highlighted structural characteristics of polySia specific O-acetyltransferases. As a unique feature of NeuO, the enzymatic activity linearly increases with the length of the N-terminal poly-ψ-domain which is composed of a variable number of tandem copies of an RLKTQDS heptad. Since the poly-ψ-domain was not resolved in the crystal structure it is assumed to be unfolded in the apo-enzyme.

  12. Crystal Structure Analysis of the Polysialic Acid Specific O-Acetyltransferase NeuO

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Eike C.; Bergfeld, Anne K.; Ficner, Ralf; Mühlenhoff, Martina

    2011-01-01

    The major virulence factor of the neuroinvasive pathogen Escherichia coli K1 is the K1 capsule composed of α2,8-linked polysialic acid (polySia). K1 strains harboring the CUS-3 prophage modify their capsular polysaccharide by phase-variable O-acetlyation, a step that is associated with increased virulence. Here we present the crystal structure of the prophage-encoded polysialate O-acetyltransferase NeuO. The homotrimeric enzyme belongs to the left-handed β-helix (LβH) family of acyltransferases and is characterized by an unusual funnel-shaped outline. Comparison with other members of the LβH family allowed the identification of active site residues and proposal of a catalytic mechanism and highlighted structural characteristics of polySia specific O-acetyltransferases. As a unique feature of NeuO, the enzymatic activity linearly increases with the length of the N-terminal poly-ψ-domain which is composed of a variable number of tandem copies of an RLKTQDS heptad. Since the poly-ψ-domain was not resolved in the crystal structure it is assumed to be unfolded in the apo-enyzme. PMID:21390252

  13. Biochemical and structural analysis of an Eis family aminoglycoside acetyltransferase from bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Green, Keith D; Biswas, Tapan; Chang, Changsoo; Wu, Ruiying; Chen, Wenjing; Janes, Brian K; Chalupska, Dominika; Gornicki, Piotr; Hanna, Philip C; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-05-26

    Proteins from the enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) family are versatile acetyltransferases that acetylate amines at multiple positions of several aminoglycosides (AGs). Their upregulation confers drug resistance. Homologues of Eis are present in diverse bacteria, including many pathogens. Eis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Eis_Mtb) has been well characterized. In this study, we explored the AG specificity and catalytic efficiency of the Eis family protein from Bacillus anthracis (Eis_Ban). Kinetic analysis of specificity and catalytic efficiency of acetylation of six AGs indicates that Eis_Ban displays significant differences from Eis_Mtb in both substrate binding and catalytic efficiency. The number of acetylated amines was also different for several AGs, indicating a distinct regiospecificity of Eis_Ban. Furthermore, most recently identified inhibitors of Eis_Mtb did not inhibit Eis_Ban, underscoring the differences between these two enzymes. To explain these differences, we determined an Eis_Ban crystal structure. The comparison of the crystal structures of Eis_Ban and Eis_Mtb demonstrates that critical residues lining their respective substrate binding pockets differ substantially, explaining their distinct specificities. Our results suggest that acetyltransferases of the Eis family evolved divergently to garner distinct specificities while conserving catalytic efficiency, possibly to counter distinct chemical challenges. The unique specificity features of these enzymes can be utilized as tools for developing AGs with novel modifications and help guide specific AG treatments to avoid Eis-mediated resistance. PMID:25928210

  14. RNA helicase module in an acetyltransferase that modifies a specific tRNA anticodon

    PubMed Central

    Chimnaronk, Sarin; Suzuki, Tateki; Manita, Tetsuhiro; Ikeuchi, Yoshiho; Yao, Min; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Isao

    2009-01-01

    Post-transcriptional RNA modifications in the anticodon of transfer RNAs frequently contribute to the high fidelity of protein synthesis. In eubacteria, two genome-encoded transfer RNA (tRNA) species bear the same CAU sequence as the anticodons, which are differentiated by modified cytidines at the wobble positions. The elongator tRNAMet accepts an acetyl moiety at the wobble base to form N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C): an inherent modification ensures precise decoding of the AUG codon by strengthening C−G base-pair interaction and concurrently preventing misreading of the near cognate AUA codon. We have determined the crystal structure of tRNAMet cytidine acetyltransferase (TmcA) from Escherichia coli complexed with two natural ligands, acetyl-CoA and ADP, at 2.35 Å resolution. The structure unexpectedly reveals an idiosyncratic RNA helicase module fused with a GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) fold, which intimately cross-interact. Taken together with the biochemical evidence, we further unravelled the function of acetyl-CoA as an enzyme-activating switch, and propose that an RNA helicase motor driven by ATP hydrolysis is used to deliver the wobble base to the active centre of the GNAT domain. PMID:19322199

  15. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Casini, A; Vaccaro, R; D'Este, L; Sakaue, Y; Bellier, J P; Kimura, H; Renda, T G

    2012-07-19

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  16. Intracellular localization of α-tubulin acetyltransferase ATAT1 in rat ciliated cells.

    PubMed

    Nakakura, Takashi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Asano-Hoshino, Anshin; Arisawa, Kenjiro; Nishijima, Yoshimi; Kiuchi, Yoshiko; Hagiwara, Haruo

    2016-09-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based hair-like organelles on basal bodies located beneath the cell membrane in various tissues of multicellular animals, and are usually classified into motile cilia and primary cilia. Microtubules are assembled from the heterodimers of α- and β-tubulin. The lysine residue at position 40 (K40) of α-tubulin is an important site for acetylation, and this site is acetylated in the cilium. α-Tubulin N-acetyltransferase 1 (ATAT1) is an acetyltransferase specific to the K40 residue of α-tubulin; however, its intracellular distribution in mammalian tissues remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed ATAT1 localization in rat trachea, oviduct, kidney, retina, testis and the third ventricle of the brain by immunohistochemical techniques using a specific antibody against ATAT1. ATAT1 was distributed to the motile cilia of multiciliated cells of the trachea, third ventricle of the brain and oviduct, and in the primary cilia of the renal medullary collecting duct. ATAT1 also localized to the primary cilia, inner and outer segments of retinal photoreceptor cells, and at the Golgi apparatus of spermatocytes and spermatids of testis. These results indicated that α-tubulin acetylation by ATAT1 at distinct subcellular positions may influence the functional regulation of microtubules and cilia in a variety of ciliated cells. PMID:26700226

  17. The Protein Acetyltransferase PatZ from Escherichia coli Is Regulated by Autoacetylation-induced Oligomerization*

    PubMed Central

    de Diego Puente, Teresa; Gallego-Jara, Julia; Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal Sánchez, Vicente; Fernández Espín, Vanesa; García de la Torre, José; Manjón Rubio, Arturo; Cánovas Díaz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification in the metabolic regulation of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In Escherichia coli, PatZ (formerly YfiQ) is the only known acetyltransferase protein and is responsible for acetyl-CoA synthetase acetylation. In this study, we demonstrated PatZ-positive cooperativity in response to acetyl-CoA and the regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase activity by the acetylation level. Furthermore, functional analysis of an E809A mutant showed that the conserved glutamate residue is not relevant for the PatZ catalytic mechanism. Biophysical studies demonstrated that PatZ is a stable tetramer in solution and is transformed to its octameric form by autoacetylation. Moreover, this modification is reversed by the sirtuin CobB. Finally, an in silico PatZ tetramerization model based on hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions is proposed and validated by three-dimensional hydrodynamic analysis. These data reveal, for the first time, the structural regulation of an acetyltransferase by autoacetylation in a prokaryotic organism. PMID:26251518

  18. Acetyltransferase SAS2 and sirtuin SIR2, respectively, control flocculation and biofilm formation in wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, María E; Orozco, Helena; Cantoral, Jesús M; Matallana, Emilia; Aranda, Agustín

    2014-09-01

    Cell-to-cell and cell-to-environment interactions of microorganisms are of substantial relevance for their biotechnological use. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, flocculation can be an advantage to clarify final liquid products after fermentation, and biofilm formation may be relevant for the encapsulation of strains of interest. The adhesion properties of wine yeast strains can be modified by the genetic manipulation of transcriptional regulatory proteins, such as histone deacetylases, and acetylases. Sirtuin SIR2 is essential for the formation of mat structures, a kind of biofilm that requires the expression of cell-wall protein FLO11 as its deletion reduces FLO11 expression, and adhesion of cells to themselves and to agar in a commercial wine strain. Deletion of acetyltransferase GCN5 leads to a similar phenotype. A naturally flocculant wine yeast strain called P2 was characterized. Its flocculation happens only during grape juice fermentation and is due to the presence of a highly transcribed version of flocculin FLO5, linked to the presence of a δ sequence in the promoter. Deletion of acetyltransferase SAS2 enhances this phenotype and maltose fermentation even more. Therefore, the manipulation of acetylation/deacetylation machinery members is a valid way to alter the interaction of industrial yeast to their environment.

  19. The N-terminal acetyltransferase Naa10 is essential for zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Ree, Rasmus; Myklebust, Line M.; Thiel, Puja; Foyn, Håvard; Fladmark, Kari E.; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation, catalysed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is among the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes and involves the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the α-amino group of the first amino acid. Functions of N-terminal acetylation include protein degradation and sub-cellular targeting. Recent findings in humans indicate that a dysfunctional Nα-acetyltransferase (Naa) 10, the catalytic subunit of NatA, the major NAT, is associated with lethality during infancy. In the present study, we identified the Danio rerio orthologue zebrafish Naa 10 (zNaa10). In vitro N-terminal acetylation assays revealed that zNaa10 has NAT activity with substrate specificity highly similar to that of human Naa10. Spatiotemporal expression pattern was determined by in situ hybridization, showing ubiquitous expression with especially strong staining in brain and eye. By morpholino-mediated knockdown, we demonstrated that naa10 morphants displayed increased lethality, growth retardation and developmental abnormalities like bent axis, abnormal eyes and bent tails. In conclusion, we identified the zebrafish Naa10 orthologue and revealed that it is essential for normal development and viability of zebrafish. PMID:26251455

  20. Cysteine biosynthesis in Lactobacillus casei: identification and characterization of a serine acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Bogicevic, Biljana; Berthoud, Hélène; Portmann, Reto; Bavan, Tharmatha; Meile, Leo; Irmler, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    In bacteria, cysteine can be synthesized from serine by two steps involving an L-serine O-acetyltransferase (SAT) and a cysteine synthase (CysK). While CysK is found in the publicly available annotated genome from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, a gene encoding SAT (cysE) is missing. In this study, we found that various strains of L. casei grew in a chemically defined medium containing sulfide as the sole sulfur source, indicating the presence of a serine O-acetyltransferase. The gene lying upstream of cysK is predicted to encode a homoserine trans-succinylase (metA). To study the function of this gene, it was cloned from L. casei FAM18110. The purified, recombinant protein did not acylate L-homoserine in vitro. Instead, it catalyzed the formation of O-acetyl serine from L-serine and acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, the plasmid expressing the L. casei gene complemented an Escherichia coli cysE mutant strain but not an E. coli metA mutant. This clearly demonstrated that the gene annotated as metA in fact encodes the SAT function and should be annotated as cysE. PMID:26790714

  1. The Protein Acetyltransferase PatZ from Escherichia coli Is Regulated by Autoacetylation-induced Oligomerization.

    PubMed

    de Diego Puente, Teresa; Gallego-Jara, Julia; Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal Sánchez, Vicente; Fernández Espín, Vanesa; García de la Torre, José; Manjón Rubio, Arturo; Cánovas Díaz, Manuel

    2015-09-18

    Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification in the metabolic regulation of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In Escherichia coli, PatZ (formerly YfiQ) is the only known acetyltransferase protein and is responsible for acetyl-CoA synthetase acetylation. In this study, we demonstrated PatZ-positive cooperativity in response to acetyl-CoA and the regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase activity by the acetylation level. Furthermore, functional analysis of an E809A mutant showed that the conserved glutamate residue is not relevant for the PatZ catalytic mechanism. Biophysical studies demonstrated that PatZ is a stable tetramer in solution and is transformed to its octameric form by autoacetylation. Moreover, this modification is reversed by the sirtuin CobB. Finally, an in silico PatZ tetramerization model based on hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions is proposed and validated by three-dimensional hydrodynamic analysis. These data reveal, for the first time, the structural regulation of an acetyltransferase by autoacetylation in a prokaryotic organism.

  2. The Set3 Complex Antagonizes the MYST Acetyltransferase Esa1 in the DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Machorro, Ana Lilia; Clark, Lauren G.; Chang, Christie S.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylation is a dynamic posttranslational modification that contributes to chromatin-regulated processes, including DNA replication, repair, recombination, and gene expression. Acetylation is controlled by complexes containing opposing lysine and histone acetyltransferase (KAT and HAT) and deacetylase (KDAC and HDAC) activities. The essential MYST family Esa1 KAT acetylates core histones and many nonhistone substrates. Phenotypes of esa1 mutants include transcriptional silencing and activation defects, impaired growth at high temperatures, and sensitivity to DNA damage. The KDAC Rpd3 was previously identified as an activity opposing Esa1, as its deletion suppresses growth and silencing defects of esa1 mutants. However, loss of Rpd3 does not suppress esa1 DNA damage sensitivity. In this work, we identified Hos2 as a KDAC counteracting ESA1 in the damage response. Deletion of HOS2 resulted in changes of esa1's transcriptional response upon damage. Further, loss of HOS2 or components of the Set3 complex (Set3C) in which it acts specifically suppressed damage sensitivity and restored esa1 histone H4 acetylation. This rescue was mediated via loss of either Set3C integrity or of its binding to dimethylated histone H3K4. Our results thus add new insight into the interactions of an essential MYST acetyltransferase with diverse deacetylases to respond specifically to environmental and physiological challenges. PMID:26303527

  3. No evidence for role of extracellular choline-acetyltransferase in generation of gamma oscillations in rat hippocampal slices in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hollnagel, J O; ul Haq, R; Behrens, C J; Maslarova, A; Mody, I; Heinemann, U

    2015-01-22

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is well known to induce persistent γ-oscillations in the hippocampus when applied together with physostigmine, an inhibitor of the ACh degrading enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Here we report that physostigmine alone can also dose-dependently induce γ-oscillations in rat hippocampal slices. We hypothesized that this effect was due to the presence of choline in the extracellular space and that this choline is taken up into cholinergic fibers where it is converted to ACh by the enzyme choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT). Release of ACh from cholinergic fibers in turn may then induce γ-oscillations. We therefore tested the effects of the choline uptake inhibitor hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) on persistent γ-oscillations either induced by physostigmine alone or by co-application of ACh and physostigmine. We found that HC-3 itself did not induce γ-oscillations and also did not prevent physostigmine-induced γ-oscillation while washout of physostigmine and ACh-induced γ-oscillations was accelerated. It was recently reported that ChAT might also be present in the extracellular space (Vijayaraghavan et al., 2013). Here we show that the effect of physostigmine was prevented by the ChAT inhibitor (2-benzoylethyl)-trimethylammonium iodide (BETA) which could indicate extracellular synthesis of ACh. However, when we tested for effects of extracellularly applied acetyl-CoA, a substrate of ChAT for synthesis of ACh, physostigmine-induced γ-oscillations were attenuated. Together, these findings do not support the idea that ACh can be synthesized by an extracellularly located ChAT. PMID:25453770

  4. DNA binding by Sgf11 protein affects histone H2B deubiquitination by Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA).

    PubMed

    Koehler, Christian; Bonnet, Jacques; Stierle, Matthieu; Romier, Christophe; Devys, Didier; Kieffer, Bruno

    2014-03-28

    The yeast Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex is a transcription coactivator that contains a histone H2B deubiquitination activity mediated by its Ubp8 subunit. Full enzymatic activity requires the formation of a quaternary complex, the deubiquitination module (DUBm) of SAGA, which is composed of Ubp8, Sus1, Sgf11, and Sgf73. The crystal structures of the DUBm have shed light on the structure/function relationship of this complex. Specifically, both Sgf11 and Sgf73 contain zinc finger domains (ZnF) that appear essential for the DUBm activity. Whereas Sgf73 N-terminal ZnF is important for DUBm stability, Sgf11 C-terminal ZnF appears to be involved in DUBm function. To further characterize the role of these two zinc fingers, we have solved their structure by NMR. We show that, contrary to the previously reported structures, Sgf73 ZnF adopts a C2H2 coordination with unusual tautomeric forms for the coordinating histidines. We further report that the Sgf11 ZnF, but not the Sgf73 ZnF, binds to nucleosomal DNA with a binding interface composed of arginine residues located within the ZnF α-helix. Mutational analyses both in vitro and in vivo provide evidence for the functional relevance of our structural observations. The combined interpretation of our results leads to an uncommon ZnF-DNA interaction between the SAGA DUBm and nucleosomes, thus providing further functional insights into SAGA's epigenetic modulation of the chromatin structure.

  5. Cat-scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B

    1996-09-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) was first described by Debré in 1950, yet the causative bacterial agent of CSD remained obscure until 1992, when Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) henselae was implicated in CSD by serological and microbiological studies. B. henselae had initially been linked to bacillary angiomatosis (BA), a vascular proliferative disease most commonly associated with long-standing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or other significant immunosuppression. B. henselae has also been associated with bacillary peliosis, relapsing bacteraemia and endocarditis in humans. Cats are healthy carriers of B. henselae, and can be bacteraemic for months or years. It has recently been demonstrated that B. henselae can be transmitted from cat to cat by the cat flea, but not by direct contact between animals. The author discusses the present state of knowledge on the aetiology, clinical features and epidemiological characteristics of cat-scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis.

  6. Bilateral juvenile renal dysplasia in a Norwegian Forest Cat.

    PubMed

    Aresu, Luca; Zanatta, Renato; Pregel, Paola; Caliari, Diego; Tursi, Massimiliano; Valenza, Federico; Tarducci, Alberto

    2009-04-01

    Renal dysplasia is defined as a condition of disorganised development of renal parenchyma due to abnormal differentiation. The case of a 5-month-old intact male Norwegian Forest Cat with a history of polyuria and polydipsia is reported. Ultrasonographic examination showed a slight enlargement of kidneys. Biochemical parameters, haematological examinations and clinical signs were compatible with chronic renal failure (CRF). Histological examination was correlated with a primary tubular disorganisation and modification of glomerular compartment. The clinical history together with the histological lesions is consistent with bilateral juvenile renal dysplasia in this cat. To our knowledge, feline renal dysplasia has been reported in fetal infections with panleukopenia virus; no reports indicate the idiopathic origin in feline dysplastic lesions.

  7. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh.

  8. The wheat transcription factor TaGAMyb recruits histone acetyltransferase and activates the expression of a high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weiwei; Yang, Hua; Liu, Yongqiang; Gao, Yujiao; Ni, Zhongfu; Peng, Huiru; Xin, Mingming; Hu, Zhaorong; Sun, Qixin; Yao, Yingyin

    2015-10-01

    Glutenin proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour confer unique viscoelastic properties to dough products and, therefore, the concentration and composition of the glutenin proteins determine its end-use value. However, the mechanisms governing the glutenin gene expression remain elusive. In this study, we report that wheat TaGAMyb activates the high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes (TaGLU) through recruiting the histone acetyltransferase GCN5. By sequencing the promoters of TaGLU-1 genes from 40 modern wheat cultivars, we identified eight types of TaGAMyb binding motifs and verified these by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The number of TaGAMyb binding motifs in TaGLU-1 genes is correlated with the abundance of glutenin in different cultivars. Chromatin immunoprecipitation plus polymerase chain reaction (ChIP-PCR) analysis reveals that TaGCN5 directly targets the promoters of TaGLU-1 genes in wheat endosperm. We find that TaGAMyb physically interacts with the wheat histone acetyltransferase TaGCN5 and also interacts with Arabidopsis thaliana AtGCN5. TaGAMyb ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis binds to the TaGLU-1Dy promoter on a TaGLU-1Dy transgene and activates its expression. AtGCN5 also targets the TaGLU-1Dy transgene and is involved in the establishment of acetylation at H3K9 and H3K14. These results demonstrate that TaGAMyb plays a dual role in activating expression of glutenin gene by directly binding to the TaGLU promoter and by recruiting GCN5 to modulate histone acetylation during wheat endosperm development.

  9. Studies on poxvirus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M; Gaskell, R M; Gaskell, C J; Baxby, D; Kelly, D F

    1989-01-01

    The development of clinical disease and the pathogenesis of cowpox were studied in domestic cats inoculated by a variety of routes. Intradermal titration in two cats demonstrated that as little as five pfu of cowpox virus caused a primary skin lesion. Intradermal inoculation of greater than or equal to 10(5) pfu cowpox virus resulted in severe systemic disease. Large amounts of virus (greater than or equal to 10(3) pfu/g) were isolated from skin lesions and the turbinates of cats killed at eight and 11 days post-inoculation (dpi). Lesser amounts of virus (congruent to 10(2) pfu/g) were isolated from lymphoid tissues and the lung, and small amounts of virus were isolated from various other tissues. A white cell-associated viraemia was detected from 5 dpi onwards. Skin scarification with 10(3) or 50 pfu cowpox virus enabled reproduction of the naturally-acquired disease. Cat-to-cat transmission was demonstrated from cats inoculated by skin scarification, but caused only subclinical infection in sentinel cats. Oronasal inoculation resulted in transient coryza and milder generalized disease than skin inoculation, and no transmission to sentinel cats. Preliminary investigations showed vaccinia virus (Lister strain) to be of low infectivity in cats while inoculation of ectromelia virus (Mill Hill strain) did not cause any clinical signs.

  10. Screening for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats.

    PubMed

    Häggström, Jens; Luis Fuentes, Virginia; Wess, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats, and it can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Cats are often screened for HCM because of the presence of a heart murmur, but screening for breeding purposes has also become common. These cats are usually purebred cats of breeding age, and generally do not present with severe disease or with any clinical signs. This type of screening is particularly challenging because mild disease may be difficult to differentiate from a normal phenotype, and the margin for error is small, with potentially major consequences for the breeder. This article reviews HCM screening methods, with particular emphasis on echocardiography.

  11. Conditioning laboratory cats to handling and transport.

    PubMed

    Gruen, Margaret E; Thomson, Andrea E; Clary, Gillian P; Hamilton, Alexandra K; Hudson, Lola C; Meeker, Rick B; Sherman, Barbara L

    2013-10-01

    As research subjects, cats have contributed substantially to our understanding of biological systems, from the development of mammalian visual pathways to the pathophysiology of feline immunodeficiency virus as a model for human immunodeficiency virus. Few studies have evaluated humane methods for managing cats in laboratory animal facilities, however, in order to reduce fear responses and improve their welfare. The authors describe a behavioral protocol used in their laboratory to condition cats to handling and transport. Such behavioral conditioning benefits the welfare of the cats, the safety of animal technicians and the quality of feline research data.

  12. Visual analysis and image motion in locomoting cats.

    PubMed

    Sherk, H; Fowler, G A

    2001-03-01

    During locomotion, observers see a characteristic pattern of motion referred to as an optic flow field. To investigate how they make use of this pattern, we have developed a paradigm for testing visual function during locomotion. Foot placement was recorded while cats walked down an alley cluttered with a high density of small objects; the task was to avoid stepping on any object. In the experiments reported here, motion cues were eliminated by the use of low-frequency strobe lighting. In bright continuous light cats performed with great accuracy, and likewise at scotopic light levels. However, in strobe lighting their error rates increased more than threefold. This deterioration could not be attributed to lower acuity, since the cats' performance remained excellent when the light level was reduced well below that afforded by the strobe light. When very dim continuous light was combined with low-frequency strobe lighting, performance was substantially better than under strobe light alone. We conclude that motion-sensitive neurons make a major contribution to visual guidance of foot placement during locomotion. When strobe lighting is combined with very dim continuous light, even the minimal motion information available in the intervals between bright strobe flashes improves performance significantly. Cats were also trained to discriminate between complex patterns, and this discrimination was not affected by strobe lighting, suggesting that motion-sensitive neurons are not critical for this analysis. PMID:11285021

  13. Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in a FIV-positive cat.

    PubMed

    Hughes, M S; Ball, N W; Love, D N; Canfield, P J; Wigney, D I; Dawson, D; Davis, P E; Malik, R

    1999-03-01

    An 8-year-old FIV-positive Australian cat was presented with coughing, periocular alopecia, pyrexia and inappetence. Skin scrapings demonstrated Demodex cati mites. Antibiotics were administered and it was treated successfully for periocular demodectic mange, but the cat continued to exhibit respiratory signs and lose weight. Further investigation revealed an ascarid infection and active chronic inflammation of undetected cause affecting the lower airways. Repetitive treatment with pyrantel failed to eradicate the ascarid infection. The cat became cachectic and developed moist ulcerative dermatitis of the neck, severe non-regenerative anaemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Necropsy and histopathology revealed mycobacteriosis affecting skin, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes, liver and kidney. Attempted culture of frozen tissues at a mycobacteria reference laboratory was unsuccessful. Paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue was retrieved and examined using PCR to amplify part of the 16S rRNA gene. A diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection was made based on the presence of acid fast bacteria in many tissues and partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Although M genavense has been identified previously as a cause of disseminated disease in AIDS patients, this is the first report of infection in a cat. It was suspected that the demodecosis, recurrent ascarid infections and disseminated M genavense infection resulted from an immune deficiency syndrome consequent to longstanding FIV infection.

  14. Nitrogen metabolism of four raw meat diets in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Katherine R; Beloshapka, Alison N; Morris, Cheryl L; Swanson, Kelly S

    2011-10-01

    Little nutritional information has been collected from domestic cats fed raw meat diets. The objective of the present study was to evaluate differences in N metabolism of domestic cats fed raw beef-based diet (66 % crude protein (CP) and 20 % fat), bison-based diet (49 % CP and 39 % fat), elk-based diet (79 % CP and 6 % fat) and horse-based diet (60 % CP and 26 % fat). A total of eight intact adult female cats were fed to maintain body weight in a cross-over design. Daily food intake, faecal and urinary outputs, and N metabolism were measured. Dietary N was highly digestible (96.8 (SEM 0.7)) for all treatments. Urinary N accounted for a majority of total N excretion, and differences in total N excretion reflect differences in urinary N. Differences in N intake and N absorption were due to differences in CP levels among diets. N retention was similar to values reported in the literature for domestic cats fed purified and traditional extruded diets. Despite differences in protein concentrations and N intake, all raw meats tested maintained N metabolism.

  15. Cat Heart Muscle in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Page, Ernest; Solomon, A. K.

    1960-01-01

    Methods have been developed for the simultaneous determination of total water, inulin space, and K and Na content in muscles of 0.5 to 10 mg. wet weight. These methods have been used to define steady state conditions with respect to intracellular K concentration in papillary muscles from cat hearts perfused and contracting isometrically at 27–28°C. and at 37–38°C. Cell volumes and intracellular ionic concentrations have been followed as a function of the external K concentration and compared with values predicted on the basis of electroneutrality and osmotic equilibrium. PMID:13732016

  16. Proteinuria in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  17. The reserpine-treated cat

    PubMed Central

    Withrington, P.; Zaimis, Eleanor

    1961-01-01

    In cats, 24 hr after the administration of 1 mg/kg of reserpine, it was found that (a) the heart is in failure; (b) the sensitivity of the peripheral vessels to adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline, administered intravenously or close-arterially, is decreased; (c) any blood pressure changes are, as a rule, secondary to changes in heart contraction; and (d) the peripheral blood flow passively follows the blood pressure changes. Furthermore, any improvement of the circulation at this stage was found to be almost exclusively the result of an amelioration in the force of cardiac contraction. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig 8 PMID:14007730

  18. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  19. High-throughput screening identifies novel inhibitors of the acetyltransferase activity of Escherichia coli GlmU.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mark P; Blanchard, Jan E; Murphy, Cecilia; Roderick, Steven L; Brown, Eric D

    2009-06-01

    The bifunctional GlmU protein catalyzes the formation of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine in a two-step reaction using the substrates glucosamine-1-phosphate, acetyl coenzyme A, and UTP. This metabolite is a common precursor to the synthesis of bacterial cell surface carbohydrate polymers, such as peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, and wall teichoic acid that are involved in the maintenance of cell shape, permeability, and virulence. The C-terminal acetyltransferase domain of GlmU exhibits structural and mechanistic features unique to bacterial UDP-N-acetylglucosamine synthases, making it an excellent target for antibacterial design. In the work described here, we have developed an absorbance-based assay to screen diverse chemical libraries in high throughput for inhibitors to the acetyltransferase reaction of Escherichia coli GlmU. The primary screen of 50,000 drug-like small molecules identified 63 hits, 37 of which were specific to acetyltransferase activity of GlmU. Secondary screening and mode-of-inhibition studies identified potent inhibitors where compound binding within the acetyltransferase active site was requisite on the presence of glucosamine-1-phosphate and were competitive with the substrate acetyl coenzyme A. These molecules may represent novel chemical scaffolds for future antimicrobial drug discovery. In addition, this work outlines the utility of catalytic variants in targeting specific activities of bifunctional enzymes in high-throughput screens.

  20. Molecular characterization of the salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase involved in morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy Papaver somniferum.

    PubMed

    Grothe, T; Lenz, R; Kutchan, T M

    2001-08-17

    Salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase (EC ) catalyzes the conversion of the phenanthrene alkaloid salutaridinol to salutaridinol-7-O-acetate, the immediate precursor of thebaine along the morphine biosynthetic pathway. We have isolated a cDNA clone that corresponds to the internal amino acid sequences of the native enzyme purified from a cell suspension culture of opium poppy Papaver somniferum. The recombinant enzyme acetylated the 7-hydroxyl moiety of salutaridinol in the presence of acetyl-CoA. The apparent K(m) value for salutaridinol was determined to be 9 microm and 54 microm for acetyl-CoA. The gene transcript was detected in extracts from Papaver orientale and Papaver bracteatum in addition to P. somniferum. Genomic DNA gel blot analysis indicated that there is likely a single copy of this gene in the P. somniferum genome. The amino acid sequence of salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase is most similar (37% identity) to that of deacetylvindoline acetyltransferase of Catharanthus roseus. Salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase is the second enzyme specific to morphine biosynthesis for which we have isolated a cDNA. Taken together with the other cDNAs cloned encoding norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase, (S)-N-methylcoclaurine 3'-hydroxylase, the cytochrome P-450 reductase, and codeinone reductase, significant progress has been made toward accumulating genes of this pathway to enable the end goal of a biotechnological production of morphinan alkaloids.

  1. Construction and Use of a Replication-Competent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) that Expresses the Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase Enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terwilliger, E. F.; Godin, B.; Sodroski, J. G.; Haseltine, W. A.

    1989-05-01

    The construction and properties of an infectious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that expresses the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase are described. This virus can be used in vitro to screen for drugs that inhibit HIV infection. The marked virus may also be used to trace the routes of infection from the site of inoculation in animal experiments.

  2. Cloning and characterization of the serotonin N-acetyltransferase-2 gene (SNAT2) in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Byeon, Yeong; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2016-09-01

    The penultimate enzyme in melatonin synthesis is serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), which exists as a single copy in mammals and plants. Our recent studies of the Arabidopsis snat-knockout mutant and SNAT RNAi rice (Oryza sativa) plants predicted the presence of at least one other SNAT isogene in plants; that is, the snat-knockout mutant of Arabidopsis and the SNAT RNAi rice plants still produced melatonin, even in the absence or the suppression of SNAT expression. Here, we report a molecular cloning of an SNAT isogene (OsSNAT2) from rice. The mature amino acid sequences of SNAT proteins indicated that OsSNAT2 and OsSNAT1 proteins had 39% identity values and 60% similarity. The Km and Vmax values of the purified recombinant OsSNAT2 were 371 μm and 4700 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively; the enzyme's optimal activity temperature was 45°C. Confocal microscopy showed that the OsSNAT2 protein was localized to both the cytoplasm and chloroplasts. The in vitro enzyme activity of OsSNAT2 was severely inhibited by melatonin, but the activities of sheep SNAT (OaSNAT) and rice OsSNAT1 proteins were not. The enzyme activity of OsSNAT2 was threefold higher than that of OsSNAT1, but 232-fold lower than that of OaSNAT. The OsSNAT1 and OsSNAT2 transcripts were similarly suppressed in rice leaves during the melatonin induction after cadmium treatment. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that OsSNAT1 and OsSNAT2 are distantly related, suggesting that they evolved independently from Cyanobacteria prior to the endosymbiosis event. PMID:27121038

  3. Investigation of the catalytic triad of arylamine N-acetyltransferases: essential residues required for acetyl transfer to arylamines

    PubMed Central

    Sandy, James; Mushtaq, Adeel; Holton, Simon J.; Schartau, Pamela; Noble, Martin E. M.; Sim, Edith

    2005-01-01

    The NATs (arylamine N-acetyltransferases) are a well documented family of enzymes found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. NATs are responsible for the acetylation of a range of arylamine, arylhydrazine and hydrazine compounds. We present here an investigation into the catalytic triad of residues (Cys-His-Asp) and other structural features of NATs using a variety of methods, including site-directed mutagenesis, X-ray crystallography and bioinformatics analysis, in order to investigate whether each of the residues of the catalytic triad is essential for catalytic activity. The catalytic triad of residues, Cys-His-Asp, is a well defined motif present in several families of enzymes. We mutated each of the catalytic residues in turn to investigate the role they play in catalysis. We also mutated a key residue, Gly126, implicated in acetyl-CoA binding, to examine the effects on acetylation activity. In addition, we have solved the structure of a C70Q mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis NAT to a resolution of 1.45 Å (where 1 Å=0.1 nm). This structure confirms that the mutated protein is correctly folded, and provides a structural model for an acetylated NAT intermediate. Our bioinformatics investigation analysed the extent of sequence conservation between all eukaryotic and prokaryotic NAT enzymes for which sequence data are available. This revealed several new sequences, not yet reported, of NAT paralogues. Together, these studies have provided insight into the fundamental core of NAT enzymes, and the regions where sequence differences account for the functional diversity of this family. We have confirmed that each of the three residues of the triad is essential for acetylation activity. PMID:15869465

  4. Experimental proliferative glomerulonephritis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Bishop, S A; Stokes, C R; Lucke, V M

    1992-01-01

    A model of chronic serum sickness was used to induce immune-complex glomerulonephritis in seven experimental cats, by daily intravenous inoculation of an increasing dose (5 to 35 mg) of human serum albumin (HSA). At week four, two of the seven animals developed anterior uveitis. At week 23, two different animals developed the subcutaneous oedema characteristic of the nephrotic syndrome (NS), whilst the other five cats appeared clinically normal. The kidneys were examined at necropsy by light microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy. The glomeruli of four animals (three with both proteinuria and uraemia, and one with proteinuria only) showed morphological changes under light microscopy. The abnormalities suggested that a diffuse mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) had been induced in three cats and diffuse membranoproliferative GN induced in another. Ultrastructural studies revealed electron-dense deposits (immune-complexes) in six of the seven cats. Two cats without glomerular abnormalities by light microscopy had mesangial deposits and three cats with mesangial proliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial and/or subepithelial sites. The single cat with membranoproliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial, subepithelial and intramembranous sites. Immunohistological examination (peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique) showed that HSA and immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM) were deposited in the glomeruli of these cats. Deposits were the most dense in cats with more severe renal lesions. Deposits of IgM were most abundant. An extensive cellular infiltrate, comprising macrophages, neutrophils and plasma cells, was observed only in the four animals which showed abnormalities in glomerular ultrastructure. The disease induced in these cats thus appears to differ from the membranous nephropathy previously described in the cat and bears a close resemblance to immune complex (IC) disease in man. In view of the relatively few specific

  5. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.

  6. Progressive lymphadenopathy and intractable pain in an immunocompetent African-American adult with cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bonza, Sarah; McDougle, Leon; McConaghy, John R

    2008-10-01

    Persistent, painful cervical lymphadenopathy associated with malaise that does not respond to oral antibiotics may be cat-scratch disease. This condition is challenging to treat and may require surgical intervention. We present a case report of an immunocompetent 47-year-old African-American woman who was diagnosed with cat-scratch disease and hospitalized after multiple outpatient evaluations for progressive, painful lymphadenopathy. This case report outlines the patient's treatment in the author's urban outpatient clinic followed by an inpatient hospital stay with surgical intervention. Although the reported incidence of cat-scratch disease is higher in whites, primary care physicians should include cat-scratch disease in their differential diagnosis for African-American patients with regional lymphadenopathy, which is a hallmark of the disease. In addition, primary care physicians should be familiar with the atypical presentations of cat-scratch disease and the broad differential diagnosis for regional lymphadenopathy, including sarcoidosis, which is more common in African Americans.

  7. The D-Optimality Item Selection Criterion in the Early Stage of CAT: A Study with the Graded Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E. S.

    2008-01-01

    During the early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), item selection criteria based on Fisher"s information often produce less stable latent trait estimates than the Kullback-Leibler global information criterion. Robustness against early stage instability has been reported for the D-optimality criterion in a polytomous CAT with the…

  8. Frequencies of blood types A, B, and AB in non-pedigree domestic cats in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lan; Zhong, Yougang; Shi, Zhensheng; Giger, Urs

    2011-01-01

    Background Blood type A, B, and AB frequencies in domestic cats vary geographically and among breeds. Frequencies of feline blood types in China have not been reported. Objective The purpose of this study was to survey the frequency of blood types in domestic cats in the Beijing area. Methods A total of 262 cats from the city of Beijing were blood-typed using a standard tube agglutination assay. All cats were non-pedigree domestic shorthaired and longhaired cats; purebred cats were excluded. Serum obtained from type B cats and a lectin (Triticum vulgaris) solution served as anti-A and anti-B reagents, respectively. The presence of alloantibodies was also determined in some cats. Results The frequency of blood types was 88.2% type A, 11.4% type B, and 0.4% type AB. The tube assay resulted in 3+ to 4+ agglutination reactions with either the anti-A or anti-B reagents. The one type-AB sample showed 3+ agglutination with both anti-A and anti-B reagents; the plasma of that sample did not react with either type-A or type-B RBCs. Tested type-B cats had strong anti-A antibodies. Conclusions The frequency of blood type B in the Beijing area was relatively high and similar to that reported for other Asian countries and Australia. Blood-typing is recommended to match donors and recipients before transfusion therapy and planned matings to avoid hemolytic transfusion and neonatal isoerythrolysis reactions, respectively, due to blood type incompatibility. PMID:22092346

  9. Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: How to Bring Cell-Based Medicinal Products Successfully to the Market – Report from the CAT-DGTI-GSCN Workshop at the DGTI Annual Meeting 2014

    PubMed Central

    Celis, Patrick; Ferry, Nicolas; Hystad, Marit; Schüßler-Lenz, Martina; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Flory, Egbert; Beuneu, Claire; Reischl, Ilona; Salmikangas, Paula

    2015-01-01

    On September 11, 2014, a workshop entitled ‘Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: How to Bring Cell-Based Medicinal Product Successfully to the Market’ was held at the 47th annual meeting of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI), co-organised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the DGTI in collaboration with the German Stem Cell Network (GSCN). The workshop brought together over 160 participants from academia, hospitals, small- or medium-sized enterprise developers and regulators. At the workshop, speakers from EMA, the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT), industry and academia addressed the regulatory aspects of development and authorisation of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), classification of ATMPs and considerations on cell-based therapies for cardiac repair. The open forum discussion session allowed for a direct interaction between ATMP developers and the speakers from EMA and CAT. PMID:26195933

  10. Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: How to Bring Cell-Based Medicinal Products Successfully to the Market - Report from the CAT-DGTI-GSCN Workshop at the DGTI Annual Meeting 2014.

    PubMed

    Celis, Patrick; Ferry, Nicolas; Hystad, Marit; Schüßler-Lenz, Martina; Doevendans, Pieter A; Flory, Egbert; Beuneu, Claire; Reischl, Ilona; Salmikangas, Paula

    2015-05-01

    On September 11, 2014, a workshop entitled 'Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: How to Bring Cell-Based Medicinal Product Successfully to the Market' was held at the 47th annual meeting of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI), co-organised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the DGTI in collaboration with the German Stem Cell Network (GSCN). The workshop brought together over 160 participants from academia, hospitals, small- or medium-sized enterprise developers and regulators. At the workshop, speakers from EMA, the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT), industry and academia addressed the regulatory aspects of development and authorisation of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), classification of ATMPs and considerations on cell-based therapies for cardiac repair. The open forum discussion session allowed for a direct interaction between ATMP developers and the speakers from EMA and CAT.

  11. Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: How to Bring Cell-Based Medicinal Products Successfully to the Market - Report from the CAT-DGTI-GSCN Workshop at the DGTI Annual Meeting 2014.

    PubMed

    Celis, Patrick; Ferry, Nicolas; Hystad, Marit; Schüßler-Lenz, Martina; Doevendans, Pieter A; Flory, Egbert; Beuneu, Claire; Reischl, Ilona; Salmikangas, Paula

    2015-05-01

    On September 11, 2014, a workshop entitled 'Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: How to Bring Cell-Based Medicinal Product Successfully to the Market' was held at the 47th annual meeting of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI), co-organised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the DGTI in collaboration with the German Stem Cell Network (GSCN). The workshop brought together over 160 participants from academia, hospitals, small- or medium-sized enterprise developers and regulators. At the workshop, speakers from EMA, the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT), industry and academia addressed the regulatory aspects of development and authorisation of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), classification of ATMPs and considerations on cell-based therapies for cardiac repair. The open forum discussion session allowed for a direct interaction between ATMP developers and the speakers from EMA and CAT. PMID:26195933

  12. Cat Scratch Disease in kidney transplant receptors: is it a rare or underdiagnosed pathology?

    PubMed

    Verçoza, Ana Maria Teixeira; de los Santos, Carlos Abaeté; Vargas, José Amadeu

    2014-01-01

    Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) is an infectious disorder which appears after cat scratching particularly in children and adolescents. Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent more frequently involved. There are only a few recent reports demonstrating the disease after transplantation, although the illness is not infrequent in immunologically competent people. Indeed CSD in transplant receptors has only been recently emphasized in the literature and it was concluded that fever and lymphadenopathy in patients who had been exposed to cats should prompt clinicians to maintain a suspicion for the infection. In this report CSD infecting a renal transplanted adolescent complaining of headache, blurred vision and fever, presenting a cat scratching lesion in the right arm, with a bilateral painful cervical lymphadenopathy was related. He also presented indirect immunofluorescency identifying that the two subtype's titles of Bartonella--henselae and quintana--were elevated. Treatment with doxicicline e rifampicin was introduced and the patient became asymptomatic in about 3 weeks.

  13. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats

    PubMed Central

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek, and chives), macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas, and currants), products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages, and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature. PMID:27047944

  14. Paraneoplastic alopecia associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Marconato, Laura; Albanese, Francesco; Viacava, Paolo; Marchetti, Veronica; Abramo, Francesca

    2007-08-01

    A 15-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat presented with alopecia associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical signs, which had commenced 6 months previously, included loss of appetite, loss of weight, and depression. As reported by the owner, the cat developed alopecia a week before referral. The hair loss was localized to the ventral aspect of the thorax and abdomen, medial aspect of front and hind limbs, and ventral aspect of the tail, and was associated with histological features consistent with paraneoplastic alopecia. At necropsy, multiple hepatic nodules were observed, and subsequent histopathological investigation showed cords and sheets of hepatocyte-like neoplastic cells positive for the hepatocyte marker (Hep Par 1), thereby demonstrating the hepatocellular origin of the tumour, which was diagnosed as a hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first report of feline paraneoplastic alopecia associated with hepatocellular carcinoma confirmed by the Hep Par 1 marker.

  15. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek, and chives), macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas, and currants), products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages, and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature.

  16. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek, and chives), macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas, and currants), products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages, and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature. PMID:27047944

  17. Primary hyperaldosteronism, a mediator of progressive renal disease in cats.

    PubMed

    Javadi, S; Djajadiningrat-Laanen, S C; Kooistra, H S; van Dongen, A M; Voorhout, G; van Sluijs, F J; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Boer, W H; Rijnberk, A

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in primary hyperaldosteronism, particularly because of its possible role in the progression of kidney disease. While most studies have concerned humans and experimental animal models, we here report on the occurrence of a spontaneous form of (non-tumorous) primary hyperaldosteronism in cats. At presentation, the main physical features of 11 elderly cats were hypokalemic paroxysmal flaccid paresis and loss of vision due to retinal detachment with hemorrhages. Primary hyperaldosteronism was diagnosed on the basis of plasma concentrations of aldosterone (PAC) and plasma renin activity (PRA), and the calculation of the PAC:PRA ratio. In all animals, PACs were at the upper end or higher than the reference range. The PRAs were at the lower end of the reference range, and the PAC:PRA ratios exceeded the reference range. Diagnostic imaging by ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed no or only very minor changes in the adrenals compatible with nodular hyperplasia. Adrenal gland histopathology revealed extensive micronodular hyperplasia extending from zona glomerulosa into the zona fasciculata and reticularis. In three cats, plasma urea and creatinine concentrations were normal when hyperaldosteronism was diagnosed but thereafter increased to above the upper limit of the respective reference range. In the other eight cats, urea and creatinine concentrations were raised at first examination and gradually further increased. Even in end-stage renal insufficiency, there was a tendency to hypophosphatemia rather than to hyperphosphatemia. The histopathological changes in the kidneys mimicked those of humans with hyperaldosteronism: hyaline arteriolar sclerosis, glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The non-tumorous form of primary hyperaldosteronism in cats has many similarities with "idiopathic" primary hyperaldosteronism in humans. The condition is associated with progressive renal disease

  18. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of cats on Mars, the…

  19. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  20. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  1. Unusual regioversatility of acetyltransferase Eis, a cause of drug resistance in XDR-TB

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenjing; Biswas, Tapan; Porter, Vanessa R.; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2011-09-06

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) is a serious global threat. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used as a last resort to treat XDR-TB. Resistance to the aminoglycoside kanamycin is a hallmark of XDR-TB. Here, we reveal the function and structure of the mycobacterial protein Eis responsible for resistance to kanamycin in a significant fraction of kanamycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates. We demonstrate that Eis has an unprecedented ability to acetylate multiple amines of many aminoglycosides. Structural and mutagenesis studies of Eis indicate that its acetylation mechanism is enabled by a complex tripartite fold that includes two general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase regions. An intricate negatively charged substrate-binding pocket of Eis is a potential target of new antitubercular drugs expected to overcome aminoglycoside resistance.

  2. Comparison of Protein Acetyltransferase Action of CRTAase with the Prototypes of HAT

    PubMed Central

    Ponnan, Prija; Kumar, Ajit; Singh, Prabhjot; Gupta, Prachi; Joshi, Rini; Saso, Luciano; Prasad, Ashok K.; Rastogi, Ramesh C.; Parmar, Virinder S.; Raj, Hanumantharao G.

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory is credited for the discovery of enzymatic acetylation of protein, a phenomenon unknown till we identified an enzyme termed acetoxy drug: protein transacetylase (TAase), catalyzing the transfer of acetyl group from polyphenolic acetates to receptor proteins (RP). Later, TAase was identified as calreticulin (CR), an endoplasmic reticulum luminal protein. CR was termed calreticulin transacetylase (CRTAase). Our persistent study revealed that CR like other families of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) such as p300, Rtt109, PCAF, and ESA1, undergoes autoacetylation. The autoacetylated CR was characterized as a stable intermediate in CRTAase catalyzed protein acetylation, and similar was the case with ESA1. The autoacetylation of CR like that of HATs was found to enhance protein-protein interaction. CR like HAT-1, CBP, and p300 mediated the acylation of RP utilizing acetyl CoA and propionyl CoA as the substrates. The similarities between CRTAase and HATs in mediating protein acylation are highlighted in this review. PMID:24688408

  3. Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Creighton, J.A.; Rudeen, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effect upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity.

  4. Histone acetyltransferase p300 promotes MKL1-mediated transactivation of catechol-O-methyltransferase gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhipeng; Luo, Xuegang; Liu, Lei; Zhao, Wenwen; Guo, Shu; Guo, Yu; Wang, Nan; He, Hongpeng; Liao, Xinghua; Ma, Wenjian; Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Tongcun

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed that histone acetyltransferase p300 is recruited to the promoters of certain cardiac and smooth muscle specific genes to enhance the transactivation activity of myocardin, which is a master regulator in cardiovascular differentiation and development. Here, we found that the gene encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an important metabolic enzyme catalyzing the conversion of estrogen, is also a target gene of myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs). Megakaryoblastic leukemia 1 (MKL1, also named MRTF-A) and p300 could synergistically augment the expression of COMT gene, increase the metabolic rate of estrogen, and thus reduce the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells stimulated by estrogen. PMID:24096006

  5. Structure of homoserine O-acetyltransferase from Staphylococcus aureus: the first Gram-positive ortholog structure

    PubMed Central

    Thangavelu, Bharani; Pavlovsky, Alexander G.; Viola, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Homoserine O-acetyltransferase (HTA) catalyzes the formation of l-O-acetyl-homoserine from l-homoserine through the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA. This is the first committed step required for the biosynthesis of methionine in many fungi, Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negative bacteria. The structure of HTA from Staphylococcus aureus (SaHTA) has been determined to a resolution of 2.45 Å. The structure belongs to the α/β-hydrolase superfamily, consisting of two distinct domains: a core α/β-domain containing the catalytic site and a lid domain assembled into a helical bundle. The active site consists of a classical catalytic triad located at the end of a deep tunnel. Structure analysis revealed some important differences for SaHTA compared with the few known structures of HTA. PMID:25286936

  6. Structure of homoserine O-acetyltransferase from Staphylococcus aureus: the first Gram-positive ortholog structure.

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, Bharani; Pavlovsky, Alexander G; Viola, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Homoserine O-acetyltransferase (HTA) catalyzes the formation of L-O-acetyl-homoserine from L-homoserine through the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA. This is the first committed step required for the biosynthesis of methionine in many fungi, Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negative bacteria. The structure of HTA from Staphylococcus aureus (SaHTA) has been determined to a resolution of 2.45 Å. The structure belongs to the α/β-hydrolase superfamily, consisting of two distinct domains: a core α/β-domain containing the catalytic site and a lid domain assembled into a helical bundle. The active site consists of a classical catalytic triad located at the end of a deep tunnel. Structure analysis revealed some important differences for SaHTA compared with the few known structures of HTA.

  7. Absence of N-terminal acetyltransferase diversification during evolution of eukaryotic organisms.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Om Singh; Faustino, Alexandra; Prudêncio, Pedro; Van Damme, Petra; Cox, Cymon J; Martinho, Rui Gonçalo

    2016-02-10

    Protein N-terminal acetylation is an ancient and ubiquitous co-translational modification catalyzed by a highly conserved family of N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). Prokaryotes have at least 3 NATs, whereas humans have six distinct but highly conserved NATs, suggesting an increase in regulatory complexity of this modification during eukaryotic evolution. Despite this, and against our initial expectations, we determined that NAT diversification did not occur in the eukaryotes, as all six major human NATs were most likely present in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA). Furthermore, we also observed that some NATs were actually secondarily lost during evolution of major eukaryotic lineages; therefore, the increased complexity of the higher eukaryotic proteome occurred without a concomitant diversification of NAT complexes.

  8. Coenzyme A Binding to the Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase (3)-IIIb Increases Conformational Sampling of Antibiotic Binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaohu; Norris, Adrianne; Baudry, Jerome Y; Serpersu, Engin H

    2011-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy experiments and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to describe the dynamic properties of the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (3)-IIIb (AAC) in its apo and coenzyme A (CoASH) bound forms. The {sup 15}N-{sup 1}H HSQC spectra indicate a partial structural change and coupling of the CoASH binding site with another region in the protein upon the CoASH titration into the apo enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate a significant structural and dynamic variation of the long loop in the antibiotic binding domain in the form of a relatively slow (250 ns), concerted opening motion in the CoASH enzyme complex and that binding of the CoASH increases the structural flexibility of the loop, leading to an interchange between several similar equally populated conformations.

  9. Absence of N-terminal acetyltransferase diversification during evolution of eukaryotic organisms

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Om Singh; Faustino, Alexandra; Prudêncio, Pedro; Van Damme, Petra; Cox, Cymon J.; Martinho, Rui Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    Protein N-terminal acetylation is an ancient and ubiquitous co-translational modification catalyzed by a highly conserved family of N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). Prokaryotes have at least 3 NATs, whereas humans have six distinct but highly conserved NATs, suggesting an increase in regulatory complexity of this modification during eukaryotic evolution. Despite this, and against our initial expectations, we determined that NAT diversification did not occur in the eukaryotes, as all six major human NATs were most likely present in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA). Furthermore, we also observed that some NATs were actually secondarily lost during evolution of major eukaryotic lineages; therefore, the increased complexity of the higher eukaryotic proteome occurred without a concomitant diversification of NAT complexes. PMID:26861501

  10. Metabolic Regulation of Histone Acetyltransferases by Endogenous Acyl-CoA Cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Guasch, Laura; Nicklaus, Marc C.; Meier, Jordan L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The finding that chromatin modifications are sensitive to changes in cellular cofactor levels potentially links altered tumor cell metabolism and gene expression. However, the specific enzymes and metabolites that connect these two processes remain obscure. Characterizing these metabolic-epigenetic axes is critical to understanding how metabolism supports signaling in cancer, and developing therapeutic strategies to disrupt this process. Here, we describe a chemical approach to define the metabolic regulation of lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) enzymes. Using a novel chemoproteomic probe, we identify a previously unreported interaction between fatty acyl-CoAs and KAT enzymes. Further analysis reveals that palmitoyl-CoA is a potent inhibitor of KAT activity and that fatty acyl-CoA precursors reduce cellular acetylation levels. These studies implicate fatty acyl-CoAs as endogenous regulators of histone acetylation, and suggest novel strategies for the investigation and metabolic modulation of epigenetic signaling. PMID:26190825

  11. Interferon-Induced Spermidine-Spermine Acetyltransferase and Polyamine Depletion Restrict Zika and Chikungunya Viruses.

    PubMed

    Mounce, Bryan C; Poirier, Enzo Z; Passoni, Gabriella; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Cesaro, Teresa; Prot, Matthieu; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2016-08-10

    Polyamines are small, positively charged molecules derived from ornithine and synthesized through an intricately regulated enzymatic pathway. Within cells, they are abundant and play several roles in diverse processes. We find that polyamines are required for the life cycle of the RNA viruses chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Depletion of spermidine and spermine via type I interferon signaling-mediated induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1), a key catabolic enzyme in the polyamine pathway, restricts CHIKV and ZIKV replication. Polyamine depletion restricts these viruses in vitro and in vivo, due to impairment of viral translation and RNA replication. The restriction is released by exogenous replenishment of polyamines, further supporting a role for these molecules in virus replication. Thus, SAT1 and, more broadly, polyamine depletion restrict viral replication and suggest promising avenues for antiviral therapies.

  12. Primary structure of the human M2 mitochondrial autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis: Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Coppel, R.L.; McNeilage, L.J.; Surh, C.D.; Van De Water, J.; Spithill, T.W.; Whittingham, S.; Gershwin, M.E. )

    1988-10-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic, destructive autoimmune liver disease of humans. Patient sera are characterized by a high frequency of autoantibodies to a M{sub r} 70,000 mitochondrial antigen a component of the M2 antigen complex. The authors have identified a human cDNA clone encoding the complete amino acid sequence of this autoantigen. The predicted structure has significant similarity with the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. The human sequence preserves the Glu-Thr-Asp-Lys-Ala motif of the lipoyl-binding site and has two potential binding sites. Expressed fragments of the cDNA react strongly with sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis but not with sera from patients with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis or sera from healthy subjects.

  13. Mapping Lysine Acetyltransferase-Ligand Interactions by Activity-Based Capture.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, D C; Meier, J L

    2016-01-01

    Changes in reversible protein acetylation mediate many key aspects of genomic regulation and enzyme function. The catalysts for this posttranslational modification, lysine acetyltransferases (KATs), have been difficult targets for characterization due to their complex architecture and challenging reconstitution. To address this challenge, here we describe methods to profile endogenous KAT activities using activity-based probes. This method facilitates the targeted analysis of several cellular KATs and can be used to study their interactions with many different types of ligands, including acyl-CoA metabolites. This competitive activity-based capture approach provides a method to assess the selectivity of ligands for different KAT families in complex proteomic settings, and thus has the potential to offer substantial insights into the regulation of cellular KAT function. PMID:27423859

  14. Cholesterol granuloma (Xanthomatous metritis) in the uterus of a cat.

    PubMed

    Zanghì, A; Nicòtina, P A; Catone, G; Gimbo, A

    1999-10-01

    A case of uterine cholesterol granuloma in a 12-year old mixed breed cat is reported. The lesions were found in the endometrium of the left uterine horn as scattered, raised nodules or foci. Histologically, mononuclear cell infiltrates were seen to surround cholesterol crystals, in both the endometrium and the smooth muscle layer, reaching the serosa. The findings support the role of haemorrhage in promoting chronic inflammatory reactions around interstitial cholesterol ester precipitates.

  15. Primary immune-mediated neutropenia in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, Carly E.; Scott, Katherine D.; Bryan, Laura K.

    2014-01-01

    An 18-month-old male castrated indoor Himalayan cat was presented for recurrent fever, lethargy, and uveitis. Persistent neutropenia was identified and tests for infectious disease and bone marrow cytology were performed. Primary immune-mediated neutropenia was diagnosed and successfully treated. At the time of writing this report, 24 mo after the initial diagnosis. the patient was clinically normal and not receiving therapy. PMID:25392551

  16. Peribronchiolar fibrosis in lungs of cats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, D.M.; Plopper, C.G.; Weir, A.J.; Murnane, R.D.; Warren, D.L.; Last, J.A.; Pepelko, W.E.

    1985-02-01

    This study reports the quantitative changes in the pulmonary proximal acinar region following chronic exposure to diesel exhaust and following an additional 6 months in clean air. Cats (13 months of age) from a minimum disease colony were exposed to clean air (eight cats for 27 months and nine cats for 33 months), diesel exhaust for 8 hours/day, 7 days/week (nine cats for 27 months), or diesel exhaust for 27 months followed by 6 months in clean air (10 cats). Morphologic and morphometric evaluation using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed two major exposure-related lesions in proximal acinar regions of lungs of cats: peribronchiolar fibrosis associated with significant increases in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and interstitial macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions and bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia associated with the presence of ciliated and basal cells and alveolar macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions. Peribronchiolar fibrosis was greater at the end of the 6 months in clean air following exposure, whereas the bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia was most severe at the end of exposure. Following an additional 6 months in clean air the epithelium more closely resembled the control epithelial cell population. The labeling index of terminal bronchiolar epithelium was significantly increased at the end of exposure but was not significantly different from controls or exposed cats following an additional 6 months in clean air. The ultrastructural appearance of epithelial cells remained relatively unchanged following diesel exhaust exposure with the exception of diesel particulate-like inclusions.

  17. A new arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase in silkworm (Bombyx mori) affects integument pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Long, Yaohang; Li, Jiaorong; Zhao, Tianfu; Li, Guannan; Zhu, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Dopamine is a precursor for melanin synthesis. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is involved in the melatonin formation in insects because it could catalyze the transformation from dopamine to dopamine-N-acetyldopamine. In this study, we identified a new AANAT gene in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and assessed its role in the silkworm. The cDNA of this gene encodes 233 amino acids that shares 57 % amino acid identity with the Bm-iAANAT protein. We thus refer to this gene as Bm-iAANAT2. To investigate the role of Bm-iAANAT2, we constructed a transgenic interference system using a 3xp3 promoter to suppress the expression of Bm-iAANAT2 in the silkworm. We observed that melanin deposition occurs in the head and integument in transgenic lines. To verify the melanism pattern, dopamine content and the enzyme activity of AANAT were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We found that an increase in dopamine levels affects melanism patterns on the heads of transgenic B. mori. A reduction in the enzyme activity of AANAT leads to changes in dopamine levels. We analyzed the expression of the Bm-iAANAT2 genes by qPCR and found that the expression of Bm-iAANAT2 gene is significantly lower in transgenic lines. Our results lead us to conclude that Bm-iAANAT2 is a new arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene in the silkworm and is involved in the metabolism of the dopamine to avoid the generation of melanin.

  18. Structural and functional characterization of TRI3 trichothecene 15-O-acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Graeme S; McCormick, Susan P; Alexander, Nancy J; Rayment, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium head blight is a devastating disease of cereal crops whose worldwide incidence is increasing and at present there is no satisfactory way of combating this pathogen or its associated toxins. There is a wide variety of trichothecene mycotoxins and they all contain a 12,13-epoxytrichothecene skeleton but differ in their substitutions. Indeed, there is considerable variation in the toxin profile across the numerous Fusarium species that has been ascribed to differences in the presence or absence of biosynthetic enzymes and their relative activity. This article addresses the source of differences in acetylation at the C15 position of the trichothecene molecule. Here, we present the in vitro structural and biochemical characterization of TRI3, a 15-O-trichothecene acetyltransferase isolated from F. sporotrichioides and the “in vivo” characterization of Δtri3 mutants of deoxynivalenol (DON) producing F. graminearum strains. A kinetic analysis shows that TRI3 is an efficient enzyme with the native substrate, 15-decalonectrin, but is inactive with either DON or nivalenol. The structure of TRI3 complexed with 15-decalonectrin provides an explanation for this specificity and shows that Tri3 and Tri101 (3-O-trichothecene acetyltransferase) are evolutionarily related. The active site residues are conserved across all sequences for TRI3 orthologs, suggesting that differences in acetylation at C15 are not due to differences in Tri3. The tri3 deletion mutant shows that acetylation at C15 is required for DON biosynthesis even though DON lacks a C15 acetyl group. The enzyme(s) responsible for deacetylation at the 15 position of the trichothecene mycotoxins have not been identified. PMID:19319932

  19. Histone acetyltransferase inhibitor CPTH6 preferentially targets lung cancer stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Di Martile, Marta; Desideri, Marianna; De Luca, Teresa; Gabellini, Chiara; Buglioni, Simonetta; Eramo, Adriana; Sette, Giovanni; Milella, Michele; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Carradori, Simone; Secci, Daniela; De Maria, Ruggero; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Trisciuoglio, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in tumor initiation, progression, therapeutic failure and tumor relapse. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the thiazole derivative 3-methylcyclopentylidene-[4-(4′-chlorophenyl)thiazol-2-yl]hydrazone (CPTH6), a novel pCAF and Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase inhibitor, as a small molecule that preferentially targets lung cancer stem-like cells (LCSCs) derived from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Notably, although CPTH6 inhibits the growth of both LCSC and NSCLC cell lines, LCSCs exhibit greater growth inhibition than established NSCLC cells. Growth inhibitory effect of CPTH6 in LCSC lines is primarily due to apoptosis induction. Of note, differentiated progeny of LCSC lines is more resistant to CPTH6 in terms of loss of cell viability and reduction of protein acetylation, when compared to their undifferentiated counterparts. Interestingly, in LCSC lines CPTH6 treatment is also associated with a reduction of stemness markers. By using different HAT inhibitors we provide clear evidence that inhibition of HAT confers a strong preferential inhibitory effect on cell viability of undifferentiated LCSC lines when compared to their differentiated progeny. In vivo, CPTH6 is able to inhibit the growth of LCSC-derived xenografts and to reduce cancer stem cell content in treated tumors, as evidenced by marked reduction of tumor-initiating capacity in limiting dilution assays. Strikingly, the ability of CPTH6 to inhibit tubulin acetylation is also confirmed in vivo. Overall, our studies propose histone acetyltransferase inhibition as an attractive target for cancer therapy of NSCLC. PMID:26870991

  20. Structural and functional characterization of TRI3 trichothecene 15-O-acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, Graeme S.; McCormick, Susan P.; Alexander, Nancy J.; Rayment, Ivan

    2009-08-14

    Fusarium head blight is a devastating disease of cereal crops whose worldwide incidence is increasing and at present there is no satisfactory way of combating this pathogen or its associated toxins. There is a wide variety of trichothecene mycotoxins and they all contain a 12,13-epoxytrichothecene skeleton but differ in their substitutions. Indeed, there is considerable variation in the toxin profile across the numerous Fusarium species that has been ascribed to differences in the presence or absence of biosynthetic enzymes and their relative activity. This article addresses the source of differences in acetylation at the C15 position of the trichothecene molecule. Here, we present the in vitro structural and biochemical characterization of TRI3, a 15-O-trichothecene acetyltransferase isolated from F. sporotrichioides and the 'in vivo' characterization of Deltatri3 mutants of deoxynivalenol (DON) producing F. graminearum strains. A kinetic analysis shows that TRI3 is an efficient enzyme with the native substrate, 15-decalonectrin, but is inactive with either DON or nivalenol. The structure of TRI3 complexed with 15-decalonectrin provides an explanation for this specificity and shows that Tri3 and Tri101 (3-O-trichothecene acetyltransferase) are evolutionarily related. The active site residues are conserved across all sequences for TRI3 orthologs, suggesting that differences in acetylation at C15 are not due to differences in Tri3. The tri3 deletion mutant shows that acetylation at C15 is required for DON biosynthesis even though DON lacks a C15 acetyl group. The enzyme(s) responsible for deacetylation at the 15 position of the trichothecene mycotoxins have not been identified.

  1. Epigenetic change in kidney tumor: downregulation of histone acetyltransferase MYST1 in human renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MYST1 (also known as hMOF), a member of the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) as an epigenetic mark of active genes, is mainly responsible for histone H4K16 acetylation in the cells. Recent studies have shown that the abnormal gene expression of hMOF is involved in certain primary cancers. Here we examined the involvement of hMOF expression and histone H4K16 acetylation in primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Simultaneously, we investigated the correlation between the expression of hMOF and clear cell RCC (ccRCC) biomarker carbohydrase IX (CA9) in RCC. Materials and methods The frozen RCC tissues and RCC cell lines as materials, the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting and immunohistochemical staining approaches were used. Results RT-PCR results indicate that hMOF gene expression levels frequently downregulated in 90.5% of patients (19/21) with RCC. The reduction of hMOF protein in both RCC tissues and RCC cell lines is tightly correlated with acetylation of histone H4K16. In addition, overexpression of CA9 was detected in 100% of ccRCC patients (21/21). However, transient transfection of hMOF in ccRCC 786–0 cells did not affect both the gene and protein expression of CA9. Conclusion hMOF as an acetyltransferase of H4K16 might be involved in the pathogenesis of kidney cancer, and this epigenetic changes might be a new CA9-independent RCC diagnostic maker. PMID:23394073

  2. The SAGA histone acetyltransferase complex regulates leucine uptake through the Agp3 permease in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidekazu; Sun, Xiaoying; Hamamoto, Makiko; Yashiroda, Yoko; Yoshida, Minoru

    2012-11-01

    Metabolic responses of unicellular organisms are mostly acute, transient, and cell-autonomous. Regulation of nutrient uptake in yeast is one such rapid response. High quality nitrogen sources such as NH(4)(+) inhibit uptake of poor nitrogen sources, such as amino acids. Both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms operate in nutrient uptake regulation; however, many components of this system remain uncharacterized in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we demonstrate that the Spt-Ada-Gcn acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex modulates leucine uptake. Initially, we noticed that a branched-chain amino acid auxotroph exhibits a peculiar adaptive growth phenotype on solid minimal media containing certain nitrogen sources. In fact, the growth of many auxotrophic strains is inhibited by excess NH(4)Cl, possibly through nitrogen-mediated uptake inhibition of the corresponding nutrients. Surprisingly, DNA microarray analysis revealed that the transcriptional reprogramming during the adaptation of the branched-chain amino acid auxotroph was highly correlated with reprogramming observed in deletions of the SAGA histone acetyltransferase module genes. Deletion of gcn5(+) increased leucine uptake in the prototrophic background and rendered the leucine auxotroph resistant to NH(4)Cl. Deletion of tra1(+) caused the opposite phenotypes. The increase in leucine uptake in the gcn5Δ mutant was dependent on an amino acid permease gene, SPCC965.11c(+). The closest budding yeast homolog of this permease is a relatively nonspecific amino acid permease AGP3, which functions in poor nutrient conditions. Our analysis identified the regulation of nutrient uptake as a physiological function for the SAGA complex, providing a potential link between cellular metabolism and chromatin regulation.

  3. Development of Cellular Absorptive Tracers (CATs) for a Quantitative Characterization of Microbial Mass in Flow Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Saripalli, Prasad; Brown, Christopher F.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2005-03-16

    We report on a new Cellular Absorptive Tracers (CATs) method, for a simple, non-destructive characterization of bacterial mass in flow systems. Results show that adsorption of a CAT molecule into the cellular mass results in its retardation during flow, which is a good, quantitative measure of the biomass quantity and distribution. No such methods are currently available for a quantitative characterization of cell mass.

  4. Cows, cats, and FSE: death penalty justified?

    PubMed

    Oomkes, C; van Knapen, F

    2001-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies affect a number of mammalian species. The most common spongiform encephalopathies are scrapie in sheep and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy (FSE) is a related disorder in domestic cats. Because of the link between BSE and FSE, cats are put on a par with cattle, in terms of politics and regulations. In the Netherlands, when a case of BSE is found on a farm, not only the ruminants, but also the cats are taken away for post-mortem examination. So far, the cats examined have always been negative for FSE. There are no scientific reasons for destroying the cats on farms where BSE has been found.

  5. The Near Eastern origin of cat domestication.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

    2007-07-27

    The world's domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors-Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)-indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance.

  6. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  7. Intestinal Tritrichomonas suis (=T. foetus) infection in Japanese cats.

    PubMed

    Doi, Junko; Hirota, Junichi; Morita, Akihiko; Fukushima, Kanae; Kamijyo, Hiromi; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Toru; Katakura, Ken; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2012-04-01

    Tritrichomonas suis (=T. foetus) has recently been reported to be a causative agent of chronic large-bowel diarrhea in cats. While the disease was previously attributed to Pentatrichomonas hominis, the etiologic agent for feline trichomonal diarrhea was identified as T. suis. Although feline trichomonosis due to T. suis has been reported at prevalences ranging from 14 to 31% in Europe and the U.S., no reports of the pathogen have been published to date in Japan. In 2008, however, we encountered a case of feline trichomonosis at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Hokkaido University. The parasite was identified as T. suis by nested PCR amplification of partial internal transcribed spacer region 1 and 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene sequences with T. suis-specific primers and DNA sequencing of the amplified products. We then conducted surveys for feline trichomonosis in three different animal hospitals using either cultivation and/or PCR-based assays. The results revealed that 13 of 147 samples (8.8%) were positive for T. suis, and that 5 of the 13 infected cats, which ranged between 1 month and 7.5 years-old, showed chronic diarrhea. Seven of the infected cats were purebred and 6 were mixed breed. These findings suggested that feline trichomonosis is prevalent in Japan, and that T. suis may play a role as a causative agent of feline chronic diarrhea.

  8. Molecular typing of Sporothrix schenckii isolates from cats in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Okubo, Miki; Siew, Han Hock; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological data on the aetiologic agents of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia have not been reported, though human sporotrichosis in Malaysia is reported to be transmitted primarily via cat scratch. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first study of the molecular epidemiology of Sporothrix schenckii isolates from cats with sporotrichosis in Malaysia. In the present work, we characterised 18 clinical isolates from cats in Malaysia based on molecular properties, including sequence analyses of the calmodulin gene and the rDNA ITS region and selective PCR of mating type (MAT) loci. In this study, isolates from feline sporotrichosis were identified as a S. schenckii sensu stricto by sequence analyses of the calmodulin gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Notably, phylogenetic analysis of the ITS confirmed assignment to clinical clade D (and not C) of S. schenckii sensu stricto. Therefore, clinical clade D of S. schenckii sensu stricto appeared to be the prevailing source of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia. The ratio of MAT1-1-1:MAT1-2-1 in these Malaysian isolates was found to be 1 : 0. This result suggested that a clonal strain of S. schenckii is the prevailing causative agent of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia.

  9. Minimization of Basis Risk in Parametric Earthquake Cat Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, G.

    2009-12-01

    A catastrophe -cat- bond is an instrument used by insurance and reinsurance companies, by governments or by groups of nations to cede catastrophic risk to the financial markets, which are capable of supplying cover for highly destructive events, surpassing the typical capacity of traditional reinsurance contracts. Parametric cat bonds, a specific type of cat bonds, use trigger mechanisms or indices that depend on physical event parameters published by respected third parties in order to determine whether a part or the entire bond principal is to be paid for a certain event. First generation cat bonds, or cat-in-a-box bonds, display a trigger mechanism that consists of a set of geographic zones in which certain conditions need to be met by an earthquake’s magnitude and depth in order to trigger payment of the bond principal. Second generation cat bonds use an index formulation that typically consists of a sum of products of a set of weights by a polynomial function of the ground motion variables reported by a geographically distributed seismic network. These instruments are especially appealing to developing countries with incipient insurance industries wishing to cede catastrophic losses to the financial markets because the payment trigger mechanism is transparent and does not involve the parties ceding or accepting the risk, significantly reducing moral hazard. In order to be successful in the market, however, parametric cat bonds have typically been required to specify relatively simple trigger conditions. The consequence of such simplifications is the increase of basis risk. This risk represents the possibility that the trigger mechanism fails to accurately capture the actual losses of a catastrophic event, namely that it does not trigger for a highly destructive event or vice versa, that a payment of the bond principal is caused by an event that produced insignificant losses. The first case disfavors the sponsor who was seeking cover for its losses while the

  10. Lesions of structures showing FOS expression to cat presentation: effects on responsivity to a Cat, Cat odor, and nonpredator threat.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, D Caroline; Canteras, Newton S; Markham, Chris M; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Blanchard, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of rats to a cat elicits Fos activity in a number of brain areas or structures. Based on hodological relationships of these, Canteras has proposed a medial hypothalamic defense system, with input from several forebrain sites. Both electrolytic and neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal premammillary nucleus, which shows the strongest Fos response to cat exposure, produce striking decrements in a number of defensive behaviors to a cat or to cat odor stimuli, but do not have a major effect on either postshock freezing, or responsivity to the odor of a female in estrus. Neurotoxic lesions of the medial amygdala produce decrements in defensiveness to predator stimuli, particularly odor stimuli, that are consistent with a view of this structure as involved with allomonal cues. While dorsal hippocampal lesions had little effect on responsivity to predator stimuli, neurotoxic lesions of the ventral hippocampus reduced freezing and enhanced a variety of nondefensive behaviors to both cat odor and footshock, with similar reductions in defensiveness during context conditioning tests for cat odor, cat exposure and footshock. These results support the view that the dorsal premammillary nucleus is strongly and selectively involved in control of responsivity to predator stimuli. Structures with important input into the medial hypothalamic defense system appear also to be functionally involved with antipredator defensive behaviors, and these lesion studies may suggest specific hypotheses as to the particular defense functions of different areas.

  11. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas. PMID:27774506

  12. Prolonged Bartonella bacteremia in cats associated with cat-scratch disease patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kordick, D L; Wilson, K H; Sexton, D J; Hadfield, T L; Berkhoff, H A; Breitschwerdt, E B

    1995-01-01

    Recent evidence supports a causal relationship between Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae, cat-scratch disease (CSD), and bacillary angiomatosis. Cats appear to be the primary reservoir. Blood from 19 cats owned by 14 patients diagnosed with CSD was cultured. Blood samples from cats owned by veterinary students (n = 25) having no association with CSD or bacillary angiomatosis were cultured as controls. Eighty-nine percent (17 of 19) of cats associated with CSD patients and 28% (7 of 25) of controls were bacteremic with Bartonella species (chi-square = 16.47; P < 0.001). Twenty-three isolates were characterized as B. henselae, while one isolate from the cat of a CSD patient appeared to be a new Bartonella species. Thirteen cats remained culture positive during the ensuing 12-month period. Our results support the conclusion that B. henselae is the predominant species involved in CSD and is transmitted by cats. The incidence of Bartonella bacteremia in control cats suggests that B. henselae bacteremia is prevalent among the domestic cat population in the United States. PMID:8586710

  13. Stance control in the chronic spinal cat.

    PubMed

    Pratt, C A; Fung, J; Macpherson, J M

    1994-05-01

    1. A longitudinal study of the control of quiet and perturbed stance was conducted before and for 1 yr after complete spinal transection (T12) in a cat trained to stand on a moveable force platform. 2. With daily training, the spinal cat recovered full weight support and some intermittent control of lateral stability within 1 mo. Within the second month postspinalization, the spinal cat achieved the ability to maintain independent, unassisted stance (no external support or stimulation) for up to 45 s during quiet stance, as well as for 62-97% of the trials of horizontal translations of the support surface. 3. Control of lateral stability in the spinal cat was severely compromised, however, as eventually the spinal cat always lost its balance. Head movements and the tendency for the hindlimbs to initiate stepping movements were more destabilizing than platform translations. 4. Our preliminary results indicate that the recovery of partial lateral stability of the hindquarters in the spinal cat is the product of passive muscle properties and segmental reflexes, which, in isolation can provide only limited balance control in the chronic spinal cat.

  14. GT-CATS: Tracking Operator Activities in Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Mitchell, Christine M.; Palmer, Everett A.

    1999-01-01

    Human operators of complex dynamic systems can experience difficulties supervising advanced control automation. One remedy is to develop intelligent aiding systems that can provide operators with context-sensitive advice and reminders. The research reported herein proposes, implements, and evaluates a methodology for activity tracking, a form of intent inferencing that can supply the knowledge required for an intelligent aid by constructing and maintaining a representation of operator activities in real time. The methodology was implemented in the Georgia Tech Crew Activity Tracking System (GT-CATS), which predicts and interprets the actions performed by Boeing 757/767 pilots navigating using autopilot flight modes. This report first describes research on intent inferencing and complex modes of automation. It then provides a detailed description of the GT-CATS methodology, knowledge structures, and processing scheme. The results of an experimental evaluation using airline pilots are given. The results show that GT-CATS was effective in predicting and interpreting pilot actions in real time.

  15. Experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis and the nephrotic syndrome in cats immunised with cationised bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Nash, A S; Mohammed, N A; Wright, N G

    1990-11-01

    Membranous nephropathy was induced in four cats by repeated intravenous injections of 120 mg cationic bovine serum albumin (BSA, pI 9.5). All four cats developed diffuse granular deposits of IgG and C3 along the glomerular capillary walls as early as five weeks which persisted until the end of the experiment at 17 weeks. Ultrastructural studies revealed many subepithelial electron dense deposits. Two cats developed severe proteinuria and the nephrotic syndrome characterised by hypoalbuminaemia and oedema. An additional four cats received repeated injections of unmodified native BSA (pI 4.5) and remained basically normal. This is the first report of membranous nephropathy and the nephrotic syndrome in an experimental animal model which, unlike other animal models, is subject to the spontaneously occurring disease. PMID:2148430

  16. Ectopic hepatic parenchyma attached to the diaphragm: simulating a pulmonary mass in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Ravinder S; Lacey, Janice K

    2009-01-01

    A case of an ectopic lobe of the liver connected to a normal diaphragm is described. A 9-year-old, castrated male cat underwent thoracotomy for a pulmonary mass. The removed mass was attached to the diaphragm that histologically was ectopic liver. The ectopic liver had no connection with the main liver. Because the occurrence of ectopic supradiaphragmatic hepatic tissue is a possibility, this should be considered as a differential diagnosis for caudal pulmonary or caudal mediastinal masses in a cat. This report describes, to the authors' knowledge, the first case of ectopic hepatic tissue attached to the diaphragm of a cat. The authors also characterize the asymptomatic clinical presentation and radiographic findings of this cat and suggest further imaging with computed tomography in unusual case presentations. PMID:19122063

  17. Phylogenetic identification of Cystoisospora spp. from dogs, cats, and raccoon dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Carreno, Ramon A; Tani, Hiroyuki; Yoshiuchi, Ryusaku; Kanai, Takenori; Kimata, Isao; Uni, Shigehiko; Furuya, Masaru; Sasai, Kazumi

    2011-03-10

    Cystoisospora spp. from feces in dogs, cats, and raccoon dogs were isolated, sequenced at the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene locus and compared to other Cystoisospora spp. Cystoisospora oocysts from dogs and raccoon dogs were morphologically similar with those of C. ohioensis, and cat isolates were similar with those of C. felis. The sequences from dogs and raccoon dogs, and cats have a homology with C. ohioensis and C. felis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA sequences showed that the dog and raccoon dog isolates were nested in a clade with other Cystoisospora spp. including C. ohioensis, C. belli, and C. orlovi. The cat isolate formed a sister group with C. felis that was a separate clade from the dog and raccoon dog group. We report sequence variation in these Cystoisospora sequences and have identified raccoon dogs as another carnivore host for Cystoisospora spp. infecting dogs.

  18. Genetic characterization of feline bocavirus detected in cats in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomomi; Takadate, Yoshihiro; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2016-10-01

    Feline bocavirus (FBoV) has been classified into three genotypes (FBoV1-FBoV3). FBoVs are mainly detected in feces. In the present study, we collected rectal swabs from cats in Japan and examined the samples for the presence of FBoV. The FBoV infection rate was 9.9 % in 101 cats. No significant association was observed between FBoV infection and clinical symptoms. Based on the full-length NS1 protein, the three strains of FBoVs detected in the present study shared high homologies with the genotype 2 FBoV POR1 strain. This is the first study to report FBoV in Japan.

  19. Pyogranulomatous mural folliculitis in a cat treated with methimazole.

    PubMed

    Castro López, Jorge; Lloret, Albert; Ravera, Ivan; Nadal, Aina; Ferrer, Lluís; Bardagí, Mar

    2014-06-01

    An 11-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was presented for polydipsia, hyperactivity and bilateral thyroid gland enlargement. Total T4 (TT4) was in the upper interval range; therefore, an early hyperthyroidism was suspected. A treatment trial with methimazole was started, as the owner refused further tests. Six months later the owner stopped the treatment. One year later, clinical signs persisted and TT4 was still in the upper interval range. Methimazole was re-introduced but 48 h later the cat presented non-pruritic alopecia with erythema, scales and perilesional yellowish crusts. Pyogranulomatous mural folliculitis was diagnosed by histopatological examination of the skin biopsies. Methimazole was withdrawn and macroscopic lesions healed and disappeared histologically in 15 days. An idiosyncratic drug reaction to methimazole was suspected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of feline pyogranulomatous mural folliculitis likely secondary to an adverse drug reaction to methimazole administration.

  20. Genetic characterization of feline bocavirus detected in cats in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomomi; Takadate, Yoshihiro; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2016-10-01

    Feline bocavirus (FBoV) has been classified into three genotypes (FBoV1-FBoV3). FBoVs are mainly detected in feces. In the present study, we collected rectal swabs from cats in Japan and examined the samples for the presence of FBoV. The FBoV infection rate was 9.9 % in 101 cats. No significant association was observed between FBoV infection and clinical symptoms. Based on the full-length NS1 protein, the three strains of FBoVs detected in the present study shared high homologies with the genotype 2 FBoV POR1 strain. This is the first study to report FBoV in Japan. PMID:27388369

  1. Hyperactivity and alopecia associated with ingestion of valproic acid in a cat.

    PubMed

    Zoran, D L; Boeckh, A; Boothe, D M

    2001-05-15

    A 1-year-old castrated male cat was evaluated because of alopecia of approximately 4 to 5 months' duration as well as hyperactive behavior. It was later determined that the cat was ingesting valproic acid by eating food to which it had been added for daily administration to a child in the household who had cerebral palsy. The clinical signs slowly resolved after the source of valproic acid was removed. This emphasizes the sensitivity of cats to drugs that are commonly used in humans. It was not determined whether the clinical signs that developed in this cat were caused by an adverse reaction or from toxicosis as a result of prolonged hepatic elimination of valproic acid, which requires glucuronide metabolism for disposition. However, the cat recovered completely following removal of the drug and prevention of further exposure. This report emphasizes the importance of obtaining a careful and complete history from the owner regarding an animal and its environment. In the cat of this report, the owner had not considered the impact of the presence of the drug in the child's food.

  2. Reliability and Validity of a Survey of Cat Caregivers on Their Cats' Socialization Level in the Cat's Normal Environment.

    PubMed

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha

    2013-12-18

    Stray cats routinely enter animal welfare organizations each year and shelters are challenged with determining the level of human socialization these cats may possess as quickly as possible. However, there is currently no standard process to guide this determination. This study describes the development and validation of a caregiver survey designed to be filled out by a cat's caregiver so it accurately describes a cat's personality, background, and full range of behavior with people when in its normal environment. The results from this survey provided the basis for a socialization score that ranged from unsocialized to well socialized with people. The quality of the survey was evaluated based on inter-rater and test-retest reliability and internal consistency and estimates of construct and criterion validity. In general, our results showed moderate to high levels of inter-rater (median of 0.803, range 0.211-0.957) and test-retest agreement (median 0.92, range 0.211-0.999). Cronbach's alpha showed high internal consistency (0.962). Estimates of validity did not highlight any major shortcomings. This survey will be used to develop and validate an effective assessment process that accurately differentiates cats by their socialization levels towards humans based on direct observation of cats' behavior in an animal shelter.

  3. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  4. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  5. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  6. Efficacy and toxicity of an accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy protocol in cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Valérie J; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara; Vail, David M; Straw, Rodney C

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common feline oral tumor. Standard radiation protocols have been reported to achieve tumor control durations of 1.5-5.5 months (45-165 days). The purpose of this study was to describe the efficacy and toxicity of an accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy protocol in cats with oral SCC. Twenty-one cats with histologically confirmed oral SCC and T1-3N0M0 were treated with 10 once-daily fractions (Monday-Friday) of 4.8 Gy. Seventeen cats had macroscopic disease and four were microscopic after incomplete excision. Acute toxicity consisted of grade 2 mucositis in all cats and this was effectively managed using esophageal or gastric tube feeding, pain medication, and antibiotics. Late toxicity effects for cats with available follow-up data included alopecia (4 cats), leukotricia (6), tongue ulceration (1), and oronasal fistula (1). Response could be assessed in 17 cats (seven complete response and five partial response). Four cats (19%) developed metastatic disease without evidence of local progression. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 105 days (1 year PFS of 23%), median local progression-free survival (LPFS) was 219 days (1 year LPFS of 41%), and median overall survival (OS) was 174 days (1 year OS of 29%). Only tumor stage was prognostic, with T1 having a median PFS of 590 days. Findings indicated that this accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy protocol was well tolerated in cats with oral SCC, with manageable adverse events. Tumor response was observed in most cats and long tumor control durations were achieved in some cats.

  7. Criterion Validation Testing of Clinical Metrology Instruments for Measuring Degenerative Joint Disease Associated Mobility Impairment in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Margaret E.; Griffith, Emily H.; Thomson, Andrea E.; Simpson, Wendy; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM). Methods Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period. Results Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (p<0.0001) compared to baseline. The FMPI results and activity count data offer concurrent validation for the FMPI, though the relationship between baseline activity counts and FMPI scores at baseline was poor (R2=0.034). The CSOM did not show responsiveness for improvement in this study, and the relationship between baseline activity counts and CSOM scores at baseline was similarly poor (R2=0.042). Conclusions Refinements to the FMPI, including abbreviation of the instrument and scoring as percent of possible score are recommended. This study offered further validation of the FMPI as a clinical metrology instrument for use in detecting therapeutic efficacy in cats with degenerative joint disease. PMID:26162101

  8. The histone acetyltransferase p300 inhibitor C646 reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression and inhibits histone deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, Thea; Boichenko, Alexander; Leus, Niek G. J.; Eleni Ourailidou, Maria; Wapenaar, Hannah; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Imhof, Axel; Bischoff, Rainer; Haisma, Hidde J.; Dekker, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylations are reversible posttranslational modifications of histone and non-histone proteins that play important regulatory roles in signal transduction cascades and gene expression. Lysine acetylations are regulated by histone acetyltransferases as writers and histone deacetylases as erasers. Because of their role in signal transduction cascades, these enzymes are important players in inflammation. Therefore, applications of histone acetyltransferase inhibitors to reduce inflammatory responses are interesting. Among the few histone acetyltransferase inhibitors described, C646 is one of the most potent (Ki of 0.4 μM for histone acetyltransferase p300). C646 was described to regulate the NF-κB pathway; an important pathway in inflammatory responses, which is regulated by acetylation. Interestingly, this pathway has been implicated in asthma and COPD. Therefore we hypothesized that via regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, C646 can inhibit pro-inflammatory gene expression, and have potential for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases. In line with this, here we demonstrate that C646 reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression in RAW264.7 murine macrophages and murine precision-cut lung slices. To unravel its effects on cellular substrates we applied mass spectrometry and found, counterintuitively, a slight increase in acetylation of histone H3. Based on this finding, and structural features of C646, we presumed inhibitory activity of C646 on histone deacetylases, and indeed found inhibition of histone deacetylases from 7 μM and higher concentrations. This indicates that C646 has potential for further development towards applications in the treatment of inflammation, however, its newly discovered lack of selectivity at higher concentrations needs to be taken into account. PMID:26718586

  9. Notoedres cati in cats and its management.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C; Sreedevi, C

    2015-06-01

    Notoedres cati was observed in two domestic cats. Cats exhibited crust formation, hyperkeratosis, alopecia and intense pruritus. Distribution of lesions observed at the ear margins, face, and legs. Owners also had intense pruritus over the hands, small erythematic crusted papules on the wrists and both the legs. Laboratory examination of skin scrapings from the cat revealed the presence of ova, adult mites of N. cati. The infected cats were treated with weekly twice oral administration of ivermectin at 200 μg/kg body weight, oral administration of 2 ml of multi-vitamin and mineral syrup daily. Improvement was noticed by complete clinical recovery along with absence of mites in skin scrapings, after completion of four doses of oral ivermectin along with supportive therapy.

  10. Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-05

    ... build-to-cost project development with streamlined management structure.  Conducted successful underflights of opportunity ... build-to-cost project development with streamlined management structure.  For more information, please see the  CATS ...

  11. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  12. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, Jennifer D; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California - Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies' mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  13. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    PubMed Central

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  14. The histone acetyltransferase PsGcn5 mediates oxidative stress responses and is required for full virulence of Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Tao; Liu, Shusen; Chen, Qingqing; Qi, Rende

    2015-10-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, histone acetyltransferase complexes are coactivators that are important for transcriptional activation by modifying chromatin. In this study, a gene (PsGcn5) from Phytophthora sojae encoding a histone acetyltransferase was identified as a homolog of one component of the histone acetyltransferase complex from yeasts to mammals. PsGcn5 was constitutively expressed in each stage tested, but had a slightly higher expression in sporulating hyphae and 3 h after infection. PsGcn5-silenced mutants were generated using polyethylene glycol-mediated protoplast stable transformation. These mutants had normal development, but compared to wild type strains they had higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and significantly reduced virulence in soybean. Diaminobenzidine staining revealed an accumulation of H2O2 around the infection sites of PsGcn5-silenced mutants but not for wild type strains. Inhibition of the plant NADPH oxidase by diphenyleneiodonium prevented host-derived H2O2 accumulation in soybean cells and restored infectious hyphal growth of the mutants. Thus, we concluded that PsGcn5 is important for growth under conditions of oxidative stress and contributes to the full virulence of P. sojae by suppressing the host-derived reactive oxygen species.

  15. Two N-Terminal Acetyltransferases Antagonistically Regulate the Stability of a Nod-Like Receptor in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Gannon, Patrick; Linster, Eric; Huber, Monika; Kapos, Paul; Bienvenut, Willy; Giglione, Carmela; Zhang, Yuelin; Chen, She

    2015-01-01

    Nod-like receptors (NLRs) serve as immune receptors in plants and animals. The stability of NLRs is tightly regulated, though its mechanism is not well understood. Here, we show the crucial impact of N-terminal acetylation on the turnover of one plant NLR, Suppressor of NPR1, Constitutive 1 (SNC1), in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic and biochemical analyses of SNC1 uncovered its multilayered regulation by different N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nat) complexes. SNC1 exhibits a few distinct N-terminal isoforms generated through alternative initiation and N-terminal acetylation. Its first Met is acetylated by N-terminal acetyltransferase complex A (NatA), while the second Met is acetylated by N-terminal acetyltransferase complex B (NatB). Unexpectedly, the NatA-mediated acetylation serves as a degradation signal, while NatB-mediated acetylation stabilizes the NLR protein, thus revealing antagonistic N-terminal acetylation of a single protein substrate. Moreover, NatA also contributes to the turnover of another NLR, RESISTANCE TO P. syringae pv maculicola 1. The intricate regulation of protein stability by Nats is speculated to provide flexibility for the target protein in maintaining its homeostasis. PMID:25966763

  16. Structure of Arabidopsis thaliana At1g77540 Protein, a Minimal Acetyltransferase from the COG2388 Family †,‡

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Robert C.; Bitto, Eduard; Berndsen, Christopher E.; Bingman, Craig A.; Singh, Shanteri; Lee, Min S.; Wesenberg, Gary E.; Denu, John M.; Phillips, George N.; Markley, John L.

    2008-01-01

    We describe X-ray crystal and NMR solution structures of the protein coded for by Arabidopsis thaliana gene At1g77540.1 (At1g77540). The crystal structure was determined to 1.15 Å with an R factor of 14.9% (Rfree = 17.0%) by multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction using sodium bromide derivatized crystals. The ensemble of NMR conformers was determined with protein samples labeled with 15N and 13C+15N. The X-ray structure and NMR ensemble were closely similar with r.m.s.d 1.4 Å for residues 8–93. At1g77540 was found to adopt a fold similar to that of GCN5-related N-acetyltransferases. Enzymatic activity assays established that At1g77540 possesses weak acetyltransferase activity against histones H3 and H4. Chemical shift perturbations observed in 15N-HSQC spectra upon the addition of CoA indicated that the cofactor binds and identified its binding site. The molecular details of this interaction were further elucidated by solving the X-ray structure of the At1g77540–CoA complex. This work establishes that the domain family COG2388 represents a novel class of acetyltransferase and provides insight into possible mechanistic roles of the conserved Cys76 and His41 residues of this family. PMID:17128971

  17. Acetyl Coenzyme A Acetyltransferase of Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) Strain CC 1192.

    PubMed

    Kim, S A; Copeland, L

    1997-09-01

    To investigate why Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) strain CC 1192 cells accumulate poly-R-3-hydroxybutyrate in the free-living state but not as bacteroids in nodules on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants, we have examined the kinetic properties of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) acetyltransferase (also known as acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase and 3-ketothiolase [EC 2.3.1.9]) from both types of cells. The enzyme had a native molecular mass of 180 (plusmn) 4 kDa, and the subunit molecular mass was 44 (plusmn) 1 kDa. The seven amino acids from the N terminus were Lys-Ala-Ser-Ile-Val-Ile-Ala. Thiolysis and condensation activity of the enzyme from free-living CC 1192 cells were optimal at pHs 7.8 and 8.1, respectively. The relationship between substrate concentrations and initial velocity for the thiolysis reaction were hyperbolic and gave K(infm) values for acetoacetyl-CoA and CoA of 42 and 56 (mu)M, respectively. The maximum velocity in the condensation direction was approximately 10% of that of the thiolysis reaction. With highly purified preparations of the enzyme, a value of approximately 1 mM was determined for the apparent K(infm) for acetyl-CoA. However, with partially purified enzyme preparations or when N-ethylmaleimide was included in reaction mixtures the apparent K(infm) for acetyl-CoA was close to 0.3 mM. In the condensation direction, CoA was a potent linear competitive inhibitor with an inhibition constant of 11 (mu)M. The much higher affinity of the enzyme for the product CoA than the substrate acetyl-CoA could have significance in view of metabolic differences between bacteroid and free-living cells of CC 1192. We propose that in free-living CC 1192 cells, the acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio reaches a value that allows condensation activity of acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, but that in CC 1192 bacteroids, the ratio is poised so that the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA is not favored.

  18. Prevalence of feline infectious peritonitis in specific cat breeds.

    PubMed

    Pesteanu-Somogyi, Loretta D; Radzai, Christina; Pressler, Barrak M

    2006-02-01

    Although known that purebreed cats are more likely to develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), previous studies have not examined the prevalence of disease in individual breeds. All cats diagnosed with FIP at a veterinary teaching hospital over a 16-year period were identified. Breed, sex and reproductive status of affected cats were compared to the general cat population and to mixed breed cats evaluated during the same period. As with previous studies sexually intact cats and purebreed cats were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with FIP; males and young cats also had a higher prevalence of disease. Abyssinians, Bengals, Birmans, Himalayans, Ragdolls and Rexes had a significantly higher risk, whereas Burmese, Exotic Shorthairs, Manxes, Persians, Russian Blues and Siamese cats were not at increased risk for development of FIP. Although additional factors doubtlessly influence the relative prevalence of FIP, this study provides additional guidance when prioritizing differentials in ill purebreed cats. PMID:15994104

  19. [Cat eye syndrome with pituitary dwarfism and normal mental development].

    PubMed

    Pierson, M; Gilgenkrantz, S; Saborio, M

    1975-11-01

    In the so-called "cat-eye" syndrome are associated the following malformations: coloboma iridis, anal atresia, pre-auricular fistullae with an extra 47th chromosome of the G group type. About twenty cases have already been reported. Some are familial cases and some have the complete phenotype but without the extra chromosome. Even if the structure of the material of this element is doubtful, its responsability in the phenotype is likely. This case is reported since the patient has pituitary dwarfism and normal intelligence.

  20. Refeeding syndrome in a cat with hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Karen; KuKanich, Kate S; Smee, Nicole M

    2011-08-01

    Refeeding syndrome is characterized by severe hypophosphatemia occurring in patients given enteral or parenteral nutrition after severe weight loss. There are few veterinary reports that describe this syndrome but it is well documented in human medicine. This report describes a case of a domestic shorthair cat diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis following a 4-week history of decreased appetite and weight loss and in whom refeeding syndrome was documented after initiation of enteral nutrition. Clinical findings, blood work abnormalities and disease progression in this patient are described from the time of diagnosis through to recovery. A review of the current literature pertinent to this clinical syndrome is included.

  1. Spinal epidural empyema in a cat.

    PubMed

    Maeta, Noritaka; Kanda, Teppei; Sasaki, Takanori; Morita, Takehito; Furukawa, Toshinori

    2010-06-01

    The diagnosis and surgical treatment of spinal epidural empyema (SEE) in a 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthaired cat is described. SEE was diagnosed by computed tomographic myelography (CT myelography) and surgical exploration. The lesion was missed on both non-enhanced CT and conventional myelography. SEE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of progressive myelopathy in cats, and CT myelography should be undertaken when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cannot be performed. PMID:20226705

  2. Food hypersensitivity to lamb in a cat.

    PubMed

    Reedy, L M

    1994-04-01

    Severe facial pruritus in a cat was caused by food hypersensitivity to lamb. The cat had been fed an exclusive diet of lamb for 2 years after it had been diagnosed to have food hypersensitivity to fish. Signs, including erythema, alopecia, and excoriations of the head and neck, were poorly responsive to corticosteroid administration, but resolved within a few weeks after removal of the suspected allergen.

  3. 6-hydroxydopamine and aggression in cats.

    PubMed

    Beleslin, D B; Samardzić, R; Stefanović-Denić, K

    1981-01-01

    The effect of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injected into the cerebral ventricles on behaviour of singly- and group-housed cats was investigated. 6-OHDA in doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg was administered every morning for 5 to 8 days. In small doses 6-OHDA in singly- and group-housed cats evoked motor phenomena such as tremor, ataxia, rigidity, weakness and sometimes clonic-tonic convulsions. Occasionally restlessness, irritability and rage were observed. Large doses of 6-OHDA in group-housed cats, after a short latent period (2-3 days) produced aggression which intensified on subsequent injections, and thereafter, on repeated administrations, no longer occurred. The aggression consisted of restlessness, irritability, anger, rage, apprehension, threat, attack, fighting, flight and crying. Of autonomic phenomena mydriasis, dyspnea and sometimes piloerection were observed. The aggression was initiated by the most restless cat, or by disturbing the animals, such as by moving the cage. When 6-OHDA no longer produced aggressive behaviour, motor changes such as tremor, ataxia, rigidity, walking on broad base, weakness with adynamia and clonic-tonic convulsions developed. These latter symptoms were produced by large doses of 6-OHDA in singly-housed cats. In these animals spontaneous signs of aggressive behaviour usually were not observed, although if handled they showed rage, snarling and hissing. When singly-housed cats were kept in the same cage with group-housed animals, the singly-housed cats usually became aggressive. It appears that hyperactivity induced aggression in 6-OHDA-treated cats. PMID:7195585

  4. Immunologic consequences of taurine deficiency in cats.

    PubMed

    Schuller-Levis, G; Mehta, P D; Rudelli, R; Sturman, J

    1990-04-01

    Our results show that a lack of taurine in the diet of cats results in a significant leukopenia, a shift in the percentage of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes, an increase in the absolute count of mononuclear leukocytes, and a change in the sedimentation characteristics of white cells. Functional studies of polymorphonuclear cells isolated from cats fed taurine-free diets show a significant decrease in the respiratory burst as measured by chemiluminescence as well as a decrease in phagocytosis of Staphylococcus epidermis compared to cats fed the same diet containing taurine. In addition, serum gamma globulin in cats fed taurine-free diets was significantly increased compared to taurine-supplemented cats, indicating that other immune cells may be affected by taurine deficiency. Histological examination of lymph nodes and spleen revealed regression of follicular centers with depletion of reticular cells, mature and immature lymphocytes (B cell areas), as well as mild extravascular hemolysis. These results indicate that there are profound immunologic consequences in cats with prolonged taurine deficiency. PMID:2319206

  5. Treatment of cats with feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Katrin; Ritz, Susanne

    2008-05-15

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) infection resulting in clinical signs is invariably fatal despite clinical intervention. As FIP is an immune-mediated disease, treatment is mainly aimed at controlling the immune response triggered by the infection with the feline coronavirus (FCoV). Immune suppressive drugs such as prednisone or cyclophosphamide may slow disease progression but do not produce a cure. In nearly every published case report of attempted therapy for clinical FIP, glucocorticoids have been used; there are, however, no controlled studies that evaluate the effect of glucocorticoids as a therapy for FIP. Some veterinarians prescribe immune modulators to treat cats with FIP with no documented controlled evidence of efficacy. It has been suggested that these agents may benefit infected animals by restoring compromised immune function, thereby allowing the patient to control viral burden and recover from clinical signs. However, a non-specific stimulation of the immune system may be contraindicated as clinical signs develop and progress as a result of an immune-mediated response to the mutated FCoV.

  6. Meniscal ossicles in large non-domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael; Phalan, David; Jensen, James; Johnson, James; Drew, Mark; Samii, Valerie; Henry, George; McCauley, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    Radiographs of the stifles of 6 species of 34 large, non-domestic cats were reviewed foremost for the presence of meniscal ossicles and then for the presence of the other potential four sesamoids. The animals in the review included 12 lions, 7 tigers, 7 cougars, 3 leopards, 3 bobcats, and 2 jaguars. Fluoroscopy, arthrography, computed tomography, necropsy, and histology were also used to evaluate the stifles of one tiger after euthanasia. Ossicles were found in the region of the cranial horn of the medial meniscus in most of the lions, tigers, leopards, and jaguars. These ossicles were found in half of the cougars but in none of the bobcats. Among the large, non-domestic cats, meniscal ossicles had been reported previously only in Bengal tigers. The lions, tigers, and leopards having meniscal ossicles appeared to have a lateral but often not a medial fabella of the gastrocnemius muscle, an observation previously unreported. Popliteal sesamoids and patellas were present in all the skeletally mature cats.

  7. Granulomatous rhinitis due to Candida parapsilosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Catherine G; Grune, Sterrett C; Estrada, Marko M; McIlwain, Mary B; Leutenegger, Christian M

    2013-09-01

    A 9-year-old female spayed Domestic Medium Hair cat presented to the referring veterinarian with a 2-week history of sneezing, which progressed to swelling over the nasal planum. The cat had been under veterinary care for inflammatory bowel disease and had been treated with 1.25 mg/kg prednisolone once a day for approximately 1 year. On physical examination, an approximately 2-3 mm diameter, round polypoid pink soft-tissue mass was protruding slightly from the right nostril. Through histologic examination of representative sections from the mass, there was a severe diffuse infiltrate of epithelioid macrophages and neutrophils that surrounded frequent 15-20 µm yeast organisms. A Grocott methenamine silver stain revealed the presence of pseudohyphae in addition to the previously noted yeast forms. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Cryptococcus neoformans, Ajellomyces dermatitidis (syn. Blastomyces dermatitidis), Coccidioides immitis, Ajellomyces capsulatus (syn. Histoplasma capsulatum), Malassezia spp., and Candida spp. was performed on the paraffin-embedded sample. The PCR for Candida spp. was positive; the product was then sequenced and was determined to be consistent with Candida parapsilosis. Following the PCR diagnosis and prior to treatment of the infection, C. parapsilosis was cultured from a nasal swab. The infection in the cat in the current report was considered opportunistic and secondary to immunosuppression, following treatment for the inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23883665

  8. Meniscal ossicles in large non-domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael; Phalan, David; Jensen, James; Johnson, James; Drew, Mark; Samii, Valerie; Henry, George; McCauley, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    Radiographs of the stifles of 6 species of 34 large, non-domestic cats were reviewed foremost for the presence of meniscal ossicles and then for the presence of the other potential four sesamoids. The animals in the review included 12 lions, 7 tigers, 7 cougars, 3 leopards, 3 bobcats, and 2 jaguars. Fluoroscopy, arthrography, computed tomography, necropsy, and histology were also used to evaluate the stifles of one tiger after euthanasia. Ossicles were found in the region of the cranial horn of the medial meniscus in most of the lions, tigers, leopards, and jaguars. These ossicles were found in half of the cougars but in none of the bobcats. Among the large, non-domestic cats, meniscal ossicles had been reported previously only in Bengal tigers. The lions, tigers, and leopards having meniscal ossicles appeared to have a lateral but often not a medial fabella of the gastrocnemius muscle, an observation previously unreported. Popliteal sesamoids and patellas were present in all the skeletally mature cats. PMID:12088319

  9. Evaluation of Oral Robenacoxib for the Treatment of Postoperative Pain and Inflammation in Cats: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    King, Stephen; Roberts, Elizabeth S.; Roycroft, Linda M.; King, Jonathan N.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of robenacoxib were assessed for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats. The study was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded, and parallel group clinical trial. A total of 249 client-owned cats scheduled for forelimb onychectomy plus either ovariohysterectomy or castration surgeries were included. All cats received butorphanol prior to anesthesia and forelimb four-point regional nerve blocks with bupivacaine after induction of general anesthesia. Cats were randomized to receive daily oral tablet robenacoxib, at a mean (range) dosage of 1.84 (1.03–2.40) mg/kg (n = 167), or placebo (n = 82), once prior to surgery and for two days postoperatively. Significantly (P < 0.05) fewer robenacoxib cats received additional analgesia rescue therapy (16.5%) than placebo cats (46.3%). Pain elicited on palpation of the soft tissue incision site, behavior following social interaction, and posture assessed during the first 8 hours after extubation were significantly (P < 0.05) improved in cats receiving robenacoxib. Frequency of reported adverse clinical signs, hematology, serum chemistry and urinalysis variables, and body weight changes weresimilar between groups. In conclusion, robenacoxib was effective and well tolerated in the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats undergoing onychectomy with ovariohysterectomy or castration. PMID:23738129

  10. Evaluation of oral robenacoxib for the treatment of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    King, Stephen; Roberts, Elizabeth S; Roycroft, Linda M; King, Jonathan N

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of robenacoxib were assessed for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats. The study was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded, and parallel group clinical trial. A total of 249 client-owned cats scheduled for forelimb onychectomy plus either ovariohysterectomy or castration surgeries were included. All cats received butorphanol prior to anesthesia and forelimb four-point regional nerve blocks with bupivacaine after induction of general anesthesia. Cats were randomized to receive daily oral tablet robenacoxib, at a mean (range) dosage of 1.84 (1.03-2.40) mg/kg (n = 167), or placebo (n = 82), once prior to surgery and for two days postoperatively. Significantly (P < 0.05) fewer robenacoxib cats received additional analgesia rescue therapy (16.5%) than placebo cats (46.3%). Pain elicited on palpation of the soft tissue incision site, behavior following social interaction, and posture assessed during the first 8 hours after extubation were significantly (P < 0.05) improved in cats receiving robenacoxib. Frequency of reported adverse clinical signs, hematology, serum chemistry and urinalysis variables, and body weight changes weresimilar between groups. In conclusion, robenacoxib was effective and well tolerated in the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats undergoing onychectomy with ovariohysterectomy or castration. PMID:23738129

  11. Chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat: cytochemical and immunophenotypical features.

    PubMed

    Gelain, Maria Elena; Antoniazzi, Elisa; Bertazzolo, Walter; Zaccolo, Maurizia; Comazzi, Stefano

    2006-12-01

    A 3-year-old, male, domestic shorthaired cat was presented with a 3-day history of anorexia and depression. The cat was moderately dehydrated, had pale, slightly icteric, mucous membranes, oral ulcerations, and mild hepatosplenomegaly. A feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen test was positive. CBC results obtained at initial presentation included severe normocytic, normochromic, nonregenerative anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and marked leukocytosis (>100,000/microL) with 77% eosinophils. After 15 days of treatment with prednisone and doxycycline, the cat had persistent severe nonregenerative anemia (HCT 3.4%), thrombocytopenia (28,000/microL), and extreme eosinophilia (total eosinophils, 123.1 x 10(3)/microL; segmented 103.0 x 10(3)/microL; immature 20.1 X 10(3)/microL). Cytologic examination of aspirates from bone marrow, liver, lymph nodes, and spleen revealed a predominance of mature and immature eosinophils, many with dysplastic changes. The M:E ratio was 96.4. On histopathologic examination, multiple organs were infiltrated by eosinophilic granulocytes. Neoplastic cells in blood and bone marrow stained positive for alkaline phosphatase and were negative for myeloperoxidase, chloroacetate esterase, and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase. On flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood, the neoplastic cells were positive for CD11b and CD14. These findings were consistent with chronic eosinophilic leukemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat associated with naturally acquired FeLV infection, in which flow cytometry was used to characterize the neoplastic cells. PMID:17123254

  12. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates and toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in stray cats of İzmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Hüseyin; Döşkaya, Mert; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Özdemir, H Gökhan; Caner, Ayşe; İz, Sultan Gülce; Döşkaya, Aysu Değirmenci; Atalay, Esra; Çetinkaya, Çağdaş; Ürgen, Saygun; Karaçalı, Sabire; Ün, Cemal; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    Currently, some Toxoplasma gondii genotypes are being associated with serious clinical presentations. A recent report showing the Africa 1 genotype in two local congenital toxoplasmosis cases acquired in Turkey formed the basis of this study because atypical Africa 1 genotype is most frequently detected in animals and patients from sub-Saharan Africa. Since stray cats are considered as the linkage between wild life and urban life in T. gondii transmission, the present study aimed to isolate and characterize T. gondii strains circulating in stray cats of İzmir (Western Turkey). A secondary objective was to determine toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in this cat population. Tissues obtained from 100 deceased stray cats were bioassayed and isolated strains were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers. In addition, toxoplasmosis seroprevalence was analyzed in 1121 cat sera collected from several large veterinary clinics in İzmir. Among the 22 isolates, 19 were Type II (86.3%), two were Type III (9%) and one was Africa 1 genotype (4.5%). The overall seropositivity rates in cats were 42-48% and 33.4-34.4% according to IFA and ELISA, respectively. Seroprevalence in deceased cats was significantly higher than in healthy cats (P = 0.0033). Finding both the major clonal Type II lineage together with the Type III lineage also found in Middle East, and an atypical genotype, Africa 1 appears consistent with the specific geographic location of Turkey between three continents and raises the possibility of transportation of these strains between continents through trade routes or long distance migratory birds. In addition, the first large study of toxoplasma seroprevalence in a stray cat population was also reported. The relatively high seropositivity rates and the variety of T. gondii genotypes confirm the local stray cat population as a risk factor for human toxoplasmosis in İzmir.

  13. A quantitative study of the brainstem cholinergic projections to the ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus (REM sleep induction site) in the cat.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita Lucía; Rodríguez-Veiga, Elisia; Reinoso-Suárez, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The ventral part of the cat oral pontine reticular nucleus (vRPO) is the site in which microinjections of small dose and volume of cholinergic agonists produce long-lasting rapid eye movement sleep with short latency. The present study determined the precise location and proportions of the cholinergic brainstem neuronal population that projects to the vRPO using a double-labeling method that combines the neuronal tracer horseradish peroxidase-wheat germ agglutinin with choline acetyltransferase immunocytochemistry in cats. Our results show that 88.9% of the double-labeled neurons in the brainstem were located, noticeably bilaterally, in the cholinergic structures of the pontine tegmentum. These neurons occupied not only the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei, which have been described to project to other pontine tegmentum structures, but also the locus ceruleus complex principally the locus ceruleus alpha and peri-alpha, and the parabrachial nuclei. Most double-labeled neurons were found in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and locus ceruleus complex and, much less abundantly, in the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and the parabrachial nuclei. The proportions of these neurons among all choline acetyltransferase positive neurons within each structure were highest in the locus ceruleus complex, followed in descending order by the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei and then, the parabrachial nuclei. The remaining 11.1% of double-labeled neurons were found bilaterally in other cholinergic brainstem structures: around the oculomotor, facial and masticatory nuclei, the caudal pontine tegmentum and the praepositus hypoglossi nucleus. The disperse origins of the cholinergic neurons projecting to the vRPO, in addition to the abundant noncholinergic afferents to this nucleus may indicate that cholinergic stimulation is not the only or even the most decisive event in the generation of REM sleep.

  14. Purkinje cell axon collaterals terminate on Cat-301+ neurons in Macaca monkey cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Crook, J D; Hendrickson, A; Erickson, A; Possin, D; Robinson, F R

    2007-11-23

    The monoclonal antibody Cat-301 identifies perineuronal nets around specific neuronal types, including those in the cerebellum. This report finds in adult Macaca monkey that basket cells in the deep molecular layer; granule cell layer (GCL) interneurons including Lugaro cells; large neurons in the foliar white matter (WM); and deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) neurons contain subsets of Cat-301 positive (+) cells. Most Cat-301+ GCL interneurons are glycine+ and all are densely innervated by a meshwork of calbindin+/glutamic acid decarboxylase+ Purkinje cell collaterals and their synapses. DCN and WM Cat-301+ neurons also receive a similar but less dense innervation. Due to the heavy labeling of adjacent Purkinje cell dendrites, the innervation of Cat-301+ basket cells was less certain. These findings suggest that several complex feedback circuits from Purkinje cell to cerebellar interneurons exist in primate cerebellum whose function needs to be investigated. Cat-301 labeling begins postnatally in WM and DCN, but remains sparse until at least 3 months of age. Because the appearance of perineuronal nets is associated with maturation of synaptic circuits, this suggests that the Purkinje cell feedback circuits develop for some time after birth.

  15. Evaluation of the welfare implications and efficacy of an ultrasonic 'deterrent' for cats.

    PubMed

    Mills, D S; Bailey, S L; Thurstans, R E

    2000-12-01

    The effect of the ultrasonic output of a commercial cat 'deterrent' was assessed by measuring the behaviour responses of 10 cats in a standard test arena. The cats were introduced to the arena approximately nine metres outside the stated range of efficacy of the product and small food piles were placed at one metre intervals towards the device. When the cats were released from the basket, their behaviour and location were recorded continuously. The behaviour of the cats with the device on and off was compared by using a general linear model and chi-squared analysis. Differences between individual cats were a significant factor in explaining the variance associated with the amount of 'relaxed behaviours' (P<0.001), and the time spent within the range of the device (P=0.006). The only significant behaviour changes recorded when the device was on, were an increased likelihood of ear flicking (P<0.001), less time spent actively exploring (P=0.043), and an increase in the amount of time spent in the reported ultrasonic range of the device (P=0.003).

  16. Use of cyproheptadine to control urine spraying in a castrated male domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, S

    1999-08-15

    A 10-year-old castrated male domestic cat was admitted to the hospital because of lifelong urine spraying of vertical surfaces. A diagnosis of territorial urine marking was made. Laboratory analytes for urine analysis, hemogram, serum biochemical analysis, and serum thyroxine concentration were within reference ranges, and testosterone concentration was consistent with the reference range of castrated male cats. Treatment included behavior modification and the administration of cyproheptadine, which resulted in the immediate arrest of undesirable urine marking. Cyproheptadine administration was adjusted to determine the lowest dosage that effectively maintained the cat's consistent use of the litter box. Cyproheptadine administration was recommended for at least 1 year before any attempt to withdraw its use. A follow-up phone call to the owner 8 months after the beginning of treatment revealed that the cat continued to have remission of inappropriate urination. Cyproheptadine, an antihistamine prescribed for its orexigenic effects in cats, has antiandrogenic effects in other species. Information in this report indicates that cyproheptadine is effective in the control of urine spraying even in castrated cats.

  17. Creation of a six-atom `Schrödinger cat' state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibfried, D.; Knill, E.; Seidelin, S.; Britton, J.; Blakestad, R. B.; Chiaverini, J.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Jost, J. D.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Reichle, R.; Wineland, D. J.

    2005-12-01

    Among the classes of highly entangled states of multiple quantum systems, the so-called `Schrödinger cat' states are particularly useful. Cat states are equal superpositions of two maximally different quantum states. They are a fundamental resource in fault-tolerant quantum computing and quantum communication, where they can enable protocols such as open-destination teleportation and secret sharing. They play a role in fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and enable improved signal-to-noise ratios in interferometry. Cat states are very sensitive to decoherence, and as a result their preparation is challenging and can serve as a demonstration of good quantum control. Here we report the creation of cat states of up to six atomic qubits. Each qubit's state space is defined by two hyperfine ground states of a beryllium ion; the cat state corresponds to an entangled equal superposition of all the atoms in one hyperfine state and all atoms in the other hyperfine state. In our experiments, the cat states are prepared in a three-step process, irrespective of the number of entangled atoms. Together with entangled states of a different class created in Innsbruck, this work represents the current state-of-the-art for large entangled states in any qubit system.

  18. The "beneficial" effects of locomotor training after various types of spinal lesions in cats and rats.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Serge; Martinez, Marina; Escalona, Manuel; Kundu, Aritra; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo; Alluin, Olivier; Gossard, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews a number of experiments on the recovery of locomotion after various types of spinal lesions and locomotor training mainly in cats. We first recall the major evidence on the recovery of hindlimb locomotion in completely spinalized cats at the T13 level and the role played by the spinal locomotor network, also known as the central pattern generator, as well as the beneficial effects of locomotor training on this recovery. Having established that hindlimb locomotion can recover, we raise the issue as to whether spinal plastic changes could also contribute to the recovery after partial spinal lesions such as unilateral hemisections. We found that after such hemisection at T10, cats could recover quadrupedal locomotion and that deficits could be improved by training. We further showed that, after a complete spinalization a few segments below the first hemisection (at T13, i.e., the level of previous studies on spinalization), cats could readily walk with the hindlimbs within hours of completely severing the remaining spinal tracts and not days as is usually the case with only a single complete spinalization. This suggests that neuroplastic changes occurred below the first hemisection so that the cat was already primed to walk after the spinalization subsequent to the hemispinalization 3 weeks before. Of interest is the fact that some characteristic kinematic features in trained or untrained hemispinalized cats could remain after complete spinalization, suggesting that spinal changes induced by training could also be durable. Other studies on reflexes and on the pattern of "fictive" locomotion recorded after curarization corroborate this view. More recent work deals with training cats in more demanding situations such as ladder treadmill (vs. flat treadmill) to evaluate how the locomotor training regimen can influence the spinal cord. Finally, we report our recent studies in rats using compressive lesions or surgical complete spinalization and find

  19. Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from pigeons and stray cats in Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vilares, A; Gargaté, M J; Ferreira, I; Martins, S; Júlio, C; Waap, H; Angelo, H; Gomes, J P

    2014-10-15

    Cats and pigeons are important factors in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii as felids are the only definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts, and pigeons share the same places of cats and humans constituting a good model and indicator of the ground field contamination. We aimed to study the virulence and genotypes of T. gondii isolated from pigeons and stray cats in Lisbon, Portugal. Fresh samples of brain from 41 pigeons and 164 cats revealing antibodies to T. gondii were inoculated in mice. Three isolates (one isolated from a cat and two isolated from pigeons) were virulent in the mouse model. Sag2-based genotyping of T. gondii was achieved in 70.7% (29/41) of samples isolated from pigeons (26 samples were type II, two were type III, and one strain was type I). From the cat brain samples, 50% (82/164) yielded Sag2 positive results, where 72 belonged to genotype II and 10 were no type III (it was not possible to discriminate between type I and II). Further genotyping was obtained by multiplex PCR of 5 microsatellites (TUB2, TgM-A, W35, B17, B18), allowing the identification of two recombinant strains that had been previously identified as type II by Sag2 amplification (one isolated from cat brain and the other from pigeon brain). This is the first evidence of recombinant strains circulating in Portugal and the first report of T. gondii genotyping from cats in this country. This study also highlights the importance of environmental contamination in the synanthropic cycle constituting a potential source of human infection.

  20. Detection of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica in domestic cats in the Ege Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Paşa, Serdar; Tetik Vardarlı, Aslı; Erol, Nural; Karakuş, Mehmet; Töz, Seray; Atasoy, Abidin; Balcıoğlu, İ Cüneyt; Emek Tuna, Gülten; Ermiş, Özge V; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Özbel, Yusuf

    2015-09-15

    Leishmaniosis is a group of diseases caused by different species of Leishmania parasites in mammalian species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in cats using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays targeting internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) and heat-shock protein 70 gene (Hsp70) regions with Leishmania species-specific primers and probes. Blood samples were collected from 147 cats (73 female; 74 male) in the endemic regions for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the western provinces of Turkey and analyzed using two RT-PCR assays. Additionally, Hsp70 RT-PCR products were sequenced. ELISA assays for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) were also carried out for 145 of the 147 samples. Overall, 13/147 (8.84%) cats were positive for Leishmania by RT-PCR (4 L. major and 9 L. tropica). FIV and FeLV antibody and/or antigen was detected in 4 and 5 cats among Leishmania DNA positives, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate and report the presence of L. major and L. tropica infections in a large group of domestic cats in Turkey. The results obtained indicate that species identification of Leishmania is essential for epidemiological understanding and that clinical signs alone are not indicative for leishmaniosis in cats, as it is in dogs. This study suggests that extensive research should be carried out in cat populations in order to fully understand the role of cats in the epidemiology of the disease.

  1. Response of ATP sulfurylase and serine acetyltransferase towards cadmium in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei-dong; Liang, Jun; Yang, Xiao-e; Chao, Yue-en; Feng, Ying

    2009-01-01

    We studied the responses of the activities of adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyltransferase (SAT) to cadmium (Cd) levels and treatment time in hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) Sedum alfredii Hance, as compared with its non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). The results show that plant growth was inhibited in NHE but promoted in HE when exposed to high Cd level. Cd concentrations in leaves and shoots rapidly increased in HE rather than in NHE, and they became much higher in HE than in NHE along with increasing treatment time and Cd supply levels. ATPS activity was higher in HE than in NHE in all Cd treatments, and increased with increasing Cd supply levels in both HE and NHE when exposed to Cd treatment within 8 h. However, a marked difference of ATPS activity between HE and NHE was found with Cd treatment for 168 h, where ATPS activity increased in HE but decreased in NHE. Similarly, SAT activity was higher in HE than in NHE at all Cd treatments, but was more sensitive in NHE than in HE. Both ATPS and SAT activities in NHE leaves tended to decrease with increasing treatment time after 8 h at all Cd levels. The results reveal the different responses in sulfur assimilation enzymes and Cd accumulation between HE and NHE. With increasing Cd stress, the activities of sulfur assimilation enzymes (ATPS and SAT) were induced in HE, which may contribute to Cd accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. PMID:19353742

  2. Response of ATP sulfurylase and serine acetyltransferase towards cadmium in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei-dong; Liang, Jun; Yang, Xiao-e; Chao, Yue-en; Feng, Ying

    2009-04-01

    We studied the responses of the activities of adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyltransferase (SAT) to cadmium (Cd) levels and treatment time in hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) Sedum alfredii Hance, as compared with its non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). The results show that plant growth was inhibited in NHE but promoted in HE when exposed to high Cd level. Cd concentrations in leaves and shoots rapidly increased in HE rather than in NHE, and they became much higher in HE than in NHE along with increasing treatment time and Cd supply levels. ATPS activity was higher in HE than in NHE in all Cd treatments, and increased with increasing Cd supply levels in both HE and NHE when exposed to Cd treatment within 8 h. However, a marked difference of ATPS activity between HE and NHE was found with Cd treatment for 168 h, where ATPS activity increased in HE but decreased in NHE. Similarly, SAT activity was higher in HE than in NHE at all Cd treatments, but was more sensitive in NHE than in HE. Both ATPS and SAT activities in NHE leaves tended to decrease with increasing treatment time after 8 h at all Cd levels. The results reveal the different responses in sulfur assimilation enzymes and Cd accumulation between HE and NHE. With increasing Cd stress, the activities of sulfur assimilation enzymes (ATPS and SAT) were induced in HE, which may contribute to Cd accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. PMID:19353742

  3. Salt-induced changes in the subunit structure of the Bacillus stearothermophilus lipoate acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Shigeoka, Yuichi; Fujisawa, Tetsuro; Teshiba, Satoshi; Fukumori, Hisayoshi; Yamamoto, Kohji; Banno, Yutaka; Aso, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    The Bacillus stearothermophilus lipoate acetyltransferase (E2), composed of sixty identical, subunits is the core component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). E2 polypeptide is composed of LD, PSBD, and CD domains. Most studies had focused on a truncated E2 that is deficient in LD and PSBD, because CD mainly contributes to maintaining the multimeric structure. We examined salt-induced changes in E2 without truncation and constructed reaction models. We speculate that in the presence of KCl, E2 is dissociated into a monomer and then assembled into an aggregative complex (C(A)) and a quasi-stable complex (C(Q)). C(A) was larger than C(Q), but smaller than intact E2. C(A) and C(Q), were dominant complexes at about neutral pH and at basic pH respectively. PDC, in which PSBD is occupied by other components, and a truncated E2 undergo dissociation only. LD-PSBD region besides CD might then contribute to the partial association of dissociated E2. PMID:23924725

  4. The Aspergillus flavus Histone Acetyltransferase AflGcnE Regulates Morphogenesis, Aflatoxin Biosynthesis, and Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Lan, Huahui; Sun, Ruilin; Fan, Kun; Yang, Kunlong; Zhang, Feng; Nie, Xin Y; Wang, Xiunai; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) help regulate fungal development and the production of secondary metabolites. In this study, we determined that the HAT AflGcnE influenced morphogenesis and aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus. We observed that AflGcnE localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm during the conidial production and germination stages, while it was located mainly in the nucleus during the hyphal development stage. Deletion of AflgcnE inhibited the growth of A. flavus and decreased the hydrophobicity of the cell surface. The ΔAflgcnE mutant exhibited a lack of asexual sporulation and was unable to generate sclerotia. Additionally, AflgcnE was required to maintain cell wall integrity and genotoxic stress responses. Importantly, the ΔAflgcnE mutant did not produce aflatoxins, which was consistent with a significant down-regulation of aflatoxin gene expression levels. Furthermore, our data revealed that AflgcnE is a pathogenicity factor required for colonizing maize seeds. In summary, we revealed that A. flavus AflGcnE is crucial for morphological development, aflatoxin biosynthesis, stress responses, and pathogenicity. Our findings help clarify the functional divergence of GcnE orthologs, and may provide a possible target for controlling A. flavus infections of agriculturally important crops. PMID:27625637

  5. A direct, ratiometric, and quantitative MALDI–MS assay for protein methyltransferases and acetyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stacie L.; Hanjra, Pahul; Zhang, Gang; Mackie, Brianna D.; Peterson, Darrell L.; Huang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Protein methylation and acetylation play important roles in biological processes, and misregulation of these modifications is involved in various diseases. Therefore, it is critical to understand the activities of the enzymes responsible for these modifications. Herein we describe a sensitive method for ratiometric quantification of methylated and acetylated peptides via MALDI-MS by direct spotting of enzymatic methylation and acetylation reaction mixtures without tedious purification procedures. The quantifiable detection limit for peptides with our method is approximately 10 fmol. This is achieved by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio through the addition of NH4H2PO4 to the matrix solution and reduction of the matrix α-cyanohydroxycinnamic acid concentration to 2 mg/ml. We have demonstrated the application of this method in enzyme kinetic analysis and inhibition studies. The unique feature of this method is the simultaneous quantification of multiple peptide species for investigation of processivity mechanisms. Its wide buffer compatibility makes it possible to be adapted to investigate the activity of any protein methyltransferase or acetyltransferase. PMID:25778392

  6. The Role of Sas2, an Acetyltransferase Homologue of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, in Silencing and Orc Function

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenhofer-Murray, A. E.; Rivier, D. H.; Rine, J.

    1997-01-01

    Silencing at the cryptic mating-type loci HML and HMR of Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires regulatory sites called silencers. Mutations in the Rap1 and Abf1 binding sites of the HMR-E silencer (HMRa-e**) cause the silencer to be nonfunctional, and hence, cause derepression of HMR. Here, we have isolated and characterized mutations in SAS2 as second-site suppressors of the silencing defect of HMRa-e**. Silencing conferred by the removal of SAS2 (sas2Δ) depended upon the integrity of the ARS consensus sequence of the HMR-E silencer, thus arguing for an involvement of the origin recognition complex (ORC). Restoration of silencing by sas2Δ required ORC2 and ORC5, but not SIR1 or RAP1. Furthermore, sas2Δ suppressed the temperature sensitivity, but not the silencing defect of orc2-1 and orc5-1. Moreover, sas2Δ had opposing effects on silencing of HML and HMR. The putative Sas2 protein bears similarities to known protein acetyltransferases. Several models for the role of Sas2 in silencing are discussed. PMID:9093847

  7. Muscle-specific deletion of carnitine acetyltransferase compromises glucose tolerance and metabolic flexibility.

    PubMed

    Muoio, Deborah M; Noland, Robert C; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Seiler, Sarah E; Davies, Michael N; DeBalsi, Karen L; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Stevens, Robert D; Kheterpal, Indu; Zhang, Jingying; Covington, Jeffrey D; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Ravussin, Eric; Kraus, William; Koves, Timothy R; Mynatt, Randall L

    2012-05-01

    The concept of "metabolic inflexibility" was first introduced to describe the failure of insulin-resistant human subjects to appropriately adjust mitochondrial fuel selection in response to nutritional cues. This phenomenon has since gained increasing recognition as a core component of the metabolic syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. Here, we identify an essential role for the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT), in regulating substrate switching and glucose tolerance. By converting acetyl-CoA to its membrane permeant acetylcarnitine ester, CrAT regulates mitochondrial and intracellular carbon trafficking. Studies in muscle-specific Crat knockout mice, primary human skeletal myocytes, and human subjects undergoing L-carnitine supplementation support a model wherein CrAT combats nutrient stress, promotes metabolic flexibility, and enhances insulin action by permitting mitochondrial efflux of excess acetyl moieties that otherwise inhibit key regulatory enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase. These findings offer therapeutically relevant insights into the molecular basis of metabolic inflexibility. PMID:22560225

  8. P300 acetyltransferase regulates fatty acid synthase expression, lipid metabolism and prostate cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Gang, Xiaokun; Yang, Yinhui; Zhong, Jian; Jiang, Kui; Pan, Yunqian; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Wanhai; Wang, Guixia; Huang, Haojie

    2016-03-22

    De novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis is required for prostate cancer (PCa) survival and progression. As a key enzyme for FA synthesis fatty acid synthase (FASN) is often overexpressed in human prostate cancers and its expression correlates with worse prognosis and poor survival. P300 is an acetyltransferase that acts as a transcription co-activator. Increasing evidence suggests that P300 is a major PCa promoter, although the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that P300 binds to and increases histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27Ac) in the FASN gene promoter. We provided evidence that P300 transcriptionally upregulates FASN expression and promotes lipid accumulation in human PCa cells in culture and Pten knockout prostate tumors in mice. Pharmacological inhibition of P300 decreased FASN expression and lipid droplet accumulation in PCa cells. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that expression of P300 protein positively correlates with FASN protein levels in a cohort of human PCa specimens. We further showed that FASN is a key mediator of P300-induced growth of PCa cells in culture and in mice. Together, our findings demonstrate P300 as a key factor that regulates FASN expression, lipid accumulation and cell growth in PCa. They also suggest that this regulatory pathway can serve as a new therapeutic target for PCa treatment. PMID:26934656

  9. Effects of tubulin acetylation and tubulin acetyltransferase binding on microtubule structure

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Stuart C.; Alushin, Gregory M.; Shida, Toshinobu; Nachury, Maxence V.; Nogales, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Tubulin undergoes posttranslational modifications proposed to specify microtubule subpopulations for particular functions. Most of these modifications occur on the C-termini of tubulin and may directly affect the binding of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) or motors. Acetylation of Lys-40 on α-tubulin is unique in that it is located on the luminal surface of microtubules, away from the interaction sites of most MAPs and motors. We investigate whether acetylation alters the architecture of microtubules or the conformation of tubulin, using cryo–electron microscopy (cryo-EM). No significant changes are observed based on protofilament distributions or microtubule helical lattice parameters. Furthermore, no clear differences in tubulin structure are detected between cryo-EM reconstructions of maximally deacetylated or acetylated microtubules. Our results indicate that the effect of acetylation must be highly localized and affect interaction with proteins that bind directly to the lumen of the microtubule. We also investigate the interaction of the tubulin acetyltransferase, αTAT1, with microtubules and find that αTAT1 is able to interact with the outside of the microtubule, at least partly through the tubulin C-termini. Binding to the outside surface of the microtubule could facilitate access of αTAT1 to its luminal site of action if microtubules undergo lateral opening between protofilaments. PMID:24227885

  10. Environmental History Modulates Arabidopsis Pattern-Triggered Immunity in a HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE1-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant; Yekondi, Shweta; Chen, Po-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Hong; Yu, Chun-Wei; Wu, Keqiang; Zimmerli, Laurent

    2014-06-24

    In nature, plants are exposed to a fluctuating environment, and individuals exposed to contrasting environmental factors develop different environmental histories. Whether different environmental histories alter plant responses to a current stress remains elusive. Here, we show that environmental history modulates the plant response to microbial pathogens. Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to repetitive heat, cold, or salt stress were more resistant to virulent bacteria than Arabidopsis grown in a more stable environment. By contrast, long-term exposure to heat, cold, or exposure to high concentrations of NaCl did not provide enhanced protection against bacteria. Enhanced resistance occurred with priming of Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity (PTI)-responsive genes and the potentiation of PTI-mediated callose deposition. In repetitively stress-challenged Arabidopsis, PTI-responsive genes showed enrichment for epigenetic marks associated with transcriptional activation. Upon bacterial infection, enrichment of RNA polymerase II at primed PTI marker genes was observed in environmentally challenged Arabidopsis. Finally, repetitively stress-challenged histone acetyltransferase1-1 (hac1-1) mutants failed to demonstrate enhanced resistance to bacteria, priming of PTI, and increased open chromatin states. These findings reveal that environmental history shapes the plant response to bacteria through the development of a HAC1-dependent epigenetic mark characteristic of a primed PTI response, demonstrating a mechanistic link between the primed state in plants and epigenetics.

  11. Human acetyl CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase variants generated by random mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Summerscales, Joanna E; Josephy, P David

    2004-01-01

    Acetyl CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes catalyze the N-acetylation of aromatic amines and the O-acetylation of aryl hydroxylamines, reactions that govern the disposition and toxicity of many drugs and carcinogens. The human NAT genes and enzymes NAT1 and NAT2 are highly polymorphic and constitute one of the best studied examples of the genetic control of drug metabolism. Naturally occurring human NAT variants provide limited insight into the relationship between NAT amino acid sequence and enzyme activity. We have shown previously that the expression of recombinant NAT2 in bacterial tester strains results in greatly enhanced sensitivity to mutagenic nitroaromatic compounds (which are reduced to aryl hydroxylamines by bacterial enzymes). We hypothesized that random mutagenesis combined with rapid screening could be used to identify functionally significant amino acid residues in NAT enzymes. Pools of NAT2 variants were generated by polymerase chain reaction-mediated random mutagenesis of the complete coding sequence. Reversion induced by a NAT-dependent mutagen, 3-methyl-2-nitroimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, was used as the basis for screening these pools to identify variants with altered enzyme activity. Eighteen variants were characterized by quantitative mutagenicity assays and enzyme kinetic measurements. This approach can provide new insight into the biochemistry of enzymes involved in the metabolic activation of mutagens. PMID:14722254

  12. P300 acetyltransferase regulates fatty acid synthase expression, lipid metabolism and prostate cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Gang, Xiaokun; Yang, Yinhui; Zhong, Jian; Jiang, Kui; Pan, Yunqian; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Wanhai; Wang, Guixia; Huang, Haojie

    2016-03-22

    De novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis is required for prostate cancer (PCa) survival and progression. As a key enzyme for FA synthesis fatty acid synthase (FASN) is often overexpressed in human prostate cancers and its expression correlates with worse prognosis and poor survival. P300 is an acetyltransferase that acts as a transcription co-activator. Increasing evidence suggests that P300 is a major PCa promoter, although the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that P300 binds to and increases histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27Ac) in the FASN gene promoter. We provided evidence that P300 transcriptionally upregulates FASN expression and promotes lipid accumulation in human PCa cells in culture and Pten knockout prostate tumors in mice. Pharmacological inhibition of P300 decreased FASN expression and lipid droplet accumulation in PCa cells. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that expression of P300 protein positively correlates with FASN protein levels in a cohort of human PCa specimens. We further showed that FASN is a key mediator of P300-induced growth of PCa cells in culture and in mice. Together, our findings demonstrate P300 as a key factor that regulates FASN expression, lipid accumulation and cell growth in PCa. They also suggest that this regulatory pathway can serve as a new therapeutic target for PCa treatment.

  13. Histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases in B- and T-cell development, physiology and malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Haery, Leila; Thompson, Ryan C.; Gilmore, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The development of B and T cells from hematopoietic precursors and the regulation of the functions of these immune cells are complex processes that involve highly regulated signaling pathways and transcriptional control. The signaling pathways and gene expression patterns that give rise to these developmental processes are coordinated, in part, by two opposing classes of broad-based enzymatic regulators: histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HATs and HDACs can modulate gene transcription by altering histone acetylation to modify chromatin structure, and by regulating the activity of non-histone substrates, including an array of immune-cell transcription factors. In addition to their role in normal B and T cells, dysregulation of HAT and HDAC activity is associated with a variety of B- and T-cell malignancies. In this review, we describe the roles of HATs and HDACs in normal B- and T-cell physiology, describe mutations and dysregulation of HATs and HDACs that are implicated lymphoma and leukemia, and discuss HAT and HDAC inhibitors that have been explored as treatment options for leukemias and lymphomas. PMID:26124919

  14. Structural Basis for Microcin C7 Inactivation by the MccE Acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vinayak; Metlitskaya, Anastasiya; Severinov, Konstantin; Nair, Satish K.

    2015-10-15

    The antibiotic microcin C7 (McC) acts as a bacteriocide by inhibiting aspartyl-tRNA synthetase and stalling the protein translation machinery. McC is synthesized as a heptapeptide-nucleotide conjugate, which is processed by cellular peptidases within target strains to yield the biologically active compound. As unwanted processing of intact McC can result in self-toxicity, producing strains utilize multiple mechanisms for autoimmunity against processed McC. We have shown previously that the mccE gene within the biosynthetic cluster can inactivate processed McC by acetylating the antibiotic. Here, we present the characterization of this acetylation mechanism through biochemical and structural biological studies of the MccE acetyltransferase domain (MccE{sup AcTase}). We have also determined five crystal structures of the MccE-acetyl-CoA complex with bound substrates, inhibitor, and reaction product. The structural data reveal an unexpected mode of substrate recognition through p-stacking interactions similar to those found in cap-binding proteins and nucleotidyltransferases. These studies provide a rationale for the observation that MccE{sup AcTase} can detoxify a range of aminoacylnucleotides, including those that are structurally distinct from microcin C7.

  15. Molecular Evolution of Aralkylamine N-Acetyltransferase in Fish: A Genomic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; You, Xinxin; Bian, Chao; Yu, Hui; Coon, Steven L.; Shi, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    All living organisms synchronize biological functions with environmental changes; melatonin plays a vital role in regulating daily and seasonal variations. Due to rhythmic activity of the timezyme aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the blood level of melatonin increases at night and decreases during daytime. Whereas other vertebrates have a single form of AANAT, bony fishes possess various isoforms of aanat genes, though the reasons are still unclear. Here, we have taken advantage of multiple unpublished teleost aanat sequences to explore and expand our understanding of the molecular evolution of aanat in fish. Our results confirm that two rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) led to the existence of three fish isoforms of aanat, i.e., aanat1a, aanat1b, and aanat2; in addition, gene loss led to the absence of some forms from certain special fish species. Furthermore, we suggest the different roles of two aanat1s in amphibious mudskippers, and speculate that the loss of aanat1a, may be related to terrestrial vision change. Several important sites of AANAT proteins and regulatory elements of aanat genes were analyzed for structural comparison and functional forecasting, respectively, which provides insights into the molecular evolution of the differences between AANAT1 and AANAT2. PMID:26729109

  16. The Aspergillus flavus Histone Acetyltransferase AflGcnE Regulates Morphogenesis, Aflatoxin Biosynthesis, and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Huahui; Sun, Ruilin; Fan, Kun; Yang, Kunlong; Zhang, Feng; Nie, Xin Y.; Wang, Xiunai; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) help regulate fungal development and the production of secondary metabolites. In this study, we determined that the HAT AflGcnE influenced morphogenesis and aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus. We observed that AflGcnE localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm during the conidial production and germination stages, while it was located mainly in the nucleus during the hyphal development stage. Deletion of AflgcnE inhibited the growth of A. flavus and decreased the hydrophobicity of the cell surface. The ΔAflgcnE mutant exhibited a lack of asexual sporulation and was unable to generate sclerotia. Additionally, AflgcnE was required to maintain cell wall integrity and genotoxic stress responses. Importantly, the ΔAflgcnE mutant did not produce aflatoxins, which was consistent with a significant down-regulation of aflatoxin gene expression levels. Furthermore, our data revealed that AflgcnE is a pathogenicity factor required for colonizing maize seeds. In summary, we revealed that A. flavus AflGcnE is crucial for morphological development, aflatoxin biosynthesis, stress responses, and pathogenicity. Our findings help clarify the functional divergence of GcnE orthologs, and may provide a possible target for controlling A. flavus infections of agriculturally important crops. PMID:27625637

  17. Structural Analysis of a Putative Aminoglycoside N-Acetyltransferase from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Klimecka, Maria M.; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Font, Jose; Skarina, Tatiana; Shumilin, Igor; Onopryienko, Olena; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Cymborowski, Marcin; Zimmerman, Matthew D.; Hasseman, Jeremy; Glomski, Ian J.; Lebioda, Lukasz; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek

    2012-02-15

    For the last decade, worldwide efforts for the treatment of anthrax infection have focused on developing effective vaccines. Patients that are already infected are still treated traditionally using different types of standard antimicrobial agents. The most popular are antibiotics such as tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. While aminoglycosides appear to be less effective antimicrobial agents than other antibiotics, synthetic aminoglycosides have been shown to act as potent inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor and may have potential application as antitoxins. Here, we present a structural analysis of the BA2930 protein, a putative aminoglycoside acetyltransferase, which may be a component of the bacterium's aminoglycoside resistance mechanism. The determined structures revealed details of a fold characteristic only for one other protein structure in the Protein Data Bank, namely, YokD from Bacillus subtilis. Both BA2930 and YokD are members of the Antibiotic-NAT superfamily (PF02522). Sequential and structural analyses showed that residues conserved throughout the Antibiotic-NAT superfamily are responsible for the binding of the cofactor acetyl coenzyme A. The interaction of BA2930 with cofactors was characterized by both crystallographic and binding studies.

  18. The dietary compound curcumin inhibits p300 histone acetyltransferase activity and prevents heart failure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Tatsuya; Sunagawa, Yoichi; Kawamura, Teruhisa; Takaya, Tomohide; Wada, Hiromichi; Nagasawa, Atsushi; Komeda, Masashi; Fujita, Masatoshi; Shimatsu, Akira; Kita, Toru; Hasegawa, Koji

    2008-01-01

    Hemodynamic overload in the heart can trigger maladaptive hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. A key signaling event in this process is nuclear acetylation by histone deacetylases and p300, an intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT). It has been previously shown that curcumin, a polyphenol responsible for the yellow color of the spice turmeric, possesses HAT inhibitory activity with specificity for the p300/CREB-binding protein. We found that curcumin inhibited the hypertrophy-induced acetylation and DNA-binding abilities of GATA4, a hypertrophy-responsive transcription factor, in rat cardiomyocytes. Curcumin also disrupted the p300/GATA4 complex and repressed agonist- and p300-induced hypertrophic responses in these cells. Both the acetylated form of GATA4 and the relative levels of the p300/GATA4 complex markedly increased in rat hypertensive hearts in vivo. The effects of curcumin were examined in vivo in 2 different heart failure models: hypertensive heart disease in salt-sensitive Dahl rats and surgically induced myocardial infarction in rats. In both models, curcumin prevented deterioration of systolic function and heart failure–induced increases in both myocardial wall thickness and diameter. From these results, we conclude that inhibition of p300 HAT activity by the nontoxic dietary compound curcumin may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for heart failure in humans. PMID:18292809

  19. Structure of the E. Coli Bifunctional GlmU Acetyltransferase Active Site with Substrates and Products

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen,L.; Vetting, M.; Roderick, S.

    2007-01-01

    The biosynthesis of UDP-GlcNAc in bacteria is carried out by GlmU, an essential bifunctional uridyltransferase that catalyzes the CoA-dependent acetylation of GlcN-1-PO{sub 4} to form GlcNAc-1-PO{sub 4} and its subsequent condensation with UTP to form pyrophosphate and UDP-GlcNAc. As a metabolite, UDP-GlcNAc is situated at a branch point leading to the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan. Consequently, GlmU is regarded as an important target for potential antibacterial agents. The crystal structure of the Escherichia coli GlmU acetyltransferase active site has been determined in complexes with acetyl-CoA, CoA/GlcN-1-PO{sub 4}, and desulpho-CoA/GlcNAc-1-PO{sub 4}. These structures reveal the enzyme groups responsible for binding the substrates. A superposition of these complex structures suggests that the 2-amino group of GlcN-1-PO{sub 4} is positioned in proximity to the acetyl-CoA to facilitate direct attack on its thioester by a ternary complex mechanism.

  20. Genetically based N-acetyltransferase metabolic polymorphism and low-level environmental exposure to carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Vineis, P; Bartsch, H; Caporaso, N; Harrington, A M; Kadlubar, F F; Landi, M T; Malaveille, C; Shields, P G; Skipper, P; Talaska, G

    1994-05-12

    The metabolic activation or inactivation of carcinogens varies considerably in human populations, and is partly genetically determined. Inter-individual variability in the susceptibility to carcinogens may be particularly important at low degrees of environmental exposure. Examples of probable human carcinogens that present widespread low-dose exposures are environmental tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust. We have determined levels of DNA adducts in bladder cells and of 4-aminobiphenyl-haemoglobin adducts in 97 volunteers, together with the N-acetylation non-inducible phenotype, the corresponding genotype, and the levels of nicotine-cotinine in the urine. We find that among the slow acetylators, 4-aminobiphenyl adducts were higher than in rapid acetylators at low or null nicotine-cotinine levels, whereas the difference between slow and rapid acetylators was less evident at increasing nicotine-cotinine levels. The N-acetyltransferase genotype is highly predictive of the acetylation phenotype. Our results indicate that the clearance of low-dose carcinogens is decreased in the genetically based slow-acetylator phenotype. Such genetic modulation of low-dose environmental risks is relevant to 'risk assessment' procedures. PMID:7909916