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Sample records for acetyltransferase cat reporter

  1. Application of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) diffusion assay to transgenic plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Peach, C; Velten, J

    1992-02-01

    Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity was quantified in crude extracts from tobacco callus tissues using a modification of a previously reported diffusion assay. We describe here the alterations necessary in applying this rapid and simple assay procedure to plant materials. Due to the high concentration of nonspecific oxidases present in most plant tissues, some type of protective agent is required to maintain enzyme activity. We have tested beta-mercaptoethanol, cysteine, dithiothreitol, ascorbic acid and polyvinyl pyrrolidone as protective agents within the initial extraction buffer. We also investigated the effect of heat (60 degrees C, 10 min) and 5 mM EDTA on CAT activity. The highest CAT activity was obtained using 5 mM cysteine plus 5 mM EDTA in 40 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.8) as the initial extraction buffer followed by a heat treatment. Using this buffer, CAT activity was stable on ice for more than two hours. In our hands, total acetyl-coenzyme A concentration within the assay mixture was found to be saturating at 250 microM and the Km determined to be 100 microM. Assays performed using the same crude plant extract indicate that 1) duplicate assays show less than 1.5% variation in activities and 2) CAT activity increases linearly with respect to volume of extract used.

  2. A series of shuttle vectors using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase as a reporter enzyme in yeast.

    PubMed

    Mannhaupt, G; Pilz, U; Feldmann, H

    1988-07-30

    Reports from numerous laboratories have shown that the gene coding for the bacterial enzyme chloramphenicol-3-O-acetyltransferase can be used as a reporter gene (cat) in mammalian and plant systems to analyze gene activity at the transcriptional level when combined with endogenous regulatory signals; the enzyme activity can be quantified by a chromatographic or a photometric assay. To adapt this simple and highly sensitive test for the yeast system, we constructed a series of yeast vectors containing the cat gene together with selectable markers for Escherichia coli and yeast; integrating, autonomously replicating and centromere-carrying plasmids were used. We show that the cat gene lacking the endogenous promoter is expressed at low levels in yeast transformants. To demonstrate functional expression of the cat gene placed under the control of a yeast promoter, we chose the PHO5 regulatory region. We found that cat expression was induced via the PHO5 promoter in a manner as observed for the endogenous PHO5 gene, whereas in the repressed state cat expression remained low. Using these vectors, it should be feasible to analyze other sequences conferring promoter activity or other control functions in yeast.

  3. Pitfalls of the CAT reporter gene for analyzing translational regulation in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Folgueira, Cristina; Requena, Jose M

    2007-10-01

    Heterologous reporter genes are widely used for the characterization of gene expression in many organisms. Particularly, constructs bearing reporter genes have greatly contributed to our understanding of gene regulation in kinetoplastids. In some specific circumstances, however, such heterologous reporter has a risk of resulting in irrelevant observations and conclusions, which are primarily due to the introduction of foreign sequence elements. This communication describes our recent experience using the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene as a reporter for analysis of the translational regulation of HSP70 genes in Leishmania infantum. We show that chimeric mRNAs consisting of the CAT open reading frame (ORF) and the untranslated regions (UTRs) from HSP70-II genes behave differently as endogenous HSP70-II mRNAs and that this difference is due to the presence of CAT sequences. Thus, the main purpose of this communication is to alert researchers working in gene regulation to be cautious when interpreting results based on heterologous reporter genes.

  4. [Ocular leishmaniasis in a cat: case report].

    PubMed

    Verneuil, M

    2013-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is a disease common to humans as well as wild and domestic animals. When it affects pets, it primarily involves dogs, which constitute a parasitic reservoir. This disease is observed in Africa, Asia, and America and around the entire Mediterranean coast. We report an ocular form of leishmaniasis in a cat from the Var region.

  5. Cat flea infestation in a hospital: a case report.

    PubMed

    Leelavathi, Muthupalaniappen; Norhayati, Moktar; Lee, Yin Yin

    2012-03-01

    Cat flea bite in humans results in extremely pruritic skin lesions. It has been reported to occur among those living in domiciliary accommodation. However, nosocomial infestation with cat flea has not been reported. We hereby report a case of nosocomial infestation of cat flea in a hospital facility. Identification of the parasite, its appropriate eradication, and adequate medical management of the patients resulted in a satisfactory outcome.

  6. Cats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Cats Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Diseases ... hand washing whenever you play or work with cats Wash your hands with soap and running water ...

  7. [Cat scratch disease with deradenoncus and high fever: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Meng, Jian

    2013-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial disease caused by Bartonella henselae. It is mainly characterized by self-limiting lymphadenopathy in the draining site after cat scratch or bite. This paper reported a case of cat scratch disease with deradenoncus and high fever, and discussed the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, pathology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment methods of CSD.

  8. Beyond cat scratch disease: a case report of bartonella infection mimicking vasculitic disorder.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Amelia; Lumetti, Federica; Sandri, Gilda; Cestelli, Valentina; Mascia, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial disease caused by Bartonella henselae and it is mainly characterized by self-limiting lymphadenopathy in the draining site of a cat scratch or bite. We report a patient with history of fever, swelling lymph nodes, vasculitic-like skin lesions, and positivity of Bartonella serology initially considered as expression of a disimmune disease.

  9. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats: a report of three cases.

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, S A; Valli, V E; Hulland, T J

    1985-01-01

    The clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings in three cats with hypereosinophilic syndrome are described. The cats chosen for the study had marked eosinophilia and evidence of tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Necropsies were performed on two cats, biopsy and blood samples were provided for the third cat. At necropsy, there was diffuse reddening of femoral bone marrow with ulceration and thickening of the duodenum. The livers had an enhanced lobular pattern with multiple, white, 1-3 mm nodules throughout the parenchyma. One cat had splenomegaly and the other had several enlarged, white, firm lymph nodes. Histopathologically, there was eosinophil infiltration of intestine, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, adrenal medulla and beneath the endocardium. Ultrastructurally, the eosinophils from lymph node and bone marrow of cat II were morphologically normal. The rigid criteria for eosinophilic leukemia were not fulfilled by these cases and the etiology of the eosinophilia in each case is not known. Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:4041970

  10. Nucleotide sequence and phylogeny of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase encoded by the plasmid pSCS7 from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, S; Cardoso, M

    1991-08-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (cat) and its regulatory region, encoded by the plasmid pSCS7 from Staphylococcus aureus, was determined. The structural cat gene encoded a protein of 209 amino acids, which represented one monomer of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). Comparisons between the amino acid sequences of the pSCS7-encoded CAT from S. aureus and the previously sequenced CAT variants from S. aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Bacillus pumilis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, and Proteus mirabilis were performed. An alignment of CAT amino acid sequences demonstrated the presence of 34 conserved amino acids among all CAT variants. These conserved residues were considered for their possible roles in the structure and function of CAT. On the basis of the alignment, a phylogenetic tree was constructed. It demonstrated relatively large evolutionary distances between the CAT variants of enteric bacteria, Clostridium, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus species.

  11. Recombinant genomes which express chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, C.M.; Moffat, L.F.; Howard, B.H.

    1982-09-01

    The authors constructed a series of recombinant genomes which directed expression of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) in mammalian cells. The prototype recombinant in this series, pSV2-cat, consisted of the beta-lactamase gene and origin of replication from pBR322 coupled to a simian virus 40 (SV40) early transcription region into which CAT coding sequences were inserted. Readily measured levels of CAT accumulated within 48 h after the introduction of pSV2-cat DNA into African green monkey kidney CV-1 cells. Because endogenous CAT activity is not present in CV-1 or other mammalian cells, and because rapid, sensitive assays for CAT activity are available, these recombinants provided a uniquely convenient system for monitoring the expression of foreign DNAs in tissue culture cells. To demonstrate the usefulness of this system, we constructed derivatives of pSV2-cat from which part or all of the SV 40 promoter region was removed. Deletion of one copy of the 72-base-pair repeat sequence in the SV40 promoter caused no significant decrease in CAT synthesis in monkey kidney CV-1 cells; however, an additional deletion of 50 base pairs from the second copy of the repeats reduced CAT synthesis to 11% of its level in the wild type. They also constructed a recombinant, pSVO-cat, in which the entire SV40 promoter region was removed and a unique HindIII site was substituted for the insertion of other promoter sequences.

  12. First report of Neotrombicula autumnalis infestation in a cat and a dog from Corfu (Greece) and in a cat from Limassol (Cyprus).

    PubMed

    Giannoulopoulos, Giorgos D; Desilla, Lora J S; Desilla, Eleni S; Papadopoulos, Ilias; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2012-12-01

    Neotrombicula autumnalis is the most common species of the family Trombiculidae that parasitizes dogs, cats, and humans in Europe. Besides the skin lesions it may cause, this mite is a possible vector of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Two cases of N. autumnalis infestation in a cat and a dog in the island of Corfu, Greece, and 1 case of infestation in a cat living in Limassol, Cyprus, are presented. To the best or our knowledge, these are the first cases of feline and canine trombiculosis reported in both countries, and their appearance in islands points out to the possibility of introduction through importation of infested dogs and cats. For this reason, parasiticides that are effective for both the treatment and prevention of trombiculosis should be recommended for all dogs and cats that live in areas where the parasite is present as well as for all traveling pets.

  13. An atypical presentation of a Pasteurella multocida infection following a cat bite: a case report.

    PubMed

    Collins, Chris; Flanagan, Brigitte; Henning, J Scott

    2012-06-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a bacterial organism that commonly causes cellulitis after animal bites, especially cat bites. We report an unusual vesiculopustular infection of the hand following a domestic cat bite. Pasteurella multocida and Staphylococcus aureus were cultured from the wound and the patient was treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium. Further history revealed that the patient's cat had nibbled on her hand. Pasteurella usually is resistant to many of the typical empiric antibiotics used to treat skin infections. Amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium (500 mg 3 times daily) is the treatment of choice for patients who have an infected cat or dog bite with no known bacterial cause. A thorough patient history is needed to promptly arrive at a proper diagnosis for an atypical presentation of a common disease.

  14. [Osteomyelitis in cat scratch disease: a case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Dusser, P; Eyssette-Guerreau, S; Koné-Paut, I

    2013-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is the most common zoonosis in humans and its typical expression is a persistent benign regional adenopathy. In some rare cases, mono- or multifocal osteomyelitis is described. In this paper, we report the case of bone lesions in a 13-year-old girl infected with cat scratch disease. We have also undertaken a literature review and analyzed 60 other such cases. The manifestation of a bone lesion associated with cat scratch disease was characterized by a mono- or multifocal infectious osteomyelitis, fever, and a general alteration of the patient's health. The most frequent location of osteomyelitis was in the spine. Magnetic resonance imaging appeared the most sensitive test to highlight the bone lesions. Serological findings help reinforce the diagnosis of cat scratch disease caused by Bartonella henselae infection. Osteomyelitis in cat scratch disease is rare but not exceptional. Therefore, it is essential to think about this hypothesis in case of osteomyelitis associated with a general alteration of the patient's health, especially if the lesions are multifocal and if there is a known history of cat contact.

  15. BASINs 4.0 Climate Assessment Tool (CAT): Supporting Documentation and User's Manual (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the report, BASINS 4.0 Climate Assessment Tool (CAT): Supporting Documentation and User's Manual. This report was prepared by the EPA's Global Change Research Program (GCRP), an assessment-oriented program, that sits within the Office of R...

  16. BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications. This report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the Better Assessment Science Integrating point & ...

  17. Capnocytophaga canimorsus septicemia: fifth report of a cat-associated infection and five other cases.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, M; Lauhio, A; Carlson, P; Multanen, J; Sivonen, A; Vaara, M; Lähdevirta, J

    1995-06-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a fastidious, slow-growing, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the normal oral flora of dogs and cats. Human septicemic infections are associated with a high mortality; most cases occur in immunocompromised patients with a history of dog bite. The fifth case of cat-associated septicemia caused by Capnocytophaga canimorsus is described. The six case reports presented here point out the characteristics reported previously: (a) cats are a source of human infection; (b) alcohol abuse is an important risk factor for the development of septicemic Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection; (c) septicemic infection often manifests with disseminated intravascular consumption coagulopathy or purpura; and (d) some cases of septicemia in humans result from pets that lick skin ulcers.

  18. Stimulation of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase mRNA translation by reovirus capsid polypeptide sigma 3 in cotransfected COS cells.

    PubMed Central

    Giantini, M; Shatkin, A J

    1989-01-01

    The mammalian reovirus S4 gene has been implicated in the serotype-dependent inhibition of host cell protein synthesis during viral replication in mouse L cells. To examine the effect(s) of this gene on transcription or translation or both, a DNA copy of the serotype 3 S4 gene was inserted into a eucaryotic expression vector. Cotransfection of COS cells with plasmids containing S4 and the reporter gene, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), resulted in a marked stimulation of CAT expression, predominantly at the level of translation. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the double-stranded-RNA-binding activity of the S4 gene product, polypeptide sigma 3. Images PMID:2724407

  19. Cat-pork syndrome: a case report with a thee years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Savi, E; Rossi, A; Incorvaia, C

    2006-12-01

    A case of cat-pork syndrome with subsequent follow-up in a 17-year-old male patient is reported. At the initial observation, the patient was sensitized to cat epithelium--along with house dust mites and grass pollen--from two years. In 2001 he had an immediate reaction with urticaria, angioedema and dyspnea after eating grilled meat and sausage, and skin tests and CAP/RAST revealed a sensitization to pork meat, with a value of 4.7 KU/L for pork meat, and of 55 KU/L for cat epithelium. The patient was followed up for three years with annual repetition of diagnostic tests. The elimination of pork meat from the diet was incomplete, with slight skin reactions to small amounts of cooked pork meat but tolerance to seasoned pork products such as salami. A challenge test with pork meat in 2004 was positive, with angioedema and asthma symptoms, and CAP/RAST showed a value of 43 KU/L for cat epithelium and 4 KU/L for pork meat. RAST inhibition confirmed the significant cross-reactivity between the two allergen sources. These findings provide some knowledge on the natural history of the cat-pork syndrome, and confirm that very prolonged avoidance of the offending foods are needed to expect a loss of sensitization.

  20. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of cat-scratch disease: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Wei; Chang, Wei-Chou; Chao, Tai-Kuang; Liu, Chia-Chen; Huang, Guo-Shu

    2009-01-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial infection that typically causes swelling of the lymph nodes. The patients usually have a history of being scratched, bitten, or licked by cats and often by kittens. Understanding the characteristic radiological and clinical features may lead to a noninvasive diagnosis and prevent unnecessary invasive procedures. We report two cases of CSD with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showing nodules or masses of lymphadenopathy with subcutaneous edema and fat infiltration in the lymphatic drainage area. The imaging features and clinical manifestations are described, and the differential diagnosis of CSD is discussed.

  1. Cat-Scratch Disease: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gai, M; d'Onofrio, G; di Vico, M C; Ranghino, A; Nappo, A; Diena, D; Novero, D; Limerutti, G; Messina, M; Biancone, L

    2015-09-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is caused by Bartonella henselae and characterized by self-limited fever and granulomatous lymphadenopathy. In some cases signs of a visceral, neurologic, and ocular involvement can also be encountered. In this report we describe the development of CSD in a kidney transplant patient. Immunocompromised hosts are more susceptible to infection from Bartonella compared with the standard population. Infection of Bartonella should be considered as a differential diagnosis in kidney transplant patients with lymphadenopathy of unknown origin.

  2. Cat eye syndrome and growth hormone deficiency with pituitary anomalies: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Melo, Cláudia; Gama-de-Sousa, Susana; Almeida, Filipa; Rendeiro, Paula; Tavares, Purificação; Cardoso, Helena; Carvalho, Sónia

    2013-10-15

    Cat eye syndrome is a rare congenital disease characterized by the existence of a supernumerary chromosome derived from chromosome 22, with a variable phenotype comprising anal atresia, coloboma of the iris and preauricular tags or pits. We report a girl with cat eye syndrome, presenting short stature, with growth hormone deficiency due to posterior pituitary ectopia. Short stature is a common feature of this syndrome, and the association with a structural pituitary anomaly has been described, however growth hormone deficiency and the underlying mechanisms are rarely reported. A review on short stature and growth hormone deficiency in cat eye syndrome is conducted.

  3. Thoracic osteomyelitis and epidural abscess formation due to cat scratch disease: case report.

    PubMed

    Dornbos, David; Morin, Jocelyn; Watson, Joshua R; Pindrik, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    Osteomyelitis of the spine with associated spinal epidural abscess represents an uncommon entity in the pediatric population, requiring prompt evaluation and diagnosis to prevent neurological compromise. Cat scratch disease, caused by the pathogen Bartonella henselae, encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical presentations; however, an association with osteomyelitis and epidural abscess has been reported in only 4 other instances in the literature. The authors report a rare case of multifocal thoracic osteomyelitis with an epidural abscess in a patient with a biopsy-proven pathogen of cat scratch disease. A 5-year-old girl, who initially presented with vague constitutional symptoms, was diagnosed with cat scratch disease following biopsy of an inguinal lymph node. Despite appropriate antibiotics, she presented several weeks later with recurrent symptoms and back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 2 foci of osteomyelitis at T-8 and T-11 with an associated anterior epidural abscess from T-9 to T-12. Percutaneous image-guided vertebral biopsy revealed B. henselae by polymerase chain reaction analysis, and she was treated conservatively with doxycycline and rifampin with favorable clinical outcome.

  4. Phenotypic variability of the cat eye syndrome. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rosias, P R; Sijstermans, J M; Theunissen, P M; Pulles-Heintzberger, C F; De Die-Smulders, C E; Engelen, J J; Van Der Meer, S B

    2001-01-01

    We present a male infant with preauricular skin tags and pits, downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, ectopic anus, hypospadias, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The clinical features in our patient show phenotypic overlap with the cat eye syndrome, as illustrated by the review of 105 reported cases. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a supernumerary marker chromosome, which was identified by microdissection and fluorescence in situ hybridization as an isodicentric chromosome 22(pter --> q11.2::q11.2 --> pter). It was proved with probes specific for the cat eye syndrome critical region that this region was present in quadruplicate in the propositus. We conclude that CES is characterized by large phenotypic variability, ranging from near normal to severe malformations, as reflected in the neurodevelopmental outcome. Preauricular skin tags and/or pits are the most consistent features, and suggest the presence of a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome 22 derived from duplication of the CES critical region.

  5. [Transformation from chronic subdural hematoma into subdural empyema following cat bites: a case report].

    PubMed

    Konno, Takuya; Yamada, Kei; Kasahara, Sou; Umeda, Yoshitaka; Oyake, Mutsuo; Fujita, Nobuya

    2015-01-01

    A 69-year-old man developed motor aphasia and right hemiparesis with severe headache, during the treatment of cellulitis and sepsis due to cat bites. Brain CT showed a low density, crescent-shaped lesion in the left subdural space, which was hypointense on brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). One week later, when his neurological symptoms had worsened, the signal of the subdural lesion had changed to hyperintense on DWI. The lesion was capsule-shaped when enhanced by Gadolinium. The signal changes on DWI of the lesion indicated the existing hematoma had changed to an empyema, or so-called infected subdural hematoma, due to a hematogenous bacterial infection. Pasteurella multocida, a resident microbe in the oral cavity of cats, could be the responsible pathogen in this case. The patient recovered completely after treatment with intravenous high dose antibiotics. This is an important case report describing the transformation from a chronic subdural hematoma into a subdural empyema by DWI.

  6. Pasteurella multocida septicemia caused by close contact with a domestic cat: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Yoshinari; Takeuchi, Toyo; Shimizu, Manabu; Iwata, Masaru; Tanahashi, Junji; Ito, Makoto

    2004-08-01

    We report here a case of Pasteurella multocida infection caused by cat exposure presenting with septic shock, sinusitis, and pneumonia. The patient was a febrile 20-year-old woman who had been experiencing disturbed consciousness progressively. She had close contact with a domestic cat and had received some scratches on both arms. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head showed a high intensity in the paranasal cavity, and a computed tomographic (CT) scan of the chest showed bilateral lung consolidations. The pathogen was identified as P. multocida by the cultures from blood and nasal discharge. She was given intensive antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone and piperacillin, continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) therapy, and anticoagulation therapy. Owing to these therapeutic regimens, the septic shock was successfully treated without complications. We also review the literature on P. multocida septicemia.

  7. The facC Gene of Aspergillus nidulans Encodes an Acetate-Inducible Carnitine Acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Stemple, Christopher J.; Davis, Meryl A.; Hynes, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Mutations in the facC gene of Aspergillus nidulans result in an inability to use acetate as a sole carbon source. This gene has been cloned by complementation. The proposed translation product of the facC gene has significant similarity to carnitine acetyltransferases (CAT) from other organisms. Total CAT activity was found to be inducible by acetate and fatty acids and repressed by glucose. Acetate-inducible activity was found to be absent in facC mutants, while fatty acid-inducible activity was absent in an acuJ mutant. Acetate induction of facC expression was dependent on the facB regulatory gene, and an expressed FacB fusion protein was demonstrated to bind to 5′ facC sequences. Carbon catabolite repression of facC expression was affected by mutations in the creA gene and a CreA fusion protein bound to 5′ facC sequences. Mutations in the acuJ gene led to increased acetate induction of facC expression and also of an amdS-lacZ reporter gene, and it is proposed that this results from accumulation of acetate, as well as increased expression of facB. A model is presented in which facC encodes a cytosolic CAT enzyme, while a different CAT enzyme, which is acuJ dependent, is present in peroxisomes and mitochondria, and these activities are required for the movement of acetyl groups between intracellular compartments. PMID:9829933

  8. The lac operon galactoside acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Steven L

    2005-06-01

    Of the proteins encoded by the three structural genes of the lac operon, the galactoside acetyltransferase (thiogalactoside transacetylase, LacA, GAT) encoded by lacA is the only protein whose biological role remains in doubt. Here, we briefly note the classical literature that led to the identification and initial characterization of GAT, and focus on more recent results which have revealed its chemical mechanism of action and its membership in a large superfamily of structurally similar acyltransferases. The structural and sequence similarities of several members of this superfamily confirm the original claim for GAT as a CoA-dependent acetyltransferase specific for the 6-hydroxyl group of certain pyranosides, but do not yet point to the identity of the natural substrate(s) of the enzyme.

  9. [Bartonella henselae as the causative agent in cat-scratch disease: case report].

    PubMed

    Dzelalija, B; Avsic-Zupanc, T

    2001-01-01

    In this article we reported typical clinical, primary skin lesion and regional lymphadenitis, and atypical, protracted fever and algic syndrome, characteristics of cat scratch disease (CSD) in a 21-year-old man (a student) from Zadar, Croatia. Laboratory parameters were in normal range. The histopathologic findings of affected lymph nodes included stellate caseating granulomas. By using IFA method a seroconversion of specific IgG antibodies (neg/1:512) and rise of IgM antibodies (1:160/ > 1:320) to B. henselae were detected in paired sera, and these serologic findings indicate on conclusion that B. henselae is probably etiologic agent of CSD in our patient.

  10. Biochemical characteristics of a novel vegetative tissue geraniol acetyltransferase from a monoterpene oil grass (Palmarosa, Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia) leaf.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj K; Sangwan, Neelam S; Bose, Subir K; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2013-04-01

    Plants synthesize volatile alcohol esters on environmental insult or as metabolic induction during flower/fruit development. However, essential oil plants constitutively produce them as the oil constituents. Their synthesis is catalyzed by BAHD family enzymes called alcohol acyltransferases (AATs). However, no AAT has been characterized from plant foliage synthesizing acyclic monoterpenoids containing essential oils. Therefore, we have purified and biochemically characterized a geraniol: acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase (GAAT) from Palmarosa aroma grass (Cymbopogon martinii) leaf. MALDI-assisted proteomic study of the 43kDa monomeric enzyme revealed its sequence motif novelties e.g. relaxed conservation at Phe and Trp in DFGWG'. This suggests permissiveness of variations in the conserved motif without loss of catalytic ability. Also, some new conserved/semi-conserved motifs of AATs were recognized. The GAAT k(cat)/K(m) values (300-700M(-1)s(-1)) were low (a generic characteristic for secondary metabolism enzyme) but higher than those of some floral AATs. Wide substrate acceptability for catalyzing acetylation of diverse primary alcohols (chain of ≥C(6)) implied its catalytic description as a 'primary aliphatic alcohol acetyltransferase'. It signifies metabolic ability to deliver diverse aroma esters, should the acceptor alcohols be available in planta. To our knowledge, this is the first report of detailed kinetics of a vegetal monoterpenol acyltransferase.

  11. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes characterized in several bacteria and eukaryotic organisms. We report a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis employing an exhaustive dataset of NAT-homologous sequences recovered through inspection of 2445 genomes. We describe ...

  12. Structure and Biochemical Characterization of Protein Acetyltransferase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    SciTech Connect

    Brent, Michael M.; Iwata, Ayaka; Carten, Juliana; Zhao, Kehao; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2009-09-02

    The Sulfolobus solfataricus protein acetyltransferase (PAT) acetylates ALBA, an abundant nonspecific DNA-binding protein, on Lys{sup 16} to reduce its DNA affinity, and the Sir2 deacetylase reverses the modification to cause transcriptional repression. This represents a 'primitive' model for chromatin regulation analogous to histone modification in eukaryotes. We report the 1.84-{angstrom} crystal structure of PAT in complex with coenzyme A. The structure reveals homology to both prokaryotic GNAT acetyltransferases and eukaryotic histone acetyltransferases (HATs), with an additional 'bent helix' proximal to the substrate binding site that might play an autoregulatory function. Investigation of active site mutants suggests that PAT does not use a single general base or acid residue for substrate deprotonation and product reprotonation, respectively, and that a diffusional step, such as substrate binding, may be rate-limiting. The catalytic efficiency of PAT toward ALBA is low relative to other acetyltransferases, suggesting that there may be better, unidentified substrates for PAT. The structural similarity of PAT to eukaryotic HATs combined with its conserved role in chromatin regulation suggests that PAT is evolutionarily related to the eukaryotic HATs.

  13. Septic shock from Pasturella multocida following a cat bite: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Adler, Adam C; Cestero, Cesar; Brown, Robert B

    2011-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a gram-negative organism categorized morphologically as a coccobacillus. P. multocida is a natural inhabitant found in the nasopharynx and oropharynx of numerous animal hosts, but serves as an opportunistic pathogen in humans. Pasturella multocida has multiple subspecies; when identified as the cause of infection they are broadly termed pasturelloses. Infections involving P. multocida are typically reported to occur in immune-compromised patients. Few cases in the literature identify pasturellosis as the causative agent of septic shock, especially in cirrhotic patients. Our patient's underlying cirrhosis and past splenectomy place her in the higher risk category for developing invasive Pasturella infection. We report a patient who presented with septic shock that was initially thought to be related to a urinary tract infection. It was later revealed that the patient's condition was caused by a recent cat bite leading to Pasturella bacteremia compounded by hepatic cirrhosis and previous splenectomy.

  14. Growth hormone deficiency and pituitary malformation in a recurrent Cat-Eye syndrome: a family report.

    PubMed

    Jedraszak, Guillaume; Braun, Karine; Receveur, Aline; Decamp, Matthieu; Andrieux, Joris; Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Copin, Henri; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique; Mathieu, Michèle; Rochette, Jacques; Morin, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    Growth hormone deficiency affects roughly between one in 3000 and one in 4000 children with most instances of growth hormone deficiency being idiopathic. Growth hormone deficiency can also be associated with genetic diseases or chromosome abnormalities. Association of growth hormone deficiency together with hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation and Cat-Eye syndrome is a very rare condition. We report a family with two brothers presenting with growth delay due to a growth hormone deficiency associated with a polymalformation syndrome. They both displayed pre-auricular pits and tags, imperforate anus and Duane retraction syndrome. Both parents and a third unaffected son displayed normal growth pattern. Cerebral MRI showed a hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation in the two affected brothers. Cytogenetic studies revealed a type I small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22 resulting in a tetrasomy 22pter-22q11.21 characteristic of the Cat-Eye syndrome. The small supernumerary marker chromosome was present in the two affected sons and the mother in a mosaic state. Patients with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency should be evaluated for chromosomal abnormality. Family study should not be underestimated.

  15. Pulmonary oedema as a suspected adverse drug reaction following vincristine administration to a cat: a case report.

    PubMed

    Polton, Gerry A; Elwood, Clive M

    2008-07-01

    This report describes recurrent respiratory distress following vincristine administration to a cat with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The cat was treated with a combination of vincristine, chlorambucil and prednisolone with initial success. After approximately 4 months, dyspnoea developed within 6 h of vincristine administration. Emergency therapy was instituted resulting in a full recovery. Further vincristine was administered; dyspnoea was similarly noted after all but one of these treatments. Dyspnoeic episodes were not attributable to alterations in vincristine dose or method of administration. The repeated temporal association was consistent with a suspected adverse drug reaction to vincristine.

  16. First report of Polycystic kidney disease occurrence in Persian cats in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vucicevic, Milos; Slijepcevic, Dajana; Davitkov, Darko; Avdalovic, Vladimir; Aleksic-Kovacevic, Sanja; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited autosomal disorder in cats, mostly diagnosed in Persian cats. Renal cysts can be diagnosed by ultrasound, but cats must be at least 16 weeks old. The goals of this study were to assess the occurrence of PKD in Serbia using a randomly selected group of Persian cats, to compare the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasound and genetic tests, and to measure haematological and selected biochemical parameters. We examined 70 cats of Persian breed, between 4 months and 8 years of age. Complete blood count and selected biochemical parameters were measured, renal ultrasound was performed. Swabs of the oral cavity were obtained for genetic testing. Percentage of PKD positive cats identified by genetic testing was 48.6%, whilst only 18.6% were detected through ultrasound. Animals that were polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) positive and ultrasound negative ranged from 4 months to 3.5 years. All haematological and biochemical parameters were within the the normal range values in all examined cats. Genetic methods proved to be the most effective for reliable and early diagnosis of PKD in Persian cats. DNA analysis can be used right after birth, and excludes the need for other diagnostic procedures, such as ultrasound.

  17. Thermoadaptation-directed evolution of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in an error-prone thermophile using improved procedures.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Jyumpei; Furukawa, Megumi; Ohshiro, Takashi; Suzuki, Hirokazu

    2015-07-01

    Enhancing the thermostability of thermolabile enzymes extends their practical utility. We previously demonstrated that an error-prone thermophile derived from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 can generate mutant genes encoding enzyme variants that are more thermostable than the parent enzyme. Here, we used this approach, termed as thermoadaptation-directed enzyme evolution, to increase the thermostability of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) of Staphylococcus aureus and successfully generated a CAT variant with an A138T replacement (CAT(A138T)). This variant was heterologously produced, and its enzymatic properties were compared with those of the wild type. We found that CAT(A138T) had substantially higher thermostability than CAT but had comparable activities, showing that the A138T replacement enhanced protein thermostability without affecting the catalytic activity. Because variants CAT(A138S) and CAT(A138V), which were generated via in vitro site-directed mutagenesis, were more thermostable than CAT, the thermostability enhancement resulting from the A138T replacement can be attributed to both the presence of a hydroxyl group and the bulk of the threonine side chain. CAT(A138T) conferred chloramphenicol resistance to G. kaustophilus cells at high temperature more efficiently than CAT. Therefore, the gene encoding CAT(A138T) may be useful as a genetic marker in Geobacillus spp. Notably, CAT(A138T) generation was achieved only by implementing improved procedures (plasmid-based mutations on solid media); previous procedures (chromosome-based mutations in liquid media) were unsuccessful. This result suggests that this improved procedure is crucial for successful thermoadaptation-directed evolution in certain cases and increases the opportunities for generating thermostable enzymes.

  18. Expression of a streptomycete leaderless mRNA encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C J; Janssen, G R

    1997-01-01

    The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene from Streptomyces acrimycini encodes a leaderless mRNA. Expression of the cat coding sequence as a leaderless mRNA from a modified lac promoter resulted in chloramphenicol resistance in Escherichia coli. Transcript mapping with nuclease S1 confirmed that the 5' end of the cat message initiated at the A of the AUG translational start codon. Site-directed mutagenesis of the lac promoter or the cat start codon abolished chloramphenicol resistance, indicating that E. coli initiated translation at the 5' terminal AUG of the cat leaderless mRNA. Addition of 5'-AUGC-3' to the 5' end of the cat mRNA resulted in translation occurring also from the reading frame defined by the added AUG triplet, suggesting that a 5'-terminal start codon is an important recognition feature for initiation and establishing reading frame during translation of leaderless mRNA. Addition of an untranslated leader and Shine-Dalgarno sequence to the cat coding sequence increased cat expression in a cat:lacZ fusion; however, the level of expression was significantly lower than when a fragment of the bacteriophage lambda cI gene, also encoding a leaderless mRNA, was fused to lacZ. These results indicate that in the absence of an untranslated leader and Shine-Dalgarno sequence, the streptomycete cat mRNA is translated by E. coli; however, the cat translation signals, or other features of the cat mRNA, provide for only a low level of expression in E. coli. PMID:9352935

  19. Demodex gatoi -associated contagious pruritic dermatosis in cats - a report from six households in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Seppo AM; Juuti, Kirsi H; Palojärvi, Joanna H; Väisänen, Kirsi M; Rajaniemi, Riitta-Liisa; Saijonmaa-Koulumies, Leena E

    2009-01-01

    Background Demodex gatoi is unique among demodectic mites. It possesses a distinct stubby appearance, and, instead of residing in the hair follicles, it dwells in the keratin layer of the epidermis, causing a pruritic and contagious skin disease in cats. Little is known of the occurrence of D. gatoi in Europe or control of D. gatoi infestation. Case presentation We describe D. gatoi in 10 cats, including five Cornish Rex, two Burmese, one Exotic, one Persian and one Siamese, living in six multi-cat households in different locations in Finland containing 21 cats in total. Intense pruritus was the main clinical sign. Scaling, broken hairs, alopecia and self-inflicted excoriations were also observed. Diagnosis was based on finding typical short-bodied demodectic mites in skin scrapings, skin biopsies or on tape strips. Other pruritic skin diseases, such as allergies and dermatophytoses, were ruled out. In one household, despite finding several mites on one cat, all six cats of the household remained symptomless. Amitraz used weekly at a concentration of 125-250 ppm for 2-3 months, proved successful in three households, 2% lime sulphur weekly dips applied for six weeks in one household and peroral ivermectin (1 mg every other day for 10 weeks) in one household. Previous trials in four households with imidacloprid-moxidectin, selamectin or injected ivermectin given once or twice a month appeared ineffective. Conclusion D. gatoi-associated dermatitis is an emerging contagious skin disease in cats in Finland. Although pruritus is common, some cats may harbour the mites without clinical signs. In addition, due to translucency of the mites and fastidious feline grooming habits, the diagnosis may be challenging. An effective and convenient way to treat D. gatoi infestations has yet to emerge. PMID:19843334

  20. Cat scratch encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Silver, B E; Bean, C S

    1991-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is usually benign, self-limited and without sequelae. Margileth has established four clinical criteria, three of which must be satisfied to make the diagnosis: 1) a history of animal exposure, usually kitten, with primary skin or ocular lesions; 2) regional chronic adenopathy without other apparent cause; 3) a positive cat scratch disease antigen skin test; and 4) lymph node biopsy demonstrating noncaseating granulomas and germinal center hyperplasia. Central nervous system involvement in cat scratch disease has been previously reported, although it is extremely uncommon. In a several-month period, we encountered two cases of cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy. The intents of this paper are twofold: 1) to briefly review the current literature on cat scratch disease, 2) to demonstrate that cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy presents acutely with seizures, posturing and coma and resolves rapidly with supportive care.

  1. Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding human carnitine acetyltransferase and mapping of the corresponding gene to chromosome 9q34.1

    SciTech Connect

    Corti, O.; Finocchiaro, G.; DiDonato, S.

    1994-09-01

    Using a combination of PCR screening of cDNA libraries and reverse transcription PCR, we have cloned three overlapping DNA fragments that encode human carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT), a key enzyme for metabolic pathways involved with the control of the acyl-Co/CoA ratio in mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. The resulting cDNA (2436 bp) hybridizes to a mRNA species of {approximately}2.9 kb that is particularly abundant in skeletal muscle and encodes a 68-kDa protein containing a peroxisomal targeting signal. The sequence matches those of several tryptic peptides obtained from purified human liver CAT and shows striking similarities with other members of the carnitine/choline acetyltransferase family very distant throughout evolution. CAT cDNA has also been used for fluorescence in situ hybridization on metaphase spreads of human chromosomes, and the corresponding gene, CAT1, has been mapped to chromosome 9q34.1. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  2. A chromosomal chloramphenicol acetyltransferase determinant from a probiotic strain of Bacillus clausii.

    PubMed

    Galopin, Sébastien; Cattoir, Vincent; Leclercq, Roland

    2009-06-01

    The mechanism of resistance to chloramphenicol was studied in four strains of Bacillus clausii included in a probiotic mixture, which is administered to humans for prevention of gastrointestinal side effects due to oral antibiotic therapy. By cloning experiments, a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, cat(Bcl), coding for a putative 228-amino acid CAT protein was identified in B. clausii SIN. The deduced amino acid sequence displayed from 31% to 85% identity with 56 CAT proteins from other Gram-positive bacterial strains. The cat(Bcl) gene was also detected by PCR in the three other B. clausii strains resistant to chloramphenicol, whereas it was absent in the three control strains susceptible to chloramphenicol. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis of total DNA digested by I-CeuI followed by hybridization with a cat-specific probe as well as unsuccessful repeated attempts of in vitro transfer of chloramphenicol resistance to various recipient cells indicated that cat(Bcl) was chromosomally located in all four resistant B. clausii strains.

  3. Benzalkonium chloride exposure in cats: a retrospective analysis of 245 cases reported to the Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS).

    PubMed

    Bates, N; Edwards, N

    2015-02-28

    Benzalkonium chloride is commonly found in household products. This retrospective study examined 245 cases of feline exposure to benzalkonium chloride-containing products reported to the Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS). A single route of exposure was reported in 188 cats (ingestion 126, skin 58, buccal 4); 57 cats had multiple routes. The common products involved were household antibacterial cleaners (43.6 per cent), household disinfectants (22.3 per cent) and patio cleaners (17.5 per cent). The most common signs were hypersalivation/drooling (53.9 per cent), tongue ulceration (40.4 per cent), hyperthermia (40.4 per cent) and oral ulceration (22.9 per cent). The mean time recorded for onset of the first clinical sign was 6.4 hours (range five minutes to 48 hours, median 4.5 hours, n=60), however, the VPIS was not contacted until 14.0 ± 13.2 hours after exposure (n=120). This figure also reflects the time of presentation. The most common treatments given were antibiotics (82.0 per cent), fluids (50.2 per cent), analgesia (45.3 per cent), gastroprotectants (31.0 per cent), dermal decontamination (24.1 per cent) and steroids (22.7 per cent). 13 cats (5.3 per cent) received syringe or nasogastric feeding. Of 245 cats, 12 (4.9 per cent) remained asymptomatic, 230 (93.9 per cent) recovered and three died (1.2 per cent). The time to recovery ranged from 1 to 360 hours (n=67) with a mean of 100.4 ± 82.0 hours (4.2 ± 3.4 days, median 72 hours).

  4. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions

    DOEpatents

    Stephens, David S [Stone Mountain, GA; Gudlavalleti, Seshu K [Kensington, MD; Tzeng, Yih-Ling [Atlanta, GA; Datta, Anup K [San Diego, CA; Carlson, Russell W [Athens, GA

    2011-02-08

    Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

  5. Cat scratch disease in 9-year-old patient - a case report.

    PubMed

    Świątkowski, Wojciech; Rahnama, Mansur; Strzelczyk, Katarzyna; Baszak, Jakub; Sierocińska-Sawa, Jadwiga

    2016-03-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) - bartonellosis, is zoonosis caused by the intracellular gram negativebacterium Bartonellahenselae or Bartonellaquintana. The pathogens of this disease enter the human body usually as a consequence of a bite or scratch by young cats which are the natural source of such bacteria. The illness proceeds asymptomatically or with topical symptoms of infection such as a lump, spot or blister. Within 14 days a high fever and topical lymphadenopathy are observed. Lymph nodes are sore and start suppurating. In half of patients, these symptoms may resemble malignancy, and in single cases there are symptoms associated with the musculoskeletal system, such as: osteitis, arthitis and myositis. In paper presented case of 9 year-old girl patients, treated in Oral Surgery Unit due to odema and lymphadenopathy in right submandibular space. Primary surgical treatment of deciduous teeth was conducted without recovery. In few months follow-up, biopsy of lymph node of submandibular group was taken and provisional diagnosis of cat scratch disease was set. Patient was referred to the Infectious Diseases Unit where serological test confirmed cat scratch disease, and pharmacological treatment was conducted with success and recovery of young patient.

  6. [Cat scratch disease associated neuroretinitis: clinical report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Pérez G, Jorge; Munita S, José M; Araos B, Rafael; López G, Juan P; Stevenson A, Ricardo; González A, Patricia; Pérez C, Daniel; Noriega R, Luis M

    2010-10-01

    Cat scratch disease is the main clinical presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. However, ocular manifestations of bartonellosis occur in about 5 to 10% of the patients, mainly presenting as neuroretinitis, choroiditis or oculoglandular syndrome of Parinaud. We describe two patients with documented B. henselae infection and typical ocular compromise. Both patients were treated and had a favorable visual outcome.

  7. An unusual case of cat-scratch disease of the knee: case report and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schiettecatte, A; Shahabpour, M; Vanhoenacker, F M; Goossens, A; Pouliart, N; Machiels, F; de Mey, J

    2007-01-01

    We present a case of a 16-year-old boy with a painful swelling in the popliteal fossa, slight fever, articular and muscle pain of 3 weeks duration. Plain radiography and MR examination were performed in order to characterize the lesion. Additionally to the poorly defined mass, 2 satellite nodules were shown. Subsequent biopsy revealed a granulomatous process and 2 satellite lymphadenopathies highly suggestive of cat-scratch disease. This case shows that the differential diagnosis of a soft tissue mass of the knee should not only include tumoral processes or pseudotumoral lesions, but also granulomas from infectious or non-infectious origin. Knowledge of the patients contact with cats and the detection of skin scratches is usually the clue to the correct diagnosis.

  8. South African report of first case of chromoblastomycosis caused by Cladosporium (syn Cladophialophora) carrionii infection in a cat with feline immunodeficiency virus and lymphosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Zambelli, Anthony B; Griffiths, Catherine A

    2015-04-01

    This report describes a 6-year-old neutered male feline immunodeficiency-positive cat with repeated abdominal and thoracic effusions. The cat was diagnosed with and treated for lymphosarcoma but remission was short-lived and, on re-evaluation, a fungal peritoneal exudate was noted. Cytology of the organisms is described and the culture elucidated Cladosporium carrionii, an important cause of chromoblastomycosis. Treatment with itraconazole was unsuccessful in this case.

  9. Generalized dermatitis associated with Malassezia overgrowth in cats: A report of six cases in France

    PubMed Central

    Crosaz, Odile; Legras, Audrey; Vilaplana-Grosso, Federico; Debeaupuits, Julien; Chermette, René; Hubert, Blaise; Guillot, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    We recently observed six cases of generalized dermatitis associated with Malassezia overgrowth in cats presented to the Veterinary College of Alfort, France. Elevated numbers of yeasts were observed in lesional skin by cytology and culture. Skin lesions occurred on the face, ventral neck, abdomen and ear canals and were characterized by some degree of alopecia, erythema and crusting. In most cases, pruritus was intense. The species M. pachydermatis was systematically isolated. PMID:24432218

  10. Occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in a domestic cat (Felis catus) in Andradina, São Paulo, Brazil: case report.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix de; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do; Langoni, Helio; Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão Richini; Abdelnour, Aziz; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2010-01-01

    This work describes natural infection by Leishmania in a domestic cat where amastigote forms of the parasite were observed in the popliteal lymph node imprint. Positive and negative serological reactions were observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that the nucleotide sequence of the sample was identical to Leishmania (L.) chagasi. This is the first report of the disease in felines of the city of Andradina, SP, an area considered endemic for canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.

  11. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats.

    PubMed

    Caney, S M; Holt, P E; Day, M J; Rudorf, H; Gruffydd-Jones, T J

    1998-03-01

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis.

  12. Giardia infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Janeczko, Stephanie; Griffin, Brenda

    2010-08-01

    The protozoon Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of cats. While most Giardia-infected cats are asymptomatic, acute small bowel diarrhea, occasionally with concomitant weight loss, may occur. Giardia poses a diagnostic challenge, but newer tests, including a commercially available ELISA kit, have improved clinicians' ability to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Several treatment options have been reported, and although none has been shown to be universally effective, most cases can be successfully managed with drug therapy, supportive measures, and environmental control. Current recommendations suggest that combination therapy with fenbendazole and metronidazole may be the safest, most effective treatment option for symptomatic cats.

  13. Cat Batiks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buban, Marcia H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)

  14. N-hydroxyarylamine O-acetyltransferase of Salmonella typhimurium: proposal for a common catalytic mechanism of arylamine acetyltransferase enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, M; Igarashi, T; Kaminuma, T; Sofuni, T; Nohmi, T

    1994-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA:N-hydroxyarylamine O-acetyltransferase is an enzyme involved in the metabolic activation of N-hydroxyarylamines derived from mutagenic and carcinogenic aromatic amines and nitroarenes. The O-acetyltransferase gene of Salmonella typhimurium has been cloned, and new Ames tester substrains highly sensitive to mutagenic aromatic amines and nitroarenes have been established in our laboratory. The nucleotide sequence of the O-acetyltransferase gene was determined. There was an open reading frame of 843 nucleotides coding for a protein with a calculated molecular weight of 32,177, which was close to the molecular weight of the O-acetyltransferase protein determined by using the maxicell technique. Only the residue of Cys69 in O-acetyltransferase of S. typhimurium and its corresponding residue (Cys68) in N-acetyltransferase of higher organisms were conserved in all acetyltransferase enzymes sequenced so far. The amino acid sequence Arg-Gly-Gly-X-Cys, including the Cys69, was highly conserved. A mutant O-acetyltransferase of S. typhimurium, which contained Ala69 instead of Cys69, no longer showed the activities of O- and N-acetyltransferase. These results suggest that the Cys69 of S. typhimurium and the corresponding cysteine residues of the higher organisms are essential for the enzyme activities as an acetyl-CoA binding site. We propose a new catalytic model of acetyltransferase for S. typhimurium and the higher organisms. PMID:7889864

  15. Disseminated cat-scratch disease: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chen; Lee, Chia-Jie; Ou, Liang-Shiou; Wang, Chao-Jan; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-01-12

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) can present as a systemic disease in 5-10% of cases and lead to various disease entities. A previously healthy 16-month-old boy presented with fever for 7 days without other obvious symptoms. Abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated enlarged right inguinal lymph nodes and multiple small round hypodensities in the spleen. Despite antibiotic treatment for 1 week, the fever persisted and the intrasplenic lesions progressed. Inguinal lymph node biopsy confirmed CSD by immunohistochemistry staining. The diagnosis of CSD was also supported by a history of contact, imaging and serological findings. The patient recovered after treatment with azithromycin for a total of 5 weeks and, in serial follow-up, the hepatosplenic micro-abscesses resolved after 4th months.

  16. Disseminated cat-scratch disease: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chen; Lee, Chia-Jie; Ou, Liang-Shiou; Wang, Chao-Jan; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-08-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) can present as a systemic disease in 5-10% of cases and lead to various disease entities. A previously healthy 16-month-old boy presented with fever for 7 days without other obvious symptoms. Abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated enlarged right inguinal lymph nodes and multiple small round hypodensities in the spleen. Despite antibiotic treatment for 1 week, the fever persisted and the intrasplenic lesions progressed. Inguinal lymph node biopsy confirmed CSD by immunohistochemistry staining. The diagnosis of CSD was also supported by a history of contact, imaging and serological findings. The patient recovered after treatment with azithromycin for a total of 5 weeks and, in serial follow-up, the hepatosplenic micro-abscesses resolved after 4th months.

  17. Cat-scratch disease: report of a case with liver lesions and no lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Delbeke, D.; Sandler, M.P.; Shaff, M.I.; Miller, S.F.

    1988-08-01

    The usual presentation of cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a subacute regional lymphadenitis following cutaneous inoculation. We present the case of a 10-yr-old white female with a 4-wk history of abdominal pain and fever, without associated lymphadenopathy. A /sup 67/Ga scintigram showed inhomogenous uptake by the liver. An abdominal computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed multiple low density lesions in the liver and the spleen, that were confirmed at laparotomy. Stellate microabscesses were seen on a wedge biopsy of the liver and a CSD antigen skin test was positive. CSD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of liver lesions, even in the absence of lymphadenopathy. This case emphasizes the importance of inhomogeneous /sup 67/Ga uptake by the liver.

  18. Astronomy CATS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Gina; Prather, Edward E.; Impey, Chris

    2012-08-01

    The Center for Astronomy Education's (CAE's) NSF-funded Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program is a grassroots multi-institutional effort to increase the capacity for astronomy education research and improve science literacy in the United States.Our primary target population is the 500,000 college students who each year enroll in an introductory general education (a breadth requirement for non-science majors) Earth, Astronomy, and Space Science (EASS) course (Fraknoi 2001, AGI 2006).An equally important population for our efforts is the individuals who are, or will be, teaching these students. In this chapter, we will briefly discuss the goals of CAE and CATS, the varied personnel that make up the CATS collective, the diverse projects we've undertaken, and the many challenges we have had to work through to make CATS a success.

  19. Isolation of Malassezia furfur from a Cat

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    During a survey of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear canals of cats without otitis externa, Malassezia furfur was isolated. This is the first report of the isolation of M. furfur from cats. PMID:10203525

  20. Raccoonpox in a Canadian cat.

    PubMed

    Yager, Julie A; Hutchison, Lisa; Barrett, John W

    2006-12-01

    Poxvirus infections affecting the skin of cats are extremely rare in North America, in contrast to Europe where cowpox virus is well recognized as an accidental pathogen in cats that hunt small rodents. The virus or viruses responsible for the anecdotal cases in North America have never been characterized. This paper reports a case of raccoonpox infection in a Canadian cat. Biopsy of the initial ulcerative lesion on the forepaw revealed ballooning degeneration of surface and follicular keratinoctyes. Infected cells contained large eosinophilic type A inclusions. Electron microscopic examination revealed virions of an orthopoxvirus, subsequently identified as raccoonpox by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequencing. The cat made a full recovery.

  1. Regulation and function of histone acetyltransferase MOF.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Han, Xiaofei; Guan, Jingyun; Li, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    The mammalian MOF (male absent on the first), a member of the MYST (MOZ, YBF2, SAS2, and Tip60) family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs), is the major enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of histone H4 on lysine 16. Acetylation of K16 is a prevalent mark associated with chromatin decondensation. MOF has recently been shown to play an essential role in maintaining normal cell functions. In this study, we discuss the important roles of MOF in DNA damage repair, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. We also analyze the role of MOF as a key regulator of the core transcriptional network of embryonic stem cells.

  2. Impact of Local Item Dependence on Item Response Theory Scoring in CAT. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Lynda M.

    This study represented a first attempt to evaluate the impact of local item dependence (LID) for Item Response Theory (IRT) scoring in computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The most basic CAT design and a simplified design for simulating CAT item pools with varying degrees of LID were applied. A data generation method that allows the LID among…

  3. Expression, purification and characterization of recombinant human choline acetyltransferase: phosphorylation of the enzyme regulates catalytic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Dobransky, T; Davis, W L; Xiao, G H; Rylett, R J

    2000-01-01

    Choline acetyltransferase synthesizes acetylcholine in cholinergic neurons and, in humans, may be produced in 82- and 69-kDa forms. In this study, recombinant choline acetyltransferase from baculovirus and bacterial expression systems was used to identify protein isoforms by two-dimensional SDS/PAGE and as substrate for protein kinases. Whereas hexa-histidine-tagged 82- and 69-kDa enzymes did not resolve as individual isoforms on two-dimensional gels, separation of wild-type choline acetyltransferase expressed in insect cells revealed at least nine isoforms for the 69-kDa enzyme and at least six isoforms for the 82-kDa enzyme. Non-phosphorylated wild-type choline acetyltransferase expressed in Escherichia coli yielded six (69 kDa) and four isoforms (82 kDa) respectively. Immunofluorescent labelling of insect cells expressing enzyme showed differential subcellular localization with the 69-kDa enzyme localized adjacent to plasma membrane and the 82-kDa enzyme being cytoplasmic at 24 h. By 64 h, the 69-kDa form was in cytoplasm and the 82-kDa form was only present in nucleus. Studies in vitro showed that recombinant 69-kDa enzyme was a substrate for protein kinase C (PKC), casein kinase II (CK2) and alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha-CaM kinase), but not for cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA); phosphorylation by PKC and CK2 enhanced enzyme activity. The 82-kDa enzyme was a substrate for PKC and CK2 but not for PKA or alpha-CaM kinase, with only PKC yielding increased enzyme activity. Dephosphorylation of both forms of enzyme by alkaline phosphatase decreased enzymic activity. These studies are of functional significance as they report for the first time that phosphorylation enhances choline acetyltransferase catalytic activity. PMID:10861222

  4. [The cat cry (cri du chat) syndrome: report of a case with review of 10 cases at the National Taiwan University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Chuang, S M; Wang, T R; Jean, H H; Lee, F Y

    1989-06-01

    The cat cry (cri du chat) syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly due to partial deletion of the short arm of the No. 5 chromosome. Since the first report of Lejeune et al, in 1963, nearly 400 cases have been reported. However, the syndrome with a ring chromosome is still very rare and only 10 cases were reported up to 1988, since the first report of Rohde and Tompkins in 1965. To investigate the chromosomal changes in the patients of cat cry syndrome, a chromosomal study was carried out on 10 cases of cat cry syndrome from 5,870 cases submitted to the Laboratory of Cytogenetics, National Taiwan University Hospital from Nov. 1968 through Apr. 1988. These ten cases included 3 males and 7 females (M:F = 1:2.3) aged 2 days to 18 months with an average of 5.5 months. The most common clinical features are: cat-like cry, growth failure, microcephaly with mental retardation, round face with facial abnormalities including hypertelorism, downward slanting palpebral fissures, micrognathia and low-set ears, and simian crease. Laryngomalacia or underdevelopment of the larynx may be a factor causing the cat-like cry. On chromosome analysis, 8 out of these 10 cases showed the usual simple deletion of the short arm of the no. 5 chromosome, and the other 2 cases revealed ring chromosome including a case of pure ring chromosome([(4, XY, r (5)] and a case of mosaicism with one ring chromosome, 2 ring chromosomes and simple deletion of the short arm of the No. 5 chromosome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic ...

  6. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Pets and AnimalsPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share Cat and Dog Bites Cat and dog bites are ...

  7. Basins and Wepp Climate Assessment Tools (Cat): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tool: Case Study Final <span class=report"> This final report supports application of two recently developed...

  8. Coal air turbine {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} program invention 604. Fourth quarter project report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Foster-Pegg, R.W.

    1995-10-31

    A coal air turbine `CAT` generates electric power and heat from coal combustion. The purpose of this project is the conceptual design of a `CAT` plant, and to make a comparison of the capital cost and and cost of power and steam from the `CAT` plant with power produced by alternate plants at the same site. Three configurations investigated include: condensing plant utilizing coal fuel and a condenser tower, or river, for cooling; a cogeneration plant utilizing coal and a steam turbine; and a cogeneration plant utilizing steam export and injection with waste coal fuel.

  9. Overexpression and characterization of the chromosomal aminoglycoside 2'-N-acetyltransferase of Providencia stuartii.

    PubMed

    Franklin, K; Clarke, A J

    2001-08-01

    The gene coding for aminoglycoside 2'-N-acetyltransferase Ia [AAC(2')-Ia] from Providencia stuartii was amplified by PCR and cloned. The resulting construct, pACKF2, was transferred into Escherichia coli for overexpression of AAC(2')-Ia as a fusion protein with an N-terminal hexa-His tag. The fusion protein was isolated and purified by affinity chromatography on Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose and gel permeation chromatography on Superdex 75. Comparison of the specific activity of this enzyme with that of its enterokinase-digested derivative lacking the His tag indicated that the presence of the extra N-terminal peptide does not affect activity. The temperature and pH optima for activity of both forms of the 2'-N-acetyltransferase were 20 degrees C and pH 6.0, respectively, while the enzymes were most stable at 15 degrees C and pH 8.1. The Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters for AAC(2')-Ia at 20 degrees C and pH 6.0 were determined using a series of aminoglycoside antibiotics possessing a 2'-amino group and a concentration of acetyl coenzyme A fixed at 10 times its K(m) value of 8.75 microM. Under these conditions, gentamicin was determined to be the best substrate for the enzyme in terms of both K(m) and k(cat)/K(m) values, whereas neomycin was the poorest. Comparison of the kinetic parameters obtained with the different aminoglycosides indicated that their hexopyranosyl residues provided the most important binding sites for AAC(2')-Ia activity, while the enzyme exhibits greater tolerance further from these sites. No correlation was found between these kinetic parameters and MICs determined for P. stuartii PR50 expressing the 2'-N-acetyltransferase, suggesting that its true in vivo function is not as a resistance factor.

  10. A human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus, as a eucaryotic vector: Transient expression and encapsidation of the procaryotic gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Tratschin, J.D.; West, M.H.P.; Sandbank, T.; Carter, B.J.

    1984-10-01

    The authors have used the defective human parvovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a novel eurocaryotic vector (parvector) for the expression of a foreign gene in human cells. The recombinant, pAV2, contains the AAV genome in a pBR322-derived bacterial plasmid. When pAV2 is transfected into human cells together with helper adenovirus particles, the AAV genome is rescued from the recombinant plasmid and replicated to produce infectious AAV particles at high efficiency. To create a vector, we inserted a procaryotic sequence coding for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) into derivatives of pAV2 following either of the AAV promoters p/sub 40/ (pAVHiCAT) and p/sub 19/ (pAVBcCAT). When transfected into human 293 cells or HeLa cells, pAVHiCAT expressed CAT activity in the absence of adenovirus. In the presence of adenovirus, this vector produced increased amounts of CAT activity and the recombinant AAV-CAT genome was replicated. In 293 cells, pAVBcCAT expressed a similar amount of CAT activity in the absence or presence of adenovirus and the recombinant AAV-CAT genome was not replicated. In HeLa cells, pAVBcCAT expressed low levels of CAT activity, but this level was elevated by coinfection with adenovirus particles or by cotransfection with a plasmid which expressed the adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) product. The E1A product is a transcriptional activator and is expressed in 293 cells. Thus, expression from two AAV promoters is differentially regulated: expression from p/sub 19/ is increased by E1A, whereas p/sub 40/ yields high levels of constitutive expression in the absence of E1A. Both AAV vectors were packaged into AAV particles by complementation with wild-type AAV and yielded CAT activity when subsequently infected into cells in the presence of adenovirus.

  11. Xanthine urolithiasis in a cat: a case report and evaluation of a candidate gene for xanthine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Shuichi; Kagi, Akiko; Koyama, Hidekazu; Tagawa, Masahiro

    2007-12-01

    Xanthine urolithiasis was found in a 4-year-old spayed female Himalayan cat with a 10-month history of intermittent haematuria and dysuria. Ultrasonographs indicated the existence of several calculi in the bladder that were undetectable by survey radiographic examination. Four bladder stones were removed by cystotomy. The stones were spherical brownish-yellow and their surface was smooth and glossy. Quantitative mineral analysis showed a representative urolith to be composed of more than 95% xanthine. Ultrasonographic examination of the bladder 4.5 months postoperatively indicated the recurrence of urolithiasis. Analysis of purine concentration in urine and blood showed that the cat excreted excessive amounts of xanthine. In order to test the hypothesis that xanthinuria was caused by a homozygote of the inherited mutant allele of a gene responsible for deficiency of enzyme activity in purine degradation pathway, the allele composition of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) gene (one of the candidate genes for hereditary xanthinuria) was evaluated. The cat with xanthinuria was a heterozygote of the polymorphism. A single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the cat XDH gene strongly indicated that the XDH gene of the patient cat was composed of two kinds of alleles and ruled out the hypothesis that the cat inherited the same recessive XDH allele suggesting no activity from a single ancestor.

  12. Temporal deterioration of neurological symptoms and increase of serum acetylcholine receptor antibody levels after thymectomy: a case report of a cat with myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    NAGATA, Nao; MIYOSHI, Takuma; OTAKE, Yuzo; SUZUKI, Hitomi; KAGAWA, Yumiko; YAMAGAMI, Tetsushi; IRIE, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Neurological signs and serum acetylcholine receptor antibody (AChR-Ab) levels before and after thymectomy were monitored in a 6-year-old male cat with acquired Myasthenia Gravis (MG) as a paraneoplastic syndrome of thymoma. Soon after surgery, the neurological symptoms relapsed, and the cholinesterase inhibitor was administered to control them. The AChR-Ab levels increased postoperatively until 90 days after surgery. This is the first report on long term measurements of serum AChR-Ab levels in a cat with MG. Although thymectomy is valuable for the removal of thymoma, it may not resolve MG symptoms, neurological signs and serum AChR-Ab levels, without medication early after surgery. Also, this case report indicates that the AChR-Ab level might be a guide to detect a deterioration of MG symptoms. PMID:27593682

  13. The Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) - Reporting from the Nationion’s Largest College-Level, Astronomy Education Research Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Edward E.; Brissenden, G.; Impey, C. D.; Lee, K. M.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS)

    2014-01-01

    The NSF CCLI Phase III Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) National Implementation Program for Learner-Centered Astronomy Teaching began as an ambitious and far-reaching effort focused on building and mobilizing a community of teaching scholars who are engaged with designing, disseminating, and institutionalizing innovative and effective approaches to the teaching and learning of undergraduate Earth, Astronomy, and Space Science. The goals for the CATS program are to increase the number of faculty who embrace and successfully implement learner-centered astronomy teaching strategies, and who treat their teaching as a scholarly endeavor, by systematically studying the teaching and learning in their own classrooms and expanding the astronomy edcuation literature base by publishing the results of their community-focused, national-level, collaborative research projects. Led by members of the Center for Astronomy Education (CAE), in Steweard Observatory, at the University of Arizona, CATS has developed into a sustainable national collaboration bringing together the efforts and infrastructure of hundreds of college and university faculty, postdocs, and graduate and undergraduate students from institutions all across the United States. In this talk, I will report on the research projects, people, and transformations of undergraduate college-level astronomy teaching and learning that have been achieved during the first 6 years of CATS. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, & conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors & do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  14. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  15. The Novel SLIK Histone Acetyltransferase Complex Functions in the Yeast Retrograde Response Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pray-Grant, Marilyn G.; Schieltz, David; McMahon, Stacey J.; Wood, Jennifer M.; Kennedy, Erin L.; Cook, Richard G.; Workman, Jerry L.; Yates III, John R.; Grant, Patrick A.

    2002-01-01

    The SAGA complex is a conserved histone acetyltransferase-coactivator that regulates gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SAGA contains a number of subunits known to function in transcription including Spt and Ada proteins, the Gcn5 acetyltransferase, a subset of TATA-binding-protein-associated factors (TAFIIs), and Tra1. Here we report the identification of SLIK (SAGA-like), a complex related in composition to SAGA. Notably SLIK uniquely contains the protein Rtg2, linking the function of SLIK to the retrograde response pathway. Yeast harboring mutations in both SAGA and SLIK complexes displays synthetic phenotypes more severe than those of yeast with mutation of either complex alone. We present data indicating that distinct forms of the SAGA complex may regulate specific subsets of genes and that SAGA and SLIK have multiple partly overlapping activities, which play a critical role in transcription by RNA polymerase II. PMID:12446794

  16. N-Acetyltransferase 1 Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    analysis of the N-acetyltransferase 1 gene (NAT1*) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment- single strand conformation polymorphism assay...risk of smoking-induced lung cancer (Bouchardy et al., 1998). NAT1*14B is characterized by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) G560A (rs4986782...Structure-function analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms in human N-acetyltransferase 1. Drug Metab Rev 40, 169-184. Zheng, W., Deitz, A.C., Campbell

  17. The histone acetyltransferase MOF overexpression blunts cardiac hypertrophy by targeting ROS in mice.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Weiwei; Zhang, Weili; Gai, Yusheng; Zhao, Lan; Fan, Juexin

    2014-06-13

    Imbalance between histone acetylation/deacetylation critically participates in the expression of hypertrophic fetal genes and development of cardiac hypertrophy. While histone deacetylases play dual roles in hypertrophy, current evidence reveals that histone acetyltransferase such as p300 and PCAF act as pro-hypertrophic factors. However, it remains elusive whether some histone acetyltransferases can prevent the development of hypertrophy. Males absent on the first (MOF) is a histone acetyltransferase belonging to the MYST (MOZ, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2 and TIP60) family. Here in this study, we reported that MOF expression was down-regulated in failing human hearts and hypertrophic murine hearts at protein and mRNA levels. To evaluate the roles of MOF in cardiac hypertrophy, we generated cardiac-specific MOF transgenic mice. MOF transgenic mice did not show any differences from their wide-type littermates at baseline. However, cardiac-specific MOF overexpression protected mice from transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced cardiac hypertrophy, with reduced radios of heart weight (HW)/body weight (BW), lung weight/BW and HW/tibia length, decreased left ventricular wall thickness and increased fractional shortening. We also observed lower expression of hypertrophic fetal genes in TAC-challenged MOF transgenic mice compared with that of wide-type mice. Mechanically, MOF overexpression increased the expression of Catalase and MnSOD, which blocked TAC-induced ROS and ROS downstream c-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway that promotes hypertrophy. Taken together, our findings identify a novel anti-hypertrophic role of MOF, and MOF is the first reported anti-hypertrophic histone acetyltransferase.

  18. Idiopathic generalised tremor syndrome in two cats.

    PubMed

    Mauler, Daniela A; Van Soens, Iris; Bhatti, Sofie F; Cornelis, Ine; Martlé, Valentine A; Van Ham, Luc M

    2014-04-01

    Two male neutered domestic shorthair cats were evaluated for generalised tremors. On neurological examination both cats showed whole-body tremors, worsening with stress. A mainly cerebellar disorder was suspected. Blood examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electrophysiological examination of both cats and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in one cat were normal. Idiopathic generalised tremor syndrome (IGTS) was suspected owing to the exclusion of underlying causes and the clinical similarities with the syndrome in dogs. Treatment as recommended for dogs was initiated and resulted in improvement. This report describes the first cases of IGTS in cats.

  19. A report of cat scratch disease in Korea confirmed by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region of Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Suh, Borum; Chun, Jin-Kyoung; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Yang Soon; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Dong Soo

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of cat scratch disease in an 8-yr-old girl who presented with fever and enlargement of both axillary lymph nodes. Both aerobic and anaerobic cultures of the lymph node aspirate were negative for microbial growth. Gram staining and Warthin-Starry silver staining did not reveal any organism. Purified DNA from the PCR-amplicon of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region was sequenced and showed 99.7% identity with the corresponding sequence of Bartonella henselae strain Houston-1. Our findings suggest that the internal transcribed spacer is a reliable region for PCR identification of Bartonella species. In patients with lymphadenitis, a history of contact with cats or dogs necessitates the use of diagnostic approaches that employ not only the conventional staining and culture but also molecular methods to detect B. henselae.

  20. Cat scratch disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... t scratch and bite. Don't allow a cat to lick your skin, eyes, mouth, or open wounds or scratches. Use flea control measures to lower the risk your cat develops the disease. Don't touch feral cats. ...

  1. A Comparative Study of Online Pretest Item Calibration/Scaling Methods in CAT. ACT Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ban, Jae-Chun; Hanson, Bradley A.; Wang, Tianyou; Yi, Qing; Harris, Deborah J.

    The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate five online pretest item calibration/scaling methods in computerized adaptive testing (CAT): (1) the marginal maximum likelihood estimate with one-EM cycle (OEM); (2) the marginal maximum likelihood estimate with multiple EM cycles (MEM); (3) Stocking's Method A (M. Stocking, 1988); (4)…

  2. Effects of Scale Transformation and Test Termination Rule on the Precision of Ability Estimates in CAT. ACT Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Wang, Tianyou; Ban, Jae-Chun

    Error indices (bias, standard error of estimation, and root mean square error) obtained on different scales of measurement under different test termination rules in a computerized adaptive test (CAT) context were examined. Four ability estimation methods were studied: (1) maximum likelihood estimation (MLE); (2) weighted likelihood estimation…

  3. Pasteurella multocida septic shock after a cat scratch in an elderly otherwise healthy woman: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Valencia, Jenaro A; García, Sebastian; Prat, Salvio

    2008-03-01

    Pasteurella multocida, a gram-negative coccobacillus, is a commensal in the nasopharynx of many animals. P. multocida infections most commonly involve the skin, soft tissues, and respiratory tract, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. The present case illustrates a severe articular infection caused by this bacterium, leading to septic shock, in an elderly, otherwise healthy woman, after a simple scratch of a cat.

  4. Structure of the lac operon galactoside acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Guo; Olsen, Laurence R; Roderick, Steven L

    2002-04-01

    The galactoside acetyltransferase (thiogalactoside transacetylase) of Escherichia coli (GAT, LacA, EC 2.3.1.18) is a gene product of the classical lac operon. GAT may assist cellular detoxification by acetylating nonmetabolizable pyranosides, thereby preventing their reentry into the cell. The structure of GAT has been solved in binary complexes with acetyl-CoA or CoA and in ternary complexes with CoA and the nonphysiological acceptor substrates isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) or p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside (PNPbetaGal). A hydrophobic cleft that binds the thioisopropyl and p-nitrophenyl aglycones of IPTG and PNPbetaGal may discriminate against substrates with hydrophilic substituents at this position, such as lactose, or inducers of the lac operon. An extended loop projecting from the left-handed parallel beta helix domain contributes His115, which is in position to facilitate attack of the C6-hydroxyl group of the substrate on the thioester.

  5. Diagnostic Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-21

    dogs and a cat . Vet Pathol 1987;24:192-194. 4. Migaki G, Casey HW, Bayles WB. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in a dog . J Am Vet Med Assoc 1987;191(8):997...IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Diagnostic Exercise - Neurologic Disorder in a Cat 12...and identify by block number) This report documents the fifth reported occurrance of cerebral phaeophyphomycosis in cats . Because mycotic

  6. Evidence for arylamine N-acetyltransferase in Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    Chung, J G; Kuo, H M; Wu, L T; Lai, J M; Lee, J H; Hung, C F

    1997-02-01

    N-acetyltransferase activities with p-aminobenzoic acid and 2-aminofluorene were determined in Hymenolepis nana, a cestode found in the intestine of the Sprague-Dawley rats. The N-acetyltransferase activity was determined using an acetyl CoA recycling assay and high pressure liquid chromatography. The N-acetyltransferase activities from a number of Hymenolepis nana whole tissue homogenizations were found to be 2.83 +/- 0.31 nmole/min/mg for 2-aminofluorene and 2.07 +/- 0.24 nmole/min/mg for p-aminobenzoic acid. The apparent Km and Vmax were 1.06 +/- 0.38 mM and 8.92 +/- 1.46 nmol/min/mg for 2-aminofluorene, and 2.16 +/- 0.19 mM and 12.68 +/- 2.26 nmol/min/mg for p-aminobenzoic acid. The optimal pH value for the enzyme activity was pH 8.0 for both substrates tested. The optimal temperature for enzyme activity was 37 degrees C for both substrates. The N-acetyltransferase activity was inhibited by iodacetamide. At 0.25 mM iodacetamide the activity was reduced 50% and 1.0 mM iodacetamide inhibited activity more than 90%. Among a series of divalent cations and salts, Fe2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+ were demonstrated to be the most potent inhibi-tors. Among the protease inhibitors, only ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid significantly protected N-acetyltransferase. Iodoacetate, in contrast to other agents, markedly inhibited N-acetyltransferase activity. This is the first demonstration of acetyl CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in a cestode and extends the number of phyla in which this activity has been found.

  7. Human Neural Stem Cells Overexpressing Choline Acetyltransferase Restore Unconditioned Fear in Rats with Amygdala Injury

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Yeseul; Kim, Kwang Sei; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Choi, Youngjin; Guo, Haiyu; Ban, Young-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Choon; Park, Dongsun; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala is involved in the fear memory that recognizes certain environmental cues predicting threatening events. Manipulation of neurotransmission within the amygdala affects the expression of conditioned and unconditioned emotional memories such as fear freezing behaviour. We previously demonstrated that F3.ChAT human neural stem cells (NSCs) overexpressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) improve cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease model rats with hippocampal or cholinergic nerve injuries by increasing acetylcholine (ACh) level. In the present study, we examined the effect of F3.ChAT cells on the deficit of unconditioned fear freezing. Rats given N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in their amygdala 2 weeks prior to cat odor exposure displayed very short resting (freezing) time compared to normal animals. NMDA induced neuronal degeneration in the amygdala, leading to a decreased ACh concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. However, intracerebroventricular transplantation of F3.ChAT cells attenuated amygdala lesions 4 weeks after transplantation. The transplanted cells were found in the NMDA-injury sites and produced ChAT protein. In addition, F3.ChAT-receiving rats recuperated freezing time staying remote from the cat odor source, according to the recovery of brain ACh concentration. The results indicate that human NSCs overexpressing ChAT may facilitate retrieval of unconditioned fear memory by increasing ACh level. PMID:27087745

  8. Arylamine N-Acetyltransferases in Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Edith; Sandy, James; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios; Fullam, Elizabeth; Bhakta, Sanjib; Westwood, Isaac; Krylova, Anna; Lack, Nathan; Noble, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Polymorphic Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) inactivates the anti-tubercular drug isoniazid by acetyltransfer from acetylCoA. There are active NAT proteins encoded by homologous genes in mycobacteria including M. tuberculosis, M. bovis BCG, M. smegmatis and M. marinum. Crystallographic structures of NATs from M. smegmatis and M. marinum, as native enzymes and with isoniazid bound share a similar fold with the first NAT structure, Salmonella typhimurium NAT. There are three approximately equal domains and an active site essential catalytic triad of cysteine, histidine and aspartate in the first two domains. An acetyl group from acetylCoA is transferred to cysteine and then to the acetyl acceptor e.g. isoniazid. M. marinum NAT binds CoA in a more open mode compared with CoA binding to human NAT2. The structure of mycobacterial NAT may promote its role in synthesis of cell wall lipids, identified through gene deletion studies. NAT protein is essential for survival of M. bovis BCG in macrophage as are the proteins encoded by other genes in the same gene cluster (hsaA-D). HsaA-D degrade cholesterol, essential for mycobacterial survival inside macrophage. Nat expression remains to be fully understood but is co-ordinated with hsaA-D and other stress response genes in mycobacteria. Amide synthase genes in the streptomyces are also nat homologues. The amide synthases are predicted to catalyse intramolecular amide bond formation and creation of cyclic molecules, e.g. geldanamycin. Lack of conservation of the CoA binding cleft residues of M. marinum NAT suggests the amide synthase reaction mechanism does not involve a soluble CoA intermediate during amide formation and ring closure. PMID:18680471

  9. Coal air turbine {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} program, Invention 604. Third quarter project report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Foster-Pegg, R.W.

    1995-07-31

    The primary objective of this {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} project is to complete a conceptual design of this unique new combination of existing technology with cost estimates to show that the {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} system offers the economic incentive with low technical risk for a plant to be built which will demonstrate its viability. The technologies involved in the components of a {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} plant are proven, and the integration of the components into a complete plant is the only new development activity involved. Industry and the Federal General Services Administration (GSA), require the demonstration of a {open_quotes}commercial plant{close_quotes} before the viability of a new concept is accepted. To satisfy this requirement and construction of a plant of commercially viable size in excess of 15 MW if cogeneration and above 30 MW if all power, is proposed. This plant will produce economical power and heat for the owner. The plant will operate a full commercial life and continue as an operating demonstration of the viability of the technology, gathering long term life and maintenance data, all adding to the credibility of the concept.

  10. Reconsultation, self-reported health status and costs following treatment at a musculoskeletal Clinical Assessment and Treatment Service (CATS): a 12-month prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Edward; Jordan, Kelvin P; Oppong, Raymond; Chen, Ying; Jowett, Sue; Dawes, Peter; Hider, Samantha L; Packham, Jon; Stevenson, Kay; Zwierska, Irena; Hay, Elaine M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine (1) reconsultation frequency, (2) change in self-reported health status, (3) baseline factors associated with reconsultation and change in health status and (4) associated healthcare costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), following assessment at a musculoskeletal Clinical and Assessment Treatment Service (CATS). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Single musculoskeletal CATS at the primary–secondary care interface. Participants 2166 CATS attenders followed-up by postal questionnaires at 6 and 12 months and review of medical records. Outcome measures Primary outcome was consultation in primary care with the same musculoskeletal problem within 12 months. Secondary outcome measures were consultation at the CATS with the same musculoskeletal problem within 12 months, physical function and pain (Short Form-36), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), time off work, healthcare costs and QALYs. Results Over 12 months, 507 (38%) reconsulted for the same problem in primary care and 345 (26%) at the CATS. Primary care reconsultation in the first 3 months was associated with baseline pain interference (relative risk ratio 5.33; 95% CI 3.23 to 8.80) and spinal pain (1.75; 1.09 to 2.82), and after 3–6 months with baseline assessment by a hospital specialist (2.06; 1.13 to 3.75). Small mean improvements were seen in physical function (1.88; 95% CI 1.44 to 2.32) and body pain (3.86; 3.38 to 4.34) at 6 months. Poor physical function at 6 months was associated with obesity, chronic pain and poor baseline physical function. Mean (SD) 6-month cost and QALYs per patient were £422.40 (660.11) and 0.257 (0.144), respectively. Conclusions While most patients are appropriate for a ‘one-stop shop’ model, those with troublesome, disabling pain and spinal pain commonly reconsult and have ongoing problems. Services should be configured to identify and address such clinical complexity. PMID:27733409

  11. The Purification of Choline Acetyltransferase of Squid-Head Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Husain, S. S.; Mautner, Henry G.

    1973-01-01

    Choline acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.6) isolated from the head ganglia of squid could be purified by use of mercurial-Sepharose columns as well as Sepharose columns to which the enzyme inhibitor p-(m-bromophenyl)vinyl pyridinium had been attached. These columns, in conjunction with 30-55% ammonium sulfate precipitation, 40-30% ammonium sulfate extraction, chromatography on sulfopropyl-Sephadex and on cellulose phosphate and hydroxylapatite columns, led to the isolation of three factions of choline acetyltransferase ranging in activity from 1000 to 4000 μmole/mg of protein/per hr. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggests that two of these fractions are homogeneous. The squid choline acetyltransferase is different from the mammalian-brain enzymes in having a larger molecular weight under the conditions used and in being relatively poorly inhibited by styryl pyridinium compounds. Images PMID:4521199

  12. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    PubMed

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (< 2.5 mg/dL) subsequent to enteral alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  13. Constitutive expression of catABC genes in the aniline-assimilating bacterium Rhodococcus species AN-22: production, purification, characterization and gene analysis of CatA, CatB and CatC.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Eitaro; Sakai, Masashi; Hayashi, Katsuaki; Murakami, Shuichiro; Takenaka, Shinji; Aoki, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    The aniline-assimilating bacterium Rhodococcus sp. AN-22 was found to constitutively synthesize CatB (cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase) and CatC (muconolactone isomerase) in its cells growing on non-aromatic substrates, in addition to the previously reported CatA (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase). The bacterium maintained the specific activity of the three enzymes at an almost equal level during cultivation on succinate. CatB and CatC were purified to homogeneity and characterized. CatB was a monomer with a molecular mass of 44 kDa. The enzyme was activated by Mn2+, Co2+ and Mg2+. Native CatC was a homo-octamer with a molecular mass of 100 kDa. The enzyme was stable between pH 7.0 and 10.5 and was resistant to heating up to 90 degrees C. Genes coding for CatA, CatB and CatC were cloned and named catA, catB and catC respectively. The catABC genes were transcribed as one operon. The deduced amino acid sequences of CatA, CatB and CatC showed high identities with those from other Gram-positive micro-organisms. A regulator gene such as catR encoding a regulatory protein was not observed around the cat gene cluster of Rhodococcus sp. AN-22, but a possible relic of catR was found in the upstream region of catA. Reverse transcriptase-PCR and primer extension analyses showed that the transcriptional start site of the cat gene cluster was located 891 bp upstream of the catA initiation codon in the AN-22 strain growing on both aniline and succinate. Based on these data, we concluded that the bacterium constitutively transcribed the catABC genes and translated its mRNA into CatA, CatB and CatC.

  14. Triglyceride response following an oral fat tolerance test in Burmese cats, other pedigree cats and domestic crossbred cats.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Elissa K; Hardman, Chloë; Govendir, Merran; Baral, Randolph M; Sullivan, David R; Snow, David; Malik, Richard

    2009-02-01

    Primary lipid disorders causing fasting triglyceridaemia have been documented infrequently in Burmese cats. Due to the known increased risk of diabetes mellitus and sporadic reports of lipid aqueous in this breed, the aim of this study was to determine whether healthy Burmese cats displayed a more pronounced pre- or post-prandial triglyceridaemia compared to other cats. Serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations were determined at baseline and variably at 2, 4 and 6h after ingestion of a high-fat meal (ie, an oral fat tolerance test) in a representative sample of Burmese and non-Burmese cats. The median 4 and 6h serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in Burmese cats (4h - 2.8mmol/l; 6h - 8.2mmol/l) than in other pedigree and domestic crossbred cats (4h - 1.5mmol/l; 6h - 1.0mmol/l). The non-Burmese group had post-prandial TG concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 3.9mmol/l. Seven Burmese cats had post-prandial TG concentrations between 6.6 and 19.0mmol/l, five had concentrations between 4.2 and 4.7mmol/l, while the remaining 15 had post-prandial concentrations between 0.5 and 2.8mmol/l. None of these Burmese cats had fasting triglyceridaemia. Most Burmese cats with a 4 h TG > 6.0 mmol/l had elevated fasting very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentrations. This study demonstrates that a proportion of Burmese cats in Australia have delayed TG clearance compared to other cats. The potential repercussions of this observation with reference to lipid aqueous, pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus in Burmese cats are discussed.

  15. N-Alpha-Acetyltransferases and Regulation of CFTR Expression.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Ali J; Karamyshev, Andrey L; Patrick, Anna E; Hudson, Henry; Thomas, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) lead to the misfolding, mistrafficking, and degradation of the mutant protein. Inhibition of degradation does not effectively increase the amount of trafficking competent CFTR, but typically leads to increased ER retention of misfolded forms. Thus, the initial off pathway steps occur early in the processing of the protein. To identify proteins that interact with these early forms of CFTR, in vitro crosslink experiments identified cotranslational partners of the nascent chain of the severe misfolded mutant, G85E CFTR. The mutant preferentially interacts with a subunit of an N-alpha-acetyltransferase A. Based on recent reports that acetylation of the N-termini of some N-end rule substrates control their ubiquitination and subsequent degradation, a potential role for this modification in regulation of CFTR expression was assessed. Knockdown experiments identified two complexes, which affect G85E CFTR proteins levels, NatA and NatB. Effects of the knockdowns on mRNA levels, translation rates, and degradation rates established that the two complexes regulate G85E CFTR through two separate mechanisms. NatA acts indirectly by regulating transcription levels and NatB acts through a previously identified, but incompletely understood posttranslational mechanism. This regulation did not effect trafficking of G85E CFTR, which remains retained in the ER, nor did it alter the degradation rate of CFTR. A mutation predicted to inhibit N-terminal acetylation of CFTR, Q2P, was without effect, suggesting neither system acts directly on CFTR. These results contradict the prediction that N-terminal acetylation of CFTR determines its fitness as a proteasome substrate, but rather NatB plays a role in the conformational maturation of CFTR in the ER through actions on an unidentified protein.

  16. Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: Improvement of carnitine acetyltransferase substrate-binding affinity and activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-l- carnitine and/or R-α-lipoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiankang; Killilea, David W.; Ames, Bruce N.

    2002-01-01

    We test whether the dysfunction with age of carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT), a key mitochondrial enzyme for fuel utilization, is due to decreased binding affinity for substrate and whether this substrate, fed to old rats, restores CAT activity. The kinetics of CAT were analyzed by using the brains of young and old rats and of old rats supplemented for 7 weeks with the CAT substrate acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) and/or the mitochondrial antioxidant precursor R-α-lipoic acid (LA). Old rats, compared with young rats, showed a decrease in CAT activity and in CAT-binding affinity for both substrates, ALCAR and CoA. Feeding ALCAR or ALCAR plus LA to old rats significantly restored CAT-binding affinity for ALCAR and CoA, and CAT activity. To explore the underlying mechanism, lipid peroxidation and total iron and copper levels were assayed; all increased in old rats. Feeding old rats LA or LA plus ALCAR inhibited lipid peroxidation but did not decrease iron and copper levels. Ex vivo oxidation of young-rat brain with Fe(II) caused loss of CAT activity and binding affinity. In vitro oxidation of purified CAT with Fe(II) inactivated the enzyme but did not alter binding affinity. However, in vitro treatment of CAT with the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde or 4-hydroxy-nonenal caused a decrease in CAT-binding affinity and activity, thus mimicking age-related change. Preincubation of CAT with ALCAR or CoA prevented malondialdehyde-induced dysfunction. Thus, feeding old rats high levels of key mitochondrial metabolites can ameliorate oxidative damage, enzyme activity, substrate-binding affinity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:11854488

  17. A 252 bp upstream region of the rat spermatocyte-specific hst70 gene is sufficient to promote expression of the hst70-CAT hybrid gene in testis and brain of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Widłak, W; Markkula, M; Krawczyk, Z; Kananen, K; Huhtaniemi, I

    1995-11-07

    The rat hst70 gene belongs to a heat shock hsp70 multigene family and its expression has been detected so far solely in spermatocytes. To investigate the cis-elements responsible for testis-specific expression of the hst70 gene we produced several lines of transgenic mice carrying fragments of the 5'-flanking regions of the hst70 gene fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene. Hybrid genes of series B were constructed such that, besides the 780 bp, 343 bp and 163 bp 5'-flanking region these plasmids contained no other sequences of the hst70 gene. In hybrid genes of series D the CAT gene was ligated to 343 bp and 252 bp 5'-flanking regions together with the 57 bp of the 5'-end nontranslated (leader) sequences of the hst70 gene. We found that in 780/B, 343/B, 343/D and 252/D adult mice the transgene was specifically and highly expressed in testes. In developing testes the high CAT activity appeared in transgenic mice aged 3 weeks and older. None of the three 163/B transgenic lines exhibited CAT activity in any tissue analyzed. In all CAT expressing lines a weak but significant CAT activity (up to 5% of that in testis) was detected also in the brain. RNase protection assay confirmed that the endogenous hst70 gene transcripts are present in testis as well as in brain of nontransgenic rats and mice. Our data show that the cis-regulatory sequences responsible for testis-specific and developmentally regulated expression of the hst70 gene are localized within the 252 bp region 5' to the gene and neither the 5'-end nor 3'-end nontranslated sequences of the gene are important for this specificity.

  18. Visceral cat scratch disease with endocarditis in an immunocompetent adult: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shasha, David; Gilon, Dan; Vernea, Fiona; Moses, Allon E; Strahilevitz, Jacob

    2014-03-01

    Infective endocarditis and hepatosplenic abscesses are rare manifestations of cat scratch disease (CSD), especially among immunocompetent adults. An otherwise healthy woman who presented with fever and abdominal pain was diagnosed with multiple abscesses in the spleen and the liver, as well as a mitral valve vegetation. PCR on spleen tissue was positive for Bartonella henselae. Prolonged treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin led to complete recovery. Review of the literature revealed 18 cases of hepatosplenic CSD in immunocompetent adults; the majority presented with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain. In most cases the causative organism was B. henselae and the pathological findings were necrotizing granulomas, similar to the pathological features in classic CSD. Concomitant endocarditis was diagnosed in one case. Because Bartonella is one of the leading pathogens of culture-negative endocarditis, we raise the question of whether a comprehensive evaluation for endocarditis is needed in cases of systemic CSD.

  19. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease.

  20. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  1. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Cat-Scratch Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ( ... play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected Kitten playing with a ...

  2. Primary bacterial septic peritonitis in cats: 13 cases.

    PubMed

    Ruthrauff, Cassandra M; Smith, Julie; Glerum, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the signalment, clinical signs, laboratory results, culture results, and response to treatment for primary septic peritonitis in cats. This is a retrospective study of 12 client-owned animals. Medical records were reviewed for clinical findings, laboratory results, microbial culture results, radiographic findings, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. The overall mortality rate for this group of cats was 31%, consistent with previous reports of septic peritonitis in cats. All cats that were both bradycardic and hypothermic on presentation did not survive. Other clinicopathological findings were consistent with previously reported cases of septic peritonitis in cats. Results suggest that clinicopathological findings and outcomes in cats with primary septic peritonitis are similar to those in cats with septic peritonitis from a determined cause. A specific mechanism of inoculation has yet to be determined, but an oral source of bacteria is suggested for cats with primary bacterial septic peritonitis.

  3. Convergent Validity of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System's (PROMIS) Physical Function Computerized Adaptive Test (PF-CAT) for the Knee and Shoulder Injury Sports Medicine Patient Population

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Richard Judd; Zhang, Yingying; Anderson, Mike B.; Presson, Angela P.; Burks, Robert T.; Greis, Patrick E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Instrument System (PROMIS) Physical Function Computer Adaptive Test (PF-CAT) has been developed by the National Institutes of Health as a means of providing validated outcomes scores. PF-CAT adapts to patient response by applying different validated questions based on prior responses to generate scores using between 4 to 12 questions, and has been validated in a variety of patient populations to assess physical function. The purpose of our study is to compare patient reported outcomes scores in a sports medicine (shoulder and knee injury) patient population by analyzing convergence validity of PF-CAT to IKDC, SST, ASES, and SANE scores. We also wanted to assess and compare time burden placed on patients in completing these outcomes scores. Methods: All patient visits from April through September 2014 presenting with either knee or shoulder complaints were included from a university-based sports medicine clinic, during which both PF-CAT as well as SANE, SST, and ASES legacy outcomes scores for shoulder injury patients, and SANE and IKDC outcomes scores for knee injury patients were obtained via tablet during the initial part of each visit. A total of 415 shoulder and 450 knee clinical evaluations qualified for inclusion in the study. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate pair-wise agreement among outcomes scores. The total scores from each outcome test and the T-scores from the PF-CAT were used in this correlation analysis. For interpretation, results greater than 0.5-0.69 were considered to have fair correlation, while values greater than 0.7 were considered as having good correlation. Significance was assessed at the 0.05 level. Median and interquartile ranges were used to summarize scores. The minimum score (floor effects) and maximum score (ceiling effects) occurrences were tallied and reported as percentages. A Fishers exact test was used to test for a difference in the number of times floor and ceiling

  4. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... have diabetes or those who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Cat-scratch disease is also called cat-scratch fever. ... You can also get the bacteria in your eyes if you pet a cat that has the bacteria on its fur and ...

  5. CATS Featured Articles

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-31

      CATS Featured Articles       A Slice of Cirrus: Image of ... just hours before by the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) onboard the International Space Station. Nighttime View of Raung Volcanic Plume : Natural Hazards  - The CATS instrument slices through darkness to reveal the vertical structure of a ...

  6. Four cats with fungal rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Beth L; Broussard, John; Stefanacci, Joseph D

    2005-02-01

    Fungal rhinitis is uncommon in the cat and cases of nasal aspergillosis-penicilliosis have been rarely reported. Signs of fungal rhinitis include epistaxis, sneezing, mucopurulent nasal discharge and exophthalmos. Brachycephalic feline breeds seem to be at increased risk for development of nasal aspergillosis-penicilliosis. Computed tomography (CT) imaging and rhinoscopy are useful in assessing the extent of the disease and in obtaining diagnostic samples. Fungal culture may lead to false negative or positive results and must be used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests. Serological testing was not useful in two cats tested. The cats in this study were treated with oral itraconazole therapy. When itraconazole therapy was discontinued prematurely, clinical signs recurred. Hepatotoxicosis is a possible sequel to itraconazole therapy.

  7. Chronic progressive polyarthritis in a female cat.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, Eiji; Yamada, Kazutaka; Oohashi, Mirai; Ueda, Junji

    2010-04-01

    Feline chronic progressive polyarthritis is a rare immune-mediated disease that has only previously been reported in male cats. A one-year-old female cat was presented with anorexia, lassitude and lameness. The tarsal, carpal and elbow joints revealed swelling, pain, stiffness, crepitus and regional lymphadenopathy, and fever was present. The cat was clinically diagnosed with chronic progressive polyarthritis based on the fever, swelling of joints, imaging of erosive proliferative periosteal polyarthritis, positivity for antinuclear antibody, synovial fluid analyses and urinalyses. Both feline leukemia virus antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus antibody were positive. Using hair root DNA, polymerase chain reaction amplification targeting the sex-determining region on the Y chromosome gene amplified the fragment of DNA from a normal male cat, but not amplified from a normal female cat or the present cat. Accordingly, the present cat was classified as genetically female. Cyclosporine treatment was started, and the general condition and movement quickly improved and continued for 8 months post-diagnosis. This is the first report of chronic progressive polyarthritis in a female cat.

  8. Dual reporter transgene driven by 2.3Col1a1 promoter is active in differentiated osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marijanovic, Inga; Jiang, Xi; Kronenberg, Mark S.; Stover, Mary Louise; Erceg, Ivana; Lichtler, Alexander C.; Rowe, David W.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: As quantitative and spatial analyses of promoter reporter constructs are not easily performed in intact bone, we designed a reporter gene specific to bone, which could be analyzed both visually and quantitatively by using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and a cyan version of green fluorescent protein (GFPcyan), driven by a 2.3-kb fragment of the rat collagen promoter (Col2.3). METHODS: The construct Col2.3CATiresGFPcyan was used for generating transgenic mice. Quantitative measurement of promoter activity was performed by CAT analysis of different tissues derived from transgenic animals; localization was performed by visualized GFP in frozen bone sections. To assess transgene expression during in vitro differentiation, marrow stromal cell and neonatal calvarial osteoblast cultures were analyzed for CAT and GFP activity. RESULTS: In mice, CAT activity was detected in the calvaria, long bone, teeth, and tendon, whereas histology showed that GFP expression was limited to osteoblasts and osteocytes. In cell culture, increased activity of CAT correlated with increased differentiation, and GFP activity was restricted to mineralized nodules. CONCLUSION: The concept of a dual reporter allows a simultaneous visual and quantitative analysis of transgene activity in bone.

  9. Characterization of two metagenome-derived esterases that reactivate chloramphenicol by counteracting chloramphenicol acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weixin; Lee, Myung Hwan; Yoon, Mi-Young; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Malhotra, Shweta; Wu, Jing; Hwang, Eul Chul; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2011-12-01

    Function-driven metagenomic analysis is a powerful approach to screening for novel biocatalysts. In this study, we investigated lipolytic enzymes selected from an alluvial soil metagenomic library, and identified two novel esterases, EstDL26 and EstDL136. EstDL26 and EstDL136 reactivated chloramphenicol from its acetyl derivates by counteracting the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in Escherichia coli. These two enzymes showed only 27% identity in amino acid sequence to each other; however both preferentially hydrolyzed short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (< or =C5) and showed mesophilic properties. In vitro, EstDL136 catalyzed the deacetylation of 1- and 3- acetyl and 1,3-diacetyl derivates; in contrast, EstDL26 was not capable of the deacetylation at C1, indicating a potential regioselectivity. EstDL26 and EstDL136 were similar to microbial hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and since chloramphenicol acetate esterase (CAE) activity was detected from two other soil esterases in the HSL family, this suggests a distribution of CAE among the soil microorganisms. The isolation and characterization of EstDL26 and EstDL136 in this study may be helpful in understanding the diversity of CAE enzymes and their potential role in releasing active chloramphenicol in the producing bacteria.

  10. Systemic cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui-Min; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Chi, Hsin; Wang, Nieu-Lu; Chen, Be-Fong

    2006-08-01

    Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD) is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitish-tan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.

  11. Radioenzymatic assays for aminoglycosides with kanamycin 6'- acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.; Smith, A.L.; Opheim, K.E.

    1985-03-01

    To facilitate the rapid and accurate quantitation of parenterally administered aminoglycosides, the optimum conditions (pH, duration of incubation, and cofactor concentrations) were defined to permit radioenzymatic assays with kanamycin acetyltransferase. The accuracy in quantitating tobramycin, netilmicin, kanamycin, and amikacin at concentrations in the therapeutic range was greater than 90%, with a mean recovery of 102.8%. The mean of the interassay coefficient of variation was 7.8%. Typical standard curves at six different concentrations resulted in a correlation coefficient (r value) of greater than 0.99 for each aminoglycoside. The radioenzymatic assay correlates well with the bioassay (tobramycin and netilmicin) and radioimmunoassay (amikacin and kanamycin); the correlation coefficient is greater than 0.90 for all. The authors conclude that the radioenzymatic assay utilizing kanamycin 6'-acetyltransferase is feasible for all commercially available parenterally administered aminoglycosides.

  12. New perspectives for the regulation of acetyltransferase MOF.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangzhi; Dou, Yali

    2010-04-01

    In higher eukaryotes, histone acetyltransferase MOF (male absent on the first) is the major enzyme that acetylates histone H4 lysine 16, a prevalent mark associated with chromatin decondensation. Recent studies show that MOF resides in two different but evolutionarily conserved complexes, MSL and MOF-MSL1v1. Although these two MOF complexes have indistinguishable activity on histone H4 K16, they differ dramatically in acetylating non-histone substrate p53. The regulation of MOF activity in these complexes remains elusive. Given the evolution conservation of MOF and the importance of H4 K16 acetylation in maintaining higher order chromatin structures, understanding the function and regulation of MOF bears great significance. Here, we discussed the key differences in two MOF complexes that may shed light on the regulation of their distinct acetyltransferase activities. We also discussed coordinated functions of two MOF complexes with different histone methyltransferase complexes in transcription regulation.

  13. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease.

  14. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the cat.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jörg M

    2012-08-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a syndrome caused by an insufficient amount of pancreatic digestive enzymes in the small intestine. Clinical signs most commonly reported in cats with EPI are weight loss, loose and voluminous stools, steatorrhea, polyphagia, and in some cases a greasy soiling of the hair coat in the perianal region. Serum feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity concentration is the diagnostic test of choice for the diagnosis of affected cats. Treatment of cats with EPI consists of enzyme supplementation with either a powdered pancreatic extract or raw pancreas. Most cats with EPI also have severely decreased serum cobalamin concentrations and may require lifelong parenteral cobalamin supplementation. Most cats respond well to therapy and can have a normal life expectancy and quality of life.

  15. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    PubMed

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed.

  16. MYST protein acetyltransferase activity requires active site lysine autoacetylation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hua; Rossetto, Dorine; Mellert, Hestia; Dang, Weiwei; Srinivasan, Madhusudan; Johnson, Jamel; Hodawadekar, Santosh; Ding, Emily C; Speicher, Kaye; Abshiru, Nebiyu; Perry, Rocco; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Chao; Zheng, Y George; Speicher, David W; Thibault, Pierre; Verreault, Alain; Johnson, F Bradley; Berger, Shelley L; Sternglanz, Rolf; McMahon, Steven B; Côté, Jacques; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2012-01-04

    The MYST protein lysine acetyltransferases are evolutionarily conserved throughout eukaryotes and acetylate proteins to regulate diverse biological processes including gene regulation, DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation, stem cell homeostasis and development. Here, we demonstrate that MYST protein acetyltransferase activity requires active site lysine autoacetylation. The X-ray crystal structures of yeast Esa1 (yEsa1/KAT5) bound to a bisubstrate H4K16CoA inhibitor and human MOF (hMOF/KAT8/MYST1) reveal that they are autoacetylated at a strictly conserved lysine residue in MYST proteins (yEsa1-K262 and hMOF-K274) in the enzyme active site. The structure of hMOF also shows partial occupancy of K274 in the unacetylated form, revealing that the side chain reorients to a position that engages the catalytic glutamate residue and would block cognate protein substrate binding. Consistent with the structural findings, we present mass spectrometry data and biochemical experiments to demonstrate that this lysine autoacetylation on yEsa1, hMOF and its yeast orthologue, ySas2 (KAT8) occurs in solution and is required for acetylation and protein substrate binding in vitro. We also show that this autoacetylation occurs in vivo and is required for the cellular functions of these MYST proteins. These findings provide an avenue for the autoposttranslational regulation of MYST proteins that is distinct from other acetyltransferases but draws similarities to the phosphoregulation of protein kinases.

  17. MYST protein acetyltransferase activity requires active site lysine autoacetylation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hua; Rossetto, Dorine; Mellert, Hestia; Dang, Weiwei; Srinivasan, Madhusudan; Johnson, Jamel; Hodawadekar, Santosh; Ding, Emily C; Speicher, Kaye; Abshiru, Nebiyu; Perry, Rocco; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Chao; Zheng, Y George; Speicher, David W; Thibault, Pierre; Verreault, Alain; Johnson, F Bradley; Berger, Shelley L; Sternglanz, Rolf; McMahon, Steven B; Côté, Jacques; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2012-01-01

    The MYST protein lysine acetyltransferases are evolutionarily conserved throughout eukaryotes and acetylate proteins to regulate diverse biological processes including gene regulation, DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation, stem cell homeostasis and development. Here, we demonstrate that MYST protein acetyltransferase activity requires active site lysine autoacetylation. The X-ray crystal structures of yeast Esa1 (yEsa1/KAT5) bound to a bisubstrate H4K16CoA inhibitor and human MOF (hMOF/KAT8/MYST1) reveal that they are autoacetylated at a strictly conserved lysine residue in MYST proteins (yEsa1-K262 and hMOF-K274) in the enzyme active site. The structure of hMOF also shows partial occupancy of K274 in the unacetylated form, revealing that the side chain reorients to a position that engages the catalytic glutamate residue and would block cognate protein substrate binding. Consistent with the structural findings, we present mass spectrometry data and biochemical experiments to demonstrate that this lysine autoacetylation on yEsa1, hMOF and its yeast orthologue, ySas2 (KAT8) occurs in solution and is required for acetylation and protein substrate binding in vitro. We also show that this autoacetylation occurs in vivo and is required for the cellular functions of these MYST proteins. These findings provide an avenue for the autoposttranslational regulation of MYST proteins that is distinct from other acetyltransferases but draws similarities to the phosphoregulation of protein kinases. PMID:22020126

  18. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    PubMed

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  19. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred.

  20. Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    OF COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY Paragraph 1.1 ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT AND MARKET OF CAT Paragraph 1.2 EQUIPMENT Chapter 2 OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLE OF A CT...DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY 1.1 Origin, development and marketing of the CAT The origin of the CAT goes back to 1961 when...count on wide commercial possibilities, in the international market . In particular, EMI entered, very forcefully, the American market , always

  1. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  2. Hookworms of feral cats in Florida.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Tara Creel; Foster, Garry W; Forrester, Donald J

    2003-07-10

    Thirty feral cats (Felis catus) from Alachua county (northern Florida) and 30 from Palm Beach county (southern Florida) were examined for hookworms. Two species, Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Ancylostoma braziliense, were identified. Forty-five cats (75%) were infected with A. tubaeforme, with a mean intensity of 48 hookworms per cat. Twenty cats (33%) were infected with A. braziliense, with a mean intensity of 28 worms per cat. The prevalence of A. tubaeforme was greater than that of A. braziliense in Alachua (P=0.002) and Palm Beach (P=0.004) counties. The intensity of A. tubaeforme infections was higher in Palm Beach county than Alachua county (P=0.013). The intensities of A. tubaeforme and A. braziliense were positively correlated (increased together) in Palm Beach county (P=0.011). These hookworms have also been identified in bobcats (Felis rufus), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Florida. The prevalence of A. tubaeforme was significantly greater in feral cats than those reported in bobcats (P<0.001). The prevalence of A. braziliense was significantly greater in feral cats than in those reported in gray foxes (P=0.008). The hookworm that infects Florida panthers and bobcats, A. pluridentatum, was not found.

  3. Molecular basis for the CAT-2 null phenotype in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Bethards, L.A.; Scandalios, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have described several maize lines whose developmental patterns of catalase gene expression vary from the typical maize line, W64A. Among these variants are the lines A16 and A338, both found to be null for the CAT-2 protein. Identification of a third CAT-2 null line, designated A340, is described. RNA blots and S1 nuclease protection analysis, using (/sup 32/P)-labeled dCTP, indicate that all three CAT-2 null lines produce a similarly shortened Cat2 transcript. The molecular basis for this aberrant Cat2 transcript is discussed.

  4. Hepatozoon species infection in domestic cats: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Baneth, G; Aroch, I; Tal, N; Harrus, S

    1998-10-01

    Hepatozoon sp. is a protozoan parasite of peripheral blood neutrophils in cats. Feline hepatozoonosis has been reported infrequently and little is known about the pathogenesis of this infection. In order to further clarify clinicopathological characteristics of hepatozoonosis in domestic cats, a retrospecitve study of hepatozoonosis in cats admitted during 1989-1995 to the Hebrew University School of Veterinary Medicine was conducted. The study population comprised all the cats whose medical records included a complete blood count with a microscopical examination of a blood smear during this 7-year period (n=1229). Hepatozoon gametocytes were identified in seven cats (0.57%) ranging from 1 to 6 years of age. Infected cats were mostly males (6/7) of mixed breed (5/7) with a variety of complaints and clinical signs. The clinicopathological findings included increased activities of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (5/6) and creatine kinase (CK) (5/6). The elevated enzymes detected in cats with hepatozoonosis are suggestive of muscular damage. Sixty-seven percent (4/6) of the cats with hepatozoonosis which were tested for a retroviral disease were found infected either in FIV or FELV. In addition, 2/7 cats were co-infected with Hemobartonella felis. In conclusion, parasitemia with Hepatozoon sp. is a rare finding in cats from Israel. The over-representation of cats with a retroviral disease among the cats with hepatozoonosis indicates a possible association between immunosupression and the development of Hepatozoon infection.

  5. Cat-scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Stephen A; Ianas, Voichita; Elliott, Sean P

    2011-01-15

    Cat-scratch disease is a common infection that usually presents as tender lymphadenopathy. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and any lymphadenopathy syndrome. Asymptomatic, bacteremic cats with Bartonella henselae in their saliva serve as vectors by biting and clawing the skin. Cat fleas are responsible for horizontal transmission of the disease from cat to cat, and on occasion, arthropod vectors (fleas or ticks) may transmit the disease to humans. Cat-scratch disease is commonly diagnosed in children, but adults can present with it as well. The causative microorganism, B. henselae, is difficult to culture. Diagnosis is most often arrived at by obtaining a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titers (greater than 1:256) of immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, azithromycin has been shown in one small study to speed recovery. Infrequently, cat-scratch disease may present in a more disseminated form with hepatosplenomegaly or meningoencephalitis, or with bacillary angiomatosis in patients with AIDS.

  6. [Salter-harris fractures in dogs and cats considering problems in radiological reports--a retrospective analysis of 245 cases between 1997 and 2012].

    PubMed

    Engel, Eva; Kneiss, Sibylle

    2014-01-01

    To identify typical trauma patterns or frequent radiological pitfalls that could help a radiologists in their daily routine, a retrospective study of Salter-Harris fractures in dogs and cats was performed. Radiographs obtained in the period 1991-2012 of 288 fractures in 245 patients with suspected injuries affecting growth plates in the appendicular skeleton were retrieved from the imaging archive. The femur was the bone most frequently affected (46.5%), followed by the humerus (19.8%), tibia (13.5%) and radius (11.8%). The distal growth plate was in all bones more often involved than the proximal growth plate (79.5% vs. 20.5%). The frequency of Salter-Harris fractures was 39.9% type I, 37.8% type II, 3.1% type III and 19.1% type IV. In dogs the most common physeal fracture was a type IV fracture of the of the distal femur. Radiographically, physeal fractures were recognized by at least two Roentgen signs, including change in opacity, displacement of the epiphysis or the Thurston-Holland sign. On the basis of the review, the original radiographic reports of 44/288 fractures were considered erroneous regarding the incorrect Salter Harris grouping. In 5/44 instances, the radiological examination had technical deficiencies that may have contributed to the errors, including 3 with oblique projections. Minimal variations in the projection was evident in the majority of reviewed cases. Measures to help optimize radiographic reports will be discussed.

  7. Second order Horner's syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    De Risio, Luisa; Fraser McConnell, James

    2009-08-01

    This case report describes the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 3.5-year-old, male neutered, domestic shorthair cat with second order Horner's syndrome as the only clinical abnormality. The neuroanatomical pathway of the sympathetic innervation to the eye, differential diagnoses for Horner's syndrome in cats, and the interpretation of pharmacological testing are reviewed. The unusual MRI findings and the value of fat-suppressed MRI sequences are discussed.

  8. The Chediak-Higashi syndrome of cats.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J W; Davis, W C; Prieur, D J

    1977-05-01

    Initial clinical, genetic, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies have characterized the Chediak-Higashi syndrome in cats. Three cats with Chediak-Higashi syndrome were found in a single line of 27 Persian cats, and three additional affected cats were produced from two prospective breedings of the original line. The disorder was characterized genetically as an autosomal recessive condition. All cats in the line with the combination of yellow eye color and "blue smoke" hair color exhibited the disorder. Four of the five cats examined had bilateral nuclear cataracts as early in life as 3 months of age. No increased susceptibility to infectious disease was observed. A bleeding tendency was noted. Abnormally large eosinophilic, sudanophilic, peroxidase-containing granules were observed in the neutrophils of the granulocytic series of blood and bone marrow by electron and light microscopy. Granules of eosinophils and basophils were also enlarged. Light microscopic studies of hair and skin revealed enlarged melanin granules. These manifestations were similar to those in man, mink, cattle, mice, and the killer whale with Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Cats are the sixth species in which this genetic disease has been reported.

  9. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  10. State of cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren; Driscoll, Carlos; Pontius, Joan; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    Our knowledge of cat family biology was recently expanded to include a genomics perspective with the completion of a draft whole genome sequence of an Abyssinian cat. The utility of the new genome information has been demonstrated by applications ranging from disease gene discovery and comparative genomics to species conservation. Patterns of genomic organization among cats and inbred domestic cat breeds have illuminated our view of domestication, revealing linkage disequilibrium tracks consequent of breed formation, defining chromosome exchanges that punctuated major lineages of mammals and suggesting ancestral continental migration events that led to 37 modern species of Felidae. We review these recent advances here. As the genome resources develop, the cat is poised to make a major contribution to many areas in genetics and biology.

  11. Chemical biology of histone acetyltransferase natural compounds modulators.

    PubMed

    Piaz, Fabrizio Dal; Vassallo, Antonio; Rubio, Osmany Cuesta; Castellano, Sabrina; Sbardella, Gianluca; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2011-05-01

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are a class of epigenetic enzymes crucial for chromatin restructuring and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotic cells, thus being a promising target for therapeutic development. Nonetheless, differently from histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitors, there is still paucity of small-molecule modulators of HAT activity. After a decline during past decade, natural products and their derivatives could be once again a valuable tool in the lead discovery process and meet such need of Novel Chemical Entities (NCEs). In this review, we will provide a comprehensive summary on the discovery of small-molecule HAT modulators from naturally occurring molecular scaffolds.

  12. Williams Holding Lease Steamflood Demonstration Project: Cat Canyon Oil Field. Third progress report, July 1978-November 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Ditmore, T.L.

    1980-06-01

    This report discusses pilot operations and results during this period. The performance of the displacement steam generator, the status of the sulfur dioxide scrubbing system, well workovers and the results of drilling four thermal observation wells are examined. Additional computer thermal simulation studies are discussed in detail and a new production performance projection is made. Finally, project economics and future operations are summarized.

  13. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity.

  14. Choline acetyltransferase expression does not identify early pathogenic events in fetal SMA spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Soler-Botija, Carolina; Cuscó, Ivón; López, Eva; Clua, Agustín; Gich, Ignasi; Baiget, Montserrat; Ferrer, Isidre; Tizzano, Eduardo F

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the expression of choline acetyltransferase, a specific marker for cholinergic neurons, in control and spinal muscular atrophy fetuses and newborns. By immunoblot we observed at 12 and 15 weeks a similar pattern of choline acetyltransferase expression in spinal muscular atrophy with respect to controls, although at 22 weeks this expression was reduced, probably due to a smaller number of motor neurons in the spinal muscular atrophy spinal cord. By immunohistochemistry, the counting of positive and negative motor neurons for choline acetyltransferase immunostaining in control and spinal muscular atrophy fetuses showed a similar proportion at all stages analyzed. The choline acetyltransferase-negative motor neurons were of similar appearance in both groups. After birth, chromatolytic motor neurons were detected in spinal muscular atrophy, all of which were choline acetyltransferase-negative. Our results in spinal muscular atrophy fetuses indicate that choline acetyltransferase immunostaining does not identify early events in neuronal pathogenesis and suggest that the spinal muscular atrophy surviving motor neurons may not be dysfunctional during this period. Furthermore, spinal muscular atrophy choline acetyltransferase-negative motor neurons showed detectable pathological changes only after birth, indicating that choline acetyltransferase is a late marker for motor neuron degeneration and not a primary contributing factor in this process.

  15. Regulatory region in choline acetyltransferase gene directs developmental and tissue-specific expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lönnerberg, P; Lendahl, U; Funakoshi, H; Arhlund-Richter, L; Persson, H; Ibáñez, C F

    1995-01-01

    Acetylcholine, one of the main neurotransmitters in the nervous system, is synthesized by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; acetyl-CoA:choline O-acetyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.6). The molecular mechanisms controlling the establishment, maintenance, and plasticity of the cholinergic phenotype in vivo are largely unknown. A previous report showed that a 3800-bp, but not a 1450-bp, 5' flanking segment from the rat ChAT gene promoter directed cell type-specific expression of a reporter gene in cholinergic cells in vitro. Now we have characterized a distal regulatory region of the ChAT gene that confers cholinergic specificity on a heterologous downstream promoter in a cholinergic cell line and in transgenic mice. A 2342-bp segment from the 5' flanking region of the ChAT gene behaved as an enhancer in cholinergic cells but as a repressor in noncholinergic cells in an orientation-independent manner. Combined with a heterologous basal promoter, this fragment targeted transgene expression to several cholinergic regions of the central nervous system of transgenic mice, including basal forebrain, cortex, pons, and spinal cord. In eight independent transgenic lines, the pattern of transgene expression paralleled qualitatively and quantitatively that displayed by endogenous ChAT mRNA in various regions of the rat central nervous system. In the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord, 85-90% of the transgene expression was targeted to the ventral part of the cord, where cholinergic alpha-motor neurons are located. Transgene expression in the spinal cord was developmentally regulated and responded to nerve injury in a similar way as the endogenous ChAT gene, indicating that the 2342-bp regulatory sequence contains elements controlling the plasticity of the cholinergic phenotype in developing and injured neurons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7732028

  16. The ADA Complex Is a Distinct Histone Acetyltransferase Complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Eberharter, Anton; Sterner, David E.; Schieltz, David; Hassan, Ahmed; Yates, John R.; Berger, Shelley L.; Workman, Jerry L.

    1999-01-01

    We have identified two Gcn5-dependent histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the 0.8-MDa ADA complex and the 1.8-MDa SAGA complex. The SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase) complex contains several subunits which also function as part of other protein complexes, including a subset of TATA box binding protein-associated factors (TAFIIs) and Tra1. These observations raise the question of whether the 0.8-MDa ADA complex is a subcomplex of SAGA or whether it is a distinct HAT complex that also shares subunits with SAGA. To address this issue, we sought to determine if the ADA complex contained subunits that are not present in the SAGA complex. In this study, we report the purification of the ADA complex over 10 chromatographic steps. By a combination of mass spectrometry analysis and immunoblotting, we demonstrate that the adapter proteins Ada2, Ada3, and Gcn5 are indeed integral components of ADA. Furthermore, we identify the product of the S. cerevisiae gene YOR023C as a novel subunit of the ADA complex and name it Ahc1 for ADA HAT complex component 1. Biochemical functions of YOR023C have not been reported. However, AHC1 in high copy numbers suppresses the cold sensitivity caused by particular mutations in HTA1 (I. Pinto and F. Winston, personal communication), which encodes histone H2A (J. N. Hirschhorn et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 15:1999–2009, 1995). Deletion of AHC1 disrupted the integrity of the ADA complex but did not affect SAGA or give rise to classic Ada− phenotypes. These results indicate that Gcn5, Ada2, and Ada3 function as part of a unique HAT complex (ADA) and represent shared subunits between this complex and SAGA. PMID:10490601

  17. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in two cats.

    PubMed

    Harvey, A M; Battersby, I A; Faena, M; Fews, D; Darke, P G G; Ferasin, L

    2005-03-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a disease characterised by infiltration of the myocardium by adipose and fibrous tissue. The disease is an important cause of sudden death in humans, but has rarely been described in animals. This report describes ARVC in two cats with right-sided congestive heart failure. One cat had also experienced previous episodes of syncope. Standard six-lead and 24-hour (Holter) electrocardiogram recording revealed complete atrioventricular block and multiform ventricular ectopics in both cats, with the addition of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bigeminy and R-on-T phenomenon in one of them. On echocardiography, the right ventricle and atrium were massively dilated and hypokinetic. The survival times of the cats were three days and 16 days following diagnosis. Histopathology in one case revealed fibro-fatty infiltration of the myocardium, predominantly affecting the right ventricular free wall.

  18. Enzyme kinetics and inhibition of histone acetyltransferase KAT8.

    PubMed

    Wapenaar, Hannah; van der Wouden, Petra E; Groves, Matthew R; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Dekker, Frank J

    2015-11-13

    Lysine acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8) is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) responsible for acetylating lysine 16 on histone H4 (H4K16) and plays a role in cell cycle progression as well as acetylation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Further studies on its biological function and drug discovery initiatives will benefit from the development of small molecule inhibitors for this enzyme. As a first step towards this aim we investigated the enzyme kinetics of this bi-substrate enzyme. The kinetic experiments indicate a ping-pong mechanism in which the enzyme binds Ac-CoA first, followed by binding of the histone substrate. This mechanism is supported by affinity measurements of both substrates using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Using this information, the KAT8 inhibition of a focused compound collection around the non-selective HAT inhibitor anacardic acid has been investigated. Kinetic studies with anacardic acid were performed, based on which a model for the catalytic activity of KAT8 and the inhibitory action of anacardic acid (AA) was proposed. This enabled the calculation of the inhibition constant Ki of anacardic acid derivatives using an adaptation of the Cheng-Prusoff equation. The results described in this study give insight into the catalytic mechanism of KAT8 and present the first well-characterized small-molecule inhibitors for this HAT.

  19. Enzyme kinetics and inhibition of histone acetyltransferase KAT8

    PubMed Central

    Wapenaar, Hannah; van der Wouden, Petra E.; Groves, Matthew R.; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Dekker, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8) is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) responsible for acetylating lysine 16 on histone H4 (H4K16) and plays a role in cell cycle progression as well as acetylation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Further studies on its biological function and drug discovery initiatives will benefit from the development of small molecule inhibitors for this enzyme. As a first step towards this aim we investigated the enzyme kinetics of this bi-substrate enzyme. The kinetic experiments indicate a ping-pong mechanism in which the enzyme binds Ac-CoA first, followed by binding of the histone substrate. This mechanism is supported by affinity measurements of both substrates using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Using this information, the KAT8 inhibition of a focused compound collection around the non-selective HAT inhibitor anacardic acid has been investigated. Kinetic studies with anacardic acid were performed, based on which a model for the catalytic activity of KAT8 and the inhibitory action of AA was proposed. This enabled the calculation of the inhibition constant Ki of anacardic acid derivatives using an adaptation of the Cheng-Prusoff equation. The results described in this study give insight into the catalytic mechanism of KAT8 and present the first well-characterized small-molecule inhibitors for this HAT. PMID:26505788

  20. Structure and mechanism of non-histone protein acetyltransferase enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Post translational modification (PTM) of proteins is ubiquitous and mediates many cellular processes including intracellular localization, protein-protein interactions, enzyme activity, transcriptional regulation and protein stability. While the role of phosphorylation as a key PTM has been well studied, the more evolutionarily conserved acetylation PTM has only recently attracted attention as a key regulator of cellular events. Protein acetylation has been largely studied in the context of its role in histone modification and gene regulation, where histones are modified by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) to promote transcription. However, more recent acetylomic and biochemical studies have revealed that acetylation is mediated by a broader family of protein acetyltransferases (PATs). The recent structure determination of several PATs has provided a wealth of molecular information regarding structural features of PATs, their enzymatic mechanisms, their mode of substrate-specific recognition and their regulatory elements. In this minireview, we will briefly describe what is known about non-histone protein substrates, but mainly focus on a few recent structures of PATs to compare and contrast them with HATs to better understand the molecular basis for protein recognition and modification by this burgeoning family of protein modification enzymes. PMID:23742047

  1. A comparison of cat-related risk perceptions and tolerance for outdoor cats in Florida and Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Wald, Dara M; Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Jacobson, Susan K; Cox, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    Risk perceptions and attitudes toward animals often explain tolerance for wildlife and management preferences. However, little is understood about how these relationships vary across different geographic regions and stakeholder groups. To address this gap in knowledge, we compared differences in acceptance capacity, risk perceptions, perceived enjoyment from outdoor cats, and experiences with outdoor cats among 3 groups (general public, conservation community, and animal-welfare community) in Hawaii and Florida, two states with large conservation challenges. We combined independently collected data from Florida and Hawaii, to determine how perception of the risks presented by outdoor cats, group membership, and state of residence influenced people's tolerance for outdoor cats. Florida respondents were significantly more tolerant of outdoor cats and less concerned about cat-related risks than Hawaii respondents (p < 0.05). In both states, animal-welfare group members reported greater enjoyment seeing cats and perceived a smaller increase in the cat population and lower levels of risk than other groups (p < 0.05). All groups exhibited similar relationships between acceptance capacity and enjoyment and the perceived increase in the cat population. Our results suggest public tolerance for cats varied due to the influence of local or geographical concerns, but that strongly held beliefs, risk perceptions, and feelings about cats explained more of the variance in stakeholder tolerance.

  2. Final Report: X-ray Studies of Materials Dynamics at MHATT-CAT Sector 7 , Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Clarke

    2006-04-25

    This Final Report describes the scientific accomplishments that have been achieved with support from grant DE-FG02-03ER46023 during the period 12/01/02 ? 11/30/05. The funding supported a vigorous scientific program allowing the PI to achieve leadership in a number of important areas. In particular, research carried out during this period has opened way to ultrafast dynamics studies of materials by combining the capabilities of synchrotron radiation with those of ultrafast lasers. This enables the initiation of laser-induced excitations and studies of their subsequent dynamics using laser-pump/x-ray probe techniques. Examples of such excitations include phonons, shock waves, excitons, spin-waves, and polaritons. The breadth of phenomena that can now be studied in the time-domain is very broad, revealing new phenomena and mechanisms that are critical to many applications of materials.

  3. Isolated splenic cat scratch disease in an immunocompetent adult woman.

    PubMed

    Gilad, Jacob; Wolak, Arik; Borer, Abraham; Benharroch, Daniel; Avidor, Boaz; Giladi, Michael; Schlaeffer, Francisc

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of isolated splenic cat scratch disease in an immunocompetent woman. The clinical presentation of prolonged fever, night sweats, weakness, and intrasplenic lesions was highly suggestive of lymphoma. This is the second reported case of isolated splenic cat scratch disease in an adult and the first in a healthy adult.

  4. Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections in stray cats from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Alexandra D; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Kass, Philip H; Chomel, Bruno B

    2013-12-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies.

  5. Health assessment for Liquid Gold-Richmond, Richmond, Contra Costa County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAT000646208. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-05

    The Liquid Gold-Richmond site is on the National Priorities List. The site consists of approximately 18 acres of a 29-acre property currently owned by Southern Pacific Transportation, which is located partially on and adjacent to tidal marsh areas and the San Francisco Bay. The environmental contamination (maximum concentrations reported) on-site consists of lead (280 ppm), zinc (510 ppm), and phenols (18 ppm) in surface soil; lead (3,650 ppm), chromium (50 ppm), nickel (97 ppm), and zinc (3,300 ppm) in subsurface soil; and lead (16 ppm), nickel (1.6 ppm), chromium (2.4 ppm), and zinc (24 ppm) in ground water. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via contaminated ground water. In addition, off-site migration of surface migration of surface water, soil, and sediment could adversely impact the fish and shellfish areas adjacent to the site.

  6. Function and subcellular localization of Gcn5, a histone acetyltransferase in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Peng; Fan, Xueyi; Chen, Jiangye

    2015-08-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen commonly found in humans. It has the ability to switch reversibly between three growth forms: budding yeast, pseudohypha, and hypha. The transition between yeast and hyphal growth forms is critical for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. During the yeast-to-hypha morphologic transition, gene expression is regulated by transcriptional regulators including histone modifying complexes and chromatin remodeling complexes. We previously reported that Esa1, a catalytic subunit in the histone acetyltransferase complex NuA4, is essential for the hyphal development of C. albicans. In this study, we analyzed the functional roles of Gcn5, a catalytic subunit in the histone acetyltransferase complex SAGA, in C. albicans. Gcn5 is required for the invasive and filamentous growth of C. albicans. Deletion of GCN5 impaired hyphal elongation in sensing serum and attenuated the virulence of C. albicans in a mouse systemic infection model. The C. albicans gcn5/gcn5 mutant cells also exhibited sensitivity to cell wall stress. Functional analysis showed that the HAT domain and Bromodomain in Gcn5 play distinct roles in morphogenesis and cell wall stress response of C. albicans. Our results show that the conserved residue Glu188 is crucial for the Gcn5 HAT activity and for Gcn5 function during filamentous growth. In addition, the subcellular distribution of ectopically expressed GFP-Gcn5 correlates with the different growth states of C. albicans. In stationary phase, Gcn5 accumulated in the nucleus, while during vegetative growth it localized in the cytoplasm in a morpha-independent manner. Our results suggest that the nuclear localization of Gcn5 depends on the existence of its N-terminal NLS and HAT domains.

  7. Structural and Functional Role of Acetyltransferase hMOF K274 Autoacetylation

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, Cheryl E.; Song, Shufei; Shin, Michael H.; Johnson, F. Brad; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2016-07-05

    Many histone acetyltransferases undergo autoacetylation, either through chemical or enzymatic means, to potentiate enzymatic cognate substrate lysine acetylation, although the mode and molecular role of such autoacetylation is poorly understood. The MYST family of histone acetyltransferases is autoacetylated at an active site lysine residue to facilitate cognate substrate lysine binding and acetylation. Here, we report on a detailed molecular investigation of Lys-274 autoacetylation of the human MYST protein Males Absent on the First (hMOF). A mutational scan of hMOF Lys-274 reveals that all amino acid substitutions of this residue are able to bind cofactor but are significantly destabilized, both in vitro and in cells, and are catalytically inactive for cognate histone H4 peptide lysine acetylation. The x-ray crystal structure of a hMOF K274P mutant suggests that the reduced stability and catalytic activity stems from a disordering of the residue 274-harboring a α2-β7 loop. We also provide structural evidence that a C316S/E350Q mutant, which is defective for cognate substrate lysine acetylation; and biochemical evidence that a K268M mutant, which is defective for Lys-274 chemical acetylation in the context of a K274-peptide, can still undergo quantitative K274 autoacetylation. Together, these studies point to the critical and specific role of hMOF Lys-274 autoacetylation in hMOF stability and cognate substrate acetylation and argues that binding of Ac-CoA to hMOF likely drives Lys-274 autoacetylation for subsequent cognate substrate acetylation.

  8. Cat tongue Velcro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Alexis; Martinez, Andrea; Jung, Hyewon; Tsai, Ting-Wen; Hu, David

    2016-11-01

    A cat's tongue is covered in an array of spines called papillae. These spines are thought to be used in grooming and rasping meat from bones of prey, although no mechanism has been given. We use high-speed video to film a cat removing cat food deeply wedged into a 3-D printed fur mat. We show that the spines on the tongue act as Velcro for particles. The tongue itself is highly elastic. As the cat presses it against a substrate, the tongue flattens and the spines separate. When the tongue is removed from the substrate the spines come together, wedging particles between them. This elasticity-driven entrapment permits the surface of the tongue to act as a carrier for hard to reach particles, and to increase the efficacy of grooming and feeding.

  9. Intestinal obstruction caused by Taenia taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Rebbecca S; Bowman, Dwight D; Barr, Stephen C; Euclid, James M

    2009-01-01

    An adult domestic shorthair (DSH) cat was presented with acute vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and dyspnea. The cat's clinical status worsened over 24 hours with conservative medical management. An exploratory celiotomy was performed. Acute intestinal obstruction resulting from infection with Taenia (T.) taeniaeformis was diagnosed. Surgical removal of the cestodes via multiple enterotomies resolved the obstruction. This paper reports, for the first time, small intestinal obstruction caused by T. taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

  10. [Report from the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT). Pitfalls on the way from concept to medical treatment with advanced therapy medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Reiss, M; Büttel, I C; Schneider, C K

    2011-07-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are highly innovative and complex medicines. They comprise gene therapy medicinal products, somatic cell therapy medicinal products, and tissue-engineered products (TEP). With the European Regulation on ATMP that came into force in 2008, a consolidated regulatory framework was created, where the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) plays a central role. This article discusses pitfalls and challenges that the CAT has experienced in its discussions of various procedures. Often ATMPs are developed by small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) which also face nonscientific challenges. The CAT wishes to meet these challenges on a scientific and regulatory level during its 2010-2015 work program.

  11. Fatal big cat attacks.

    PubMed

    Cohle, S D; Harlan, C W; Harlan, G

    1990-09-01

    Two cases of fatal attacks by large cats are presented. In the first case, a 30-year-old female zoo worker was attacked by a jaguar that had escaped its cage. In the second case, a 2-year-old girl was fatally injured by her father's pet leopard. The pattern of injuries in these cases is nearly identical to those of these cats' prey in the wild.

  12. Regulatory regions that control expression of two chloramphenicol-inducible cat genes cloned in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Duvall, E J; Williams, D M; Mongkolsuk, S; Lovett, P S

    1984-06-01

    Plasmid pPL603 is a promoter cloning vector for Bacillus subtilis and consists of a 1.1-kilobase fragment of Bacillus pumilus DNA inserted between the EcoRI and BamHI sites of pUB110. The gene cat-86, specifying chloramphenicol-inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, is located on the 1.1-kilobase cloned DNA. When pPL603 is present in B. subtilis, cat-86 is unexpressed during vegetative growth but expressed during sporulation. The regulation of cat-86 in pPL603 is due to sequences within two restriction fragments, designated P1 and R1, that precede the main coding portion of the gene. The P1 fragment promotes transcription of cat-86 only during sporulation, whereas the adjacent R1 fragment lacks promoter function but contains sequences essential to chloramphenicol inducibility. A second B. pumilus gene, cat-66, was cloned in B. subtilis and is expressed throughout the vegetative growth and sporulation cycle. The cat-66 coding region is preceded by two adjacent restriction fragments designated as P2 and R2. P1 and P2 are identical in size and share 95% conservation of base sequence. R1 and R2 are also identical in size and share 91% conservation of base sequence. Fragment substitution experiments demonstrate that R2 can functionally replace R1. The substitution of P2 for P1 promotes cat-86 expression throughout vegetative growth and sporulation. Analysis of a derivative of pPL603 in which P2 has replaced P1 demonstrates that P2 promotes transcription of cat-86 during vegetative growth and that P2 contains the start site for transcription of cat-86. Thus, P1 and P2 differ strikingly in vegetative promoter function, yet they differ by single-base substitutions at only 11 positions of 203.

  13. Cat Scratch Disease: Expanded Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Hassan A.; Plesec, Thomas P.; Sabella, Camille; Udayasankar, Unni K.; Singh, Arun D.

    2016-01-01

    Background To expand the spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations in cat scratch disease. Methods Case report. Results A 7-year-old male was referred for evaluation of his left optic disc after failing vision screening test at school. His visual acuity was 20/20 OD and light perception OS. Fundus examination showed a left optic disc lesion associated with an exudative retinal detachment and vitreous seeding. Ultrasonography revealed a 7 × 7.5 × 3.8 mm lesion with a possible 6.3 mm of retrolaminar extension into the substance of the optic nerve. Brain MRI did not show evidence of optic nerve involvement but revealed a 6-mm nodule of the pineal gland suggestive of a pineoblastoma. Enucleation was performed and histopathology revealed a suppurative granulomatous inflammation suggestive of Bartonella infection. Upon further questioning, the patient had recent exposure to kittens with areas of cat scratches along both of his arms. He was subsequently referred to and treated with a 2-week course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and rifampin by the pediatric infectious disease specialist. Repeat brain MRI showed interval total resolution of enlarged pineal gland. Conclusion: Optic nerve granulomas are a rare presentation of cat scratch disease and could potentially masquerade as retinoblastoma. PMID:27843905

  14. Dog and cat bites.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of amantadine in cats.

    PubMed

    Siao, K T; Pypendop, B H; Stanley, S D; Ilkiw, J E

    2011-12-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in cats, after both i.v. and oral administration. Six healthy adult domestic shorthair female cats were used. Amantadine HCl (5 mg/kg, equivalent to 4 mg/kg amantadine base) was administered either intravenously or orally in a crossover randomized design. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to amantadine administration, and at various times up to 1440 min following intravenous, or up to 2880 min following oral administration. Plasma amantadine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and plasma amantadine concentration-time data were fitted to compartmental models. A two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment best described the disposition of amantadine administered intravenously in cats, and a one-compartment model best described the disposition of oral amantadine in cats. After i.v. administration, the apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment and apparent volume of distribution at steady-state [mean ± SEM (range)], and the clearance and terminal half-life [harmonic mean ± jackknife pseudo-SD (range)] were 1.5 ± 0.3 (0.7-2.5) L/kg, 4.3 ± 0.2 (3.7-5.0) L/kg, 8.2 ± 2.1 (5.9-11.4) mL·min/kg, and 348 ± 49 (307-465) min, respectively. Systemic availability [mean ± SEM (range)] and terminal half-life after oral administration [harmonic mean ± jackknife pseudo-SD (range)] were 130 ± 11 (86-160)% and 324 ± 41 (277-381) min, respectively.

  16. Atomic resolution structure of human α-tubulin acetyltransferase bound to acetyl-CoA

    PubMed Central

    Taschner, Michael; Vetter, Melanie; Lorentzen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    Acetylation of lysine residues is an important posttranslational modification found in all domains of life. α-tubulin is specifically acetylated on lysine 40, a modification that serves to stabilize microtubules of axons and cilia. Whereas histone acetyltransferases have been extensively studied, there is no structural and mechanistic information available on α-tubulin acetyltransferases. Here, we present the structure of the human α-tubulin acetyltransferase catalytic domain bound to its cosubstrate acetyl-CoA at 1.05 Å resolution. Compared with other lysine acetyltransferases of known structure, α-tubulin acetyltransferase displays a relatively well-conserved cosubstrate binding pocket but is unique in its active site and putative α-tubulin binding site. Using acetylation assays with structure-guided mutants, we map residues important for acetyl-CoA binding, substrate binding, and catalysis. This analysis reveals a basic patch implicated in substrate binding and a conserved glutamine residue required for catalysis, demonstrating that the family of α-tubulin acetyltransferases uses a reaction mechanism different from other lysine acetyltransferases characterized to date. PMID:23071318

  17. Body condition of feral cats and the effect of neutering.

    PubMed

    Scott, Karen C; Levy, Julie K; Gorman, Shawn P; Newell, Susan M

    2002-01-01

    Considerable debate exists regarding the most appropriate methods for controlling feral cat populations, both from humane and logistical points of view. The physical condition of feral cats has not been reported, and it is not known if these cats benefit from neutering. This study investigates the body condition of feral cats by measuring body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS; Burkholder, 2000; Laflamme, Kealy, & Schmidt, 1994), and falciform fat pad. The study includes lateral abdominal radiographs taken at the time of neutering of 105 adult feral cats for measurement of falciform fat pad depth and area. At that time we also assessed BW and BCS. One year later we assessed the effects of neutering on body condition by evaluating a subsample of 14 cats. At the time of surgery, the cats were lean but not emaciated (BW 3.1 +/- 0.9 kg; BCS 4 +/- 1; based on a 1 to 9 scale ranging from 1 [emaciated] to 9 [grossly obese]). Falciform fat pad depth and area averaged 7.1 mm and 197.4 mm2, respectively, indicating a small amount of fat. Fourteen cats, reevaluated 1 year after neutering, increased 260% + 90% in falciform fat pad depth, 420% +/- 390% in fat pad area, 40% +/- 4% in BW, and 1 level in BCS ranking (1 to 9 scale; all differences p <.001). Similar to confined socialized cats, feral cats gained significant weight and body fat after neutering.

  18. Melatonin production: proteasomal proteolysis in serotonin N-acetyltransferase regulation.

    PubMed

    Gastel, J A; Roseboom, P H; Rinaldi, P A; Weller, J L; Klein, D C

    1998-02-27

    The nocturnal increase in circulating melatonin in vertebrates is regulated by 10- to 100-fold increases in pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity. Changes in the amount of AA-NAT protein were shown to parallel changes in AA-NAT activity. When neural stimulation was switched off by either light exposure or L-propranolol-induced beta-adrenergic blockade, both AA-NAT activity and protein decreased rapidly. Effects of L-propranolol were blocked in vitro by dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) or inhibitors of proteasomal proteolysis. This result indicates that adrenergic-cAMP regulation of AA-NAT is mediated by rapid reversible control of selective proteasomal proteolysis. Similar proteasome-based mechanisms may function widely as selective molecular switches in vertebrate neural systems.

  19. Assays for mechanistic investigations of protein/histone acetyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Berndsen, Christopher E; Denu, John M

    2005-08-01

    Protein/histone acetyltransferases (PATs/HATs) have been implicated in a number of cellular functions including gene regulation, DNA synthesis, and repair. This paper reviews methods that can be used to quantitatively determine the activity and ultimately the catalytic/kinetic mechanism of PAT/HATs in vitro. Two methods will be described in detail. The first method is a filter-binding assay that measures the transfer of radiolabeled acetate from acetyl-CoA to protein. The second method is a continuous, spectroscopic, enzyme-coupled assay that links the PAT/HAT reaction to the reduction of NAD+ by pyruvate or alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. Both methods are highly applicable in determining steady-state reaction rates, and obtaining the kinetic constants Vmax, Km, and V/K from substrate saturation curves. We describe a new application of the filter-binding assay to determine the kinetic parameters for HATs using low concentrations of nucleosomal substrates.

  20. The MOZ histone acetyltransferase in epigenetic signaling and disease.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Samuel; Glass, Karen C

    2014-11-01

    The monocytic leukemic zinc finger (MOZ) histone acetyltransferase (HAT) plays a role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It functions as a quaternary complex with the bromodomain PHD finger protein 1 (BRPF1), the human Esa1-associated factor 6 homolog (hEAF6), and the inhibitor of growth 5 (ING5). Each of these subunits contain chromatin reader domains that recognize specific post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histone tails, and this recognition directs the MOZ HAT complex to specific chromatin substrates. The structure and function of these epigenetic reader modules has now been elucidated, and a model describing how the cooperative action of these domains regulates HAT activity in response to the epigenetic landscape is proposed. The emerging role of epigenetic reader domains in disease, and their therapeutic potential for many types of cancer is also highlighted.

  1. Meningomyelitis due to nematode infection in four cats.

    PubMed

    Gómez, M; Mieres, M; Moroni, M; Mora, A; Barrios, N; Simeone, C; Lindsay, D S

    2010-06-24

    Spinal cord parasitic migrations in cats are uncommon. This report describes four cases of chronic hindlimb paraparesis in cats associated with nematode infection. Complete neurologic, hematologic, serum chemistry and radiographic examination was performed on all animals. Computed tomographic (CT)-myelographic examination at the lumbar area in one cat showed a slight swelling of the spinal cord. Necropsy examination of the spinal cord revealed generalized edema and marked submeningeal hemorrhage at the thoracic region in three cats. On histopathologic examination, numerous sections of adult nematodes and eggs were present in histological sections of the affected spinal cord segments in all cats. The morphologic features of the nematode, location and appearance of the lesions suggest that the parasite responsible for the paralysis in these cats is Gurltia paralysans.

  2. Development and Application of the CAT-RPM Report for Strengths-Based Case Management of At-Risk Youth in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, J. M.; Carroll, A.; Ashman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Contextualised Assessment Tool for Risk and Protection Management (CAT-RPM) has been established as a valid and reliable tool for differentiating groups across age, sex and behaviour and assisting young people to find their strengths [Bower, J., A. Carroll, and A. Ashman. 2014. "The Development and Validation of the Contextualised…

  3. Cerebral vascular hamartoma in a geriatric cat

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Vaquero, Paula; Moore, Sarah A; Wolk, Kendra E; Oglesbee, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    An 11-year-old castrated male domestic medium hair cat was presented with neurological signs consistent with a right thalamocortical lesion. Computed tomography (CT) images revealed a heterogeneously, hyperattenuating, poorly contrast enhancing intra-axial mass within the right lateral ventricle. The histological diagnosis at post-mortem examination was vascular hamartoma with hemorrhage and necrosis. This is the first report of a vascular hamartoma affecting the thalamocortex in a geriatric cat. Also, this is the first time that CT images of a feline cerebral vascular hamartoma have been reported. PMID:21277244

  4. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems.

  5. Hearing disorders in cats.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M

    2017-03-01

    Practical relevance: Auditory function is a sense that is central to life for cats - being important in situational awareness of potential predators, pursuit of prey, and for communication with conspecifics, humans and other species. Deafness in cats is most frequently the result of a genetic disorder, strongly associated with white fur and blue eyes, but may also result from acquired causes such as advancing age, ototoxic drugs, infection, environmental noise and physical trauma. Deafness can be sensorineural, where there is loss of cochlear hair cells, or conductive, where sound is muffled on its way to the inner ear. Clinical challenges: Establishing whether a cat is deaf can be difficult as behavioral testing of hearing is subjective and does not reliably detect unilateral deafness. Brainstem auditory evoked response testing is an objective measure but is limited in its availability. Currently, sensorineural deafness is irreversible because no treatments are available to restore lost hair cells. Conductive hearing loss can usually be treated, although full hearing recovery following otitis media may take weeks as the body clears the middle ear of debris. Evidence base: The author draws on the published literature and his extensive research on clinical aspects and molecular genetics of deafness, principally in companion animals, to review types and forms of deafness in cats. He also discusses current diagnostic approaches and provides brief advice for managing cats with hearing loss.

  6. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of arylamine N-acetyltransferase C (BanatC) from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Pluvinage, Benjamin; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inés; Martins, Marta; Ragunathan, Nilusha; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2007-10-01

    Bacillus anthracis arylamine N-acetyltransferase C (BanatC) is an enzyme that metabolizes the drug sulfamethoxazole. Crystals of the purified enzyme that diffract at 1.95 Å are reported. The arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes that have been found in a large range of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These enzymes catalyse the acetylation of arylamine drugs and/or pollutants. Recently, a Bacillus anthracis NAT isoform (BanatC) has been cloned and shown to acetylate the sulfonamide antimicrobial sulfamethoxazole (SMX). Subsequently, it was shown that BanatC contributes to the resistance of this bacterium to SMX. Here, the crystallization and the X-ray characterization of BanatC (Y38F mutant) are reported. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 53.70, c = 172.40 Å, and diffract to 1.95 Å resolution on a synchrotron source.

  8. Estimation of the dietary nutrient profile of free-roaming feral cats: possible implications for nutrition of domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Esther A; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2011-10-01

    Cats are strict carnivores and in the wild rely on a diet solely based on animal tissues to meet their specific and unique nutritional requirements. Although the feeding ecology of cats in the wild has been well documented in the literature, there is no information on the precise nutrient profile to which the cat's metabolism has adapted. The present study aimed to derive the dietary nutrient profile of free-living cats. Studies reporting the feeding habits of cats in the wild were reviewed and data on the nutrient composition of the consumed prey items obtained from the literature. Fifty-five studies reported feeding strategy data of cats in the wild. After specific exclusion criteria, twenty-seven studies were used to derive thirty individual dietary nutrient profiles. The results show that feral cats are obligatory carnivores, with their daily energy intake from crude protein being 52 %, from crude fat 46 % and from N-free extract only 2 %. Minerals and trace elements are consumed in relatively high concentrations compared with recommended allowances determined using empirical methods. The calculated nutrient profile may be considered the nutrient intake to which the cat's metabolic system has adapted. The present study provides insight into the nutritive, as well as possible non-nutritive aspects of a natural diet of whole prey for cats and provides novel ways to further improve feline diets to increase health and longevity.

  9. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    PubMed

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats.

  10. Novel ligands of Choline Acetyltransferase designed by in silico molecular docking, hologram QSAR and lead optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Långström, Bengt; Darreh-Shori, Taher

    2016-08-01

    Recent reports have brought back the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in the mainstream research in dementia and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report, a specific strategy for the design of novel ChAT ligands based on molecular docking, Hologram Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (HQSAR) and lead optimization. Molecular docking was performed on a series of ChAT inhibitors to decipher the molecular fingerprint of their interaction with the active site of ChAT. Then robust statistical fragment HQSAR models were developed. A library of novel ligands was generated based on the pharmacophoric and shape similarity scoring function, and evaluated in silico for their molecular interactions with ChAT. Ten of the top scoring invented compounds are reported here. We confirmed the activity of α-NETA, the only commercially available ChAT inhibitor, and one of the seed compounds in our model, using a new simple colorimetric ChAT assay (IC50 ~ 88 nM). In contrast, α-NETA exhibited an IC50 of ~30 μM for the ACh-degrading cholinesterases. In conclusion, the overall results may provide useful insight for discovering novel ChAT ligands and potential positron emission tomography tracers as in vivo functional biomarkers of the health of central cholinergic system in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  11. Novel ligands of Choline Acetyltransferase designed by in silico molecular docking, hologram QSAR and lead optimization

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajnish; Långström, Bengt; Darreh-Shori, Taher

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have brought back the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in the mainstream research in dementia and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report, a specific strategy for the design of novel ChAT ligands based on molecular docking, Hologram Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (HQSAR) and lead optimization. Molecular docking was performed on a series of ChAT inhibitors to decipher the molecular fingerprint of their interaction with the active site of ChAT. Then robust statistical fragment HQSAR models were developed. A library of novel ligands was generated based on the pharmacophoric and shape similarity scoring function, and evaluated in silico for their molecular interactions with ChAT. Ten of the top scoring invented compounds are reported here. We confirmed the activity of α-NETA, the only commercially available ChAT inhibitor, and one of the seed compounds in our model, using a new simple colorimetric ChAT assay (IC50 ~ 88 nM). In contrast, α-NETA exhibited an IC50 of ~30 μM for the ACh-degrading cholinesterases. In conclusion, the overall results may provide useful insight for discovering novel ChAT ligands and potential positron emission tomography tracers as in vivo functional biomarkers of the health of central cholinergic system in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:27507101

  12. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human–cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500–4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560–5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The δ13C and δ15N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats. PMID:24344279

  13. Faecal Microbiota of Cats with Insulin-Treated Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Erin T.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Isaiah, Anitha; Fleeman, Linda M.; Cook, Audrey K.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Mansfield, Caroline S.

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract significantly influence metabolic processes within their mammalian host, and recently several groups have sought to characterise the gastrointestinal microbiota of individuals affected by metabolic disease. Differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota have been reported in mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in human patients. Diabetes mellitus in cats has many similarities to type 2 diabetes in humans. No studies of the gastrointestinal microbiota of diabetic cats have been previously published. The objectives of this study were to compare the composition of the faecal microbiota of diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and secondarily to determine if host signalment and dietary factors influence the composition of the faecal microbiota in cats. Faecal samples were collected from insulin-treated diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR were performed on each sample. ANOSIM based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric identified no difference in the composition of the faecal microbiota between diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and no significant differences in the proportions of dominant bacteria by phylum, class, order, family or genus as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were identified between diabetic and non-diabetic cats. qPCR identified a decrease in Faecalibacterium spp. in cats aged over ten years. Cat breed or gender, dietary carbohydrate, protein or fat content, and dietary formulation (wet versus dry food) did not affect the composition of the faecal microbiota. In conclusion, the composition of the faecal microbiota was not altered by the presence of diabetes mellitus in cats. Additional studies that compare the functional products of the microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic cats are warranted to further investigate the potential impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on metabolic diseases such as

  14. Faecal microbiota of cats with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bell, Erin T; Suchodolski, Jan S; Isaiah, Anitha; Fleeman, Linda M; Cook, Audrey K; Steiner, Jörg M; Mansfield, Caroline S

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract significantly influence metabolic processes within their mammalian host, and recently several groups have sought to characterise the gastrointestinal microbiota of individuals affected by metabolic disease. Differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota have been reported in mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in human patients. Diabetes mellitus in cats has many similarities to type 2 diabetes in humans. No studies of the gastrointestinal microbiota of diabetic cats have been previously published. The objectives of this study were to compare the composition of the faecal microbiota of diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and secondarily to determine if host signalment and dietary factors influence the composition of the faecal microbiota in cats. Faecal samples were collected from insulin-treated diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR were performed on each sample. ANOSIM based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric identified no difference in the composition of the faecal microbiota between diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and no significant differences in the proportions of dominant bacteria by phylum, class, order, family or genus as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were identified between diabetic and non-diabetic cats. qPCR identified a decrease in Faecalibacterium spp. in cats aged over ten years. Cat breed or gender, dietary carbohydrate, protein or fat content, and dietary formulation (wet versus dry food) did not affect the composition of the faecal microbiota. In conclusion, the composition of the faecal microbiota was not altered by the presence of diabetes mellitus in cats. Additional studies that compare the functional products of the microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic cats are warranted to further investigate the potential impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on metabolic diseases such as

  15. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2014-01-07

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human-cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500-4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560-5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats.

  16. Presumptive sialadenosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Boydell, P; Pike, R; Crossley, D

    2000-12-01

    A cat was presented with signs associated with enlargement of the mandibular salivary glands. Histological findings were normal, consistent with a diagnosis of sialadenosis, and the cat responded to symptomatic treatment with oral phenobarbitone.

  17. Neutering of cats and dogs in Ireland; pet owner self-reported perceptions of enabling and disabling factors in the decision to neuter

    PubMed Central

    Devitt, Catherine; Downes, Marie T.; More, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Failure among pet owners to neuter their pets results in increased straying and overpopulation problems. Variations in neutering levels can be explained by cultural differences, differences in economic status in rural and urban locations, and owner perceptions about their pet. There are also differences between male and female pet owners. There is no research pertaining to Irish pet owner attitudes towards neutering their pets. This paper identified the perceptions of a sample of Irish cat and dog owners that influenced their decisions on pet neutering. Methods. This study was conducted using social science (qualitative) methods, including an interview-administered survey questionnaire and focus group discussions. Data was coded and managed using Nvivo 8 qualitative data analysis software. Results. Focus groups were conducted with 43 pet (cats and dogs) owners. Two major categories relating to the decision to neuter were identified: (1) enabling perceptions in the decision to neuter (subcategories were: controlling unwanted pet behaviour; positive perceptions regarding pet health and welfare outcomes; perceived owner responsibility; pet function; and the influence of veterinary advice), and (2) disabling perceptions in the decision to neuter (subcategories were: perceived financial cost of neutering; perceived adequacy of existing controls; and negative perceptions regarding pet health and welfare outcomes). Discussion. Pet owner sense of responsibility and control are two central issues to the decision to neuter their pets. Understanding how pet owners feel about topics such as pet neutering, can help improve initiatives aimed at emphasising the responsibility of population control of cats and dogs. PMID:26312187

  18. Spermidine/spermine-N(1)-acetyltransferase: a key metabolic regulator.

    PubMed

    Pegg, Anthony E

    2008-06-01

    Spermidine/spermine-N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) regulates cellular polyamine content. Its acetylated products are either excreted from the cell or oxidized by acetylpolyamine oxidase. Since polyamines play critical roles in normal and neoplastic growth and in ion channel regulation, SSAT is a key enzyme in these processes. SSAT is very highly regulated. Its content is adjusted in response to alterations in polyamine content to maintain polyamine homeostasis. Certain polyamine analogs can mimic the induction of SSAT and cause a loss of normal polyamines. This may have utility in cancer chemotherapy. SSAT activity is also induced via a variety of other stimuli, including toxins, hormones, cytokines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, natural products, and stress pathways, and by ischemia-reperfusion injury. These increases are initiated by alterations in Sat1 gene transcription reinforced by alterations at the other regulatory steps, including protein turnover, mRNA processing, and translation. Transgenic manipulation of SSAT activity has revealed that SSAT activity links polyamine metabolism to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by means of alterations in the content of acetyl-CoA and ATP. A high level of SSAT stimulates flux through the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, since biosynthetic enzymes are induced in response to the fall in polyamines. This sets up a futile cycle in which ATP is used to generate S-adenosylmethionine for polyamine biosynthesis and acetyl-CoA is consumed in the acetylation reaction. A variety of other effects of increased SSAT activity include death of pancreatic cells, blockage of regenerative tissue growth, behavioral changes, keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans, and hair loss. These are very likely due to changes in polyamine and putrescine levels, although increased oxidative stress via the oxidation of acetylated polyamines may also contribute. Recently, it was found that the SSAT protein and/or a related protein, thialysine

  19. Structure and function of human Naa60 (NatF), a Golgi-localized bi-functional acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji-Yun; Liu, Liang; Cao, Chun-Ling; Li, Mei-Jun; Tan, Kemin; Yang, Xiaohan; Yun, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation), carried out by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is a conserved and primary modification of nascent peptide chains. Naa60 (also named NatF) is a recently identified NAT found only in multicellular eukaryotes. This protein was shown to locate on the Golgi apparatus and mainly catalyze the Nt-acetylation of transmembrane proteins, and it also harbors lysine Nε-acetyltransferase (KAT) activity to catalyze the acetylation of lysine ε-amine. Here, we report the crystal structures of human Naa60 (hNaa60) in complex with Acetyl-Coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) or Coenzyme A (CoA). The hNaa60 protein contains an amphipathic helix following its GNAT domain that may contribute to Golgi localization of hNaa60, and the β7-β8 hairpin adopted different conformations in the hNaa60(1-242) and hNaa60(1-199) crystal structures. Remarkably, we found that the side-chain of Phe 34 can influence the position of the coenzyme, indicating a new regulatory mechanism involving enzyme, co-factor and substrates interactions. Moreover, structural comparison and biochemical studies indicated that Tyr 97 and His 138 are key residues for catalytic reaction and that a non-conserved β3-β4 long loop participates in the regulation of hNaa60 activity. PMID:27550639

  20. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Acinetobacter spp. Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferases Highlights Functional and Evolutionary Variation among Antibiotic Resistance Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Stogios, Peter J; Kuhn, Misty L; Evdokimova, Elena; Law, Melissa; Courvalin, Patrice; Savchenko, Alexei

    2017-02-10

    Modification of aminoglycosides by N-acetyltransferases (AACs) is one of the major mechanisms of resistance to these antibiotics in human bacterial pathogens. More than 50 enzymes belonging to the AAC(6') subfamily have been identified in Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical isolates. Our understanding of the molecular function and evolutionary origin of these resistance enzymes remains incomplete. Here we report the structural and enzymatic characterization of AAC(6')-Ig and AAC(6')-Ih from Acinetobacter spp. The crystal structure of AAC(6')-Ig in complex with tobramycin revealed a large substrate-binding cleft remaining partially unoccupied by the substrate, which is in stark contrast with the previously characterized AAC(6')-Ib enzyme. Enzymatic analysis indicated that AAC(6')-Ig and -Ih possess a broad specificity against aminoglycosides but with significantly lower turnover rates as compared to other AAC(6') enzymes. Structure- and function-informed phylogenetic analysis of AAC(6') enzymes led to identification of at least three distinct subfamilies varying in oligomeric state, active site composition, and drug recognition mode. Our data support the concept of AAC(6') functionality originating through convergent evolution from diverse Gcn5-related-N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) ancestral enzymes, with AAC(6')-Ig and -Ih representing enzymes that may still retain ancestral nonresistance functions in the cell as provided by their particular active site properties.

  1. Structure and function of human Naa60 (NatF), a Golgi-localized bi-functional acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ji-Yun; Liu, Liang; Cao, Chun-Ling; Li, Mei-Jun; Tan, Kemin; Yang, Xiaohan; Yun, Caihong

    2016-08-23

    N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation), carried out by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is a conserved and primary modification of nascent peptide chains. Naa60 (also named NatF) is a recently identified NAT found only in multicellular eukaryotes. This protein was shown to locate on the Golgi apparatus and mainly catalyze the Nt-acetylation of transmembrane proteins, and it also harbors lysine Nε -acetyltransferase (KAT) activity to catalyze the acetylation of lysine ε-amine. Here, we report the crystal structures of human Naa60 (hNaa60) in complex with Acetyl-Coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) or Coenzyme A (CoA). The hNaa60 protein contains an amphipathic helix following its GNAT domain that may contribute to Golgi localization of hNaa60, and the β7-β8 hairpin adopted different conformations in the hNaa60(1-242) and hNaa60(1-199) crystal structures. Remarkably, we found that the side-chain of Phe 34 can influence the position of the coenzyme, indicating a new regulatory mechanism involving enzyme, co-factor and substrates interactions. Moreover, structural comparison and biochemical studies indicated that Tyr 97 and His 138 are key residues for catalytic reaction and that a non-conserved β3-β4 long loop participates in the regulation of hNaa60 activity.

  2. Structure and function of human Naa60 (NatF), a Golgi-localized bi-functional acetyltransferase

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Ji-Yun; Liu, Liang; Cao, Chun-Ling; ...

    2016-08-23

    N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation), carried out by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is a conserved and primary modification of nascent peptide chains. Naa60 (also named NatF) is a recently identified NAT found only in multicellular eukaryotes. This protein was shown to locate on the Golgi apparatus and mainly catalyze the Nt-acetylation of transmembrane proteins, and it also harbors lysine Nε -acetyltransferase (KAT) activity to catalyze the acetylation of lysine ε-amine. Here, we report the crystal structures of human Naa60 (hNaa60) in complex with Acetyl-Coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) or Coenzyme A (CoA). The hNaa60 protein contains an amphipathic helix following its GNAT domain that maymore » contribute to Golgi localization of hNaa60, and the β7-β8 hairpin adopted different conformations in the hNaa60(1-242) and hNaa60(1-199) crystal structures. Remarkably, we found that the side-chain of Phe 34 can influence the position of the coenzyme, indicating a new regulatory mechanism involving enzyme, co-factor and substrates interactions. Moreover, structural comparison and biochemical studies indicated that Tyr 97 and His 138 are key residues for catalytic reaction and that a non-conserved β3-β4 long loop participates in the regulation of hNaa60 activity.« less

  3. Familial cardiomyopathy in Norwegian Forest cats.

    PubMed

    März, Imke; Wilkie, Lois J; Harrington, Norelene; Payne, Jessie R; Muzzi, Ruthnea A L; Häggström, Jens; Smith, Ken; Luis Fuentes, Virginia

    2015-08-01

    Norwegian Forest cats (NFCs) are often listed as a breed predisposed to cardiomyopathy, but the characteristics of cardiomyopathy in this breed have not been described. The aim of this preliminary study was to report the features of NFC cardiomyopathy based on prospective echocardiographic screening of affected family groups; necropsy findings; and open-source breed screening databases. Prospective examination of 53 NFCs revealed no murmur or left ventricular (LV) outflow tract obstruction in any screened cat, though mild LV hypertrophy (defined as diastolic LV wall thickness ≥5.5mm) was present in 13/53 cats (25%). Gross pathology results and histopathological sections were analysed in eight NFCs, six of which had died of a cardiac cause. Myocyte hypertrophy, myofibre disarray and interstitial fibrosis typical of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were present in 7/8 cats, but endomyocardial fibrosis suggestive of restrictive cardiomyopathy was also present in the same cats. Pedigree data analysis from 871 NFCs was supportive of a familial cardiomyopathy in this breed.

  4. Amputation for histiocytic sarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Takahiro; Hata, Takashi; Nezu, Yoko; Michishita, Masaki; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Mizutani, Hisashi; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2012-02-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat presented with a skin lesion of the left tarsus. The lesion was biopsied and, based on the microscopic appearance and immunohistochemical characteristics, histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed. Amputation was performed with improved demeanor seen postoperatively. However, between 44 and 60 days following the surgery, relapse of skin lesions appeared in multiple locations, including at the previous amputation site, and euthanasia was elected. This is the first report of a histiocytic sarcoma treated with amputation in a cat.

  5. Avian influenza H5N1 in naturally infected domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Songserm, Thaweesak; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Jam-on, Rungroj; Sae-Heng, Namdee; Meemak, Noppadol; Pariyothorn, Nuananong; Payungporn, Sunchai; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2006-04-01

    We report H5N1 virus infection in a domestic cat infected by eating a pigeon carcass. The virus isolated from the pigeon and the cat showed the same cluster as the viruses obtained during the outbreak in Thailand. Since cats are common house pets, concern regarding disease transmission to humans exists.

  6. Natural Clostridium botulinum Type C Toxicosis in a Group of Cats

    PubMed Central

    Elad, D.; Yas-Natan, E.; Aroch, I.; Shamir, M. H.; Kleinbart, S.; Hadash, D.; Chaffer, M.; Greenberg, K.; Shlosberg, A.

    2004-01-01

    Clinical signs of botulism were observed in a group of eight cats, four of which died, after being fed pelican carrion. Clostridium botulinum type C was isolated from one cat. The microorganism and its toxin were found in the pelican. This is apparently the first report of natural botulism in cats. PMID:15528757

  7. Natural Clostridium botulinum type C toxicosis in a group of cats.

    PubMed

    Elad, D; Yas-Natan, E; Aroch, I; Shamir, M H; Kleinbart, S; Hadash, D; Chaffer, M; Greenberg, K; Shlosberg, A

    2004-11-01

    Clinical signs of botulism were observed in a group of eight cats, four of which died, after being fed pelican carrion. Clostridium botulinum type C was isolated from one cat. The microorganism and its toxin were found in the pelican. This is apparently the first report of natural botulism in cats.

  8. Thymoma-associated exfoliative dermatitis with post-thymectomy myasthenia gravis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ameet; Boston, Sarah E; Poma, Roberto

    2010-07-01

    Thymoma-associated exfoliative dermatitis was suspected in a cat with a cranial mediastinal mass. The dermatopathy resolved with surgical removal of a thymoma. The cat manifested neurologic signs consistent with myasthenia gravis 7 wk after surgery. Exfoliative dermatitis and post-thymectomy myasthenia gravis in the same cat has not been reported previously.

  9. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A What's in ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  10. Vibrational Schroedinger Cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kis, Z.; Janszky, J.; Vinogradov, An. V.; Kobayashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    The optical Schroedinger cat states are simple realizations of quantum states having nonclassical features. It is shown that vibrational analogues of such states can be realized in an experiment of double pulse excitation of vibrionic transitions. To track the evolution of the vibrational wave packet we derive a non-unitary time evolution operator so that calculations are made in a quasi Heisenberg picture.

  11. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  12. [Parasitism by Amblyomma triste in domestic cat].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Aleksandro S; da Silva, Marcos K; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2007-01-01

    Amblyomma triste is an ixodidae, ectoparasite of several mammals' species, with occurrence reported in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. The aim of this work was to register the parasitism by A. triste in domestic cat (Felis catus) in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil.

  13. Taste rejection of nonnutritive sweeteners in cats.

    PubMed

    Bartoshuk, L M; Jacobs, H L; Nichols, T L; Hoff, L A; Ryckman, J J

    1975-10-01

    Cats reject saccharin and cyclamate and are indifferent to dulcin, although they, like other mammals, prefer sucrose. The rejection threshold for saccharin found in this experiments, .0001 M, is about 2 log steps lower than a previously reported rejection threshold for sodium saccharin. Water produces a taste in cats adapted to their own saliva. The high sodium saccharin threshold may have resulted because the taste of the sodium saccharin was masked by the taste of the water solvent; however, saccharin may also be somewhat more aversive to the cat than sodium saccharin. Saccharin may produce an aversive taste because it stimulates receptor sites sensitive to substances bitter to man as well as those sensitive to sugars. In addition, saccharin may not be an effective stimulus for all sugar-sensitive sites.

  14. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    PubMed

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed.

  15. Nitrergic ventro-medial medullary neurons activated during cholinergically induced active (REM) sleep in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Pose, Inés; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H.; Morales, Francisco R.

    2010-01-01

    The rostral ventro-medial medullary reticular formation is a complex structure that is involved with a variety of motor functions. It contains glycinergic neurons that are activated during active (REM) sleep (AS); these neurons appear to be responsible for the postsynaptic inhibition of motoneurons that occurs during this state. We have reported that neurons in this same region contain nitric oxide (NO) synthase and that they innervate brainstem motor pools. In the present study we examined the c-fos expression of these neurons after carbachol-induced active sleep (C-AS). Three control and four experimental cats were employed to identify c-fos expressing nitrergic neurons using immunocytochemical techniques to detect the Fos protein together with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or NADPH-diaphorase activity. The classical neurotransmitter content of the nitrergic cells in this region was examined through the combination of immunocytochemical techniques for the detection of glutamate, glycine, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxilase (TH) or GABA together with nNOS. During C-AS, there was a 1074% increase in the number of nitrergic neurons that expressed c-fos. These neurons did not contain glycine, ChAT, TH or GABA, but a subpopulation (15%) of them displayed glutamate-like immunoreactivity. Therefore, some of these neurons contain both an excitatory neurotransmitter (glutamate) and an excitatory neuromodulator (NO); the neurotransmitter content of the rest of them remains to be determined. Because some of the nitrergic neurons innervate brainstem motoneurons it is possible that they participate in the generation of tonic and excitatory phasic motor events that occur during AS. We also suggest that these nitrergic neurons may be involved in autonomic regulation during this state. In addition, because NO has trophic effects on target neurons, the present findings represent the first, albeit indirect, evidence for a possible trophic function of

  16. U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-26

    26 JAN 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.N. Convention Against Torture ( CAT ): Overview and...The United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment ( CAT ) requires signatory parties to take...and declarations prohibiting torture, CAT provides a general definition of the term. CAT generally defines torture as the infliction of severe physical

  17. Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT). System Description and users guide (revision 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W.; Taylor, W.; Mcgarry, F. E.; Merwarth, P.

    1982-01-01

    A system description of, and user's guide for, the Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT) are presented. As a configuration management tool, CAT enhances the control of large software systems by providing a repository for information describing the current status of a project. CAT provides an editing capability to update the information and a reporting capability to present the information. CAT is an interactive program available in versions for the PDP-11/70 and VAX-11/780 computers.

  18. Oridonin, a novel lysine acetyltransferases inhibitor, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in gastric cancer cells through p53- and caspase-3-mediated mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Diao, Hua; Li, Guangming; Xu, Ling; Wang, Ting; Wei, Jue; Meng, Wenying; Ma, Jia-Li; Yu, Heguo; Wang, Yu-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation has been reported to involve in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases including cancer. In our screening study to identify natural compounds with lysine acetyltransferase inhibitor (KATi) activity, oridonin was found to possess acetyltransferase-inhibitory effects on multiple acetyltransferases including P300, GCN5, Tip60, and pCAF. In gastric cancer cells, oridonin treatment inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner and down-regulated the expression of p53 downstream genes, whereas p53 inhibition by PFT-α reversed the antiproliferative effects of oridonin. Moreover, oridonin treatment induced cell apoptosis, increased the levels of activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in gastric cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Caspase-3 inhibition by Ac-DEVD-CHO reversed the proapoptosis effect of oridonin. In conclusion, our study identified oridonin as a novel KATi and demonstrated its tumor suppressive effects in gastric cancer cells at least partially through p53-and caspase-3-mediated mechanisms. PMID:26980707

  19. Garcinol Inhibits GCN5-Mediated Lysine Acetyltransferase Activity and Prevents Replication of the Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, Victoria; Gao, Hongyu; Checkley, Lisa A.; Liu, Yunlong; Ferdig, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a critical posttranslational modification that influences protein activity, stability, and binding properties. The acetylation of histone proteins in particular is a well-characterized feature of gene expression regulation. In the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, a number of lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) contribute to gene expression and are essential for parasite viability. The natural product garcinol was recently reported to inhibit enzymatic activities of GCN5 and p300 family KATs in other species. Here we show that garcinol inhibits TgGCN5b, the only nuclear GCN5 family KAT known to be required for Toxoplasma tachyzoite replication. Treatment of tachyzoites with garcinol led to a reduction of global lysine acetylation, particularly on histone H3 and TgGCN5b itself. We also performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), which revealed increasing aberrant gene expression coincident with increasing concentrations of garcinol. The majority of the genes that were most significantly affected by garcinol were also associated with TgGCN5b in a previously reported chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with microarray technology (ChIP-chip) analysis. The dysregulated gene expression induced by garcinol significantly inhibits Toxoplasma tachyzoite replication, and the concentrations used exhibit no overt toxicity on human host cells. Garcinol also inhibits Plasmodium falciparum asexual replication with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) similar to that for Toxoplasma. Together, these data support that pharmacological inhibition of TgGCN5b leads to a catastrophic failure in gene expression control that prevents parasite replication. PMID:26810649

  20. In silico identification and characterization of N-Terminal acetyltransferase genes of poplar (Populus trichocarpa).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hang-Yong; Li, Chun-Ming; Wang, Li-Feng; Bai, Hui; Li, Yan-Ping; Yu, Wen-Xi; Xia, De-An; Liu, Chang-Cai

    2014-01-27

    N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nats) complex is responsible for protein N-terminal acetylation (Nα-acetylation), which is one of the most common covalent modifications of eukaryotic proteins. Although genome-wide investigation and characterization of Nat catalytic subunits (CS) and auxiliary subunits (AS) have been conducted in yeast and humans they remain unexplored in plants. Here we report on the identification of eleven genes encoding eleven putative Nat CS polypeptides, and five genes encoding five putative Nat AS polypeptides in Populus. We document that the expansion of Nat CS genes occurs as duplicated blocks distributed across 10 of the 19 poplar chromosomes, likely only as a result of segmental duplication events. Based on phylogenetic analysis, poplar Nat CS were assigned to six subgroups, which corresponded well to the Nat CS types (CS of Nat A-F), being consistent with previous reports in humans and yeast. In silico analysis of microarray data showed that in the process of normal development of the poplar, their Nat CS and AS genes are commonly expressed at one relatively low level but share distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. This exhaustive survey of Nat genes in poplar provides important information to assist future studies on their functional role in poplar.

  1. Obesity and lipid stress inhibit carnitine acetyltransferase activity[S

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Sarah E.; Martin, Ola J.; Noland, Robert C.; Slentz, Dorothy H.; DeBalsi, Karen L.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; An, Jie; Newgard, Christopher B.; Koves, Timothy R.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine. Emerging evidence suggests that this enzyme functions as a positive regulator of total body glucose tolerance and muscle activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), a mitochondrial enzyme complex that promotes glucose oxidation and is feedback inhibited by acetyl-CoA. Here, we used tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling to identify a negative relationship between CrAT activity and muscle content of lipid intermediates. CrAT specific activity was diminished in muscles from obese and diabetic rodents despite increased protein abundance. This reduction in enzyme activity was accompanied by muscle accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines (LCACs) and acyl-CoAs and a decline in the acetylcarnitine/acetyl-CoA ratio. In vitro assays demonstrated that palmitoyl-CoA acts as a direct mixed-model inhibitor of CrAT. Similarly, in primary human myocytes grown in culture, nutritional and genetic manipulations that promoted mitochondrial influx of fatty acids resulted in accumulation of LCACs but a pronounced decrease of CrAT-derived short-chain acylcarnitines. These results suggest that lipid-induced antagonism of CrAT might contribute to decreased PDH activity and glucose disposal in the context of obesity and diabetes. PMID:24395925

  2. Carnitine Acetyltransferase Mitigates Metabolic Inertia and Muscle Fatigue during Exercise.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Sarah E; Koves, Timothy R; Gooding, Jessica R; Wong, Kari E; Stevens, Robert D; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Wittmann, April H; DeBalsi, Karen L; Davies, Michael N; Lindeboom, Lucas; Schrauwen, Patrick; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B; Muoio, Deborah M

    2015-07-07

    Acylcarnitine metabolites have gained attention as biomarkers of nutrient stress, but their physiological relevance and metabolic purpose remain poorly understood. Short-chain carnitine conjugates, including acetylcarnitine, derive from their corresponding acyl-CoA precursors via the action of carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT), a bidirectional mitochondrial matrix enzyme. We show here that contractile activity reverses acetylcarnitine flux in muscle, from net production and efflux at rest to net uptake and consumption during exercise. Disruption of this switch in mice with muscle-specific CrAT deficiency resulted in acetyl-CoA deficit, perturbed energy charge, and diminished exercise tolerance, whereas acetylcarnitine supplementation produced opposite outcomes in a CrAT-dependent manner. Likewise, in exercise-trained compared to untrained humans, post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rates were positively associated with CrAT activity and coincided with dramatic shifts in muscle acetylcarnitine dynamics. These findings show acetylcarnitine serves as a critical acetyl buffer for working muscles and provide insight into potential therapeutic strategies for combatting exercise intolerance.

  3. Inhibition of Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase Resistance Enzymes by Metal Salts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijia; Green, Keith D.; Johnson, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    Aminoglycosides (AGs) are clinically relevant antibiotics used to treat infections caused by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as Mycobacteria. As with all current antibacterial agents, resistance to AGs is an increasing problem. The most common mechanism of resistance to AGs is the presence of AG-modifying enzymes (AMEs) in bacterial cells, with AG acetyltransferases (AACs) being the most prevalent. Recently, it was discovered that Zn2+ metal ions displayed an inhibitory effect on the resistance enzyme AAC(6′)-Ib in Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli. In this study, we explore a wide array of metal salts (Mg2+, Cr3+, Cr6+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Au3+ with different counter ions) and their inhibitory effect on a large repertoire of AACs [AAC(2′)-Ic, AAC(3)-Ia, AAC(3)-Ib, AAC(3)-IV, AAC(6′)-Ib′, AAC(6′)-Ie, AAC(6′)-IId, and Eis]. In addition, we determine the MIC values for amikacin and tobramycin in combination with a zinc pyrithione complex in clinical isolates of various bacterial strains (two strains of A. baumannii, three of Enterobacter cloacae, and four of Klebsiella pneumoniae) and one representative of each species purchased from the American Type Culture Collection. PMID:25941215

  4. Epigenetic Modulation using Small Molecules - Targeting Histone Acetyltransferases in Disease.

    PubMed

    Richters, André; Koehler, Angela N

    2017-02-23

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are epigenetic drivers that catalyze the acetyl transfer from acetyl-CoA to lysines of both histone and non-histone substrates and thereby induce transcription either by chromatin remodeling or direct transcription factor activation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) conduct the reverse reaction to counter HAT activity. Physiological processes such as cell cycle progression or apoptosis require a thoroughly balanced equilibrium of the interplay between acetylation and deacetylation processes to maintain or, if required, alter the global acetylome status. Aberrant HAT activity has recently been demonstrated to play a crucial role in the progression of various diseases such as prostate, lung, and colon cancers as well as glioblastomas and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent investigations have aimed for the identification of HAT modulators to further decipher the complexity of acetyl transferase related signaling cascades and discover potential leads for drug design approaches. HDACs have been extensively characterized and targeted by small molecules, including four FDA-approved HDAC inhibitors; in contrast, HATs have not been active targets for therapeutic development. This review will summarize the status of HAT associated diseases and the arsenal of currently known and available HAT inhibitors with respect to their discovery, further improvements, and current applications.

  5. The Functional Analysis of Histone Acetyltransferase MOF in Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiaming; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yong; Jin, Jingji

    2016-01-14

    Changes in chromatin structure and heritably regulating the gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone post-translational modification, are involved in most cellular biological processes. Thus, abnormal regulation of epigenetics is implicated in the occurrence of various diseases, including cancer. Human MOF (males absent on the first) is a member of the MYST (Moz-Ybf2/Sas3-Sas2-Tip60) family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs). As a catalytic subunit, MOF can form at least two distinct multiprotein complexes (MSL and NSL) in human cells. Both complexes can acetylate histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16); however, the NSL complex possesses broader substrate specificity and can also acetylate histone H4 at lysines 5 and 8 (H4K5 and H4K8), suggesting the complexity of the intracellular functions of MOF. Silencing of MOF in cells leads to genomic instability, inactivation of gene transcription, defective DNA damage repair and early embryonic lethality. Unbalanced MOF expression and its corresponding acetylation of H4K16 have been found in certain primary cancer tissues, including breast cancer, medulloblastoma, ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, gastric cancer, as well as non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we provide a brief overview of MOF and its corresponding histone acetylation, introduce recent research findings that link MOF functions to tumorigenesis and speculate on the potential role that may be relevant to tumorigenic pathways.

  6. Autoacetylation of the MYST lysine acetyltransferase MOF protein.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Wu, Jiang; Sinha, Sarmistha H; Neveu, John M; Zheng, Yujun George

    2012-10-12

    The MYST family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) plays critical roles in diverse cellular processes, such as the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Lysine autoacetylation of the MYST HATs has recently received considerable attention. Nonetheless, the mechanism and function of the autoacetylation process are not well defined. To better understand the biochemical mechanism of MYST autoacetylation and the impact of autoacetylation on the cognate histone acetylation, we carried out detailed analyses of males-absent-on-the-first (MOF), a key member of the MYST family. A number of mutant MOF proteins were produced with point mutations at several key residues near the active site of the enzyme. Autoradiography and immunoblotting data showed that mutation of these residues affects the autoacetylation activity and HAT activity of MOF by various degrees demonstrating that MOF activity is highly sensitive to the chemical changes in those residues. We produced MOF protein in the deacetylated form by using a nonspecific lysine deacetylase. Interestingly, both the autoacetylation activity and the histone acetylation activity of the deacetylated MOF were found to be very close to that of wild-type MOF, suggesting that autoacetylation of MOF only marginally modulates the enzymatic activity. Also, we found that the autoacetylation rates of MOF and deacetylated MOF were much slower than the cognate substrate acetylation. Thus, autoacetylation does not seem to contribute to the intrinsic enzymatic activity in a significant manner. These data provide new insights into the mechanism and function of MYST HAT autoacetylation.

  7. Reconstruction of N-acetyltransferase 2 haplotypes using PHASE.

    PubMed

    Golka, Klaus; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Samimi, Mirabutaleb; Bolt, Hermann M; Selinski, Silvia

    2008-04-01

    The genotyping of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) by PCR/RFLP methods yields in a considerable percentage ambiguous results. To resolve this methodical problem a statistical approach was applied. PHASE v2.1.1, a statistical program for haplotype reconstruction was used to estimate haplotype pairs from NAT2 genotyping data, obtained by the analysis of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms relevant for Caucasians. In 1,011 out of 2,921 (35%) subjects the haplotype pairs were clearcut by the PCR/RFLP data only. For the majority of the data the applied method resulted in a multiplicity (2-4) of possible haplotype pairs. Haplotype reconstruction using PHASE v2.1.1 cleared this ambiguity in all cases but one, where an alternative haplotype pair was considered with a probability of 0.029. The estimation of the NAT2 haplotype is important because the assignment of the NAT2 alleles *12A, *12B, *12C or *13 to the rapid or slow NAT2 genotype has been discussed controversially. A clear assignment is indispensable in surveys of human bladder cancer caused by aromatic amine exposures. In conclusion, PHASE v2.1.1 software allowed an unambiguous haplotype reconstruction in 2,920 of 2,921 cases (>99.9%).

  8. The histone acetyltransferase p300 promotes intrinsic axonal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gaub, Perrine; Joshi, Yashashree; Wuttke, Anja; Naumann, Ulrike; Schnichels, Sven; Heiduschka, Peter; Di Giovanni, Simone

    2011-07-01

    Axonal regeneration and related functional recovery following axonal injury in the adult central nervous system are extremely limited, due to a lack of neuronal intrinsic competence and the presence of extrinsic inhibitory signals. As opposed to what occurs during nervous system development, a weak proregenerative gene expression programme contributes to the limited intrinsic capacity of adult injured central nervous system axons to regenerate. Here we show, in an optic nerve crush model of axonal injury, that adenoviral (cytomegalovirus promoter) overexpression of the acetyltransferase p300, which is regulated during retinal ganglion cell maturation and repressed in the adult, can promote axonal regeneration of the optic nerve beyond 0.5 mm. p300 acetylates histone H3 and the proregenerative transcription factors p53 and CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins in retinal ganglia cells. In addition, it directly occupies and acetylates the promoters of the growth-associated protein-43, coronin 1 b and Sprr1a and drives the gene expression programme of several regeneration-associated genes. On the contrary, overall increase in cellular acetylation using the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, enhances retinal ganglion cell survival but not axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush. Therefore, p300 targets both the epigenome and transcription to unlock a post-injury silent gene expression programme that would support axonal regeneration.

  9. The "cat eye syndrome": dicentric small marker chromosome probably derived from a no.22 (tetrasomy 22pter to q11) associated with a characteristic phenotype. Report of 11 patients and delineation of the clinical picture.

    PubMed

    Schinzel, A; Schmid, W; Fraccaro, M; Tiepolo, L; Zuffardi, O; Opitz, J M; Lindsten, J; Zetterqvist, P; Enell, H; Baccichetti, C; Tenconi, R; Pagon, R A

    1981-01-01

    Eleven patients with the so-called Cat Eye syndrome are reported including a more detailed description of the original cases reported by Schmid and Fraccaro. All cases had, in addition to a normal karyotype, a small extra G-like chromosome which appeared to be an isochromosome for the juxtacentromeric region (pter to q11) of an acrocentric chromosome. None were mosaics. Clinical findings and further cytogenetic studies in a few cases suggest that these markers probably derive from a No. 22 chromosome. Characteristic features of the Cat Eye syndrome in these 11 patients and those reviewed from the literature are: ocular coloboma which may involve the iris, choroid and/or optic nerve, preauricular skin tags and/or pits which are probably the most consistent feature, congenital heart defect, anal atresia with a fistula, renal malformations such as unilateral absence, unilateral or bilateral hypoplasia, and cystic dysplasia, and antimongoloid position of eyes. Intelligence is usually low-normal, although moderate retardation is also seen. There is great variability in the clinical findings ranging from near normal to lethal malformations. Less frequent, but also characteristic findings are: microphthalmia, microtia with atresia of the external auditory canal, intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary atresia and malrotation of the gut. Direct transmission of the marker from one generation to the other was observed in both sexes. In those families, there was considerable variability in the clinical findings between affected family members. These cases show that there is a bias of ascertainment for patients who have the more striking malformations, especially those with ocular coloboma and anal atresia, a combination which appears to be present in only a minority of cases. Many mildly affected patients probably remain undetected. It is proposed that the term Cat Eye syndrome should be applied only to cases with trisomy or tetrasomy of not more than 22pter to q11 and without

  10. CAT8, a new zinc cluster-encoding gene necessary for derepression of gluconeogenic enzymes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Hedges, D; Proft, M; Entian, K D

    1995-01-01

    The expression of gluconeogenic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (encoded by the FBP1 gene) depends on the carbon source. Analysis of the FBP1 promoter revealed two upstream activating elements, UAS1FBP1 and UAS2FBP1, which confer carbon source-dependent regulation on a heterologous reporter gene. On glucose media neither element was activated, whereas after transfer to ethanol a 100-fold derepression was observed. This gene activation depended on the previously identified derepression genes CAT1 (SNF1) (encoding a protein kinase) and CAT3 (SNF4) (probably encoding a subunit of Cat1p [Snf1p]). Screening for mutations specifically involved in UAS1FBP1 derepression revealed the new recessive derepression mutation cat8. The cat8 mutants also failed to derepress UAS2FBP1, and these mutants were unable to grow on nonfermentable carbon sources. The CAT8 gene encodes a zinc cluster protein related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gal4p. Deletion of CAT8 caused a defect in glucose derepression which affected all key gluconeogenic enzymes. Derepression of glucose-repressible invertase and maltase was still normally regulated. A CAT8-lacZ promoter fusion revealed that the CAT8 gene itself is repressed by Cat4p (Mig1p). These results suggest that gluconeogenic genes are derepressed upon binding of Cat8p, whose synthesis depends on the release of Cat4p (Mig1p) from the CAT8 promoter. However, gluconeogenic promoters are still glucose repressed in cat4 mutants, which indicates that in addition to its transcription, the Cat8p protein needs further activation. The observation that multicopy expression of CAT8 reverses the inability of cat1 and cat3 mutants to grow on ethanol indicates that Cat8p might be the substrate of the Cat1p/Cat3p protein kinase. PMID:7891685

  11. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome.

  12. Bartonella infection in shelter cats and dogs and their ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Lun; Lin, Chao-Chen; Chomel, Bruno B; Chuang, Shih-Te; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wen-Jer; Huang, Chin-Gi; Yu, Jiann-Chung; Sung, Min-Hua; Kass, Philip H; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2011-08-01

    Mainly through vector transmission, domestic cats and dogs are infected by several Bartonella spp. and represent a large reservoir for human infections. This study investigated the relationship of prevalences of Bartonella infection in shelter dogs and cats and various ectoparasite species infesting them (fleas, ticks, and lice). Moreover, relationships between Bartonella infection and animal gender and age and presence of ectoparasites were analyzed. Blood samples were collected from 120 dogs and 103 cats. There were 386 ticks and 36 fleas harvested on these dogs, and 141 fleas, 4 ticks, and 2 lice harvested on these cats. Isolation/detection of Bartonella sp. was performed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and partial sequencing. Bartonella was isolated from 21 (20.4%) cats and detected by PCR from 20 (19.4%) cats, 2 (1.7%) dogs, 55 (39%) fleas collected from cats, 28 (10%) ticks DNA samples, and 1 (2.8%) flea collected from dogs. When combining culture and PCR data, 27 cats and 55 fleas collected on cats were positive for Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae, but none were coinfected. Approximately half of the B. henselae isolates from 21 cats were B. henselae type I. Moreover, B. henselae, Bartonella phoceensis, Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella rattimassiliensis, Bartonella elizabethae DNA was detected in ticks collected from dogs and one flea was B. clarridgeiae PCR positive. This is the first report of such a wide variety of Bartonella spp. detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Further studies are required to understand the relative importance of these ectoparasites to transmit Bartonella spp. in dogs and cats.

  13. Thyroid scintigraphy findings in 2096 cats with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Mark E; Broome, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is currently the reference standard for diagnosing and staging cats with hyperthyroidism, but few studies describing the scintigraphic characteristics in a large number of cats have been reported. The objective of this study was to better characterize thyroid scintigraphy findings by evaluating 2096 consecutive cats with hyperthyroidism that were referred over a 3.5-year period. Of these cats, 2068 (98.7%) had a high thyroid-to-salivary ratio (>1.5), whereas 2014 (96.1%) were found to have a high thyroid-to-background ratio (>6.1). When the patterns of the cats' thyroid disease were recorded, 665 (31.7%) had unilateral disease, 1060 (50.6%) had bilateral-asymmetric disease (two thyroid lobes unequal in size), 257 (12.3%) had bilateral-symmetric disease (both lobes similar in size), and 81 (3.9%) had multifocal disease (≥3 areas of increased radionuclide uptake). The number of areas of (99m) TcO(-) 4 uptake in the 2096 cats ranged from 1 to 6 (median, 2), located in the cervical area in 2057 (98.1%), thoracic inlet in 282 (13.5%), and in the thoracic cavity in 115 (5.5%). Ectopic thyroid tissue (e.g. lingual or mediastinal) was diagnosed in 81 (3.9%) cats, whereas thyroid carcinoma was suspected in 35 (1.7%) of the cats. The results of this study support conclusions that most hyperthyroid cats have unilateral or bilateral thyroid nodules, but that multifocal disease will develop in a few cats that have ectopic thyroid disease or thyroid carcinoma. Both ectopic thyroid disease and thyroid carcinoma are relatively uncommon in hyperthyroid cats, with a respective prevalence of ∼4% and ∼2% in this study.

  14. Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Vasha; Grant, David C; Dubey, J P; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2010-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is best known as the causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis of horses in the Americas. Domestic cats ( Felis domesticus ) were the first animals described as an intermediate host for S. neurona . However, S. neurona -associated encephalitis has also been reported in naturally infected cats in the United States. Thus, cats can be implicated in the life cycle of S. neurona as natural intermediate hosts. The present study examined the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to merozoites of S. neurona in populations of domestic cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania. Overall, sera or plasma from 441 cats (Virginia = 232, Pennsylvania = 209) were tested by an indirect immunofluorescent assay at a 1ratio50 dilution. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 32 (7%) of 441 cats. Of these, 22 (9%) of the 232 cats from Virginia and 10 (5%) of the 209 cats from Pennsylvania were seropositive for S. neurona .

  15. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E; Johnson, Christopher N

    2016-03-02

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia's tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  16. Cat-scratch disease relapse in a kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Rheault, Michelle N; van Burik, Jo-Anne; Mauer, Michael; Ingulli, Elizabeth; Ferrieri, Patricia; Jessurun, Jose; Chavers, Blanche M

    2007-02-01

    Cat-scratch disease, an infectious illness infrequently reported in kidney transplant patients, is caused by the organism Bartonella henselae and is transmitted through contact with cats or kittens. It is a self-limited disorder in the general pediatric population. Here we present a case of unsuspected cat-scratch disease in a pediatric kidney transplant patient who presented with fever and lymphadenopathy. Eight months after treatment with a short course of azithromycin, the patient developed a recurrence of cat-scratch disease. We emphasize that the evaluation of a young immunocompromised kidney transplant patient presenting with fever and lymphadenopathy should include unusual infections such as cat-scratch disease. We review the diagnosis and treatment of this uncommon infection in the organ transplant population.

  17. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-03-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  18. Pancreatic rupture in four cats with high-rise syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liehmann, Lea M; Dörner, Judith; Hittmair, Katharina M; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Reifinger, Martin; Dupré, Gilles

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic trauma and rupture are rare after feline high-rise syndrome; however, should it happen, pancreatic enzymes will leak into the abdominal cavity and may cause pancreatic autodigestion and fatty tissue saponification. If not diagnosed and treated, it can ultimately lead to multiorgan failure and death. In this case series, 700 records of high-rise syndrome cats that presented between April 2001 and May 2006 were analysed, and four cats with pancreatic rupture were identified. Clinical signs, diagnosis using ultrasonography and lipase activity in blood and abdominal effusion, and treatment modalities are reported. Three cats underwent surgical abdominal exploration, one cat was euthanased. Rupture of the left pancreatic limb was confirmed in all cases. Two of the operated cats survived to date. High-rise syndrome can lead to abdominal trauma, including pancreatic rupture. A prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment should be considered.

  19. Cat-scratch disease causing status epilepticus in children.

    PubMed

    Easley, R B; Cooperstock, M S; Tobias, J D

    1999-01-01

    Status epilepticus from cat-scratch encephalopathy is often recalcitrant to usual therapies, causing treatment to focus on critical care management of the patient that may require aggressive interventions, such as continuous pentobarbital administration. We describe two children whose initial clinical presentation of cat-scratch disease was status epilepticus with normal cerebrospinal fluid studies. A history of cat exposure (specifically, kitten and/or fleas), regional lymphadenopathy, and a papule or inoculation site should be sought, but are not essential for diagnosis. The presumptive diagnosis of cat-scratch disease can be made by serology alone even in the absence of classic diagnostic criteria. Our two cases and other reports in the literature show a favorable prognosis in most cases, despite the occurrence of status epilepticus. The diagnosis of cat-scratch disease should be strongly considered in all children with unexplained status epilepticus or encephalopathy and serologic testing for Bartonella henselae should be done.

  20. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes. PMID:26932268

  1. Big cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2005-01-01

    Advances in population and quantitative genomics, aided by the computational algorithms that employ genetic theory and practice, are now being applied to biological questions that surround free-ranging species not traditionally suitable for genetic enquiry. Here we review how applications of molecular genetic tools have been used to describe the natural history, present status, and future disposition of wild cat species. Insight into phylogenetic hierarchy, demographic contractions, geographic population substructure, behavioral ecology, and infectious diseases have revealed strategies for survival and adaptation of these fascinating predators. Conservation, stabilization, and management of the big cats are important areas that derive benefit from the genome resources expanded and applied to highly successful species, imperiled by an expanding human population.

  2. Cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bozhkov, V; Madjov, R; Plachkov, I; Arnaudov, P; Chernopolsky, P; Krasnaliev, I

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 24,000 people are infected with cat scratch disease (CSD) every year. CSD is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacteria most often transmitted to humans through a bite or scratch from an infected cat or kitten. Although CSD is often a benign and self-limiting condition, it can affect any major organ system in the body, manifesting in different ways and sometimes leading to lifelong sequelae. It is a disease that is often overlooked in primary care because of the wide range of symptom presentation and relative rarity of serious complications. It is important for health care providers to recognize patients at risk for CSD, know what laboratory testing and treatments are available, and be aware of complications that may arise from this disease in the future.

  3. Fungal Rtt109 Histone Acetyltransferase is an Unexpected Structural Homolog of Metazoan p300/CBP

    SciTech Connect

    Tang,Y.; Holbert, M.; Wurtele, H.; Meeth, K.; Rocha, W.; Gharib, M.; Jiang, E.; Thibault, P.; Verreault, A.; et al

    2008-01-01

    Rtt109, also known as KAT11, is a recently characterized fungal-specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that modifies histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56) to promote genome stability. Rtt109 does not show sequence conservation with other known HATs and depends on association with either of two histone chaperones, Asf1 or Vps75, for HAT activity. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of an Rtt109-acetyl coenzyme A complex and carry out structure-based mutagenesis, combined with in vitro biochemical studies of the Rtt109-Vps75 complex and studies of Rtt109 function in vivo. The Rtt109 structure reveals noteworthy homology to the metazoan p300/CBP HAT domain but exhibits functional divergence, including atypical catalytic properties and mode of cofactor regulation. The structure reveals a buried autoacetylated lysine residue that we show is also acetylated in the Rtt109 protein purified from yeast cells. Implications for understanding histone substrate and chaperone binding by Rtt109 are discussed.

  4. Molecular Basis of Substrate Specific Acetylation by N-Terminal Acetyltransferase NatB.

    PubMed

    Hong, Haiyan; Cai, Yongfei; Zhang, Shijun; Ding, Hongyan; Wang, Haitao; Han, Aidong

    2017-04-04

    The NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase specifically acetylates the N-terminal group of substrate protein peptides starting with Met-Asp/Glu/Asn/Gln. How NatB recognizes and acetylates these substrates remains unknown. Here, we report crystal structures of a NatB holoenzyme from Candida albicans in the presence of its co-factor CoA and substrate peptides. The auxiliary subunit Naa25 of NatB forms a horseshoe-like deck to hold specifically its catalytic subunit Naa20. The first two amino acids Met and Asp of a substrate peptide mediate the major interactions with the active site in the Naa20 subunit. The hydrogen bonds between the substrate Asp and pocket residues of Naa20 are essential to determine the NatB substrate specificity. Moreover, a hydrogen bond between the amino group of the substrate Met and a carbonyl group in the Naa20 active site directly anchors the substrate toward acetyl-CoA. Together, these structures define a unique molecular mechanism of specific N-terminal acetylation acted by NatB.

  5. Polyamine-Regulated Translation of Spermidine/Spermine-N1-Acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Leal, Oscar; Barrero, Carlos A.; Clarkson, Allen B.; Casero, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid synthesis of the polyamine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) in response to increased polyamines is an important polyamine homeostatic mechanism. Indirect evidence has suggested that there is an important control mechanism involving the release of a translational repressor protein that allows the immediate initiation of SSAT protein synthesis without RNA transcription, maturation, or translocation. To identify a repressor protein, we used a mass spectroscopy-based RNA-protein interaction system and found six proteins that bind to the coding region of SSAT mRNA. Individual small interfering RNA (siRNA) experiments showed that nucleolin knockdown enhances SSAT translation. Nucleolin exists in several isoforms, and we report that the isoform that binds to SSAT mRNA undergoes autocatalysis in the presence of polyamines, a result suggesting that there is a negative feedback system that helps control the cellular content of polyamines. Preliminary molecular interaction data show that a nucleolin isoform binds to a 5′ stem-loop of the coding region of SSAT mRNA. The glycine/arginine-rich C terminus of nucleolin is required for binding, and the four RNA recognition motif domains are included in the isoform that blocks SSAT translation. Understanding SSAT translational control mechanisms has the potential for the development of therapeutic strategies against cancer and obesity. PMID:22354986

  6. Crystal Structures of Murine Carnitine Acetyltransferase in Ternary Complexes with Its Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine acyltransferases catalyze the reversible exchange of acyl groups between coenzyme A (CoA) and carnitine. They have important roles in many cellular processes, especially the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the mitochondria for energy production, and are attractive targets for drug discovery against diabetes and obesity. To help define in molecular detail the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes, we report here the high resolution crystal structure of wild-type murine carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) in a ternary complex with its substrates acetyl-CoA and carnitine, and the structure of the S554A/M564G double mutant in a ternary complex with the substrates CoA and hexanoylcarnitine. Detailed analyses suggest that these structures may be good mimics for the Michaelis complexes for the forward and reverse reactions of the enzyme, representing the first time that such complexes of CrAT have been studied in molecular detail. The structural information provides significant new insights into the catalytic mechanism of CrAT and possibly carnitine acyltransferases in general.

  7. N-Acetyltransferase Mpr1 confers ethanol tolerance on Saccharomyces cerevisiae by reducing reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyi; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    N-Acetyltransferase Mpr1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can reduce intracellular oxidation levels and protect yeast cells under oxidative stress, including H(2)O(2), heat-shock, or freeze-thaw treatment. Unlike many antioxidant enzyme genes induced in response to oxidative stress, the MPR1 gene seems to be constitutively expressed in yeast cells. Based on a recent report that ethanol toxicity is correlated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we examined here the role of Mpr1 under ethanol stress conditions. The null mutant of the MPR1 and MPR2 genes showed hypersensitivity to ethanol stress, and the expression of the MPR1 gene conferred stress tolerance. We also found that yeast cells exhibited increased ROS levels during exposure to ethanol stress, and that Mpr1 protects yeast cells from ethanol stress by reducing intracellular ROS levels. When the MPR1 gene was overexpressed in antioxidant enzyme-deficient mutants, increased resistance to H(2)O(2) or heat shock was observed in cells lacking the CTA1, CTT1, or GPX1 gene encoding catalase A, catalase T, or glutathione peroxidase, respectively. These results suggest that Mpr1 might compensate the function of enzymes that detoxify H(2)O(2). Hence, Mpr1 has promising potential for the breeding of novel ethanol-tolerant yeast strains.

  8. Histone acetyltransferases: challenges in targeting bi-substrate enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wapenaar, Hannah; Dekker, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are epigenetic enzymes that install acetyl groups onto lysine residues of cellular proteins such as histones, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, and enzymes. HATs have been shown to play a role in diseases ranging from cancer and inflammatory diseases to neurological disorders, both through acetylations of histone proteins and non-histone proteins. Several HAT inhibitors, like bi-substrate inhibitors, natural product derivatives, small molecules, and protein-protein interaction inhibitors, have been developed. Despite their potential, a large gap remains between the biological activity of inhibitors in in vitro studies and their potential use as therapeutic agents. To bridge this gap, new potent HAT inhibitors with improved properties need to be developed. However, several challenges have been encountered in the investigation of HATs and HAT inhibitors that hinder the development of new HAT inhibitors. HATs have been shown to function in complexes consisting of many proteins. These complexes play a role in the activity and target specificity of HATs, which limits the translation of in vitro to in vivo experiments. The current HAT inhibitors suffer from undesired properties like anti-oxidant activity, reactivity, instability, low potency, or lack of selectivity between HAT subtypes and other enzymes. A characteristic feature of HATs is that they are bi-substrate enzymes that catalyze reactions between two substrates: the cofactor acetyl coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) and a lysine-containing substrate. This has important-but frequently overlooked-consequences for the determination of the inhibitory potency of small molecule HAT inhibitors and the reproducibility of enzyme inhibition experiments. We envision that a careful characterization of molecular aspects of HATs and HAT inhibitors, such as the HAT catalytic mechanism and the enzyme kinetics of small molecule HAT inhibitors, will greatly improve the development of potent and

  9. Artificial insemination in domestic cats (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Toshihiko

    2006-07-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) in cats represents an important technique for increasing the contribution of genetically valuable individuals in specific populations, whether they be highly pedigreed purebred cats, medically important laboratory cats or endangered non-domestic cats. Semen is collected using electrical stimulation, with an artificial vagina or from intact or excised cauda epididymis. Sperm samples can be used for AI immediately after collection, after temporary storage above 0 degrees C or after cryopreservation. There have been three and five reports on intravaginal and intrauterine insemination, respectively, and one report on tubal insemination with fresh semen. In studies using fresh semen, it was reported that conception rates of 50% or higher were obtained by intravaginal insemination with 10-50x10(6) spermatozoa, while, in another report, the conception rate was 78% after AI with 80x10(6) spermatozoa. After intrauterine insemination, conception rates following deposition of 6.2x10(6) and 8x10(6) spermatozoa were reported to be 50 and 80%, respectively. With tubal insemination, the conception rate was 43% when 4x10(6) spermatozoa were used, showing that the number of spermatozoa required to obtain a satisfactory conception rate was similar to that of cats inseminated directly into the uterus. When frozen semen was used for intravaginal insemination the conception rate was rather low, but intrauterine insemination with 50x10(6) frozen/thawed spermatozoa resulted in a conception rate of 57%. Furthermore, in one report, conception was obtained by intrauterine insemination of frozen epididymal spermatozoa. Overall, there have been few reports on artificial insemination in cats. The results obtained to date show considerable variation, both within and among laboratories depending upon the type and number of spermatozoa used and the site of sperm deposition. Undoubtedly, future studies will identify the major factors required to consistently obtain

  10. Relationship between the Presence of Bartonella Species and Bacterial Loads in Cats and Cat Fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) under Natural Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit

    2015-01-01

    Cats are considered the main reservoir of three zoonotic Bartonella species: Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella koehlerae. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) have been experimentally demonstrated to be a competent vector of B. henselae and have been proposed as the potential vector of the two other Bartonella species. Previous studies have reported a lack of association between the Bartonella species infection status (infected or uninfected) and/or bacteremia levels of cats and the infection status of the fleas they host. Nevertheless, to date, no study has compared the quantitative distributions of these bacteria in both cats and their fleas under natural conditions. Thus, the present study explored these relationships by identifying and quantifying the different Bartonella species in both cats and their fleas. Therefore, EDTA-blood samples and fleas collected from stray cats were screened for Bartonella bacteria. Bacterial loads were quantified by high-resolution melt real-time quantitative PCR assays. The results indicated a moderate correlation between the Bartonella bacterial loads in the cats and their fleas when both were infected with the same Bartonella species. Moreover, a positive effect of the host infection status on the Bartonella bacterial loads of the fleas was observed. Conversely, the cat bacterial loads were not affected by the infection status of their fleas. Our results suggest that the Bartonella bacterial loads of fleas are positively affected by the presence of the bacteria in their feline host, probably by multiple acquisitions/accumulation and/or multiplication events. PMID:26070666

  11. Single neuron transcriptomics identify SRSF/SR protein B52 as a regulator of axon growth and Choline acetyltransferase splicing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boyin; Bossing, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    We removed single identified neurons from living Drosophila embryos to gain insight into the transcriptional control of developing neuronal networks. The microarray analysis of the transcriptome of two sibling neurons revealed seven differentially expressed transcripts between both neurons (threshold: log21.4). One transcript encodes the RNA splicing factor B52. Loss of B52 increases growth of axon branches. B52 function is also required for Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT ) splicing. At the end of embryogenesis, loss of B52 function impedes splicing of ChAT, reduces acetylcholine synthesis, and extends the period of uncoordinated muscle twitches during larval hatching. ChAT regulation by SRSF proteins may be a conserved feature since changes in SRSF5 expression and increased acetylcholine levels in brains of bipolar disease patients have been reported recently. PMID:27725692

  12. Multifocal osteomyelitis in a child: a rare manifestation of cat scratch disease: a case report and systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    de Kort, Joris G J L; Robben, Simon G F; Schrander, Jaap J P; van Rhijn, Lodewijk W

    2006-07-01

    We present a case of a 9-year-old immunocompetent girl who presented with pain in her left elbow and a painful swelling at her left clavicle. She had no lymphadenopathy or fever. Four hot spots were seen at her left clavicle, proximal and distal left humerus and lumbo-sacral spine on a bone scan. A magnetic resonance imaging showed an inflammatory process with bone destruction at her clavicle. Serological testing and polymerase chain reaction performed on a bone biopsy identified a Bartonella henselae infection. She was treated with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. After a relapse half a year later, the patient recovered fully. Multifocal osteomyelitis is a rare manifestation of cat scratch disease in children.

  13. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    PubMed

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-01-22

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats.

  14. External hydrocephalus in two cats.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Curtis W; Coates, Joan R; Ducoté, Julie M; Stefanacci, Joseph D; Walker, Michael A; Marino, Dominic J

    2003-01-01

    External hydrocephalus describes an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the cerebral hemispheres and the overlying arachnoid membrane, rather than within the lateral ventricles. Two young cats with encephalopathic signs were diagnosed with external hydrocephalus, one via magnetic resonance imaging and one via computed tomography. Both cats had abnormally large, broad heads, with no evidence of open fontanelles. A surgical shunt was placed in each cat to divert the accumulated CSF within the cranial cavity to the peritoneal space. Both cats improved dramatically soon after surgical shunting was performed, and they continue to do well clinically, approximately 42 months and 8 months postoperatively, respectively.

  15. An autosomal genetic linkage map of the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus.

    PubMed

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Tomlin, James F; Eizirik, Eduardo; Phillip, Cornel; Wells, David; Pontius, Joan U; Hannah, Steven S; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-04-01

    We report on the completion of an autosomal genetic linkage (GL) map of the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus). Unlike two previous linkage maps of the cat constructed with a hybrid pedigree between the domestic cat and the Asian leopard cat, this map was generated entirely with domestic cats, using a large multi-generational pedigree (n=256) maintained by the Nestlé Purina PetCare Company. Four hundred eighty-three simple tandem repeat (STR) loci have been assigned to linkage groups on the cat's 18 autosomes. A single linkage group spans each autosome. The length of the cat map, estimated at 4370 cM, is long relative to most reported mammalian maps. A high degree of concordance in marker order was observed between the third-generation map and the 1.5 Mb-resolution radiation hybrid (RH) map of the cat. Using the cat 1.9x whole-genome sequence, we identified map coordinates for 85% of the loci in the cat assembly, with high concordance observed in marker order between the linkage map and the cat sequence assembly. The present version represents a marked improvement over previous cat linkage maps as it (i) nearly doubles the number of markers that were present in the second-generation linkage map in the cat, (ii) provides a linkage map generated in a domestic cat pedigree which will more accurately reflect recombination distances than previous maps generated in a hybrid pedigree, and (iii) provides single linkage groups spanning each autosome. Marker order was largely consistent between this and the previous maps, though the use of a hybrid pedigree in the earlier versions appears to have contributed to some suppression of recombination. The improved linkage map will provide an added resource for the mapping of phenotypic variation in the domestic cat and the use of this species as a model system for biological research.

  16. Actinomyces endogenous endophthalmitis in a cat following multiple dental extractions.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Hans D; Ward, Daniel A; Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Lyons, Jeremiah A

    2013-11-01

    An 8-year-old, brachycephalic, mixed breed cat underwent full mouth tooth extractions for the treatment of tooth root abscessation. Subsequently, the cat developed anterior uveitis refractory to topical therapy that eventually necessitated enucleation. Actinomyces species were isolated from both the tooth root abscesses and the anterior chamber after enucleation. Histopathology of the enucleated eye revealed panophthalmitis with abundant intralesional bacteria morphologically consistent with Actinomyces. Between the time of tooth root extraction and enucleation (20 weeks), the cat was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and treated with oral steroids for inflammatory bowel syndrome. We believe this report represents a rare case of endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to dental disease, possibly precipitated by concurrent immunosuppression.

  17. Epidemiological evaluation of cats rescued at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Miharu, Fukushima, after the Great East Japan Earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Aki; Martinez-Lopez, Beatriz; Kass, Philip

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this research were to report characteristics of rescued cats at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Fukushima prefecture, Japan, and evaluate how adoptability, stress level, upper respiratory infection (URI) syndrome incidence, and URI pathogen prevalence were associated with the cat's shelter intake source and shelter characteristics. All cats admitted to the Miharu shelter, Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2014 were included in the study. The results demonstrate that in situ corticosteroid and antibiotic use were associated with cats subsequently developing upper respiratory infections (URI). Disease and cat behavior were unassociated with adoption. Cats in group housing had lower stress metrics than cats individually housed. Prevalences of URI pathogens exceeded 80%, but symptomatic cats were uncommon. Environmental enrichment and stress reduction strategies are important in controlling URI and reducing the need for corticosteroids and antibiotics in shelters. Preemptive protocols are important in preventing shelter admission of cats during disasters.

  18. Cats' Internal Exposure to Selected Brominated Flame Retardants and Organochlorines Correlated to House Dust and Cat Food.

    PubMed

    Norrgran Engdahl, J; Bignert, A; Jones, B; Athanassiadis, I; Bergman, Å; Weiss, J M

    2017-03-07

    Pet cats may be used as a biomarker for assessing exposures to organohalogen compounds (OHCs) adsorbed to household dust in home environments. This study explores two exposure routes of OHCs, ingestion of OHCs (i) via house dust and (ii) via cat food. House dust from 17 Swedish homes and serum from the participating families' pet cats were collected, and cat food was purchased matching the diet reported. Paired samples of cat serum, house dust, and cat food were analyzed for brominated flame retardants/natural products (polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromobiphenyl (BB-209), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP), OH-PBDEs) and organochlorines (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-bis(4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-bis(4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (4,4'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorophenol (PCP)). Significant correlations were found between serum and dust samples from the living rooms for BDE-47 (p < 0.035), BDE-99 (p < 0.035), and BDE-153 (p < 0.039), from the adult's bedroom for BDE-99 (p < 0.019) and from all rooms for BDE-99 (p < 0.020) and BB-209 (p < 0.048). This is the first time a correlation between cat serum levels and household dust has been established, a finding that supports the hypothesis that dust is a significant exposure route for cats. Serum levels were also significantly correlated with concentrations found in cat food for 6-OH-BDE47 (p < 0.002), 2,4,6-TBP (p < 0.035), and BB-209 (p < 0.007). DBDPE was found in high concentrations in all dust (median 154 pmol/g) and food samples (median 0.7 pmol/g lw) but was below detection in serum samples, suggesting low or no bioavailability for DBDPE in cats.

  19. Chromatographic separation of reaction products from the choline acetyltransferase and carnitine acetyltransferase assay: differential ChAT and CrAT activity in brain extracts from Alzheimer's disease versus controls.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jason A; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2012-08-01

    Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) catalyzes the reaction between choline and acetylcoenzyme A (AcCoA) to form acetylcholine (ACh) in nerve terminals. ACh metabolism has implications in numerous aspects of physiology and varied disease states, such as Alzheimer's disease. Therefore a specific, sensitive, and reliable method for detecting ChAT enzyme activity is of great utility in a number of situations. Using an existing radionuclide-based enzyme activity assay, we have observed detectable ChAT signals from non-cholinergic cells, suggesting a contaminant in the assay producing an artifactual signal. Previous reports have suggested that L-acetylcarnitine (LAC) contaminates many assays of ChAT activity, because of difficulties in separating LAC from ACh by organic extraction. To determine the source of this hypothesized artifact and to rectify the problem, we have developed a paper chromatography-based assay for the detection of acetylcholine and other contaminating reaction products of this assay, including LAC. Our first goal was to develop a simple and economical method for resolving and verifying the identities of various reaction products or contaminants that could be performed in most laboratories without specialized equipment. Our second goal was to apply this separation method in postmortem human brain tissue samples. Our assay successfully detected several contaminants, especially in assays using brain tissue, and allowed the separation of the intended ACh product from these contaminants. We further demonstrate that this assay can be used to measure carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) activity in the same samples, and assays comparing ChAT and CrAT show that CrAT is highly active in neuronal tissues and in neuronal cell cultures relative to ChAT. Thus, the simple chromatography-based assay we describe allows the measurement of specific reaction products separated from contaminants using commonly available and inexpensive materials. Further, we show that Ch

  20. A Novel H2A/H4 Nucleosomal Histone Acetyltransferase in Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Ohba, Reiko; Steger, David J.; Brownell, James E.; Mizzen, Craig A.; Cook, Richard G.; Côté, Jacques; Workman, Jerry L.; Allis, C. David

    1999-01-01

    Recently, we reported the identification of a 55-kDa polypeptide (p55) from Tetrahymena macronuclei as a catalytic subunit of a transcription-associated histone acetyltransferase (HAT A). Extensive homology between p55 and Gcn5p, a component of the SAGA and ADA transcriptional coactivator complexes in budding yeast, suggests an immediate link between the regulation of chromatin structure and transcriptional output. Here we report the characterization of a second transcription-associated HAT activity from Tetrahymena macronuclei. This novel activity is distinct from complexes containing p55 and putative ciliate SAGA and ADA components and shares several characteristics with NuA4 (for nucleosomal H2A/H4), a 1.8-MDa, Gcn5p-independent HAT complex recently described in yeast. A key feature of both the NuA4 and Tetrahymena activities is their acetylation site specificity for lysines 5, 8, 12, and 16 of H4 and lysines 5 and 9 of H2A in nucleosomal substrates, patterns that are distinct from those of known Gcn5p family members. Moreover, like NuA4, the Tetrahymena activity is capable of activating transcription from nucleosomal templates in vitro in an acetyl coenzyme A-dependent fashion. Unlike NuA4, however, sucrose gradient analyses of the ciliate enzyme, following sequential denaturation and renaturation, estimate the molecular size of the catalytically active subunit to be ∼80 kDa, consistent with the notion that a single polypeptide or a stable subcomplex is sufficient for this H2A/H4 nucleosomal HAT activity. Together, these data document the importance of this novel HAT activity for transcriptional activation from chromatin templates and suggest that a second catalytic HAT subunit, in addition to p55/Gcn5p, is conserved between yeast and Tetrahymena. PMID:10022893

  1. Risk factors for road traffic accidents in cats up to age 12 months that were registered between 2010 and 2013 with the UK pet cat cohort ('Bristol Cats').

    PubMed

    Wilson, J L; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Murray, J K

    2017-02-25

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are a common cause of death and injury in domestic cats, and a concern to many owners. This study assessed potential risk factors for RTAs in cats up to 12 months of age within a UK cat cohort known as 'The Bristol Cats study'. Data were obtained from three questionnaires, completed by cat owners when their cats were approximately 8-16 weeks old, 6 months old and 12 months old. Information was gathered regarding environmental conditions, cat characteristics and owner management factors. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess associations between these factors and RTAs. Of 1264 eligible study cats, 49 (3.9 per cent) had been involved in an RTA, of which 71.4 per cent (35/49) were known to result in fatal injuries. Rural locations were associated with a higher odds of RTAs than towns, cities or suburban locations. An increased odds of an RTA was also associated with cats that were reported by their owners to hunt at the roadside, as well as cats whose owners classified the road by their house as being a 'long straight section of road'. No significant associations were found between coat colour, breed, sex or neuter status and the odds of an RTA.

  2. Survey of dietary and medication practices of owners of cats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Markovich, Jessica E; Freeman, Lisa M; Labato, Mary A; Heinze, Cailin R

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the dietary and medication patterns of cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study, owners of cats with CKD were asked to complete a web-based survey. The study was advertised on CKD-, pet-, veterinary- and breed-associated websites and list serves. Owners of 1089 cats with CKD participated in the study. The mean reported age of the cats with CKD was 13.7 ± 4.2 years. Forty percent (430/1089) of cats had concurrent diseases, with hyperthyroidism, heart disease and inflammatory bowel disease being the most common. Veterinarian recommendation was the most common reason reported (684/1032; 66%) for diet selection, and 51% (556/1089) of owners fed a veterinary therapeutic diet formulated for kidney disease as some component of the diet. Many owners (466/1079; 43%) reported that their cats had an abnormal appetite; of these owners, 52% responded that their cats had a poor appetite or required coaxing to eat 5-7 days per week. Forty-seven percent and 51% of cats were receiving subcutaneous fluids and oral medications, respectively; however, most cats (811/1036; 78%) were not receiving phosphorus-binding medications. Fifty-six percent and 38% of cats received commercial cat treats and dietary supplements, respectively. Anorexia or hyporexia is a common problem in cats with CKD and may lead to cats being fed suboptimal diets for their disease. This information may be useful for treating or designing nutritional studies for cats with CKD.

  3. Hypocobalaminaemia is uncommon in cats in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Ibarrola, Patricia; Blackwood, Laura; Graham, Peter A; Evans, Helen; German, Alexander J

    2005-12-01

    Recent work has highlighted the importance of cobalamin deficiency in cats with a range of alimentary tract diseases. The primary aim of our study was to determine the incidence of subnormal cobalamin concentrations in sick cats with and without alimentary system disorders. Firstly, serum cobalamin concentrations were measured in a population of cats, with and without gastrointestinal (GI) disease, evaluated at a referral hospital. In the second part of the study, the incidence of cobalamin deficiency was assessed in samples submitted to a commercial laboratory specifically for cobalamin measurement. For both studies, a validated radioimmunoassay was used to measure serum cobalamin concentrations (reference range: > 150 pg/ml). In the first part of the study, 132 cats were included and none of these cats had subnormal cobalamin concentrations (median=1,172; range: 278 to >2,000). There were no differences in cobalamin concentrations between cats with alimentary system disorders, and those with diseases of other organs. In the second part, 682 samples were submitted for cobalamin assay over a period of 3 years, and only one cat had a result below the reference range (median=794; range: 147 to >2,000). Cobalamin deficiency was rare in the population tested and this may suggest that the incidence of this biochemical abnormality is less common than reported in the USA.

  4. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous fenoldopam in healthy, awake cats.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, K E; Labato, M A; Court, M H

    2016-04-01

    Fenoldopam is a selective dopamine-1 receptor agonist that improves diuresis by increasing renal blood flow and perfusion and causing peripheral vasodilation. Fenoldopam has been shown to induce diuresis and be well-tolerated in healthy cats. It is used clinically in cats with oliguric kidney injury at doses extrapolated from human medicine and canine studies. The pharmacokinetics in healthy beagle dogs has been reported; however, pharmacokinetic data in cats are lacking. The goal of this study was to determine pharmacokinetic data for healthy, awake cats receiving an infusion of fenoldopam. Six healthy, awake, client-owned cats aged 2-6 years old received a 120-min constant rate infusion of fenoldopam at 0.8 μg/kg/min followed by a 20-min washout period. Ascorbate stabilized plasma samples were collected during and after the infusion for the measurement of fenoldopam concentration by HPLC with mass spectrometry detection. This study showed that the geometric mean of the volume of distribution, clearance, and half-life (198 mL/kg, 46 mL/kg/min, and 3.0 mins) is similar to pharmacokinetic parameters for humans. No adverse events were noted. Fenoldopam at a constant rate infusion of 0.8 μg/kg per min was well tolerated in healthy cats. Based on the results, further evaluation of fenoldopam in cats with kidney disease is recommended.

  5. Hypertensive retinopathy in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Van Boxtel, Sherry A.

    2003-01-01

    A 12-year-old cat presented for sudden blindness was diagnosed with hypertensive retinopathy on the basis of ophthalmologic and ultrasonic examination. Renal failure due to a large intranephric cyst obstructing the right ureter and renal artery was the suggested cause of the systemic hypertension. The cat died 8 hours after unilateral nephrectomy. PMID:12650046

  6. Oral masses in two cats.

    PubMed

    Bock, P; Hach, V; Baumgärtner, W

    2011-07-01

    Incisional biopsies from the oral cavity of 2 adult cats were submitted for histological investigation. Cat No. 1 showed a solitary well-circumscribed neoplasm in the left mandible. Cat No. 2 demonstrated a diffusely infiltrating neoplasm in the left maxilla. Both tumors consisted of medium-size epithelial cells embedded in a fibrovascular stroma. The mitotic index was 0 to 1 mitosis per high-power field. The epithelial cells showed an irregular arrangement forming nests or streams in cat No. 1, whereas a palisading growth was noted in cat No. 2. Both tumors, especially that of cat No. 1, showed multifocal accumulations of amyloid as confirmed by Congo red staining and a distinct green birefringence under polarized light, which lacked cytokeratin immunoreactivity as well as and AL and AA amyloid immunoreactivity. In addition, the amyloid in cat No. 2 was positive for the odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein, formerly termed APin. In sum, both cats suffered from an amyloid-producing odontogenic tumor, but their tumors varied with respect to morphology and type of amyloid produced.

  7. College Students and Their Cats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  8. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  9. Dissecting the Molecular Roles of Histone Chaperones in Histone Acetylation by Type B Histone Acetyltransferases (HAT-B).

    PubMed

    Haigney, Allison; Ricketts, M Daniel; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2015-12-18

    The HAT-B enzyme complex is responsible for acetylating newly synthesized histone H4 on lysines K5 and K12. HAT-B is a multisubunit complex composed of the histone acetyltransferase 1 (Hat1) catalytic subunit and the Hat2 (rbap46) histone chaperone. Hat1 is predominantly localized in the nucleus as a member of a trimeric NuB4 complex containing Hat1, Hat2, and a histone H3-H4 specific histone chaperone called Hif1 (NASP). In addition to Hif1 and Hat2, Hat1 interacts with Asf1 (anti-silencing function 1), a histone chaperone that has been reported to be involved in both replication-dependent and -independent chromatin assembly. To elucidate the molecular roles of the Hif1 and Asf1 histone chaperones in HAT-B histone binding and acetyltransferase activity, we have characterized the stoichiometry and binding mode of Hif1 and Asf1 to HAT-B and the effect of this binding on the enzymatic activity of HAT-B. We find that Hif1 and Asf1 bind through different modes and independently to HAT-B, whereby Hif1 binds directly to Hat2, and Asf1 is only capable of interactions with HAT-B through contacts with histones H3-H4. We also demonstrate that HAT-B is significantly more active against an intact H3-H4 heterodimer over a histone H4 peptide, independent of either Hif1 or Asf1 binding. Mutational studies further demonstrate that HAT-B binding to the histone tail regions is not sufficient for this enhanced activity. Based on these data, we propose a model for HAT-B/histone chaperone assembly and acetylation of H3-H4 complexes.

  10. Structure of soybean serine acetyltransferase and formation of the cysteine regulatory complex as a molecular chaperone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) catalyzes the limiting reaction in plant and microbial biosynthesis of cysteine. In addition to its enzymatic function, SAT forms a macromolecular complex with O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS). Formation of the cysteine regulatory complex (CRC) is a critical biochem...

  11. Conditions for the self-catalysed inactivation of carnitine acetyltransferase. A novel form of enzyme inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chase, J. F. A.; Tubbs, P. K.

    1969-01-01

    1. Carnitine acetyltransferase is very rapidly inhibited in the presence of bromoacetyl-(−)-carnitine plus CoA or of bromoacetyl-CoA plus (−)-carnitine. 2. Under appropriate conditions, the enzyme may be titrated with either bromoacetyl substrate analogue; in each case about 1mole of inhibitor is required to inactivate completely 1mole of enzyme of molecular weight 58000±3000. 3. Inhibition by bromoacetyl-CoA plus (−)-carnitine results in the formation of an inactive enzyme species, containing stoicheiometric amounts of bound adenine nucleotide and (−)-carnitine in a form that is not removed by gel filtration. This is shown to be S-carboxymethyl-CoA (−)-carnitine ester. 4. The inhibited enzyme recovers activity slowly on prolonged standing at 4°. 5. Incubation with S-carboxymethyl-CoA (−)-carnitine ester causes a slow inhibition of carnitine acetyltransferase. 6. The formation of bound S-carboxymethyl-CoA (−)-carnitine ester by the enzyme is discussed. Presumably the resulting inhibition reflects binding of the ester to both the CoA- and carnitine-binding sites on the enzyme and its consequent very slow dissociation. These observations confirm that carnitine acetyltransferase can form ternary enzyme–substrate complexes; this also appears to be the case with carnitine palmitoyltransferase and choline acetyltransferase. PMID:5763788

  12. Genetic Variation at the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) Genes in Global Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Functional variability at the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) genes is associated with adverse drug reactions and cancer susceptibility in humans. Previous studies of small sets of ethnic groups have indicated that the NAT genes have high levels of amino acid variation that differ in f...

  13. Phylogenetic and biological investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family among fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes well-characterized in several bacteria and eukaryotic organisms. The role of NATs in fungal biology has only recently been investigated. The NAT1 (FDB2) gene of Fusarium verticillioides was the first NAT cloned and character...

  14. AAC(3)-XI, a New Aminoglycoside 3-N-Acetyltransferase from Corynebacterium striatum

    PubMed Central

    Galimand, Marc; Fishovitz, Jennifer; Lambert, Thierry; Barbe, Valérie; Zajicek, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium striatum BM4687 was resistant to gentamicin and tobramycin but susceptible to kanamycin A and amikacin, a phenotype distinct among Gram-positive bacteria. Analysis of the entire genome of this strain did not detect any genes for known aminoglycoside resistance enzymes. Yet, annotation of the coding sequences identified 12 putative acetyltransferases or GCN5-related N-acetyltransferases. A total of 11 of these coding sequences were also present in the genomes of other Corynebacterium spp. The 12th coding sequence had 55 to 60% amino acid identity with acetyltransferases in Actinomycetales. The gene was cloned in Escherichia coli, where it conferred resistance to aminoglycosides by acetylation. The protein was purified to homogeneity, and its steady-state kinetic parameters were determined for dibekacin and kanamycin B. The product of the turnover of dibekacin was purified, and its structure was elucidated by high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), indicating transfer of the acetyl group to the amine at the C-3 position. Due to the unique profile of the reaction, it was designated aminoglycoside 3-N-acetyltransferase type XI. PMID:26149994

  15. Histone acetyltransferase activity of MOF is required for adult but not early fetal hematopoiesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Daria G; Xu, Haiming; Eisold, Meghan E; Woolthuis, Carolien M; Pandita, Tej K; Armstrong, Scott A

    2017-01-05

    K(lysine) acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8, also known as MOF) mediates the acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac) and is crucial for murine embryogenesis. Lysine acetyltransferases have been shown to regulate various stages of normal hematopoiesis. However, the function of MOF in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development has not yet been elucidated. We set out to study the role of MOF in general hematopoiesis by using a Vav1-cre-induced conditional murine Mof knockout system and found that MOF is critical for hematopoietic cell maintenance and HSC engraftment capacity in adult hematopoiesis. Rescue experiments with a MOF histone acetyltransferase domain mutant illustrated the requirement for MOF acetyltransferase activity in the clonogenic capacity of HSCs and progenitors. In stark contrast, fetal steady-state hematopoiesis at embryonic day (E) 14.5 was not affected by homozygous Mof deletion despite dramatic loss of global H4K16ac. Hematopoietic defects start manifesting in late gestation at E17.5. The discovery that MOF and its H4K16ac activity are required for adult but not early and midgestational hematopoiesis supports the notion that multiple chromatin regulators may be crucial for hematopoiesis at varying stages of development. MOF is therefore a developmental-stage-specific chromatin regulator found to be essential for adult but not early fetal hematopoiesis.

  16. Comparative investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family among fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes well-characterized in several bacteria and higher eukaryotes. The role of NATs in fungal biology has only recently been investigated. The NAT1 gene of Gibberella moniliformis was the first NAT cloned and characterized from fun...

  17. Polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats with successful treatment of bacterial cyst infection.

    PubMed

    Nivy, R; Lyons, L A; Aroch, I; Segev, G

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited disorder in cats. Renal cysts progressively increase in size and number, resulting in a gradual decrease in kidney function. An autosomal dominant mutation in exon 29 of the polycystin-1 gene has been identified, mostly in Persian and Persian-related breeds. This case study describes polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats, of which two had the same genetic mutation reported in Persian and Persian-related cats. This likely reflects introduction of this mutation into the British shorthair breeding line because of previous outcrossing with Persian cats. An infected renal cyst was diagnosed and successfully treated in one of the cats. This is a commonly reported complication in human polycystic kidney disease, and to the authors' knowledge has not previously been reported in cats with polycystic kidney disease.

  18. An open clinical trial on the efficacy of cetirizine hydrochloride in the management of allergic pruritus in cats.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Joya S; Scott, Danny W; Miller, William H; Tranchina, Michelle M

    2012-01-01

    Cetirizine hydrochloride was administered orally at 5 mg/cat, q24h, to 32 cats with allergic skin disease. Pruritus was reduced in 41% (13/32) of the cats. The antipruritic effect was repeatable and sustainable. There was no significant association between patient age, disease severity, or cutaneous reaction pattern and improvement during cetirizine administration. No adverse side effects were reported.

  19. How cats lap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Roman; Reis, Pedro; Jung, Sunghwan; Aristoff, Jeffrey

    2010-11-01

    We studied the lapping of the domestic cat (Felis catus) by combining high-speed photography with a laboratory model of lapping. We found that Felis catus laps by a subtle mechanism based on water adhesion to the dorsal side of the tongue and the creation of a liquid column, exploiting inertia to defeat gravity and pull liquid into the mouth. The competition between inertia and gravity controls the pinch-off time of the column, determining the optimal lapping frequency, f. Felis catus was found to operate near the optimum and theoretical analysis yielded a scaling, f ˜M-1/6, of lapping frequency with animal mass, M. This prediction was verified by measuring lapping frequency across felids, from ocelots to lions, suggesting that the lapping mechanism is conserved among felines.

  20. Acceptance of Domestic Cat Mitochondrial DNA in a Criminal Proceeding

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Leslie A.; Grahn, Robert A.; Kun, Teri J.; Netzel, Linda R.; Wictum, Elizabeth E.; Halverson, Joy L.

    2014-01-01

    Shed hair from domestic animals readily adheres to clothing and other contact items, providing a source of transfer evidence for criminal investigations. Mitochondrial DNA is often the only option for DNA analysis of shed hair. Human mitochondrial DNA analysis has been accepted in the US court system since 1996. The murder trial of the State of Missouri versus Henry L. Polk, Jr. represents the first legal proceeding where cat mitochondrial DNA analysis was introduced into evidence. The mitochondrial DNA evidence was initially considered inadmissible due to concerns about the cat dataset and the scientific acceptance of the marker. Those concerns were subsequently addressed, and the evidence was deemed admissible. This report reviews the case in regards to the cat biological evidence and its ultimate admission as generally accepted and reliable. Expansion and saturation analysis of the cat mitochondrial DNA control region dataset supported the initial interpretation of the evidence. PMID:25086413

  1. q -deformed noncommutative cat states and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib

    2015-02-01

    We study several classical-like properties of q -deformed nonlinear coherent states as well as nonclassical behaviors of q -deformed version of the Schrödinger cat states in noncommutative space. Coherent states in q -deformed space are found to be minimum uncertainty states together with the squeezed photon distributions unlike the ordinary systems, where the photon distributions are always Poissonian. Several advantages of utilizing cat states in noncommutative space over the standard quantum mechanical spaces have been reported here. For instance, the q -deformed parameter has been utilized to improve the squeezing of the quadrature beyond the ordinary case. Most importantly, the parameter provides an extra degree of freedom by which we achieve both quadrature squeezed and number squeezed cat states at the same time in a single system, which is impossible to achieve from ordinary cat states.

  2. Acceptance of domestic cat mitochondrial DNA in a criminal proceeding.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Kun, Teri J; Netzel, Linda R; Wictum, Elizabeth E; Halverson, Joy L

    2014-11-01

    Shed hair from domestic animals readily adheres to clothing and other contact items, providing a source of transfer evidence for criminal investigations. Mitochondrial DNA is often the only option for DNA analysis of shed hair. Human mitochondrial DNA analysis has been accepted in the US court system since 1996. The murder trial of the State of Missouri versus Henry L. Polk, Jr. represents the first legal proceeding where cat mitochondrial DNA analysis was introduced into evidence. The mitochondrial DNA evidence was initially considered inadmissible due to concerns about the cat dataset and the scientific acceptance of the marker. Those concerns were subsequently addressed, and the evidence was deemed admissible. This report reviews the case in regards to the cat biological evidence and its ultimate admission as generally accepted and reliable. Expansion and saturation analysis of the cat mitochondrial DNA control region dataset supported the initial interpretation of the evidence.

  3. Biplane transesophageal echocardiography in the normal cat.

    PubMed

    Kienle, R D; Thomas, W P; Rishniw, M

    1997-01-01

    Eight healthy, adult cats were examined with biplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Cats were sedated with a combination of diazepam and propofol and were examined using a 5 mm x 80 cm pediatric biplane TEE probe. Consistent images were obtained at three imaging depths within the esophagus. The caudal position provided satisfactory short-axis images of the left ventricle and heart base. The middle position provided the best long-axis views of the left atrium, left ventricle, and aorta and allowed Doppler examination of transmitral left ventricular inflow. The cranial position provided satisfactory imaging of the aorta and pulmonary artery and allowed Doppler examination of right ventricular and left ventricular outflow. Biplane TEE provides an additional method of imaging the feline heart which is complimentary to other imaging techniques and the images obtained were similar to those reported for dogs. Although TEE offers a slight advantage over transthorcic imaging for Doppler examination, the quality of the images of heart base structures was not as consistently superior to transthoracic images in cats as reported in dogs.

  4. Hepatosplenic Cat Scratch Disease in Immunocompetent Adults

    PubMed Central

    García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062

  5. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  6. Pemphigus foliaceus in a cat.

    PubMed

    Kofod, H

    1993-01-16

    The author's cat started to develop the signs of pemphigus foliaceus one month after he returned home after six months absence. The initial signs included dry coughing and difficulty with purring and swallowing, followed by typical changes of the skin. The cat was treated by a combination of chrysotherapy and systemic glucocorticoid injections, and remained free of clinical signs for one and a half years. The cat then relapsed and showed the initial signs except that coughing was not observed. It was treated as before but after a second relapse and the same treatment it slowly developed a general weakness and was euthanased.

  7. Spontaneous lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion in cats: literature review and case presentations.

    PubMed

    Kathmann, I; Cizinauskas, S; Rytz, U; Lang, J; Jaggy, A

    2000-12-01

    Reports on intervertebral disc disease in cats are rare in the veterinary literature. It has been postulated that intervertebral disc protrusion is a frequent finding during necropsy in cats, without having any clinical relevance (King and Smith 1958, King & Smith 1960a, King & Smith 1960b). However, a total of six cases with disc protrusions and clinically significant neurological deficits have been reported over the past decade. (Heavner 1971, Seim & Nafe 1981, Gilmore 1983, Littlewood et al 1984, Sparkes & Skerry 1990, Bagley et al 1995). As in dogs, there are also two types of intervertebral disc disease in cats: Hansen's type I (extrusion), and type II (herniation). Cervical spinal cord involvement was more commonly recognised in cats than the lumbar or the thoraco lumbar area. Cats over 15 years were mainly affected (King & Smith 1958, King & Smith 1960a, King & Smith 1960b). We describe two cats with lumbar intervertebral disc protrusions. Emphasis is placed on differential diagnoses, treatment and follow-up.

  8. Isolation of Bartonella henselae DNA from the Peripheral Blood of a Patient with Cat Scratch Disease up to 4 Months after the Cat Scratch Injury

    PubMed Central

    Arvand, Mardjan; Schäd, Susanne G.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a girl with cervical lymphadenitis and a persistent primary lesion of cat scratch disease (CSD). Bartonella henselae DNA was isolated from plasma samples collected 3 and 4 months after the cat scratch, indicating that recurrent and long-term shedding of Bartonella DNA into peripheral blood may occur in typical CSD. PMID:16757642

  9. Error Generation in CATS-Based Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd

    2003-01-01

    This research presents a methodology for generating errors from a model of nominally preferred correct operator activities, given a particular operational context, and maintaining an explicit link to the erroneous contextual information to support analyses. It uses the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) model as the basis for error generation. This report describes how the process works, and how it may be useful for supporting agent-based system safety analyses. The report presents results obtained by applying the error-generation process and discusses implementation issues. The research is supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention Element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  10. [Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats].

    PubMed

    van Doorn, D C K; de Bruin, M J; Jorritsma, R A; Ploeger, H W; Schoormans, A

    2009-09-01

    Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for, Tritrichomonas foetus among cats in the Netherlands. A total of 154 faecal samples were collected from three groups of cats: cats with diarrhoea (n=53), cattery cats (n=47), and healthy pet cats (n=54). Faecal samples were examined with a T. foetus specific real-time PCR. All PCR-positive samples were run on gel electrophoresis for definitive diagnosis. The prevalence of T. foetus was 2% among cats with diarrhoea and 4% among cattery cats; T. foetus was not prevalent among pet cats (none of the samples tested positive). Questionnaires had been distributed to cat and cattery owners to determine risk factors for T. foetus, but the low prevalence precluded statistical analysis of the questionnaire results.

  11. Cat scratch disease in an immunosuppressed patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hitos, J A; Sabio, J M; Navarrete-Navarrete, N; Arenas-Miras, M del M; Zamora-Pasadas, M; Jiménez-Alonso, J

    2016-03-01

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious disorder transmitted by cats that typically affects children and young adults. Immunosuppression is a well-known risk factor for the development of severe and atypical forms of the disease; hence it is under-diagnosed in patients with compromised immunity. We are reporting the first case of cat scratch disease, which presented as fever and fatigue, in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus while receiving immunosuppressant therapy after a kidney transplant.

  12. Sex-biased transcription enhancement by a 5' tethered Gal4-MOF histone acetyltransferase fusion protein in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In male Drosophila melanogaster, the male specific lethal (MSL) complex is somehow responsible for a two-fold increase in transcription of most X-linked genes, which are enriched for histone H4 acetylated at lysine 16 (H4K16ac). This acetylation requires MOF, a histone acetyltransferase that is a component of the MSL complex. MOF also associates with the non-specific lethal or NSL complex. The MSL complex is bound within active genes on the male X chromosome with a 3' bias. In contrast, the NSL complex is enriched at promoter regions of many autosomal and X-linked genes in both sexes. In this study we have investigated the role of MOF as a transcriptional activator. Results MOF was fused to the DNA binding domain of Gal4 and targeted to the promoter region of UAS-reporter genes in Drosophila. We found that expression of a UAS-red fluorescent protein (DsRed) reporter gene was strongly induced by Gal4-MOF. However, DsRed RNA levels were about seven times higher in female than male larvae. Immunostaining of polytene chromosomes showed that Gal4-MOF co-localized with MSL1 to many sites on the X chromosome in male but not female nuclei. However, in female nuclei that express MSL2, Gal4-MOF co-localized with MSL1 to many sites on polytene chromosomes but DsRed expression was reduced. Mutation of conserved active site residues in MOF (Glu714 and Cys680) reduced HAT activity in vitro and UAS-DsRed activation in Drosophila. In the presence of Gal4-MOF, H4K16ac levels were enriched over UAS-lacZ and UAS-arm-lacZ reporter genes. The latter utilizes the constitutive promoter from the arm gene to drive lacZ expression. In contrast to the strong induction of UAS-DsRed expression, UAS-arm-lacZ expression increased by about 2-fold in both sexes. Conclusions Targeting MOF to reporter genes led to transcription enhancement and acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16. Histone acetyltransferase activity was required for the full transcriptional response. Incorporation of Gal

  13. Feeders of Free-Roaming Cats: Personal Characteristics, Feeding Practices, and Data on Cat Health and Welfare in an Urban Setting of Israel

    PubMed Central

    Gunther, Idit; Raz, Tal; Even Zor, Yehonatan; Bachowski, Yuval; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRCs) and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR) campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices, and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to 5 cats, group 2: fed 6–10 cats, group 3: fed 11–20 cats, and group 4: fed ≥21 cats). Most feeders were women (81%), with a median age of 58 years (range 18–81). The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised 15.31% (n = 34) of all feeders but fed 56% (n = 1869) of the FRC in 37.42% (n = 128) of the feeding locations. “Heavy” feeders (groups 3 and 4) reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, “heavy” feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets, and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders’ reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337) cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337) were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337) of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337) suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337) had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337) were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity

  14. Feeders of Free-Roaming Cats: Personal Characteristics, Feeding Practices, and Data on Cat Health and Welfare in an Urban Setting of Israel.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Idit; Raz, Tal; Even Zor, Yehonatan; Bachowski, Yuval; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRCs) and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR) campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices, and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to 5 cats, group 2: fed 6-10 cats, group 3: fed 11-20 cats, and group 4: fed ≥21 cats). Most feeders were women (81%), with a median age of 58 years (range 18-81). The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised 15.31% (n = 34) of all feeders but fed 56% (n = 1869) of the FRC in 37.42% (n = 128) of the feeding locations. "Heavy" feeders (groups 3 and 4) reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, "heavy" feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets, and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders' reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337) cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337) were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337) of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337) suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337) had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337) were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity rate were

  15. Assessment of left ventricular longitudinal function in cats with subclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    SUGIMOTO, Keisuke; FUJII, Yoko; SUNAHARA, Hiroshi; AOKI, Takuma

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in cats is characterized by concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and both diastolic and systolic dysfunction. Although impaired cardiac function detected by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in cats with HCM was previously reported, reference ranges of TDI in normal cats and cats with HCM have been reported as widely variable. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) was useful for assessment of cardiac function in human patients with HCM, but clinical utility was not known in cats. The aim of this study was to assess global and segmental LV myocardial function using STE in cats with HCM whose TDI variables were within the reference range. A total of 35 cats of different breeds were enrolled in this study. The HCM group (n=22) was cats diagnosed as HCM without left atrial enlargement and with normal TDI measurements. HCM cats were further divided into a segmental hypertrophy (S-HCM) group and a diffuse hypertrophy (D-HCM) group. The control group consisted of 13 clinically healthy cats. No cats in any group showed any clinical symptoms. Conventional echocardiography, TDI, and global and segmental STE indices were evaluated and compared between groups. Only the longitudinal strain rate during early diastole was significantly decreased in both HCM groups, even in all segments including those without hypertrophy in S-HCM group. This study suggests that STE parameters are the more sensitive variables compared with conventional TDI parameters to detect early myocardial diastolic dysfunction in cats with HCM. PMID:25877405

  16. Assessment of left ventricular longitudinal function in cats with subclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Keisuke; Fujii, Yoko; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Aoki, Takuma

    2015-09-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in cats is characterized by concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and both diastolic and systolic dysfunction. Although impaired cardiac function detected by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in cats with HCM was previously reported, reference ranges of TDI in normal cats and cats with HCM have been reported as widely variable. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) was useful for assessment of cardiac function in human patients with HCM, but clinical utility was not known in cats. The aim of this study was to assess global and segmental LV myocardial function using STE in cats with HCM whose TDI variables were within the reference range. A total of 35 cats of different breeds were enrolled in this study. The HCM group (n=22) was cats diagnosed as HCM without left atrial enlargement and with normal TDI measurements. HCM cats were further divided into a segmental hypertrophy (S-HCM) group and a diffuse hypertrophy (D-HCM) group. The control group consisted of 13 clinically healthy cats. No cats in any group showed any clinical symptoms. Conventional echocardiography, TDI, and global and segmental STE indices were evaluated and compared between groups. Only the longitudinal strain rate during early diastole was significantly decreased in both HCM groups, even in all segments including those without hypertrophy in S-HCM group. This study suggests that STE parameters are the more sensitive variables compared with conventional TDI parameters to detect early myocardial diastolic dysfunction in cats with HCM.

  17. Cat eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome. PMID:24842361

  18. Cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

    2014-05-19

    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome.

  19. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

    2013-02-14

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  20. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Ethiopian feral cats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Choudhary, S; Tilahun, G; Tiao, N; Gebreyes, W A; Zou, X; Su, C

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies indicate greater genetic variability among isolates of Toxoplasma gondii worldwide than previously thought. However, there is no information on genetic diversity of T. gondii from any host in Ethiopia. In the present study, genotyping was performed on viable T. gondii isolates by bioassays in mice from tissues and feces of 27 cats from Ethiopia. Viable T. gondii was isolated from hearts of 26 cats, feces alone of 1 cat, and feces and tissues of 6 cats; in total there were 33 isolates. Genotyping was performed on DNA from cell-cultured derived T. gondii tachyzoites and by using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Four genotypes were recognized, including ToxoDB #1 (Type II clonal, nine isolates), ToxoDB #2 (Type III, five isolates), Toxo DB #3 (Type II variant, ten isolates), and ToxoDB #20 (nine isolates). Of interest is the isolation of different genotypes from tissues and feces of two cats, suggesting re-infection or mixed strain T. gondii infection. These findings are of epidemiological significance with respect to shedding of oocysts by cats. This is the first report of genotyping of T. gondii from any host in Ethiopia.

  1. Clinical characterisation of polydactyly in Maine Coon cats.

    PubMed

    Hamelin, Alexia; Begon, Dominique; Conchou, Fabrice; Fusellier, Marion; Abitbol, Marie

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Polydactyly has been reported in a number of vertebrate species, including the domestic cat. It is a common characteristic in some breeding lines of the Maine Coon. The aim of this study was to assess the limb phenotype of polydactyl cats using physical and radiographic examinations. Methods We used physical examination and radiography to characterise the polydactyly phenotype in a cohort of 70 Maine Coon cats, including 48 polydactyl cats from four different breeding lines from Europe, Canada and the USA. Results The phenotypic expression of polydactyly showed great variability, not only in digit number and conformation, but also in the structure of the carpus and tarsus. Comparison of the size of the radius in polydactyl and non-polydactyl 3-month-old kittens and adult females did not reveal any difference between polydactyl and non-polydactyl cats. Conclusions and relevance We conclude that polydactyly in Maine Coon cats is characterised by broad phenotypic diversity. Polydactyly not only affects digit number and conformation, but also carpus and tarsus conformation, with no apparent deleterious consequence on feline welfare.

  2. Adverse events in 50 cats with allergic dermatitis receiving ciclosporin.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Nicole A; McKeever, Patrick J; Eisenschenk, Melissa C

    2011-12-01

    Ciclosporin is an immunosuppressive drug that has been used to treat allergies and other immune-mediated diseases in cats, dogs and humans. Information about the adverse effects of ciclosporin in cats has been limited to smaller studies and case reports. Adverse effects in dogs are mainly gastrointestinal in nature, but humans can also experience hypertension and altered renal function. The aim of this retrospective case series study was to document the occurrence and clinical appearance of adverse events in cats receiving ciclosporin to treat allergic skin disease. The medical records of 50 cats with allergic dermatitis treated with oral ciclosporin (1.9-7.3 mg/kg/day) were reviewed. Adverse events occurred in 66% (33 cats). Adverse events likely to be associated with ciclosporin included the following: vomiting or diarrhoea within 1-8 weeks of receiving ciclosporin (24%), weight loss (16%), anorexia and subsequent hepatic lipidosis (2%) and gingival hyperplasia (2%). Other adverse events less likely to be associated with ciclosporin therapy included the following: weight gain (14%), dental tartar and gingivitis (10%), otitis (4%), chronic diarrhoea (4%), inflammatory bowel disease with indolent gastrointestinal lymphoma (2%), urinary tract infection (2%), cataract (2%), elevated liver enzymes (2%), hyperthyroidism and renal failure (2%) and transient inappropriate urination (2%). Some cats experienced multiple adverse events. Case-control studies are needed to prove cause and effect of ciclosporin with regard to these adverse events.

  3. Feline hepatic biotransformation of diazepam: Differences between cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    van Beusekom, Cyrina D; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Koenderink, Jan B; Russel, Frans G M; Schrickx, Johannes A

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to humans and dogs, diazepam has been reported to induce severe hepatic side effects in cats, particularly after repeated dosing. With the aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this apparent sensitivity of cats to drug-induced liver injury, in a series of in vitro experiments, the feline-specific biotransformation of diazepam was studied with liver microsomes obtained from cats and dogs and the possible inhibition of the bile salt export pump (Bsep) was measured in isolated membrane vesicles overexpressing feline and canine Bsep. In line with previous in vivo studies, the phase I metabolites nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam were measurable in microsomal incubations, although enzyme velocity of demethylases and hydroxylases differed significantly between cats and dogs. In cats, the main metabolite was temazepam, which also could be glucuronidated. In contrast to dogs, no other glucuronidated metabolites could be observed. In addition, in the membrane vesicles an inhibition of the transport of the Bsep substrate taurocholic acid could be observed in the presence of diazepam and its metabolites. It was concluded that both mechanisms, the slow biotransformation of diazepam as well the inhibition of the bile acid efflux that results in an accumulation of bile acids in the hepatocytes, seem to contribute to the liver injury observed in cats following repetitive treatment with diazepam.

  4. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis in 17 Maine Coon cats.

    PubMed

    Borak, Danilo; Wunderlin, Nadja; Brückner, Michael; Schwarz, Günter; Klang, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives From May 2009 to January 2015, 208 Maine Coon cats presented to the Tierklinik Hollabrunn - a small animal referral and first-opinion centre - and 17 (8.17%) cats were diagnosed with a slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). Over the same time period, 29 (0.67%) of 4348 cats (all breeds) were diagnosed with SCFE. Methods Clinical and orthopaedic examinations and diagnostic imaging were performed on all affected Maine Coons. Age at first presentation, sex, body weight, body condition score (BCS), unilateral or bilateral manifestation of the disease, activity level and duration of lameness, age at neutering and known family history of disease were recorded. Sixteen of 17 Maine Coons were surgically treated. Surgically removed femoral tissue samples were histologically examined in 13 cases. Results The mean age at first presentation was 21.47 months; male to female ratio was 16:1; mean body weight was 7.5 kg (range 5.3-9.3 kg); and mean BCS was 5.06/9.0. Seven cats were bilaterally affected; the median duration of decreased activity level and lameness was 2 weeks; mean age at neutering was 7.7 months (range 3.0-12.0 months); and four cats were littermates. Fourteen femoral head and neck ostectomies, eight total hip replacements and one primary fixation were performed. All 13 histologically available samples confirmed the diagnosis of SCFE. Conclusions and relevance To date, SCFE has been reported only occasionally in Maine Coon cats. However, the results of this study showed that Maine Coons were approximately 12-fold more likely to develop SCFE than the overall population of cats presenting to the Tierklinik Hollabrunn over the same time period. Male sex, neutering, delayed physeal closure and breed-specific high body weight may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SCFE in Maine Coon cats.

  5. Rapid intranasal delivery of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in the active form to different brain regions as a model for enzyme therapy in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Appu, Abhilash P; Arun, Peethambaran; Krishnan, Jishnu K. S.; Moffett, John R.; Namboodiri, Aryan M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The blood brain barrier (BBB) is critical for maintaining central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis by restricting entry of potentially toxic substances. However, the BBB is a major obstacle in the treatment of neurotoxicity and neurological disorders due to the restrictive nature of the barrier to many medications. Intranasal delivery of active enzymes to the brain has therapeutic potential for the treatment of numerous CNS enzyme deficiency disorders and CNS toxicity caused by chemical threat agents. New method The aim of this work is to provide a sensitive model system for analyzing the rapid delivery of active enzymes into various regions of the brain with therapeutic bioavailability. Results We tested intranasal delivery of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), a relatively large (75 kD) enzyme, in its active form into different regions of the brain. CAT was delivered intranasally to anaesthetized rats and enzyme activity was measured in different regions using a highly specific High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HP-TLC)-radiometry coupled assay. Active enzyme reached all examined areas of the brain within 15 min (the earliest time point tested). In addition, the yield of enzyme activity in the brain was almost doubled in the brains of rats pre-treated with matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Comparison with existing method (s) Intranasal administration of active enzymes in conjunction with MMP-9 to the CNS is both rapid and effective. Conclusion The present results suggest that intranasal enzyme therapy is a promising method for counteracting CNS chemical threat poisoning, as well as for treating CNS enzyme deficiency disorders. PMID:26688469

  6. System-wide Studies of N-Lysine Acetylation in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Reveals Substrate Specificity of Protein Acetyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Heidi A; Pelletier, Dale A; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein acetylation is widespread in prokaryotes. Results: Six new acyl-CoA synthetases whose activities are controlled by acetylation were identified, and their substrate preference established. A new protein acetyltransferase was also identified and its substrate specificity determined. Conclusion: Protein acetyltransferases acetylate a conserved lysine residue in protein substrates. Significance: The R. palustris Pat enzyme specifically acetylates AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases and regulates fatty acid metabolism.

  7. Proportion of pet cats registered with a veterinary practice and factors influencing registration in the UK.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jane K; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J

    2012-06-01

    Registration of a cat with a veterinary practice is likely to be a critical factor for access to key preventative medicine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data in the United Kingdom on the registration status of cats and potential explanatory variables. These data were also used to identify potential sources of bias associated with selecting controls from veterinary registered populations of cats due to differences between registered and unregistered cats. Cat owners reported that 13.6% (84/616) of their cats had not been registered with a veterinary practice since living at their current address. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that unregistered cats were significantly more likely than registered cats to be entire, to have not been vaccinated within the previous year, to be living in households in Northern Ireland and in households with an annual income <£10,000.(1) Whilst the neuter status and the vaccination status of the cat are likely to result from non-registration, the household location and annual income are factors that can be used to inform future interventions designed to increase the proportion of veterinary registered cats.

  8. Extreme human annoyance caused by Ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea)

    PubMed Central

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a case of human dermal complications by Ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea) in a 28 years old woman who dwell in rural area in Mazandaran province, Iran. Furthermore, in the current report clinical manifestations, etiology and different aspects of infestation were discussed elaborately. And the importance of controlling fleas was highlighted as well. PMID:25182561

  9. Survival of a feline isolate of Tritrichomonas foetus in water, cat urine, cat food and cat litter.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Ripley, Allyson; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Blagburn, Byron L; Grant, David C; Lindsay, David S

    2012-04-30

    Feline intestinal trichomoniasis caused by Tritrichomonas foetus is associated with large bowel diarrhea in cats from many parts of the world. It has long been recognized as an economically important sexually transmitted disease that causes early abortion in cattle. Isolates of T. foetus from cattle are infectious for the large intestine of cats and isolates of T. foetus from cats are infectious for the reproductive system of cattle. The parasite is maintained by fecal-oral transmission in cats. The present study was conducted to examine the survival of a feline isolate of T. foetus, AUTf-12, under various conditions that are relevant to fecal-oral transmission in cats. Trophozoites were grown in TYM medium and then exposed to water, cat urine, dry cat food, canned cat food, clumping cat litter, or filter paper for various lengths of time and then re-cultured in TYM medium. Trophozoites survived exposure to distilled or tap water for 30 but not 60 min, while they survived for at least 180 min in urine. Trophozoites survived for 30 min on dry cat food but survived for 120-180 min in canned cat food. No survival of trophozoites was observed on cat litter but trophozoites survived for 15 min when placed on filter paper. Our results indicate that T. foetus can survive and be potentially infectious in water, urine, dry cat food and canned cat food.

  10. The chromosomal 2'-N-acetyltransferase of Providencia stuartii: physiological functions and genetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Macinga, D R; Rather, P N

    1999-02-01

    Intrinsic chromosomal acetyltransferases involved in aminoglycoside resistance have been identified in a number of bacteria. In Providencia stuartii, a chromosomal acetyltransferase (AAC(2')-Ia) has been characterized in detail. In addition to the ability to acetylate aminoglycosides, the AAC(2')-Ia enzyme has at least one physiological function, which is the acetylation of peptidoglycan. This modification is likely to influence the autolytic system in P. stuartii. The regulation of aac(2')-Ia expression is extremely complex involving at least seven regulatory genes acting in at least two pathways. This complexity in regulation indicates that aac(2')-Ia expression must be tightly controlled in response to different environmental conditions. This presumably reflects the importance of maintaining correct levels of peptidoglycan acetylation. In this review, a summary of data will be presented involving both the physiological and genetic aspects of aac(2')-Ia in P. stuartii.

  11. Resistance to apramycin in two enterobacterial clinical isolates: detection of a 3-N-acetyltransferase IV.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lus, R; Rivera, M J; Gómez-Lus, M L; Gil, J; Gómez-Lus, S; Castillo, J; Goñi, P; Madero, P; Rubio, M C

    1990-08-01

    Considering the possible role of farm animals in the contamination of human consumers by plasmid-mediated apramycin-resistant enterobacteria strains, this type of resistance should be tested more systematically in human isolates. Very recently we isolated in Zaragoza one apramycin-resistant Escheria coli strain obtained from the blood of a hospitalized patient; this clinical isolate produced a plasmid-mediated 3-N-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase IV. We describe also the isolation in Madrid of one multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strain. This isolate harbored a single plasmid and carried determinants for apramycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, hygromycin B, streptomycin, and ampicillin, which could be transferred en bloc to E. coli K-12 J62. Extracts from donor and transconjugant strains carrying pUZ6776 plasmid produce acetyltransferase activity AAC(3)-IV and double phosphotransferase activity (HPH and APH(3'')).

  12. Expression profiling of S. pombe acetyltransferase mutants identifies redundant pathways of gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs) are implicated in regulation of transcription. HATs from different families may overlap in target and substrate specificity. Results We isolated the elp3+ gene encoding the histone acetyltransferase subunit of the Elongator complex in fission yeast and characterized the phenotype of an Δelp3 mutant. We examined genetic interactions between Δelp3 and two other HAT mutants, Δmst2 and Δgcn5 and used whole genome microarray analysis to analyze their effects on gene expression. Conclusions Comparison of phenotypes and expression profiles in single, double and triple mutants indicate that these HAT enzymes have overlapping functions. Consistent with this, overlapping specificity in histone H3 acetylation is observed. However, there is no evidence for overlap with another HAT enzyme, encoded by the essential mst1+ gene. PMID:20096118

  13. Crystallization of ornithine acetyltransferase from yeast by counter-diffusion and preliminary X-ray study

    SciTech Connect

    Maes, Dominique Crabeel, Marjolaine; Van de Weerdt, Cécile; Martial, Joseph; Peeters, Eveline; Charlier, Daniël; Decanniere, Klaas; Vanhee, Celine; Wyns, Lode; Zegers, Ingrid

    2006-12-01

    A study on the crystallization of ornithine acetyltransferase from yeast, catalysing the fifth step in microbial arginine synthesis, is presented. The use of the counter-diffusion technique removes the disorder present in one dimension in crystals grown by either batch or hanging-drop techniques. A study is presented on the crystallization of ornithine acetyltransferase from yeast, which catalyzes the fifth step in microbial arginine synthesis. The use of the counter-diffusion technique removes the disorder present in one dimension in crystals grown by either the batch or hanging-drop techniques. This makes the difference between useless crystals and crystals that allow successful determination of the structure of the protein. The crystals belong to space group P4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.98, c = 427.09 Å, and a data set was collected to 2.76 Å.

  14. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  15. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  16. Mechanism of the lysosomal membrane enzyme acetyl coenzyme A: alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA:..cap alpha..-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase is a lysosomal membrane enzyme, deficient in the genetic disease Sanfilippo C syndrome. The enzyme catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA to terminal ..cap alpha..-glucosamine residues of heparan sulfate within the organelle. The reaction mechanism was examined using high purified lysosomal membranes from rat liver and human fibroblasts. The N-acetyltransferase reaction is optimal above pH 5.5 and a 2-3 fold stimulation of activity is observed in the presence of 0.1% taurodeoxycholate. Double reciprocal analysis and product inhibition studies indicate that the enzyme works by a Di-Iso Ping Pong Bi Bi mechanism. The binding of acetyl-CoA to the enzyme is measured by exchange label from (/sup 3/H)CoA to acetyl-CoA, and is optimal at pH's above 7.0. The acetyl-enzyme intermediate is formed by incubating membranes with (/sup 3/H)acetyl-CoA. The acetyl group can be transferred to glucosamine, forming (/sup 3/H)N-acetylglucosamine; the transfer is optimal between pH 4 and 5. Lysosomal membranes from Sanfilippo C fibroblasts confirm that these half reactions carried out by the N-acetyltransferase. The enzyme is inactivated by N-bromosuccinimide and diethylpyrocarbonate, indicating that a histidine is involved in the reaction. These results suggest that the histidine residue is at the active site of the enzyme. The properties of the N-acetyltransferase in the membrane, the characterization of the enzyme kinetics, the chemistry of a histidine mediated acetylation and the pH difference across the lysosomal membrane all support a transmembrane acetylation mechanism.

  17. Co-infection with Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' in three cats from Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Helio A; Guimarães, Ana Marcia S; Vidotto, Odilon; Baumann, Aline; Biondo, Alexander W; Messick, Joanne B

    2007-12-01

    The two most common haemotropic Mycoplasma of cats, Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' have been identified using molecular techniques in all continents, except Antarctica. We report the first molecular characterization in South America of a dual infection with M haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' in three domestic cats. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified in three anaemic cats in which haemoplasma organisms were seen attached to the erythrocytes in the peripheral blood smear. Bands of the expected size for M haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' were observed in all three cats. The 393 bp segment of one of the amplicons had a similarity value of 100% to M haemofelis, whereas the other amplicon, a 192 bp segment, was 100% similar to 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum'. After diagnosis, two cats received blood transfusion and they were all treated with doxycycline. All three cats recovered uneventfully.

  18. Infestation with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) among students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chin, Heo Chong; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Lim, Lee Han; Jeffery, John; Hadi, Azahari Abdul; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Omar, Baharudin

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports six male undergraduate students living at a local university hostel who were infested with cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae: Ctenocephalides felis felis) in February 2009. All of them suffered from maculopapular rashes and severe pruritus after the bites. Investigation revealed the presence of a stray cat in the hostel building; five of the students had a history of contact with the cat. Six cat fleas were collected at the hostel and identified as C. felis felis. Most of the students were not aware of this infestation and did not seek medical treatment.

  19. Cloning of an arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (aaNAT1) from Drosophila melanogaster expressed in the nervous system and the gut.

    PubMed Central

    Hintermann, E; Grieder, N C; Amherd, R; Brodbeck, D; Meyer, U A

    1996-01-01

    In insects, neurotransmitter catabolism, melatonin precursor formation, and sclerotization involve arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (aaNAT, EC 2.3.1.87) activity. It is not known if one or multiple aaNAT enzymes are responsible for these activities. We recently have purified an aaNAT from Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we report the cloning of the corresponding aaNAT cDNA (aaNAT1) that upon COS cell expression acetylates dopamine, tryptamine, and the immediate melatonin precursor serotonin. aaNAT1 represents a novel gene family unrelated to known acetyl-transferases, except in two weakly conserved amino acid motifs. In situ hybridization studies of aaNAT1 mRNA in embryos reveal hybridization signals in the brain, the ventral cord, the gut, and probably in oenocytes, indicating a broad tissue distribution of aaNAT1 transcripts. Moreover, in day/ night studies we demonstrate a diurnal rhythm of melatonin concentration without a clear-cut change in aaNAT1 mRNA levels. The data suggest that tissue-specific regulation of aaNAT1 may be associated with different enzymatic functions and do not exclude the possibility of additional aaNAT genes. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8901578

  20. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of an Active Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase Possessing a Non-canonical Cys-His-Glu Catalytic Triad*

    PubMed Central

    Kubiak, Xavier; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inès; Chaffotte, Alain F.; Pluvinage, Benjamin; Weber, Patrick; Haouz, Ahmed; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs), a class of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, catalyze the acetylation of aromatic amine compounds through a strictly conserved Cys-His-Asp catalytic triad. Each residue is essential for catalysis in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic NATs. Indeed, in (HUMAN)NAT2 variants, mutation of the Asp residue to Asn, Gln, or Glu dramatically impairs enzyme activity. However, a putative atypical NAT harboring a catalytic triad Glu residue was recently identified in Bacillus cereus ((BACCR)NAT3) but has not yet been characterized. We report here the crystal structure and functional characterization of this atypical NAT. The overall fold of (BACCR)NAT3 and the geometry of its Cys-His-Glu catalytic triad are similar to those present in functional NATs. Importantly, the enzyme was found to be active and to acetylate prototypic arylamine NAT substrates. In contrast to (HUMAN) NAT2, the presence of a Glu or Asp in the triad of (BACCR)NAT3 did not significantly affect enzyme structure or function. Computational analysis identified differences in residue packing and steric constraints in the active site of (BACCR)NAT3 that allow it to accommodate a Cys-His-Glu triad. These findings overturn the conventional view, demonstrating that the catalytic triad of this family of acetyltransferases is plastic. Moreover, they highlight the need for further study of the evolutionary history of NATs and the functional significance of the predominant Cys-His-Asp triad in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic forms. PMID:23770703

  1. Different functions of the histone acetyltransferase HAC1 gene traced in the model species Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Boycheva, Irina; Vassileva, Valya; Revalska, Miglena; Zehirov, Grigor; Iantcheva, Anelia

    2017-03-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetyltransferases regulate the acetylation of histones and transcription factors, affecting chromatin structural organization, transcriptional regulation, and gene activation. To assess the role of HAC1, a gene encoding for a histone acetyltransferase in Medicago truncatula, stable transgenic lines with modified HAC1 expression in the model plants M. truncatula, Lotus japonicus, and Arabidopsis thaliana were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and used for functional analyses. Histochemical, transcriptional, flow cytometric, and morphological analyses demonstrated the involvement of HAC1 in plant growth and development, responses to internal stimuli, and cell cycle progression. Expression patterns of a reporter gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fused to the HAC1 promoter sequence were associated with young tissues comprised of actively dividing cells in different plant organs. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) signal, driven by the HAC1 promoter, was detected in the nuclei and cytoplasm of root cells. Transgenic lines with HAC1 overexpression and knockdown showed a wide range of phenotypic deviations and developmental abnormalities, which provided lines of evidence for the role of HAC1 in plant development. Synchronization of A. thaliana root tips in a line with HAC1 knockdown showed the involvement of this gene in the acetylation of two core histones during S phase of the plant cell cycle.

  2. Structural and functional characterization of an arylamine N-acetyltransferase from the pathogen Mycobacterium abscessus: differences from other mycobacterial isoforms and implications for selective inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cocaign, Angélique; Kubiak, Xavier; Xu, Ximing; Garnier, Guillaume; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inès; Chi-Bui, Linh; Dairou, Julien; Busi, Florent; Abuhammad, Areej; Haouz, Ahmed; Dupret, Jean Marie; Herrmann, Jean Louis; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is the most pathogenic rapid-growing mycobacterium and is one of the most resistant organisms to chemotherapeutic agents. However, structural and functional studies of M. abscessus proteins that could modify/inactivate antibiotics remain nonexistent. Here, the structural and functional characterization of an arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) from M. abscessus [(MYCAB)NAT1] are reported. This novel prokaryotic NAT displays significant N-acetyltransferase activity towards aromatic substrates, including antibiotics such as isoniazid and p-aminosalicylate. The enzyme is endogenously expressed and functional in both the rough and smooth M. abscessus morphotypes. The crystal structure of (MYCAB)NAT1 at 1.8 Å resolution reveals that it is more closely related to Nocardia farcinica NAT than to mycobacterial isoforms. In particular, structural and physicochemical differences from other mycobacterial NATs were found in the active site. Peculiarities of (MYCAB)NAT1 were further supported by kinetic and docking studies showing that the enzyme was poorly inhibited by the piperidinol inhibitor of mycobacterial NATs. This study describes the first structure of an antibiotic-modifying enzyme from M. abscessus and provides bases to better understand the substrate/inhibitor-binding specificities among mycobacterial NATs and to identify/optimize specific inhibitors. These data should also contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms that are responsible for the pathogenicity and extensive chemotherapeutic resistance of M. abscessus.

  3. Dermatitis caused by Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea) in human

    PubMed Central

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Ebrahimpour, Soheil; Rezaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Rakhshanpour, Arash; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human infestation to ectoparasites such as ticks, lice, cimex, fleas, mites and others agents may result in intensive allergic reaction with symptoms of itching, skin infection and severe irritation. In this case report, we present a case of dermatitis caused by cat flea. Case presentation: A three-member family referred to dermatology clinic in Babol due to dermal complications. They complained of irritation and the unrest caused by intense itching. Samples of tiny live insects were detected from their clothing which was recognized as C. felis (cat flea). Conclusion: This report highlights the importance of ectoparasites causing dermatitis. PMID:25489439

  4. Conformational flexibility and subunit arrangement of the modular yeast Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase complex.

    PubMed

    Setiaputra, Dheva; Ross, James D; Lu, Shan; Cheng, Derrick T; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Yip, Calvin K

    2015-04-17

    The Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex is a highly conserved, 19-subunit histone acetyltransferase complex that activates transcription through acetylation and deubiquitination of nucleosomal histones in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because SAGA has been shown to display conformational variability, we applied gradient fixation to stabilize purified SAGA and systematically analyzed this flexibility using single-particle EM. Our two- and three-dimensional studies show that SAGA adopts three major conformations, and mutations of specific subunits affect the distribution among these. We also located the four functional modules of SAGA using electron microscopy-based labeling and transcriptional activator binding analyses and show that the acetyltransferase module is localized in the most mobile region of the complex. We further comprehensively mapped the subunit interconnectivity of SAGA using cross-linking mass spectrometry, revealing that the Spt and Taf subunits form the structural core of the complex. These results provide the necessary restraints for us to generate a model of the spatial arrangement of all SAGA subunits. According to this model, the chromatin-binding domains of SAGA are all clustered in one face of the complex that is highly flexible. Our results relate information of overall SAGA structure with detailed subunit level interactions, improving our understanding of its architecture and flexibility.

  5. MOZ and MORF acetyltransferases: Molecular interaction, animal development and human disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Jiao

    2015-08-01

    Lysine residues are subject to many forms of covalent modification and one such modification is acetylation of the ε-amino group. Initially identified on histone proteins in the 1960s, lysine acetylation is now considered as an important form of post-translational modification that rivals phosphorylation. However, only about a dozen of human lysine acetyltransferases have been identified. Among them are MOZ (monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein; a.k.a. MYST3 and KAT6A) and its paralog MORF (a.k.a. MYST4 and KAT6B). Although there is a distantly related protein in Drosophila and sea urchin, these two enzymes are vertebrate-specific. They form tetrameric complexes with BRPF1 (bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1) and two small non-catalytic subunits. These two acetyltransferases and BRPF1 play key roles in various developmental processes; for example, they are important for development of hematopoietic and neural stem cells. The human KAT6A and KAT6B genes are recurrently mutated in leukemia, non-hematologic malignancies, and multiple developmental disorders displaying intellectual disability and various other abnormalities. In addition, the BRPF1 gene is mutated in childhood leukemia and adult medulloblastoma. Therefore, these two acetyltransferases and their partner BRPF1 are important in animal development and human disease.

  6. Histone H3 specific acetyltransferases are essential for cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Howe, LeAnn; Auston, Darryl; Grant, Patrick; John, Sam; Cook, Richard G.; Workman, Jerry L.; Pillus, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Longstanding observations suggest that acetylation and/or amino-terminal tail structure of histones H3 and H4 are critical for eukaryotic cells. For Saccharomyces cerevisiae, loss of a single H4-specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT), Esa1p, results in cell cycle defects and death. In contrast, although several yeast HAT complexes preferentially acetylate histone H3, the catalytic subunits of these complexes are not essential for viability. To resolve the apparent paradox between the significance of H3 versus H4 acetylation, we tested the hypothesis that H3 modification is essential, but is accomplished through combined activities of two enzymes. We observed that Sas3p and Gcn5p HAT complexes have overlapping patterns of acetylation. Simultaneous disruption of SAS3, the homolog of the MOZ leukemia gene, and GCN5, the hGCN5/PCAF homolog, is synthetically lethal due to loss of acetyltransferase activity. This key combination of activities is specific for these two HATs because neither is synthetically lethal with mutations of other MYST family or H3-specific acetyltransferases. Further, the combined loss of GCN5 and SAS3 functions results in an extensive, global loss of H3 acetylation and arrest in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The strikingly similar effect of loss of combined essential H3 HAT activities and the loss of a single essential H4 HAT underscores the fundamental biological significance of each of these chromatin-modifying activities. PMID:11731478

  7. Loss of Catalase-1 (Cat-1) results in decreased conidial viability enhanced by exposure to light in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Niyan; Yoshida, Yusuke; Hasunuma, Kohji

    2007-01-01

    Light is one of the most important factors inducing morphogenesis in Neurospora crassa. The reception of light triggers the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Catalase-1 (Cat-1) is one of three catalases known to detoxify H(2)O(2) into water and oxygen. We reported that the photomorphogenetic characteristics of mutants in nucleoside diphosphate kinase-1 (NDK-1), a light signal transducer, are severely affected, and NDK-1 interacted with Cat-1 in a yeast two-hybrid assay. To disclose the function of Cat-1, we created a Cat-1 loss-of-function mutant (cat-1 ( RIP )) by the repeat induced point-mutation (RIPing) method. No Cat-1 activity was detected in the mutant strain. Forty guanines were replaced with adenines in the cat-1 gene of cat-1 ( RIP ), which caused 30 amino acid substitutions. The mutant strain grew normally, but its conidia and mycelia were more sensitive to H(2)O(2) than those of the wild type. The lack of Cat-1 activity also caused a significant reduction in the conidial germination rate. Furthermore, light enhanced this reduction in cat-1 ( RIP ) more than that in the wild type. Introduction of cat-1 into the mutant reversed all of these defective phenotypes. These results indicate that Cat-1 plays an important role in supporting the survival of conidia under oxidative and light-induced stress.

  8. Type B Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferases Are Responsible for Chloramphenicol Resistance in Riemerella anatipestifer, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Yuan, Hui; Liu, Ma-Feng; Zhao, Xin-Xin; Wang, Ming-Shu; Jia, Ren-Yong; Chen, Shun; Sun, Kun-Feng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Yue; Cheng, An-Chun; Zhu, De-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer causes serositis and septicaemia in domestic ducks, geese, and turkeys. Traditionally, the antibiotics were used to treat this disease. Currently, our understanding of R. anatipestifer susceptibility to chloramphenicol and the underlying resistance mechanism is limited. In this study, the cat gene was identified in 69/192 (36%) R. anatipestifer isolated from different regions in China, including R. anatipestifer CH-2 that has been sequenced in previous study. Sequence analysis suggested that there are two copies of cat gene in this strain. Only both two copies of the cat mutant strain showed a significant decrease in resistance to chloramphenicol, exhibiting 4 μg/ml in the minimum inhibitory concentration for this antibiotic, but not for the single cat gene deletion strains. Functional analysis of the cat gene via expression in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and in vitro site-directed mutagenesis indicated that His79 is the main catalytic residue of CAT in R. anatipestifer. These results suggested that chloramphenicol resistance of R. anatipestifer CH-2 is mediated by the cat genes. Finally, homology analysis of types A and B CATs indicate that R. anatipestifer comprises type B3 CATs. PMID:28298905

  9. Type B Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferases Are Responsible for Chloramphenicol Resistance in Riemerella anatipestifer, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Yuan, Hui; Liu, Ma-Feng; Zhao, Xin-Xin; Wang, Ming-Shu; Jia, Ren-Yong; Chen, Shun; Sun, Kun-Feng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Yue; Cheng, An-Chun; Zhu, De-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer causes serositis and septicaemia in domestic ducks, geese, and turkeys. Traditionally, the antibiotics were used to treat this disease. Currently, our understanding of R. anatipestifer susceptibility to chloramphenicol and the underlying resistance mechanism is limited. In this study, the cat gene was identified in 69/192 (36%) R. anatipestifer isolated from different regions in China, including R. anatipestifer CH-2 that has been sequenced in previous study. Sequence analysis suggested that there are two copies of cat gene in this strain. Only both two copies of the cat mutant strain showed a significant decrease in resistance to chloramphenicol, exhibiting 4 μg/ml in the minimum inhibitory concentration for this antibiotic, but not for the single cat gene deletion strains. Functional analysis of the cat gene via expression in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and in vitro site-directed mutagenesis indicated that His79 is the main catalytic residue of CAT in R. anatipestifer. These results suggested that chloramphenicol resistance of R. anatipestifer CH-2 is mediated by the cat genes. Finally, homology analysis of types A and B CATs indicate that R. anatipestifer comprises type B3 CATs.

  10. The Enok acetyltransferase complex interacts with Elg1 and negatively regulates PCNA unloading to promote the G1/S transition

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fu; Saraf, Anita; Florens, Laurence; Kusch, Thomas; Swanson, Selene K.; Szerszen, Leanne T.; Li, Ge; Dutta, Arnob; Washburn, Michael P.; Abmayr, Susan M.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2016-01-01

    KAT6 histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are highly conserved in eukaryotes and are involved in cell cycle regulation. However, information regarding their roles in regulating cell cycle progression is limited. Here, we report the identification of subunits of the Drosophila Enok complex and demonstrate that all subunits are important for its HAT activity. We further report a novel interaction between the Enok complex and the Elg1 proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-unloader complex. Depletion of Enok in S2 cells resulted in a G1/S cell cycle block, and this block can be partially relieved by depleting Elg1. Furthermore, depletion of Enok reduced the chromatin-bound levels of PCNA in both S2 cells and early embryos, suggesting that the Enok complex may interact with the Elg1 complex and down-regulate its PCNA-unloading function to promote the G1/S transition. Supporting this hypothesis, depletion of Enok also partially rescued the endoreplication defects in Elg1-depleted nurse cells. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the roles of KAT6 HATs in cell cycle regulation through modulating PCNA levels on chromatin. PMID:27198229

  11. T-cell lymphoma of the tympanic bulla in a feline leukemia virus-negative cat.

    PubMed

    de Lorimier, Louis-Philippe; Alexander, Suzanne D; Fan, Timothy M

    2003-12-01

    This report constitutes the first description of a T-cell lymphoma of the tympanic bulla in a cat. This feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-negative cat originally presented with signs referable to middle ear disease; it deteriorated rapidly after definitive diagnosis. Lymphoma of the middle ear is extremely rare in all species.

  12. Pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection in a Canadian cat

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Cameron G.; Davies, Jennifer L.; Joseph, Tomy; Ondrich, Sarah; Rosa, Brielle V.

    2016-01-01

    A cat was presented for necropsy after being found dead at home. Histologic findings suggested viral pneumonia. Polymerase chain reaction and viral typing revealed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. This is the first report of influenza in a Canadian cat and highlights the importance of considering influenza virus in the differential diagnosis for feline respiratory distress. PMID:27152036

  13. Photo-Geomorphology of Coastal Landforms, Cat Island, Bahamas. Volume II,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report provides the aerial imagery used in the analysis of the coastal landforms of Cat Island in the east-central Bahama Islands. Interpretive...published volume Coastal Landform of Cat Island, Bahamas: A Study of Holocene Accretionary Topography and Sea-Level Change but may also serve as an

  14. Renal function evaluation in an adult female with cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bellinghieri, G; Triolo, O; Stella, N C; Gemelli, M; Musolino, R; Monardo, P; Savica, V

    1994-01-01

    Cat-eye syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly involving the kidney. It is rarely reported in literature, while renal function has never been studied up to now. Shown here are the morphofunctional renal alterations observed in a female patient affected by cat-eye syndrome.

  15. Effect of increased yeast alcohol acetyltransferase activity on flavor profiles of wine and distillates.

    PubMed

    Lilly, M; Lambrechts, M G; Pretorius, I S

    2000-02-01

    The distinctive flavor of wine, brandy, and other grape-derived alcoholic beverages is affected by many compounds, including esters produced during alcoholic fermentation. The characteristic fruity odors of the fermentation bouquet are primarily due to a mixture of hexyl acetate, ethyl caproate (apple-like aroma), iso-amyl acetate (banana-like aroma), ethyl caprylate (apple-like aroma), and 2-phenylethyl acetate (fruity, flowery flavor with a honey note). The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of improving the aroma of wine and distillates by overexpressing one of the endogenous yeast genes that controls acetate ester production during fermentation. The synthesis of acetate esters by the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation is ascribed to at least three acetyltransferase activities, namely, alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), ethanol acetyltransferase, and iso-amyl AAT. To investigate the effect of increased AAT activity on the sensory quality of Chenin blanc wines and distillates from Colombar base wines, we have overexpressed the alcohol acetyltransferase gene (ATF1) of S. cerevisiae. The ATF1 gene, located on chromosome XV, was cloned from a widely used commercial wine yeast strain of S. cerevisiae, VIN13, and placed under the control of the constitutive yeast phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK1) promoter and terminator. Chromoblot analysis confirmed the integration of the modified copy of ATF1 into the genome of three commercial wine yeast strains (VIN7, VIN13, and WE228). Northern blot analysis indicated constitutive expression of ATF1 at high levels in these yeast transformants. The levels of ethyl acetate, iso-amyl acetate, and 2-phenylethyl acetate increased 3- to 10-fold, 3.8- to 12-fold, and 2- to 10-fold, respectively, depending on the fermentation temperature, cultivar, and yeast strain used. The concentrations of ethyl caprate, ethyl caprylate, and hexyl acetate only showed minor changes, whereas the acetic acid

  16. Generating controlled reducing environments in aerobic recombinant Escherichia coli fermentations: effects on cell growth, oxygen uptake, heat shock protein expression, and in vivo CAT activity.

    PubMed

    Gill, R T; Cha, H J; Jain, A; Rao, G; Bentley, W E

    1998-07-20

    The independent control of culture redox potential (CRP) by the regulated addition of a reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT) was demonstrated in aerated recombinant Escherichia coli fermentations. Moderate levels of DTT addition resulted in minimal changes to specific oxygen uptake, growth rate, and dissolved oxygen. Excessive levels of DTT addition were toxic to the cells resulting in cessation of growth. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity (nmoles/microgram total protein min.) decreased in batch fermentation experiments with respect to increasing levels of DTT addition. To further investigate the mechanisms affecting CAT activity, experiments were performed to assay heat shock protein expression and specific CAT activity (nmoles/microgram CAT min.). Expression of such molecular chaperones as GroEL and DnaK were found to increase after addition of DTT. Additionally, sigma factor 32 (sigma32) and several proteases were seen to increase dramatically during addition of DTT. Specific CAT activity (nmoles/microgram CAT min. ) varied greatly as DTT was added, however, a minimum in activity was found at the highest level of DTT addition in E. coli strains RR1 [pBR329] and JM105 [pROEX-CAT]. In conjunction, cellular stress was found to reach a maximum at the same levels of DTT. Although DTT addition has the potential for directly affecting intracellular protein folding, the effects felt from the increased stress within the cell are likely the dominant effector. That the effects of DTT were measured within the cytoplasm of the cell suggests that the periplasmic redox potential was also altered. The changes in specific CAT activity, molecular chaperones, and other heat shock proteins, in the presence of minimal growth rate and oxygen uptake alterations, suggest that the ex vivo control of redox potential provides a new process for affecting the yield and conformation of heterologous proteins in aerated E. coli fermentations.

  17. Grooming and control of fleas in cats.

    PubMed

    Eckstein; Hart

    2000-05-10

    Oral grooming is common in cats, as in rodent and bovid species where grooming has been shown to be effective in removing lice and ticks. In Experiment 1, we examined the effectiveness of oral grooming in removing fleas which are the main ectoparasite of cats. Elizabethan collars (E-collars) which prevented grooming were fitted on nine cats in a flea-infested household and 3 weeks later, flea numbers on these cats were compared with nine control cats in the same household. Flea numbers dropped in the control cats reflecting an apparent drop in adult fleas in the environment, but in the E-collar cats, flea numbers did not drop, and were about twice as numerous as in control cats. The significantly greater number of fleas on the E-collar cats was attributed to their inability to groom off fleas. In Experiment 2, videotaping of nine different cats from the flea-infested household revealed that these cats groomed at about twice the rate of 10 similarly videotaped control cats from a flea-free colony. These results reveal that flea exposure can increase grooming rate in cats and that grooming is effective in removing fleas.

  18. The paradox of Schrodinger's cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villars, C. N.

    1986-07-01

    Erwin Schrodinger first described the thought-experiment which has since become known as 'the paradox of Schrodinger's cat' 51 years ago. In recent years, popular accounts of quantum mechanics have tended to adopt one or other of the philosophically most extreme solutions to this paradox, i.e. the consciousness hypothesis or the many worlds interpretation. The author attempts to redress the balance by describing what he takes to be the orthodox solution to the paradox which explains the paradox, without recourse to such counterintuitive notions as a cat simultaneously dead and alive or a universe continually splitting into multiple worlds, as being due to a misapplication of the quantum formalism.

  19. Secnidazole for the treatment of giardiasis in naturally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Castro, Verônica S P; Tonin, Alexandre A; Brendler, Sabrina; Costa, Marcio M; Jaques, Jeandre A; Bertoletti, Bianca; Zanette, Régis A; Raiser, Alceu G; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Lopes, Sonia T A; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2011-12-01

    Giardia duodenalis causes enteric infections in humans and animals worldwide. Inefficiency of metronidazole is commonly reported in the veterinary clinic routine in the treatment of giardiasis in dogs and cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of secnidazole in the control of infection caused by G. duodenalis in naturally infected cats. For this purpose two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment seven cats were infected with G. duodenalis and treated orally with a single dose of secnidazole (30 mg kg(-1)). In the second experiment a total of 16 cats were used, 11 naturally infected with G. duodenalis and five negative for the parasite. Animals were divided into three groups: group A (n=5) was composed by non-infected animals (negative control), group B (n=5) consisted of infected but untreated animals and group C (n=6) was composed by cats treated orally with a single dose of secnidazole (30 mg kg(-1)). Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before and after treatment. The first experiment reached 100% of efficacy because no cysts were found in the feces after treatment. However, doubts about intoxication and interference with hematological and biochemical parameters came to light. No side effects were observed, and the biochemical and hematological parameters of treated animals remained within physiological range, except for one feline which had elevation of liver enzymes. Based on these results, the utilization of secnidazole could be suggested for the treatment of giardiasis in cats. The main advantage of this treatment is that only a single dose is required, which is interesting in animals hard to handle like cats.

  20. Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cats with diarrhea from densely housed origins.

    PubMed

    Arranz-Solís, David; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana; Miró, Guadalupe; Rojo-Montejo, Silvia; Hernández, Leticia; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Collantes-Fernández, Esther

    2016-05-15

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a protozoan parasite that has been recently identified as a causative agent of chronic diarrhea in domestic cats. Transmission of infection occurs by the fecal-oral route through direct contact among animals. Consequently, feline trichomonosis (FT) is more likely to be present in multi-cat environments. The objective of this work was to study the presence of T. foetus and some associated risk factors in cats from densely housed origins and with a reported history of chronic diarrhea. Animals enrolled in this study were family cats (n=15) acquired from pet shops, shelters or breeding centers and cattery cats belonging to one breeding center (n=28) and two cat shelters (A and B, n=25 each). In the catteries, a follow-up analysis for a period of up to 2 months was also performed to determine the parasite shedding pattern in feces and the incidence of infection. Fecal samples were analyzed using in vitro culture and a PCR technique. T. foetus was detected in a total of 38.7% (36/93) of the cats with chronic diarrhea. Parasite infection was similarly detected in family cats and cattery animals (40% versus 38.4%). In the catteries, the parasite was detected in 50%, 44% and 20% of the animals from the breeding center and shelters A and B, respectively. The follow-up analysis showed that 58.3% of infected cats intermittently shed trophozoites in their feces, with an incidence of 23.1%. Investigation of potential risk factors showed that cats ≤1 year old were more likely to be infected than older cats (57.1% versus 27.3%; P<0.05). No significant differences were found when sex and breed factors were studied. These results confirm the importance of FT as a cause of chronic diarrhea in cats and highlight the relevance of close contact conditions for T. foetus transmission.

  1. A serological study of Dirofilaria immitis in feral cats in Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, C; Chikweto, A; Mofya, S; Lanum, L; Flynn, P; Burnett, J P; Doherty, D; Sharma, R N

    2010-12-01

    A study to determine the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis was carried out in feral cats in Grenada. Of the 137 feral cats tested for circulating antibodies (IgG; lateral-flow immunoassay) and circulating antigens (Ag; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-12.5%) were antibody positive and 5.1% (95% CI 1.4-8.8%) were antigen positive. No significant difference between cats aged>1 to 4 years and cats less than 1 year of age was found (P>0.05, χ²). There was also no significant difference (P>0.05, χ²) between male and female cats. Dirofilaria immitis prevalence is relatively high in the feral cat population of Grenada. Evidence of D. immitis infection in feral cats coupled with the endemic nature of heartworm disease in dogs in Grenada leads us to suggest the introduction of heartworm prophylaxis in cats. To the authors' knowledge, this serological evidence of heartworm infection in feral cats in Grenada is the first report from the Caribbean region.

  2. Survey of cat and dog ownership in Champaign County, Illinois, 1976.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, A O; Brenner, A

    1977-06-01

    Age, sex, breeding, cost, source, and reproductive data on dog and cat populations were obtained for Champaign County, Illinois. Of 623 households from which completed interviews were obtained, 37.4% had 1 or more dogs, and 17.8% had 1 or more cats. The estimated population of dogs was 22,118 and of cats, 16,055, with a proportion to human population of 1 dog/7.4 persons and 1 cat/9.9 persons. The mean age of cats (2.98 yr) was about two-thirds of the mean age of dogs (4.64 yr); the median age of cats (1.8 yr) was about one-half the median age of dogs (3.7 yr). The most often mentioned origin of dogs was private pet owners; cats were most often reported as being offspring of currently owned cats. The proportion of households owning dogs and cats was higher in rural than in urban areas.

  3. Observed occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus and other enteric parasites in Australian cattery and shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Bissett, Sally A; Stone, Maria L; Malik, Richard; Norris, Jacqueline M; O'Brien, Carolyn; Mansfield, Caroline S; Nicholls, Julia M; Griffin, Alison; Gookin, Jody L

    2009-10-01

    Cattery-housed pedigree cats, located mostly within the USA, have the highest reported prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus (T foetus) to date. This prospective, multi-institutional, cross sectional study examines the occurrence of T foetus and other enteric parasites in cattery-housed and shelter cats within Australia, where T foetus has only recently been identified. Faecal specimens were collected from 134 cats, including 82 cattery-housed pedigree cats and 52 shelter cats. Faecal examinations performed for most cats included concentration techniques, Snap Giardia test, culture in InPouch medium, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of T foetus ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) genes using species-specific primers. Observed occurrence of T foetus, Giardia species, Isospora species and Toxascaris leonina for cattery-housed cats (and catteries) were 0%, 7.4 (13.8)%, 10.9 (22.6)% and 1.6 (3.2)%, respectively. Observed occurrence of T foetus, Giardia species, Isospora species and hookworms for shelter cats were 0%, 11.5%, 9.8% and 4.9%, respectively. These results suggest the prevalence of T foetus in cattery-housed cats is currently much lower in Australia than in the USA, while Isospora and Giardia species infections are common.

  4. Osteolysis in cat-scratch fever

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.F.; Lehman, R.M.; Shiels, W.E.; Blaney, S.M.

    1985-08-01

    The osteolysis associated with cat-scratch fever resembles more ominous conditions. The combination of osteolysis and unilateral regional adenopathy in a child or adolescent should suggest cat-scratch disease. Bone scans and CT verified the diagnosis.

  5. Fungal rhinitis and sinusitis in three cats.

    PubMed

    Tomsa, Kamil; Glaus, Tony M; Zimmer, Cindy; Greene, Craig E

    2003-05-15

    Localized infection of the nasal or paranasal cavities caused by Aspergillus spp or Penicillium spp was diagnosed in 3 cats. Clinical signs included chronic mucopurulent nasal discharge, epistaxis, and mandibular lymphadenopathy. Rhinoscopic and diagnostic imaging findings were compatible with severe inflammation of the nasal mucosa and destruction of the turbinates. Fungal plaques were observed rhinoscopically in 2 cats, and histologic examination of biopsy specimens revealed fungal colonies with surrounding inflammatory infiltrates in all 3. Results of fungal culture were negative for all 3 cats. Results of serum immunoelectrophoresis for antibodies against Aspergillus spp were positive in 2 cats. Treatment with itraconazole was effective in controlling clinical signs in 1 cat, but hepatotoxicosis developed. A single intranasal infusion of clotrimazole subsequently led to long-term resolution of clinical signs in this cat. Localized aspergillosis-penicilliosis is clinically indistinguishable from other pathologic conditions of the nasal and paranasal cavities in cats and should be considered when examining cats with chronic nasal discharge.

  6. [Lameness of the hindlimbs of the cat].

    PubMed

    Grevel, V

    1989-08-01

    About six to seven per cent of cats presented at the clinic show neurological signs. The largest group consists of traumatized cats. A complete neurological examination is essential for localizing the lesion and establishing a prognosis. Differential diagnosis for paraparesis/paraplegia of pelvic limbs in cats are discussed. Cats are demonstrated which had spinal cord trauma, disc protrusion, aortic thromboembolism and lumbosacral stenosis and the importance of the evaluation of x-rays, cerebrospinal fluid examination and myelography is stressed.

  7. Nuclear Arc Interacts with the Histone Acetyltransferase Tip60 to Modify H4K12 Acetylation1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Caroline L.; Teo, Shaun; Oey, Nicodemus E.; Wright, Graham D.; VanDongen, Hendrika M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arc is an immediate-early gene whose genetic ablation selectively abrogates long-term memory, indicating a critical role in memory consolidation. Although Arc protein is found at synapses, it also localizes to the neuronal nucleus, where its function is less understood. Nuclear Arc forms a complex with the β-spectrin isoform βSpIVΣ5 and associates with PML bodies, sites of epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We report here a novel interaction between Arc and Tip60, a histone-acetyltransferase and subunit of a chromatin-remodelling complex, using biochemistry and super-resolution microscopy in primary rat hippocampal neurons. Arc and βSpIVΣ5 are recruited to nuclear Tip60 speckles, and the three proteins form a tight complex that localizes to nuclear perichromatin regions, sites of transcriptional activity. Neuronal activity-induced expression of Arc (1) increases endogenous nuclear Tip60 puncta, (2) recruits Tip60 to PML bodies, and (3) increases histone acetylation of Tip60 substrate H4K12, a learning-induced chromatin modification. These mechanisms point to an epigenetic role for Arc in regulating memory consolidation. PMID:26464963

  8. Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity in rat cranial parasympathetic neurons: coexistence with vasoactive intestinal peptide and choline acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Leblanc, G.C.; Trimmer, B.A.; Landis, S.C.

    1987-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely distributed in the sympathetic nervous system, where it is colocalized with norepinephrine. The authors report here that NPY-immunoreactive neurons are also abundant in three cranial parasympathetic ganglia, the otic, sphenopalatine, and ciliary, in the rat measured by radioimmunoassay. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the immunoreactive material present in the otic ganglion indicates that this material is very similar to porcine NPY and indistinguishable from the NPY-like immunoreactivity present in rat sympathetic neurons. These findings raise the possibility that NPY acts as a neuromodulator in the parasympathetic as well as the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast to what had been observed for sympathetic neurons, NPY-immunoreactive neurons in cranial parasympathetic ganglia do not contain detectable catecholamines or tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, and many do contain immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal peptide and/or choline acetyltransferase. These findings suggest that there is no simple rule governing coexpression of NPY with norepinephrine, acetylcholine, or vasoactive intestinal peptide in autonomic neurons. Further, while functional studies have indicated that NPY exerts actions on the peripheral vasculature which are antagonistic to those of acetylcholine and vasoactive intestinal peptide, the present results raise the possibility that these three substances may have complementary effects on other target tissues.

  9. Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) in the abdominal cavity of a domestic cat from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Verocai, Guilherme G; Measures, Lena N; Azevedo, Felipe D; Correia, Thais R; Fernandes, Julio I; Scott, Fabio B

    2009-05-12

    This study reports a case of parasitism by the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782), in the abdominal cavity of a domestic cat from Brazil. A female adult cat presenting prostration, dehydration, physical debility, pronounced jaundice and ascitis, was taken to the Department of Animal Parasitology of the Veterinary Institute of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Clinical signs suggested a case of peritonitis. The cat's clinical condition was grave and death occurred within a few days. During necropsy, a brownish-red nematode, 24.9cm long, was found in the abdominal cavity and was identified as a male adult D. renale. This study reports the first confirmed case of dioctophymatosis in the domestic cat. The parasite's aberrant location in the abdominal cavity suggests that the domestic cat is not a suitable host.

  10. Hepatic myelolipoma incarcerated in a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Wouda, R M; Chalkley, M D; Fraser, A R; Moses, P A E

    2010-06-01

    Hepatic myelolipoma incarcerated in a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia was diagnosed in an 11-year-old, desexed female Persian cat. The cat was initially referred for investigation of tachypnoea and dyspnoea. Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia is a common incidental finding in cats and is usually asymptomatic. Myelolipoma is an extremely rare benign tumour, composed of extramedullary haematopoietic cells and adipose tissue. Myelolipomas are hypothesised to result from metaplastic alteration, rather than a neoplastic process, although this theory cannot be substantiated. The present case is only the fourth report of such an unusual occurrence in cats and displays significant differences to previous reports. Hepatic entrapment and burgeoning of the mass within the pericardial sac resulted in cardiac tamponade and overt signs of right-sided cardiac failure. Surgical intervention was successful and despite concerns regarding the cat's clinical presentation and the gross appearance of the lesion(s), a good long-term outcome is anticipated.

  11. Naturally Occurring Biventricular Noncompaction in an Adult Domestic Cat.

    PubMed

    Kittleson, M D; Fox, P R; Basso, C; Thiene, G

    2017-03-01

    A definitively diagnosed case of left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) has not been previously reported in a non-human species. We describe a Maine Coon cross cat with echocardiographically and pathologically documented LVNC. The cat was from a research colony and was heterozygous for the cardiac myosin binding protein C mutation associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in Maine Coon cats (A31P). The cat had had echocardiographic examinations performed every 6 months until 6 years of age at which time the cat died of an unrelated cause. Echocardiographic findings consistent with LVNC (moth-eaten appearance to the inner wall of the mid- to apical region of the left ventricle (LV) in cross section and trabeculations of the inner LV wall that communicated with the LV chamber) first were identified at 2 years of age. At necropsy, pathologic findings of LVNC were verified and included the presence of noncompacted myocardium that consisted of endothelial-lined trabeculations and sinusoids that constituted more than half of the inner part of the LV wall. The right ventricular (RV) wall also was affected. Histopathology identified myofiber disarray, which is characteristic of HCM, although heart weight was normal and LV wall thickness was not increased.

  12. Development of the sound localization cues in cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollin, Daniel J.

    2004-05-01

    Cats are a common model for developmental studies of the psychophysical and physiological mechanisms of sound localization. Yet, there are few studies on the development of the acoustical cues to location in cats. The magnitude of the three main cues, interaural differences in time (ITDs) and level (ILDs), and monaural spectral shape cues, vary with location in adults. However, the increasing interaural distance associated with a growing head and pinnae during development will result in cues that change continuously until maturation is complete. Here, we report measurements, in cats aged 1 week to adulthood, of the physical dimensions of the head and pinnae and the localization cues, computed from measurements of directional transfer functions. At 1 week, ILD depended little on azimuth for frequencies <6-7 kHz, maximum ITD was 175 μs, and for sources varying in elevation, a prominent spectral notch was located at higher frequencies than in the older cats. As cats develop, the spectral cues and the frequencies at which ILDs become substantial (>10 dB) shift to lower frequencies, and the maximum ITD increases to nearly 370 μs. Changes in the cues are correlated with the increasing size of the head and pinnae. [Work supported by NIDCD DC05122.

  13. US Domestic Cats as Sentinels for Perfluoroalkyl Substances ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) , are persistent, globally distributed, anthropogenic compounds. The primary source(s) for human exposure are not well understood although within home exposure is likely important since many consumer products have been treated with different PFAS, and people spend much of their lives indoors. Herein, domestic cats were used as sentinels to investigate potential exposure and health linkages. PFAS in serum samples of 72 pet and feral cats, including 11 healthy and 61 with one or more primary disease diagnoses, were quantitated using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. All but one sample had detectable PFAS, with PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) ranging from cats were very similar to contemporary NHANES reports of human sera in the U. S. POPULATION: The highest PFAS serum concentrations detected were in indoor cats due to disproportionately elevated PFHxS levels. Ranked by quartile, contingency testing indicated that total PFAS levels were positively associated with living indoors and with higher body weight and body condition scores. Individual PFAS quartile rankings suggested positive associations with respiratory effusion, thyroid, liver, and possibly chronic kidney disease . Domestic cats appear to be useful sentinels for assessing primary

  14. Cryosurgery of eosinophilic ulcers in cats.

    PubMed

    Willemse, A; Lubberink, A A

    1978-10-15

    The use of cryosurgery in treatment of eosinophilic granuloma in cats is described. Satisfactory results were obtained in 14 of 19 cats and 4 of the 5 cats which did not respond favorably, had multiple lesions. The simplicity of the technique and the rapidity of healing make cryosurgery a useful alternative to previous methods of treatment.

  15. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  16. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    MedlinePlus

    ... a s t is O : wAnneIrmsportant What role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, birds ... animals, or anything contaminated with feces from another cat that is shedding the microscopic parasite in its ...

  17. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  18. CATS Data and Information Page

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-10

    ... of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS).   CATS will provide vertical profiles at three ... (day-to-night) changes in cloud and aerosol effects from space by observing the same spot on Earth at different times each day. ...

  19. Lymphoplasmacytic gingivitis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 12-year-old male neutered short haired cat was presented due to difficulty eating and pawing at the face. Examination revealed severe gingivitis and stomatitis throughout the oral cavity. Gingival biopsy provided a diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis. Extraction of all premolars and molars resulted in elimination of all clinical signs. PMID:16048015

  20. A strange cat in Dublin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  1. [Poxvirus infection in a cat].

    PubMed

    Ballauf, B; Linckh, S; Lechner, J

    1989-01-01

    For the first time, a poxvirus infection was diagnosed as an etiologic agent of dermal disease in a living domestic cat in Germany. A literature survey, the clinical symptoms of the infection and the diagnostic procedures are described. Poxvirus infections should be considered as a differential diagnosis in feline dermatologic problems.

  2. A CAT scan for cells

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a team of scientists from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the University of California, San Francisco used Berkeley Lab's National Center for X-ray Tomography to capture the changes that occur when Candida albicans is exposed to a new and promising antifungal therapy. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/12/10/cat-scan-cells/

  3. Lessons from the Cheshire Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinberg, Donna

    2012-01-01

    "If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you…

  4. Lymphoplasmacytic gingivitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Baird, Kristin

    2005-06-01

    A 12-year-old male neutered short haired cat was presented due to difficulty eating and pawing at the face. Examination revealed severe gingivitis and stomatitis throughout the oral cavity. Gingival biopsy provided a diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis. Extraction of all premolars and molars resulted in elimination of all clinical signs.

  5. Assessing CAT Test Security Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Zhang, Jinming; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its precision superiority over nonadaptive tests, another known advantage of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) is that they can be offered on a continuous basis. This is advantageous to examinees in terms of flexibility of test scheduling, as well as advantageous to schools and other testing centers in terms of both space and…

  6. Otitis Externa Associated with Malassezia sympodialis in Two Cats

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    The lipid-dependent species Malassezia sympodialis was isolated from two cats with otitis externa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of lipid-dependent species of the genus Malassezia associated with skin disease in domestic animals. PMID:10699037

  7. New N-Acetyltransferase Fold in the Structure and Mechanism of the Phosphonate Biosynthetic Enzyme FrbF

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Brian; Cobb, Ryan E.; DeSieno, Matthew A.; Zhao, Huimin; Nair, Satish K.

    2015-10-15

    The enzyme FrbF from Streptomyces rubellomurinus has attracted significant attention due to its role in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial phosphonate FR-900098. The enzyme catalyzes acetyl transfer onto the hydroxamate of the FR-900098 precursors cytidine 5'-monophosphate-3-aminopropylphosphonate and cytidine 5'-monophosphate-N-hydroxy-3-aminopropylphosphonate. Despite the established function as a bona fide N-acetyltransferase, FrbF shows no sequence similarity to any member of the GCN5-like N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily. Here, we present the 2.0 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of FrbF in complex with acetyl-CoA, which demonstrates a unique architecture that is distinct from those of canonical GNAT-like acetyltransferases. We also utilized the co-crystal structure to guide structure-function studies that identified the roles of putative active site residues in the acetyltransferase mechanism. The combined biochemical and structural analyses of FrbF provide insights into this previously uncharacterized family of N-acetyltransferases and also provide a molecular framework toward the production of novel N-acyl derivatives of FR-900098.

  8. Practical Physical and Behavioral Measures to Assess the Socialization Spectrum of Cats in a Shelter-Like Setting during a Three Day Period

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha; Mirontshuk, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Animal welfare organizations accept large numbers of cats with no known history. Because shelters are often highly stressful environments for cats, it is likely to be difficult to differentiate a frightened cat that is socialized to humans from a feral cat that is not. However, this distinction can help channel cats into appropriate dispositions. We conducted structured assessments to measure various behaviors and their potential to distinguish socialization levels. Our results show that a specific set of behaviors are only exhibited by more socialized cats. Many cats needed time to adjust to the shelter-type setting to show these socialized behaviors. Abstract Animal welfare organizations routinely accept large numbers of cats with unknown histories, and whose backgrounds vary from well-socialized pets to cats that have had little or no contact with humans. Agencies are challenged with making the determination of socialization level in a highly stressful environment where cats are often too frightened to show typical behaviors. A variety of structured behavioral assessments were conducted in a shelter-like environment, from intake through a three day holding period, on cats from the full range of socialization as reported by their caregivers. Our results show that certain behaviors such as rubbing, playing, chirping, having the tail up or being at the front of the cage were found to be unique to More Socialized cats. While not all more socialized cats showed these behaviors, cats that did were socialized. Assessing the cats throughout the three day period was beneficial in eliciting key behaviors from shyer and more frightened cats. These results will be used in future work to develop an assessment tool to identify the socialization status of cats as a standardized guide for transparent and reliable disposition decisions and higher live release rates for cats in animal shelters. PMID:26479757

  9. Neuroretinitis: a clinical syndrome of cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Rost Monahan S

    2000-12-01

    Cat-scratch disease is usually a benign self-limited illness, characterized by regional lymphadenopathy lasting between 3 and 6 weeks. The causative organism is Bartonella henselae, a small gram-negative rod. Between 1 and 2% of patients who contract the illness experience blurred vision, metamorphopsia and scotomas as a result of neuroretinitis, an associated clinical syndrome. The classical clinical findings in cat-scratch neuroretinitis include disc edema and a stellate pattern of exudates in the macula. However, a myriad of other signs has been documented, suggesting a much wider spectrum of intra-ocular disease. The following case report presents a young patient with neuroretinitis, and a history of lymphadenopathy secondary to cat-scratch disease.

  10. Mycobacterium bovis in Argentina: isolates from cats typified by spoligotyping.

    PubMed

    Zumárraga, M J; Vivot, M Martínez; Marticorena, D; Bernardelli, A; Fasán, R; Iachini, R; Cataldi, A A

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, 19 Mycobacterium bovis isolates from different cats were typified by spoligotyping. We detected nine spoligotypes. There was only one cluster, which grouped 11 of the isolates (57.9%), showing the main spoligotype from cattle from Argentina. The rest of the spoligotypes presented only one isolate each. Five of them were not found in cattle, and were unique and exclusive of cats. The isolates studied show that tuberculosis of bovine origin in cats constitutes a potential public health problem in Buenos Aires region. The identification of genotypes from non-natural hosts could contribute to understand the spread of bovine tuberculosis. This is the first report showing genetic profiles of M. bovis isolates in felines from Argentina.

  11. Clinicopathologic characterization of oral pyogenic granuloma in 8 cats.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Jessica; Bell, Cynthia M; Constantaras, Marika E; Snyder, Christopher J; Charlier, Cindy J; Soukup, Jason W

    2014-01-01

    This case series characterizes the clinicopathologic features and treatment of oral pyogenic granuloma in 8 cats. The cats reported here were patients originating from collaborative efforts at an academic clinical teaching hospital and a specialty dentistry/oral surgery referral practice. Although the initial biopsy results were variable, in all cases the diagnosis reflected an inflammatory process. A second clinicopathologic evaluation of these cases determined that all lesions were consistent with oral pyogenic granuloma. The location of the lesion was consistent among all cats within the present study Lesions developed at the vestibular mucogingival tissues of the mandibular first molar teeth. We propose that malocclusion and secondary traumatic contact of the ipsilateral maxillary fourth premolar tooth with the mandibular soft tissues is a possible contributing factor in the etiopathogenic mechanism.

  12. Determination of multidirectional myocardial deformations in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Yohei; Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a primary disorder of the myocardium, is the most common cardiac disease in cats. However, determination of myocardial deformation with two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in cats with various stages of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has not yet been reported. This study was designed to measure quantitatively multidirectional myocardial deformations of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods Thirty-two client-owned cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 14 healthy cats serving as controls were enrolled and underwent assessment of myocardial deformation (peak systolic strain and strain rate) in the longitudinal, radial and circumferential directions. Results Longitudinal and radial deformations were reduced in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, despite normal systolic function determined by conventional echocardiography. Cats with severely symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy also had lower peak systolic circumferential strain, in addition to longitudinal and radial strain. Conclusions and relevance Longitudinal and radial deformation may be helpful in the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Additionally, the lower circumferential deformation in cats with severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may contribute to clinical findings of decompensation, and seems to be related to severe cardiac clinical signs. Indices of multidirectional myocardial deformations by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography may be useful markers and help to distinguish between cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and healthy cats. Additionally, they may provide more detailed assessment of contractile function in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  13. Managing feral cats on a university's campuses: how many are there and is sterilization having an effect?

    PubMed

    Jones, Amanda L; Downs, Colleen T

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide domestic and feral cat (Felis catus) numbers have increased. Concerns regarding high populations of feral cats in urban areas include wildlife predation, public nuisance, and disease. This study aimed to estimate the size of the feral cat population on 5 campuses of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to determine whether sterilization has an effect and to make management recommendations. The study used both the total count and mark-recapture methods to estimate the feral cat population on each campus. The study chose a noninvasive method of taking photographs to "mark" individuals and record those who were sterilized. The study estimated a total of 186 cats on all campuses and density at 161 cats km(-2). There was a negative relationship between sterilization and numbers. Sites with higher sterilization showed a lower proportion of younger cats. At the average sterilization of 55%, the population, according to predictions, would remain stable at fecundity, survival, and immigration rates reported by cat caretakers. However, caretakers underestimated cat abundance by 7 ± 37 SD%. Caretakers' feral cat sterilization and feeding programs appear to provide a service to the university community. Key management recommendations were to increase sterilization to 90% to reduce the population over the long term and to raise funds to support the costs incurred by voluntary cat caretakers.

  14. N-Acetyltransferase 1 Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    endonucleases, Apa I and Sph I (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA), followed by ligation with T4 Ligase (Invitrogen). Polyadenylation Site Removal NATa...ligated into pcDNA5/FRT using T4 ligase . In this report, these two constructs are referred to as NATa 1*4 and NATb 1*4. NATa and NATb NAT1*10, NAT1*11...NAT1*11 DNA was selected using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and ligated into the vector using T4 ligase . NATa and NATb 1*14

  15. Measuring Negative and Positive Thoughts in Children: An Adaptation of the Children's Automatic Thoughts Scale (CATS).

    PubMed

    Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Wolters, Lidewij H; Vervoort, Leentje; Prins, Pier J M; Boer, Frits; Kooij, Emelie; de Haan, Else

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the factor structure and psychometric properties of an extended version of the Children's Automatic Thoughts Scale (CATS), the CATS-Negative/Positive (CATS-N/P). The CATS was originally designed to assess negative self-statements in children and adolescents. However, positive thoughts also play a major role in childhood disorders such as anxiety and depression. Therefore, positive self-statements were added to the CATS. The CATS-N/P was administered to a community sample of 554 children aged 8-18 years. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the positive self-statements formed a separate and psychometrically sound factor. Internal and short-term test-retest reliability was good. Boys reported more hostile and positive thoughts than girls; and younger children reported more negative thoughts concerning physical threat, social threat, and failure than older children. In conclusion, the results of the current study support the use of the CATS-N/P for the measurement of positive and negative thoughts in children. The application of the CATS-N/P can facilitate further research on cognitive factors in different childhood disorders.

  16. Feline ischaemic myelopathy with a predilection for the cranial cervical spinal cord in older cats.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Katherine M; De Risio, Luisa; Theobald, Anita; Garosi, Laurent; Lowrie, Mark

    2014-12-01

    All previous studies on feline ischaemic myelopathy (IM) have reported an acute onset of a single event with no recurrence of clinical signs. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and long-term follow-up data in cats presumptively diagnosed with cervical IM in the territory of the ventral spinal artery (VSA). Eight cats (four females and four males) were included with a mean age of 14 years and 2 months. Neurological status at the time of presentation ranged from ambulatory tetraparesis to tetraplegia with nociception present. Six cats had marked cervical ventroflexion. All eight cats were diagnosed with one or more concurrent medical conditions, including chronic kidney disease (n = 2), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 2) and hypertension (n = 6). Median time to ambulation was 5.7 days (range 2-14 days). Long-term follow-up ranged from 7 months to 3 years and 3 months (median 1 year and 2 months). Five cats had no reported recurrence of clinical signs and 3/8 had a chronic relapsing disease course. One cat had an acute recurrence of clinical signs 4 months after the first event and was euthanased. Two cats had acute onsets of suspected intracranial infarctions, one of which had further suspected intracranial infarcts every 3 months and was euthanased after one of these. This study highlights the importance of performing ancillary diagnostic tests in older cats presenting with IM, particularly when VSA embolisation is suspected.

  17. Activation Domain-Specific and General Transcription Stimulation by Native Histone Acetyltransferase Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Keiko; Steger, David J.; Eberharter, Anton; Workman, Jerry L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress in identifying the catalytic subunits of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes has implicated histone acetylation in the regulation of transcription. Here, we have analyzed the function of two native yeast HAT complexes, SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase) and NuA4 (nucleosome acetyltransferase of H4), in activating transcription from preassembled nucleosomal array templates in vitro. Each complex was tested for the ability to enhance transcription driven by GAL4 derivatives containing either acidic, glutamine-rich, or proline-rich activation domains. On nucleosomal array templates, the SAGA complex selectively stimulates transcription driven by the VP16 acidic activation domain in an acetyl coenzyme A-dependent manner. In contrast, the NuA4 complex facilitates transcription mediated by any of the activation domains tested if allowed to preacetylate the nucleosomal template, indicating a general stimulatory effect of histone H4 acetylation. However, when the extent of acetylation by NuA4 is limited, the complex also preferentially stimulates VP16-driven transcription. SAGA and NuA4 interact directly with the VP16 activation domain but not with a glutamine-rich or proline-rich activation domain. These data suggest that recruitment of the SAGA and NuA4 HAT complexes by the VP16 activation domain contributes to HAT-dependent activation. In addition, extensive H4/H2B acetylation by NuA4 leads to a general activation of transcription, which is independent of activator-NuA4 interactions. PMID:9858608

  18. Choline Acetyltransferase Activity in Striatum of Neonatal Rats Increased by Nerve Growth Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobley, William C.; Rutkowski, J. Lynn; Tennekoon, Gihan I.; Buchanan, Karen; Johnston, Michael V.

    1985-07-01

    Some neurodegenerative disorders may be caused by abnormal synthesis or utilization of trophic molecules required to support neuronal survival. A test of this hypothesis requires that trophic agents specific for the affected neurons be identified. Cholinergic neurons in the corpus striatum of neonatal rats were found to respond to intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor with prominent, dose-dependent, selective increases in choline acetyltransferase activity. Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain also respond to nerve growth factor in this way. These actions of nerve growth factor may indicate its involvement in the normal function of forebrain cholinergic neurons as well as in neurodegenerative disorders involving such cells.

  19. Choline acetyltransferase: further studies on the reverse reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, L.L.; Chao, L.P.

    1982-01-01

    In order to further characterize the reaction mechanism of brain ChAc in its purified form, we have investigated the reverse reaction of ChAc in terms of pH optimum, salt effects, and substrate kinetics using a radiochemical assay. We directly measured the reaction product acetylcoenzyme A which was separated from the substrate ACh by a cation exchange column. Dowex 50W-X8 (Na+ form). The reverse reaction of ChAc was linear with incubation time up to 40 minutes, and with enzyme protein concentration up to 5 micrograms. It had a pH optimum at 7.0. At 0.22 M the monovalent chloride and bromide salts activated the reverse ChAc activity by 23-47% but the fluoride and iodide salts inhibited the reverse enzyme activity by 10-30%. Kinetic studies in the absence of salt showed that KACh was 0.62 +/- 0.06 mM, KCoA . SH was 12.68 +/- 1.21 microM, and Vmax was 11.6 +/- 1.0 nmol AcCoA/mg protein/min. These data are in disagreement with the values reported on partially purified ChAc from bovine brain by Glover and Potter (1971) and Hersh (1980). This indicates that further investigations are necessary to clarify or resolve these differences.

  20. Lumbosacral intervertebral disk disease in six cats.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennipher E; Dhupa, Sarit

    2008-01-01

    Medical records of six cats diagnosed with lumbosacral intervertebral disk disease were reviewed. Clinical signs included reluctance to jump, low tail carriage, elimination outside the litter box, reluctance to ambulate, pelvic-limb paresis, urinary incontinence, and constipation. All cats had lumbosacral hyperpathia on palpation. Computed tomography in four cats revealed evidence of extradural spinal cord compression at the seventh lumbar (L(7)) to first sacral (S(1)) vertebral interspace. Compression was confirmed via myelography in three of these four cats, with confirmation in the fourth cat at the time of decompressive laminectomy. Each of the six cats underwent dorsal decompressive laminectomy at the L(7) to S(1) interspace. Postoperative clinical follow-up lasted 3 to 35 months, with most cats having excellent outcomes.

  1. Up-regulation of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) expression is a part of proliferative but not anabolic response of mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Dudkowska, Magdalena; Stachurska, Agnieszka; Grzelakowska-Sztabert, Barbara; Manteuffel-Cymborowska, Małgorzata

    2002-01-01

    A differential expression pattern of spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT), the enzyme critical to proper homeostasis of cellular polyamines, is reported in mouse kidney undergoing hyperplasia and hypertrophy. We have shown that SSAT activity and SSAT mRNA are significantly induced by antifolate CB 3717 and folate that evoke a drug-injury-dependent hyperplasia. In contrast, SSAT activity is down-regulated in the testosterone-induced hypertrophic kidney, while SSAT mRNA is positively controlled by this androgen. Catecholamine depletion evoked by reserpine drastically decreases the folate-induced activity of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), which limits polyamine biosynthesis, but has no effect on SSAT activity augmented by CB 3717. Our results document that the increased SSAT expression solely accompanies the proliferative response of mouse kidney, and suggest the importance of post-transcriptional regulation to the control of SSAT activity in both hyperplastic and hypertrophic experimental models.

  2. Severe psychomotor delay in a severe presentation of cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jedraszak, Guillaume; Receveur, Aline; Andrieux, Joris; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Copin, Henri; Morin, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Cat-eye syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome of chromosomal origin. Individuals with cat-eye syndrome are characterized by the presence of preauricular pits and/or tags, anal atresia, and iris coloboma. Many reported cases also presented with variable congenital anomalies and intellectual disability. Most patients diagnosed with CES carry a small supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome, resulting in partial tetrasomy of 22p-22q11.21. There are two types of small supernumerary marker chromosome, depending on the breakpoint site. In a very small proportion of cases, other cytogenetic anomalies are reportedly associated with the cat-eye syndrome phenotype. Here, we report a patient with cat-eye syndrome caused by a type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. The phenotype was atypical and included a severe developmental delay. The use of array comparative genomic hybridization ruled out the involvement of another chromosomal imbalance in the neurological phenotype. In the literature, only a few patients with cat-eye syndrome present with a severe developmental delay, and all of the latter carried an atypical partial trisomy 22 or an uncharacterized small supernumerary marker chromosome. Hence, this is the first report of a severe neurological phenotype in cat-eye syndrome with a typical type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. Our observation clearly complicates prognostic assessment, particularly when cat-eye syndrome is diagnosed prenatally.

  3. Tracheobronchial foreign bodies in cats: a retrospective study of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Leal, Rodolfo Oliveira; Bongrand, Yannick; Lepoutre, Julie Gallay; Gomes, Eymeric; Hernandez, Juan

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate age, sex, breed, clinical signs, time between onset of signs and presentation, diagnostic procedures, method of extraction, location and nature of foreign bodies (FBs) in confirmed cases of tracheobronchial FBs in cats. We hypothesised that bronchoscopy was effective in extracting tracheobronchial FBs in cats. Methods A retrospective study was performed using clinical reports from three private practices in France between May 2009 and November 2014. Cats were included if an intraluminal tracheobronchial FB had been identified and extracted (either by bronchoscopy or surgery). Results Twelve cats (six male, six female) were included. Mean age was 3.75 ± 2.5 years. Coughing was the main complaint and was present in 9/12 (75%) of the cats. Thoracic radiographs were obtained in 12/12 cats (100%) and a FB was suspected in 11/12 (92%). Bronchoscopy was performed in all of the cats and enabled FB extraction in 10/12 (83%) of them. In 2/12 cats (17%), an additional surgical approach was required. In 6/12 (50%) cats, FBs were located in the trachea, while in 6/12 (50%) cats FBs were in the bronchial tree, particularly in the right caudal bronchus (4/6; 66%). Seven of 12 (58%) FBs were vegetal in nature, 3/12 (25%) were mineral and 2/12 (17%) were undetermined. All the mineral FBs were extracted from the trachea, while the majority of the vegetal ones (5/7; 71%) were found in the bronchi. Conclusions and relevance Feline respiratory FBs can be found in the trachea and in the bronchial tree, particularly in the right caudal bronchus. Vegetal FBs tend to migrate through the bronchial tree, whereas mineral ones tend to lodge in the trachea. Bronchoscopy seems to be a highly effective procedure for the extraction of tracheobronchial FBs in cats.

  4. Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii) Knowledge and Attitudes of Australian Cat Breeders and Their Husbandry Practices.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Bosward, K L; Heller, J

    2016-09-13

    A Q fever outbreak in a small animal veterinary hospital, associated with a cat caesarean section, initiated a cat seroprevalence study (n = 712) that found circulating antibodies to Coxiella burnetii was highest in cattery-confined breeding cats (9.3%). These findings stimulated interest about potential sources of C. burnetii infection for cats and humans associated with cats. Cat breeders are potentially a group at increased risk of C. burnetii infection, and this study sought to identify potential risk factors. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted targeting all domestic cat breeders registered with an affiliate member body in Australia in 2015. Responses from 177 cat breeders across Australia were analysed. Forty per cent of responding cat breeders had not heard of Q fever. Raw meat was fed as an integral constituent of the diet by 89% of respondents. Eighty per cent of respondents allowed queens access to the home for parturition, and assistance of queens and resuscitation of kittens at the time of birth were reported by 97% of respondents. Respondents who perceived some level of exposure to Q fever through their breeding activities were three times less likely to perform mouth-to-snout resuscitation (OR 0.3 95% CI 0.1-0.9; P = 0.034) than those who did not perceive a risk of exposure. Similarly, respondents who perceived Q fever as a risk through breeding activities were close to eight times more likely to use personal protective equipment during parturition (OR 7.7 95% CI 1.5-39.9; P = 0.015) than those who did not. Husbandry practices of cat breeders that may increase the risk of C. burnetii transmission require further targeted investigations to assess the contribution of these risk factors to the acquisition of disease. Concurrent education forums are recommended to inform Australian cat breeders of the aetiopathogenesis of Q fever.

  5. No association between apolipoprotein E or N‐Acetyltransferase 2 gene polymorphisms and age‐related hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Piers; Platt, Hazel; Horan, Michael; Ollier, William; Munro, Kevin; Pendleton, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Age‐related hearing loss has a genetic component, but there have been limited genetic studies in this field. Both N‐acetyltransferase 2 and apolipoprotein E genes have previously been associated. However, these studies have either used small sample sizes, examined a limited number of polymorphisms, or have produced conflicting results. Here we use a haplotype tagging approach to determine association with age‐related hearing loss and investigate epistasis between these two genes. Study Design Candidate gene association study of a continuous phenotype. Methods We investigated haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in the N‐acetyltransferase 2 gene and the presence/absence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele for association with age‐related hearing loss in a cohort of 265 Caucasian elderly volunteers from Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. Hearing phenotypes were generated using principal component analysis of the hearing threshold levels for the better ear (severity, slope, and concavity). Genotype data for the N‐acetyltransferase 2 gene was obtained from existing genome‐wide association study data from the Illumina 610‐Quadv1 chip. Apolipoprotein E genotyping was performed using Sequenom technology. Linear regression analysis was performed using Plink and Stata software. Results No significant associations (P value, > 0.05) were observed between the N‐acetyltransferase 2 or apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms and any hearing factor. No significant association was observed for epistasis analysis of apolipoprotein E ε4 and the N‐acetyltransferase 2 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1799930 (NAT2*6A). Conclusion We found no evidence to support that either N‐acetyltransferase 2 or apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms are associated with age‐related hearing loss in a cohort of 265 elderly volunteers. Level of Evidence N/A. Laryngoscope, 125:E33–E38, 2015 PMID:25155015

  6. Dioctophyme renale Goeze, 1782 in a cat with a supernumerary kidney.

    PubMed

    Pedrassani, Daniela; Wendt, Hamilton; Rennau, Erley Alexandre; Pereira, Samuel Tibes; Wendt, Simone Balão Taques

    2014-03-01

    This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyme renale in a supernumerary kidney and abdominal cavity of a female cat in Brazil. The three-year-old cat of indeterminate breed presented abdominal distension and was taken to the University of Contestado Veterinary Hospital in Canoinhas, state of Santa Catarina, since the owner suspected pregnancy. An ultrasound scan did not confirm pregnancy but revealed parasitism in the kidney. This case is worth reporting because domestic cats are rarely hosts of this nematode species.

  7. Isolation of Tritrichomonas foetus from cats sampled at a cat clinic, cat shows and a humane society in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Hosein, Ansarah; Kruth, Stephen A; Pearl, David L; Richardson, Danielle; Maggs, Jocelyn C; Peach, Hillary A; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2013-08-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a protozoan parasite that has been associated with chronic diarrhea in cats. This study aimed to determine (i) the prevalence of T foetus shedding in cats from three different populations in southern Ontario, and (ii) associations between the presence of T foetus and potential cat management, health and demographic risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 140 cats from a cat clinic in Guelph, 46 cats from a humane society in Guelph and 55 cats from two cat shows. Risk factor information was assessed through a questionnaire. The InPouch TF (feline) culture method was used to determine the presence of T foetus in all samples. Polymerase chain reaction was conducted on all samples positive by the InPouch TF, as well as 132 negative samples. The assays were interpreted in series and the prevalence of T foetus shedding and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated at 0.7% (95% CI: 0.0-3.9%; n = 140) from the cat clinic, 0% (95% CI: 0.0-7.7%; n = 46) from the humane society and 23.6% (95% CI: 13.2-37.0%; n = 55) from the cat shows. 'Attendance at cat shows' was the only variable significant in both the univariable and multivariable analyses (P <0.05). No significant association was found between the presence of T foetus and diarrhea at the time of sampling or having a history of diarrhea in the past 6 months. The prevalence of T foetus was highly variable among populations of cats in southern Ontario, with shedding being most common in show cats.

  8. Human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats: a continuing public health concern in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Campagnolo, E R; Lind, L R; Long, J M; Moll, M E; Rankin, J T; Martin, K F; Deasy, M P; Dato, V M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    Rabid free-ranging cats have been a public health concern in Pennsylvania since raccoon variant rabies first was recognized in the state in the early 1980s. Over the last decade, between 1.5 and 2.5% of cats submitted to Pennsylvania's state laboratories for rabies testing have been positive. In this report, we describe the extent of rabies in free-ranging cats in Pennsylvania. We also present two examples of human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats that occurred in Pennsylvania during 2010-2011 and the public health actions taken to address rabies exposure in the humans and animals. We then describe the concerns surrounding the unvaccinated and free-ranging cat population in Pennsylvania and possible options in managing this public and animal health problem.

  9. Experimental Generation of Squeezed Cat States with an Operation Allowing Iterative Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etesse, Jean; Bouillard, Martin; Kanseri, Bhaskar; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa

    2015-05-01

    We present what is, to our knowledge, the first implementation of a "cat breeding" operation, which allows an iterative growth of cat states. We thus report the experimental generation of a squeezed cat state from two single photon Fock states, which can be seen as cat states with zero amplitude. These Fock states are mixed on a symmetrical beam splitter, and the generation is heralded by a homodyne measurement in one of the two output arms. The output state has a fidelity of 61% with an even squeezed cat state of amplitude α =1.63 . This hybrid operation opens up new prospects in quantum optics, as the protocol depicted here can be iterated in order to produce new kinds of mesoscopic states.

  10. The Fungal Sexual Pheromone Sirenin Activates the Human CatSper Channel Complex.

    PubMed

    Syeda, Shameem Sultana; Carlson, Erick J; Miller, Melissa R; Francis, Rawle; Clapham, David E; Lishko, Polina V; Hawkinson, Jon E; Hook, Derek; Georg, Gunda I

    2016-02-19

    The basal fungus Allomyces macrogynus (A. macrogynus) produces motile male gametes displaying well-studied chemotaxis toward their female counterparts. This chemotaxis is driven by sirenin, a sexual pheromone released by the female gametes. The pheromone evokes a large calcium influx in the motile gametes, which could proceed through the cation channel of sperm (CatSper) complex. Herein, we report the total synthesis of sirenin in 10 steps and 8% overall yield and show that the synthetic pheromone activates the CatSper channel complex, indicated by a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular calcium in human sperm. Sirenin activation of the CatSper channel was confirmed using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology with human sperm. Based on this proficient synthetic route and confirmed activation of CatSper, analogues of sirenin can be designed as blockers of the CatSper channel that could provide male contraceptive agents.

  11. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in an urban Indonesian cat population.

    PubMed

    Marston, E L; Finkel, B; Regnery, R L; Winoto, I L; Graham, R R; Wignal, S; Simanjuntak, G; Olson, J G

    1999-01-01

    We studied evidence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae infection in 54 cats living in Jakarta, Indonesia. By using an indirect immunofluorescence assay, we found immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae in 40 of 74 cats (54%). The blood of 14 feral cats was cultured on rabbit blood agar plates for 28 days. Bartonella-like colonies were identified as B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae by using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of the PCR amplicons. Of the cats sampled in the study, 6 of 14 (43%; all feral) were culture positive for B. henselae; 3 of 14 (21%; 2 feral and 1 pet) culture positive for B. clarridgeiae. This is the first report that documents B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae infections in Indonesian cats.

  12. Experimental generation of squeezed cat States with an operation allowing iterative growth.

    PubMed

    Etesse, Jean; Bouillard, Martin; Kanseri, Bhaskar; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa

    2015-05-15

    We present what is, to our knowledge, the first implementation of a "cat breeding" operation, which allows an iterative growth of cat states. We thus report the experimental generation of a squeezed cat state from two single photon Fock states, which can be seen as cat states with zero amplitude. These Fock states are mixed on a symmetrical beam splitter, and the generation is heralded by a homodyne measurement in one of the two output arms. The output state has a fidelity of 61% with an even squeezed cat state of amplitude α=1.63. This hybrid operation opens up new prospects in quantum optics, as the protocol depicted here can be iterated in order to produce new kinds of mesoscopic states.

  13. Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

    2014-12-01

    Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nölleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 ±  1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection.

  14. [Platelet count in the cat].

    PubMed

    Moritz, A; Hoffmann, C

    1997-11-01

    The technique of collecting blood samples is primarily responsible for the appearance of platelet-agglomeration in cats. Blood obtained by the conventional way ("one syringe technology", drips of blood) caused in 52% of the cases an activation of the large and therefore active thrombocytes however. Rejection of the first 2-5 ml blood for the platelet count ("two syringe technology") reduced the rate of platelet-agglomeration significantly. No big differences in platelet-agglomeration were found with regard to the place used for collecting blood (V. cephalica antebrachii/V. jugularis). Platelet-agglutination was observed with Li-Heparin, K-EDTA, Na-Citrat or ACD anticoagulated blood samples. Citrat (Na-Citrat, ACD) seemed to have a stabilizing effect on feline thrombocytes as has been described for human thrombocytes. The platelet count in cats should be performed within 30 minutes.

  15. Myeloproliferative disease in a cat

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, R.W.; Weller, R.E.; Feldman, B.F.

    1984-10-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders, a complex of cytologic abnormalities arising in the bone marrow, are among domestic animals most frequently recognized in cats but are relatively uncommon. A 4-year-old female Siamese, with splenomegaly and weight loss, was listless, anorectic, pale and dehydrated. A hemogram showed severe, macrocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis and reticulocytosis, with abnormally high numbers of nucleated RBC and undifferentiated blast cells. Bone marrow smears contained predominantly undifferentiated blast cells, RBC precursors and myeloblasts. The fluorescent antibody test for FeLV was positive. The cat died 66 days later despite a blood transfusion and chemotherapy. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of myeloproliferative disease, with hepatic and splenic invasion. 15 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  16. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats.

  17. An open clinical trial on the efficacy of cetirizine hydrochloride in the management of allergic pruritus in cats

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Joya S.; Scott, Danny W.; Miller, William H.; Tranchina, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Cetirizine hydrochloride was administered orally at 5 mg/cat, q24h, to 32 cats with allergic skin disease. Pruritus was reduced in 41% (13/32) of the cats. The antipruritic effect was repeatable and sustainable. There was no significant association between patient age, disease severity, or cutaneous reaction pattern and improvement during cetirizine administration. No adverse side effects were reported. PMID:22753962

  18. Differences between vocalization evoked by social stimuli in feral cats and house cats.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Seong C; Kim, Young K; Park, Se J; Lee, Scott S; Lee, Seung Y; Suh, Euy H; Houpt, Katherine A; Chang, Hong H; Lee, Hee C; Yang, Byung G; Lee, Hyo J

    2011-06-01

    To investigate how socialization can affect the types and characteristics of vocalization produced by cats, feral cats (n=25) and house cats (n=13) were used as subjects, allowing a comparison between cats socialized to people and non-socialized cats. To record vocalization and assess the cats' responses to behavioural stimuli, five test situations were used: approach by a familiar caretaker, by a threatening stranger, by a large doll, by a stranger with a dog and by a stranger with a cat. Feral cats showed extremely aggressive and defensive behaviour in most test situations, and produced higher call rates than those of house cats in the test situations, which could be attributed to less socialization to other animals and to more sensitivity to fearful situations. Differences were observed in the acoustic parameters of feral cats in comparison to those of house cats. The feral cat produced significantly higher frequency in fundamental frequency, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, 3rd quartile frequency of growls and hisses in agonistic test situations. In contrast to the growls and hisses, in meow, all acoustic parameters like fundamental frequency, first formant, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, and 3rd quartile frequency of house cats were of significantly higher frequency than those of feral cats. Also, house cats produced calls of significantly shorter in duration than feral cats in agonistic test situations. These results support the conclusion that a lack of socialization may affect usage of types of vocalizations, and the vocal characteristics, so that the proper socialization of cat may be essential to be a suitable companion house cat.

  19. Direct transmission of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) between cats exhibiting social behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Franc, Michel; Bouhsira, Émilie; Beugnet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    A study design was created to assess the potential for fleas to infest cats directly from other cats. In the first experiment, six cats were infested with 100 fleas each and then immediately put in contact with six flea-free cats for 24 h. After removal of all fleas the study was repeated and the contact between cats lasted 48 h. The total numbers of fleas recovered out of the 600 fleas deposited on the 6 donor cats after each infestation were 499 and 486 at 24 h and 48 h respectively. At 1 h post-contact, five fleas were found on the receiver cats, with three cats having one flea and one cat, two fleas. The number of fleas recovered on receiver cats increased towards the end of the study. At 24 h, 20% of the fleas were found on the receiver cats, and at 48 h, 23%. In a second experiment, the six flea-free cats were put in contact with the six donor cats which were each infested by 100 fleas 48 h before. Fewer fleas were found on the receiver cats (n = 15), representing 3.8% of all fleas recovered (n = 403). All the observed fleas had fed. The fleas collected on receiving cats comprised 10 males and 5 females, and 4 of the 5 females were engorged and contained eggs. The fleas collected on donor cats comprised 153 males and 235 females, they were all fed and all females contained eggs. This experiment demonstrated that gravid female fleas have a tendency to become permanently but not exclusively parasitic. Nevertheless, a few can change their cat host in as little as 1 h, which may play a role in the rapid introduction of a new flea population into a cat environment. PMID:24309021

  20. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-11-01

    A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of ototoxicity in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows one to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy.

  1. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  2. Himalayan fossils of the oldest known pantherine establish ancient origin of big cats.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Z Jack; Wang, Xiaoming; Slater, Graham J; Takeuchi, Gary T; Li, Qiang; Liu, Juan; Xie, Guangpu

    2014-01-07

    Pantherine felids ('big cats') include the largest living cats, apex predators in their respective ecosystems. They are also the earliest diverging living cat lineage, and thus are important for understanding the evolution of all subsequent felid groups. Although the oldest pantherine fossils occur in Africa, molecular phylogenies point to Asia as their region of origin. This paradox cannot be reconciled using current knowledge, mainly because early big cat fossils are exceedingly rare and fragmentary. Here, we report the discovery of a fossil pantherine from the Tibetan Himalaya, with an age of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene, replacing African records as the oldest pantherine. A 'total evidence' phylogenetic analysis of pantherines indicates that the new cat is closely related to the snow leopard and exhibits intermediate characteristics on the evolutionary line to the largest cats. Historical biogeographic models provide robust support for the Asian origin of pantherines. The combined analyses indicate that 75% of the divergence events in the pantherine lineage extended back to the Miocene, up to 7 Myr earlier than previously estimated. The deeper evolutionary origin of big cats revealed by the new fossils and analyses indicate a close association between Tibetan Plateau uplift and diversification of the earliest living cats.

  3. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned. PMID:25242952

  4. Dynamic Assessment of Health Outcomes: Time to Let the CAT Out of the Bag?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Karon F; O'Malley, Kimberly J; Roddey, Toni S

    2005-01-01

    Background The use of item response theory (IRT) to measure self-reported outcomes has burgeoned in recent years. Perhaps the most important application of IRT is computer-adaptive testing (CAT), a measurement approach in which the selection of items is tailored for each respondent. Objective To provide an introduction to the use of CAT in the measurement of health outcomes, describe several IRT models that can be used as the basis of CAT, and discuss practical issues associated with the use of adaptive scaling in research settings. Principal Points The development of a CAT requires several steps that are not required in the development of a traditional measure including identification of “starting” and “stopping” rules. CAT's most attractive advantage is its efficiency. Greater measurement precision can be achieved with fewer items. Disadvantages of CAT include the high cost and level of technical expertise required to develop a CAT. Conclusions Researchers, clinicians, and patients benefit from the availability of psychometrically rigorous measures that are not burdensome. CAT outcome measures hold substantial promise in this regard, but their development is not without challenges. PMID:16179003

  5. Successful resolution of dermatophyte mycetoma following terbinafine treatment in two cats.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, T J; German, A J; Holden, S L; Hopkinson, C; McEwan, N A

    2008-12-01

    Microsporum canis sensitive to itraconazole and terbinafine was isolated from two cats presented with generalized dermatophytosis and dermatophyte mycetoma. Itraconazole therapy was withdrawn through lack of efficacy in one cat (a Persian) and unacceptable adverse effects in the other (a Maine Coon). Both cats achieved clinical and mycological cure after 12-14 weeks therapy with 26-31 mg kg(-1) terbinafine every 24 h per os (PO). Clinical signs in the Maine Coon resolved completely after 7 weeks treatment. Four weeks of therapy with additional weekly washes with a 2% chlorhexidine/2% miconazole shampoo following clipping produced a 98% reduction in the Persian cat's mycetoma, which was then surgically excised. Recurrent generalized dermatophytosis in the Persian cat has been managed with pulse therapy with 26 mg kg(-1) terbinafine every 24 h PO for 1 week in every month. No underlying conditions predisposing to dermatophytosis were found in either cat despite extensive investigation. Terbinafine administration was associated with mild to moderate lethargy in the Persian cat, but no other adverse effects or changes in blood parameters were seen. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first report of a dermatophyte mycetoma in a Maine Coon and of successful resolution of this condition in cats following terbinafine therapy.

  6. Structure and Functional Diversity of GCN5-Related N-Acetyltransferases (GNAT)

    PubMed Central

    Salah Ud-Din, Abu Iftiaf Md; Tikhomirova, Alexandra; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    General control non-repressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferases (GNAT) catalyze the transfer of an acyl moiety from acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) to a diverse group of substrates and are widely distributed in all domains of life. This review of the currently available data acquired on GNAT enzymes by a combination of structural, mutagenesis and kinetic methods summarizes the key similarities and differences between several distinctly different families within the GNAT superfamily, with an emphasis on the mechanistic insights obtained from the analysis of the complexes with substrates or inhibitors. It discusses the structural basis for the common acetyltransferase mechanism, outlines the factors important for the substrate recognition, and describes the mechanism of action of inhibitors of these enzymes. It is anticipated that understanding of the structural basis behind the reaction and substrate specificity of the enzymes from this superfamily can be exploited in the development of novel therapeutics to treat human diseases and combat emerging multidrug-resistant microbial infections. PMID:27367672

  7. Cysteine biosynthesis in Lactobacillus casei: identification and characterization of a serine acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Bogicevic, Biljana; Berthoud, Hélène; Portmann, Reto; Bavan, Tharmatha; Meile, Leo; Irmler, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    In bacteria, cysteine can be synthesized from serine by two steps involving an L-serine O-acetyltransferase (SAT) and a cysteine synthase (CysK). While CysK is found in the publicly available annotated genome from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, a gene encoding SAT (cysE) is missing. In this study, we found that various strains of L. casei grew in a chemically defined medium containing sulfide as the sole sulfur source, indicating the presence of a serine O-acetyltransferase. The gene lying upstream of cysK is predicted to encode a homoserine trans-succinylase (metA). To study the function of this gene, it was cloned from L. casei FAM18110. The purified, recombinant protein did not acylate L-homoserine in vitro. Instead, it catalyzed the formation of O-acetyl serine from L-serine and acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, the plasmid expressing the L. casei gene complemented an Escherichia coli cysE mutant strain but not an E. coli metA mutant. This clearly demonstrated that the gene annotated as metA in fact encodes the SAT function and should be annotated as cysE.

  8. Specific alkylation of a histidine residue in carnitine acetyltransferase by bromoacetyl-l-carnitine

    PubMed Central

    Chase, J. F. A.; Tubbs, P. K.

    1970-01-01

    Incubation of carnitine acetyltransferase with low concentrations of bromoacetyl-l-carnitine causes a rapid and irreversible loss of enzyme activity; one mol of inhibitor can inactivate one mol of enzyme. Bromoacetyl-d-carnitine, iodoacetate or iodoacetamide are ineffective. l-Carnitine protects the transferase from bromoacetyl-l-carnitine. Investigation shows that the enzyme first reversibly binds bromoacetyl-l-carnitine with an affinity similar to that shown for the normal substrate acetyl-l-carnitine; this binding is followed by an alkylation reaction, forming the carnitine ester of a monocarboxymethyl-protein, which is catalytically inactive. The carnitine is released at an appreciable rate by spontaneous hydrolysis, and the resulting carboxymethyl-enzyme is also inactive. Total acid hydrolysis of enzyme after treatment with 2-[14C]bromoacetyl-l-carnitine yields N-3-carboxy[14C]methylhistidine as the only labelled amino acid. These findings, taken in conjunction with previous work, suggest that the single active centre of carnitine acetyltransferase contains a histidine residue. PMID:5461620

  9. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Casini, A.; Vaccaro, R.; D'Este, L.; Sakaue, Y.; Bellier, J.P.; Kimura, H.; Renda, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes. PMID:23027350

  10. An extracellular factor regulating expression of the chromosomal aminoglycoside 2'-N-acetyltransferase of Providencia stuartii.

    PubMed

    Rather, P N; Parojcic, M M; Paradise, M R

    1997-08-01

    The chromosomal aac(2')-Ia gene in Providencia stuartii encodes a housekeeping 2'-N-acetyltransferase [AAC(2')-Ia] involved in the acetylation of peptidoglycan. In addition, the AAC(2')-Ia enzyme also acetylates and confers resistance to the clinically important aminoglycoside antibiotics gentamicin, tobramycin, and netilmicin. Expression of the aac(2')-Ia gene was found to be strongly influenced by cell density, with a sharp decrease in aac(2')-Ia mRNA accumulation as cells approached stationary phase. This decrease was mediated by the accumulation of an extracellular factor, designated AR (for acetyltransferase repressing)-factor. AR-factor was produced in both minimal and rich media and acted in a manner that was strongly dose dependent. The activity of AR-factor was also pH dependent, with optimal activity at pH 8.0 and above. Biochemical characterization of conditioned media from P. stuartii has shown that AR-factor is between 500 and 1,000 Da in molecular size and is heat stable. In addition, AR-factor was inactivated by a variety of proteases, suggesting that it may be a small peptide.

  11. An acetyltransferase-independent function of Eso1 regulates centromere cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Su-Jiun; Tapia-Alveal, Claudia; Jabado, Omar J.; Germain, Doris; O’Connell, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotes contain three essential Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) complexes: cohesin, condensin, and Smc5/6. Cohesin forms a ring-shaped structure that embraces sister chromatids to promote their cohesion. The cohesiveness of cohesin is promoted by acetylation of N-terminal lysines of the Smc3 subunit by the acetyltransferases Eco1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the homologue, Eso1, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In both yeasts, these acetyltransferases are essential for cell viability. However, whereas nonacetylatable Smc3 mutants are lethal in S. cerevisiae, they are not in S. pombe. We show that the lethality of a temperature-sensitive allele of eso1 (eso1-H17) is due to activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and is associated with premature centromere separation. The lack of cohesion at the centromeres does not correlate with Psm3 acetylation or cohesin levels at the centromeres, but is associated ith significantly reduced recruitment of the cohesin regulator Pds5. The SAC activation in this context is dependent on Smc5/6 function, which is required to remove cohesin from chromosome arms but not centromeres. The mitotic defects caused by Smc5/6 and Eso1 dysfunction are cosuppressed in double mutants. This identifies a novel function (or functions) for Eso1 and Smc5/6 at centromeres and extends the functional relationships between these SMC complexes. PMID:27798241

  12. Crystal structure of bacillus subtilis YdaF protein : a putative ribosomal N-acetyltransferase.

    SciTech Connect

    Brunzelle, J. S.; Wu, R.; Korolev, S. V.; Collart, F. R.; Joachimiak, A.; Anderson, W. F.; Biosciences Division; Northwestern Univ.; Saint Louis Univ. School of Medicine

    2004-12-01

    Comparative sequence analysis suggests that the ydaF gene encodes a protein (YdaF) that functions as an N-acetyltransferase, more specifically, a ribosomal N-acetyltransferase. Sequence analysis using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) suggests that YdaF belongs to a large family of proteins (199 proteins found in 88 unique species of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes). YdaF also belongs to the COG1670, which includes the Escherichia coli RimL protein that is known to acetylate ribosomal protein L12. N-acetylation (NAT) has been found in all kingdoms. NAT enzymes catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) to a primary amino group. For example, NATs can acetylate the N-terminal {alpha}-amino group, the {epsilon}-amino group of lysine residues, aminoglycoside antibiotics, spermine/speridine, or arylalkylamines such as serotonin. The crystal structure of the alleged ribosomal NAT protein, YdaF, from Bacillus subtilis presented here was determined as a part of the Midwest Center for Structural Genomics. The structure maintains the conserved tertiary structure of other known NATs and a high sequence similarity in the presumed AcCoA binding pocket in spite of a very low overall level of sequence identity to other NATs of known structure.

  13. The Protein Acetyltransferase PatZ from Escherichia coli Is Regulated by Autoacetylation-induced Oligomerization*

    PubMed Central

    de Diego Puente, Teresa; Gallego-Jara, Julia; Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal Sánchez, Vicente; Fernández Espín, Vanesa; García de la Torre, José; Manjón Rubio, Arturo; Cánovas Díaz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification in the metabolic regulation of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In Escherichia coli, PatZ (formerly YfiQ) is the only known acetyltransferase protein and is responsible for acetyl-CoA synthetase acetylation. In this study, we demonstrated PatZ-positive cooperativity in response to acetyl-CoA and the regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase activity by the acetylation level. Furthermore, functional analysis of an E809A mutant showed that the conserved glutamate residue is not relevant for the PatZ catalytic mechanism. Biophysical studies demonstrated that PatZ is a stable tetramer in solution and is transformed to its octameric form by autoacetylation. Moreover, this modification is reversed by the sirtuin CobB. Finally, an in silico PatZ tetramerization model based on hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions is proposed and validated by three-dimensional hydrodynamic analysis. These data reveal, for the first time, the structural regulation of an acetyltransferase by autoacetylation in a prokaryotic organism. PMID:26251518

  14. The Protein Acetyltransferase PatZ from Escherichia coli Is Regulated by Autoacetylation-induced Oligomerization.

    PubMed

    de Diego Puente, Teresa; Gallego-Jara, Julia; Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal Sánchez, Vicente; Fernández Espín, Vanesa; García de la Torre, José; Manjón Rubio, Arturo; Cánovas Díaz, Manuel

    2015-09-18

    Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification in the metabolic regulation of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In Escherichia coli, PatZ (formerly YfiQ) is the only known acetyltransferase protein and is responsible for acetyl-CoA synthetase acetylation. In this study, we demonstrated PatZ-positive cooperativity in response to acetyl-CoA and the regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase activity by the acetylation level. Furthermore, functional analysis of an E809A mutant showed that the conserved glutamate residue is not relevant for the PatZ catalytic mechanism. Biophysical studies demonstrated that PatZ is a stable tetramer in solution and is transformed to its octameric form by autoacetylation. Moreover, this modification is reversed by the sirtuin CobB. Finally, an in silico PatZ tetramerization model based on hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions is proposed and validated by three-dimensional hydrodynamic analysis. These data reveal, for the first time, the structural regulation of an acetyltransferase by autoacetylation in a prokaryotic organism.

  15. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Casini, A; Vaccaro, R; D'Este, L; Sakaue, Y; Bellier, J P; Kimura, H; Renda, T G

    2012-07-19

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  16. Cysteine biosynthesis in Lactobacillus casei: identification and characterization of a serine acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Bogicevic, Biljana; Berthoud, Hélène; Portmann, Reto; Bavan, Tharmatha; Meile, Leo; Irmler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, cysteine can be synthesized from serine by two steps involving an L-serine O-acetyltransferase (SAT) and a cysteine synthase (CysK). While CysK is found in the publicly available annotated genome from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, a gene encoding SAT (cysE) is missing. In this study, we found that various strains of L. casei grew in a chemically defined medium containing sulfide as the sole sulfur source, indicating the presence of a serine O-acetyltransferase. The gene lying upstream of cysK is predicted to encode a homoserine trans-succinylase (metA). To study the function of this gene, it was cloned from L. casei FAM18110. The purified, recombinant protein did not acylate L-homoserine in vitro. Instead, it catalyzed the formation of O-acetyl serine from L-serine and acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, the plasmid expressing the L. casei gene complemented an Escherichia coli cysE mutant strain but not an E. coli metA mutant. This clearly demonstrated that the gene annotated as metA in fact encodes the SAT function and should be annotated as cysE. PMID:26790714

  17. Biochemical and structural analysis of an Eis family aminoglycoside acetyltransferase from bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Green, Keith D; Biswas, Tapan; Chang, Changsoo; Wu, Ruiying; Chen, Wenjing; Janes, Brian K; Chalupska, Dominika; Gornicki, Piotr; Hanna, Philip C; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-05-26

    Proteins from the enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) family are versatile acetyltransferases that acetylate amines at multiple positions of several aminoglycosides (AGs). Their upregulation confers drug resistance. Homologues of Eis are present in diverse bacteria, including many pathogens. Eis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Eis_Mtb) has been well characterized. In this study, we explored the AG specificity and catalytic efficiency of the Eis family protein from Bacillus anthracis (Eis_Ban). Kinetic analysis of specificity and catalytic efficiency of acetylation of six AGs indicates that Eis_Ban displays significant differences from Eis_Mtb in both substrate binding and catalytic efficiency. The number of acetylated amines was also different for several AGs, indicating a distinct regiospecificity of Eis_Ban. Furthermore, most recently identified inhibitors of Eis_Mtb did not inhibit Eis_Ban, underscoring the differences between these two enzymes. To explain these differences, we determined an Eis_Ban crystal structure. The comparison of the crystal structures of Eis_Ban and Eis_Mtb demonstrates that critical residues lining their respective substrate binding pockets differ substantially, explaining their distinct specificities. Our results suggest that acetyltransferases of the Eis family evolved divergently to garner distinct specificities while conserving catalytic efficiency, possibly to counter distinct chemical challenges. The unique specificity features of these enzymes can be utilized as tools for developing AGs with novel modifications and help guide specific AG treatments to avoid Eis-mediated resistance.

  18. The N-terminal acetyltransferase Naa10 is essential for zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Ree, Rasmus; Myklebust, Line M.; Thiel, Puja; Foyn, Håvard; Fladmark, Kari E.; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation, catalysed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is among the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes and involves the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the α-amino group of the first amino acid. Functions of N-terminal acetylation include protein degradation and sub-cellular targeting. Recent findings in humans indicate that a dysfunctional Nα-acetyltransferase (Naa) 10, the catalytic subunit of NatA, the major NAT, is associated with lethality during infancy. In the present study, we identified the Danio rerio orthologue zebrafish Naa 10 (zNaa10). In vitro N-terminal acetylation assays revealed that zNaa10 has NAT activity with substrate specificity highly similar to that of human Naa10. Spatiotemporal expression pattern was determined by in situ hybridization, showing ubiquitous expression with especially strong staining in brain and eye. By morpholino-mediated knockdown, we demonstrated that naa10 morphants displayed increased lethality, growth retardation and developmental abnormalities like bent axis, abnormal eyes and bent tails. In conclusion, we identified the zebrafish Naa10 orthologue and revealed that it is essential for normal development and viability of zebrafish. PMID:26251455

  19. Cat scratch disease causing hepatic masses after liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Thudi, Kavitha R; Kreikemeier, Jeffrey T; Phillips, Nancy J; Salvalaggio, Paolo R; Kennedy, Donald J; Hayashi, Paul H

    2007-02-01

    Hepatic cat scratch disease is rarely reported in liver transplant recipients and has never been reported with discrete liver lesions in the graft. A 52-year-old woman was transplanted for hepatitis C cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Her posttransplant course was uneventful. She presented 2.7 years after transplantation with fever of unknown origin and went on to develop multiple and diffuse discrete liver lesions. Despite an extensive work-up including percutaneous and laparoscopic biopsies, a subsegmental resection that included one of these masses was required to make the diagnosis of Bartonella henselae infection. Serologic tests were equivocal. Histology was consistent with cat scratch disease of the liver, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of the resected tissue confirmed the diagnosis. Response to doxycycline was rapid. Fevers resolved within 7 days. Repeat abdominal CT scan showed reduction of the liver masses. Cat scratch disease should be considered in postliver transplant patients presenting with fever and liver lesions, especially if close contact with cats has occurred. Diagnosis by PCR testing of involved tissue is preferred when serologies are equivocal due to immunosuppression.

  20. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of 6-month daily dosing of an oral formulation of cyclosporine (ATOPICA for cats®) in cats

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, E S; VanLare, K A; Strehlau, G; Peyrou, M; Roycroft, L M; King, S

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine was proven efficacious in the treatment of feline hypersensitivity dermatitis. This target animal study was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of ATOPICA for Cats® (cyclosporine oral solution, USP) MODIFIED following 6-month daily dosing in cats. Forty healthy cats (four cats/sex/group) received 0, 8 (1×), 16 (2×), 24 (3×), or 40 (5×) mg/kg cyclosporine once daily for 6 months (183 days). Body weight, food consumption, ophthalmoscopic, physical examinations including neurological assessments, blood pressure, electrocardiography, clinical pathology (hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry, urinalysis), organ weights, and macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed and assessed. In addition, blood concentrations of cyclosporine were measured at the pretreatment trough on Days 1, 2, 7, 14, 31, 91, 154, and 182, and post-treatment on Days 1, 31, and 182. Adverse effects possibly related to treatment included prolonged APTT and one report each of bone marrow hypocellularity and lymphoma; all occurred in cats treated with doses more than 16 mg/kg. There was no significant accumulation of cyclosporine beyond the first week of treatment. Results confirm that ATOPICA for Cats is safe and well tolerated in cats without unexpected accumulation beyond the first week of treatment when administered as directed. PMID:24134659

  1. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of 6-month daily dosing of an oral formulation of cyclosporine (ATOPICA for cats®) in cats.

    PubMed

    Roberts, E S; Vanlare, K A; Strehlau, G; Peyrou, M; Roycroft, L M; King, S

    2014-04-01

    Cyclosporine was proven efficacious in the treatment of feline hypersensitivity dermatitis. This target animal study was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of ATOPICA for Cats® (cyclosporine oral solution, USP) MODIFIED following 6-month daily dosing in cats. Forty healthy cats (four cats/sex/group) received 0, 8 (1×), 16 (2×), 24 (3×), or 40 (5×) mg/kg cyclosporine once daily for 6 months (183 days). Body weight, food consumption, ophthalmoscopic, physical examinations including neurological assessments, blood pressure, electrocardiography, clinical pathology (hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry, urinalysis), organ weights, and macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed and assessed. In addition, blood concentrations of cyclosporine were measured at the pretreatment trough on Days 1, 2, 7, 14, 31, 91, 154, and 182, and post-treatment on Days 1, 31, and 182. Adverse effects possibly related to treatment included prolonged APTT and one report each of bone marrow hypocellularity and lymphoma; all occurred in cats treated with doses more than 16 mg/kg. There was no significant accumulation of cyclosporine beyond the first week of treatment. Results confirm that ATOPICA for Cats is safe and well tolerated in cats without unexpected accumulation beyond the first week of treatment when administered as directed.

  2. Flat Feline Faces: Is Brachycephaly Associated with Respiratory Abnormalities in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus)?

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Rowena M. A.; Caney, Sarah M. A.; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A.

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research into brachycephalism and associated disorders in cats. A questionnaire aimed at cat owners was used to determine the relationship between feline facial conformation and owner-reported cat management requirements and respiratory abnormalities. Owner-submitted photographs of cats were used to develop novel measures of skull conformation. One thousand valid questionnaires were received. Within these there were 373 valid photographs that allowed measurement of muzzle ratio (M%) and 494 that allowed nose position ratio (NP%). The data included 239 cats for which both measurements were available. Owners reported lifestyle factors (e.g. feeding type, grooming routine, activity level), physical characteristics (e.g. hair length) and other health characteristics of their cat (e.g. tear staining, body condition score). A composite respiratory score (RS) was calculated for each cat using their owner’s assessment of respiratory noise whilst their cat was asleep and then breathing difficulty following activity. Multivariate analyses were carried out using linear models to explore the relationship between RS and facial conformation, and lifestyle risk factors. The results showed that reductions in NP% and M% were significantly associated with RS (P < 0.001 and P = 0.026, respectively) and that the relationship was significantly negatively correlated (r = -0.56, P < 0.001 for both). Respiratory score was also significantly associated with increased presence of tear staining (P < 0.001) and a sedentary lifestyle (P = 0.01). This study improves current knowledge concerning cats with breeding-related alterations in skull confirmation and indicates that brachycephalism may have negative respiratory implications for cat health and welfare, as has been previously shown in dogs. PMID:27574987

  3. Carbimazole-associated hypersensitivity vasculitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Bowlt, K; Cattin, I; Stewart, J

    2014-12-01

    Feline hyperthyroidism can be treated medically, surgically or with radioactive iodine. Carbimazole inhibits both triiodothyronine and thyroxine synthesis in the thyroid gland and reported side effects include mild eosinophilia, leucopenia and lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzyme activities, gastrointestinal signs and skin abnormalities. This case report describes a cat with carbimazole-associated apparent hypersensitivity vasculitis causing digital and tail necrosis, with multiple renal infarcts. Withdrawal of carbimazole resulted in stable disease.

  4. Cat Scratch Disease in a Renal Transplant Recipient.

    PubMed

    Yalin, Serkan Feyyaz; Sahin, Serdar; Yemisen, Mucahit; Tuzuner, Nukhet; Altiparmak, Mehmet Riza; Seyahi, Nurhan

    2016-09-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a disorder characterized by self-limited regional lymphadenopathy and fever. We reported a case of CSD in a kidney transplant recipient who presented with fever and lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy demonstrated bacterial histiocytic lymphadenitis. The patient was diagnosed with CSD. Patient had good clinical improvement after treatment. Therefore, CSD should also be borne in mind for kidney recipients though CSD had been infrequently reported in this group.

  5. Short-segment Hirschsprung's disease, cat eye syndrome, and anorectal malformation: a unique association.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Chandrasen K; Grewal, Alka; Ward, Harry Charles

    2007-08-01

    The association of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) and anorectal malformations has been reported in 2.3% to 3.4% cases. Only 2 cases have previously been published where cat eye syndrome was associated with long (but not short) segment HD. Here, we report a case where there appears to be an association among short segment HD, cat eye syndrome, and anorectal malformation, which has not previously been identified. An abnormality in chromosome 22 may be involved in the development of this association.

  6. The Chromatin Regulator BRPF3 Preferentially Activates the HBO1 Acetyltransferase but Is Dispensable for Mouse Development and Survival*

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Kezhi; You, Linya; Degerny, Cindy; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Liu, Xin; Chen, Lulu; Li, Lin; Miao, Dengshun; Yang, Xiang-Jiao

    2016-01-01

    To interpret epigenetic information, chromatin readers utilize various protein domains for recognition of DNA and histone modifications. Some readers possess multidomains for modification recognition and are thus multivalent. Bromodomain- and plant homeodomain-linked finger-containing protein 3 (BRPF3) is such a chromatin reader, containing two plant homeodomain-linked fingers, one bromodomain and a PWWP domain. However, its molecular and biological functions remain to be investigated. Here, we report that endogenous BRPF3 preferentially forms a tetrameric complex with HBO1 (also known as KAT7) and two other subunits but not with related acetyltransferases such as MOZ, MORF, TIP60, and MOF (also known as KAT6A, KAT6B, KAT5, and KAT8, respectively). We have also characterized a mutant mouse strain with a lacZ reporter inserted at the Brpf3 locus. Systematic analysis of β-galactosidase activity revealed dynamic spatiotemporal expression of Brpf3 during mouse embryogenesis and high expression in the adult brain and testis. Brpf3 disruption, however, resulted in no obvious gross phenotypes. This is in stark contrast to Brpf1 and Brpf2, whose loss causes lethality at E9.5 and E15.5, respectively. In Brpf3-null mice and embryonic fibroblasts, RT-quantitative PCR uncovered no changes in levels of Brpf1 and Brpf2 transcripts, confirming no compensation from them. These results indicate that BRPF3 forms a functional tetrameric complex with HBO1 but is not required for mouse development and survival, thereby distinguishing BRPF3 from its paralogs, BRPF1 and BRPF2. PMID:26677226

  7. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  8. Bovine herpesvirus 4 DNA is not detected in free-ranging domestic cats from California, Colorado or Florida.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Elliott; Troyer, Ryan M; Lappin, Michael R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Several studies have reported that domestic cats can be naturally infected with bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4). Cats experimentally inoculated with BHV4 developed clinical signs involving the urinary tract, leading to the hypothesis that natural infection with BHV4 may be associated with feline lower urinary tract diseases. However, the question of whether BHV4 infection is common in cats remains equivocal. In this study, we sought to determine whether BHV4 is a common natural infection of domestic cats in the USA. Methods We used a sensitive nested PCR protocol specific to the BHV4 thymidine kinase gene to screen free-ranging domestic cat blood DNA samples (n = 101) collected from California, Colorado and Florida. Results Cats within this cohort were positive for seven other common pathogens of domestic cats, demonstrating the relatively high exposure of this population to endemic feline infections. In contrast, all domestic cat blood samples were negative for BHV4, while BHV4-containing tissue culture extracts were strongly positive. Conclusions and relevance BHV4 has been detected in tissues of latently infected cattle, though viral DNA is typically also detected in peripheral blood cells throughout infection. Our results suggest that persistent presence of BHV4 DNA in the blood of domestic cats is either rare or non-existent. We thus conclude that BHV4 is unlikely to be a major pathogen of cats.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in feral cats (Felis silvestris catus) in Majorca, Balearic Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Millán, Javier; Cabezón, Oscar; Pabón, Marcela; Dubey, J P; Almería, Sonia

    2009-11-12

    Felids are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection because they are the only hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts. Antibodies to T. gondii and Neospora caninum were determined in serum samples from 59 feral cats (Felis silvestris catus) captured in baited traps during authorized predator control campaigns in Majorca, Balearic Islands, Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) were found in 50 (84.7%) of 59 cats with MAT titers of 1:25 in one cat, 1:200 in four cats, 1:500 in seven cats, 1:1000 in nine cats, and >or=1:2000 in 29 cats. Seroprevalence (MAT, 1:25 or more) was significantly higher in adults (94.6%) than in juveniles (<6 months old; 40.0%). Seroprevalence to N. caninum, assayed by cELISA (VMRD) and confirmed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test, was low (6.8%, 4 of 59). The prevalence of T. gondii observed in wild cats in Majorca is one of the highest reported worldwide in this species and the highest observed in Europe to date. The results suggest that feral cats in Majorca have a high rate of T. gondii infection with important implications for public health on the island since the seropositive cats are likely to have already shed T. gondii oocysts in the environment.

  10. CatSperζ regulates the structural continuity of sperm Ca2+ signaling domains and is required for normal fertility

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jean-Ju; Miki, Kiyoshi; Kim, Doory; Shim, Sang-Hee; Shi, Huanan F; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Cai, Xinjiang; Iseri, Yusuf; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Clapham, David E

    2017-01-01

    We report that the Gm7068 (CatSpere) and Tex40 (CatSperz) genes encode novel subunits of a 9-subunit CatSper ion channel complex. Targeted disruption of CatSperz reduces CatSper current and sperm rheotactic efficiency in mice, resulting in severe male subfertility. Normally distributed in linear quadrilateral nanodomains along the flagellum, the complex lacking CatSperζ is disrupted at ~0.8 μm intervals along the flagellum. This disruption renders the proximal flagellum inflexible and alters the 3D flagellar envelope, thus preventing sperm from reorienting against fluid flow in vitro and efficiently migrating in vivo. Ejaculated CatSperz-null sperm cells retrieved from the mated female uterus partially rescue in vitro fertilization (IVF) that failed with epididymal spermatozoa alone. Human CatSperε is quadrilaterally arranged along the flagella, similar to the CatSper complex in mouse sperm. We speculate that the newly identified CatSperζ subunit is a late evolutionary adaptation to maximize fertilization inside the mammalian female reproductive tract. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23082.001 PMID:28226241

  11. Aloe-emodin inhibited N-acetylation and DNA adduct of 2-aminofluorene and arylamine N-acetyltransferase gene expression in mouse leukemia L 1210 cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jing-Gung; Li, Yu-Ching; Lee, Yi-Min; Lin, Jing-Pin; Cheng, Kwork-Chui; Chang, Weng-Cheng

    2003-09-01

    N-Acetyltransferases (NATs) plays an important role in the first step of arylamine compounds metabolism. Polymorphic NAT is coded for rapid or slow acetylatoion phenotypes, which are recognized to affect cancer risk related to environmental exposure. Aloe-emodin has been shown to exit anticancer activity. The purpose of this study is to examine whether or not aloe-emodin could affect arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity and gene expression (NAT mRNA) and DNA-2-aminofluorene (DNA-AF) adduct formation in mouse leukemia cells (L 1210). By using high performance liquid chromatography, N-acetylation and non-N-acetylation of AF were determined and quantitated. By using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR, NAT mRNA was determined and quantitated. Aloe-emodin displayed a dose-dependent inhibition to cytosolic NAT activity and intact mice leukemia cells. Time-course experiments indicated that N-acetylation of AF measured from intact mice leukemia cells were inhibited by aloe-emodin for up to 24h. Using standard steady-state kinetic analysis, it was demonstrated that aloe-emodin was a possible uncompetitive inhibitor to NAT activity in cytosols. The DNA-AF adduct formation in mouse leukemia cells were inhibited by aloe-emodin. The NAT1 mRNA in mouse leukemia cells were also inhibited by aloe-emodin. This report is the first demonstration which showed aloe-emodin affect mice leukemia cells NAT activity, gene expression (NAT1 mRNA) and DNA-AF on adduct formation.

  12. Spatial memory consolidation is associated with induction of several lysine-acetyltransferase (histone acetyltransferase) expression levels and H2B/H4 acetylation-dependent transcriptional events in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bousiges, Olivier; Vasconcelos, Anne Pereira de; Neidl, Romain; Cosquer, Brigitte; Herbeaux, Karine; Panteleeva, Irina; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Boutillier, Anne-Laurence

    2010-12-01

    Numerous genetic studies have shown that the CREB-binding protein (CBP) is an essential component of long-term memory formation, through its histone acetyltransferase (HAT) function. E1A-binding protein p300 and p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) have also recently been involved in memory formation. By contrast, only a few studies have reported on acetylation modifications during memory formation, and it remains unclear as to how the system is regulated during this dynamic phase. We investigated acetylation-dependent events and the expression profiles of these HATs during a hippocampus-dependent task taxing spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze. We found a specific increase in H2B and H4 acetylation in the rat dorsal hippocampus, while spatial memory was being consolidated. This increase correlated with the degree of specific acetylated histones enrichment on some memory/plasticity-related gene promoters. Overall, a global increase in HAT activity was measured during this memory consolidation phase, together with a global increase of CBP, p300, and PCAF expression. Interestingly, these regulations were altered in a model of hippocampal denervation disrupting spatial memory consolidation, making it impossible for the hippocampus to recruit the CBP pathway (CBP regulation and acetylated-H2B-dependent transcription). CBP has long been thought to be present in limited concentrations in the cells. These results show, for the first time, that CBP, p300, and PCAF are dynamically modulated during the establishment of a spatial memory and are likely to contribute to the induction of a specific epigenetic tagging of the genome for hippocampus-dependent (spatial) memory consolidation. These findings suggest the use of HAT-activating molecules in new therapeutic strategies of pathological aging, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. Cutaneous rhabdoid tumor in a cat.

    PubMed

    Izawa, T; Yamate, J; Takeda, S; Kumagai, D; Kuwamura, M

    2008-11-01

    Rhabdoid tumor is a highly aggressive neoplasm of unknown cellular origin in humans, usually occurring in the kidney and central nervous system of infants or children. In older patients, it occurs rarely in other organs, including the skin and soft tissues. A subcutaneous mass in a 13-year-old male mixed-breed cat was composed of nests or sheets of round to polygonal cells with glassy eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. Immunohistochemically, many neoplastic cells expressed vimentin, localized to the cytoplasmic inclusions, whereas the cytoplasm of some neoplastic cells was diffusely positive for neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament, or S-100 protein. By electron microscopy, the cytoplasmic inclusions were found to be composed of aggregates of intermediate filaments. These findings are quite similar to the histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of human rhabdoid tumors and the few rhabdoid tumors reported in animals.

  14. Effect of high-dose ciclosporin on the immune response to primary and booster vaccination in immunocompetent cats.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Elizabeth S; VanLare, Karen A; Roycroft, Linda M; King, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Ciclosporin (Atopica oral solution for cats 100 mg/ml; Novartis Animal Health) was recently approved for use in cats with feline hypersensitivity dermatitis. The immunosuppressant effect of ciclosporin on the ability of cats to mount an immune response following vaccination was determined. Thirty-two healthy, immunocompetent adult cats (16 cats/group) were treated with either ciclosporin for 56 days at a dose of 24 mg/kg once daily or sham dosed. Prior to treatment, cats had an adequate antibody response to primary vaccination against feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and rabies. Booster vaccination or novel vaccination with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was administered 28 days after initiation of treatment with ciclosporin. There were no differences between the ciclosporin-treated and control cats for FCV and FPV antibody titers following booster vaccination. There were delays/reductions in antibody response to FHV-1, FeLV and rabies in treated cats; however, adequate protection was achieved in response to all booster vaccinations. Following primary vaccination with FIV, control cats showed a response, but treated cats showed no antibody production. Adverse events commonly associated with ciclosporin treatment, including diarrhea/loose stool, vomiting, salivation and regurgitation, were reported. In adult cats treated with 24 mg/kg/day of ciclosporin (more than three times the therapeutic dose), vaccine titer levels were adequate for protection following booster vaccination. In contrast, treated cats failed to mount a humoral response to a novel (FIV) vaccination, suggesting that memory B-cell immune responses remain intact during repeated high-dose ciclosporin administration in cats, but that primary immune responses are impaired.

  15. A review of feral cat control.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sheilah A

    2008-08-01

    Animal overpopulation including feral cats is an important global problem. There are many stakeholders involved in the feral cat debate over 'what to do about the problem', including those who consider them a nuisance, the public at risk from zoonotic disease, people who are concerned about the welfare of feral cats, those concerned with wildlife impacts, and the cats themselves. How best to control this population is controversial and has ranged from culling, relocation, and more recently 'trap neuter return' (TNR) methods. Data support the success of TNR in reducing cat populations, but to have a large impact it will have to be adopted on a far greater scale than it is currently practised. Non-surgical contraception is a realistic future goal. Because the feral cat problem was created by humans, concerted educational efforts on responsible pet ownership and the intrinsic value of animals is an integral part of a solution.

  16. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Isospora species infections in pet cats with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Tzannes, Sophia; Batchelor, Daniel J; Graham, Peter A; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Wastling, Jonathan; German, Alexander J

    2008-02-01

    This study reports the prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Isospora species in cats showing signs of gastrointestinal disease. Records from a United Kingdom commercial diagnostic laboratory between December 2003 and December 2005 were reviewed. Of 1355 cats, Cryptosporidium species oocysts were found in 13 cats (1%), Giardia species trophozoites in 74 (6%), and Isospora felis oocysts in 46 (3%). In a second group of 48 cats, prevalence of Giardia species was 15% using an immunoassay for detection of antigen compared to 4% detected with microscopy. Prevalence of Giardia (9%) and Isospora (9%) species was higher in cats less than 6 months old. Gender and breed did not affect prevalence. There was a trend for Cryptosporidium and Isospora species infections to be detected in late autumn and early winter. Regional differences in prevalence were not detected. None of these organisms show a characteristic pattern of clinical signs. This study demonstrates that enteric protozoal infection is common in domestic cats showing signs of alimentary disease.

  17. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh.

  18. Production of tetraacetyl phytosphingosine (TAPS) in Wickerhamomyces ciferrii is catalyzed by acetyltransferases Sli1p and Atf2p.

    PubMed

    Ter Veld, Frank; Wolff, Daniel; Schorsch, Christoph; Köhler, Tim; Boles, Eckhard; Poetsch, Ansgar

    2013-10-01

    Wickerhamomyces ciferrii secretes tetraacetyl phytosphingosine (TAPS), and in this study, the catalyzing acetyltransferases were identified using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. The proteome of wild-type strain NRRL Y-1031 served as control and was compared to the tetraacetyl phytosphingosine defective mating type NRRL Y-1031-27. Acetylation of phytosphingosine in W. ciferrii is catalyzed by acetyltransferases Sli1p and Atf2p, encoded by genes similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae YGR212W and YGR177C, respectively. Ablation of SLI1 resulted in an almost complete loss of tri- and tetraacetyl phytosphingosines, whereas the loss ATF2 resulted in an 15-fold increase in triacetyl phytosphingosine. Most likely, it is the concerted action of these two acetyltransferases that yields tetraacetyl phytosphingosine, in which Sli1p catalyzes initial O- and N-acetylation, producing triacetyl phytosphingosine. Finally, Atf2p catalyzes final O-acetylation to yield tetraacetyl phytosphingosine. The current study demonstrates that mass spectrometry-based proteomics can be employed to identify key steps in ill-explored metabolite biosynthesis pathways of nonconventional microorganisms. Furthermore, the identification of phytosphingosine as substrate for alcohol acetyltransferase Atf2p broadens the known substrate range of this enzyme. This interesting property of Atf2p may be exploited to enhance the secretion of heterologous compounds.

  19. Homologues of xenobiotic metabolizing N-acetyltransferases in plant-associated fungi: Novel functions for an old enzyme family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-pathogenic fungi and their hosts engage in chemical warfare, attacking each other with toxic products of secondary metabolism and defending themselves via an arsenal of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. One such enzyme is homologous to arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and has been identified...

  20. Structural and Functional Evidence for Bacillus subtilis PaiA as a Novel N1-spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Forouhar,F.; Lee, I.; Vujcic, J.; Vujcic, S.; Shen, J.; Vorobiev, S.; Xiao, R.; Acton, T.; Montelione, G.; et al.

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis PaiA has been implicated in the negative control of sporulation as well as production of degradative enzymes. PaiA shares recognizable sequence homology with N-acetyltransferases, including those that can acetylate spermidine/spermine substrates (SSATs). We have determined the crystal structure of PaiA in complex with CoA at 1.9 Angstrom resolution and found that PaiA is a member of the N-acetyltransferase superfamily of enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observed the binding of an oxidized CoA dimer in the active site of PaiA, and the structural information suggests the substrates of the enzyme could be linear, positively charged compounds. Our biochemical characterization is also consistent with this possibility since purified PaiA possesses N1-acetyltransferase activity towards polyamine substrates including spermidine and spermine. Further, conditional over-expression of PaiA in bacteria results in increased acetylation of endogenous spermidine pools. Thus, our structural and biochemical analyses indicate that PaiA is a novel N-acetyltransferase capable of acetylating both spermidine and spermine. In this way, the pai operon may function in regulating intracellular polyamine concentrations and/or binding capabilities. In addition to preventing toxicity due to polyamine excess, this function may also serve to regulate expression of certain bacterial gene products such as those involved in sporulation.

  1. Arylamine N-acetyltransferases: a structural perspective. Comments regarding the BJP paper by Zhou et al., 2013

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ximing; Kubiak, Xavier; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This letter is a comment on Zhou et al. (2013). Arylamine N-acetyltransferases: a structural perspective. Br J Pharmacol 169: 748–760. To view this article visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12182 PMID:24328723

  2. Comparative genomic, phylogenetic, and functional investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family among fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes well-characterized in several bacteria and higher eukaryotes. The role of NATs in fungal biology has only recently been investigated (Glenn and Bacon, 2009; Glenn et al., 2010). The NAT1 gene of Gibberella moniliformis was the...

  3. Pulmonary transcription of CAT-2 and CAT-2B but not CAT-1 and CAT-2A were upregulated in hemorrhagic shock rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jen; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Yang, Chen-Hsien; Su, Tsung-Hsien; Stevens, Bruce R; Skimming, Jeffrey W; Pan, Wynn H T

    2004-11-01

    Hemorrhagic shock stimulates nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis through upregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression. Trans-membrane l-arginine transportation mediated by the isozymes of cationic amino acid transporters (e.g. CAT-1, CAT-2, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B) is one crucial regulatory mechanism that regulates iNOS activity. We sought to assess the effects of hemorrhage and resuscitation on the expression of these regulatory enzymes in hemorrhage-stimulated rat lungs. Twenty-four rats were randomized to a sham-instrumented group, a sustained shock group, a shock with blood resuscitation group, or a shock with normal saline resuscitation group. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing blood to maintain MAP between 40 and 45mmHg for 60min. Resuscitation by infusing blood/saline mixtures (blood resuscitation group) or saline alone (saline resuscitation group) was then performed. At the end of the experiment (300min after hemorrhage began), rats were sacrificed and enzymes expression as well as pulmonary NO biosynthesis and lung injuries were assayed. Our data revealed that hemorrhage-induced pulmonary iNOS, CAT-2, and CAT-2B transcription which was associated with pulmonary NO overproduction and subsequent lung injury. Resuscitation significantly attenuated the hemorrhage-induced enzyme upregulation, pulmonary NO overproduction, and lung injury. Blood/saline mixtures were superior to saline as a resuscitation solution in treating hemorrhage-induced pulmonary NO overproduction and lung injury. Hemorrhage and/or resuscitation, however, did not affect the expression of pulmonary CAT-1 and CAT-2A. It is, therefore, concluded that the expression of pulmonary iNOS, CAT-2, and CAT-2B is inducible and that of CAT-1 and CAT-2A is constitutive in hemorrhagic shock rat lungs.

  4. Cats and Toxoplasma: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Dabritz, H A; Conrad, P A

    2010-02-01

    Cats are popular as pets worldwide because they are easy to care for and provide companionship that enriches the lives of human beings. Little attention has been focused on their potential to contaminate the environment with zoonotic pathogens. One such pathogen, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, rarely causes clinical manifestations in cats or immunocompetent humans; however, it can have serious adverse effects on human foetuses and immunocompromised patients. Many human infections are believed to be acquired from eating undercooked or raw meat, such as pork and lamb (Tenter et al. Int. J. Parasitol., 30, 2000, 1217; Dubey et al. J. Parasitol. 91, 2005, 1082). However, the prevalence of T. gondii infection in human populations that do not consume meat or eat it well-cooked suggests that the acquisition of infection from the environment, via oocysts in soil, water or on uncooked vegetables, is also important (Rawal. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 53, 1959, 61; Roghmann et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60, 1999, 790; Chacin-Bonilla et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 65, 2001, 131). In the past 20 years, two changes occurred that significantly increased the size of the cat population in the USA. Pet cat ownership grew from 50 million to 90 million animals, and animal welfare activists created feeding stations for abandoned and free-roaming cats. As many cat owners allow their cats to deposit faeces outside and cats maintained in colonies always defecate outside, ample opportunity exists for T. gondii oocysts to enter the environment and be transmitted to humans. Prevention efforts should focus on educating cat owners about the importance of collecting cat faeces in litter boxes, spaying owned cats to reduce overpopulation, reducing the numbers of feral cats and promoting rigorous hand hygiene after gardening or soil contact.

  5. Contrasting clinical outcomes in two cohorts of cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

    PubMed Central

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M.; Litster, Annette; Lin, Tsang Long; Mellor, Dominic J.; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite over 25 years of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) research, relatively little is known about the longitudinal course of FIV infection following natural infection. In contrast to published reports of experimental infections using lethal strains of the virus, clinical signs of naturally acquired FIV infection can be mild or inapparent, rather than life-threatening. In this prospective, longitudinal controlled study, based in Chicago, IL (n = 17) and Memphis, TN (n = 27), we investigated two cohorts of privately owned, naturally infected cats kept under different housing conditions. Cats in the Chicago cohort (Group 1) were kept in households of ≤2 cats, while the Memphis cohort (Group 2) comprised part of a large multi-cat household of over 60 cats kept indoors only, with unrestricted access to one another. The majority of cats from Group 1 did not display clinical signs consistent with immunodeficiency during the 22-month observation period. In contrast, the outcome of infection in Group 2 was dramatically different; 17/27 (63%) of cats lost a median of 51.3% of their bodyweight (P < 0.0005) and died during the study period, with lymphoma being the most common cause of mortality. Although the decrease in CD4+ T cell count between enrolment and terminal disease was significant (P = 0.0017), the CD4:CD8 ratio at the time of enrolment did not reliably distinguish FIV-positive cats classified as ‘healthy’ and ‘not healthy’ at either cohort. FIV load at enrolment was significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P < 0.0001), but there were no significant differences at enrolment between healthy and not healthy cats at either group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that management and housing conditions impact on disease progression and survival times of FIV-positive cats. PMID:25595267

  6. Measurement of M-mode echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult Van cats.

    PubMed

    Kayar, Abdullah; Ozkan, Cumali; Iskefli, Onur; Kaya, Abdullah; Kozat, Suleyman; Akgul, Yakup; Gonul, Remzi; Or, Mehmet Erman

    2014-05-01

    Cardiomyopathies are the most common type of cardiac diseases in cats. Although some normal echocardiographic values for cats have been published, there are variations based on breeds and gender. The objective of this study is to determine normal reference values for M-mode echocardiographic parameters in nonsedated healthy adult Van cats and to compare those values with data reported for nonsedated healthy cats of other breeds. A total of 40 clinically healthy Van cats of both sexes belonging to the Van Cat Research and Application Center of Yuzuncu Yil University were used. Body weight (BW) and 16 M-mode echocardiographic variables were measured in 40 healthy Van cats. The effect of gender and age on each echocardiographic parameter was analyzed and the relationship between BW and each parameter investigated. There was a significant relationship between gender and left atrial dimension during ventricular systole (LAD) and aortic root dimension at end-diastole (AOD) as well as between BW and interventricular septal thickness at end-diastole (IVSd) and end-systole (IVSs), left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole (LVIDd), left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole (LVPWd), LAD, AOD, the left ventricular end diastolic volume (EDV) and the stroke volume (SV). A relationship between age and the SV parameter alone was also established. This present study is the first work on cardiac reference values for Van cats highlighting the differences in some M-mode echocardiographic parameters of healthy adult Van cats and other cat breeds, which should be considered when interpreting echocardiographic findings, in order to draw the correct conclusions regarding cardiac health.

  7. Outbreak of thiamine deficiency in cats associated with the feeding of defective dry food.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Pei; Chiu, Po-Yu; Lin, Chung-Tien; Liu, I-Hsuan; Liu, Chen-Hsuan

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine disease progression, association between neurological signs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and long-term outcome in feline thiamine deficiency associated with defective dry food. Methods The clinical records of 17 cats diagnosed with thiamine deficiency related to a defective dry food were examined and data collected. The thiamine level in the food was analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results The thiamine level in the food was below the recommendation of the National Research Council. Fifteen cats were fed the food exclusively. Prior to the acute development of neurological signs, most cats displayed non-specific signs such as anorexia, lethargy or vomiting. Vestibular signs of varying severity were observed in 94% of the cats, and all but one of these presented with bilateral dysfunction. Other main neurological signs included altered mentation (76%), blindness (59%) and seizures (59%). Moreover, 80% of the cats with seizures presented with cluster seizures or status epilepticus. MRI abnormalities consistent with findings reported in the previous literature were detected in five cases. MRI was unremarkable in one cat with ongoing severe neurological signs even though thiamine had been administered. Most surviving cats recovered rapidly within 2 weeks of treatment and had either returned to normal or had minimal neurological signs at the 2 month follow-up. One cat recovered slowly over 6 months. Most cats with seizures in the initial stage of the disease remained seizure free at the 24 month follow-up. Conclusions and relevance This study documented the association between feline thiamine deficiency and defective dry food. MRI examination provided valuable information in the diagnosis. However, normal MRI findings do not exclude the diagnosis of feline thiamine deficiency, especially once thiamine has been supplemented. MRI findings also may not always reflect the

  8. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  9. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  10. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  11. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  12. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  13. [Asthma caused by allergy to cat fur].

    PubMed

    May, K L; Hofman, T

    2000-01-01

    Sensitivity to cats fur alergen, Fel. d. 1 is presented as the second most important cause, after allergy to mites, of perennial atopic asthma. The authors collected the data from literature concerning the concentrations of Fel. d. 1 in homes and public places. Further the structure and production of Fel d. 1 also its cross reactivity and the methods of it's elimination from the environment are described and discussed. Authors own observations of 20 cases of cats fur asthma and atopic dermatitis support the opinion that only half of the patients suspect cats as the cause of their illness and cats fur sensitivity is always accompanied by inhalant or food allergy.

  14. Screening for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats.

    PubMed

    Häggström, Jens; Luis Fuentes, Virginia; Wess, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats, and it can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Cats are often screened for HCM because of the presence of a heart murmur, but screening for breeding purposes has also become common. These cats are usually purebred cats of breeding age, and generally do not present with severe disease or with any clinical signs. This type of screening is particularly challenging because mild disease may be difficult to differentiate from a normal phenotype, and the margin for error is small, with potentially major consequences for the breeder. This article reviews HCM screening methods, with particular emphasis on echocardiography.

  15. Poxvirus infection in a cat with presumptive human transmission.

    PubMed

    Herder, Vanessa; Wohlsein, Peter; Grunwald, Dorothea; Janssen, Hanno; Meyer, Hermann; Kaysser, Philipp; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Beineke, Andreas

    2011-04-01

    The present report describes a case of generalized cowpox virus infection with necrotizing facial dermatitis in a cat and a likely transmission to an animal keeper. The viral aetiology was confirmed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, PCR, virus isolation, DNA sequencing and electron microscopy. Histopathological examination of the cat's skin revealed a severe, necrotizing dermatitis with ballooning degeneration and hyperplasia of epithelial cells with pathognomonic cytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies. Additionally, at post-mortem examination, a systemic poxvirus infection was detected affecting pancreas, thymus, lymph node, liver and lung. The human patient's skin biopsy revealed an ulcerative dermatitis with epidermal hyperplasia and ballooning degeneration. Serological investigation displayed a high orthopoxvirus-specific antibody titre in the human patient. Environmental factors increase the natural reservoir host population for cowpox viruses, such as voles, which results in a higher risk of infection for cats and subsequently for humans. Due to this zoonotic potential, a cowpox virus infection must be considered as an aetiological differential in cases of necrotizing dermatitis in cats.

  16. Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in a FIV-positive cat.

    PubMed

    Hughes, M S; Ball, N W; Love, D N; Canfield, P J; Wigney, D I; Dawson, D; Davis, P E; Malik, R

    1999-03-01

    An 8-year-old FIV-positive Australian cat was presented with coughing, periocular alopecia, pyrexia and inappetence. Skin scrapings demonstrated Demodex cati mites. Antibiotics were administered and it was treated successfully for periocular demodectic mange, but the cat continued to exhibit respiratory signs and lose weight. Further investigation revealed an ascarid infection and active chronic inflammation of undetected cause affecting the lower airways. Repetitive treatment with pyrantel failed to eradicate the ascarid infection. The cat became cachectic and developed moist ulcerative dermatitis of the neck, severe non-regenerative anaemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Necropsy and histopathology revealed mycobacteriosis affecting skin, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes, liver and kidney. Attempted culture of frozen tissues at a mycobacteria reference laboratory was unsuccessful. Paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue was retrieved and examined using PCR to amplify part of the 16S rRNA gene. A diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection was made based on the presence of acid fast bacteria in many tissues and partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Although M genavense has been identified previously as a cause of disseminated disease in AIDS patients, this is the first report of infection in a cat. It was suspected that the demodecosis, recurrent ascarid infections and disseminated M genavense infection resulted from an immune deficiency syndrome consequent to longstanding FIV infection.

  17. Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: How to Bring Cell-Based Medicinal Products Successfully to the Market – Report from the CAT-DGTI-GSCN Workshop at the DGTI Annual Meeting 2014

    PubMed Central

    Celis, Patrick; Ferry, Nicolas; Hystad, Marit; Schüßler-Lenz, Martina; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Flory, Egbert; Beuneu, Claire; Reischl, Ilona; Salmikangas, Paula

    2015-01-01

    On September 11, 2014, a workshop entitled ‘Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: How to Bring Cell-Based Medicinal Product Successfully to the Market’ was held at the 47th annual meeting of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI), co-organised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the DGTI in collaboration with the German Stem Cell Network (GSCN). The workshop brought together over 160 participants from academia, hospitals, small- or medium-sized enterprise developers and regulators. At the workshop, speakers from EMA, the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT), industry and academia addressed the regulatory aspects of development and authorisation of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), classification of ATMPs and considerations on cell-based therapies for cardiac repair. The open forum discussion session allowed for a direct interaction between ATMP developers and the speakers from EMA and CAT. PMID:26195933

  18. Cloning and characterization of the serotonin N-acetyltransferase-2 gene (SNAT2) in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Byeon, Yeong; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2016-09-01

    The penultimate enzyme in melatonin synthesis is serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), which exists as a single copy in mammals and plants. Our recent studies of the Arabidopsis snat-knockout mutant and SNAT RNAi rice (Oryza sativa) plants predicted the presence of at least one other SNAT isogene in plants; that is, the snat-knockout mutant of Arabidopsis and the SNAT RNAi rice plants still produced melatonin, even in the absence or the suppression of SNAT expression. Here, we report a molecular cloning of an SNAT isogene (OsSNAT2) from rice. The mature amino acid sequences of SNAT proteins indicated that OsSNAT2 and OsSNAT1 proteins had 39% identity values and 60% similarity. The Km and Vmax values of the purified recombinant OsSNAT2 were 371 μm and 4700 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively; the enzyme's optimal activity temperature was 45°C. Confocal microscopy showed that the OsSNAT2 protein was localized to both the cytoplasm and chloroplasts. The in vitro enzyme activity of OsSNAT2 was severely inhibited by melatonin, but the activities of sheep SNAT (OaSNAT) and rice OsSNAT1 proteins were not. The enzyme activity of OsSNAT2 was threefold higher than that of OsSNAT1, but 232-fold lower than that of OaSNAT. The OsSNAT1 and OsSNAT2 transcripts were similarly suppressed in rice leaves during the melatonin induction after cadmium treatment. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that OsSNAT1 and OsSNAT2 are distantly related, suggesting that they evolved independently from Cyanobacteria prior to the endosymbiosis event.

  19. System-wide Studies of N-Lysine Acetylation in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Reveal Substrate Specificity of Protein Acetyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Heidi A.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Hurst, Gregory B.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2012-01-01

    N-Lysine acetylation is a posttranslational modification that has been well studied in eukaryotes and is likely widespread in prokaryotes as well. The central metabolic enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase is regulated in both bacteria and eukaryotes by acetylation of a conserved lysine residue in the active site. In the purple photosynthetic α-proteobacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris, two protein acetyltransferases (RpPat and the newly identified RpKatA) and two deacetylases (RpLdaA and RpSrtN) regulate the activities of AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases. In this work, we used LC/MS/MS to identify other proteins regulated by the N-lysine acetylation/deacetylation system of this bacterium. Of the 24 putative acetylated proteins identified, 14 were identified more often in a strain lacking both deacetylases. Nine of these proteins were members of the AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetase family. RpPat acetylated all nine of the acyl-CoA synthetases identified by this work, and RpLdaA deacetylated eight of them. In all cases, acetylation occurred at the conserved lysine residue in the active site, and acetylation decreased activity of the enzymes by >70%. Our results show that many different AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases are regulated by N-lysine acetylation. Five non-acyl-CoA synthetases were identified as possibly acetylated, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Rpa1177, a putative 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase. Neither RpPat nor RpKatA acetylated either of these proteins in vitro. It has been reported that Salmonella enterica Pat (SePat) can acetylate a number of metabolic enzymes, including GAPDH, but we were unable to confirm this claim, suggesting that the substrate range of SePat is not as broad as suggested previously. PMID:22416131

  20. Cigarette smoking, N-acetyltransferase 2 genotypes, and breast cancer risk: pooled analysis and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ambrosone, Christine B; Kropp, Silke; Yang, Jun; Yao, Song; Shields, Peter G; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 10 years ago, it was noted that smoking increased risk of breast cancer among women with N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) slow acetylation genotypes. This report was followed by a number of studies to address this question. We pooled data from 10 existing studies and also conducted a meta-analysis of 13 studies published from 1996 to October 2006 that were conducted among women, were published in English, and had adequate information on smoking and NAT2 genotyping. Raw data were requested from authors. Unconditional logistic regression was done for pooled analysis, and random effect models was done for meta-analysis. Study heterogeneity was assessed, and sensitivity tests were done when subgroups were excluded from the analysis. In the pooled analysis, there was a significant interaction between smoking, NAT2 genotype, and risk of breast cancer [pack-years (continuous variable, P(interaction) = 0.03)], with higher pack-years significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among women with NAT2 slow genotypes (pooled analysis relative risk, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.04). These findings were supported by the meta-analysis including all studies; pack-years were significantly associated with risk among slow acetylators in a dose-dependent fashion (meta-analysis relative risk, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.68 for > or =20 pack-years versus never smokers), but not among rapid acetylators. Similar relationships were noted for smoking status (ever, never) and duration of smoking. Our results show that cigarette smoking is associated with an increase in breast cancer risk among women with NAT2 slow acetylation genotypes. Because slow NAT2 genotypes are present in 50% to 60% of Caucasian populations, smoking is likely to play an important role in breast cancer etiology.

  1. N-terminal acetylome analyses and functional insights of the N-terminal acetyltransferase NatB

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Petra; Lasa, Marta; Polevoda, Bogdan; Gazquez, Cristina; Elosegui-Artola, Alberto; Kim, Duk Soo; De Juan-Pardo, Elena; Demeyer, Kimberly; Hole, Kristine; Larrea, Esther; Timmerman, Evy; Prieto, Jesus; Arnesen, Thomas; Sherman, Fred; Gevaert, Kris; Aldabe, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Protein N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation) is an important mediator of protein function, stability, sorting, and localization. Although the responsible enzymes are thought to be fairly well characterized, the lack of identified in vivo substrates, the occurrence of Nt-acetylation substrates displaying yet uncharacterized N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) specificities, and emerging evidence of posttranslational Nt-acetylation, necessitate the use of genetic models and quantitative proteomics. NatB, which targets Met-Glu-, Met-Asp-, and Met-Asn-starting protein N termini, is presumed to Nt-acetylate 15% of all yeast and 18% of all human proteins. We here report on the evolutionary traits of NatB from yeast to human and demonstrate that ectopically expressed hNatB in a yNatB-Δ yeast strain partially complements the natB-Δ phenotypes and partially restores the yNatB Nt-acetylome. Overall, combining quantitative N-terminomics with yeast studies and knockdown of hNatB in human cell lines, led to the unambiguous identification of 180 human and 110 yeast NatB substrates. Interestingly, these substrates included Met-Gln- N-termini, which are thus now classified as in vivo NatB substrates. We also demonstrate the requirement of hNatB activity for maintaining the structure and function of actomyosin fibers and for proper cellular migration. In addition, expression of tropomyosin-1 restored the altered focal adhesions and cellular migration defects observed in hNatB-depleted HeLa cells, indicative for the conserved link between NatB, tropomyosin, and actin cable function from yeast to human. PMID:22814378

  2. Retrobulbar lymphoma associated with a ballistic foreign body in a cat.

    PubMed

    Robat, C; Bemelmans, I; Marescaux, L

    2016-04-01

    A seven-year-old domestic shorthair cat, adopted 5 years previously with a corneal perforation of the left eye, was presented for investigation of a left orbital mass. Computed tomography revealed a metallic foreign body within a contrast-enhancing, heterogeneous orbital mass. Large cell lymphoma was diagnosed from a fine needle aspirate. The cat staged negatively and was treated with L-asparaginase, prednisolone and three fractions of radiation therapy. A rapid clinical remission was obtained and the cat remained in remission for 3 years after therapy. This is the first report of large cell lymphoma likely occurring secondary to a foreign body.

  3. Pneumonia associated with Salmonella spp. infection in a cat receiving cyclosporine.

    PubMed

    Callegari, C; Palermo, G; Greco, M F; Corrente, M; Piseddu, E; Auriemma, E; Zini, E

    2014-10-01

    Salmonellosis is uncommon in cats, usually affects the gastrointestinal tract or skin, and can be fatal. This report describes a domestic shorthair cat with severe pneumonia caused by Salmonella spp. without accompanying gastrointestinal or skin manifestations, in which previous administration of cyclosporine may have played a permissive role in its development. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as follow-up are described from diagnosis until complete recovery. This unusual presentation serves to alert practitioners to consider Salmonella spp. as a possible cause of lung disease in cats, especially if immunocompromised.

  4. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  5. The Yeast ATF1 Acetyltransferase Efficiently Acetylates Insect Pheromone Alcohols: Implications for the Biological Production of Moth Pheromones.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Lager, Ida; Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-04-01

    Many moth pheromones are composed of mixtures of acetates of long-chain (≥10 carbon) fatty alcohols. Moth pheromone precursors such as fatty acids and fatty alcohols can be produced in yeast by the heterologous expression of genes involved in insect pheromone production. Acetyltransferases that subsequently catalyze the formation of acetates by transfer of the acetate unit from acetyl-CoA to a fatty alcohol have been postulated in pheromone biosynthesis. However, so far no fatty alcohol acetyltransferases responsible for the production of straight chain alkyl acetate pheromone components in insects have been identified. In search for a non-insect acetyltransferase alternative, we expressed a plant-derived diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) (EC 2.3.1.20) cloned from the seed of the burning bush (Euonymus alatus) in a yeast system. EaDAcT transformed various fatty alcohol insect pheromone precursors into acetates but we also found high background acetylation activities. Only one enzyme in yeast was shown to be responsible for the majority of that background activity, the acetyltransferase ATF1 (EC 2.3.1.84). We further investigated the usefulness of ATF1 for the conversion of moth pheromone alcohols into acetates in comparison with Ea DAcT. Overexpression of ATF1 revealed that it was capable of acetylating these fatty alcohols with chain lengths from 10 to 18 carbons with up to 27- and 10-fold higher in vivo and in vitro efficiency, respectively, compared to Ea DAcT. The ATF1 enzyme thus has the potential to serve as the missing enzyme in the reconstruction of the biosynthetic pathway of insect acetate pheromones from precursor fatty acids in yeast.

  6. Cholesterol granuloma associated with otitis media and leptomeningitis in a cat due to a Streptococcus canis infection.

    PubMed

    Van der Heyden, Sara; Butaye, Patrick; Roels, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol granuloma in the middle ear is a pathological condition often associated with otitis media in humans. Cholesterol granulomas in cats are rarely described. To our knowledge, this is the first report of middle ear cholesterol granuloma in a cat, associated with otitis media and leptomeningitis due to a Streptococcus canis septicemia.

  7. BASINs 4.0 Climate Assessment Tool (CAT): Supporting ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the report, BASINS 4.0 Climate Assessment Tool (CAT): Supporting Documentation and User's Manual. This report was prepared by the EPA's Global Change Research Program (GCRP), an assessment-oriented program, that sits within the Office of Research and Development, that focuses on assessing how potential changes in climate and other global environmental stressors may impact water quality, air quality, aquatic ecosystems, and human health in the United States. The Program’s focus on water quality is consistent with the Research Strategy of the U.S. Climate Change Research Program—the federal umbrella organization for climate change science in the U.S. government—and is responsive to U.S. EPA’s mission and responsibilities as defined by the Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act. A central goal of the EPA GCRP is to provide EPA program offices, Regions, and other stakeholders with tools and information for assessing and responding to any potential future impacts of climate change. In 2007, the EPA Global Change Research Program (GCRP), in partnership with the EPA Office of Water, supported development of a Climate Assessment Tool (CAT) for version 4 of EPA’s BASINS modeling system. This report provides supporting documentation and user support materials for the BASINS CAT tool. The purpose of this report is to provide in a single document a variety of documentation and user support materials supporting the use

  8. BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the release of the final report, BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications. This report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the Better Assessment Science Integrating point & Non-point Sources (BASINS) and the Water Erosion Prediction Project Climate Assessment Tool (WEPPCAT). The report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for conducting scenario based assessments of the potential effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality. This report presents a series of short, illustrative case studies using the BASINS and WEPP climate assessment tools.

  9. Unusual regioversatility of acetyltransferase Eis, a cause of drug resistance in XDR-TB

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenjing; Biswas, Tapan; Porter, Vanessa R.; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2011-09-06

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) is a serious global threat. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used as a last resort to treat XDR-TB. Resistance to the aminoglycoside kanamycin is a hallmark of XDR-TB. Here, we reveal the function and structure of the mycobacterial protein Eis responsible for resistance to kanamycin in a significant fraction of kanamycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates. We demonstrate that Eis has an unprecedented ability to acetylate multiple amines of many aminoglycosides. Structural and mutagenesis studies of Eis indicate that its acetylation mechanism is enabled by a complex tripartite fold that includes two general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase regions. An intricate negatively charged substrate-binding pocket of Eis is a potential target of new antitubercular drugs expected to overcome aminoglycoside resistance.

  10. Coenzyme A Binding to the Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase (3)-IIIb Increases Conformational Sampling of Antibiotic Binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaohu; Norris, Adrianne; Baudry, Jerome Y; Serpersu, Engin H

    2011-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy experiments and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to describe the dynamic properties of the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (3)-IIIb (AAC) in its apo and coenzyme A (CoASH) bound forms. The {sup 15}N-{sup 1}H HSQC spectra indicate a partial structural change and coupling of the CoASH binding site with another region in the protein upon the CoASH titration into the apo enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate a significant structural and dynamic variation of the long loop in the antibiotic binding domain in the form of a relatively slow (250 ns), concerted opening motion in the CoASH enzyme complex and that binding of the CoASH increases the structural flexibility of the loop, leading to an interchange between several similar equally populated conformations.

  11. Comparison of protein acetyltransferase action of CRTAase with the prototypes of HAT.

    PubMed

    Ponnan, Prija; Kumar, Ajit; Singh, Prabhjot; Gupta, Prachi; Joshi, Rini; Gaspari, Marco; Saso, Luciano; Prasad, Ashok K; Rastogi, Ramesh C; Parmar, Virinder S; Raj, Hanumantharao G

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory is credited for the discovery of enzymatic acetylation of protein, a phenomenon unknown till we identified an enzyme termed acetoxy drug: protein transacetylase (TAase), catalyzing the transfer of acetyl group from polyphenolic acetates to receptor proteins (RP). Later, TAase was identified as calreticulin (CR), an endoplasmic reticulum luminal protein. CR was termed calreticulin transacetylase (CRTAase). Our persistent study revealed that CR like other families of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) such as p300, Rtt109, PCAF, and ESA1, undergoes autoacetylation. The autoacetylated CR was characterized as a stable intermediate in CRTAase catalyzed protein acetylation, and similar was the case with ESA1. The autoacetylation of CR like that of HATs was found to enhance protein-protein interaction. CR like HAT-1, CBP, and p300 mediated the acylation of RP utilizing acetyl CoA and propionyl CoA as the substrates. The similarities between CRTAase and HATs in mediating protein acylation are highlighted in this review.

  12. Analysis of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase regulation using circular permutation and semisynthesis.

    PubMed

    Karukurichi, Kannan R; Wang, Ling; Uzasci, Lerna; Manlandro, Cara Marie; Wang, Qing; Cole, Philip A

    2010-02-03

    The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300/CBP has been shown to undergo autoacetylation on lysines in an apparent regulatory loop that stimulates HAT activity. Here we have developed a strategy to introduce acetyl-Lys at up to six known modification sites in p300/CBP HAT using a combination of circular permutation and expressed protein ligation. We show that these semisynthetic, circularly permuted acetylated proteins retain high affinity for an acetyl-CoA substrate analogue and that HAT activity correlates positively with degree of acetylation. This study provides novel evidence for control of p300/CBP HAT activity by site-specific autoacetylation and outlines a potentially general strategy for using expressed protein ligation and circular permutation to chemically interrogate internal regions of proteins.

  13. Circadian clock controlling arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase-like activity in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) egg.

    PubMed

    Itoh, M T; Sumi, Y

    1998-07-13

    When cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) eggs were incubated under a 12-h light/12-h dark (LD) cycle for 6 days after oviposition at 24-26 degrees C and thereafter transferred to constant darkness (DD), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT)-like activity fluctuated in a circadian manner, peaking during the subjective dark period, and the rhythmic activity persisted during the 3rd day of incubation in DD. When the eggs were transferred from LD to a lighting regime in which the light and dark periods were reversed, the rhythm of NAT-like activity continued to oscillate in phase with the light/dark cycle. These data demonstrate that the cricket egg (probably the embryo) contains a circadian clock controlling NAT-like activity, and that the circadian clock entrains to environmental light/dark cycles.

  14. Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Creighton, J.A.; Rudeen, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effect upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity.

  15. Metabolic Regulation of Histone Acetyltransferases by Endogenous Acyl-CoA Cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Guasch, Laura; Nicklaus, Marc C.; Meier, Jordan L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The finding that chromatin modifications are sensitive to changes in cellular cofactor levels potentially links altered tumor cell metabolism and gene expression. However, the specific enzymes and metabolites that connect these two processes remain obscure. Characterizing these metabolic-epigenetic axes is critical to understanding how metabolism supports signaling in cancer, and developing therapeutic strategies to disrupt this process. Here, we describe a chemical approach to define the metabolic regulation of lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) enzymes. Using a novel chemoproteomic probe, we identify a previously unreported interaction between fatty acyl-CoAs and KAT enzymes. Further analysis reveals that palmitoyl-CoA is a potent inhibitor of KAT activity and that fatty acyl-CoA precursors reduce cellular acetylation levels. These studies implicate fatty acyl-CoAs as endogenous regulators of histone acetylation, and suggest novel strategies for the investigation and metabolic modulation of epigenetic signaling. PMID:26190825

  16. Involvement of Arabidopsis histone acetyltransferase HAC family genes in the ethylene signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Xu, Jiang; Li, Jian; Li, Qingyun; Yang, Hongchun

    2014-02-01

    Epigenetic modifications play a fundamental role in regulating chromatin dynamics and gene expression. The level of histone acetylation is controlled by two functionally antagonistic enzymes, namely histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC). CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300 proteins, a subfamily of highly conserved HATs, are involved in various physiological events including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this work, we study the poorly known function of their homologous genes, the HAC genes, in Arabidopsis. We found that hac1-involved mutants displayed pleiotropic phenotypes, in particular hypersensitivity to ethylene both in the dark and in the light. We also found that the transcriptional levels of ethylene-responsive genes are significantly higher in the hac1hac5 double mutant than in wild-type plants. Moreover, an ethylene synthesis inhibitor cannot release the triple responses of hac mutants. These results suggest that HACs are involved in the ethylene signaling pathway.

  17. Primary structure of the human M2 mitochondrial autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis: Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Coppel, R.L.; McNeilage, L.J.; Surh, C.D.; Van De Water, J.; Spithill, T.W.; Whittingham, S.; Gershwin, M.E. )

    1988-10-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic, destructive autoimmune liver disease of humans. Patient sera are characterized by a high frequency of autoantibodies to a M{sub r} 70,000 mitochondrial antigen a component of the M2 antigen complex. The authors have identified a human cDNA clone encoding the complete amino acid sequence of this autoantigen. The predicted structure has significant similarity with the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. The human sequence preserves the Glu-Thr-Asp-Lys-Ala motif of the lipoyl-binding site and has two potential binding sites. Expressed fragments of the cDNA react strongly with sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis but not with sera from patients with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis or sera from healthy subjects.

  18. Absence of N-terminal acetyltransferase diversification during evolution of eukaryotic organisms

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Om Singh; Faustino, Alexandra; Prudêncio, Pedro; Van Damme, Petra; Cox, Cymon J.; Martinho, Rui Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    Protein N-terminal acetylation is an ancient and ubiquitous co-translational modification catalyzed by a highly conserved family of N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). Prokaryotes have at least 3 NATs, whereas humans have six distinct but highly conserved NATs, suggesting an increase in regulatory complexity of this modification during eukaryotic evolution. Despite this, and against our initial expectations, we determined that NAT diversification did not occur in the eukaryotes, as all six major human NATs were most likely present in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA). Furthermore, we also observed that some NATs were actually secondarily lost during evolution of major eukaryotic lineages; therefore, the increased complexity of the higher eukaryotic proteome occurred without a concomitant diversification of NAT complexes. PMID:26861501

  19. Structural Basis of Substrate-Binding Specificity of Human Arylamine N-acetyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Wu,H.; Dombrovsky, L.; Tempel, W.; Martin, F.; Loppnau, P.; Goodfellow, G.; Grant, D.; Plotnikov, A.

    2007-01-01

    The human arylamine N-acetyltransferases NAT1 and NAT2 play an important role in the biotransformation of a plethora of aromatic amine and hydrazine drugs. They are also able to participate in the bioactivation of several known carcinogens. Each of these enzymes is genetically variable in human populations, and polymorphisms in NAT genes have been associated with various cancers. Here we have solved the high resolution crystal structures of human NAT1 and NAT2, including NAT1 in complex with the irreversible inhibitor 2-bromoacetanilide, a NAT1 active site mutant, and NAT2 in complex with CoA, and have refined them to 1.7-, 1.8-, and 1.9- Angstroms resolution, respectively. The crystal structures reveal novel structural features unique to human NATs and provide insights into the structural basis of the substrate specificity and genetic polymorphism of these enzymes.

  20. The histone acetyltransferase MOF activates hypothalamic polysialylation to prevent diet-induced obesity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Brenachot, Xavier; Rigault, Caroline; Nédélec, Emmanuelle; Laderrière, Amélie; Khanam, Tasneem; Gouazé, Alexandra; Chaudy, Sylvie; Lemoine, Aleth; Datiche, Frédérique; Gascuel, Jean; Pénicaud, Luc; Benani, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Overfeeding causes rapid synaptic remodeling in hypothalamus feeding circuits. Polysialylation of cell surface molecules is a key step in this neuronal rewiring and allows normalization of food intake. Here we examined the role of hypothalamic polysialylation in the long-term maintenance of body weight, and deciphered the molecular sequence underlying its nutritional regulation. We found that upon high fat diet (HFD), reduced hypothalamic polysialylation exacerbated the diet-induced obese phenotype in mice. Upon HFD, the histone acetyltransferase MOF was rapidly recruited on the St8sia4 polysialyltransferase-encoding gene. Mof silencing in the mediobasal hypothalamus of adult mice prevented activation of the St8sia4 gene transcription, reduced polysialylation, altered the acute homeostatic feeding response to HFD and increased the body weight gain. These findings indicate that impaired hypothalamic polysialylation contribute to the development of obesity, and establish a role for MOF in the brain control of energy balance. PMID:25161885

  1. Muscle-specific deletion of carnitine acetyltransferase compromises glucose tolerance and metabolic flexibility.

    PubMed

    Muoio, Deborah M; Noland, Robert C; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Seiler, Sarah E; Davies, Michael N; DeBalsi, Karen L; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Stevens, Robert D; Kheterpal, Indu; Zhang, Jingying; Covington, Jeffrey D; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Ravussin, Eric; Kraus, William; Koves, Timothy R; Mynatt, Randall L

    2012-05-02

    The concept of "metabolic inflexibility" was first introduced to describe the failure of insulin-resistant human subjects to appropriately adjust mitochondrial fuel selection in response to nutritional cues. This phenomenon has since gained increasing recognition as a core component of the metabolic syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. Here, we identify an essential role for the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT), in regulating substrate switching and glucose tolerance. By converting acetyl-CoA to its membrane permeant acetylcarnitine ester, CrAT regulates mitochondrial and intracellular carbon trafficking. Studies in muscle-specific Crat knockout mice, primary human skeletal myocytes, and human subjects undergoing L-carnitine supplementation support a model wherein CrAT combats nutrient stress, promotes metabolic flexibility, and enhances insulin action by permitting mitochondrial efflux of excess acetyl moieties that otherwise inhibit key regulatory enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase. These findings offer therapeutically relevant insights into the molecular basis of metabolic inflexibility.

  2. Sulfonamide-Based Inhibitors of Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase Eis Abolish Resistance to Kanamycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Garzan, Atefeh; Willby, Melisa J; Green, Keith D; Gajadeera, Chathurada S; Hou, Caixia; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Posey, James E; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-12-08

    A two-drug combination therapy where one drug targets an offending cell and the other targets a resistance mechanism to the first drug is a time-tested, yet underexploited approach to combat or prevent drug resistance. By high-throughput screening, we identified a sulfonamide scaffold that served as a pharmacophore to generate inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis acetyltransferase Eis, whose upregulation causes resistance to the aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotic kanamycin A (KAN) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rational systematic derivatization of this scaffold to maximize Eis inhibition and abolish the Eis-mediated KAN resistance of M. tuberculosis yielded several highly potent agents. A crystal structure of Eis in complex with one of the most potent inhibitors revealed that the inhibitor bound Eis in the AG-binding pocket held by a conformationally malleable region of Eis (residues 28-37) bearing key hydrophobic residues. These Eis inhibitors are promising leads for preclinical development of innovative AG combination therapies against resistant TB.

  3. Unusual regioversatility of acetyltransferase Eis, a cause of drug resistance in XDR-TB.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenjing; Biswas, Tapan; Porter, Vanessa R; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2011-06-14

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) is a serious global threat. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used as a last resort to treat XDR-TB. Resistance to the aminoglycoside kanamycin is a hallmark of XDR-TB. Here, we reveal the function and structure of the mycobacterial protein Eis responsible for resistance to kanamycin in a significant fraction of kanamycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates. We demonstrate that Eis has an unprecedented ability to acetylate multiple amines of many aminoglycosides. Structural and mutagenesis studies of Eis indicate that its acetylation mechanism is enabled by a complex tripartite fold that includes two general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase regions. An intricate negatively charged substrate-binding pocket of Eis is a potential target of new antitubercular drugs expected to overcome aminoglycoside resistance.

  4. Potent Inhibitors of Acetyltransferase Eis Overcome Kanamycin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Willby, Melisa J; Green, Keith D; Gajadeera, Chathurada S; Hou, Caixia; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Posey, James E; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-06-17

    A major cause of tuberculosis (TB) resistance to the aminoglycoside kanamycin (KAN) is the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) acetyltransferase Eis. Upregulation of this enzyme is responsible for inactivation of KAN through acetylation of its amino groups. A 123 000-compound high-throughput screen (HTS) yielded several small-molecule Eis inhibitors that share an isothiazole S,S-dioxide heterocyclic core. These were investigated for their structure-activity relationships. Crystal structures of Eis in complex with two potent inhibitors show that these molecules are bound in the conformationally adaptable aminoglycoside binding site of the enzyme, thereby obstructing binding of KAN for acetylation. Importantly, we demonstrate that several Eis inhibitors, when used in combination with KAN against resistant Mtb, efficiently overcome KAN resistance. This approach paves the way toward development of novel combination therapies against aminoglycoside-resistant TB.

  5. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.

  6. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-07-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats' impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on "predation awareness" campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom.

  7. Owner experiences in treating dogs and cats diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in the United States.

    PubMed

    Aptekmann, Karina P; Armstrong, Jane; Coradini, Marcia; Rand, Jacquie

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report owner experiences and satisfaction in treating a pet with diabetes mellitus using a descriptive report from an Internet-based survey. Descriptive analysis of results was performed, χ(2) tests were used to detect differences in responses between dog and cat owners, and correlations were assessed using the nonparametric Spearman rank correlation. A total of 834 owners participated in the survey. More diabetic dogs (97%) than cats (82%) were treated with insulin injections. Insulin was administered twice daily in 87% of dogs and 73% of cats. Porcine lente and neutral protamine Hagedorn were the most commonly administered insulins in dogs. In cats, glargine and protamine zinc insulin were the most commonly used insulins. Most pets were not fed a prescribed diabetes diet. More cat (66%) than dog (50%) owners were satisfied with the diabetic control achieved. Cat owners were more likely to use home blood glucose monitoring. Treatment was considered expensive by the majority of owners. Few published reports follow diabetic pets after diagnosis or report owner satisfaction. The results of this study provide useful information that may help veterinarians better educate owners and set expectations regarding diabetes treatment and quality of life for diabetic pets.

  8. Cat Scratch Disease in kidney transplant receptors: is it a rare or underdiagnosed pathology?

    PubMed

    Verçoza, Ana Maria Teixeira; de los Santos, Carlos Abaeté; Vargas, José Amadeu

    2014-01-01

    Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) is an infectious disorder which appears after cat scratching particularly in children and adolescents. Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent more frequently involved. There are only a few recent reports demonstrating the disease after transplantation, although the illness is not infrequent in immunologically competent people. Indeed CSD in transplant receptors has only been recently emphasized in the literature and it was concluded that fever and lymphadenopathy in patients who had been exposed to cats should prompt clinicians to maintain a suspicion for the infection. In this report CSD infecting a renal transplanted adolescent complaining of headache, blurred vision and fever, presenting a cat scratching lesion in the right arm, with a bilateral painful cervical lymphadenopathy was related. He also presented indirect immunofluorescency identifying that the two subtype's titles of Bartonella--henselae and quintana--were elevated. Treatment with doxicicline e rifampicin was introduced and the patient became asymptomatic in about 3 weeks.

  9. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats

    PubMed Central

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek, and chives), macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas, and currants), products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages, and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature. PMID:27047944

  10. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek, and chives), macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas, and currants), products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages, and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature.

  11. The place of choline acetyltransferase activity measurement in the "cholinergic hypothesis" of neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Contestabile, Antonio; Ciani, Elisabetta; Contestabile, Andrea

    2008-02-01

    The so-called "cholinergic hypothesis" assumes that degenerative dysfunction of the cholinergic system originating in the basal forebrain and innervating several cortical regions and the hippocampus, is related to memory impairment and neurodegeneration found in several forms of dementia and in brain aging. Biochemical methods measuring the activity of the key enzyme for acetylcholine synthesis, choline acetyltransferase, have been used for many years as a reliable marker of the integrity or the damage of the cholinergic pathways. Stereologic counting of the basal forebrain cholinergic cell bodies, has been additionally used to assess neurodegenerative changes of the forebrain cholinergic system. While initially believed to mark relatively early stages of disease, cholinergic dysfunction is at present considered to occur in advanced dementia of Alzheimer's type, while its involvement in mild and prodromal stages of the disease has been questioned. The issue is relevant to better understand the neuropathological basis of the diseases, but it is also of primary importance for therapy. During the last few years, indeed, cholinergic replacement therapies, mainly based on the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors to increase synaptic availability of acetylcholine, have been exploited on the assumption that they could ameliorate the progression of the dementia from its initial stages. In the present paper, we review data from human studies, as well as from animal models of Alzheimer's and Down's diseases, focusing on different ways to evaluate cholinergic dysfunction, also in relation to the time point at which these dysfunctions can be demonstrated, and on some discrepancy arising from the use of different methodological approaches. The reviewed literature, as well as some recent data from our laboratories on a mouse model of Down's syndrome, stress the importance of performing biochemical evaluation of choline acetyltransferase activity to assess cholinergic

  12. A new arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase in silkworm (Bombyx mori) affects integument pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Long, Yaohang; Li, Jiaorong; Zhao, Tianfu; Li, Guannan; Zhu, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Dopamine is a precursor for melanin synthesis. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is involved in the melatonin formation in insects because it could catalyze the transformation from dopamine to dopamine-N-acetyldopamine. In this study, we identified a new AANAT gene in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and assessed its role in the silkworm. The cDNA of this gene encodes 233 amino acids that shares 57 % amino acid identity with the Bm-iAANAT protein. We thus refer to this gene as Bm-iAANAT2. To investigate the role of Bm-iAANAT2, we constructed a transgenic interference system using a 3xp3 promoter to suppress the expression of Bm-iAANAT2 in the silkworm. We observed that melanin deposition occurs in the head and integument in transgenic lines. To verify the melanism pattern, dopamine content and the enzyme activity of AANAT were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We found that an increase in dopamine levels affects melanism patterns on the heads of transgenic B. mori. A reduction in the enzyme activity of AANAT leads to changes in dopamine levels. We analyzed the expression of the Bm-iAANAT2 genes by qPCR and found that the expression of Bm-iAANAT2 gene is significantly lower in transgenic lines. Our results lead us to conclude that Bm-iAANAT2 is a new arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene in the silkworm and is involved in the metabolism of the dopamine to avoid the generation of melanin.

  13. Structural and functional characterization of TRI3 trichothecene 15-O-acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, Graeme S.; McCormick, Susan P.; Alexander, Nancy J.; Rayment, Ivan

    2009-08-14

    Fusarium head blight is a devastating disease of cereal crops whose worldwide incidence is increasing and at present there is no satisfactory way of combating this pathogen or its associated toxins. There is a wide variety of trichothecene mycotoxins and they all contain a 12,13-epoxytrichothecene skeleton but differ in their substitutions. Indeed, there is considerable variation in the toxin profile across the numerous Fusarium species that has been ascribed to differences in the presence or absence of biosynthetic enzymes and their relative activity. This article addresses the source of differences in acetylation at the C15 position of the trichothecene molecule. Here, we present the in vitro structural and biochemical characterization of TRI3, a 15-O-trichothecene acetyltransferase isolated from F. sporotrichioides and the 'in vivo' characterization of Deltatri3 mutants of deoxynivalenol (DON) producing F. graminearum strains. A kinetic analysis shows that TRI3 is an efficient enzyme with the native substrate, 15-decalonectrin, but is inactive with either DON or nivalenol. The structure of TRI3 complexed with 15-decalonectrin provides an explanation for this specificity and shows that Tri3 and Tri101 (3-O-trichothecene acetyltransferase) are evolutionarily related. The active site residues are conserved across all sequences for TRI3 orthologs, suggesting that differences in acetylation at C15 are not due to differences in Tri3. The tri3 deletion mutant shows that acetylation at C15 is required for DON biosynthesis even though DON lacks a C15 acetyl group. The enzyme(s) responsible for deacetylation at the 15 position of the trichothecene mycotoxins have not been identified.

  14. Molecular Determinants of the N-Terminal Acetyltransferase Naa60 Anchoring to the Golgi Membrane.

    PubMed

    Aksnes, Henriette; Goris, Marianne; Strømland, Øyvind; Drazic, Adrian; Waheed, Qaiser; Reuter, Nathalie; Arnesen, Thomas

    2017-02-14

    Nα-acetyltransferase 60 (Naa60 or NatF) was recently identified as an unconventional N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) since it localizes to organelles, in particular the Golgi apparatus, and has a preference for acetylating N-termini of transmembrane proteins. This knowledge challenged the prevailing view of N-terminal acetylation as a co-translational ribosome-associated process and suggested a new mechanistic functioning for the enzymes responsible for this increasingly recognized protein modification. Crystallography studies on Naa60 were unable to resolve the C-terminal tail of Naa60, which is responsible for the organellar localization. Here, we combined modeling, in vitro assays, and cellular localization studies to study secondary structure and membrane interacting capacity of Naa60. The results show that Naa60 is a peripheral membrane protein. Two amphipathic helices within the Naa60 C-terminus bind the membrane directly in a parallel position relative to the lipid bilayer via hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. A peptide corresponding to the C-terminus is unstructured in solution and only folds into an α-helical conformation in the presence of liposomes. Computational modeling and cellular mutational analysis revealed the hydrophobic face of two α-helices to be critical for membranous localization. Furthermore, we found a strong and specific binding preference of Naa60 towards membranes containing the phosphatidylinositol PI4P, thus possibly explaining the primary residency of Naa60 at the PI4P-rich Golgi. In conclusion, we have defined the mode of cytosolic Naa60 anchoring to the Golgi apparatus, most likely occurring post-translationally and specifically facilitating post-translational N-terminal acetylation of many transmembrane proteins.

  15. Ligand promiscuity through the eyes of the aminoglycoside N3 acetyltransferase IIa

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Adrianne L; Serpersu, Engin H

    2013-01-01

    Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AGMEs) are expressed in many pathogenic bacteria and cause resistance to aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotics. Remarkably, the substrate promiscuity of AGMEs is quite variable. The molecular basis for such ligand promiscuity is largely unknown as there is not an obvious link between amino acid sequence or structure and the antibiotic profiles of AGMEs. To address this issue, this article presents the first kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of one of the least promiscuous AGMEs, the AG N3 acetyltransferase-IIa (AAC-IIa) and its comparison to two highly promiscuous AGMEs, the AG N3-acetyltransferase-IIIb (AAC-IIIb) and the AG phosphotransferase(3′)-IIIa (APH). Despite having similar antibiotic selectivities, AAC-IIIb and APH catalyze different reactions and share no homology to one another. AAC-IIa and AAC-IIIb catalyze the same reaction and are very similar in both amino acid sequence and structure. However, they demonstrate strong differences in their substrate profiles and kinetic and thermodynamic properties. AAC-IIa and APH are also polar opposites in terms of ligand promiscuity but share no sequence or apparent structural homology. However, they both are highly dynamic and may even contain disordered segments and both adopt well-defined conformations when AGs are bound. Contrary to this AAC-IIIb maintains a well-defined structure even in apo form. Data presented herein suggest that the antibiotic promiscuity of AGMEs may be determined neither by the flexibility of the protein nor the size of the active site cavity alone but strongly modulated or controlled by the effects of the cosubstrate on the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of the enzyme. PMID:23640799

  16. Cholesterol granuloma (Xanthomatous metritis) in the uterus of a cat.

    PubMed

    Zanghì, A; Nicòtina, P A; Catone, G; Gimbo, A

    1999-10-01

    A case of uterine cholesterol granuloma in a 12-year old mixed breed cat is reported. The lesions were found in the endometrium of the left uterine horn as scattered, raised nodules or foci. Histologically, mononuclear cell infiltrates were seen to surround cholesterol crystals, in both the endometrium and the smooth muscle layer, reaching the serosa. The findings support the role of haemorrhage in promoting chronic inflammatory reactions around interstitial cholesterol ester precipitates.

  17. The first record of American visceral leishmaniasis in domestic cats from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Alba Valéria Machado; de Souza Cândido, Claudia Dias; de Pita Pereira, Daniela; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Carreira, João Carlos Araujo

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the first to report visceral leishmaniasis in domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A relatively high seroprevalence of 25% was observed although none of them have presented any symptom. Our results support the observation of previous authors, suggesting that cats may be considered as alternative domestic hosts of visceral leishmaniasis and should be included in serological investigations performed in endemic areas.

  18. An Unusual Case of a Nasal Foreign Body in a Cat with Chronic Nasal Discharge.

    PubMed

    Bellei, Emma; Pisoni, Luciano; Joechler, Monika; Pietra, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a cat infected with the feline infectious virus and a 1 yr history of unilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge. Intraoral radiography and endoscopic examination revealed the presence of a large fragment of tooth root in the right nasal cavity. The cat had previously undergone maxillary canine tooth (104) extraction. The root was successfully removed by an endoscopic-assisted procedure, and follow-up examination 1 yr later documented complete disappearance of the respiratory signs.

  19. Development of Cellular Absorptive Tracers (CATs) for a Quantitative Characterization of Microbial Mass in Flow Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Saripalli, Prasad; Brown, Christopher F.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2005-03-16

    We report on a new Cellular Absorptive Tracers (CATs) method, for a simple, non-destructive characterization of bacterial mass in flow systems. Results show that adsorption of a CAT molecule into the cellular mass results in its retardation during flow, which is a good, quantitative measure of the biomass quantity and distribution. No such methods are currently available for a quantitative characterization of cell mass.

  20. Computed tomography and partial coronoidectomy for open-mouth jaw locking in two cats.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Jason W; Snyder, Christopher J; Gengler, William R

    2009-01-01

    Open-mouth jaw locking in the cat has traditionally been minimally evaluated with diagnostic imaging. Multiple methods have been described for surgical management of this problem. This report describes the use of computed tomography to diagnose open-mouth jaw locking in 2 cats secondary to ventrolateral displacement of the coronoid process in relation to the zygomatic arch. In these 2 cases, a previously unreported surgical approach whereby the coronoid was not reduced before partial coronoidectomy was used with successful outcomes.

  1. Evidence of horizontal transmission of feline leukemia virus by the cat flea ( Ctenocephalides felis).

    PubMed

    Vobis, M; D'Haese, J; Mehlhorn, H; Mencke, N

    2003-12-01

    The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a naturally occurring and widespread retrovirus among domestic cats. The virus is mainly transmitted horizontally through saliva, blood and other body fluids by close contact between cats. Vectors other than cats, e.g. blood-sucking parasites, have not been reported. This study tested the vector potential of the cat flea ( Ctenocephalides felis) for FeLV. In a first feeding, fleas were fed for 24 h with blood from a FeLV-infected cat with persistent viremia. FeLV could be detected in the fleas, as well as in their feces. Fleas were then divided in two populations and fed in a second feeding for 5 h or 24 h with non-infected non-viremic blood. FeLV was again detected in the fleas and their feces. In addition, the two resulting blood samples of the second feeding were subsequently tested for FeLV and both samples were positive for FeLV RNA. The cat flea transmitted the FeLV from one blood sample to another. In a third feeding, the same populations of fleas were fed again with non-infected blood for 5 h or 24 h. This time FeLV was not detected in the fleas, or in the feces or blood samples. Results show that cat fleas are potential vectors for FeLV RNA in vitro and probably also in vivo.

  2. Characterization of neutrophil extracellular traps in cats naturally infected with feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Wardini, Amanda B; Guimarães-Costa, Anderson B; Nascimento, Michelle T C; Nadaes, Natalia R; Danelli, Maria G M; Mazur, Carlos; Benjamim, Claudia F; Saraiva, Elvira M; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia H

    2010-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a common, naturally occurring gammaretrovirus in domestic cats, is associated with degenerative diseases of the haematopoietic system, immunodeficiency and neoplasia. FeLV infection causes an important suppression of neutrophil function, leading to opportunistic infections. Recently, a new microbicidal mechanism named NETosis was described in human, bovine and fish neutrophils, as well as in chicken heterophils. The purpose of the present study was to characterize NETosis in feline neutrophils, as well as to evaluate neutrophil function in FeLV naturally infected symptomatic and asymptomatic cats through the phagocytosis process, release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The results showed that feline neutrophils stimulated with protozoa parasites released structures comprising DNA and histones, which were characterized as NETs by immunofluorescence. Quantification of NETs after neutrophil stimulation showed a significant increase in NET release by neutrophils from FeLV(-) and FeLV(+) asymptomatic cats compared with FeLV(+) symptomatic cats. Moreover, the number of released NETs and MPO activity in unstimulated neutrophils of FeLV(+) symptomatic cats were higher than those in unstimulated neutrophils from FeLV(-) and FeLV(+) asymptomatic cats. This study reports, for the first time, NET release by feline neutrophils, along with the fact that NET induction may be modulated by a viral infection. The results indicate that the NET mechanism appears to be overactivated in FeLV(+) cats and that this feature could be considered a marker of disease progression in FeLV infection.

  3. Detection of Babesia vogeli in stray cats of metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Simking, Patcharathorn; Wongnakphet, Sirichai; Stich, Roger W; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2010-10-11

    The combination of a rapidly growing stray animal population and the lack of animal control in Bangkok has resulted in a unique opportunity to evaluate the potential role of companion animals as sentinels and reservoirs of infectious diseases, including several of those caused by vector-borne parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with the distribution of Babesia species infections among stray cats in Bangkok. Blood samples were collected from 1490 stray cats residing in 140 monasteries of 50 metropolitan districts of Bangkok, and assayed with light microscopy and PCR for evidence of Babesia spp. Pear-shaped merozoites were observed microscopically from two (0.13%) of these cats, while a nested 18S rDNA-based PCR assay detected babesial infections in 21 (1.4%) of the cats tested. The prevalence of infection was significantly different between sexes (p<0.05), and PCR-positive cats were found in 30% (15/50) of the districts surveyed. All 21 amplicon sequences were identical, and were determined to be closest to that reported for B. vogeli (98% identity). These results represent the first molecular confirmation that a Babesia sp. is enzootic among stray cat populations in Thailand, and suggest that the presence of pet companion animals could be a risk factor for exposure of stray cats to vector-borne parasites.

  4. Rush allergen specific immunotherapy protocol in feline atopic dermatitis: a pilot study of four cats.

    PubMed

    Trimmer, Ann M; Griffin, Craig E; Boord, Mona J; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S

    2005-10-01

    Rush immunotherapy has been shown to be as safe as conventional immunotherapy in canine atopic patients. Rush immunotherapy has not been reported in the feline atopic patient. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine a safe protocol for rush immunotherapy in feline atopic patients. Four atopic cats diagnosed by history, physical examination and exclusion of appropriate differential diagnoses were included in the study. Allergens were identified via liquid phase immunoenzymatic testing (VARL: Veterinary Allergy Reference Labs, Pasadena, CA). Cats were premedicated with 1.5 mg triamcinolone orally 24 and 2 h prior to first injection and 10 mg hydroxyzine PO 24, 12 and 2 h prior to first injection. An intravenous catheter was placed prior to first injection. Allergen extracts (Greer Laboratories, Lenoir, North Carolina) were all administered subcutaneously at increasing protein nitrogen units (pnu) every 30 minutes for 5 h to maintenance dose of 15,000 pnus ml-1. Vital signs were assessed every 15 minutes. Two cats developed mild pruritus and the subsequent injection was delayed 30 minutes. No changes in either cat's vital signs were noted, nor was there any further pruritus. All four cats successfully completed rush immunotherapy. Two cats developed a dermal swelling on the dorsal neck one week later. In these four cats, this protocol appeared to be a safe regimen to reach maintenance therapy. A larger sample of feline patients is needed to determine the incidence of adverse reactions and to follow the success of ASIT based upon this method of induction.

  5. Investigation of 1H MRS for quantification of hepatic triglyceride in lean and obese cats.

    PubMed

    Clark, M H; Larsen, R; Lu, W; Hoenig, M

    2013-10-01

    (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) is the preferred technique for noninvasive quantification of hepatic triglyceride in humans. Domestic cats are subject to liver lipid accumulation, but MRS has not been investigated for quantification of liver fat in cats. The purpose of this project was to explore a technique for (1)H MRS measurement of hepatic triglyceride in lean and obese cats. Hepatic (1)H MRS was performed, using a 3T imaging unit and a single-voxel spin-echo spectroscopy sequence, on 6 lean (3.3-4.6 kg) and 12 obese cats (5.2-9.8 kg). Median liver fat percentages in lean and obese cats were 1.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Results are biologically plausible, based on chemical assay in a separate group of cats; however, full validation of the method is necessary before other conclusions can be drawn. This report should provide a foundation for the further development of spectroscopic techniques for studying hepatic lipid accumulation in cats.

  6. Himalayan fossils of the oldest known pantherine establish ancient origin of big cats

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Z. Jack; Wang, Xiaoming; Slater, Graham J.; Takeuchi, Gary T.; Li, Qiang; Liu, Juan; Xie, Guangpu

    2014-01-01

    Pantherine felids (‘big cats’) include the largest living cats, apex predators in their respective ecosystems. They are also the earliest diverging living cat lineage, and thus are important for understanding the evolution of all subsequent felid groups. Although the oldest pantherine fossils occur in Africa, molecular phylogenies point to Asia as their region of origin. This paradox cannot be reconciled using current knowledge, mainly because early big cat fossils are exceedingly rare and fragmentary. Here, we report the discovery of a fossil pantherine from the Tibetan Himalaya, with an age of Late Miocene–Early Pliocene, replacing African records as the oldest pantherine. A ‘total evidence’ phylogenetic analysis of pantherines indicates that the new cat is closely related to the snow leopard and exhibits intermediate characteristics on the evolutionary line to the largest cats. Historical biogeographic models provide robust support for the Asian origin of pantherines. The combined analyses indicate that 75% of the divergence events in the pantherine lineage extended back to the Miocene, up to 7 Myr earlier than previously estimated. The deeper evolutionary origin of big cats revealed by the new fossils and analyses indicate a close association between Tibetan Plateau uplift and diversification of the earliest living cats. PMID:24225466

  7. Peribronchiolar fibrosis in lungs of cats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, D.M.; Plopper, C.G.; Weir, A.J.; Murnane, R.D.; Warren, D.L.; Last, J.A.; Pepelko, W.E.

    1985-02-01

    This study reports the quantitative changes in the pulmonary proximal acinar region following chronic exposure to diesel exhaust and following an additional 6 months in clean air. Cats (13 months of age) from a minimum disease colony were exposed to clean air (eight cats for 27 months and nine cats for 33 months), diesel exhaust for 8 hours/day, 7 days/week (nine cats for 27 months), or diesel exhaust for 27 months followed by 6 months in clean air (10 cats). Morphologic and morphometric evaluation using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed two major exposure-related lesions in proximal acinar regions of lungs of cats: peribronchiolar fibrosis associated with significant increases in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and interstitial macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions and bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia associated with the presence of ciliated and basal cells and alveolar macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions. Peribronchiolar fibrosis was greater at the end of the 6 months in clean air following exposure, whereas the bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia was most severe at the end of exposure. Following an additional 6 months in clean air the epithelium more closely resembled the control epithelial cell population. The labeling index of terminal bronchiolar epithelium was significantly increased at the end of exposure but was not significantly different from controls or exposed cats following an additional 6 months in clean air. The ultrastructural appearance of epithelial cells remained relatively unchanged following diesel exhaust exposure with the exception of diesel particulate-like inclusions.

  8. Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-05

    ... observing platform. CATS provides in-space demonstration of technologies for future satellite missions while demonstrating build-to-cost ... (CPL) on the ER-2 on Feb 10, 17, 20 and 21. For more information, please see the CATS homepage  or the attached  presentation ...

  9. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  10. Dirofilaria immitis in cats: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C Thomas

    2008-07-01

    Imaging and laboratory studies can help with the diagnosis of heartworm disease in cats, but no test is definitive. Furthermore, even when the diagnosis can be reliably established, therapy directed at the heartworms does little to help the cat. Rather, management is directed at alleviating clinical signs, with an emphasis on prevention for all.

  11. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  12. Bradyarrhythmia in an anaesthetised, elderly, hypertensive cat.

    PubMed

    Ticehurst, Kim; Zaki, Sanaa; Maddern, Kieren; Lingard, Amy; Barrs, Vanessa; Malik, Richard

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old neutered male domestic shorthaired cat was presented to the University Veterinary Centre Sydney for evaluation and treatment of dental disease. This cat developed an unusual bradyarrhythmia under anaesthesia. The possible causes and treatment of the dysrythmia are discussed.

  13. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture. PMID:12001504

  14. Polyprenyl Immunostimulant Treatment of Cats with Presumptive Non-Effusive Feline Infectious Peritonitis In a Field Study.

    PubMed

    Legendre, Alfred M; Kuritz, Tanya; Galyon, Gina; Baylor, Vivian M; Heidel, Robert Eric

    2017-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease with no clinically effective treatment. This field study evaluated treatment with Polyprenyl Immunostimulant (PI) in cats with the non-effusive form of FIP. Because immune suppression is a major component in the pathology of FIP, we hypothesized that treatment with an immune system stimulant would increase survival times of cats with dry FIP. Sixty cats, diagnosed with dry FIP by primary care and specialist veterinarians and meeting the acceptance criteria, were treated with PI without intentional selection of less severe cases. The survival time from the start of PI treatment in cats diagnosed with dry FIP showed that of the 60 cats with dry FIP treated with PI, 8 survived over 200 days, and 4 of 60 survived over 300 days. A literature search identified 59 cats with non-effusive or dry FIP; no cat with only dry FIP lived longer than 200 days. Veterinarians of cats treated with PI that survived over 30 days reported improvements in clinical signs and behavior. The survival times in our study were significantly longer in cats who were not treated with corticosteroids concurrently with PI. While not a cure, PI shows promise in the treatment of dry form FIP, but a controlled study will be needed to verify the benefit.

  15. Polyprenyl Immunostimulant Treatment of Cats with Presumptive Non-Effusive Feline Infectious Peritonitis In a Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Legendre, Alfred M.; Kuritz, Tanya; Galyon, Gina; Baylor, Vivian M.; Heidel, Robert Eric

    2017-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease with no clinically effective treatment. This field study evaluated treatment with Polyprenyl Immunostimulant (PI) in cats with the non-effusive form of FIP. Because immune suppression is a major component in the pathology of FIP, we hypothesized that treatment with an immune system stimulant would increase survival times of cats with dry FIP. Sixty cats, diagnosed with dry FIP by primary care and specialist veterinarians and meeting the acceptance criteria, were treated with PI without intentional selection of less severe cases. The survival time from the start of PI treatment in cats diagnosed with dry FIP showed that of the 60 cats with dry FIP treated with PI, 8 survived over 200 days, and 4 of 60 survived over 300 days. A literature search identified 59 cats with non-effusive or dry FIP; no cat with only dry FIP lived longer than 200 days. Veterinarians of cats treated with PI that survived over 30 days reported improvements in clinical signs and behavior. The survival times in our study were significantly longer in cats who were not treated with corticosteroids concurrently with PI. While not a cure, PI shows promise in the treatment of dry form FIP, but a controlled study will be needed to verify the benefit. PMID:28261584

  16. Molecular typing of Sporothrix schenckii isolates from cats in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Okubo, Miki; Siew, Han Hock; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological data on the aetiologic agents of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia have not been reported, though human sporotrichosis in Malaysia is reported to be transmitted primarily via cat scratch. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first study of the molecular epidemiology of Sporothrix schenckii isolates from cats with sporotrichosis in Malaysia. In the present work, we characterised 18 clinical isolates from cats in Malaysia based on molecular properties, including sequence analyses of the calmodulin gene and the rDNA ITS region and selective PCR of mating type (MAT) loci. In this study, isolates from feline sporotrichosis were identified as a S. schenckii sensu stricto by sequence analyses of the calmodulin gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Notably, phylogenetic analysis of the ITS confirmed assignment to clinical clade D (and not C) of S. schenckii sensu stricto. Therefore, clinical clade D of S. schenckii sensu stricto appeared to be the prevailing source of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia. The ratio of MAT1-1-1:MAT1-2-1 in these Malaysian isolates was found to be 1 : 0. This result suggested that a clonal strain of S. schenckii is the prevailing causative agent of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia.

  17. The Near Eastern origin of cat domestication.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

    2007-07-27

    The world's domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors-Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)-indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance.

  18. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  19. Minimization of Basis Risk in Parametric Earthquake Cat Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, G.

    2009-12-01

    A catastrophe -cat- bond is an instrument used by insurance and reinsurance companies, by governments or by groups of nations to cede catastrophic risk to the financial markets, which are capable of supplying cover for highly destructive events, surpassing the typical capacity of traditional reinsurance contracts. Parametric cat bonds, a specific type of cat bonds, use trigger mechanisms or indices that depend on physical event parameters published by respected third parties in order to determine whether a part or the entire bond principal is to be paid for a certain event. First generation cat bonds, or cat-in-a-box bonds, display a trigger mechanism that consists of a set of geographic zones in which certain conditions need to be met by an earthquake’s magnitude and depth in order to trigger payment of the bond principal. Second generation cat bonds use an index formulation that typically consists of a sum of products of a set of weights by a polynomial function of the ground motion variables reported by a geographically distributed seismic network. These instruments are especially appealing to developing countries with incipient insurance industries wishing to cede catastrophic losses to the financial markets because the payment trigger mechanism is transparent and does not involve the parties ceding or accepting the risk, significantly reducing moral hazard. In order to be successful in the market, however, parametric cat bonds have typically been required to specify relatively simple trigger conditions. The consequence of such simplifications is the increase of basis risk. This risk represents the possibility that the trigger mechanism fails to accurately capture the actual losses of a catastrophic event, namely that it does not trigger for a highly destructive event or vice versa, that a payment of the bond principal is caused by an event that produced insignificant losses. The first case disfavors the sponsor who was seeking cover for its losses while the

  20. Renal morphology in cats with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Benali, S; Coppola, L; Guscetti, F; Ackermann, M; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Aresu, L

    2014-11-01

    In humans, diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important cause of renal damage, with glomerular lesions being predominant. In cats, although diabetes is a common endocrinopathy, it is yet unknown whether it leads to renal damage. The aim of the study was to compare renal histologic features and parameters of renal function in diabetic cats against a control population matched for age, gender, breed, and body weight. Thirty-two diabetic and 20 control cats were included. Kidney sections from paraffin-embedded kidney samples were stained and examined with optical microscopy to identify glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular lesions and to assess their frequency and severity. Serum creatinine and urea concentrations were also compared. Glomerular lesions were observed in 29 cats overall, with mesangial matrix increase being more common (19 cats). Tubulointerstitial lesions were observed in 42 cats, including lymphocytic infiltration (29), fibrosis (22), or tubular necrosis (21). Vascular lesions were observed in 5 cases. The frequency and severity of histologic lesions did not differ between diabetic and control cats; however, among diabetics, those that survived longer after diagnosis had more glomerular and vascular lesions. Serum creatinine and urea concentrations were similar between groups; in diabetic cats median creatinine was 109 μmol/l (range, 51-1200) and urea was 12 mmol/l (range, 4-63), and in controls creatinine was 126 μmol/l (range, 50-875) and urea 11 mmol/l (range, 3-80). The results suggest that DM in cats does not lead to microscopically detectable kidney lesions or clinically relevant renal dysfunction. The authors hypothesize that the short life expectancy of diabetic cats may be the main reason for the difference from human diabetics.