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Sample records for ach-stimulated exocytotic events

  1. Temporally resolved, independent stages of individual exocytotic secretion events.

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, T J; Borges, R; Finnegan, J M; Pihel, K; Amatore, C; Wightman, R M

    1996-01-01

    The stages of the complex events involved in exocytotic secretion after vesicle-cell membrane fusion have been examined at the level of individual vesicles. Catecholamine flux from single bovine adrenal medullary cells was measured with carbon-fiber microelectrodes firmly touching the cell surface. The data reveal that secretion during exocytotic events has three distinct stages: a small increase in catecholamine flux, a rapid, but not instantaneous, rise to a maximum, followed by an exponential decrease in the flux. These stages are interpreted in the following ways. The initial stage corresponds to catecholamine secretion through a fusion pore. The rate of pore expansion appears to control the rise time of the flux to its maximum value. The final exponential stage is consistent with chemical dissociation of the intravesicular matrix or gel. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8789125

  2. Invariance of exocytotic events detected by amperometry as a function of the carbon fiber microelectrode diameter.

    PubMed

    Amatore, Christian; Arbault, Stéphane; Bouret, Yann; Guille, Manon; Lemaître, Frédéric; Verchier, Yann

    2009-04-15

    Etched carbon fiber microelectrodes of different radii have been used for amperometric measurements of single exocytotic events occurring at adrenal chromaffin cells. Frequency, kinetic, and quantitative information on exocytosis provided by amperometric spikes were analyzed as a function of the surface area of the microelectrodes. Interestingly, the percentage of spikes with foot (as well as their own characteristics), a category revealing the existence of sufficient long-lasting fusion pores, was found to be constant whatever the microelectrode diameter was, whereas the probability of overlapping spikes decreased with the electrode size. This confirmed that the prespike foot could not feature accidental superimposition of separated events occurring at different places. Moreover, the features of amperometric spikes investigated here (charge, intensity and kinetics) were found constant for all microelectrode diameters. This demonstrated that the electrochemical measurement does not introduce significant bias onto the kinetics and thermodynamics of release during individual exocytotic events. All in all, this work evidences that information on exocytosis amperometrically recorded with the usual 7 microm diameter carbon fiber electrodes is biologically relevant, although the frequent overlap between spikes requires a censorship of the data during the analytical treatment. PMID:19290664

  3. Capillary electrophoretic study of individual exocytotic events in single mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, A.M.W.

    1999-02-12

    The peak profile of individual degranulation events from the on-column release of serotonin from single rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) was monitored using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced native fluorescence detection (CE-LINF). Serotonin, an important biogenic amine, is contained in granules (0.25 fL) within RPMCs and is extruded by a process termed exocytosis. The secretagogue, Polymyxin B sulfate, was used as the CE running buffer after injection of a single RPMC into the separation capillary to stimulate the release of the granules. Because the release process occurs on a ms time scale, monitoring individual exocytotic events is possible with the coupling of high-speed CE and LINF detection.

  4. Modes of exocytotic and endocytotic events in tobacco BY-2 protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Bandmann, Vera; Kreft, Marko; Homann, Ulrike

    2011-03-01

    To analyze the kinetics and size of single exo- and endocytotic events in BY-2 protoplasts, we employed cell-attached membrane capacitance measurements. These measurements revealed different modes of fusion and fission of single vesicles. In about half of the observed exocytotic events, fusion occurred transiently, which facilitates rapid recycling of vesicles. In addition, transient sequential or multi-vesicular exocytosis observed in some recordings can contribute to an increase in efficiency of secretory product release. Microscopic analysis of the timescale of cellulose and pectin deposition in protoplasts demonstrates that rebuilding of the cell wall starts soon after isolation of protoplasts and that transient fusion events can fully account for secretion of the required soluble material. The capacitance measurements also allowed us to investigate formation of the fusion pore. We speculate that regulation of secretion may involve control of the length and/or size of fusion pore opening. Together, the different kinetic modes of exo- and endocytosis revealed by capacitance measurements underline the complexity of this process in plants and provide a basis for future research into the underlying mechanisms. The fact that similar fusion/fission kinetics are present in plant and animal cells suggests that many of these mechanisms are highly conserved among eukaryotes.

  5. Transport model of chemical secretion process for tracking exocytotic event dynamics using electroanalysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tai-Hsi; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2004-08-01

    A unified model is developed to analyze the key features of the chemical secretion process observed in experimental studies of various vesicles with application to electroanalytical measurements of vesicular exocytosis. The intimately coupled dynamics and kinetics are simultaneously resolved based on continuum fluid flow, mass transport, and linear elasticity theories combined with biomembrane mechanics. We report three case studies of exocytosis, including a large electroporated granule of the mast cell, a small and clear synaptic vesicle, and a medium size vesicle in the chromaffin cell. The simulation results for each case are compared with electroanalytical measurements from the literature. The results provide a theoretical ground for defining the rate-controlling step(s) of an exocytotic sequence, allowing interpretation of electroanalysis data. Thus, it provides a tool for theoretical verification of competing hypotheses of what controls/limits messenger release during exocytosis. Simulations show that the pore size, the pore opening velocity, and the swelling dynamics of the granule matrix play the key roles in controlling the messenger release kinetics.

  6. Microelectrode Arrays of Diamond-Insulated Graphitic Channels for Real-Time Detection of Exocytotic Events from Cultured Chromaffin Cells and Slices of Adrenal Glands.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Bernardi, Ettore; Marcantoni, Andrea; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Olivero, Paolo; Carabelli, Valentina

    2016-08-01

    A microstructured graphitic 4 × 4 multielectrode array was embedded in a single-crystal diamond substrate (4 × 4 μG-SCD MEA) for real-time monitoring of exocytotic events from cultured chromaffin cells and adrenal slices. The current approach relies on the development of a parallel ion beam lithographic technique, which assures the time-effective fabrication of extended arrays with reproducible electrode dimensions. The reported device is suitable for performing amperometric and voltammetric recordings with high sensitivity and temporal resolution, by simultaneously acquiring data from 16 rectangularly shaped microelectrodes (20 × 3.5 μm(2)) separated by 200 μm gaps. Taking advantage of the array geometry we addressed the following specific issues: (i) detect both the spontaneous and KCl-evoked secretion simultaneously from several chromaffin cells directly cultured on the device surface, (ii) resolve the waveform of different subsets of exocytotic events, and (iii) monitoring quantal secretory events from thin slices of the adrenal gland. The frequency of spontaneous release was low (0.12 and 0.3 Hz, respectively, for adrenal slices and cultured cells) and increased up to 0.9 Hz after stimulation with 30 mM KCl in cultured cells. The spike amplitude as well as rise and decay time were comparable with those measured by carbon fiber microelectrodes and allowed to identify three different subsets of secretory events associated with "full fusion" events, "kiss-and-run" and "kiss-and-stay" exocytosis, confirming that the device has adequate sensitivity and time resolution for real-time recordings. The device offers the significant advantage of shortening the time to collect data by allowing simultaneous recordings from cell populations either in primary cell cultures or in intact tissues. PMID:27376596

  7. Microelectrode Arrays of Diamond-Insulated Graphitic Channels for Real-Time Detection of Exocytotic Events from Cultured Chromaffin Cells and Slices of Adrenal Glands.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Bernardi, Ettore; Marcantoni, Andrea; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Olivero, Paolo; Carabelli, Valentina

    2016-08-01

    A microstructured graphitic 4 × 4 multielectrode array was embedded in a single-crystal diamond substrate (4 × 4 μG-SCD MEA) for real-time monitoring of exocytotic events from cultured chromaffin cells and adrenal slices. The current approach relies on the development of a parallel ion beam lithographic technique, which assures the time-effective fabrication of extended arrays with reproducible electrode dimensions. The reported device is suitable for performing amperometric and voltammetric recordings with high sensitivity and temporal resolution, by simultaneously acquiring data from 16 rectangularly shaped microelectrodes (20 × 3.5 μm(2)) separated by 200 μm gaps. Taking advantage of the array geometry we addressed the following specific issues: (i) detect both the spontaneous and KCl-evoked secretion simultaneously from several chromaffin cells directly cultured on the device surface, (ii) resolve the waveform of different subsets of exocytotic events, and (iii) monitoring quantal secretory events from thin slices of the adrenal gland. The frequency of spontaneous release was low (0.12 and 0.3 Hz, respectively, for adrenal slices and cultured cells) and increased up to 0.9 Hz after stimulation with 30 mM KCl in cultured cells. The spike amplitude as well as rise and decay time were comparable with those measured by carbon fiber microelectrodes and allowed to identify three different subsets of secretory events associated with "full fusion" events, "kiss-and-run" and "kiss-and-stay" exocytosis, confirming that the device has adequate sensitivity and time resolution for real-time recordings. The device offers the significant advantage of shortening the time to collect data by allowing simultaneous recordings from cell populations either in primary cell cultures or in intact tissues.

  8. Amphetamine paradoxically augments exocytotic dopamine release and phasic dopamine signals.

    PubMed

    Daberkow, D P; Brown, H D; Bunner, K D; Kraniotis, S A; Doellman, M A; Ragozzino, M E; Garris, P A; Roitman, M F

    2013-01-01

    Drugs of abuse hijack brain-reward circuitry during the addiction process by augmenting action potential-dependent phasic dopamine release events associated with learning and goal-directed behavior. One prominent exception to this notion would appear to be amphetamine (AMPH) and related analogs, which are proposed instead to disrupt normal patterns of dopamine neurotransmission by depleting vesicular stores and promoting nonexocytotic dopamine efflux via reverse transport. This mechanism of AMPH action, though, is inconsistent with its therapeutic effects and addictive properties, which are thought to be reliant on phasic dopamine signaling. Here we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in freely moving rats to interrogate principal neurochemical responses to AMPH in the striatum and relate these changes to behavior. First, we showed that AMPH dose-dependently enhanced evoked dopamine responses to phasic-like current pulse trains for up to 2 h. Modeling the data revealed that AMPH inhibited dopamine uptake but also unexpectedly potentiated vesicular dopamine release. Second, we found that AMPH increased the amplitude, duration, and frequency of spontaneous dopamine transients, the naturally occurring, nonelectrically evoked, phasic increases in extracellular dopamine. Finally, using an operant sugar reward paradigm, we showed that low-dose AMPH augmented dopamine transients elicited by sugar-predictive cues. However, operant behavior failed at high-dose AMPH, which was due to phasic dopamine hyperactivity and the decoupling of dopamine transients from the reward predictive cue. These findings identify upregulation of exocytotic dopamine release as a key AMPH action in behaving animals and support a unified mechanism of abused drugs to activate phasic dopamine signaling. PMID:23303926

  9. Imaging dynamic insulin release using a fluorescent zinc indicator for monitoring induced exocytotic release (ZIMIR).

    PubMed

    Li, Daliang; Chen, Shiuhwei; Bellomo, Elisa A; Tarasov, Andrei I; Kaut, Callan; Rutter, Guy A; Li, Wen-hong

    2011-12-27

    Current methods of monitoring insulin secretion lack the required spatial and temporal resolution to adequately map the dynamics of exocytosis of native insulin granules in intact cell populations in three dimensions. Exploiting the fact that insulin granules contain a high level of Zn(2+), and that Zn(2+) is coreleased with insulin during secretion, we have developed a fluorescent, cell surface-targeted zinc indicator for monitoring induced exocytotic release (ZIMIR). ZIMIR displayed a robust fluorescence enhancement on Zn(2+) chelation and bound Zn(2+) with high selectivity against Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). When added to cultured β cells or intact pancreatic islets at low micromolar concentrations, ZIMIR labeled cells rapidly, noninvasively, and stably, and it reliably reported changes in Zn(2+) concentration near the sites of granule fusion with high sensitivity that correlated well with membrane capacitance measurement. Fluorescence imaging of ZIMIR-labeled β cells followed the dynamics of exocytotic activity at subcellular resolution, even when using simple epifluorescence microscopy, and located the chief sites of insulin release to intercellular junctions. Moreover, ZIMIR imaging of intact rat islets revealed that Zn(2+)/insulin release occurred largely in small groups of adjacent β cells, with each forming a "secretory unit." Concurrent imaging of ZIMIR and Fura-2 showed that the amplitude of cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation did not necessarily correlate with insulin secretion activity, suggesting that events downstream of Ca(2+) signaling underlie the cell-cell heterogeneity in insulin release. In addition to studying stimulation-secretion coupling in cells with Zn(2+)-containing granules, ZIMIR may find applications in β-cell engineering and screening for molecules regulating insulin secretion on high-throughput platforms. PMID:22160693

  10. Imaging dynamic insulin release using a fluorescent zinc indicator for monitoring induced exocytotic release (ZIMIR)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Daliang; Chen, Shiuhwei; Bellomo, Elisa A.; Tarasov, Andrei I.; Kaut, Callan; Rutter, Guy A.; Li, Wen-hong

    2011-01-01

    Current methods of monitoring insulin secretion lack the required spatial and temporal resolution to adequately map the dynamics of exocytosis of native insulin granules in intact cell populations in three dimensions. Exploiting the fact that insulin granules contain a high level of Zn2+, and that Zn2+ is coreleased with insulin during secretion, we have developed a fluorescent, cell surface-targeted zinc indicator for monitoring induced exocytotic release (ZIMIR). ZIMIR displayed a robust fluorescence enhancement on Zn2+ chelation and bound Zn2+ with high selectivity against Ca2+ and Mg2+. When added to cultured β cells or intact pancreatic islets at low micromolar concentrations, ZIMIR labeled cells rapidly, noninvasively, and stably, and it reliably reported changes in Zn2+ concentration near the sites of granule fusion with high sensitivity that correlated well with membrane capacitance measurement. Fluorescence imaging of ZIMIR-labeled β cells followed the dynamics of exocytotic activity at subcellular resolution, even when using simple epifluorescence microscopy, and located the chief sites of insulin release to intercellular junctions. Moreover, ZIMIR imaging of intact rat islets revealed that Zn2+/insulin release occurred largely in small groups of adjacent β cells, with each forming a “secretory unit.” Concurrent imaging of ZIMIR and Fura-2 showed that the amplitude of cytosolic Ca2+ elevation did not necessarily correlate with insulin secretion activity, suggesting that events downstream of Ca2+ signaling underlie the cell-cell heterogeneity in insulin release. In addition to studying stimulation-secretion coupling in cells with Zn2+-containing granules, ZIMIR may find applications in β-cell engineering and screening for molecules regulating insulin secretion on high-throughput platforms. PMID:22160693

  11. Bradykinin Induces TRPV1 Exocytotic Recruitment in Peptidergic Nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Mathivanan, Sakthikumar; Devesa, Isabel; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid I (TRPV1) sensitization in peripheral nociceptors is a prominent phenomenon that occurs in inflammatory pain conditions. Pro-algesic agents can potentiate TRPV1 activity in nociceptors through both stimulation of its channel gating and mobilization of channels to the neuronal surface in a context dependent manner. A recent study reported that ATP-induced TRPV1 sensitization in peptidergic nociceptors involves the exocytotic release of channels trafficked by large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) that cargo alpha-calcitonin gene related peptide alpha (αCGRP). We hypothesized that, similar to ATP, bradykinin may also use different mechanisms to sensitize TRPV1 channels in peptidergic and non-peptidergic nociceptors. We found that bradykinin notably enhances the excitability of peptidergic nociceptors, and sensitizes TRPV1, primarily through the bradykinin receptor 2 pathway. Notably, bradykinin sensitization of TRPV1 in peptidergic nociceptors was significantly blocked by inhibiting Ca2+-dependent neuronal exocytosis. In addition, silencing αCGRP gene expression, but not substance P, drastically reduced bradykinin-induced TRPV1 sensitization in peptidergic nociceptors. Taken together, these findings indicate that bradykinin-induced sensitization of TRPV1 in peptidergic nociceptors is partially mediated by the exocytotic mobilization of new channels trafficked by αCGRP-loaded LDCVs to the neuronal membrane. Our findings further imply a central role of αCGRP peptidergic nociceptors in peripheral algesic sensitization, and substantiate that inhibition of LDCVs exocytosis is a valuable therapeutic strategy to treat pain, as it concurrently reduces the release of pro-inflammatory peptides and the membrane recruitment of thermoTRP channels. PMID:27445816

  12. Depressed excitability and ion currents linked to slow exocytotic fusion pore in chromaffin cells of the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Gallardo, Enrique; de Pascual, Ricardo; Fernández-Morales, José-Carlos; Arranz-Tagarro, Juan-Alberto; Maroto, Marcos; Nanclares, Carmen; Gandía, Luis; de Diego, Antonio M G; Padín, Juan-Fernando; García, Antonio G

    2015-01-01

    Altered synaptic transmission with excess glutamate release has been implicated in the loss of motoneurons occurring in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Hyperexcitability or hypoexcitability of motoneurons from mice carrying the ALS mutation SOD1(G93A) (mSOD1) has also been reported. Here we have investigated the excitability, the ion currents, and the kinetics of the exocytotic fusion pore in chromaffin cells from postnatal day 90 to postnatal day 130 mSOD1 mice, when motor deficits are already established. With respect to wild-type (WT), mSOD1 chromaffin cells had a decrease in the following parameters: 95% in spontaneous action potentials, 70% in nicotinic current for acetylcholine (ACh), 35% in Na(+) current, 40% in Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) current, and 53% in voltage-dependent K(+) current. Ca(2+) current was increased by 37%, but the ACh-evoked elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) was unchanged. Single exocytotic spike events triggered by ACh had the following differences (mSOD1 vs. WT): 36% lower rise rate, 60% higher decay time, 51% higher half-width, 13% lower amplitude, and 61% higher quantal size. The expression of the α3-subtype of nicotinic receptors and proteins of the exocytotic machinery was unchanged in the brain and adrenal medulla of mSOD1, with respect to WT mice. A slower fusion pore opening, expansion, and closure are likely linked to the pronounced reduction in cell excitability and in the ion currents driving action potentials in mSOD1, compared with WT chromaffin cells.

  13. Heterogeneous distribution of exocytotic microdomains in adrenal chromaffin cells resolved by high-density diamond ultra-microelectrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Gosso, Sara; Turturici, Marco; Franchino, Claudio; Colombo, Elisabetta; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Carabelli, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the ability of a high-density diamond microelectrode array targeted to resolve multi-site detection of fast exocytotic events from single cells. The array consists of nine boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond ultra-microelectrodes (9-Ch NCD-UMEA) radially distributed within a circular area of the dimensions of a single cell. The device can be operated in voltammetric or chronoamperometric configuration. Sensitivity to catecholamines, tested by dose–response calibrations, set the lowest detectable concentration of adrenaline to ∼5 μm. Catecholamine release from bovine or mouse chromaffin cells could be triggered by electrical stimulation or external KCl-enriched solutions. Spikes detected from the cell apex using carbon fibre microelectrodes showed an excellent correspondence with events measured at the bottom of the cell by the 9-Ch NCD-UMEA, confirming the ability of the array to resolve single quantal secretory events. Subcellular localization of exocytosis was provided by assigning each quantal event to one of the nine channels based on its location. The resulting mapping highlights the heterogeneous distribution of secretory activity in cell microdomains of 12–27 μm2. In bovine chromaffin cells, secretion was highly heterogeneous with zones of high and medium activity in 54% of the cell surface and zones of low or no activity in the remainder. The ‘non-active’ (‘silent’) zones covered 24% of the total and persisted for 6–8 min, indicating stable location. The 9-Ch NCD-UMEA therefore appears suitable for investigating the microdomain organization of neurosecretion with high spatial resolution. PMID:24879870

  14. Intracellular application of guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) induces exocytotic granule fusion in guinea pig eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism of eosinophil secretion was studied in guinea pig eosinophils by measuring release of hexosaminidase from cell suspensions (greater than 98% pure) permeabilized with streptolysin-O and by whole-cell patch-clamp capacitance measurements. It is shown that release of eosinophil granule components occurs by an exocytotic mechanism in which individual granules fuse with the plasma membrane. Exocytosis can be induced by intracellular application of the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP- gamma-S), suggesting the involvement of a GTP-binding protein. The activation is modulated by the intracellular calcium concentration, with activation by GTP-gamma-S inducing transient elevations in the concentration of Ca2+. Thus, the nature and regulation of the release mechanism appear to be very similar to that of the mast cell and neutrophil. PMID:2137856

  15. Reduced expression of exocytotic proteins caused by anti-cholinesterase pesticides in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Legaspi, I A; Rico-Martínez, R; Quintanar, J L

    2015-08-01

    The organophosphate and carbamate pesticides methyl-parathion and carbaryl have a common action mechanism: they inhibit acetylcholinesterase enzyme by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses. However, they can alter the expression of exocytotic membrane proteins (SNARE), by modifying release of neurotransmitters and other substances. This study evaluated the adverse effects of the pesticides methyl-parathion and carbaryl on expression of SNARE proteins: Syntaxin-1, Syntaxin-4 and SNAP-23 in freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. Protein expression of these three proteins was analyzed before and after exposure to these two pesticides by Western Blot. The expression of Syntaxin-1, Syntaxin-4 and SNAP-23 proteins in B. calyciflorussignificantly decreases with increasing concentration of either pesticides. This suggests that organophosphates and carbamates have adverse effects on expression of membrane proteins of exocytosis by altering the recognition, docking and fusion of presynaptic and vesicular membranes involved in exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Our results demonstrate that the neurotoxic effect of anticholinesterase pesticides influences the interaction of syntaxins and SNAP-25 and the proper assembly of the SNARE complex.

  16. Exocytotic dynamics and calcium cooperativity effects in the calyx of Held synapse: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Gil, Amparo; González-Vélez, Virginia

    2010-02-01

    A stochastic computational approach to the study of secretory processes at the calyx of Held synapse is presented in this paper. The calyx of Held is a giant synapse located in the brainstem which is widely used for experimental recording of neurotransmitter release. We focus on the study of the exocytotic dynamics for a pool of readily releasable vesicles using a Monte Carlo simulation scheme that includes models for the P-type calcium channels, the kinetic reactions of endogenous and exogenous (mobile) buffers, the kinetic reactions for the secretory vesicles, as well as the microscopic diffusion of mobile buffers and calcium ions. The simulations are performed in a 3-D orthogonal grid which approximates a cylindrical domain representing an active zone of the presynaptic terminal of the calyx. For this domain, we quantify the release rates related to calcium currents in response to depolarizing voltage pulses. The influence on simulated pulse/action potential depolarization protocols of the kinetic scheme for the calcium sensor of vesicles and the geometry of calcium channels for the kinetic cooperativity for release, is analyzed at a microdomain level. Among other aspects, our results suggest that the spatial organization of Ca2+ channels could have measurable effects in the kinetic cooperativity which could reflect developing changes in the calyx of Held synapse.

  17. Functional maturation of the exocytotic machinery at gerbil hair cell ribbon synapses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Knipper, Marlies; Marcotti, Walter

    2009-04-15

    Auditory afferent fibre activity in mammals relies on neurotransmission at hair cell ribbon synapses. Developmental changes in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the synaptic machinery allow inner hair cells (IHCs), the primary auditory receptors, to encode Ca(2+) action potentials (APs) during pre-hearing stages and graded receptor potentials in adult animals. However, little is known about the time course of these changes or whether the kinetic properties of exocytosis differ as a function of IHC position along the immature cochlea. Furthermore, the role of afferent transmission in outer hair cells (OHCs) is not understood. Calcium currents and exocytosis (measured as membrane capacitance changes: DeltaC(m)) were measured with whole-cell recordings from immature gerbil hair cells using near-physiological conditions. The kinetics, vesicle pool depletion and Ca(2+) coupling of exocytosis were similar in apical and basal immature IHCs. This could indicate that possible differences in AP activity along the immature cochlea do not require synaptic specialization. Neurotransmission in IHCs became mature from postnatal day 20 (P20), although changes in its Ca(2+) dependence occurred at P9-P12 in basal and P12-P15 in apical cells. OHCs showed a smaller DeltaC(m) than IHCs that was reflected by fewer active zones in OHCs. Otoferlin, the proposed Ca(2+) sensor in cochlear hair cells, was similarly distributed in both cell types despite the high-order exocytotic Ca(2+) dependence in IHCs and the near-linear relation in OHCs. The results presented here provide a comprehensive study of the function and development of hair cell ribbon synapses. PMID:19237422

  18. The role of chemiosmotic lysis in the exocytotic release of insulin.

    PubMed

    Pace, C S; Smith, J S

    1983-09-01

    The role of chemiosmotic lysis in the exocytotic release of insulin has been studied using perifused rat pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Established criteria for osmotic lysis of secretory granules requires proton translocation across the secretory granule membrane and the influx of a permeant anion. The consequent increase in granule osmolarity induces water entry and granule lysis. A proton gradient has been previously established to exist across the insulin secretory granule membrane. We have examined the sensitivity of insulin release to 1) hyperosmolar solutions, 2) replacement of medium Cl-, 3) replacement of medium Na+, and 4) anion transport inhibitors. The addition of 200-600 mM sucrose resulted in a 32-69% inhibition of insulin release due to 16.7 mM glucose. Replacement of Cl- by isethionate or SO4--reversibly inhibited glucose-induced insulin release by 47% and 78%, respectively. Na+ replacement by choline did not influence the secretory response. 4,4'-Diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulfonic acid (500 microM) and probenecid (10 mM) inhibited insulin release by 73% and 79%, respectively. These drugs are known to inhibit anion exchange in erythrocytes and may be influencing Cl- entry into the secretory granule fused to the plasma membrane by a similar mechanism. Furosemide inhibits NaKCl2 cotransport in erythrocytes, but had no influence on glucose-induced insulin release, suggesting that Cl- does not enter the secretory granule by this pathway. The primary criteria for the participation of a chemiosmotic mechanism subserving lysis of the insulin secretory granule are fulfilled by these results.

  19. Chronic nerve growth factor administration increases the peripheral exocytotic activity of capsaicin-sensitive cutaneous neurons.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Walter R; Sabino, Ma'lou; Harding-Rose, Catherine; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

    2006-08-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in inflammation and pain and has been suggested to regulate the responsiveness and sensitivity of nociceptive fibers. However, no study has evaluated whether chronic NGF alters the exocytotic capacity of peripheral terminals of peptidergic fibers. To test this hypothesis, rats were injected subcutaneously every other day with either murine recombinant NGF (mNGF; 1.0 mg/kg) or vehicle for 7 days; or mNGF (0.1 mg/kg), mNGF (1 mg/kg) or vehicle every other day for 13 days. Treatment of rats with NGF over a 13-day period produced a significant increase in capsaicin-evoked iCGRP release from isolated biopsies of hindpaw skin, as assessed by in vitro superfusion and RIA. This effect was dose-dependent and exhibited a temporal requirement, because the enhancement was only observed after 13 days of treatment and was not evident after 7 days of treatment. This NGF enhancement of capsaicin-evoked iCGRP release was not due solely to increases in peripheral iCGRP content since only the 1mg/kg dose of NGF elevated cutaneous pools of iCGRP, whereas both doses significantly increased capsaicin-evoked peptide release. Moreover, NGF also enhanced capsaicin-evoked thermal hyperalgesia under similar dose- and time-related conditions. Collectively, the chronic administration of NGF not only increases capsaicin-evoked hyperalgesia, but also significantly primes peripheral fibers to enhanced peptidergic exocytosis following activation of the capsaicin receptor. Collectively, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that persistently elevated NGF levels may contribute to enhanced neurogenic regulation of inflammatory and wound healing processes in injured tissue.

  20. Fractionated irradiation and early changes in salivary glands. Different effects on potassium efflux, exocytotic amylase release and gland morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Franzen, L.; Funegard, U.S.; Sundstroem, S.G.; Gustafsson, H.; Danielsson, A.; Henriksson, R. )

    1991-02-01

    Irradiation is a potent treatment modality of head and neck cancer. However, the irradiation is usually associated with an influence on salivary glands with ensuing dryness and discomfort for the patients. In the present study we used different in vitro secretory models and morphologic characterization of rat parotid gland. Radiation was given to one gland on a 5-day schedule with 6 MV photons (total dose 20, 30, 35, 40, 45 Gy). The contralateral gland served as control, and the analysis of glands were performed 10 days after the last irradiation treatment. The noradrenaline stimulated electrolyte secretion (86rubidium tracer for potassium) was decreased in relation to the irradiation dose and in comparison to contralateral control glands. Noradrenaline stimulated exocytotic amylase release was not affected by irradiation and, there were no signs of obvious quantitative morphologic alterations after irradiation compared with controls. The results suggest that there are differences in the sensitivity to radiation for the two different secretory processes in salivary glands, and, thus, the structures regulating electrolyte and fluid secretion seem to be more vulnerable to irradiation than the process of exocytosis. The results, however, do not allow discrimination between temporary cellular impairment and irreversible damage leading to cell death.

  1. Functional and fluorochrome analysis of an exocytotic mutant yields evidence of store-operated Ca2+ influx in Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, I; Klauke, N; Hentschel, J; Cohen, J; Plattner, H

    2002-05-01

    A non-discharge mutant of Paramecium tetraurelia (nd12-35 degrees C, lacking exocytotic response upon stimulation with the nonpermeable polycationic secretagogue aminoethyldextran, AED), in the pawnA genetic context (d4-500r, lacking ciliary voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx), was shown to lack (45)Ca2+ entry from outside upon AED stimulation. In contrast, cells grown at 25 degrees C behave like the wildtype. To check the functional properties in more detail, fluorochrome-loaded 35 degrees C cells were stimulated, not only with AED (EC(100) = 10(-6) M in wildtype cells), but also with 4-chloro-meta-cresol, (4CmC, 0.5 mM), a permeable activator of ryanodine receptor-type Ca2+ release channels, usually at extracellular [Ca2+] of 50 microM, and eventually with a Ca2+ chelator added. We confirm that pwA-nd12(35 degrees C) cells lack any Ca2+ influx and any exocytosis of trichocysts in response to any stimulus. As we determined by x-ray microanalysis, total calcium content in alveolar sacs (subplasmalemmal stores) known to be mobilized upon exocytosis stimulation in wild-type cells, contain about the same total calcium in 35 degrees C as in 25 degrees C cells, and Ca2+ mobilization from alveoli by AED or 4CmC is also nearly the same. Due to the absence of any AED-induced Ca2+ influx in 35 degrees C cells and normal Ca2+ release from stores found by x-ray microanalysis one can exclude a "CICR"-type mechanism (Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release) and imply that normally a store-operated Ca2+ ("SOC") influx would occur (as in 25 degrees C cells). Furthermore, 35 degrees C cells display a significantly lower basal intracellular [Ca2+], so that any increase upon stimulation may be less expressed or even remain undetected. Under these conditions, any mobilization of Ca2+ from stores cannot compensate for the lack of Ca2+ influx, particularly since normally both components have to cooperate to achieve full exocytotic response. Also striking is our finding that 35 degrees C cells are unable

  2. Plasmalemmal Na+/Ca2+ exchanger modulates Ca2+-dependent exocytotic release of glutamate from rat cortical astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Reno C; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Parpura, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Astroglial excitability operates through increases in Ca2+cyt (cytosolic Ca2+), which can lead to glutamatergic gliotransmission. In parallel fluctuations in astrocytic Na+cyt (cytosolic Na+) control metabolic neuronal-glial signalling, most notably through stimulation of lactate production, which on release from astrocytes can be taken up and utilized by nearby neurons, a process referred to as lactate shuttle. Both gliotransmission and lactate shuttle play a role in modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity. Consequently, we studied the role of the PMCA (plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase), NCX (plasma membrane Na+/Ca2+ exchanger) and NKA (Na+/K+-ATPase) in complex and coordinated regulation of Ca2+cyt and Na+cyt in astrocytes at rest and upon mechanical stimulation. Our data support the notion that NKA and PMCA are the major Na+ and Ca2+ extruders in resting astrocytes. Surprisingly, the blockade of NKA or PMCA appeared less important during times of Ca2+ and Na+ cytosolic loads caused by mechanical stimulation. Unexpectedly, NCX in reverse mode appeared as a major contributor to overall Ca2+ and Na+ homoeostasis in astrocytes both at rest and when these glial cells were mechanically stimulated. In addition, NCX facilitated mechanically induced Ca2+-dependent exocytotic release of glutamate from astrocytes. These findings help better understanding of astrocyte-neuron bidirectional signalling at the tripartite synapse and/or microvasculature. We propose that NCX operating in reverse mode could be involved in fast and spatially localized Ca2+-dependent gliotransmission, that would operate in parallel to a slower and more widely distributed gliotransmission pathway that requires metabotropically controlled Ca2+ release from the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). PMID:22268447

  3. A Ca sup 2+ influx associated with exocytosis is specifically abolished in a Paramecium exocytotic mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Kerboeuf, D.; Cohen, J. )

    1990-12-01

    A Paramecium possesses secretory organelles called trichocysts which are docked beneath the plasma membrane awaiting an external stimulus that triggers their exocytosis. Membrane fusion is the sole event provoked by the stimulation and can therefore be studied per se. Using 3 microM aminoethyl dextran as a vital secretagogue, we analyzed the movements of calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) during the discharge of trichocysts. We showed that (a) external Ca{sup 2+}, at least at 3 X 10(-7) M, is necessary for AED to induce exocytosis; (b) a dramatic and transient influx of Ca{sup 2+} as measured from {sup 45}Ca uptake is induced by AED; (c) this influx is independent of the well-characterized voltage-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels of the ciliary membranes since it persists in a mutant devoid of these channels; and (d) this influx is specifically abolished in one of the mutants unable to undergo exocytosis, nd12. We propose that the Ca{sup 2+} influx induced by AED reflects an increase in membrane permeability through the opening of novel Ca{sup 2+} channel or the activation of other Ca{sup 2+} transport mechanism in the plasma membrane. The resulting rise in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration would in turn induce membrane fusion. The mutation nd12 would affect a gene product involved in the control of plasma membrane permeability to Ca{sup 2+}, specifically related to membrane fusion.

  4. Nicotine-induced exocytotic norepinephrine release in guinea-pig heart, human atrium and bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: modulation by single components of ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Krüger, C; Haunstetter, A; Gerber, S; Serf, C; Kaufmann, A; Kübler, W; Haass, M

    1995-08-01

    The influence of single components of myocardial ischaemia, such as anoxia, substrate withdrawal, hyperkalemia and extracellular acidosis, on nicotine-induced norepinephrine (NE) release was investigated in the isolated perfused guinea-pig heart, in incubated human atrial tissue and in cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (BCC). In normoxia, nicotine (1-1000 mumol/l) evoked a concentration-dependent release of NE (determined by high pressure liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection) from guinea-pig heart and human atrium. In contrast to selective anoxia (Po2 < 5 mmHg) or glucose withdrawal, respectively, anoxia in combination with glucose withdrawal (5-40 min) markedly potentiated nicotine-induced NE release both in guinea-pig heart and human atrium. The sensitization of cardiac sympathetic nerve endings to nicotine was characterized by a lower threshold concentration and an approximate two-fold increase of maximum NE release, peaking after 10 min of anoxia and glucose withdrawal. Cyanide intoxication (1 mmol/l) combined with glucose withdrawal resulted in a similar increase of nicotine-induced sympathetic transmitter release both in guinea-pig heart and human atrium. In contrast, the nicotine-induced (10 mumol/l) NE overflow was only slightly potentiated by 10 min of global ischaemia in guinea-pig heart. Both hyperkalemia ([K+] 16 mmol/l) and acidosis (pH 6.8-6.0) distinctly attenuated the stimulatory effect of nicotine in guinea-pig heart and human atrium under normoxic conditions. Consistent with an exocytotic release mechanism, NE release was dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium under all conditions tested. Furthermore, NE overflow from guinea-pig heart was accompanied by a release of the exocytosis marker neuropeptide Y (NPY; determined by radioimmunoassay). In BCC, nicotine (1-10 mumol/l) evoked a release of NE and NPY and a transient rise of [Ca2+]i (determined with fura-2) during normoxia which were both dependent on the

  5. Neuronal functions associated with endo- and exocytotic events-cum-molecular trafficking may be cell maturation-dependent: lessons learned from studies on botulism.

    PubMed

    Ray, Radharaman; Zhang, Peng; Ray, Prabhati

    2011-08-01

    The passion in the scientific endeavors of Marshall Warren Nirenberg had been his quest for knowledge regarding the storage, retrieval, and processing of information in the cell. After deciphering the genetic code for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1968, Nirenberg devoted his attention to unraveling the mysteries in the most complex cellular organization in the body, i.e., the nervous system, especially those governing neuronal development, plasticity, and synaptogenesis. During the tenure of the primary author (RR) as a postdoctoral Staff Fellow in the Nirenberg laboratory in the late seventies to early eighties, he had the opportunity of working on projects related to what Nirenberg used to broadly define as the "synaptic code." The major aspects of these projects dealt with the functional macromolecules relevant to neuronal growth, organization, lineage, selectivity, stabilization, synaptogenesis, and functions such as neuroexocytosis. This author's emphasis was particularly on voltage-gated calcium channels that regulate stimulus-induced neurotransmitter release. One central as well as crucial theme in these studies was the fact that the neurons had to be mature and differentiated in order to study these entities (Science 222: 794-799, 1983; Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 48: 707-715, 1983). In this communication, we illustrate how did this basic knowledge, i.e., cell maturation-dependent properties being essential for neuronal functions, led to a successful experimental design and demonstration of the validity of the targeted neurologic therapeutic delivery approach based on recombinant botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A) heavy chain (rHC) serving as a neuron-specific targeting molecule (BMC Pharmacol 9: 12, 2009).

  6. Large Plasma Membrane Disruptions Are Rapidly Resealed by Ca2+-dependent Vesicle–Vesicle Fusion Events

    PubMed Central

    Terasaki, Mark; Miyake, Katsuya; McNeil, Paul L.

    1997-01-01

    A microneedle puncture of the fibroblast or sea urchin egg surface rapidly evokes a localized exocytotic reaction that may be required for the rapid resealing that follows this breach in plasma membrane integrity (Steinhardt, R.A,. G. Bi, and J.M. Alderton. 1994. Science (Wash. DC). 263:390–393). How this exocytotic reaction facilitates the resealing process is unknown. We found that starfish oocytes and sea urchin eggs rapidly reseal much larger disruptions than those produced with a microneedle. When an ∼40 by 10 μm surface patch was torn off, entry of fluorescein stachyose (FS; 1,000 mol wt) or fluorescein dextran (FDx; 10,000 mol wt) from extracellular sea water (SW) was not detected by confocal microscopy. Moreover, only a brief (∼5–10 s) rise in cytosolic Ca2+ was detected at the wound site. Several lines of evidence indicate that intracellular membranes are the primary source of the membrane recruited for this massive resealing event. When we injected FS-containing SW deep into the cells, a vesicle formed immediately, entrapping within its confines most of the FS. DiI staining and EM confirmed that the barrier delimiting injected SW was a membrane bilayer. The threshold for vesicle formation was ∼3 mM Ca2+ (SW is ∼10 mM Ca2+). The capacity of intracellular membranes for sealing off SW was further demonstrated by extruding egg cytoplasm from a micropipet into SW. A boundary immediately formed around such cytoplasm, entrapping FDx or FS dissolved in it. This entrapment did not occur in Ca2+-free SW (CFSW). When egg cytoplasm stratified by centrifugation was exposed to SW, only the yolk platelet–rich domain formed a membrane, suggesting that the yolk platelet is a critical element in this response and that the ER is not required. We propose that plasma membrane disruption evokes Ca2+ regulated vesicle–vesicle (including endocytic compartments but possibly excluding ER) fusion reactions. The function in resealing of this cytoplasmic fusion

  7. CRACM3 regulates the stability of non-excitable exocytotic vesicle fusion pores in a Ca2+-independent manner via molecular interaction with syntaxin4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; Sahid, Muhammad Novrizal Abdi; Takemasa, Erika; Kiyoi, Takeshi; Kuno, Miyuki; Oshima, Yusuke; Maeyama, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Ca2+ release-activated calcium channel 3 (CRACM3) is a unique member of the CRAC family of Ca2+-selective channels. In a non-excitable exocytosis model, we found that the extracellular L3 domain and the cytoplasmic C-terminus of CRACM3 interacted in an activity-dependent manner with the N-peptide of syntaxin4, a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor protein. Our biochemical, electrophysiological and single-vesicle studies showed that knockdown of CRACM3 suppressed functional exocytosis by decreasing the open time of the vesicle fusion pore without affecting Ca2+ influx, the activity-dependent membrane capacitance (Cm) change, and the total number of fusion events. Conversely, overexpressing CRACM3 significantly impaired cell exocytosis independent of Ca2+, led to an impaired Cm change, decreased the number of fusion events, and prolonged the dwell time of the fusion pore. CRACM3 changes the stability of the vesicle fusion pore in a manner consistent with the altered molecular expression. Our findings imply that CRACM3 plays a greater role in exocytosis than simply acting as a compensatory subunit of a Ca2+ channel. PMID:27301714

  8. Early events in geotropism of seedling shoots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1985-01-01

    Developments during the first ten minutes of geotropic stimulation in plant seedling shoots are reviewed. Topics include induction and curvature; early processes; the relationship between auxin, electric field, calcium, and differential growth; gravity reception leading to Went-Cholodny transport; and comparison of root and shoot. Early processes reviewed are sedimentation of amyloplasts, release of ethylene, rise of electrical and auxin asymmetry, redistribution of calcium, asymmetric vascular transport, increase in tendency to deposit callose, and simulation of putative exocytotic voltage transients.

  9. Transformational Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Hiles, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Transformational Events is a new pedagogic pattern that explains how innovations (and other transformations) happened. The pattern is three temporal stages: an interval of increasingly unsatisfactory ad hoc solutions to a persistent problem (the "mess"), an offer of an invention or of a new way of thinking, and a period of widespread adoption and…

  10. Maintenance Event

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-22

    Time:  08:00 am - 08:30 am EDT Event Impact:  Science Directorate websites will ... outage Thursday morning, 7/24, to perform upgrades to the web environment and are expected to be down for about 30 minutes. ...

  11. Events diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  12. Creating Special Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  13. Assessing Special Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    Special events defined as being "newsworthy events" are becoming a way of American life. They are also a means for making a lot of money. Examples of special events that are cited most frequently are often the most minor of events; e.g., the open house, the new business opening day gala, or a celebration of some event in an organization. Little…

  14. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  15. Event-Based Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that an event-based science curriculum can provide the framework for deciding what to retain in an overloaded science curriculum. Provides examples of current events and the science concepts explored related to the event. (MDH)

  16. Episodes, events, and models

    PubMed Central

    Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Harrison, Anthony M.; Trafton, J. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning. PMID:26578934

  17. The global event system

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, J.

    1994-03-02

    The support for the global event system has been designed to allow an application developer to control the APS event generator and receiver boards. This is done by the use of four new record types. These records are customized and are only supported by the device support modules for the APS event generator and receiver boards. The use of the global event system and its associated records should not be confused with the vanilla EPICS events and the associated event records. They are very different.

  18. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  19. Interactions between genes involved in exocytotic membrane fusion in paramecium.

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, H; Gulik-Krzywicki, T; Grandchamp, C; Cohen, J

    1992-03-01

    Crosses between members of two independent collections of Paramecium tetraurelia mutants blocked in the final membrane fusion step of trichocyst release (nd mutants) allowed us to define 13 complementation groups comprising 23 alleles. The mutant nd9a was then used as a target in a mutagenesis experiment designed to screen both revertants and new mutants in order to identify interacting genes. This mutant was chosen because it is the best known of its class to date and seems to be altered in assembly of the material connecting the trichocyst membrane to the plasma membrane and in assembly of the "rosette," a complex array of intramembranous particles in the plasma membrane at the trichocyst insertion sites. No revertants were obtained but two new mutants deficient for rosette assembly were identified, nd16b and nd18, whose gene products appear to interact with that of nd9. Indeed, the double mutants grown at 18 degrees, a permissive temperature for each of the single mutants, are characterized by a deficiency in exocytosis and in rosette assembly, as are also double mutants combining other allelic forms of the same genes. Moreover, aberrant dominance relationships among alleles of nd9 and of nd16 indicate the existence of interactions between identical subunits, which most likely assemble into multimeric structures. The nd16 gene product was shown by microinjection experiments to be a cytosolic factor, as is the nd9 gene product. It is therefore tempting to propose that the nd16 gene product also belongs to the connecting material and is involved in rosette assembly, in cooperation with nd9 and nd18.

  20. Exocytotic fusion pores are composed of both lipids and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Huan; Goldschen-Ohm, Marcel; Jeggle, Pia; Chanda, Baron; Edwardson, J Michael; Chapman, Edwin R

    2016-01-01

    During exocytosis, fusion pores form the first aqueous connection that allows escape of neurotransmitters and hormones from secretory vesicles. Although it is well established that SNARE proteins catalyze fusion, the structure and composition of fusion pores remain unknown. Here, we exploited the rigid framework and defined size of nanodiscs to interrogate the properties of reconstituted fusion pores, using the neurotransmitter glutamate as a content-mixing marker. Efficient Ca2+-stimulated bilayer fusion, and glutamate release, occurred with approximately two molecules of mouse synaptobrevin 2 reconstituted into ~6-nm nanodiscs. The transmembrane domains of SNARE proteins assumed distinct roles in lipid mixing versus content release and were exposed to polar solvent during fusion. Additionally, tryptophan substitutions at specific positions in these transmembrane domains decreased glutamate flux. Together, these findings indicate that the fusion pore is a hybrid structure composed of both lipids and proteins. PMID:26656855

  1. Pleasant events, unpleasant events, and depression.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, P D; Shaeffer, D E; Golin, S

    1982-07-01

    A review of previous research on Lewinsohn's model of depression shows that the causal link between a lack of response-contingent positive reinforcement and subsequent depression remains unsubstantiated. The present study was designed to explicitly test this causal relationship through the use of cross-lagged panel correlation. Measures of depression and pleasant events were taken at two different points in time separated by 1 month. The results revealed that the null hypothesis of spuriousness could not be rejected, indicating the relation often found between a lack of pleasant events and depression is probably due to some unmeasured third variable. The results also indicated that there is no causal relation between unpleasant events and depression. In summary, the causal assumptions in Lewinsohn's theory of depression were not supported by the data. Possible third-variable explanations of the data and their implications are discussed.

  2. Dialogue on private events

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

  3. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    SciTech Connect

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  4. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  5. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  6. Activating Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  7. Traumatic events and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... a one-time traumatic event or a repeated trauma that happens over and over again. Examples of one-time traumatic events are: Natural disasters, such as a tornado, hurricane, fire, or flood Rape Witness shooting or stabbing of a person Sudden ...

  8. Contrasting Large Solar Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2010-10-01

    After an unusually long solar minimum, solar cycle 24 is slowly beginning. A large coronal mass ejection (CME) from sunspot 1092 occurred on 1 August 2010, with effects reaching Earth on 3 August and 4 August, nearly 38 years to the day after the huge solar event of 4 August 1972. The prior event, which those of us engaged in space research at the time remember well, recorded some of the highest intensities of solar particles and rapid changes of the geomagnetic field measured to date. What can we learn from the comparisons of these two events, other than their essentially coincident dates? One lesson I took away from reading press coverage and Web reports of the August 2010 event is that the scientific community and the press are much more aware than they were nearly 4 decades ago that solar events can wreak havoc on space-based technologies.

  9. Event shape sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopečná, Renata; Tomášik, Boris

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable ( e.g., v_2 , v_3 , q_2 . It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution.

  10. Special Event Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Offers a descriptive table of software that helps higher education institutions orchestrate events. Information includes vendor, contact, software, price, database engine/server platform, specific features, and client type. (EV)

  11. CCG - News & Events

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's Center for Cancer Genomics (CCG) has been widely recognized for its research efforts to facilitiate advances in cancer genomic research and improve patient outcomes. Find the latest news about and events featuring CCG.

  12. Holter and Event Monitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Holter and event monitors are similar to an EKG (electrocardiogram). An EKG is a simple test that detects and records ... for diagnosing heart rhythm problems. However, a standard EKG only records the heartbeat for a few seconds. ...

  13. RAS Initiative - Events

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  14. "Universe" event at AIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    Report of event of 11 May 2008 held at the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Muizenberg, Cape), with speakers Michael Griffin (Administrator of NASA), Stephen Hawking (Cambridge), David Gross (Kavli Institute, Santa Barbara) and George Smoot (Berkeley).

  15. QCD (&) event generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skands, Peter Z.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments in QCD phenomenology have spurred on several improved approaches to Monte Carlo event generation, relative to the post-LEP state of the art. In this brief review, the emphasis is placed on approaches for (1) consistently merging fixed-order matrix element calculations with parton shower descriptions of QCD radiation, (2) improving the parton shower algorithms themselves, and (3) improving the description of the underlying event in hadron collisions.

  16. Activating Event Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or typically play a role in. We used short stimulus onset asynchrony priming to demonstrate that (1) event nouns prime people (sale-shopper) and objects (trip-luggage) commonly found at those events; (2) location nouns prime people/animals (hospital-doctor) and objects (barn-hay) commonly found at those locations; and (3) instrument nouns prime things on which those instruments are commonly used (key-door), but not the types of people who tend to use them (hose-gardener). The priming effects are not due to normative word association. On our account, facilitation results from event knowledge relating primes and targets. This has much in common with computational models like LSA or BEAGLE in which one word primes another if they frequently occur in similar contexts. LSA predicts priming for all six experiments, whereas BEAGLE correctly predicted that priming should not occur for the instrument-people relation but should occur for the other five. We conclude that event-based relations are encoded in semantic memory and computed as part of word meaning, and have a strong influence on language comprehension. PMID:19298961

  17. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  18. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  19. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  20. Event tunnel: exploring event-driven business processes.

    PubMed

    Suntinger, Martin; Obweger, Hannes; Schiefer, Josef; Gröller, M Eduard

    2008-01-01

    Event-based systems monitor business processes in real time. The event-tunnel visualization sees the stream of events captured from such systems as a cylindrical tunnel. The tunnel allows for back-tracing business incidents and exploring event patterns' root causes. The authors couple this visualization with tools that let users search for relevant events within a data repository.

  1. Concepts of event-by-event analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stroebele, H.

    1995-07-15

    The particles observed in the final state of nuclear collisions can be divided into two classes: those which are susceptible to strong interactions and those which are not, like leptons and the photon. The bulk properties of the {open_quotes}matter{close_quotes} in the reaction zone may be read-off the kinematical characteristics of the particles observable in the final state. These characteristics are strongly dependent on the last interaction these particles have undergone. In a densly populated reaction zone strongly interacting particles will experience many collisions after they have been formed and before they emerge into the asymptotic final state. For the particles which are not sensitive to strong interactions their formation is also their last interaction. Thus photons and leptons probe the period during which they are produced whereas hadrons reflect the so called freeze-out processes, which occur during the late stage in the evolution of the reaction when the population density becomes small and the mean free paths long. The disadvantage of the leptons and photons is their small production cross section; they cannot be used in an analysis of the characteristics of individual collision events, because the number of particles produced per event is too small. The hadrons, on the other hand, stem from the freeze-out period. Information from earlier periods requires multiparticle observables in the most general sense. It is one of the challenges of present day high energy nuclear physics to establish and understand global observables which differentiate between mere hadronic scenarios, i.e superposition of hadronic interactions, and the formation of a partonic (short duration) steady state which can be considered a new state of matter, the Quark-Gluon Plasma.

  2. RETRIEVAL EVENTS EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    T. Wilson

    1999-11-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate impacts to the retrieval concept presented in the Design Analysis ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' (Reference 6), from abnormal events based on Design Basis Events (DBE) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) as defined in two recent analyses: (1) DBE/Scenario Analysis for Preclosure Repository Subsurface Facilities (Reference 4); and (2) Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (Reference 5) The objective of this task is to determine what impacts the DBEs and BDBEs have on the equipment developed for retrieval. The analysis lists potential impacts and recommends changes to be analyzed in subsequent design analyses for developed equipment, or recommend where additional equipment may be needed, to allow retrieval to be performed in all DBE or BDBE situations. This analysis supports License Application design and therefore complies with the requirements of Systems Description Document input criteria comparison as presented in Section 7, Conclusions. In addition, the analysis discusses the impacts associated with not using concrete inverts in the emplacement drifts. The ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' analysis was based on a concrete invert configuration in the emplacement drift. The scope of the analysis, as presented in ''Development Plan for Retrieval Events Evaluation'' (Reference 3) includes evaluation and criteria of the following: Impacts to retrieval from the emplacement drift based on DBE/BDBEs, and changes to the invert configuration for the preclosure period. Impacts to retrieval from the main drifts based on DBE/BDBEs for the preclosure period.

  3. Solar extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.

    2015-08-01

    Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of “extreme events,” defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than S-2, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial 14C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observational results have impacted our use of the relatively limited historical record in new ways: the detection of actual events in the 14C tree-ring records, and the systematic observations of flares and “superflares” by the Kepler spacecraft. I discuss how these new findings may affect our understanding of the distribution function expected for extreme solar events.

  4. Pharmacogenomics of suicidal events

    PubMed Central

    Brent, David; Melhem, Nadine; Turecki, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacogenomic studies of antidepressant treatment-emergent suicidal events in depressed patients report associations with polymorphisms in genes involved in transcription (CREB1), neuroprotection (BDNF and NTRK2), glutamatergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission (GRIA3, GRIK2 and ADRA2A), the stress and inflammatory responses (FKBP5 and IL28RA), and the synthesis of glycoproteins (PAPLN). Nearly all of the reported events in these studies were modest one-time increases in suicidal ideation. In 3231 unique subjects across six studies, 424 (13.1%) patients showed increases in suicidal ideation, eight (0.25%) attempted suicide and four (0.12%) completed suicide. Systems related to most of these genes have also been implicated in studies of suicidal behavior irrespective of treatment. Future pharmacogenomic studies should target events that are clinically significant, related clinical phenotypes of response and medication side effects, and biological pathways that are involved in these outcomes in order to improve treatment approaches. PMID:20504254

  5. Detection of anomalous events

    DOEpatents

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.

    2016-06-07

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.

  6. Teaching with Current Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher changed all his plans to teach the hurricane. When the Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast, kids become naturally curious and seek answers in an event this big. The author suggests the use of tragedies to help them grow as students and as citizens.

  7. Language As Social Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harste, Jerome C.

    A taxonomy developed for the study of the growth and development of written language from the perspective of social event was tested with a group of 68 children, aged three to six years. The subjects were presented with a wide variety of environmental print messages (road signs, toys, fast food signs, and household products) and were questioned…

  8. Biological event composition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, biological event extraction has emerged as a key natural language processing task, aiming to address the information overload problem in accessing the molecular biology literature. The BioNLP shared task competitions have contributed to this recent interest considerably. The first competition (BioNLP'09) focused on extracting biological events from Medline abstracts from a narrow domain, while the theme of the latest competition (BioNLP-ST'11) was generalization and a wider range of text types, event types, and subject domains were considered. We view event extraction as a building block in larger discourse interpretation and propose a two-phase, linguistically-grounded, rule-based methodology. In the first phase, a general, underspecified semantic interpretation is composed from syntactic dependency relations in a bottom-up manner. The notion of embedding underpins this phase and it is informed by a trigger dictionary and argument identification rules. Coreference resolution is also performed at this step, allowing extraction of inter-sentential relations. The second phase is concerned with constraining the resulting semantic interpretation by shared task specifications. We evaluated our general methodology on core biological event extraction and speculation/negation tasks in three main tracks of BioNLP-ST'11 (GENIA, EPI, and ID). Results We achieved competitive results in GENIA and ID tracks, while our results in the EPI track leave room for improvement. One notable feature of our system is that its performance across abstracts and articles bodies is stable. Coreference resolution results in minor improvement in system performance. Due to our interest in discourse-level elements, such as speculation/negation and coreference, we provide a more detailed analysis of our system performance in these subtasks. Conclusions The results demonstrate the viability of a robust, linguistically-oriented methodology, which clearly distinguishes

  9. Tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A.

    2014-07-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) provide a powerful probe of many astrophysical processes. They occur when the powerful tidal field around a black hole disrupts a passing star which is subsequently accreted. The resulting signal is a powerful X-ray, UV/opt and possibly even radio source, that provides us with a view of accretion aroud supermassive black holes from switch-on to switch-off over the timescale of years. TDEs probe accretion physics, the ubquity of black holes in galactic nuclei and dynamics in their cores, offering a novel route to addressing these issues. I will review observations of TDEs over the past decade, outlining how samples of candidates have been gradually building, and how they can be identified against other more common transient events. I will also discuss the implications of the discovery of a population of TDEs apparently launching relativisitc jets, and how these powerful transients may be detected in upcoming X-ray to radio surveys.

  10. Single event mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Conzemius, Robert J.

    1990-01-16

    A means and method for single event time of flight mass spectrometry for analysis of specimen materials. The method of the invention includes pulsing an ion source imposing at least one pulsed ion onto the specimen to produce a corresponding emission of at least one electrically charged particle. The emitted particle is then dissociated into a charged ion component and an uncharged neutral component. The ion and neutral components are then detected. The time of flight of the components are recorded and can be used to analyze the predecessor of the components, and therefore the specimen material. When more than one ion particle is emitted from the specimen per single ion impact, the single event time of flight mass spectrometer described here furnis This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. W-7405-ENG82 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

  11. Staged Event Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Hoschek, Wolfgang; Berket, Karlo

    2005-05-30

    Sea is a framework for a Staged Event Architecture, designed around non-blocking asynchronous communication facilities that are decoupled from the threading model chosen by any given application, Components for P networking and in-memory communication are provided. The Sea Java library encapsulates these concepts. Sea is used to easily build efficient and flexible low-level network clients and servers, and in particular as a basic communication substrate for Peer-to-Peer applications.

  12. Some Aviation Growth Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2002-01-01

    The growth of aviation since the first flight of a heavier-than-air powered manned vehicle in 1903 has been somewhat remarkable. Some of the events that have influenced this growth are reviewed in this paper. This review will include some events prior to World War I; the influence of the war itself; the events during the post-war years including the establishment of aeronautical research laboratories; and the influence of World War II which, among other things, introduced new technologies that included rocket and jet propulsion and supersonic aerodynamics. The subsequent era of aeronautical research and the attendant growth in aviation over the past half century will be reviewed from the view point of the author who, since 1944, has been involved in the NACA/NASA aeronautical research effort at what is now the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The review will discuss some of the research programs related to the development of some experimental aircraft, the Century series of fighter aircraft, multi-mission aircraft, advanced military aircraft and missiles, advanced civil aircraft, supersonic transports, spacecraft and others.

  13. Development of Memory for Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Hilary Horn; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines development of event memory by determining how personally experienced events with two types of structure were reported by kindergartners and adults. Events in making and playing with clay were organized causally and temporally. Results show that adults and children used a goal-based hierarchical structure to remember events, although use…

  14. Event selection services in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranshaw, J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Gallas, E.; Hrivnac, J.; Kenyon, M.; McGlone, H.; Malon, D.; Mambelli, M.; Nowak, M.; Viegas, F.; Vinek, E.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-04-01

    ATLAS has developed and deployed event-level selection services based upon event metadata records ("TAGS") and supporting file and database technology. These services allow physicists to extract events that satisfy their selection predicates from any stage of data processing and use them as input to later analyses. One component of these services is a web-based Event-Level Selection Service Interface (ELSSI). ELSSI supports event selection by integrating run-level metadata, luminosity-block-level metadata (e.g., detector status and quality information), and event-by-event information (e.g., triggers passed and physics content). The list of events that survive after some selection criterion is returned in a form that can be used directly as input to local or distributed analysis; indeed, it is possible to submit a skimming job directly from the ELSSI interface using grid proxy credential delegation. ELSSI allows physicists to explore ATLAS event metadata as a means to understand, qualitatively and quantitatively, the distributional characteristics of ATLAS data. In fact, the ELSSI service provides an easy interface to see the highest missing ET events or the events with the most leptons, to count how many events passed a given set of triggers, or to find events that failed a given trigger but nonetheless look relevant to an analysis based upon the results of offline reconstruction, and more. This work provides an overview of ATLAS event-level selection services, with an emphasis upon the interactive Event-Level Selection Service Interface.

  15. Event mapping meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, L.; Mason, D.

    1997-02-20

    A one-day meeting was held by the authors to evaluate how the strategic lab workshops would tie to this year`s tactical planning exercise. In particular, they wanted to find recent events that would support the tactical goal decisions of the Lab, and they wanted to find events that verify the Lab`s present course. The events which are each briefly discussed are: Galvin Commission recommends consolidating DOE defense labs (1995); Congressional subcommittee staff force budget cuts and consolidation (1995); 28% of DOE/DP budget held back pending completion of a clear 5-yr plan for nukes (1995); DOD and DOE focus on dual use (1995); LANL work includes weapons rebuilds (1995); LANL chosen by DOE to develop and test advanced remediation techniques (1995); AGEX/DARHT Project is stopped by suits from environmental activities (1996); Non-proliferation treaty renewed (1996); US complies with Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996); Capability based deterrence policy put into place (1998); Stockpile shrinks to approximately 2000 weapons (2005); DOE weapons labs re-chartered as true national labs (1996); DOE terminates all nuclear weapons testing support (1996); Industrial projects at LANL up 20% from previous year (1997); NIST-ATP Program becomes an interagency process (1997); DOE warns that spent commercial reactor fuels is a major proliferation threat (1998); Non-lethal weapons work helps to reshape LANL image (1998); Global warning theory proven (2005); Overall US spending on science has been flat or decreasing for three years (1998); and Economic role of LANL in northern New Mexico declines (2005).

  16. Tectonic events in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl-Jensen, T.; Voss, P.; Larsen, T.; Pinna, L.

    2012-12-01

    In Greenland a station separation of around 400km mean that many earthquakes are only detected on one or two stations. The development of the seismic monitoring have gone from having only three seismic stations in Greenland up to the late 1990'ies, till today where there are 18 permanent stations. All stations are equipped with broadband sensors and all of the permanent stations transmit data in real time. The recent major improvement of the seismic monitoring is performed by the Greenland ice sheet monitoring network (GLISN, http://glisn.info). The primary goal of GLISN is to provide broadband seismic data for the detection of glacial earthquakes. GLISN is now fully implemented with Iridium real time data transfer is in operation at five stations. In the Ammassalik region in Southeast Greenland, where small earthquakes often are felt, data from a temporary additional station has been utilized for a study covering 9 months in 2008/9. In this period 62 local earthquakes have been analyzed and re-located. Some of the events had formerly been located from distant stations by using a universal earth model. The result of this localization was a scattered distribution of the events in the region. The locations have now been improved by using a local earth model along with phase readings from two local stations not previously included; ANG in Tasiilaq and ISOG in Isortoq. From relocating the events two zones with a higher degree of seismicity than in the rest of the region are observed. The first zone is located by felsic intrusions. The second zone is at the boundary between the Archaean Craton and the Ammasalik region where reworked Archaean gneisses are dominating the geology. During the analysis it was observed that the additional information from the local stations are of great importance for the result. Active broad band stations in Greenland

  17. Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.; Lichter, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Video event trigger (VET) processes video image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change like motion or appearance, disappearance, change in color, change in brightness, or dilation of object. System aids in efficient utilization of image-data-storage and image-data-processing equipment in applications in which many video frames show no changes and are wasteful to record and analyze all frames when only relatively few frames show changes of interest. Applications include video recording of automobile crash tests, automated video monitoring of entrances, exits, parking lots, and secure areas.

  18. Presidential Events: Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walworth, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Catherine T. ("Katie") Hunt, ACS President 2007, will cosponsor a full week of presidential events and sessions. In her desire to work together to address substantive societal issues, she has selected Sustainability of Energy, Food, and Water as the presidential theme for this meeting. The goal is to successfully execute meaningful thematic programming at national meetings that will not only nucleate ideas, foster community, and accelerate innovation, but be essential to effectively communicate chemistry to a broader audience. Open discussions as a scientific community will better enable us to speak with one voice to our membership, the media, and the general public.

  19. Detection of solar events

    DOEpatents

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2013-08-27

    A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

  20. Vaccine adverse events.

    PubMed

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  1. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    PubMed

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools. PMID:17484160

  2. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    PubMed

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools.

  3. Relativistic tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A.

    2012-12-01

    In March 2011 Swift detected an extremely luminous and long-lived outburst from the nucleus of an otherwise quiescent, low luminosity (LMC-like) galaxy. Named Swift J1644+57, its combination of high-energy luminosity (1048 ergs s-1 at peak), rapid X-ray variability (factors of >100 on timescales of 100 seconds) and luminous, rising radio emission suggested that we were witnessing the birth of a moderately relativistic jet (Γ ˜ 2 - 5), created when a star is tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. A second event, Swift J2058+0516, detected two months later, with broadly similar properties lends further weight to this interpretation. Taken together this suggests that a fraction of tidal disruption events do indeed create relativistic outflows, demonstrates their detectability, and also implies that low mass galaxies can host massive black holes. Here, I briefly outline the observational properties of these relativistic tidal flares observed last year, and their evolution over the first year since their discovery.

  4. Nutrition for distance events.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Millet, Gregoire; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to optimize their performance during training sessions and to recover quickly afterwards. Carbohydrate and fluid intake before, during, and after a workout may help to reduce fatigue and enhance performance. Recovery eating should also consider issues for adaptation and the immune system that may involve intakes of protein and some micronutrients. Race preparation strategies should include preparation of adequate fuel stores, including carbohydrate loading for prolonged events such as the marathon or 50-km walk. Fluid and carbohydrate intake during races lasting an hour or more should also be considered. Sports foods and supplements of value to distance athletes include sports drinks and liquid meal supplements to allow nutrition goals to be achieved when normal foods are not practical. While caffeine is an ergogenic aid of possible value to distance athletes, most other supplements are of minimal benefit. PMID:18049981

  5. Screening for adverse events.

    PubMed

    Karson, A S; Bates, D W

    1999-02-01

    Adverse events (AEs) in medical patients are common, costly, and often preventable. Development of quality improvement programs to decrease the number and impact of AEs demands effective methods for screening for AEs on a routine basis. Here we describe the impact, types, and potential causes of AEs and review various techniques for identifying AEs. We evaluate the use of generic screening criteria in detail and describe a recent study of the sensitivity and specificity of individual generic screening criteria and combinations of these criteria. In general, the most sensitive screens were the least specific and no small sub-set of screens identified a large percentage of adverse events. Combinations of screens that were limited to administrative data were the least expensive, but none were particularly sensitive, although in practice they might be effective since routine screening is currently rarely done. As computer systems increase in sophistication sensitivity will improve. We also discuss recent studies that suggest that programs that screen for and identify AEs can be useful in reducing AE rates. While tools for identifying AEs have strengths and weaknesses, they can play an important role in organizations' quality improvement portfolios. PMID:10468381

  6. Solar Eruptive Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2012-01-01

    It s long been known that the Sun plays host to the most energetic explosions in the solar system. But key insights into the forms that energy takes have only recently become available. Solar flares have been phenomena of both academic and practical interest since their discovery in 1859. From the academic point of view, they are the nearest events for studying the explosive release of energy in astrophysical magnetized plasmas. From the practical point of view, they disrupt communication channels on Earth, from telegraph communications in 1859 to radio and television signals today. Flares also wreak havoc on the electrical power grid, satellite operations, and GPS signals, and energetic charged particles and radiation are dangerous to passengers on high-altitude polar flights and to astronauts. Flares are not the only explosive phenomena on the Sun. More difficult to observe but equally energetic are the large coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the ejection of up to ten billion tons of magnetized plasma into the solar wind at speeds that can exceed 1000 km/s. CMEs are primarily observed from the side, with coronagraphs that block out the bright disk of the Sun and lower solar atmosphere so that light scattered from the ejected mass can be seen. Major geomagnetic storms are now known to arise from the interaction of CMEs with Earth's magnetosphere. Solar flares are observed without CMEs, and CMEs are observed without flares. The two phenomena often occur together, however, and almost always do in the case of large flares and fast CMEs. The term solar eruptive event refers to the combination of a flare and a CME. Solar eruptive events generate a lot of heat: They can heat plasma to temperatures as high at 50 million Kelvin, producing radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. But that s not all. A fascinating aspect of solar eruptive events is the acceleration of electrons and ions to suprathermal often relativistic energies. The accelerated particles are primarily

  7. Comments on event driven animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Julian E.

    1987-01-01

    Event driven animation provides a general method of describing controlling values for various computer animation techniques. A definition and comments are provided on genralizing motion description with events. Additional comments are also provided about the implementation of twixt.

  8. Integrating unseen events over time.

    PubMed

    Reber, Thomas P; Henke, Katharina

    2012-06-01

    Events often share elements that guide us to integrate knowledge from these events. Integration allows us to make inferences that affect reactions to new events. Integrating events and making inferences are thought to depend on consciousness. We show that even unconsciously experienced events, that share elements, are integrated and influence reactions to new events. An unconscious event consisted of the subliminal presentation of two unrelated words. Half of subliminal word pairs shared one word ('winter red', 'red computer'). Overlapping word pairs were presented between 6s and 78 s apart. The test for integration required participants to judge the semantic distance between suprathreshold words ('winter computer'). Evidence of integration was provided by faster reactions to suprathreshold words that were indirectly related versus unrelated. This effect was independent of the time interval between overlapping word pairs. We conclude that consciousness is no requirement for the integration of discontiguous events.

  9. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  10. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-08-27

    An electrostatic detector is disclosed for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure. 6 figs.

  11. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D.; MacArthur, Duncan W.

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.

  12. Coordination of epigenetic events.

    PubMed

    El-Osta, A

    2004-09-01

    During the course of DNA damage a complex repertoire of molecular signals, chromatin determinants and specific transcription factors are set in motion for repair. In many instances, the response pathway can be characterized by profound changes in molecular remodeling and is intimately linked with DNA replication and gene transcription. Our understanding of the molecular pathways has come from scientific developments that represent many disparate disciplines, such as cancer (epi)genetics, chromatin modifications during cellular development and the emerging prominence of epigenetic events in human disease. These multidisciplinary areas reveal a functional relationship and suggest that repair and transcription must coincide in the context of chromatin. We have come to appreciate the repair process and the role of transcriptional components in a sophisticated program of epigenetic regulation, and we have learnt much since the first description of the nucleosome as a spheroid disklike unit. The coordinated and ordered response to DNA damage can specify structures that mobilize and remodel nucleosomes. Investigators will undoubtedly continue to explore the structural and functional states of DNA damage repair and continue to profile the sequence of events and scrutinize the molecular signatures that specify these changes in chromatin dynamics, genomic stability and transcriptional performance. In this special issue, authors have contributed reviews that discuss hypotheses and results regarding DNA damage repair and transcription. The topics covered range from DNA repair in a chromatin environment to the deadly double-strand break, histone modifications to ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, gene silencing in cancer to apoptosis and regulation of chromatin dynamics by DNA methylation. The scene is set for a new view of damage detection and repair by the coordination of epigenetic states.

  13. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Suriani, Nor Surayahani; Hussain, Aini; Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf

    2013-01-01

    Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1) the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2) frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3) the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4) various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition. PMID:23921828

  14. Event boundaries and memory improvement.

    PubMed

    Pettijohn, Kyle A; Thompson, Alexis N; Tamplin, Andrea K; Krawietz, Sabine A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-03-01

    The structure of events can influence later memory for information that is embedded in them, with evidence indicating that event boundaries can both impair and enhance memory. The current study explored whether the presence of event boundaries during encoding can structure information to improve memory. In Experiment 1, memory for a list of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated by having participants walk through a doorway, or not, halfway through the word list. In Experiment 2, memory for lists of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated using computer windows. Finally, in Experiments 3 and 4, event structure was manipulated by having event shifts described in narrative texts. The consistent finding across all of these methods and materials was that memory was better when the information was distributed across two events rather than combined into a single event. Moreover, Experiment 4 demonstrated that increasing the number of event boundaries from one to two increased the memory benefit. These results are interpreted in the context of the Event Horizon Model of event cognition.

  15. The Teaching Events Stress Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cichon, Donald J.; Koff, Robert H.

    The Teaching Events Stress Inventory was designed to measure the degree of stress caused by thirty-six events associated with the teaching profession. The inventory was completed by 4,934 elementary and secondary school teachers employed by the Chicago Board of Education. Event one on the inventory, the first week of the school year, was given an…

  16. Temporal Profiles of SEP events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Herrero, R.; del Peral, L.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Sequeiros, J.; Mueller-Mellin, R.; Kunow, H.

    2001-08-01

    This work is a preliminary study of 18 solar energetic particle (SEP) events detected by SOHO/EPHIN between 1996 and 2000. Temporal profiles of Impulsive and Gradual SEP events have been parameterized to determinate differences among SEP events depending on the magnetic connection and Physical conditions of the interplanetary transport.

  17. Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same…

  18. Dynamic Analysis of Event Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuma, Nancy Brandon; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Demonstrates the value of dynamic analysis of event-history data for the sociological study of change in categorical variables. An event history records dates of events that occur for some unit of analysis (i.e., an individual's marital or employment status, or outbreaks of riots or wars). (Author/AV)

  19. Event Structure and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Jason F.; Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Lorsbach, Thomas C.; Armendarez, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of research has demonstrated that although everyday experience is continuous in nature, it is parsed into separate events. The aim of the present study was to examine whether event structure can influence the effectiveness of cognitive control. Across 5 experiments we varied the structure of events within the AX-CPT by…

  20. EVENT PLANNING USING FUNCTION ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Lori Braase; Jodi Grgich

    2011-06-01

    Event planning is expensive and resource intensive. Function analysis provides a solid foundation for comprehensive event planning (e.g., workshops, conferences, symposiums, or meetings). It has been used at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to successfully plan events and capture lessons learned, and played a significant role in the development and implementation of the “INL Guide for Hosting an Event.” Using a guide and a functional approach to planning utilizes resources more efficiently and reduces errors that could be distracting or detrimental to an event. This integrated approach to logistics and program planning – with the primary focus on the participant – gives us the edge.

  1. The Chelyabinsk Airburst Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, Mark

    2013-10-01

    On Feb. 15, 2013, an asteroid exploded about 40 km from the Russian city of Chelyabinsk. Its proximity led to many injuries and widespread blast damage, but also yielded a plethora of data, providing means to determine the projectile size and entry parameters, and develop a self-consistent model. We will present results of the first physics simulations to be initialized with accurate energy deposition derived from observations. The best estimate of the explosive yield is 400-500 kilotons, making Chelyabinsk the most powerful such event observed since Tunguska (3-5 megatons). Analysis of video combined with subsequent on-site stellar calibrations enable precise estimates of entry velocity (19 km/s), angle (17° elevation) and altitude of peak brightness (29 km). This implies a pre-entry diameter of ~20 m and mass of ~1200 tonnes. Satellite sensors recorded the emission peak at 03:20:33 UT, with a total radiated energy of 3.75×1014 J 90 kilotons). A typical bolide luminous efficiency of 20% implies a total energy of ~450 kilotons, consistent with infrasound and other observations. The maximum radiant intensity was 2.7×1013 W/ster, corresponding to a magnitude of -28. The shallow entry angle led to a long bolide duration (16.5 s) and energy was deposited over 100s of km leading to an extended, near-horizontal, linear explosion. The blast was distributed over a large area, and was much weaker than for a steep entry and a more concentrated explosion closer to the surface. The orientation also led to different phenomena than expected for a more vertical entry. There was no ballistic plume as observed from SL9 impacts (45°) or calculated for Tunguska 35°). Instead, buoyant instabilities grew into mushroom clouds and bifurcated the trail into two contra-rotating vortices. Chelyabinsk and Tunguska are “once-per-century” and “once-per-millennium” events, respectively. These outliers imply that the frequency of large airbursts is underestimated. Models also

  2. The Chelyabinsk event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovička, Jiri

    2015-08-01

    On February 15, 2013, 3:20 UT, an asteroid of the size of about 19 meters and mass of 12,000 metric tons entered the Earth's atmosphere unexpectedly near the border of Kazakhstan and Russia. It was the largest confirmed Earth impactor since the Tunguska event in 1908. The body moved approximately westwards with a speed of 19 km/s, on a trajectory inclined 18 degrees to the surface, creating a fireball of steadily increasing brightness. Eleven seconds after the first sightings, the fireball reached its maximum brightness. At that point, it was located less than 40 km south from Chelyabinsk, a Russian city of population more than one million, at an altitude of 30 km. For people directly underneath, the fireball was 30 times brighter than the Sun. The cosmic body disrupted into fragments; the largest of them was visible for another five seconds before it disappeared at an altitude of 12.5 km, when it was decelerated to 3 km/s. Fifty six second later, that ~ 600 kg fragment landed in Lake Chebarkul and created an 8 m wide hole in the ice. More material remained, however, in the atmosphere forming a dust trail up to 2 km wide and extending along the fireball trajectory from altitude 18 to 70 km. People observing the dust trail from Chelyabinsk and other places were surprised by the arrival of a very strong blast wave 90 - 150 s after the fireball passage (depending on location). The wave, produced by the supersonic flight of the body, broke ~10% of windows in Chelyabinsk (~40% of buildings were affected). More than 1600 people were injured, mostly from broken glass. Small meteorites landed in an area 60 km long and several km wide and caused no damage. The meteorites were classified as LL ordinary chondrites and were interesting by the presence of two phases, light and dark. The dust left in the atmosphere circled the Earth within few days and formed a ring around the northern hemisphere.The whole event was well documented by video cameras, seismic and infrasonic

  3. Tidal disruption event demographics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2016-09-01

    We survey the properties of stars destroyed in tidal disruption events (TDEs) as a function of black hole (BH) mass, stellar mass and evolutionary state, star formation history and redshift. For M_{BH} ≲ 10^7 M_{⊙}, the typical TDE is due to a M* ˜ 0.3 M⊙ M-dwarf, although the mass function is relatively flat for M_{ast } ≲ M_{⊙}. The contribution from older main-sequence stars and sub-giants is small but not negligible. From MBH ≃ 107.5-108.5 M⊙, the balance rapidly shifts to higher mass stars and a larger contribution from evolved stars, and is ultimately dominated by evolved stars at higher BH masses. The star formation history has little effect until the rates are dominated by evolved stars. TDE rates should decline very rapidly towards higher redshifts. The volumetric rate of TDEs is very high because the BH mass function diverges for low masses. However, any emission mechanism which is largely Eddington-limited for low BH masses suppresses this divergence in any observed sample and leads to TDE samples dominated by MBH ≃ 106.0-107.5 M⊙ BHs with roughly Eddington peak accretion rates. The typical fall-back time is relatively long, with 16 per cent having tfb < 10-1 yr (37 d), and 84 per cent having longer time-scales. Many residual rate discrepancies can be explained if surveys are biased against TDEs with these longer tfb, which seems very plausible if tfb has any relation to the transient rise time. For almost any BH mass function, systematic searches for fainter, faster time-scale TDEs in smaller galaxies, and longer time-scale TDEs in more massive galaxies are likely to be rewarded.

  4. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  5. Extreme events in computational turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, P. K.; Zhai, X. M.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2015-01-01

    We have performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box with 8,1923 grid points. These are the largest simulations performed, to date, aimed at improving our understanding of turbulence small-scale structure. We present some basic statistical results and focus on “extreme” events (whose magnitudes are several tens of thousands the mean value). The structure of these extreme events is quite different from that of moderately large events (of the order of 10 times the mean value). In particular, intense vorticity occurs primarily in the form of tubes for moderately large events whereas it is much more “chunky” for extreme events (though probably overlaid on the traditional vortex tubes). We track the temporal evolution of extreme events and find that they are generally short-lived. Extreme magnitudes of energy dissipation rate and enstrophy occur simultaneously in space and remain nearly colocated during their evolution. PMID:26424452

  6. Extreme events in computational turbulence.

    PubMed

    Yeung, P K; Zhai, X M; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

    2015-10-13

    We have performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box with 8,192(3) grid points. These are the largest simulations performed, to date, aimed at improving our understanding of turbulence small-scale structure. We present some basic statistical results and focus on "extreme" events (whose magnitudes are several tens of thousands the mean value). The structure of these extreme events is quite different from that of moderately large events (of the order of 10 times the mean value). In particular, intense vorticity occurs primarily in the form of tubes for moderately large events whereas it is much more "chunky" for extreme events (though probably overlaid on the traditional vortex tubes). We track the temporal evolution of extreme events and find that they are generally short-lived. Extreme magnitudes of energy dissipation rate and enstrophy occur simultaneously in space and remain nearly colocated during their evolution. PMID:26424452

  7. MINOS atmospheric neutrino contained events

    SciTech Connect

    Habig, A.; /Minnesota U.

    2007-10-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment has continued to collect atmospheric neutrino events while doing a precision measurement of NuMI beam {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance oscillations. The 5.4 kton iron calorimeter is magnetized to provide the unique capability of discriminating between {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} interactions on an event-by-event basis and has been collecting atmospheric neutrino data since July 2003. An analysis of the neutrino events with interaction vertices contained inside the detector will be presented.

  8. Event oriented dictionary learning for complex event detection.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Yang, Yi; Meng, Deyu; Liu, Gaowen; Tong, Wei; Hauptmann, Alexander G; Sebe, Nicu

    2015-06-01

    Complex event detection is a retrieval task with the goal of finding videos of a particular event in a large-scale unconstrained Internet video archive, given example videos and text descriptions. Nowadays, different multimodal fusion schemes of low-level and high-level features are extensively investigated and evaluated for the complex event detection task. However, how to effectively select the high-level semantic meaningful concepts from a large pool to assist complex event detection is rarely studied in the literature. In this paper, we propose a novel strategy to automatically select semantic meaningful concepts for the event detection task based on both the events-kit text descriptions and the concepts high-level feature descriptions. Moreover, we introduce a novel event oriented dictionary representation based on the selected semantic concepts. Toward this goal, we leverage training images (frames) of selected concepts from the semantic indexing dataset with a pool of 346 concepts, into a novel supervised multitask lp -norm dictionary learning framework. Extensive experimental results on TRECVID multimedia event detection dataset demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed method. PMID:25794390

  9. The ISC Seismic Event Bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Storchak, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    The International Seismological Centre (ISC) is a not-for-profit organization operating in the UK for the last 50 years and producing the ISC Bulletin - the definitive worldwide summary of seismic events, both natural and anthropogenic - starting from the beginning of 20th century. Often researchers need to gather information related to specific seismic events for various reasons. To facilitate such task, in 2012 we set up a new database linking earthquakes and other seismic events in the ISC Bulletin to bibliographic records of scientific articles (mostly peer-reviewed journals) that describe those events. Such association allows users of the ISC Event Bibliography (www.isc.ac.uk/event_bibliography/index.php) to run searches for publications via a map-based web interface and, optionally, selecting scientific publications related to either specific events or events in the area of interest. Some of the greatest earthquakes were described in several hundreds of articles published over a period of few years. The journals included in our database are not limited to seismology but bring together a variety of fields in geosciences (e.g., engineering seismology, geodesy and remote sensing, tectonophysics, monitoring research, tsunami, geology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, atmospheric sciences, etc.) making this service useful in multidisciplinary studies. Usually papers dealing with large data set are not included (e.g., papers describing a seismic catalogue). Currently the ISC Event Bibliography includes over 17,000 individual publications from about 500 titles related to over 14,000 events that occurred in last 100+ years. The bibliographic records in the Event Bibliography start in the 1950s, and it is updated as new publications become available.

  10. Regularly timed events amid chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, Jonathan N.; Cooper, Roy M.; Corron, Ned J.

    2015-11-01

    We show rigorously that the solutions of a class of chaotic oscillators are characterized by regularly timed events in which the derivative of the solution is instantaneously zero. The perfect regularity of these events is in stark contrast with the well-known unpredictability of chaos. We explore some consequences of these regularly timed events through experiments using chaotic electronic circuits. First, we show that a feedback loop can be implemented to phase lock the regularly timed events to a periodic external signal. In this arrangement the external signal regulates the timing of the chaotic signal but does not strictly lock its phase. That is, phase slips of the chaotic oscillation persist without disturbing timing of the regular events. Second, we couple the regularly timed events of one chaotic oscillator to those of another. A state of synchronization is observed where the oscillators exhibit synchronized regular events while their chaotic amplitudes and phases evolve independently. Finally, we add additional coupling to synchronize the amplitudes, as well, however in the opposite direction illustrating the independence of the amplitudes from the regularly timed events.

  11. Eventos de Junio (June Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pla, Myrna; Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on six June events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Nathan Hale, Dia de la Bandera (Flag Day), Francisco Oller, Dia de los Padres (Father's Day), Fiesta de San Juan Bautista, and school graduation. Designed for teachers, the booklet includes a listing of 16 historical events occurring in…

  12. Maternal Talk About Disappearance Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfield, Beverly A.

    1995-01-01

    Examined maternal talk about events regarding hidden, missing, or absent persons or objects, and the relationship of maternal language to children's acquisition of words for disappearance, among 12 mother-infant pairs. Results found that infants who had acquired "gone" and similar terms experienced more disappearance events than children who had…

  13. Event group importance measures for top event frequency analyses

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-31

    Three traditional importance measures, risk reduction, partial derivative, nd variance reduction, have been extended to permit analyses of the relative importance of groups of underlying failure rates to the frequencies of resulting top events. The partial derivative importance measure was extended by assessing the contribution of a group of events to the gradient of the top event frequency. Given the moments of the distributions that characterize the uncertainties in the underlying failure rates, the expectation values of the top event frequency, its variance, and all of the new group importance measures can be quantified exactly for two familiar cases: (1) when all underlying failure rates are presumed independent, and (2) when pairs of failure rates based on common data are treated as being equal (totally correlated). In these cases, the new importance measures, which can also be applied to assess the importance of individual events, obviate the need for Monte Carlo sampling. The event group importance measures are illustrated using a small example problem and demonstrated by applications made as part of a major reactor facility risk assessment. These illustrations and applications indicate both the utility and the versatility of the event group importance measures.

  14. Mid-Carboniferous eustatic event

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, W.B.; Ramsbottom, W.H.C.

    1986-03-01

    Stratigraphic and paleontologic evidence from mid-Carboniferous (Namurian) basin and shelf successions in widely scattered parts of the world indicates that a major eustatic event occurred about 330 Ma. The event began with a regression that is recorded in most shelf sequences, the regression was followed by a brief transgression about 328 Ma, and the event ended with a transgression that flooded large shelf areas about 325 Ma. The Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity in North America is a well-known product of this event, but equally prominent and contemporaneous unconformity surfaces are also present in Europe, North Africa, and elsewhere. The event is believed to have caused numerous extinctions, and it resulted in marked fluctuations in faunal diversity. 94 references, 2 figures.

  15. Extinction events can accelerate evolution.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate evolution by increasing evolvability. In particular, if extinction events extinguish indiscriminately many ways of life, indirectly they may select for the ability to expand rapidly through vacated niches. Lineages with such an ability are more likely to persist through multiple extinctions. Lending computational support for this hypothesis, this paper shows how increased evolvability will result from simulated extinction events in two computational models of evolved behavior. The conclusion is that although they are destructive in the short term, extinction events may make evolution more prolific in the long term.

  16. Extinction Events Can Accelerate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate evolution by increasing evolvability. In particular, if extinction events extinguish indiscriminately many ways of life, indirectly they may select for the ability to expand rapidly through vacated niches. Lineages with such an ability are more likely to persist through multiple extinctions. Lending computational support for this hypothesis, this paper shows how increased evolvability will result from simulated extinction events in two computational models of evolved behavior. The conclusion is that although they are destructive in the short term, extinction events may make evolution more prolific in the long term. PMID:26266804

  17. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, pre-1990 alcohol and drugs (involving reactor operators, security force members, or management persons), and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels.

  18. Dynamic Triggering of Microseismic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H.; Van der Baan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Microseismic events are commonly recorded during hydraulic fracturing experiments. In microseismic interpretations, each event is often regarded as independent and uncorrelated to neighboring ones. In reality, both the rock deformation (static stresses) and transient wave motion (dynamic stresses) associated with microseismic events add to the stress field together with the external loading (fluid injection). We believe the resulting static and dynamic stress perturbations will influence both the timing and spatial evolution of the microseismic cloud. We study the dynamic triggering of microseismicity using numerical simulations of a biaxial deformation test by means of a bonded particle method (Potyondy and Cundall, 2004), where crack development can be tracked and analyzed independently. Our methodology is to compare the stress changes due to one specific event with the occurrence of the next few events in the numerical simulations. In addition, we compute the dynamic stress perturbations for recorded large events analytically given their (non-double couple) failure mechanisms. Our results show that cracks following a major event tend to form in zones affected by the dynamic stresses by promoting new failure in areas that are critically stressed. This confirms that dynamic triggering during hydraulic fracturing operations but also larger scale seismicity is likely. It also demonstrates the often complex interplay between the dynamic and static stress changes and their effect on the temporal and spatial evolution of rock deformation at all scales.

  19. Building a family: unplanned events.

    PubMed

    Bongaarts, J

    1984-01-01

    Couples in developed societies are often unsuccessful in achieving precise family building goals despite the widespread use of birth control. Unplanned events that frustrate reproductive intentions to varying degrees include contraceptive failure, sterility, miscarriage, prolonged conception delay, undesired sex combination of offspring, divorce, and the death of a spouse or a child. This paper reviews the probability of the occurrence of these events using US data. It is concluded that the large majority of newlyweds will experience at least one unplanned event during the family building phase of the life cycle. PMID:6701951

  20. Periodicity in marine extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. John, Jr.; Raup, David M.

    1986-01-01

    The periodicity of extinction events is examined in detail. In particular, the temporal distribution of specific, identifiable extinction events is analyzed. The nature and limitations of the data base on the global fossil record is discussed in order to establish limits of resolution in statistical analyses. Peaks in extinction intensity which appear to differ significantly from background levels are considered, and new analyses of the temporal distribution of these peaks are presented. Finally, some possible causes of periodicity and of interdependence among extinction events over the last quarter billion years of earth history are examined.

  1. Responding to the Event Deluge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roy D.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Denny, Robert B.; Graham, Matthew J.; Swinbank, John

    2012-01-01

    We present the VOEventNet infrastructure for large-scale rapid follow-up of astronomical events, including selection, annotation, machine intelligence, and coordination of observations. The VOEvent.standard is central to this vision, with distributed and replicated services rather than centralized facilities. We also describe some of the event brokers, services, and software that .are connected to the network. These technologies will become more important in the coming years, with new event streams from Gaia, LOF AR, LIGO, LSST, and many others

  2. Bayesian Mulitple-Event Location

    2010-03-30

    Bayesloc is a statistical model of the multiple seismic location system, including event hypocenters, corrections to model-based travel time predictions, assessments precision for measurement phase arrival times, and phase lavels which indicate phase ray path.

  3. Life Events, Stress, and Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabkin, Judith G.; Struening, Elmer L.

    1976-01-01

    Selectively reviews the research literature on the relation of life events, stress, and the onset of illness; delineates trends in the development of this research, and evaluates the conceptual and methodological approaches employed. (MLH)

  4. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  5. Concurrency and discrete event control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Much of discrete event control theory has been developed within the framework of automata and formal languages. An alternative approach inspired by the theories of process-algebra as developed in the computer science literature is presented. The framework, which rests on a new formalism of concurrency, can adequately handle nondeterminism and can be used for analysis of a wide range of discrete event phenomena.

  6. Pluto-charon mutual events

    SciTech Connect

    Binzel, R.P. )

    1989-11-01

    Since 1985, planetary astronomers have been working to take advantage of a once-per-century apparent alignment between Pluto and its satellite, Charon, which has allowed mutual occultation and transit events to be observed. There events, which will cease in 1990, have permitted the first precise determinations of their individual radii, densities, and surface compositions. In addition, information on their surface albedo distributions can be obtained.

  7. Superstatistics and renewal critical events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradisi, Paolo; Cesari, Rita; Grigolini, Paolo

    2009-09-01

    An approach to intermittent systems based on renewal processes is reviewed. The Waiting Times (WTs) between events are the main variables of interest in intermittent systems. A crucial role is played by the class of critical events, characterized by Non-Poisson statistics and non-exponential WT distribution. A particular important case is given by WT distributions with power tail. Critical events play a crucial role in the behavior of a property known as Renewal Aging. Focusing on the role of critical events, the relation between superstatistics and non-homogeneous Poisson processes is discussed, and the role of Renewal Aging is illustrated by comparing a Non-Poisson model with a Poisson one, both of them modulated by a periodic forcing. It is shown that the analysis of Renewal Aging is sensitive to the presence of critical events and that this property can be exploited to detect Non-Poisson statistics in a time series. As a consequence, it is claimed that, apart from the characterization of superstatistical features such as the distribution of the intensive parameter or the separation of the time scales, the Renewal Aging property can give some effort to better determine the role of Non-Poisson critical events in intermittent systems.

  8. Longitudinal hydrodynamics from event-by-event Landau initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read, Kenneth; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-02-02

    Here we investigate three-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of θ (20%-30%) expected at freeze-out for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, hydrodynamics where boost invariance holds at midrapidity is inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. We conclude by arguing that developing experimental probes of boost invariance is necessary, and suggest some promising directions in this regard.

  9. Longitudinal hydrodynamics from event-by-event Landau initial conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read, Kenneth; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-02-02

    Here we investigate three-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of θ (20%-30%) expected at freeze-out for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, hydrodynamics where boost invariance holds at midrapidity ismore » inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. We conclude by arguing that developing experimental probes of boost invariance is necessary, and suggest some promising directions in this regard.« less

  10. Bayesian analysis of rare events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Daniel; Papaioannou, Iason; Betz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    In many areas of engineering and science there is an interest in predicting the probability of rare events, in particular in applications related to safety and security. Increasingly, such predictions are made through computer models of physical systems in an uncertainty quantification framework. Additionally, with advances in IT, monitoring and sensor technology, an increasing amount of data on the performance of the systems is collected. This data can be used to reduce uncertainty, improve the probability estimates and consequently enhance the management of rare events and associated risks. Bayesian analysis is the ideal method to include the data into the probabilistic model. It ensures a consistent probabilistic treatment of uncertainty, which is central in the prediction of rare events, where extrapolation from the domain of observation is common. We present a framework for performing Bayesian updating of rare event probabilities, termed BUS. It is based on a reinterpretation of the classical rejection-sampling approach to Bayesian analysis, which enables the use of established methods for estimating probabilities of rare events. By drawing upon these methods, the framework makes use of their computational efficiency. These methods include the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM), tailored importance sampling (IS) methods and Subset Simulation (SuS). In this contribution, we briefly review these methods in the context of the BUS framework and investigate their applicability to Bayesian analysis of rare events in different settings. We find that, for some applications, FORM can be highly efficient and is surprisingly accurate, enabling Bayesian analysis of rare events with just a few model evaluations. In a general setting, BUS implemented through IS and SuS is more robust and flexible.

  11. Event-by-event elliptic flow fluctuations from PHOBOS.

    SciTech Connect

    Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Physics; BNL; Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech.; National Central Univ.; Univ. of Maryland; Univ. of Rochester

    2009-04-01

    Recently PHOBOS has focused on the study of fluctuations and correlations in particle production in heavy-ion collisions at the highest energies delivered by the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In this report, we present results on event-by-event elliptic flow fluctuations in Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. A data-driven method was used to estimate the dominant contribution from non-flow correlations. Over the broad range of collision centralities, the observed large elliptic flow fluctuations are in agreement with the fluctuations in the initial source eccentricity.

  12. Magnetospheric state of sawtooth events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Shing F.; Tepper, Julia A.; Cai, Xia

    2016-08-01

    Magnetospheric sawtooth events, first identified in the early 1990s, are named for their characteristic appearance of multiple quasiperiodic intervals of slow decrease followed by sharp increase of proton differential energy fluxes in the geosynchronous region. The successive proton flux oscillations have been interpreted as recurrences of stretching and dipolarization of the nightside geomagnetic field. Due to their often extended intervals with 2-10 cycles, sawteeth occurrences are sometimes referred to as a magnetospheric mode. While studies of sawtooth events over the past two decades have yielded a wealth of information about such events, the magnetospheric state conditions for the occurrence of sawtooth events and how sawtooth oscillations may depend on the magnetospheric state conditions remain unclear. In this study, we investigate the characteristic magnetospheric state conditions (specified by Psw interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Btot, IMF Bz Vsw, AE, Kp and Dst, all time shifted with respect to one another) associated with the intervals before, during, and after sawteeth occurrences. Applying a previously developed statistical technique, we have determined the most probable magnetospheric states propitious for the development and occurrence of sawtooth events, respectively. The statistically determined sawtooth magnetospheric state has also been validated by using out-of-sample events, confirming the notion that sawtooth intervals might represent a particular global state of the magnetosphere. We propose that the "sawtooth state" of the magnetosphere may be a state of marginal stability in which a slight enhancement in the loading rate of an otherwise continuous loading process can send the magnetosphere into the marginally unstable regime, causing it to shed limited amount of energy quickly and return to the marginally stable regime with the loading process continuing. Sawtooth oscillations result as the magnetosphere switches between the marginally

  13. Challenges in Forecasting SEP Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, Janet; Mays, M. Leila; Odstrcil, Dusan; Bain, Hazel; Li, Yan; Leske, Richard; Cohen, Christina

    2015-04-01

    A long-standing desire of space weather prediction providers has been the ability to forecast SEP (Solar Energetic Particle) events as a part of their offerings. SEPs can have deleterious effects on the space environment and space hardware, that also impact human exploration missions. Developments of observationally driven, physics based models in the last solar cycle have made it possible to use solar magnetograms and coronagraph images to simulate, up to a month in advance for solar wind structure, and up to days in advance for interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) driven shocks, time series of upstream parameters similar in content to those obtained by L1 spacecraft. However, SEPs have been missing from these predictions. Because SEP event modeling requires different physical considerations it has typically been approached with cosmic ray transport concepts and treatments. However, many extra complications arise because of the moving, evolving nature of the ICME shock source of the largest events. In general, a realistic SEP event model for these so-called 'gradual' events requires an accurate description of the time-dependent 3D heliosphere as an underlying framework. We describe some applications of an approach to SEP event simulations that uses the widely-applied ENLIL heliospheric model to describe both underlying solar wind and ICME shock characteristics. Experimentation with this set-up illustrates the importance of knowing the shock connectivity to the observer, and of the need to include even non-observer-impacting CMEs in the heliospheric model. It also provides a possible path forward toward the goal of having routine SEP forecasts together with the other heliospheric predictions.

  14. Seismic event near Jarocin (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizurek, Grzegorz; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiejacz, Paweł; Wiszniowski, Jan; Trojanowski, Jacek

    2013-02-01

    The earthquake of magnitude M L = 3:8 (EMSC) took place on Friday, 6 January 2012, north-east of the town of Jarocin in Wielkopolska Region, Poland. The only historical information about past earthquakes in the region was found in the diary from 1824; apart of it, there was a seismic event noticed in the vicinity of Wielkopolska in 1606 (Pagaczewski 1982). The scope of this paper is to describe the 6 January 2012 event in view of instrumental seismology, macroseismic data analysis and known tectonics of the region, which should be useful in future seismic hazard analysis of Poland.

  15. Solar impulsive energetic electron events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linghua

    The Sun is capable of accelerating ions from ~ tens of keV up to tens of GeV and electrons from ~ tens of eV up to hundreds of MeVs in transient events such as flares and fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The energized particles escaping into the interplanetary medium are referred to as Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. The great majority of SEP events are impulsive SEP events that are dominated by ~1-100 keV electrons and ~MeV/nucleon ion emissions, with enhanced 3 He/ 4 He ratios up to 10 4 times the coronal values (also called electron/ 3 He-rich SEP events). This thesis is focused on solar impulsive energetic electron events, the electron part of impulsive SEP events, using electron observations from the 3-D Plasma and Energetic Particle instrument (3DP) on the WIND spacecraft near the Earth. First, I present the first comprehensive statistical study of solar energetic electron events over almost one solar cycle. I find that the occurrence rate of solar electron events shows a strong solar-cycle variation; after correction for the background effect, the estimated occurrence frequency exhibits a good power-law distribution, and the estimated occurrence rate near the Earth is ~1000/year at solar maximum and ~30/year at solar minimum for the instrumental sensitivity (~2.9×10^-4 (cm 2 s str eV) -1 for the 40 keV channel) of WIND/3DP, about one order of magnitude larger than the observed occurrence rate. Solar energetic electron events have a one-to-one association with type III radio bursts and a poor association with flares, but a close association with 3 He- rich ion emissions. These 3 He-rich electron events also have a poor association with flares but a close (~ 60%) association with west-limb CMEs. Then I present two case studies: one investigating the temporal relationship between solar impulsive electrons and type III radio emissions, and the second studying the temporal relationship between solar impulsive electrons and 3 He- rich ions. For both

  16. Will extreme climatic events facilitate biological invasions?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme climatic events, such as intense heat waves, hurricanes, floods and droughts, can dramatically affect ecological and evolutionary processes, and more extreme events are projected with ongoing climate change. However, the implications of these events for biological invasions, which themselves...

  17. Adolescents' Evaluation of Cyberbullying Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Shariff, Shaheen; McConnell, Megan; Talwar, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Educators and other professionals working with adolescents have grown increasingly concerned about how technology affects social relationships given the amount of time that is spent engaging in online activities. Cyberbullying has sparked the interest of many researchers due to the tragic events reported in the media, relating to the online…

  18. Eventos de Septiembre (September Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on 10 September events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Arturo Somohano, the beginning of the academic year, Dia del Trabajo (Labor Day), Pedro Albizu Campos, Lola Rodriguez de Tio, William Howard Taft, El Grito de Lares, Dia del Indio Americano (American Indian Day), las retretas, and…

  19. What Turns Events into News?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tukachinsky, Riva

    2013-01-01

    "The New York Times" is known for its slogan ''All the News That's Fit to Print.'' But how do gatekeepers decide which events meet this criterion? Although some individuals might believe that the news constitutes an undistorted reflection of the social reality, students in communication courses have the…

  20. Eventos de Abril (April Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Designed for teachers, this booklet, written in Spanish, contains information on nine April events: Dia de los Tontos; Pascua de Resurreccion; Thomas Jefferson; Jose de Diego; Rosendo Matienzo Cintron; James Buchanan; Ulysses S. Grant; James Monroe; and Dia del Arbol. An overview of Dia de los Tontos is provided. Following brief descriptions of…

  1. Eventos de Marzo (March Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor

    Designed for teachers, this booklet, written in Spanish, contains information on seven March events: La Ley Jones; Pachin Marin; San Patricio; Primavera; Luis Pales Matos; La Masacre de Ponce; and La Esclavitud. The first section provides an overview of the Ley Jones, which introduced the bill of rights and made American citizenship obligatory for…

  2. Eventos de Mayo (May Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Designed as a resource for teachers, this booklet, written in Spanish, contains brief information on seven May events: La Semana de la Educacion (first Friday in May), Harry S. Truman (May 8), Dia de las Madres (second Sunday in May), Luis Llorens Torres (May 14), La Cruz Roja (May 21), John F. Kennedy (May 29), and El Dia De Conmemoracion (May…

  3. Eventos de Noviembre (November Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pla, Myrna; Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains information on three events occurring in the month of November: Armistice Day (November 11), the discovery of Puerto Rico (November 19), and Thanksgiving (last Thursday in November). Following a brief discussion of "Dia del Armisticio" (Armistice Day), first celebrated on November 11, 1919, the booklet…

  4. Eventos de Diciembre (December Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pla, Myrna; Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains information on three events occurring in the month of December: winter, Christmas, and New Year's Eve. Winter is briefly discussed. The section on Christmas includes a short story ("La Nochebuena"); a poem about Christmas in Puerto Rico; a legend about the poinsettia; brief discussion of Santa Claus, the…

  5. Eventos de Febrero (February Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Designed as a resource for teachers, the booklet contains brief information on eight events celebrated by Puerto Ricans in the month of February: La Candelaria; Abraham Lincoln; Black History; Valentine's Day; Julia de Burgos; Luis Munoz Marin; George Washington; and the Carnaval. Written in Spanish, the booklet discusses the orgin and ways of…

  6. Host Event Based Network Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Chugg

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of INL’s research on this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a host event based network monitoring tool and the effects on host performance. Current host based network monitoring tools work on polling which can miss activity if it occurs between polls. Instead of polling, a tool could be developed that makes use of event APIs in the operating system to receive asynchronous notifications of network activity. Analysis and logging of these events will allow the tool to construct the complete real-time and historical network configuration of the host while the tool is running. This research focused on three major operating systems commonly used by SCADA systems: Linux, WindowsXP, and Windows7. Windows 7 offers two paths that have minimal impact on the system and should be seriously considered. First is the new Windows Event Logging API, and, second, Windows 7 offers the ALE API within WFP. Any future work should focus on these methods.

  7. Eventos de Octubre (October Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pla, Myrna; Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains information on three events occurring in the month of October: the discovery of America (October 12), the organization of the United Nations (October 24), and Halloween (October 31). Christopher Columbus' journey to America is discussed through a short story; an epic poem ("Velas Epicas"); and five poems…

  8. Videotape Recording of Classroom Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary R.

    This ongoing project, which involves the videotaping of classroom events, is being conducted in order to: (1) build a collection of videotape records of excellent instruction in selected classrooms and in various curriculum areas while maintaining the natural flow of classroom activities; (2) enable teachers and student teachers to collect…

  9. Eventos de Agosto (August Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on seven August events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Herbert Hoover's birthdate (August 10); Acta del Seguro Social (Social Security Act, August 14); Julian E. Blanco (August 14), Enmienda 19 Sufragia de la Mujer (Amendment 19, Women's Suffrage, August 26); Benjamin Harrison (August 20);…

  10. Lessons from the Chelyabinsk event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'Yanenko, Vacheslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations on small asteroids, initiated by the Chelyabinsk event, are reviewed. New estimates of the terrestrial impact rate, importance of Sun-grazing conditions in the evolution of near-Earth objects, and problems associated with dangerous objects approaching the Earth from the Sun direction are discussed.

  11. Eventos de Enero (January Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pla, Myrna; Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on the origin of four events celebrated in the month of January in Puerto Rico and the United States: New Year (January 1), Dia de Reyes (January 6), Eugenio Maria de Hostos (January 11), and Martin Luther King (January 15). Designed as a resource for teachers to use in teaching the child…

  12. Interferometric observation of microlensing events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassan, Arnaud; Ranc, Clément

    2016-05-01

    Interferometric observations of microlensing events have the potential to provide unique constraints on the physical properties of the lensing systems. In this work, we first present a formalism that closely combines interferometric and microlensing observable quantities, which lead us to define an original microlensing (u, v) plane. We run simulations of long-baseline interferometric observations and photometric light curves to decide which observational strategy is required to obtain a precise measurement on vector Einstein radius. We finally perform a detailed analysis of the expected number of targets in the light of new microlensing surveys (2011+) which currently deliver 2000 alerts per year. We find that a few events are already at reach of long-baseline interferometers (CHARA, VLTI), and a rate of about six events per year is expected with a limiting magnitude of K ≃ 10. This number would increase by an order of magnitude by raising it to K ≃ 11. We thus expect that a new route for characterizing microlensing events will be opened by the upcoming generations of interferometers.

  13. Eventos de Julio (July Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pla, Myrna; Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on 10 July events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: United States Declaration of Independence; the birthdays of P.T. Barnum, Elias Howe, John Quincy Adams, Luis Munoz Rivera, and Simon Bolivar; Marisol Malaret (first puerto Rican to be "Miss Universe"); Puerto Rican Constitution; Las Fiestas…

  14. 75 FR 9277 - Proposed Information Collection (VA National Rehabilitation Special Events, Event Registration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VA National Rehabilitation Special Events, Event Registration Applications); Comment Request AGENCY: Office of National Programs and Special Events, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of National Programs and Special Events (NPSE), Department...

  15. Applications of Event-by-Event Fission Modeling with FREYA

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J

    2011-09-16

    The recently developed code FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) generates large samples of complete fission events, consisting of two receding product nuclei as well as a number of neutrons and photons, all with complete kinematic information. Thus it is possible to calculate arbitrary correlation observables whose behavior may provide unique insight into the fission process. We first discuss the present status of FREYA, which has now been extended to include spontaneous fission. Concentrating on {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th},f), {sup 240}Pu(sf) and {sup 252}Cf(sf), we discuss the neutron multiplicity correlations, the dependence of the neutron energy spectrum on the neutron multiplicity, and the relationship between the fragment kinetic energy and the number of neutrons and their energies. We also suggest novel fission observables that could be measured with modern detectors.

  16. New PHOBOS results on event-by-event fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Alver, B.; Ballintijn, M.; Busza, W.; Decowski, M. P.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Henderson, C.; Kane, J. L.; Kulinich, P.; Li, W.; Loizides, C.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sarin, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. van; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.

    2006-04-11

    We present new results from the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC on event-by-event fluctuations of particle multiplicities and angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC. Our data for Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 200 GeV show that at a level of 10-4 or less, no rare, large-amplitude fluctuations in the total multiplicity distributions or the shape of the pseudorapidity distributions are observed. We however find significant short-range multiplicity correlations in these data, that can be described as particle production in clusters. In Cu+Cu collisions, we observe large final-state azimuthal anisotropies {nu}2. A common scaling behavior for Cu+Cu and Au+Au for these anisotropies emerges when fluctuations in the initial state geometry are taken into account.

  17. Calculation of Fission Observables Through Event-by-Event Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Randrup, J; Vogt, R

    2009-06-04

    The increased interest in more exclusive fission observables has demanded more detailed models. We present here a new computational model, FREYA, that aims to met this need by producing large samples of complete fission events from which any observable of interest can then be extracted consistently, including arbitrary correlations. The various model assumptions are described and the potential utility of the model is illustrated by means of several novel correlation observables.

  18. Event-by-Event Simulation of Induced Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Ramona; Randrup, Joergen

    2008-04-17

    We are developing a novel code that treats induced fission by statistical (or Monte-Carlo) simulation of individual decay chains. After its initial excitation, the fissionable compound nucleus may either de-excite by evaporation or undergo binary fission into a large number of fission channels each with different energetics involving both energy dissipation and deformed scission pre-fragments. After separation and Coulomb acceleration, each fission fragment undergoes a succession of individual (neutron) evaporations, leading to two bound but still excited fission products (that may further decay electromagnetically and, ultimately, weakly), as well as typically several neutrons. (The inclusion of other possible ejectiles is planned.) This kind of approach makes it possible to study more detailed observables than could be addressed with previous treatments which have tended to focus on average quantities. In particular, any type of correlation observable can readily be extracted from a generated set of events. With a view towards making the code practically useful in a variety of applications, emphasis is being put on making it numerically efficient so that large event samples can be generated quickly. In its present form, the code can generate one million full events in about 12 seconds on a MacBook laptop computer. The development of this qualitatively new tool is still at an early stage and quantitative reproduction of existing data should not be expected until a number of detailed refinement have been implemented.

  19. Event-by-Event Simulation of Induced Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J

    2007-12-13

    We are developing a novel code that treats induced fission by statistical (or Monte-Carlo) simulation of individual decay chains. After its initial excitation, the fissionable compound nucleus may either deexcite by evaporation or undergo binary fission into a large number of fission channels each with different energetics involving both energy dissipation and deformed scission prefragments. After separation and Coulomb acceleration, each fission fragment undergoes a succession of individual (neutron) evaporations, leading to two bound but still excited fission products (that may further decay electromagnetically and, ultimately, weakly), as well as typically several neutrons. (The inclusion of other possible ejectiles is planned.) This kind of approach makes it possible to study more detailed observables than could be addressed with previous treatments which have tended to focus on average quantities. In particular, any type of correlation observable can readily be extracted from a generated set of events. With a view towards making the code practically useful in a variety of applications, emphasis is being put on making it numerically efficient so that large event samples can be generated quickly. In its present form, the code can generate one million full events in about 12 seconds on a MacBook laptop computer. The development of this qualitatively new tool is still at an early stage and quantitative reproduction of existing data should not be expected until a number of detailed refinement have been implemented.

  20. Aquatic chemistry of flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavins, Maris; Rodinov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    During flood events a major discharge of water and dissolved substances happens. However flood waters very much differs from water composition during low-water events. Aquatic chemistry of flood waters also is of importance at the calculation of loadings as well as they might have major impact on water quality in receiving water bodies (lakes, coastal waters and seas). Further flood regime of rivers is subjected to changes due to climate change and growing impact of human activities. The aim of this study is to analyse water chemical composition changes during flood events in respect to low water periods, character of high-water events and characteristics of the corresponding basin. Within this study, the concentrations of major dissolved substances in the major rivers of Latvia have been studied using monitoring data as well as field studies during high water/ low water events. As territories of studies flows of substances in river basins/subbasins with different land-use character and different anthropogenic impacts has been studied to calculate export values depending on the land-use character. Impact of relations between dissolved substances and relations in respect to budgets has been calculated. The dynamics of DOC, nutrient and major dissolved substance flows depending on landuse pattern and soil properties in Latvia has been described, including emissions by industrial and agricultural production. In these changes evidently climate change signals can be identified. The water chemistry of a large number of rivers during flood events has been determined and the possible impact of water chemical composition on DOC and nutrient flows has been evaluated. Long-term changes (1977-2013) of concentrations of dissolved substances do not follow linear trends but rather show oscillating patterns, indicating impact of natural factors, e.g. changing hydrological and climatic conditions. There is a positive correlation between content of inert dissolved substances and

  1. Event-by-event fission simulation code, generates complete fission events

    2013-04-01

    FREYA is a computer code that generates complete fission events. The output includes the energy and momentum of these final state particles: fission products, prompt neutrons and prompt photons. The version of FREYA that is to be released is a module for MCNP6.

  2. On causality of extreme events

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available. PMID:27330866

  3. Disastrous events and political failures.

    PubMed

    Levett, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    Response to the Ebola crisis (ongoing event) has been less than efficient. It has been monitored less than adequately by the international community and has been coordinated poorly in the USA. The event is used as a platform to examine deficiencies in public health infrastructure, the limits of its political and financial support, and how political outcomes can be affected. The need to tease out the political determinants implicit in policy failure and disaster management is argued in this Editorial. Failures mentioned include in the Balkans and in Greece with ongoing austerity. Comments on the real heroes of Ebola on the ground in Africa and the need for a charismatic role for political leaders in public health are also included. PMID:25882131

  4. Early Events in RNA Folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirumalai, D.; Lee, Namkyung; Woodson, Sarah A.; Klimov, Dk

    2001-10-01

    We describe a conceptual framework for understanding the way large RNA molecules fold based on the notion that their free-energy landscape is rugged. A key prediction of our theory is that RNA folding can be described by the kinetic partitioning mechanism (KPM). According to KPM a small fraction of molecules folds rapidly to the native state whereas the remaining fraction is kinetically trapped in a low free-energy non-native state. This model provides a unified description of the way RNA and proteins fold. Single-molecule experiments on Tetrahymena ribozyme, which directly validate our theory, are analyzed using KPM. We also describe the earliest events that occur on microsecond time scales in RNA folding. These must involve collapse of RNA molecules that are mediated by counterion-condensation. Estimates of time scales for the initial events in RNA folding are provided for the Tetrahymena ribozyme.

  5. On causality of extreme events.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available.

  6. Disastrous events and political failures.

    PubMed

    Levett, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    Response to the Ebola crisis (ongoing event) has been less than efficient. It has been monitored less than adequately by the international community and has been coordinated poorly in the USA. The event is used as a platform to examine deficiencies in public health infrastructure, the limits of its political and financial support, and how political outcomes can be affected. The need to tease out the political determinants implicit in policy failure and disaster management is argued in this Editorial. Failures mentioned include in the Balkans and in Greece with ongoing austerity. Comments on the real heroes of Ebola on the ground in Africa and the need for a charismatic role for political leaders in public health are also included.

  7. Studying transient events with Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Athena is the second large mission selected in the ESA Cosmic Vision plan. With its large collecting area, high spectral-energy resolution (X-IFU instrument) and impressive grasp (WFI instrument), Athena will truly revolutionise X-ray astronomy. The most prodigious sources of high-energy photons are often transitory in nature. Athena will provide the sensitivity and spectral resolution coupled with rapid response to enable the study of the dynamic sky. Potential sources include: distant Gamma-Ray Bursts to probe the reionisation epoch and find 'missing' baryons in the cosmic web; tidal disruption events to reveal dormant supermassive and intermediate-mass black holes; and supernova explosions to understand progenitors and their environments. I will illustrate Athena's capabilities and show how it will be able to constrain the nature of explosive events.

  8. The Probabilities of Unique Events

    PubMed Central

    Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Lotstein, Max; Johnson-Laird, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program) in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable. PMID:23056224

  9. Takotsubo Syndrome and Embolic Events.

    PubMed

    El-Battrawy, Ibrahim; Borggrefe, Martin; Akin, Ibrahim

    2016-10-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), initially defined as a benign disease, is associated with several complications. One of them is a thromboembolism, which is clinically presented by events such as stroke, ventricular thrombi, and peripheral embolization, and can be present at index event of TCC as well as at any time in disease course. Patients with elevated C-reactive protein levels, markedly elevated D-dimers and severely impaired left ventricular function seem to be at higher risk of developing thrombemboli. Treatment strategies prescribed in the management of thombembolic complications in patients with acute myocardial infarction includes a short course of anticoagulation. A similar analogy could also be considered for patients with TTC presenting with this complications. Nevertheless, an individualized close-follow-up is of utmost importance to avoid any relapse and not to oversee any impeding complications in light of dynamic processes in myocardial stunning. PMID:27638024

  10. Argonne's 2012 Earth Day Event

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Argonne's 2012 Earth Day event drew crowds from across the laboratory. Argonne and U.S. Department of Energy employees toured booths and interactive displays set up by Argonne programs and clubs. Several of Argonne's partners participated, including U.S. Department of Energy, University of Chicago, Abri Credit Union, DuPage County Forest Preserve, DuPage Water Commission, PACE and Morton Arboretum. Argonne scientists and engineers also participated in a poster session, discussing their clean energy research.

  11. Argonne's 2012 Earth Day Event

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Argonne's 2012 Earth Day event drew crowds from across the laboratory. Argonne and U.S. Department of Energy employees toured booths and interactive displays set up by Argonne programs and clubs. Several of Argonne's partners participated, including U.S. Department of Energy, University of Chicago, Abri Credit Union, DuPage County Forest Preserve, DuPage Water Commission, PACE and Morton Arboretum. Argonne scientists and engineers also participated in a poster session, discussing their clean energy research.

  12. Nilotinib-associated vascular events.

    PubMed

    Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Kantarjian, Hagop; Cortes, Jorge

    2012-10-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that nilotinib therapy may be associated with severe peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD). The authors describe the experience at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center regarding vascular events associated with nilotinib therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Overall, 5 cases of PAOD were identified among 233 patients, for an incidence of 2%. Nilotinib is a highly selective inhibitor of the inactive conformation of ABL1 kinase. An improved topologic fit to the ABL1 protein-binding surface contributes to its increased potency over imatinib. This higher selectivity in vitro translated to an improved tolerability in vivo. In fact, nilotinib therapy in the frontline phase III ENESTnd (Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials-Newly Diagnosed Patients) study was associated with an improved toxicity profile compared with that of imatinib. Intriguingly, several cases of severe peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) have been reported among patients treated with nilotinib in small series. We have identified 5 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in whom vascular events developed that were likely related to nilotinib therapy among 233 (2%) patients treated at our institution: 1 patient had recurrent Raynaud syndrome, a second patient had recurrent cerebrovascular accidents, and 3 other patients had PAOD (2 of them with other vascular events, including coronary artery disease and pulmonary emboli, respectively). Risk factors for vascular disease were present in only 1 patient with a history of diabetes mellitus. Although the incidence of vascular events is low, this potential complication should be taken into account when selecting nilotinib for the treatment of CML.

  13. Flood basalts and extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1993-01-01

    The largest known effusive eruptions during the Cenozoic and Mesozoic Eras, the voluminous flood basalts, have long been suspected as being associated with major extinctions of biotic species. Despite the possible errors attached to the dates in both time series of events, the significance level of the suspected correlation is found here to be 1 percent to 4 percent. Statistically, extinctions lag eruptions by a mean time interval that is indistinguishable from zero, being much less than the average residual derived from the correlation analysis. Oceanic flood basalts, however, must have had a different biological impact, which is still uncertain owing to the small number of known examples and differing physical factors. Although not all continental flood basalts can have produced major extinction events, the noncorrelating eruptions may have led to smaller marine extinction events that terminated at least some of the less catastrophically ending geologic stages. Consequently, the 26 Myr quasi-periodicity seen in major marine extinctions may be only a sampling effect, rather than a manifestation of underlying periodicity.

  14. 49 CFR 229.135 - Event recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... an event recorder with a certified crashworthy event recorder memory module that meets the... certified crashworthy event recorder memory module that meets the requirements of Appendix D of this part. The certified event recorder memory module shall be mounted for its maximum protection....

  15. 49 CFR 229.135 - Event recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... an event recorder with a certified crashworthy event recorder memory module that meets the... certified crashworthy event recorder memory module that meets the requirements of Appendix D of this part. The certified event recorder memory module shall be mounted for its maximum protection....

  16. 49 CFR 229.135 - Event recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... an event recorder with a certified crashworthy event recorder memory module that meets the... certified crashworthy event recorder memory module that meets the requirements of Appendix D of this part. The certified event recorder memory module shall be mounted for its maximum protection....

  17. 49 CFR 229.135 - Event recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... an event recorder with a certified crashworthy event recorder memory module that meets the... certified crashworthy event recorder memory module that meets the requirements of Appendix D of this part. The certified event recorder memory module shall be mounted for its maximum protection....

  18. 49 CFR 229.135 - Event recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... an event recorder with a certified crashworthy event recorder memory module that meets the... certified crashworthy event recorder memory module that meets the requirements of Appendix D of this part. The certified event recorder memory module shall be mounted for its maximum protection....

  19. 36 CFR 1002.50 - Special events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special events. 1002.50... RECREATION § 1002.50 Special events. (a) Sports events, pageants, regattas, public spectator attractions, entertainments, ceremonies, and similar events are allowed: Provided, however, There is a meaningful...

  20. Attracting New Audiences through Special Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christyson, M. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Explores reasons to create special events, change existing events, or discontinue events, in the pursuit of new audiences. Describes surveys of usership at Cleveland Metroparks to identify new audiences. Effective event design and implementation requires effective advertising, which is expensive, so a discussion of fund development, branding, and…

  1. 36 CFR 331.11 - Special events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special events. 331.11..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.11 Special events. (a) Special events including, but not limited to, water... charged any fee by the sponsor of such permitted event unless the District Engineer has approved...

  2. 36 CFR 327.21 - Special events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special events. 327.21... § 327.21 Special events. (a) Special events including, but not limited to, water carnivals, boat... sponsor of such event unless the District Commander has approved in writing (and the sponsor has...

  3. 36 CFR 327.21 - Special events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special events. 327.21... § 327.21 Special events. (a) Special events including, but not limited to, water carnivals, boat... sponsor of such event unless the District Commander has approved in writing (and the sponsor has...

  4. 36 CFR 327.21 - Special events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special events. 327.21... § 327.21 Special events. (a) Special events including, but not limited to, water carnivals, boat... sponsor of such event unless the District Commander has approved in writing (and the sponsor has...

  5. 36 CFR 327.21 - Special events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special events. 327.21... § 327.21 Special events. (a) Special events including, but not limited to, water carnivals, boat... sponsor of such event unless the District Commander has approved in writing (and the sponsor has...

  6. 36 CFR 327.21 - Special events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Special events. 327.21 Section... § 327.21 Special events. (a) Special events including, but not limited to, water carnivals, boat... sponsor of such event unless the District Commander has approved in writing (and the sponsor has...

  7. Rare events: a state of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1980-12-01

    The study of rare events has become increasingly important in the context of nuclear safety. Some philosophical considerations, such as the framework for the definition of a rare event, rare events and science, rare events and trans-science, and rare events and public perception, are discussed. The technical work of the Task Force on problems of Rare Events in the Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Plants (1976-1978), sponsored by OECD, is reviewed. Some recent technical considerations are discussed, and conclusions are drawn. The appendix contains an essay written by Anne E. Beachey, under the title: A Study of Rare Events - Problems and Promises.

  8. The ATLAS Event Service: A new approach to event processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calafiura, P.; De, K.; Guan, W.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Tsulaia, V.; Van Gemmeren, P.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Event Service (ES) implements a new fine grained approach to HEP event processing, designed to be agile and efficient in exploiting transient, short-lived resources such as HPC hole-filling, spot market commercial clouds, and volunteer computing. Input and output control and data flows, bookkeeping, monitoring, and data storage are all managed at the event level in an implementation capable of supporting ATLAS-scale distributed processing throughputs (about 4M CPU-hours/day). Input data flows utilize remote data repositories with no data locality or pre-staging requirements, minimizing the use of costly storage in favor of strongly leveraging powerful networks. Object stores provide a highly scalable means of remotely storing the quasi-continuous, fine grained outputs that give ES based applications a very light data footprint on a processing resource, and ensure negligible losses should the resource suddenly vanish. We will describe the motivations for the ES system, its unique features and capabilities, its architecture and the highly scalable tools and technologies employed in its implementation, and its applications in ATLAS processing on HPCs, commercial cloud resources, volunteer computing, and grid resources. Notice: This manuscript has been authored by employees of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  9. Geochemistry of oceanic anoxic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkyns, Hugh C.

    2010-03-01

    Oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) record profound changes in the climatic and paleoceanographic state of the planet and represent major disturbances in the global carbon cycle. OAEs that manifestly caused major chemical change in the Mesozoic Ocean include those of the early Toarcian (Posidonienschiefer event, T-OAE, ˜183 Ma), early Aptian (Selli event, OAE 1a, ˜120 Ma), early Albian (Paquier event, OAE 1b, ˜111 Ma), and Cenomanian-Turonian (Bonarelli event, C/T OAE, OAE 2, ˜93 Ma). Currently available data suggest that the major forcing function behind OAEs was an abrupt rise in temperature, induced by rapid influx of CO2 into the atmosphere from volcanogenic and/or methanogenic sources. Global warming was accompanied by an accelerated hydrological cycle, increased continental weathering, enhanced nutrient discharge to oceans and lakes, intensified upwelling, and an increase in organic productivity. An increase in continental weathering is typically recorded by transient increases in the seawater values of 87Sr/86Sr and 187Os/188Os ratios acting against, in the case of the Cenomanian-Turonian and early Aptian OAEs, a longer-term trend to less radiogenic values. This latter trend indicates that hydrothermally and volcanically sourced nutrients may also have stimulated local increases in organic productivity. Increased flux of organic matter favored intense oxygen demand in the water column, as well as increased rates of marine and lacustrine carbon burial. Particularly in those restricted oceans and seaways where density stratification was favored by paleogeography and significant fluvial input, conditions could readily evolve from poorly oxygenated to anoxic and ultimately euxinic (i.e., sulfidic), this latter state being geochemically the most significant. The progressive evolution in redox conditions through phases of denitrification/anammox, through to sulfate reduction accompanied by water column precipitation of pyrite framboids, resulted in fractionation of

  10. Medical coverage for track and field events.

    PubMed

    Pendergraph, Bernadette; Ko, Belinda; Zamora, James; Bass, Evan

    2005-06-01

    Providing medical coverage at a track and field event is similar to other spectator events, but there are some important differences. With simultaneous events occurring over a large area, reliable communication with quick access to all event sites is mandatory. Preparation needs to include a prearranged emergency response plan for each event. Because field events involve throwing heavy and sometimes sharp objects (discus, hammer, shot put, and javelin) or landing in a cushioned pit (high jump, pole vault), sites need well-demarcated, constantly monitored boundaries with properly installed, well-maintained safety equipment. All personnel involved in monitoring these events should be educated on proper procedure in managing potential head or neck injuries. Event officials must also remained focused on their tasks, avoiding the distractions that simultaneous events can cause. Because most events are outdoors, appropriate protection and recovery sites for heat, cold, and sun exposure should be arranged.

  11. [Dealing with competing events in survival analysis].

    PubMed

    Béchade, Clémence; Lobbedez, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Survival analyses focus on the occurrences of an event of interest, in order to determine risk factors and estimate a risk. Competing events prevent from observing the event of interest. If there are competing events, it can lead to a bias in the risk's estimation. The aim of this article is to explain why Cox model is not appropriate when there are competing events, and to present Fine and Gray model, which can help when dealing with competing risks.

  12. How to model rare events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieser, J.; Jewson, S.

    2009-04-01

    The risk of extreme meteorological events is often estimated using extreme value theory (EVT). However, EVT can't be expected to work well in all cases. Two examples are (a) very rare events which are not adequately captured in short observational records and (b) nonstationary situations where observations alone cannot provide risk estimates for the future. For these reasons Risk Management Solutions (RMS) develops models of extreme weather risks that are based on a combination of both, physics and statistics, rather than just statistics. One example is the RMS TC-Rain model. In addition to wind and storm surge, tropical cyclones (TCs) can lead to torrential rain that may cause widespread flooding and landslides. The most prominent recent historical example is tropical storm Alison (2001) which inundated Houston and caused roughly US 5bn of damage. Since Alison was only tropical storm, rather than a hurricane, no damage due to wind and storm surge was expected and no serious warnings were issued. RMS now has developed a TC-Rain Model which is based on a combination of observations, experience and physical parameterizations. It is an example on how the use of physical principles helps to estimate the risk of rare and devastating events. Based on an event set of TC tracks it allows the calculation of several hundred thousand TC rain footprints which can then be used for the estimation of flood levels and their return periods via a complex dynamical hydrological model. The TC-Rain Model takes a number of physical mechanisms into account, including (a) the effect of surface roughness change at land fall, (b) orographic rain enhancement, (c) drift of rain due to strong horizontal winds, (d) asymmetry, (e) outer rain bands and (f) the dependence on sea surface temperature. It is calibrated using 35 US-landfalling tropical cyclones from 1998 to the 2008, and verified against all US-landfalling TCs since 1948. The model is not designed as a forecasting tool, but rather a

  13. The LCLS Timing Event System

    SciTech Connect

    Dusatko, John; Allison, S.; Browne, M.; Krejcik, P.; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    The Linac Coherent Light Source requires precision timing trigger signals for various accelerator diagnostics and controls at SLAC-NAL. A new timing system has been developed that meets these requirements. This system is based on COTS hardware with a mixture of custom-designed units. An added challenge has been the requirement that the LCLS Timing System must co-exist and 'know' about the existing SLC Timing System. This paper describes the architecture, construction and performance of the LCLS timing event system.

  14. Welcoming Nora: A Family Event

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Allison J.; Walsh, Paul R.; Walsh, Jane M.; Walsh, Gavin T.

    2011-01-01

    In this column, Allison and Paul Walsh share the story of the birth of Nora, their third baby and their second child to be born at home. Allison and Paul share their individual memories of labor and birth. But their story is only part of the story of Nora’s birth. Nora’s birth was a family event, with Allison and Paul’s other children very much part of the experience. Jane and Gavin share their own memories of their baby sister’s birth. PMID:22654460

  15. Energetic ions in dipolarization events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birn, J.; Runov, A.; Hesse, M.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate ion acceleration in dipolarization events in the magnetotail, using the electromagnetic fields of an MHD simulation of magnetotail reconnection and flow bursts as basis for test particle tracing. The simulation results are compared with "Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms" observations. We provide quantitative answers to the relative importance of source regions and source energies. Flux decreases at proton energies up to 10-20 keV are found to be due to sources of lobe or plasma sheet boundary layer particles that enter the near tail via reconnection. Flux increases result from both thermal and suprathermal ion sources. Comparable numbers of accelerated protons enter the acceleration region via cross-tail drift from the dawn flanks of the near-tail plasma sheet and via reconnection of field lines extending into the more distant tail. We also demonstrate the presence of earthward plasma flow and accelerated suprathermal ions ahead of a dipolarization front. The flow acceleration stems from a net Lorentz force, resulting from reduced pressure gradients within a pressure pile-up region ahead of the front. Suprathermal precursor ions result from, typically multiple reflections at the front. Low-energy ions also become accelerated due to inertial drift in the direction of the small precursor electric field.

  16. Video fingerprinting for live events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Mehmet; Haitsma, Jaap; Barvinko, Pavlo; Langelaar, Gerhard; Maas, Martijn

    2009-02-01

    Multimedia fingerprinting (robust hashing) as a content identification technology is emerging as an effective tool for preventing unauthorized distribution of commercial content through user generated content (UGC) sites. Research in the field has mainly considered content types with slow distribution cycles, e.g. feature films, for which reference fingerprint ingestion and database indexing can be performed offline. As a result, research focus has been on improving the robustness and search speed. Live events, such as live sports broadcasts, impose new challenges on a fingerprinting system. For instance, highlights from a soccer match are often available-and viewed-on UGC sites well before the end of the match. In this scenario, the fingerprinting system should be able to ingest and index live content online and offer continuous search capability, where new material is identifiable within minutes of broadcast. In this paper, we concentrate on algorithmic and architectural challenges we faced when developing a video fingerprinting solution for live events. In particular, we discuss how to effectively utilize fast sorting algorithms and a master-slave architecture for fast and continuous ingestion of live broadcasts.

  17. Low latency counter event indication

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-08-24

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events with interrupt indication includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each for counting signals representing event occurrences and providing a first count value representing lower order bits. An overflow bit device associated with each respective counter device is additionally set in response to an overflow condition. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits. An operatively coupled control device monitors each associated overflow bit device and initiates incrementing a second count value stored at a corresponding memory location in response to a respective overflow bit being set. The incremented second count value is compared to an interrupt threshold value stored in a threshold register, and, when the second counter value is equal to the interrupt threshold value, a corresponding "interrupt arm" bit is set to enable a fast interrupt indication. On a subsequent roll-over of the lower bits of that counter, the interrupt will be fired.

  18. Low latency counter event indication

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2008-09-16

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events with interrupt indication includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each for counting signals representing event occurrences and providing a first count value representing lower order bits. An overflow bit device associated with each respective counter device is additionally set in response to an overflow condition. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits. An operatively coupled control device monitors each associated overflow bit device and initiates incrementing a second count value stored at a corresponding memory location in response to a respective overflow bit being set. The incremented second count value is compared to an interrupt threshold value stored in a threshold register, and, when the second counter value is equal to the interrupt threshold value, a corresponding "interrupt arm" bit is set to enable a fast interrupt indication. On a subsequent roll-over of the lower bits of that counter, the interrupt will be fired.

  19. Insulin signaling controls neurotransmission via the 4eBP-dependent modification of the exocytotic machinery.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Rebekah Elizabeth; Azpurua, Jorge; Eaton, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Altered insulin signaling has been linked to widespread nervous system dysfunction including cognitive dysfunction, neuropathy and susceptibility to neurodegenerative disease. However, knowledge of the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of insulin on neuronal function is incomplete. Here, we show that cell autonomous insulin signaling within the Drosophila CM9 motor neuron regulates the release of neurotransmitter via alteration of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. This effect of insulin utilizes the FOXO-dependent regulation of the thor gene, which encodes the Drosophila homologue of the eif-4e binding protein (4eBP). A critical target of this regulatory mechanism is Complexin, a synaptic protein known to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We find that the amounts of Complexin protein observed at the synapse is regulated by insulin and genetic manipulations of Complexin levels support the model that increased synaptic Complexin reduces neurotransmission in response to insulin signaling. PMID:27525480

  20. Cdc42 controls the dilation of the exocytotic fusion pore by regulating membrane tension

    PubMed Central

    Bretou, Marine; Jouannot, Ouardane; Fanget, Isabelle; Pierobon, Paolo; Larochette, Nathanaël; Gestraud, Pierre; Guillon, Marc; Emiliani, Valentina; Gasman, Stéphane; Desnos, Claire; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria; Darchen, François

    2014-01-01

    Membrane fusion underlies multiple processes, including exocytosis of hormones and neurotransmitters. Membrane fusion starts with the formation of a narrow fusion pore. Radial expansion of this pore completes the process and allows fast release of secretory compounds, but this step remains poorly understood. Here we show that inhibiting the expression of the small GTPase Cdc42 or preventing its activation with a dominant negative Cdc42 construct in human neuroendocrine cells impaired the release process by compromising fusion pore enlargement. Consequently the mode of vesicle exocytosis was shifted from full-collapse fusion to kiss-and-run. Remarkably, Cdc42-knockdown cells showed reduced membrane tension, and the artificial increase of membrane tension restored fusion pore enlargement. Moreover, inhibiting the motor protein myosin II by blebbistatin decreased membrane tension, as well as fusion pore dilation. We conclude that membrane tension is the driving force for fusion pore dilation and that Cdc42 is a key regulator of this force. PMID:25143404

  1. Structure suggests function: the case for synaptic ribbons as exocytotic nanomachines.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, D; von Gersdorff, H

    2001-09-01

    Synaptic ribbons, the organelles identified in electron micrographs of the sensory synapses involved in vision, hearing, and balance, have long been hypothesized to play an important role in regulating presynaptic function because they associate with synaptic vesicles at the active zone. Their physiology and molecular composition have, however, remained largely unknown. Recently, a series of elegant studies spurred by technical innovation have finally begun to shed light on the ultrastructure and function of ribbon synapses. Electrical capacitance measurements have provided sub-millisecond resolution of exocytosis, evanescent-wave microscopy has filmed the fusion of single 30 nm synaptic vesicles, electron tomography has revealed the 3D architecture of the synapse, and molecular cloning has begun to identify the proteins that make up ribbons. These results are consistent with the ribbon serving as a vesicle "conveyor belt" to resupply the active zone, and with the suggestion that ribbon and conventional chemical synapses have much in common.

  2. Oligophrenin-1 Connects Exocytotic Fusion to Compensatory Endocytosis in Neuroendocrine Cells.

    PubMed

    Houy, Sébastien; Estay-Ahumada, Catherine; Croisé, Pauline; Calco, Valérie; Haeberlé, Anne-Marie; Bailly, Yannick; Billuart, Pierre; Vitale, Nicolas; Bader, Marie-France; Ory, Stéphane; Gasman, Stéphane

    2015-08-01

    Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) is a protein with multiple domains including a Rho family GTPase-activating (Rho-GAP) domain, and a Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain. Involved in X-linked intellectual disability, OPHN1 has been reported to control several synaptic functions, including synaptic plasticity, synaptic vesicle trafficking, and endocytosis. In neuroendocrine cells, hormones and neuropeptides stored in large dense core vesicles (secretory granules) are released through calcium-regulated exocytosis, a process that is tightly coupled to compensatory endocytosis, allowing secretory granule recycling. We show here that OPHN1 is expressed and mainly localized at the plasma membrane and in the cytosol in chromaffin cells from adrenal medulla. Using carbon fiber amperometry, we found that exocytosis is impaired at the late stage of membrane fusion in Ophn1 knock-out mice and OPHN1-silenced bovine chromaffin cells. Experiments performed with ectopically expressed OPHN1 mutants indicate that OPHN1 requires its Rho-GAP domain to control fusion pore dynamics. On the other hand, compensatory endocytosis assessed by measuring dopamine-β-hydroxylase (secretory granule membrane) internalization is severely inhibited in Ophn1 knock-out chromaffin cells. This inhibitory effect is mimicked by the expression of a truncated OPHN1 mutant lacking the BAR domain, demonstrating that the BAR domain implicates OPHN1 in granule membrane recapture after exocytosis. These findings reveal for the first time that OPHN1 is a bifunctional protein that is able, through distinct mechanisms, to regulate and most likely link exocytosis to compensatory endocytosis in chromaffin cells.

  3. Insulin signaling controls neurotransmission via the 4eBP-dependent modification of the exocytotic machinery

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Rebekah Elizabeth; Azpurua, Jorge; Eaton, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Altered insulin signaling has been linked to widespread nervous system dysfunction including cognitive dysfunction, neuropathy and susceptibility to neurodegenerative disease. However, knowledge of the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of insulin on neuronal function is incomplete. Here, we show that cell autonomous insulin signaling within the Drosophila CM9 motor neuron regulates the release of neurotransmitter via alteration of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. This effect of insulin utilizes the FOXO-dependent regulation of the thor gene, which encodes the Drosophila homologue of the eif-4e binding protein (4eBP). A critical target of this regulatory mechanism is Complexin, a synaptic protein known to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We find that the amounts of Complexin protein observed at the synapse is regulated by insulin and genetic manipulations of Complexin levels support the model that increased synaptic Complexin reduces neurotransmission in response to insulin signaling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16807.001 PMID:27525480

  4. How to accurately detect autobiographical events.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Giuseppe; Agosta, Sara; Zogmaister, Cristina; Ferrara, Santo Davide; Castiello, Umberto

    2008-08-01

    We describe a new method, based on indirect measures of implicit autobiographical memory, that allows evaluation of which of two contrasting autobiographical events (e.g., crimes) is true for a given individual. Participants were requested to classify sentences describing possible autobiographical events by pressing one of two response keys. Responses were faster when sentences related to truly autobiographical events shared the same response key with other sentences reporting true events and slower when sentences related to truly autobiographical events shared the same response key with sentences reporting false events. This method has possible application in forensic settings and as a lie-detection technique.

  5. Discovering Event Evidence Amid Massive, Dynamic Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M; Potok, Thomas E

    2007-01-01

    Automated event extraction remains a very difficult challenge requiring information analysts to manually identify key events of interest within massive, dynamic data. Many techniques for extracting events rely on domain specific natural language processing or information retrieval techniques. As an alternative, this work focuses on detecting events based on identifying event characteristics of interest to an analyst. An evolutionary algorithm is developed as a proof of concept to demonstrate this approach. Initial results indicate that this approach represents a feasible approach to identifying critical event information in a massive data set with no apriori knowledgeof the data set.

  6. What is a radiation belt enhancement event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, G. D.; Niehof, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Statistical studies of radiation belt enhancement events typically rely on other observations to define an "event". Those other observations could be based on Dst, solar wind speed, CME or CIR occurrence, etc. It is also interesting to start with an electron event and ask which geomagnetic or solar wind driving conditions are (or are not) related to those events. However, such studies have been hindered by the absence of a uniform, quantitative definition of "events". This is particularly true in phases of the solar cycle where background radiation belt fluxes are low but relative changes are large. Such events would be missed by picking an arbitrary flux threshold to define events. We examine two solar cycles of geosynchronous measurements to define the probability distribution of events with both fixed and solar cycle-dependent event criteria. These distributions allow us to define events based on radiation belt electron data alone, to classify types of enhancement events, and to ask: What conditions produced that class of events? The same distributions have important space weather forecasting applications as well. We can now quantify the criteria that define enhancement events that can be expected to occur once per month, once per year, or once per solar cycle.

  7. Extreme events monitoring from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Yann; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Mahmoodi, Ali; Richaume, Philippe; Al-Yaari, Amen; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite was successfully launched in November 2009. This ESA led mission for Earth Observation is dedicated to provide soil moisture over continental surface (with an accuracy goal of 0.04 m3/m3), vegetation water content over land, and ocean salinity. These geophysical features are important as they control the energy balance between the surface and the atmosphere. Their knowledge at a global scale is of interest for climatic and weather researches, and in particular in improving model forecasts. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission has now been collecting data for 6 years. The whole data set has just been reprocessed (Version 620 for levels 1 and 2 and version 3 for level 3 CATDS). After 6 years it seems important to start using data for having a look at anomalies and see how they can relate to large scale events The purpose of this communication is to present the mission results after more than six years in orbit in a climatic trend perspective, as through such a period anomalies can be detected. Thereby we benefit from consistent datasets provided through the latest reprocessing using most recent algorithm enhancements. Using the above mentioned products it is possible to follow large events such as the evolution of the droughts in North America, or water fraction evolution over the Amazonian basin. In this occasion we will focus on the analysis of SMOS and ancillary products anomalies to reveal two climatic trends, the temporal evolution of water storage over the Indian continent in relation to rainfall anomalies, and the global impact of El Nino types of events on the general water storage distribution. This presentation shows in detail the use of long term data sets of L-band microwave radiometry in two specific cases, namely droughts and water budget over a large basin. Several other analyses are under way currently. Obviously, vegetation water content, but also dielectric constant, are carrying a wealth

  8. Were all extinction events caused by impacts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehan, P. M.; Coorough, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    Extraterrestrial impacts are firmly implicated in several of the five major Phanerozoic extinction events. A critical issue now is whether extraterrestrial events have been the only mechanism that produced physical changes of sufficient magnitude to cause major extinction events. While we believe the evidence is overwhelming that the KT extinction event was caused by an impact, we also find that an event of similar or larger size near the end of the Ordovician is best explained by terrestrial causes. The Ordovician extinction event (End-O extinction event) occurred near the end of the Ordovician, but the interval of extinction was completed prior to the newly established Ordovician-Silurian boundary. In spite of extensive field studies, a convincing signature of an associated impact has not been found. However, a prominent glaciation does coincide with the End-O extinction event.

  9. 36 CFR 2.50 - Special events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.50 Special events. (a) Sports events, pageants, regattas, public... Service concessioners or contractors; or (5) Present a clear and present danger to the public health...

  10. 36 CFR 1002.50 - Special events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.50 Special events. (a) Sports events, pageants, regattas, public spectator attractions... Presidio Trust concessioners or contractors; or (5) Present a clear and present danger to the public...

  11. Single Event Effects: Space and Atmospheric Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the following: 1. Sun-Earth connections. 2. Heavy ions: galactic cosmic rays; solar particle events. 3. Protons: solar particle events; trapped. 4. Atmospheric neutrons. 5. Summary.

  12. Brief introduction of the neutrino event generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hayato, Yoshinari

    2015-05-15

    The neutrino interaction simulation programs (event generators) play an important role in the neutrino experiments. This article briefly explains what is the neutrino event generator and how it works.

  13. 36 CFR 1002.50 - Special events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.50 Special events. (a) Sports events, pageants, regattas, public spectator attractions..., a permittee may elect to deposit cash equal to the amount of the required bond. (2) In addition...

  14. 36 CFR 1002.50 - Special events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.50 Special events. (a) Sports events, pageants, regattas, public spectator attractions..., a permittee may elect to deposit cash equal to the amount of the required bond. (2) In addition...

  15. 36 CFR 1002.50 - Special events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.50 Special events. (a) Sports events, pageants, regattas, public spectator attractions..., a permittee may elect to deposit cash equal to the amount of the required bond. (2) In addition...

  16. Surface Management System Departure Event Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Gilena A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a data analysis of the Surface Management System (SMS) performance of departure events, including push-back and runway departure events.The paper focuses on the detection performance, or the ability to detect departure events, as well as the prediction performance of SMS. The results detail a modest overall detection performance of push-back events and a significantly high overall detection performance of runway departure events. The overall detection performance of SMS for push-back events is approximately 55%.The overall detection performance of SMS for runway departure events nears 100%. This paper also presents the overall SMS prediction performance for runway departure events as well as the timeliness of the Aircraft Situation Display for Industry data source for SMS predictions.

  17. Single event upset hardening techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, H.T.; Corbett, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Integrated circuit logic states are maintained by virtue of specific transistor combinations being either on'' (conducting) or off'' (nonconducting). High energy ion strikes on the microcircuit generate photocurrents whose primary detrimental effect is to make off'' transistors appear on,'' confusing the logic state and leading to single event upset (SEU). Protection against these soft errors is accomplished using either technology or circuit techniques, actions that generally impact yield and performance relative to unhardened circuits. We describe, and using circuit simulations analyze, a technique for hardening latches which requires combinations of technology and circuit modifications, but which provides SEU immunity without loss of speed. Specifically, a single logic state is hardened against SEU using technology methods and the information concerning valid states is then used to simplify hardened circuit design. The technique emphasizes some basic hardening concepts, ideas for which will be reviewed. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  18. International theme for seaside event.

    PubMed

    Adie, Kate; Whitehorn, Will

    2014-05-01

    The organisers of this month's HefmA 2014 annual conference and exhibition promise delegates "the opportunity to hear international perspectives on the current issues facing the worldwide 'family' of health estates and facilities professionals". Conference speakers will include a US-based consultant architect discussing 'a transformational change programme which has achieved up to threefold greater throughput using the existing footprint in a US Emergency Department'; the assistant director, Facilities Services, at Health Facilities Scotland, focusing on HFS's work to ensure high training standards and succession planning, former BBC war correspondent, Kate Adie, describing some of the 'extraordinary experiences' of an eventful career, and Will Whitehorn, a former search-and-rescue helicopter crewman, who later became president of 'the world's first commercial spaceline', Virgin Galactic, giving his view on technology's impact in business. PMID:24930186

  19. Crowd enjoys the FIRST event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST team members and friends enjoy the FIRST event. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co- sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  20. Extreme solar energetic particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainio, Rami; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Properties of extreme solar energetic particle (SEP) events, here defined as those leading to ground level enhancements (GLEs) of cosmic rays, are reviewed. We review recent efforts on modeling SEP acceleration to relativistic energies and present simulation results on particle acceleration at shocks driven by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in different types of coronal magnetic structures and turbulent downstream compression regions. Based on these modeling results, we discuss the possible role of solar and CME parameters in the lack of GLEs during the present sunspot cycle. This work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support.

  1. Replacement Sequence of Events Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladden, Daniel Wenkert Roy; Khanampompan, Teerpat

    2008-01-01

    The soeWINDOW program automates the generation of an ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations)-compliant sub-RSOE (Replacement Sequence of Events) by extracting a specified temporal window from an RSOE while maintaining page header information. RSOEs contain a significant amount of information that is not ITAR-compliant, yet that foreign partners need to see for command details to their instrument, as well as the surrounding commands that provide context for validation. soeWINDOW can serve as an example of how command support products can be made ITAR-compliant for future missions. This software is a Perl script intended for use in the mission operations UNIX environment. It is designed for use to support the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) instrument team. The tool also provides automated DOM (Distributed Object Manager) storage into the special ITAR-okay DOM collection, and can be used for creating focused RSOEs for product review by any of the MRO teams.

  2. Presidential Events and Symposia: Philadelphia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    During 2008, ACS President Bruce E. Bursten is highlighting energy development, education initiatives, enhanced communication of the centrality of chemistry, and international cooperation between chemists and chemical engineers. At the Philadelphia meeting there is a symposium on global energy challenges and opportunities on Monday afternoon. Beginning Sunday afternoon with a special symposium, and continuing throughout the week, we will celebrate the centrality of chemistry through the disciplines of agriculture and food chemistry, industrial and engineering chemistry, organic chemistry, and physical chemistry, as we observe the centennial of the divisions representing those disciplines. Other symposia sponsored by the president include the 40th Anniversary of Project SEED and the Astellas Foundation Award Lectures in Transitional Chemistry, a new national award. It promises to be an exciting time. These and other events that are cosponsored by the ACS President are listed.

  3. Language Policy at Major Sporting Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    2009-01-01

    International sporting events, such as the Olympic Games, are linguistically complex events that require large-scale language planning and policy. This chapter focuses on the Olympic Games and looks at the practicalities of the attitudes and responses to multilingualism and the language policies employed in this particular international event to…

  4. 48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Significant events. 2110..., AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS Contract Specifications 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required to inform the contracting officer of all significant events....

  5. 48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Significant events. 2110..., AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS Contract Specifications 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required to inform the contracting officer of all significant events....

  6. 48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Significant events. 2110..., AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS Contract Specifications 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required to inform the contracting officer of all significant events....

  7. 48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Significant events. 2110..., AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS Contract Specifications 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required to inform the contracting officer of all significant events....

  8. Adverse events in healthcare: learning from mistakes.

    PubMed

    Rafter, N; Hickey, A; Condell, S; Conroy, R; O'Connor, P; Vaughan, D; Williams, D

    2015-04-01

    Large national reviews of patient charts estimate that approximately 10% of hospital admissions are associated with an adverse event (defined as an injury resulting in prolonged hospitalization, disability or death, caused by healthcare management). Apart from having a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality, adverse events also result in increased healthcare costs due to longer hospital stays. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of adverse events are preventable. Through identifying the nature and rate of adverse events, initiatives to improve care can be developed. A variety of methods exist to gather adverse event data both retrospectively and prospectively but these do not necessarily capture the same events and there is variability in the definition of an adverse event. For example, hospital incident reporting collects only a very small fraction of the adverse events found in retrospective chart reviews. Until there are systematic methods to identify adverse events, progress in patient safety cannot be reliably measured. This review aims to discuss the need for a safety culture that can learn from adverse events, describe ways to measure adverse events, and comment on why current adverse event monitoring is unable to demonstrate trends in patient safety.

  9. 76 FR 63565 - Event Reporting Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 Event Reporting Guidelines AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... the Commission) is requesting comments on Draft NUREG-1022, Revision 3, ``Event Reporting Guidelines... for use in meeting the event reporting requirements for operating nuclear power reactors. Revision...

  10. Controlling Setting Events in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Paula E.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers face the challenging job of differentiating instruction for the diverse needs of their students. This task is difficult enough with happy students who are eager to learn; unfortunately students often enter the classroom in a bad mood because of events that happened outside the classroom walls. These events--called setting events--can…

  11. 48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Significant events. 2110..., AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS Contract Specifications 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required to inform the contracting officer of all significant events....

  12. Discourse Updating after Reading a Counterfactual Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vega, Manuel; Urrutia, Mabel

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the temporal course of discourse updating after reading counterfactual events. To test the accessibility to discourse information, readers were asked to identify probes related to initial events in the text, previous to the counterfactual, or probes related to the critical counterfactual events. Experiment 1 showed that 500 ms…

  13. Three Course Connections: Integrated Event Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Corey W.; Pate, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated Event Design (IED) capitalizes on three distinct courses to achieve a blended course delivery: Event Management, Research and Evaluation (for undergraduate students), and Experiential Education (for graduate students). Through the use of an event management company metaphor that fully integrates the diverse curricular concepts, course…

  14. Encouraging Faculty Attendance at Professional Development Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Dakin; Doherty, Tim; Schoenfeld, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    For faculty development events to have the greatest impact on campus practice, faculty developers need to attract and include as many faculty members as possible at their events. This article describes the testing of a checklist regarding faculty attendance at professional development events through a survey of 238 faculty members at small…

  15. Problems in Studying and Defining Pubertal Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Petersen, Anne C.

    1984-01-01

    Issues in studying pubertal events are examined, including whether puberty is best characterized as a social construction or a physical event, whether early adolescence is a transitional or distinct life period, life events associated with puberty, boundaries of early adolescence, and possible models for studying pubertal change. (Author/BW)

  16. Different Kinds of Causality in Event Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Tamplin, Andrea K.; Armendarez, Joseph; Thompson, Alexis N.

    2014-01-01

    Narrative memory is better for information that is more causally connected and occurs at event boundaries, such as a causal break. However, it is unclear whether there are common or distinct influences of causality. For the event boundaries that arise as a result of causal breaks, the events that follow may subsequently become more causally…

  17. Onset of Parenting and Stressful Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Judith L.; And Others

    A list of stressful events associated with onset of parenting is developed. The events and established weights are ranked to reflect the degree of disruption that would be caused should that event occur. Whether the rankings and weightings differ as a function of parent sex and maternal work status is also considered. The means for developing the…

  18. Automated microseismic event location using Master-Event Waveform Stacking

    PubMed Central

    Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Krieger, Lars; Kriegerowski, Marius; Gammaldi, Sergio; Horalek, Josef; Priolo, Enrico; Dahm, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and automated locations of microseismic events are desirable for many seismological and industrial applications. The analysis of microseismicity is particularly challenging because of weak seismic signals with low signal-to-noise ratio. Traditional location approaches rely on automated picking, based on individual seismograms, and make no use of the coherency information between signals at different stations. This strong limitation has been overcome by full-waveform location methods, which exploit the coherency of waveforms at different stations and improve the location robustness even in presence of noise. However, the performance of these methods strongly depend on the accuracy of the adopted velocity model, which is often quite rough; inaccurate models result in large location errors. We present an improved waveform stacking location method based on source-specific station corrections. Our method inherits the advantages of full-waveform location methods while strongly mitigating the dependency on the accuracy of the velocity model. With this approach the influence of an inaccurate velocity model on the results is restricted to the estimation of travel times solely within the seismogenic volume, but not for the entire source-receiver path. We finally successfully applied our new method to a realistic synthetic dataset as well as real data. PMID:27185465

  19. Automated microseismic event location using Master-Event Waveform Stacking.

    PubMed

    Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Krieger, Lars; Kriegerowski, Marius; Gammaldi, Sergio; Horalek, Josef; Priolo, Enrico; Dahm, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and automated locations of microseismic events are desirable for many seismological and industrial applications. The analysis of microseismicity is particularly challenging because of weak seismic signals with low signal-to-noise ratio. Traditional location approaches rely on automated picking, based on individual seismograms, and make no use of the coherency information between signals at different stations. This strong limitation has been overcome by full-waveform location methods, which exploit the coherency of waveforms at different stations and improve the location robustness even in presence of noise. However, the performance of these methods strongly depend on the accuracy of the adopted velocity model, which is often quite rough; inaccurate models result in large location errors. We present an improved waveform stacking location method based on source-specific station corrections. Our method inherits the advantages of full-waveform location methods while strongly mitigating the dependency on the accuracy of the velocity model. With this approach the influence of an inaccurate velocity model on the results is restricted to the estimation of travel times solely within the seismogenic volume, but not for the entire source-receiver path. We finally successfully applied our new method to a realistic synthetic dataset as well as real data. PMID:27185465

  20. Automated microseismic event location using Master-Event Waveform Stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Krieger, Lars; Kriegerowski, Marius; Gammaldi, Sergio; Horalek, Josef; Priolo, Enrico; Dahm, Torsten

    2016-05-01

    Accurate and automated locations of microseismic events are desirable for many seismological and industrial applications. The analysis of microseismicity is particularly challenging because of weak seismic signals with low signal-to-noise ratio. Traditional location approaches rely on automated picking, based on individual seismograms, and make no use of the coherency information between signals at different stations. This strong limitation has been overcome by full-waveform location methods, which exploit the coherency of waveforms at different stations and improve the location robustness even in presence of noise. However, the performance of these methods strongly depend on the accuracy of the adopted velocity model, which is often quite rough; inaccurate models result in large location errors. We present an improved waveform stacking location method based on source-specific station corrections. Our method inherits the advantages of full-waveform location methods while strongly mitigating the dependency on the accuracy of the velocity model. With this approach the influence of an inaccurate velocity model on the results is restricted to the estimation of travel times solely within the seismogenic volume, but not for the entire source-receiver path. We finally successfully applied our new method to a realistic synthetic dataset as well as real data.

  1. Ca2+ release from subplasmalemmal stores as a primary event during exocytosis in Paramecium cells

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    A correlated electrophysiological and light microscopic evaluation of trichocyst exocytosis was carried out the Paramecium cells which possess extensive cortical Ca stores with footlike links to the plasmalemma. We used not only intra- but also extracellular recordings to account for polar arrangement of ion channels (while trichocysts can be released from all over the cell surface). With three widely different secretagogues, aminoethyldextran (AED), veratridine and caffeine, similar anterior Nain and posterior Kout currents (both known to be Ca(2+)-dependent) were observed. Direct de- or hyperpolarization induced by current injection failed to trigger exocytosis. For both, exocytotic membrane fusion and secretagogue-induced membrane currents, sensitivity to or availability of Ca2+ appears to be different. Current responses to AED were blocked by W7 or trifluoperazine, while exocytosis remained unaffected. Reducing [Ca2+]o to < or = 0.16 microM (i.e., resting [Ca2+]i) suppressed electrical membrane responses triggered with AED, while we had previously documented normal exocytotic membrane fusion. From this we conclude that the primary effect of AED (as of caffeine) is the mobilization of Ca2+ from the subplasmalemmal pools which not only activates exocytosis (abolished by iontophoretic EGTA injection) but secondarily also spatially segregated plasmalemmal Ca(2+)-dependent ion channels (indicative of subplasmalemmal [Ca2+]i increase, but irrelevant for Ca2+ mobilization). The 45Ca2+ influx previously observed during AED triggering may serve to refill depleted stores. Apart from the insensitivity of our system to depolarization, the mode of direct Ca2+ mobilization from stores by mechanical coupling to the cell membrane (without previous Ca(2+)-influx from outside) closely resembles the model currently discussed for skeletal muscle triads. PMID:7525605

  2. Event-related potentials in response to violations of content and temporal event knowledge.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Janna; van der Meer, Elke; Schaadt, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Scripts that store knowledge of everyday events are fundamentally important for managing daily routines. Content event knowledge (i.e., knowledge about which events belong to a script) and temporal event knowledge (i.e., knowledge about the chronological order of events in a script) constitute qualitatively different forms of knowledge. However, there is limited information about each distinct process and the time course involved in accessing content and temporal event knowledge. Therefore, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to either correctly presented event sequences or event sequences that contained a content or temporal error. We found an N400, which was followed by a posteriorly distributed P600 in response to content errors in event sequences. By contrast, we did not find an N400 but an anteriorly distributed P600 in response to temporal errors in event sequences. Thus, the N400 seems to be elicited as a response to a general mismatch between an event and the established event model. We assume that the expectancy violation of content event knowledge, as indicated by the N400, induces the collapse of the established event model, a process indicated by the posterior P600. The expectancy violation of temporal event knowledge is assumed to induce an attempt to reorganize the event model in working memory, a process indicated by the frontal P600.

  3. Explosive events on the Sun.

    PubMed

    Harra, Louise K

    2002-12-15

    I describe two of the most dynamic and highly energetic phenomena in the Solar System--the explosive flares that can occur when plasma is confined by magnetic fields and the large-scale ejections of material known as 'coronal mass ejections'. These explosive events are poorly understood and yet occur in a variety of contexts in the Universe, ranging from planetary magnetospheres to active galactic nuclei. Understanding why flares and coronal mass ejections occur is a major goal across a wide range of space physics and astrophysics. Although explosive events from the Sun have dramatic effects on Earth, flares in other stars, for example, can be vastly more energetic and have an even more profound effect on their environment. We are now in the unprecedented position of having access to a number of space observatories dedicated to the Sun: the Yohkoh spacecraft, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer and the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager. These cover a wide wavelength range from white light to gamma rays with both spectroscopy and imaging, and allow huge progress to be made in understanding the processes involved in such large explosions. The high-resolution data show dramatic and complex explosions of material on all spatial scales on the Sun. They have revealed that the Sun is constantly changing everywhere on its surface--something that was never imagined before. One of the mechanisms that has been proposed to account for the large energy release is magnetic reconnection. Recent observations from space increasingly support this view. This article will discuss those observations that support this model and also those that suggest different processes. The current space missions have given us an excellent insight into the actual explosive processes in the Sun. However, they have provided us with only a tantalizing glimpse of what causes the elusive trigger. Future missions such as Solar-B (the follow-on to

  4. El Nino-like events during Miocene

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, R.E.; Nelson, C.O.; Weinheimer, A.L.; Oeth, P.A.; Swanson, R.J.

    1988-03-01

    El Nino-like events have been recorded from the Miocene laminated siliceous facies of the Monterey Formation. These El Nino-like Miocene events are compared to El Nino events recorded from Holocene varved sediments deposited within the anoxic Santa Barbara basin. Strong El Nino events can be recognized from Holocene Santa Barbara basin sediments by increases in radiolarian flux to the sea floor during those events. For the last 100-plus years, frequency of strong El Ninos has been on the order of one extremely strong event about every 100 years, and one easily recognizable event about every 18 years. Frequencies in the laminated (varved) Miocene range from about every 4-5 years to over 20 years. The higher frequencies occur within generally warm intervals and the lower frequencies within generally cold intervals. Perhaps the frequencies of these events may, in fact, be an important indicator in determining whether the intervals were cold or warm. Reconstructions of the paleo-California Current system during El Nino-like periods have been made for the west coast from the Gulf of California to northern California. Strong El Nino-like events occurred 5.5 and 8 Ma, and a strong anti-El Nino-like event occurred at about 6.5 Ma. Evidence from the 5.5 and 8 Ma events combined with other evidence suggests that modern El Ninos, similar to today's, were initiated at 5.5 Ma or earlier.

  5. Narrative event boundaries, reading times, and expectation.

    PubMed

    Pettijohn, Kyle A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-10-01

    During text comprehension, readers create mental representations of the described events, called situation models. When new information is encountered, these models must be updated or new ones created. Consistent with the event indexing model, previous studies have shown that when readers encounter an event shift, reading times often increase. However, such increases are not consistently observed. This paper addresses this inconsistency by examining the extent to which reading-time differences observed at event shifts reflect an unexpectedness in the narrative rather than processes involved in model updating. In two reassessments of prior work, event shifts known to increase reading time were rated as less expected, and expectedness ratings significantly predicted reading time. In three new experiments, participants read stories in which an event shift was or was not foreshadowed, thereby influencing expectedness of the shift. Experiment 1 revealed that readers do not expect event shifts, but foreshadowing eliminates this. Experiment 2 showed that foreshadowing does not affect identification of event shifts. Finally, Experiment 3 found that, although reading times increased when an event shift was not foreshadowed, they were not different from controls when it was. Moreover, responses to memory probes were slower following an event shift regardless of foreshadowing, suggesting that situation model updating had taken place. Overall, the results support the idea that previously observed reading time increases at event shifts reflect, at least in part, a reader's unexpected encounter with a shift rather than an increase in processing effort required to update a situation model. PMID:27170375

  6. Narrative event boundaries, reading times, and expectation.

    PubMed

    Pettijohn, Kyle A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-10-01

    During text comprehension, readers create mental representations of the described events, called situation models. When new information is encountered, these models must be updated or new ones created. Consistent with the event indexing model, previous studies have shown that when readers encounter an event shift, reading times often increase. However, such increases are not consistently observed. This paper addresses this inconsistency by examining the extent to which reading-time differences observed at event shifts reflect an unexpectedness in the narrative rather than processes involved in model updating. In two reassessments of prior work, event shifts known to increase reading time were rated as less expected, and expectedness ratings significantly predicted reading time. In three new experiments, participants read stories in which an event shift was or was not foreshadowed, thereby influencing expectedness of the shift. Experiment 1 revealed that readers do not expect event shifts, but foreshadowing eliminates this. Experiment 2 showed that foreshadowing does not affect identification of event shifts. Finally, Experiment 3 found that, although reading times increased when an event shift was not foreshadowed, they were not different from controls when it was. Moreover, responses to memory probes were slower following an event shift regardless of foreshadowing, suggesting that situation model updating had taken place. Overall, the results support the idea that previously observed reading time increases at event shifts reflect, at least in part, a reader's unexpected encounter with a shift rather than an increase in processing effort required to update a situation model.

  7. Skylab short-lived event alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citron, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    During the three manned Skylab missions, the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP) reported a total of 39 significant events to the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of the Skylab Short-Lived Event Alert Program. The telegraphed daily status reports included the names and locations of the events, the track number and revolution number during which the event could be observed, the time (GMT) to within plus or minus 2 sec when Skylab was closest to the event area, and the light condition (daylight or darkness) at that time and place. The messages sent to JSC during the Skylab 4 mission also included information pertaining to ground-truth studies and observations being conducted on the events. Photographic priorities were assigned for each event.

  8. Extreme weather events and global crop production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D. K.; Gerber, J. S.; West, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme weather events can lead to significant loss in crop production and even trigger global price spikes. However it is still not clear where exactly and what types of extreme events have resulted in sharp declines in crop production. Neither is it clear how frequently such extreme events have resulted in extreme crop production losses. Using extreme event metrics with a newly developed high resolution and long time series of crop statistics database we identify the frequency and type of extreme event driven crop production losses globally at high resolutions. In this presentation we will present our results as global maps identifying the frequency and type of extreme weather events that resulted in extreme crop production losses and quantify the losses. Understanding how extreme events affects crop production is critical for managing risk in the global food system

  9. Empirical law for fault-creep events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crough, S.T.; Burford, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    Fault-creep events measured on the San Andreas and related faults near Hollister, California, can be described by a rheological model consisting of a spring, power-law dashpotand sliding block connected in series. An empirical creep-event law, derived from many creep-event records analyzed within the constraints of the model, provides a remarkably simple and accurate representation of creep-event behavior. The empirical creep law is expressed by the equation: D(t)= Df [1-1/{ct(n-1)Dfn-1+1}/(n-1)] where D is the value of displacement at time t following the onset of an event, Df is the final equilibrium value of the event displacementand C is a proportionality constant. This discovery should help determine whether the time-displacement character of creep events is controlled by the material properties of fault gouge, or by other parameters. ?? 1977.

  10. Extreme events in Uttarakhand, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimri, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Uttarakhand in NW Himalaya, India is prone to various disasters, which include earthquakes, cloud bursts, landslides, floods etc. These disasters have a cascading effect. The cloud burst results in flooding of rivers and landslides. The earthquakes shake the ground causing landslides, which sometimes block the natural path of river making artificial dams. These artificial dams can cause river flooding. The situation becomes more devastating, if heavy rainfall occurs. Such disasters are increasing in recent times. There could be several reasons for the rise in frequency of these disasters because of global and local environment changes. The global changes such as rise of global temperatures due to increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere can be responsible for melting of Himalayan Glaciers and changes in precipitation/ rainfall patterns etc. Anthropogenic causes such as deforestation, establishment of new townships, new hydro-power projects, mining activities etc are also making the condition more vulnerable by changing the course of river channels. A case study of such extreme event is presented. The region is affected by changes of both global and local origin, tectonically as well as climatologically.

  11. Temporal events in cyclopean vision.

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, T J; White, L E; Binder, D; Purves, D

    1996-01-01

    The majority of neurons in the primary visual cortex of primates can be activated by stimulation of either eye; moreover, the monocular receptive fields of such neurons are located in about the same region of visual space. These well-known facts imply that binocular convergence in visual cortex can explain our cyclopean view of the world. To test the adequacy of this assumption, we examined how human subjects integrate binocular events in time. Light flashes presented synchronously to both eyes were compared to flashes presented alternately (asynchronously) to one eye and then the other. Subjects perceived very-low-frequency (2 Hz) asynchronous trains as equivalent to synchronous trains flashed at twice the frequency (the prediction based on binocular convergence). However, at higher frequencies of presentation (4-32 Hz), subjects perceived asynchronous and synchronous trains to be increasingly similar. Indeed, at the flicker-fusion frequency (approximately 50 Hz), the apparent difference between the two conditions was only 2%. We suggest that the explanation of these anomalous findings is that we parse visual input into sequential episodes. PMID:8622998

  12. Fast events in protein folding

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.; Callender, R.; Causgrove, T.; Dyer, R.; Williams, S.

    1996-04-01

    The primary objective of this work was to develop a molecular understanding of how proteins achieve their native three-dimensional (folded) structures. This requires the identification and characterization of intermediates in the protein folding process on all relevant timescales, from picoseconds to seconds. The short timescale events in protein folding have been entirely unknown. Prior to this work, state-of-the-art experimental approaches were limited to milliseconds or longer, when much of the folding process is already over. The gap between theory and experiment is enormous: current theoretical and computational methods cannot realistically model folding processes with lifetimes longer than one nanosecond. This unique approach to employ laser pump-probe techniques that combine novel methods of laser flash photolysis with time-resolved vibrational spectroscopic probes of protein transients. In this scheme, a short (picosecond to nanosecond) laser photolysis pulse was used to produce an instantaneous pH or temperature jump, thereby initiating a protein folding or unfolding reaction. Structure-specific, time-resolved vibrational probes were then used to identify and characterize protein folding intermediates.

  13. 78 FR 55777 - Proposed Information Collection (VA, National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Events, Event...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VA, National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Events, Event... Events, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Events (NVSP), Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), is announcing an opportunity...

  14. Extracting semantically enriched events from biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research into event-based text mining from the biomedical literature has been growing in popularity to facilitate the development of advanced biomedical text mining systems. Such technology permits advanced search, which goes beyond document or sentence-based retrieval. However, existing event-based systems typically ignore additional information within the textual context of events that can determine, amongst other things, whether an event represents a fact, hypothesis, experimental result or analysis of results, whether it describes new or previously reported knowledge, and whether it is speculated or negated. We refer to such contextual information as meta-knowledge. The automatic recognition of such information can permit the training of systems allowing finer-grained searching of events according to the meta-knowledge that is associated with them. Results Based on a corpus of 1,000 MEDLINE abstracts, fully manually annotated with both events and associated meta-knowledge, we have constructed a machine learning-based system that automatically assigns meta-knowledge information to events. This system has been integrated into EventMine, a state-of-the-art event extraction system, in order to create a more advanced system (EventMine-MK) that not only extracts events from text automatically, but also assigns five different types of meta-knowledge to these events. The meta-knowledge assignment module of EventMine-MK performs with macro-averaged F-scores in the range of 57-87% on the BioNLP’09 Shared Task corpus. EventMine-MK has been evaluated on the BioNLP’09 Shared Task subtask of detecting negated and speculated events. Our results show that EventMine-MK can outperform other state-of-the-art systems that participated in this task. Conclusions We have constructed the first practical system that extracts both events and associated, detailed meta-knowledge information from biomedical literature. The automatically assigned meta-knowledge information

  15. Identifying, rating, and remembering environmental sound events.

    PubMed

    Marcell, Michael; Malatanos, Maria; Leahy, Connie; Comeaux, Cadie

    2007-08-01

    Sound events are sequences of closely grouped and temporally related environmental sounds that tell a story or establish a sense of place. The goal of our project was to create a set of sound events depicting various scenarios (such as a car accident, cooking breakfast, and walking outdoors) and to gather normative data about how people understand them. Samples of college students listened to 22 sound events over headphones in three self-paced, computer-based studies. In the Identification Task, 43 participants used text boxes to type descriptions of what was happening in the sound events. In the Rating Task, 39 participants used Likert scales to rate the sound events on the attributes of familiarity, complexity, and pleasantness. In the Memory Task, 42 participants answered two multiple-choice questions immediately after listening to each sound event. Detailed tables are provided for the following: (1) Description of the sound events and their components; (2) accuracy and response time measurements for each of the 22 sound events across the three studies; and (3) rank-orderings of the sound events by ease of identification, recognition of details, and rated familiarity, complexity, and pleasantness. Digital files of the stimuli, which may be of interest to auditory cognition researchers and clinical neuropsychologists, may be downloaded from either www.psychonomic.org/archive or www.cofc.edu/-marcellm/sound event studies/sndevent.htm. PMID:17958168

  16. LHCb Online event processing and filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Barandela, C.; Brarda, L.; Frank, M.; Franek, B.; Galli, D.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jacobsson, R.; Jost, B.; Köstner, S.; Moine, G.; Neufeld, N.; Somogyi, P.; Stoica, R.; Suman, S.

    2008-07-01

    The first level trigger of LHCb accepts one million events per second. After preprocessing in custom FPGA-based boards these events are distributed to a large farm of PC-servers using a high-speed Gigabit Ethernet network. Synchronisation and event management is achieved by the Timing and Trigger system of LHCb. Due to the complex nature of the selection of B-events, which are the main interest of LHCb, a full event-readout is required. Event processing on the servers is parallelised on an event basis. The reduction factor is typically 1/500. The remaining events are forwarded to a formatting layer, where the raw data files are formed and temporarily stored. A small part of the events is also forwarded to a dedicated farm for calibration and monitoring. The files are subsequently shipped to the CERN Tier0 facility for permanent storage and from there to the various Tier1 sites for reconstruction. In parallel files are used by various monitoring and calibration processes running within the LHCb Online system. The entire data-flow is controlled and configured by means of a SCADA system and several databases. After an overview of the LHCb data acquisition and its design principles this paper will emphasize the LHCb event filter system, which is now implemented using the final hardware and will be ready for data-taking for the LHC startup. Control, configuration and security aspects will also be discussed.

  17. Life event, stress and illness.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Mohd Razali

    2008-10-01

    The relationship between stress and illness is complex. The susceptibility to stress varies from person to person. Among the factors that influenced the susceptibility to stress are genetic vulnerability, coping style, type of personality and social support. Not all stress has negative effect. Studies have shown that short-term stress boosted the immune system, but chronic stress has a significant effect on the immune system that ultimately manifest an illness. It raises catecholamine and suppressor T cells levels, which suppress the immune system. This suppression, in turn raises the risk of viral infection. Stress also leads to the release of histamine, which can trigger severe broncho-constriction in asthmatics. Stress increases the risk for diabetes mellitus, especially in overweight individuals, since psychological stress alters insulin needs. Stress also alters the acid concentration in the stomach, which can lead to peptic ulcers, stress ulcers or ulcerative colitis. Chronic stress can also lead to plaque buildup in the arteries (atherosclerosis), especially if combined with a high-fat diet and sedentary living. The correlation between stressful life events and psychiatric illness is stronger than the correlation with medical or physical illness. The relationship of stress with psychiatric illness is strongest in neuroses, which is followed by depression and schizophrenia. There is no scientific evidence of a direct cause-and-effect relationship between the immune system changes and the development of cancer. However, recent studies found a link between stress, tumour development and suppression of natural killer (NK) cells, which is actively involved in preventing metastasis and destroying small metastases.

  18. GPU Accelerated Event Detection Algorithm

    2011-05-25

    Smart grid external require new algorithmic approaches as well as parallel formulations. One of the critical components is the prediction of changes and detection of anomalies within the power grid. The state-of-the-art algorithms are not suited to handle the demands of streaming data analysis. (i) need for events detection algorithms that can scale with the size of data, (ii) need for algorithms that can not only handle multi dimensional nature of the data, but alsomore » model both spatial and temporal dependencies in the data, which, for the most part, are highly nonlinear, (iii) need for algorithms that can operate in an online fashion with streaming data. The GAEDA code is a new online anomaly detection techniques that take into account spatial, temporal, multi-dimensional aspects of the data set. The basic idea behind the proposed approach is to (a) to convert a multi-dimensional sequence into a univariate time series that captures the changes between successive windows extracted from the original sequence using singular value decomposition (SVD), and then (b) to apply known anomaly detection techniques for univariate time series. A key challenge for the proposed approach is to make the algorithm scalable to huge datasets by adopting techniques from perturbation theory, incremental SVD analysis. We used recent advances in tensor decomposition techniques which reduce computational complexity to monitor the change between successive windows and detect anomalies in the same manner as described above. Therefore we propose to develop the parallel solutions on many core systems such as GPUs, because these algorithms involve lot of numerical operations and are highly data-parallelizable.« less

  19. GPU Accelerated Event Detection Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-25

    Smart grid external require new algorithmic approaches as well as parallel formulations. One of the critical components is the prediction of changes and detection of anomalies within the power grid. The state-of-the-art algorithms are not suited to handle the demands of streaming data analysis. (i) need for events detection algorithms that can scale with the size of data, (ii) need for algorithms that can not only handle multi dimensional nature of the data, but also model both spatial and temporal dependencies in the data, which, for the most part, are highly nonlinear, (iii) need for algorithms that can operate in an online fashion with streaming data. The GAEDA code is a new online anomaly detection techniques that take into account spatial, temporal, multi-dimensional aspects of the data set. The basic idea behind the proposed approach is to (a) to convert a multi-dimensional sequence into a univariate time series that captures the changes between successive windows extracted from the original sequence using singular value decomposition (SVD), and then (b) to apply known anomaly detection techniques for univariate time series. A key challenge for the proposed approach is to make the algorithm scalable to huge datasets by adopting techniques from perturbation theory, incremental SVD analysis. We used recent advances in tensor decomposition techniques which reduce computational complexity to monitor the change between successive windows and detect anomalies in the same manner as described above. Therefore we propose to develop the parallel solutions on many core systems such as GPUs, because these algorithms involve lot of numerical operations and are highly data-parallelizable.

  20. Best Practices in Pulic Outreach Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Whitney; Buxner, Sanlyn; Shipp, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    IntroductionEach year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsors public outreach events designed to increase student, educator, and general public engagement in its missions and goals. NASA SMD Education’s review of large-scale events, “Best Practices in Outreach Events,” highlighted planning and implementation best practices, which were used by the Dawn mission to strategize and implement its Ceres arrival celebration event, i C Ceres.BackgroundThe literature review focused on best identifying practices rising from evaluations of large-scale public outreach events. The following criteria guided the study:* Public, science-related events open to adults and children* Events that occurred during the last 5 years* Evaluations that included information on data collected from visitors and/or volunteers* Evaluations that specified the type of data collected, methodology, and associated resultsBest Practices: Planning and ImplementationThe literature review revealed key considerations for planning implement large-scale events. Best practices included can be pertinent for all event organizers and evaluators regardless of event size. A summary of related best practices is presented below.1) Advertise the event2) Use and advertise access to scientists* Attendees who reported an interaction with a science professional were 15% to 19% more likely to report positive learning impacts, (SFA, 2012, p. 24).3) Recruit scientists using findings such as:* High percentages of scientists (85% to 96%) from most events were interested in participating again (SFA, 2012).4) Ensure that the event is group and, particularly, child friendly5) Target specific event outcomesBest Practices Informing Real-world Planning, Implementation and EvaluationDawn mission’s collaborative design of a series of events, i C Ceres, including in-person, interactive events geared to families and live presentations, will be shared, with focus on the family event, and the evidence

  1. Event Perception: A Mind/Brain Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Speer, Nicole K.; Swallow, Khena M.; Braver, Todd S.; Reynolds, Jeremy R.

    2010-01-01

    People perceive and conceive of activity in terms of discrete events. Here we propose a theory according to which the perception of boundaries between events arises from ongoing perceptual processing and regulates attention and memory. Perceptual systems continuously make predictions about what will happen next. When transient errors in predictions arise, an event boundary is perceived. According to the theory, the perception of events depends on both sensory cues and knowledge structures that represent previously learned information about event parts and inferences about actors’ goals and plans. Neurological and neurophysiological data suggest that representations of events may be implemented by structures in the lateral prefrontal cortex and that perceptual prediction error is calculated and evaluated by a processing pathway including the anterior cingulate cortex and subcortical neuromodulatory systems. PMID:17338600

  2. Collecting operational event data for statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report gives guidance for collecting operational data to be used for statistical analysis, especially analysis of event counts. It discusses how to define the purpose of the study, the unit (system, component, etc.) to be studied, events to be counted, and demand or exposure time. Examples are given of classification systems for events in the data sources. A checklist summarizes the essential steps in data collection for statistical analysis.

  3. Attributional style and life-events.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, N; Williams, J M

    1983-06-01

    The study addressed the question of the significance of intervening life-events in linking attributional style and depression. Twenty male subjects who had experienced an uncontrollable event, job redundancy, were compared with 20 controls on measures of attributional style, depression and self-esteem. The reformulated helplessness hypothesis implies that attribution and depression should be correlated only after the uncontrollable event. This was found to be the case for internal--external dimension, providing tentative support for the reformulated helplessness model.

  4. Christmas: an event driven by our hormones?

    PubMed

    Ludwig, M

    2011-12-01

    No other event in the Christian calendar has such a deep impact on our behaviour as the annual event called Christmas. Christmas is not just 'Christmas Day'; indeed, it is a long developmental rhythm with a period of almost exactly 365 days. Here, I describe the neuronal and hormonal changes and their effects on our behaviour during the preparation and the execution of the event(1) .

  5. Are Halo CMEs special events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, A.; Xie, H.; Mendoza, E.

    2005-12-01

    We re-visit the properties of wide coronal mass ejections (CMEs) called halo CMEs. Using the large LASCO/SOHO CMEs data set, from 1996 to 2004, we examine the statistical properties of (partial and full) halo CMEs and compare with the same properties of ``normal'' width (lower than 120°) CMEs, we found that halo CMEs have different properties than ``normal'' CMEs which can not be explained by the current geometric interpretation of halos, as CMEs traveling in the Sun Earth direction. We found that the CME width distribution is formed by, at least, three different populations. Two gaussians one narrow and one medium centered at ~17° and ~38°, respectively. It is highly probable, that the narrow population corresponds to ``true'' observed widths, whereas the medium width population is the product of projection effects. The number of wider CMEs (80° < W < 210°) decreases as a power law. After this width, i. e. partial and full halo CMEs, do not follow any particular distribution. This lack of regularity, may be due to the small number of such events. In particular, we found that the number of observed full halo CMEs is lower than the expected. The CME speed follows a log-normal distribution, except for the very low speed CME population, wich follows a gaussian distribution centered at ~100 km/s and probably is due to projection effects. When the CMEs are dividing by width into no, partial and full halo groups we found that the peak of the distributions are shifted towards higher speeds, ~300, ~400 and ~600 km/s for no, partial and full halo CMEs. This confirms that halo CMEs tend to be high speed CMEs. We introduce a new observational CME parameter: the final observed distance (FOD) which is the highest point, inside the coronograph field of view, where the CME can be distinguished from the background. In other words, the highest CME altitude measured. The FOD for no halo CMEs decreases exponentialy from ~5 to ~30 Ro˙ in the LASCO field of view. On the other

  6. Scaling and Single Event Effects (SEE) Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper begins by discussing the potential for scaling down transistors and other components to fit more of them on chips in order to increasing computer processing speed. It also addresses technical challenges to further scaling. Components have been scaled down enough to allow single particles to have an effect, known as a Single Event Effect (SEE). This paper explores the relationship between scaling and the following SEEs: Single Event Upsets (SEU) on DRAMs and SRAMs, Latch-up, Snap-back, Single Event Burnout (SEB), Single Event Gate Rupture (SEGR), and Ion-induced soft breakdown (SBD).

  7. Controlling extreme events on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    Extreme events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control extreme events is of fundamental importance and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network ``mobile'' can effectively suppress extreme events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of extreme events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed.

  8. Metamemory appraisals in autobiographical event recall.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Talarico, Jennifer M; Pascal, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Two studies examined whether belief in the occurrence of events, recollecting events, and belief in the accuracy of recollections are distinct aspects of autobiographical remembering. In Study 1, 299 student participants received a cue to recall five childhood events, after which they rated each event on these constructs and other characteristics associated with remembering. Structural equation modelling revealed that variance in ratings was best explained by the three anticipated latent variables. In Study 2, an online sample of 1026 adults recalled and rated a childhood event and an event about which they were somehow uncertain. Confirmatory modelling replicated the three latent variables. The relationship of key predictors (perceptual detail, spatial detail, re-experiencing, and event plausibility) to the latent variables confirmed the distinction. These studies demonstrate that belief in occurrence and belief in accuracy appraisals are distinct, the former indexing the truth status of the event and the latter the degree to which the event representation accurately reflects prior experience. Further, they suggest that belief in accuracy indexes the monitoring of the quality of recollections.

  9. Neural network classification of questionable EGRET events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meetre, C. A.; Norris, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    High energy gamma rays (greater than 20 MeV) pair producing in the spark chamber of the Energetic Gamma Ray Telescope Experiment (EGRET) give rise to a characteristic but highly variable 3-D locus of spark sites, which must be processed to decide whether the event is to be included in the database. A significant fraction (about 15 percent or 10(exp 4) events/day) of the candidate events cannot be categorized (accept/reject) by an automated rule-based procedure; they are therefore tagged, and must be examined and classified manually by a team of expert analysts. We describe a feedforward, back-propagation neural network approach to the classification of the questionable events. The algorithm computes a set of coefficients using representative exemplars drawn from the preclassified set of questionable events. These coefficients map a given input event into a decision vector that, ideally, describes the correct disposition of the event. The net's accuracy is then tested using a different subset of preclassified events. Preliminary results demonstrate the net's ability to correctly classify a large proportion of the events for some categories of questionables. Current work includes the use of much larger training sets to improve the accuracy of the net.

  10. Cross comparison of four DPRK events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Kitov, Ivan; Rozhkov, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Seismic signals were detected by the IMS seismic network from four announced underground test conducted by the DPRK in 2006, 2009, 2013, and 2016. These data allow thorough comparison of relative locations, including depth estimates, and magnitudes using several techniques based on waveforms cross correlation. Seismic signals from these events also provide waveform templates for detection of possible aftershocks with magnitudes by two-to-three units lower than the events themselves. We have processed one month of continuous data after each of four events and detected no aftershocks. Independent Component Analysis based Blind Source Separation was conducted for all events at different stations to compare the robustness of the source function recovery.

  11. A discrete event method for wave simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a discrete event interpretation of the finite difference time domain (FDTD) and digital wave guide network (DWN) wave simulation schemes. The discrete event method is formalized using the discrete event system specification (DEVS). The scheme is shown to have errors that are proportional to the resolution of the spatial grid. A numerical example demonstrates the relative efficiency of the scheme with respect to FDTD and DWN schemes. The potential for the discrete event scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and attenuation errors is discussed.

  12. Asynchronous Event-Driven Particle Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Donev, A

    2007-02-28

    We present in a unifying way the main components of three examples of asynchronous event-driven algorithms for simulating physical systems of interacting particles. The first example, hard-particle molecular dynamics (MD), is well-known. We also present a recently-developed diffusion kinetic Monte Carlo (DKMC) algorithm, as well as a novel event-driven algorithm for Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC). Finally, we describe how to combine MD with DSMC in an event-driven framework, and discuss some promises and challenges for event-driven simulation of realistic physical systems.

  13. CATEGORIZATION OF EVENT SEQUENCES FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    G.E. Ragan; P. Mecheret; D. Dexheimer

    2005-04-14

    The purposes of this analysis are: (1) Categorize (as Category 1, Category 2, or Beyond Category 2) internal event sequences that may occur before permanent closure of the repository at Yucca Mountain. (2) Categorize external event sequences that may occur before permanent closure of the repository at Yucca Mountain. This includes examining DBGM-1 seismic classifications and upgrading to DBGM-2, if appropriate, to ensure Beyond Category 2 categorization. (3) State the design and operational requirements that are invoked to make the categorization assignments valid. (4) Indicate the amount of material put at risk by Category 1 and Category 2 event sequences. (5) Estimate frequencies of Category 1 event sequences at the maximum capacity and receipt rate of the repository. (6) Distinguish occurrences associated with normal operations from event sequences. It is beyond the scope of the analysis to propose design requirements that may be required to control radiological exposure associated with normal operations. (7) Provide a convenient compilation of the results of the analysis in tabular form. The results of this analysis are used as inputs to the consequence analyses in an iterative design process that is depicted in Figure 1. Categorization of event sequences for permanent retrieval of waste from the repository is beyond the scope of this analysis. Cleanup activities that take place after an event sequence and other responses to abnormal events are also beyond the scope of the analysis.

  14. A Conceptual Examination of Setting Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mark; Driscoll, Coralie

    2007-01-01

    Setting events are typically seen as antecedent contextual variables that influence behaviour. They are thought to act independently of Skinner's three-term contingency, which consists of a discriminative stimulus, response, and reinforcing consequence. There has been increasing interest in setting events in education from both a theoretical and…

  15. Depression, Life Events and Somatic Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozzini, Renzo; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between somatic symptoms, depression, and life events (health status, function, social satisfaction, income) in a population of 1,201 elderly persons living at home. Found depression was the most important factor in the appearance of somatic complaints; however, life events were important cofactors in defining…

  16. "Black Swan events" in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nugent, William A

    2012-09-01

    When a research area "goes viral", the event typically occurs in conjunction with a major change in "conventional wisdom". In retrospect, the literature often contains earlier hints that the original judgment was not correct. These antecedents are referred to as "Black Swan" events. The picture shows research on homogeneous gold catalysis "going viral".

  17. Neural Events in the Reinforcement Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo; Goncalves, Fabio Leyser; Garcia-Mijares, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    When neural events are analyzed as stimuli and responses, functional relations among them and among overt stimuli and responses can be unveiled. The integration of neuroscience and the experimental analysis of behavior is beginning to provide empirical evidence of involvement of neural events in the three-term contingency relating discriminative…

  18. Pan-European catalogue of flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parajka, Juraj; Mangini, Walter; Viglione, Alberto; Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Ceola, Serena

    2016-04-01

    There have been numerous extreme flood events observed in Europe in the past years. One of the way to improve our understanding about causing flood generation mechanisms is to analyse spatial and temporal variability of a large number of flood events. The aim of this study is to present a pan-European catalogue of flood events developed within the SWITCH-ON EU Project. The flood events are identified from daily discharge observations at 1315 stations listed in Global Runoff Data Centre database. The average length of discharge time-series for selected stations is 54 years. For each event, basin boundary and additional hydrological and weather characteristics are extracted. Hydrological characteristics are extracted from the pan-European HYPE model simulations. Precipitation, together with the corresponding proportions of rainfall and snowfall, snowmelt, and evapotranspiration are computed as total amounts between the event start date and event peak date. Soil moisture, soil moisture deficit, and basin accumulated snow water equivalent are computed for the event start date. Weather characteristics are derived from the weather circulation pattern catalogue developed within COST 733 Project. The results are generated in an open data access and tools framework which allows reproduction and extension of results to other regions. More information about the analysis and project are available at: http://www.water-switch-on.eu/lab.html.

  19. Life Events, Sibling Warmth, and Youths' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Evelyn B.; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Sibling warmth has been identified as a protective factor from life events, but stressor-support match-mismatch and social domains perspectives suggest that sibling warmth may not efficiently protect youths from all types of life events. We tested whether sibling warmth moderated the association between each of family-wide, youths' personal, and…

  20. Multiple Strategies for Teaching Current Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Mary E.; Laughlin, Margaret A.

    Teacher members of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) describe the study of current events as essential or very important to the social studies curriculum. Most teachers indicated using current events to provide contemporary examples of abstract historical, social, economic, and political concepts or to illustrate the continuity of…

  1. Experimentally Evoking Nonbelieved Memories for Childhood Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otgaar, Henry; Scoboria, Alan; Smeets, Tom

    2013-01-01

    We report on the 1st experimental elicitation of nonbelieved memories for childhood events in adults (Study 1) and children (Study 2) using a modified false memory implantation paradigm. Participants received true (trip to a theme park) and false (hot air balloon ride) narratives and recalled these events during 2 interviews. After debriefing, 13%…

  2. Role of extreme events in vegetation dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme climatic events challenge the capacity of vegetation models, including Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, to predict changes in plant species dynamics at local and regional spatial scales and over time periods relevant to ecologists and managers. Extreme climatic events are defined as large,...

  3. Intensity Variation of Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2011-01-01

    This paper updates the influence of environmental and source factors of shocks driven by corona) mass ejections (CMEs) that are likely to influence the intensity of solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The intensity variation due to CME interaction reported in Gopalswamy et al. (2004, JGR 109, Al2105) is confirmed by expanding the investigation to all the large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The large SEP events are separated into two groups, one associated with CMEs running into other CMEs, and the other with CMEs running into the ambient solar wind. SEP events with CME interaction generally have a higher intensity. New possibilities such as the influence of corona) holes on the SEP intensity are also discussed. For example, the presence of a large coronal hole between a well-connected eruption and the solar disk center may render the shock poorly connected because of the interaction between the CME and the coronal hole. This point is illustrated using the 2004 December 3 SEP event delayed by about 12 hours from the onset of the associated CME. There is no other event at the Sun that can be associated with the SEP onset. This event is consistent with the possibility that the coronal hole interaction influences the connectivity of the CMEs that produce SEPs, and hence the intensity of the SEP event.

  4. Forecasting SEP Events with Solar Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, J. R.; Winter, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events from the Sun occur when particles associated with solar bursts like CMEs and flares are propelled into space. These events can cause substantial damage to objects in their paths, like satellites, by penetrating into them and causing radiation. In a related recent study a method was devised to forecast the occurrence of an SEP event using properties of the type II and type III radio bursts measured from WIND/WAVES (Winter & Ledbetter 2015). This study analyzed 27 SEP events from 2010 to 2013. We now present an analysis of type II and type III bursts in solar cycle 23, associated with the 63 SEP events from 2000-2003. Parameters including the peak flux of type II bursts, integral flux of type II and II bursts, and the duration of type III bursts are used to create a radio index. This index is used to predict whether or not an SEP event will occur. Cycle 23 was more active than cycle 24, with significantly more radio bursts and SEP events. Our results show that the radio index successfully predicts the occurrence of SEPs for the events in the more active solar cycle 23. We also find that, in general, the higher the radio index the higher the peak proton flux will be following the burst.

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Life Events Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Matt J.; Litz, Brett T.; Hsu, Julie L.; Lombardo, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    The Life Events Checklist (LEC), a measure of exposure to potentially traumatic events, was developed at the National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) concurrently with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) to facilitate the diagnosis of PTSD. Although the CAPS is recognized as the gold standard in PTSD symptom assessment,…

  6. 78 FR 9743 - Event Reporting Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ..., email: Timothy.Kobetz@nrc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On October 13, 2011 (76 FR 63565... COMMISSION Event Reporting Guidelines AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: NUREG-1022, Revision 3..., Revision 3, ``Event Reporting Guidelines: 10 CFR 50.72 and 50.73.'' ] The NUREG-1022 contains...

  7. Infants Segment Continuous Events Using Transitional Probabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Aimee E.; Romberg, Alexa R.; Roseberry, Sarah; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their 1st year, infants adeptly detect statistical structure in their environment. However, little is known about whether statistical learning is a primary mechanism for event segmentation. This study directly tests whether statistical learning alone is sufficient to segment continuous events. Twenty-eight 7- to 9-month-old infants…

  8. An event database for rotational seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvermoser, Johannes; Hadziioannou, Celine; Hable, Sarah; Chow, Bryant; Krischer, Lion; Wassermann, Joachim; Igel, Heiner

    2016-04-01

    The ring laser sensor (G-ring) located at Wettzell, Germany, routinely observes earthquake-induced rotational ground motions around a vertical axis since its installation in 2003. Here we present results from a recently installed event database which is the first that will provide ring laser event data in an open access format. Based on the GCMT event catalogue and some search criteria, seismograms from the ring laser and the collocated broadband seismometer are extracted and processed. The ObsPy-based processing scheme generates plots showing waveform fits between rotation rate and transverse acceleration and extracts characteristic wavefield parameters such as peak ground motions, noise levels, Love wave phase velocities and waveform coherence. For each event, these parameters are stored in a text file (json dictionary) which is easily readable and accessible on the website. The database contains >10000 events starting in 2007 (Mw>4.5). It is updated daily and therefore provides recent events at a time lag of max. 24 hours. The user interface allows to filter events for epoch, magnitude, and source area, whereupon the events are displayed on a zoomable world map. We investigate how well the rotational motions are compatible with the expectations from the surface wave magnitude scale. In addition, the website offers some python source code examples for downloading and processing the openly accessible waveforms.

  9. Realizing Aspects by Transforming for Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Havelund, Klaus; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We explore the extent to which concerns can be separated in programs by program transformation with respect to the events required by these concerns. We describe our early work on developing a system to perform event-driven transformation and discuss possible applications of this approach.

  10. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae;…

  11. An Event Restriction Interval Theory of Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Brandon Robert

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel theory of tense and tense-like constructions. It is named after a key theoretical component of the theory, the event restriction interval. In Event Restriction Interval (ERI) Theory, sentences are semantically evaluated relative to an index which contains two key intervals, the evaluation interval and the event…

  12. Independent Events in Elementary Probability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csenki, Attila

    2011-01-01

    In Probability and Statistics taught to mathematicians as a first introduction or to a non-mathematical audience, joint independence of events is introduced by requiring that the multiplication rule is satisfied. The following statement is usually tacitly assumed to hold (and, at best, intuitively motivated): If the n events E[subscript 1],…

  13. Discrepant Events: A Challenge to Students' Intuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-spada, Wilson J.; Birriel, Jennifer; Birriel, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Studies on cognitive aspects of science education, especially how students achieve conceptual change, have been a focus of interest for many years. Researchers of student learning and conceptual change have developed several easily applicable teaching strategies. One of these strategies is known as "discrepant events". Discrepant events are very…

  14. Intra-Audience Effects at Sporting Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, John E.

    The phenomenon of crowd behavior at sports events is examined in this paper. Previous treatments of why spectators enjoy watching sports events are examined, showing that these studies have largely ignored the potential role of intraaudience influence processes. A brief literature review notes the role of feedback between the communication event…

  15. A review for identification of initiating events in event tree development process on nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Riyadi, Eko H.

    2014-09-30

    Initiating event is defined as any event either internal or external to the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that perturbs the steady state operation of the plant, if operating, thereby initiating an abnormal event such as transient or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) within the NPPs. These initiating events trigger sequences of events that challenge plant control and safety systems whose failure could potentially lead to core damage or large early release. Selection for initiating events consists of two steps i.e. first step, definition of possible events, such as by evaluating a comprehensive engineering, and by constructing a top level logic model. Then the second step, grouping of identified initiating event's by the safety function to be performed or combinations of systems responses. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss initiating events identification in event tree development process and to reviews other probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). The identification of initiating events also involves the past operating experience, review of other PSA, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), feedback from system modeling, and master logic diagram (special type of fault tree). By using the method of study for the condition of the traditional US PSA categorization in detail, could be obtained the important initiating events that are categorized into LOCA, transients and external events.

  16. A review for identification of initiating events in event tree development process on nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyadi, Eko H.

    2014-09-01

    Initiating event is defined as any event either internal or external to the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that perturbs the steady state operation of the plant, if operating, thereby initiating an abnormal event such as transient or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) within the NPPs. These initiating events trigger sequences of events that challenge plant control and safety systems whose failure could potentially lead to core damage or large early release. Selection for initiating events consists of two steps i.e. first step, definition of possible events, such as by evaluating a comprehensive engineering, and by constructing a top level logic model. Then the second step, grouping of identified initiating event's by the safety function to be performed or combinations of systems responses. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss initiating events identification in event tree development process and to reviews other probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). The identification of initiating events also involves the past operating experience, review of other PSA, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), feedback from system modeling, and master logic diagram (special type of fault tree). By using the method of study for the condition of the traditional US PSA categorization in detail, could be obtained the important initiating events that are categorized into LOCA, transients and external events.

  17. Defining event reconstruction of digital crime scenes.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Brian D; Spafford, Eugene H

    2004-11-01

    Event reconstruction plays a critical role in solving physical crimes by explaining why a piece of physical evidence has certain characteristics. With digital crimes, the current focus has been on the recognition and identification of digital evidence using an object's characteristics, but not on the identification of the events that caused the characteristics. This paper examines digital event reconstruction and proposes a process model and procedure that can be used for a digital crime scene. The model has been designed so that it can apply to physical crime scenes, can support the unique aspects of a digital crime scene, and can be implemented in software to automate part of the process. We also examine the differences between physical event reconstruction and digital event reconstruction. PMID:15568702

  18. Airglow events visible to the naked eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    During IR photographic airglow observations covering several years, three naked-eye events have been recorded. Two of these are moving luminous acoustic-gravity-wave groups of some 10-15-km wavelength, which occur near high lunar tide in the atmosphere. The events appear quickly, endure 0.5-1 h, then fade. Visible photos of two events appear enhanced, while little enhancement is present in the IR photos, although the structures are well correlated. If these events are due to OH, it is suggested that some unrecognized mechanism, perhaps a gravity wave interaction, enhances the visible transitions of the OH over the IR transitions. If the events are due to an unrecognized continuum emitter, perhaps NO, its emission must occur at the same height as the OH. Spectra seem to be the only reasonable approach to solving this problem.

  19. FTA Basic Event & Cut Set Ranking.

    1999-05-04

    Version 00 IMPORTANCE computes various measures of probabilistic importance of basic events and minimal cut sets to a fault tree or reliability network diagram. The minimal cut sets, the failure rates and the fault duration times (i.e., the repair times) of all basic events contained in the minimal cut sets are supplied as input data. The failure and repair distributions are assumed to be exponential. IMPORTANCE, a quantitative evaluation code, then determines the probability ofmore » the top event and computes the importance of minimal cut sets and basic events by a numerical ranking. Two measures are computed. The first describes system behavior at one point in time; the second describes sequences of failures that cause the system to fail in time. All measures are computed assuming statistical independence of basic events. In addition, system unavailability and expected number of system failures are computed by the code.« less

  20. On the plasticity event in metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weidong; Ruan, Haihui; Zhang, Liangchi

    2013-03-01

    Based on a systematic molecular dynamics analysis, this study reveals that plastic deformation of metallic glass is not through a uniform configuration change but via many localized plasticity events. These events are manifested by the atomic clusters of high kinetic energy and high strain rate, emerging even in the elastic deformation regime. The life of such a plasticity event is on the order of 10-12 s, during which the distribution of kinetic energy follows a power law. The study shows that yielding in metallic glass occurs at the sudden surge point of the number of plasticity events. In the steady plastic deformation regime, the continuous nucleation and annihilation of the plastic events lead to a steady flow stress and stabilized total potential energy.

  1. Life Events, Sibling Warmth, and Youths' Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Waite, Evelyn B; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P; O'Brien, Marion

    2011-10-01

    Sibling warmth has been identified as a protective factor from life events, but stressor-support match-mismatch and social domains perspectives suggest that sibling warmth may not efficiently protect youths from all types of life events. We tested whether sibling warmth moderated the association between each of family-wide, youths' personal, and siblings' personal life events and both depressive symptoms and risk-taking behaviors. Participants were 187 youths aged 9-18 (M = 11.80 years old, SD = 2.05). Multiple regression models revealed that sibling warmth was a protective factor from depressive symptoms for family-wide events, but not for youths' personal and siblings' personal life events. Findings highlight the importance of contextualizing protective functions of sibling warmth by taking into account the domains of stressors and adjustment. PMID:22241934

  2. Robotic Follow-up of Microlensing Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, Rachel; Microlensing Project, RoboNet

    2009-05-01

    Several hundred galactic microlensing events are now routinely discovered every year, of which a few exhibit anomalous behavior due to the presence of an exoplanet orbiting the lensing body. Ground based follow-up of these events requires a co-ordinated observing program using network of telescopes observing around the clock. The RoboNet microlensing project is taking advantage of the robotic scheduling capabilities of LCOGT and the Liverpool Telescope to provide responsive photometric follow-up of carefully selected events. Currently LCOGT has two, 2m telescopes available via our network and are in the process of building and deploying networks of 1m and 0.4m telescopes. Once online, these facilities will provide 24hr coverage of microlensing events. Here we highlight results from the RoboNet Project to date and describe the software we have developed to optimize our response to planetary events.

  3. Acoustic network event classification using swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Jerry

    2013-05-01

    Classifying acoustic signals detected by distributed sensor networks is a difficult problem due to the wide variations that can occur in the transmission of terrestrial, subterranean, seismic and aerial events. An acoustic event classifier was developed that uses particle swarm optimization to perform a flexible time correlation of a sensed acoustic signature to reference data. In order to mitigate the effects from interference such as multipath, the classifier fuses signatures from multiple sensors to form a composite sensed acoustic signature and then automatically matches the composite signature with reference data. The approach can classify all types of acoustic events but is particularly well suited to explosive events such as gun shots, mortar blasts and improvised explosive devices that produce an acoustic signature having a shock wave component that is aperiodic and non-linear. The classifier was applied to field data and yielded excellent results in terms of reconstructing degraded acoustic signatures from multiple sensors and in classifying disparate acoustic events.

  4. Atmospheric transmission of North Atlantic Heinrich events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostetler, S.W.; Clark, P.U.; Bartlein, P.J.; Mix, A.C.; Pisias, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    We model the response of the climate system during Heinrich event 2 (H2) by employing an atmospheric general circulation model, using boundary conditions based on the concept of a "canonical" Heinrich event. The canonical event is initialized with a full-height Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) and CLIMAP sea surface temperatures (SSTs), followed by lowering of the LIS, then warming of North Atlantic SSTs. Our modeled temperature and wind fields exhibit spatially variable responses over the Northern Hemisphere at each stage of the H2 event. In some regions the climatic responses are additive, whereas in other regions they cancel or are of opposite sign, suggesting that Heinrich event climatic variations may have left complex signatures in geologic records. We find variations in the tropical water balance and the mass balance of ice sheets, and implications for variations in terrestrial methane production from the contraction of northern permafrost regions and the expansion of tropical wetlands. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Simple visual cues of event boundaries.

    PubMed

    Tauzin, Tibor

    2015-06-01

    A stream of sensory information is organized into discrete temporal units through event segmentation. On the basis of several studies measuring participants' explicit decisions about event boundaries, some theorists suggest that this segmentation is induced by increased unpredictability. Since this approach cannot describe the segmentation of unfamiliar events, we assumed that event segmentation might be perceptually driven. We hypothesized that when a new event-relevant object is represented, it triggers event segmentation. In addition to explicit decisions, we measured memory performance, since it has previously been found to be a strong indicator of event segmentation. We presented simple videos to the participants in which geometric objects were flashing consecutively while an unpredictable change occurred. In the New Object condition flashing objects were replaced, while in the Same Object condition one non-kind-relevant feature of the objects was changed. In Experiment 1 the participants' task was to press a button when they detected a meaningful change in the stimuli. In line with the predictability-based theories, we found that both changes triggered the detection of an event boundary. To contrast our hypothesis with the predictions of earlier theories, in Experiments 2 and 3 memory accuracy was measured using the stimuli of Experiment 1. We only found a significant change in memory accuracy in the New Object condition, which suggests that the appearance of an event-relevant object can induce segmentation on its own, and indicates that the explicit-decisions methodology might lead to the improper conclusion that event segmentation is solely based on predictability.

  6. Simple visual cues of event boundaries.

    PubMed

    Tauzin, Tibor

    2015-06-01

    A stream of sensory information is organized into discrete temporal units through event segmentation. On the basis of several studies measuring participants' explicit decisions about event boundaries, some theorists suggest that this segmentation is induced by increased unpredictability. Since this approach cannot describe the segmentation of unfamiliar events, we assumed that event segmentation might be perceptually driven. We hypothesized that when a new event-relevant object is represented, it triggers event segmentation. In addition to explicit decisions, we measured memory performance, since it has previously been found to be a strong indicator of event segmentation. We presented simple videos to the participants in which geometric objects were flashing consecutively while an unpredictable change occurred. In the New Object condition flashing objects were replaced, while in the Same Object condition one non-kind-relevant feature of the objects was changed. In Experiment 1 the participants' task was to press a button when they detected a meaningful change in the stimuli. In line with the predictability-based theories, we found that both changes triggered the detection of an event boundary. To contrast our hypothesis with the predictions of earlier theories, in Experiments 2 and 3 memory accuracy was measured using the stimuli of Experiment 1. We only found a significant change in memory accuracy in the New Object condition, which suggests that the appearance of an event-relevant object can induce segmentation on its own, and indicates that the explicit-decisions methodology might lead to the improper conclusion that event segmentation is solely based on predictability. PMID:25867112

  7. Event-by-event hydrodynamics: A better tool to study the Quark-Gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Grassi, Frederique

    2013-03-25

    Hydrodynamics has been established as a good tool to describe many data from relativistic heavyion collisions performed at RHIC and LHC. More recently, it has become clear that it is necessary to use event-by-event hydrodynamics (i.e. describe each collision individually using hydrodynamics), an approach first developed in Brazil. In this paper, I review which data require the use of event-by-event hydrodynamics and what more we may learn on the Quark-Gluon Plasma with this.

  8. 75 FR 25321 - Agency Information Collection (VA National Rehabilitation Special Events, Event Registration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (VA National Rehabilitation Special Events, Event Registration Applications) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office of National Programs and Special Events, Department of... U.S.C. 3501-21), this notice announces that the Office of National Programs and Special...

  9. The Effect of Event Repetition on the Production of Story Grammar in Children's Event Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feltis, Brooke B.; Powell, Martine B.; Roberts, Kim P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effect of event repetition on the amount and nature of story-grammar produced by children when recalling the event. Method: Children aged 4 years (N=50) and 7 years (N=56) participated in either 1 or 6 occurrences of a highly similar event where details varied across the occurrences. Half the children in each age…

  10. Motor vehicle occupant injuries in noncrash events.

    PubMed

    Agran, P F

    1981-06-01

    Data on injuries sustained by child occupants in motor vehicles occurring in noncrash events are generally unrecorded. This study was undertaken to ascertain the occurrence of medically confirmed injuries sustained by child occupants in motor vehicles as a result of noncrash events. Seventy-nine children were seen in the emergency room for evaluation of injuries that they incurred as occupants in motor vehicle incidents over a period of 18 months. The majority of injuries occurred in crash events. However, 18 (23%) were injured in noncrash events. These events included sudden stops, swerves, turns, and movement of an unrestrained child within the vehicle. The mechanism of injury was either ejection from the vehicle or impact with an interior area of the vehicle. In five of the 18 cases safety restraint use could not be established. Of the 13 cases in which information was obtained, no child was restrained. Although the injuries were predominantly minor (Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 1), two children sustained moderate injury (AIS 2), and one child sustained severe injury (AIS 3). These results need to be confirmed by a larger study and if confirmed, the additional hazard of injury from noncrash events should be incorporated into health education messages that currently place primary emphasis on the potential for injury in crash events. PMID:7232048

  11. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and ‘pestilence’ associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  12. Distinct processes shape flashbulb and event memories.

    PubMed

    Tinti, Carla; Schmidt, Susanna; Testa, Silvia; Levine, Linda J

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, we examined the relation between memory for a consequential and emotional event and memory for the circumstances in which people learned about that event, known as flashbulb memory. We hypothesized that these two types of memory have different determinants and that event memory is not necessarily a direct causal determinant of flashbulb memory. Italian citizens (N = 352) described their memories of Italy's victory in the 2006 Football World Cup Championship after a delay of 18 months. Structural equation modeling showed that flashbulb memory and event memory could be clearly differentiated and were determined by two separate pathways. In the first pathway, importance predicted emotional intensity, which, in turn, predicted the frequency of overt and covert rehearsal. Rehearsal was the only direct determinant of vivid and detailed flashbulb memories. In the second pathway, importance predicted rehearsal by media exposure, which enhanced the accuracy and certainty of event memory. Event memory was also enhanced by prior knowledge. These results have important implications for the debate concerning whether the formation of flashbulb memory and event memory involve different processes and for understanding how flashbulb memory can be simultaneously so vivid and so error-prone.

  13. Temporal binding within and across events.

    PubMed

    DuBrow, Sarah; Davachi, Lila

    2016-10-01

    Remembering the order in which events occur is a fundamental component of episodic memory. However, the neural mechanisms supporting serial recall remain unclear. Behaviorally, serial recall is greater for information encountered within the same event compared to across event boundaries, raising the possibility that contextual stability may modulate the cognitive and neural processes supporting serial encoding. In the present study, we used fMRI during the encoding of consecutive face and object stimuli to elucidate the neural encoding signatures supporting subsequent serial recall behavior both within and across events. We found that univariate BOLD activation in both the middle hippocampus and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) was associated with subsequent serial recall of items that occur across event boundaries. By contrast, successful serial encoding within events was associated with increased functional connectivity between the hippocampus and ventromedial PFC, but not with univariate activation in these or other regions. These findings build on evidence implicating hippocampal and PFC processes in encoding temporal aspects of memory. They further suggest that these encoding processes are influenced by whether binding occurs within a stable context or bridges two adjacent but distinct events. PMID:27422018

  14. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  15. Emergence of event cascades in inhomogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaga, Tomokatsu; Shinomoto, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    There is a commonality among contagious diseases, tweets, and neuronal firings that past events facilitate the future occurrence of events. The spread of events has been extensively studied such that the systems exhibit catastrophic chain reactions if the interaction represented by the ratio of reproduction exceeds unity; however, their subthreshold states are not fully understood. Here, we report that these systems are possessed by nonstationary cascades of event-occurrences already in the subthreshold regime. Event cascades can be harmful in some contexts, when the peak-demand causes vaccine shortages, heavy traffic on communication lines, but may be beneficial in other contexts, such that spontaneous activity in neural networks may be used to generate motion or store memory. Thus it is important to comprehend the mechanism by which such cascades appear, and consider controlling a system to tame or facilitate fluctuations in the event-occurrences. The critical interaction for the emergence of cascades depends greatly on the network structure in which individuals are connected. We demonstrate that we can predict whether cascades may emerge, given information about the interactions between individuals. Furthermore, we develop a method of reallocating connections among individuals so that event cascades may be either impeded or impelled in a network.

  16. Temporal binding within and across events.

    PubMed

    DuBrow, Sarah; Davachi, Lila

    2016-10-01

    Remembering the order in which events occur is a fundamental component of episodic memory. However, the neural mechanisms supporting serial recall remain unclear. Behaviorally, serial recall is greater for information encountered within the same event compared to across event boundaries, raising the possibility that contextual stability may modulate the cognitive and neural processes supporting serial encoding. In the present study, we used fMRI during the encoding of consecutive face and object stimuli to elucidate the neural encoding signatures supporting subsequent serial recall behavior both within and across events. We found that univariate BOLD activation in both the middle hippocampus and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) was associated with subsequent serial recall of items that occur across event boundaries. By contrast, successful serial encoding within events was associated with increased functional connectivity between the hippocampus and ventromedial PFC, but not with univariate activation in these or other regions. These findings build on evidence implicating hippocampal and PFC processes in encoding temporal aspects of memory. They further suggest that these encoding processes are influenced by whether binding occurs within a stable context or bridges two adjacent but distinct events.

  17. Toddlers infer unobserved causes for spontaneous events

    PubMed Central

    Muentener, Paul; Schulz, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that children infer the presence of unobserved causes when objects appear to move spontaneously. Are such inferences limited to motion events or do children assume that unexplained physical events have causes more generally? Here we introduce an apparently spontaneous event and ask whether, even in the absence of spatiotemporal and co-variation cues linking the events, toddlers treat a plausible variable as a cause of the event. Toddlers (24 months) saw a toy that appeared to light up either spontaneously or after an experimenter’s action. Toddlers were also introduced to a button but were not shown any predictive relation between the button and the light. Across three different dependent measures of exploration, predictive looking (Study 1), prompted intervention (Study 2), and spontaneous exploration (Study 3), toddlers were more likely to represent the button as a cause of the light when the event appeared to occur spontaneously. In Study 4, we found that even in the absence of a plausible candidate cause, toddlers engaged in selective exploration when the light appeared to activate spontaneously. These results suggest that toddlers’ exploration is guided by the causal explanatory power of events. PMID:25566161

  18. A wireless time synchronized event control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Robert; Williams, Jonathan; Scheffel, Peter

    2014-05-01

    McQ has developed a wireless, time-synchronized, event control system to control, monitor, and record events with precise timing over large test sites for applications such as high speed rocket sled payload testing. Events of interest may include firing rocket motors and launch sleds, initiating flares, ejecting bombs, ejecting seats, triggering high speed cameras, measuring sled velocity, and triggering events based on a velocity window or other criteria. The system consists of Event Controllers, a Launch Controller, and a wireless network. The Event Controllers can be easily deployed at areas of interest within the test site and maintain sub-microsecond timing accuracy for monitoring sensors, electronically triggering other equipment and events, and providing timing signals to other test equipment. Recorded data and status information is reported over the wireless network to a server and user interface. Over the wireless network, the user interface configures the system based on a user specified mission plan and provides real time command, control, and monitoring of the devices and data. An overview of the system, its features, performance, and potential uses is presented.

  19. Seismicity in Pennsylvania: Evidence for Anthropogenic Events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homman, K.; Nyblade, A.

    2015-12-01

    The deployment and operation of the USArray Transportable Array (TA) and the PASEIS (XY) seismic networks in Pennsylvania during 2013 and 2014 provide a unique opportunity for investigating the seismicity of Pennsylvania. These networks, along with several permanent stations in Pennsylvania, resulted in a total of 104 seismometers in and around Pennsylvania that have been used in this study. Event locations were first obtained with Antelope Environmental Monitoring Software using P-wave arrival times. Arrival times were hand picked using a 1-5 Hz bandpass filter to within 0.1 seconds. Events were then relocated using a velocity model developed for Pennsylvania and the HYPOELLIPSE location code. In this study, 1593 seismic events occurred between February 2013 and December 2014 in Pennsylvania. These events ranged between magnitude (ML) 1.04 and 2.89 with an average MLof 1.90. Locations of the events occur across the state in many areas where no seismicity has been previously reported. Preliminary results indicate that most of these events are related to mining activity. Additional work using cross-correlation techniques is underway to examine a number of event clusters for evidence of hydraulic fracturing or wastewater injection sources.

  20. Multi-muon events at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Ptochos, F.; /Cyprus U.

    2009-07-01

    We report a study of multi-muon events produced at the Fermilab Tevatron collider and recorded by the CDF II detector. In a data set acquired with a dedicated dimuon trigger and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2100 pb{sup -1}, we isolate a significant sample of events in which at least one of the identified muons has large impact parameter and is produced outside the beam pipe of radius 1.5 cm. We are unable to fully account for the number and properties of the events through standard model processes in conjunction with our current understanding of the CDF II detector, trigger and event reconstruction. Several topological and kinematic properties of these events are also presented. In contrast, the production cross section and kinematics of events in which both muon candidates are produced inside the beam pipe are successfully modeled by known QCD processes which include heavy flavor production. The presence of these anomalous multi-muon events offers a plausible resolution to long-standing inconsistencies related to b{bar b} production and decay.

  1. Permian biospheric events in Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biakov, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of diversity of bivalve species in Northeast Asia in the Permian period allowed us to reveal a number of events when it significantly increased or decreased. Four major mass extinction events were established for bivalves: at the end of the Early Permian, in the Early Capitanian age, at the the Capitanian-Wuchiapingian boundary and at the end of the Late Permian. Along with extinction events, five events of taxonomic radiation/innovation were distinguished: Early Asselian, Middle Kungurian, Early Roadian, Late Wordian, and Early Changhsingian. Revealing of these biotic events has been confirmed by the dynamics of biodiversity in other major groups of Permian fauna (foraminifers, brachiopods, ammonoids). Moreover, they are evidenced in different basins by changes in the character of sedimentation, isotope parameters, eustatic variations and other environmental factors. Most of the events can be traced far beyond Northeast Asia. Their manifestation is associated with general reasons (variations in endogenous regime of the Earth and associated stress effects on the biota). According to this, results of studying these events can be used for global correlations.

  2. Emergence of event cascades in inhomogeneous networks.

    PubMed

    Onaga, Tomokatsu; Shinomoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    There is a commonality among contagious diseases, tweets, and neuronal firings that past events facilitate the future occurrence of events. The spread of events has been extensively studied such that the systems exhibit catastrophic chain reactions if the interaction represented by the ratio of reproduction exceeds unity; however, their subthreshold states are not fully understood. Here, we report that these systems are possessed by nonstationary cascades of event-occurrences already in the subthreshold regime. Event cascades can be harmful in some contexts, when the peak-demand causes vaccine shortages, heavy traffic on communication lines, but may be beneficial in other contexts, such that spontaneous activity in neural networks may be used to generate motion or store memory. Thus it is important to comprehend the mechanism by which such cascades appear, and consider controlling a system to tame or facilitate fluctuations in the event-occurrences. The critical interaction for the emergence of cascades depends greatly on the network structure in which individuals are connected. We demonstrate that we can predict whether cascades may emerge, given information about the interactions between individuals. Furthermore, we develop a method of reallocating connections among individuals so that event cascades may be either impeded or impelled in a network. PMID:27625183

  3. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  4. Hazardous materials events: an industrial comparison.

    PubMed

    Burgess, J L; Kovalchick, D F; Harter, L; Kyes, K B; Thompson, J N

    2000-05-01

    Identifying industries at high risk for hazardous materials releases can facilitate prevention and preparation for such events. A retrospective review by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes was conducted on non-petroleum hazardous materials emergency events from 1993 to 1995 and collected by the Washington State Department of Health in a program supported by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Annual US Census data were used to determine the number of facilities and employees by SIC code in the state of Washington. SIC codes with the most total events and events per 10,000 employees were ranked and characterized by type of releases. In 3 years, 1269 events were recorded, with 294 involving human victims. Industries with the highest average annual number of events per 10,000 employees were agricultural chemical manufacturing (142); petroleum refining (122); industrial and miscellaneous chemical manufacturing (56); electric light and power (54); and pulp, paper, and paperboard mills (39). Industries with high rates of hazardous materials emergency events should continue to develop methods of preventing these releases.

  5. Emergence of event cascades in inhomogeneous networks

    PubMed Central

    Onaga, Tomokatsu; Shinomoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    There is a commonality among contagious diseases, tweets, and neuronal firings that past events facilitate the future occurrence of events. The spread of events has been extensively studied such that the systems exhibit catastrophic chain reactions if the interaction represented by the ratio of reproduction exceeds unity; however, their subthreshold states are not fully understood. Here, we report that these systems are possessed by nonstationary cascades of event-occurrences already in the subthreshold regime. Event cascades can be harmful in some contexts, when the peak-demand causes vaccine shortages, heavy traffic on communication lines, but may be beneficial in other contexts, such that spontaneous activity in neural networks may be used to generate motion or store memory. Thus it is important to comprehend the mechanism by which such cascades appear, and consider controlling a system to tame or facilitate fluctuations in the event-occurrences. The critical interaction for the emergence of cascades depends greatly on the network structure in which individuals are connected. We demonstrate that we can predict whether cascades may emerge, given information about the interactions between individuals. Furthermore, we develop a method of reallocating connections among individuals so that event cascades may be either impeded or impelled in a network. PMID:27625183

  6. Multiple Orderings of Events in Disease Progression.

    PubMed

    Young, Alexandra L; Oxtoby, Neil P; Huang, Jonathan; Marinescu, Razvan V; Daga, Pankaj; Cash, David M; Fox, Nick C; Ourselin, Sebastien; Schott, Jonathan M; Alexander, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    The event-based model constructs a discrete picture of disease progression from cross-sectional data sets, with each event corresponding to a new biomarker becoming abnormal. However, it relies on the assumption that all subjects follow a single event sequence. This is a major simplification for sporadic disease data sets, which are highly heterogeneous, include distinct subgroups, and contain significant proportions of outliers. In this work we relax this assumption by considering two extensions to the event-based model: a generalised Mallows model, which allows subjects to deviate from the main event sequence, and a Dirichlet process mixture of generalised Mallows models, which models clusters of subjects that follow different event sequences, each of which has a corresponding variance. We develop a Gibbs sampling technique to infer the parameters of the two models from multi-modal biomarker data sets. We apply our technique to data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative to determine the sequence in which brain regions become abnormal in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, as well as the heterogeneity of that sequence in the cohort. We find that the generalised Mallows model estimates a larger variation in the event sequence across subjects than the original event-based model. Fitting a Dirichlet process model detects three subgroups of the population with different event sequences. The Gibbs sampler additionally provides an estimate of the uncertainty in each of the model parameters, for example an individual's latent disease stage and cluster assignment. The distributions and mixtures of sequences that this new family of models introduces offer better characterisation of disease progression of heterogeneous populations, new insight into disease mechanisms, and have the potential for enhanced disease stratification and differential diagnosis. PMID:26223048

  7. VOEventNet: Event Messaging for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Andrew J.; Djorgovski, G.; Graham, M.; Williams, R.; Mahabal, A.; Donalek, C.; Glikman, E.; Bloom, J.; Vastrand, T.; White, R.; Rabinowitz, D.; Baltay, C.

    2006-12-01

    The time domain remains one of the the least explored areas in modern astronomy. In the near future the next generation of large synoptic sky surveys (Pan-STARRs, Skymapper, LSST) will probe the time dependent nature of the sky by detecting hundreds of thousands of astronomical transients (variable stars, asteroids, GRBs, lensing events). A global event distribution and follow-up network is required to characterize the nature of these transients. For over a year the VOEventNet project has been in the process of implementing a transient event follow-up network which distributes crafted structured data packets called VOEvents. These packets have been designed to be general enough to contain metadata for transients seen at all wavelengths, yet interpretable by robotic telescope systems (which are already automatically responding with follow-up observations). The VOEventNet project currently has transient event follow-up with the Palomar 60 and 200in (Caltech), RAPTOR (LANL), PARITEL and KAIT (UCB) as well as UK telescopes. VOEventNet transient event streams are publicly available. The subscription, publication and reception of VOEvents is implimented with a number of open source software clients. The software and details of how to receive streams of events are available from http://www.voeventnet.org. Current event streams include OGLE microlensing events, SDSS Supernovae, GCN GRBs, Raptor and Palomar-Quest optical transients. In the near future, many additional streams of VOEvents will be available, including optical transients from the ESSENCE, Planet and MOA projects, as well as those from UKIRT and JCMT telescopes. We also expect that transient event alerts will be available from Solar, X-ray and Radio telescopes.

  8. Improvements in Measuring Life Events in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarnaccia, Charles A.

    Life event measurement in the Arizona State University Life Events and Aging project includes monthly assessments of both major and small life events. Major events are measured using a 96-item Psychiatric Epidemiological Research Instrument (PERI) Major Life Events Scale which concentrates on health issues and events in the experiential domain of…

  9. Stabilization of discrete-event processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brave, Y.; Heymann, M.

    1990-01-01

    Discrete-event processes are modeled by state-machines in the Ramadge-Wonham framework with control by a feedback event disablement mechanism. In this paper, concepts of stabilization of discrete-event processes are defined and investigated. The possibility of driving a process (under control) from arbitrary initial states to a prescribed subset of the state set and then keeping it there indefinitely is examined. This stabilization property is studied also with respect to 'open-loop' processes and their asymptotic behavior is characterized. Polynomial time algorithms are presented for verifying various types of attraction and for the synthesis of attractors.

  10. Carbon-poor solar flare events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.

    1979-01-01

    Energetic particle flux enhancements over the period October 1973 - December 1977 were surveyed using ULET sensor on the IMP-8 spacecraft. During the four year period the most extreme periods of Fe enrichment compared to oxygen were during solar flare events in February 1974 and May 1974. In these same events, the carbon abundance with respect to oxygen was significantly depleted when compared with a value C:0 is approximately 0.45:1 for typical solar flares. These observations, taken together with previously reported He-3 enrichment in these events, give strong evidence for the importance of a wave-particle interaction in the pre-injection heating of the ambient matter.

  11. Underlying Event Studies for LHC Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Barnafoeldi, Gergely Gabor; Levai, Peter; Agocs, Andras G.

    2011-04-26

    Underlying event was originally defined by the CDF collaboration decades ago. Here we improve the original definition to extend our analysis for events with multiple-jets. We introduce a definition for surrounding rings/belts and based on this definition the jet- and surrounding-belt-excluded areas will provide a good underlying event definition. We inverstigate our definition via the multiplicity in the defined geometry. In parallel, mean transverse momenta of these areas also studied in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s) = 7 TeV LHC energy.

  12. Event Reports Promoting Root Cause Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Swananda; Gong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Improving health is the sole objective of medical care. Unfortunately, mishaps or patient safety events happen during the care. If the safety events were collected effectively, they would help identify patterns, underlying causes, and ultimately generate proactive and remedial solutions for prevention of recurrence. Based on the AHRQ Common Formats, we examine the quality of patient safety incident reports and describe the initial data requirement that can support and accelerate effective root cause analysis. The ultimate goal is to develop a knowledge base of patient safety events and their common solutions which can be readily available for sharing and learning. PMID:27332241

  13. Top Event Matrix Analysis Code System.

    2000-06-19

    Version 00 TEMAC is designed to permit the user to easily estimate risk and to perform sensitivity and uncertainty analyses with a Boolean expression such as produced by the SETS computer program. SETS produces a mathematical representation of a fault tree used to model system unavailability. In the terminology of the TEMAC program, such a mathematical representation is referred to as a top event. The analysis of risk involves the estimation of the magnitude ofmore » risk, the sensitivity of risk estimates to base event probabilities and initiating event frequencies, and the quantification of the uncertainty in the risk estimates.« less

  14. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J; Berkowitz, Steven J

    2015-11-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae; however, this topic has been understudied. This review considers the rationale for examining traumatic events and related symptomology in individuals with ASD and summarizes the limited research on this topic. A conceptual framework for understanding the interplay of ASD, trauma and traumatic sequelae is proposed and recommendations for future research presented.

  15. Asynchronous Event-Driven Particle Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Donev, A

    2007-08-30

    We present, in a unifying way, the main components of three asynchronous event-driven algorithms for simulating physical systems of interacting particles. The first example, hard-particle molecular dynamics (MD), is well-known. We also present a recently-developed diffusion kinetic Monte Carlo (DKMC) algorithm, as well as a novel stochastic molecular-dynamics algorithm that builds on the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC). We explain how to effectively combine event-driven and classical time-driven handling, and discuss some promises and challenges for event-driven simulation of realistic physical systems.

  16. Use of the Hadoop structured storage tools for the ATLAS EventIndex event catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favareto, A.

    2016-09-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC collects billions of events each data-taking year, and processes them to make them available for physics analysis in several different formats. An even larger amount of events is in addition simulated according to physics and detector models and then reconstructed and analysed to be compared to real events. The EventIndex is a catalogue of all events in each production stage; it includes for each event a few identification parameters, some basic non-mutable information coming from the online system, and the references to the files that contain the event in each format (plus the internal pointers to the event within each file for quick retrieval). Each EventIndex record is logically simple but the system has to hold many tens of billions of records, all equally important. The Hadoop technology was selected at the start of the EventIndex project development in 2012 and proved to be robust and flexible to accommodate this kind of information; both the insertion and query response times are acceptable for the continuous and automatic operation that started in Spring 2015. This paper describes the EventIndex data input and organisation in Hadoop and explains the operational challenges that were overcome in order to achieve the expected performance.

  17. In the News: Current Events Websites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews Web sites for current events news that are appropriate for students of various ages. Discusses the possibilities for second language learning and curriculum connections and lists television sites, news magazines, classroom magazines, newspapers, and lesson plans. (LRW)

  18. Controlling extreme events on complex networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Extreme events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control extreme events is of fundamental importance and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network "mobile" can effectively suppress extreme events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of extreme events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed. PMID:25131344

  19. Controlling extreme events on complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Extreme events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control extreme events is of fundamental importance and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network “mobile” can effectively suppress extreme events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of extreme events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed. PMID:25131344

  20. STEREO Witnesses Aug 1, 2010 Solar Event

    NASA Video Gallery

    These image sequences were taken by the twin STEREO spacecraft looking at the Sun from opposite sides. The bottom pair shows the Sun and its immediate surroundings. The top row shows events from th...

  1. Independent events in elementary probability theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csenki, Attila

    2011-07-01

    In Probability and Statistics taught to mathematicians as a first introduction or to a non-mathematical audience, joint independence of events is introduced by requiring that the multiplication rule is satisfied. The following statement is usually tacitly assumed to hold (and, at best, intuitively motivated): If the n events E 1, E 2, … , E n are jointly independent then any two events A and B built in finitely many steps from two disjoint subsets of E 1, E 2, … , E n are also independent. The operations 'union', 'intersection' and 'complementation' are permitted only when forming the events A and B. Here we examine this statement from the point of view of elementary probability theory. The approach described here is accessible also to users of probability theory and is believed to be novel.

  2. Inner behavior: Empirical investigations of private events

    PubMed Central

    Calkin, Abigail B.

    2002-01-01

    The special section on private events in the Spring 2000 issue of The Behavior Analyst discussed the exploration of private events. The four articles focused on conceptualizations of issues related to private events and on behavior analysts' neglect of the area. This response cites 19 data-based articles and two doctoral dissertations involving measurement of what precision teachers term inner behavior—thoughts, feelings, and urges. Of the estimated 1.2 million standard celeration charts, at least 1,600 are inner behavior charts. These extensive data indicate that people can and do count and chart their inner behavior. This response discusses findings on inner behavior and its frequency, celeration (growth), variability, and improvement using antecedent and consequent events. PMID:22478390

  3. Bidirectional solar wind electron heat flux events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Zwickl, R. D.; Smith, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    ISEE 3 plasma and magnetic field data are used here to document the general characteristics of bidirectional electron heat flux events (BEHFEs). Significant field rotations often occur at the beginning and/or end of such events and, at times, the large-field rotations characteristic of 'magnetic clouds' are present. Approximately half of all BEHFEs are associated with and follow interplanetary shocks, while the other events have no obvious shock associations. When shock-associated, the delay from shock passage typically is about 13 hours, corresponding to a radial separation of about 0.16 AU. When independent of any shock association, BEHFEs typically are about 0.13 AU thick in the radial direction. It is suggested that BEHFEs are one of the more prominent signatures of coronal mass ejection events in the solar wind at 1 AU.

  4. Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wei-Ta; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Wu, Ja-Ling

    2006-12-01

    Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs) are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model) and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM)) approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

  5. Characteristics of Extreme Auroral Charging Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Today’s presentation describes preliminary results from a study of extreme auroral charging in low Earth orbit. Goal of study is to document characteristics of auroral charging events of importance to spacecraft design, operations, and anomaly investigations.

  6. Video salient event classification using audio features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corchs, Silvia; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Fiori, Massimiliano; Gasparini, Francesca

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work is to detect the events in video sequences that are salient with respect to the audio signal. In particular, we focus on the audio analysis of a video, with the goal of finding which are the significant features to detect audio-salient events. In our work we have extracted the audio tracks from videos of different sport events. For each video, we have manually labeled the salient audio-events using the binary markings. On each frame, features in both time and frequency domains have been considered. These features have been used to train different classifiers: Classification and Regression Trees, Support Vector Machine, and k-Nearest Neighbor. The classification performances are reported in terms of confusion matrices.

  7. Signaling communication events in a computer network

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Carl A.; DiNicola, Paul D.; Gildea, Kevin J.; Govindaraju, Rama K.; Kim, Chulho; Mirza, Jamshed H.; Shah, Gautam H.; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw

    2000-01-01

    A method, apparatus and program product for detecting a communication event in a distributed parallel data processing system in which a message is sent from an origin to a target. A low-level application programming interface (LAPI) is provided which has an operation for associating a counter with a communication event to be detected. The LAPI increments the counter upon the occurrence of the communication event. The number in the counter is monitored, and when the number increases, the event is detected. A completion counter in the origin is associated with the completion of a message being sent from the origin to the target. When the message is completed, LAPI increments the completion counter such that monitoring the completion counter detects the completion of the message. The completion counter may be used to insure that a first message has been sent from the origin to the target and completed before a second message is sent.

  8. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P. D.; Jefferson, D. R.

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  9. Global Seismic Event Detection Using Surface Waves: 15 Possible Antarctic Glacial Sliding Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Shearer, P. M.; Walker, K. T.; Fricker, H. A.

    2008-12-01

    To identify overlooked or anomalous seismic events not listed in standard catalogs, we have developed an algorithm to detect and locate global seismic events using intermediate-period (35-70s) surface waves. We apply our method to continuous vertical-component seismograms from the global seismic networks as archived in the IRIS UV FARM database from 1997 to 2007. We first bandpass filter the seismograms, apply automatic gain control, and compute envelope functions. We then examine 1654 target event locations defined at 5 degree intervals and stack the seismogram envelopes along the predicted Rayleigh-wave travel times. The resulting function has spatial and temporal peaks that indicate possible seismic events. We visually check these peaks using a graphical user interface to eliminate artifacts and assign an overall reliability grade (A, B or C) to the new events. We detect 78% of events in the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) catalog. However, we also find 840 new events not listed in the PDE, ISC and REB catalogs. Many of these new events were previously identified by Ekstrom (2006) using a different Rayleigh-wave detection scheme. Most of these new events are located along oceanic ridges and transform faults. Some new events can be associated with volcanic eruptions such as the 2000 Miyakejima sequence near Japan and others with apparent glacial sliding events in Greenland (Ekstrom et al., 2003). We focus our attention on 15 events detected from near the Antarctic coastline and relocate them using a cross-correlation approach. The events occur in 3 groups which are well-separated from areas of cataloged earthquake activity. We speculate that these are iceberg calving and/or glacial sliding events, and hope to test this by inverting for their source mechanisms and examining remote sensing data from their source regions.

  10. Overview of the biology of extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutschick, V. P.; Bassirirad, H.

    2008-12-01

    Extreme events have, variously, meteorological origins as in heat waves or precipitation extremes, or biological origins as in pest and disease eruptions (or tectonic, earth-orbital, or impact-body origins). Despite growing recognition that these events are changing in frequency and intensity, a universal model of ecological responses to these events is slow to emerge. Extreme events, negative and positive, contrast with normal events in terms of their effects on the physiology, ecology, and evolution of organisms, hence also on water, carbon, and nutrient cycles. They structure biogeographic ranges and biomes, almost surely more than mean values often used to define biogeography. They are challenging to study for obvious reasons of field-readiness but also because they are defined by sequences of driving variables such as temperature, not point events. As sequences, their statistics (return times, for example) are challenging to develop, as also from the involvement of multiple environmental variables. These statistics are not captured well by climate models. They are expected to change with climate and land-use change but our predictive capacity is currently limited. A number of tools for description and analysis of extreme events are available, if not widely applied to date. Extremes for organisms are defined by their fitness effects on those organisms, and are specific to genotypes, making them major agents of natural selection. There is evidence that effects of extreme events may be concentrated in an extended recovery phase. We review selected events covering ranges of time and magnitude, from Snowball Earth to leaf functional loss in weather events. A number of events, such as the 2003 European heat wave, evidence effects on water and carbon cycles over large regions. Rising CO2 is the recent extreme of note, for its climatic effects and consequences for growing seasons, transpiration, etc., but also directly in its action as a substrate of photosynthesis

  11. Combining joint models for biomedical event extraction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We explore techniques for performing model combination between the UMass and Stanford biomedical event extraction systems. Both sub-components address event extraction as a structured prediction problem, and use dual decomposition (UMass) and parsing algorithms (Stanford) to find the best scoring event structure. Our primary focus is on stacking where the predictions from the Stanford system are used as features in the UMass system. For comparison, we look at simpler model combination techniques such as intersection and union which require only the outputs from each system and combine them directly. Results First, we find that stacking substantially improves performance while intersection and union provide no significant benefits. Second, we investigate the graph properties of event structures and their impact on the combination of our systems. Finally, we trace the origins of events proposed by the stacked model to determine the role each system plays in different components of the output. We learn that, while stacking can propose novel event structures not seen in either base model, these events have extremely low precision. Removing these novel events improves our already state-of-the-art F1 to 56.6% on the test set of Genia (Task 1). Overall, the combined system formed via stacking ("FAUST") performed well in the BioNLP 2011 shared task. The FAUST system obtained 1st place in three out of four tasks: 1st place in Genia Task 1 (56.0% F1) and Task 2 (53.9%), 2nd place in the Epigenetics and Post-translational Modifications track (35.0%), and 1st place in the Infectious Diseases track (55.6%). Conclusion We present a state-of-the-art event extraction system that relies on the strengths of structured prediction and model combination through stacking. Akin to results on other tasks, stacking outperforms intersection and union and leads to very strong results. The utility of model combination hinges on complementary views of the data, and we show that our

  12. Summer Events at the Scientific Library | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Two exciting events are coming this summer from the Scientific Library—the annual Student Science Jeopardy Tournament and the Summer Video Series. This year, the 10th Annual Student Science Jeopardy Tournament will be held on Wednesday, July 20, beginning at 10 a.m. in the auditorium of Building 549. The event will also be streamed live to the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF), room E1203.

  13. Multi-threaded Event Processing with JANA

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, David

    2007-09-14

    The C++ data analysis framework \\emph{JANA} has been written to support the next generation of Nuclear Physics experiments at Jefferson Lab coinciding with the anticipated 12GeV upgrade. The JANA framework was designed to allow multi-threaded event processing with a minimal impact on developers of reconstruction software. This document describes how JANA implements multi-threaded event processing and compares it to simply running multiple instances of a program.

  14. The ionospheric signature of flux transfer events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, S. W. H.; Freeman, M. P.; Lockwood, Mike; Smith, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The effects at ionospheric heights which take place when transient reconnection events (i.e., Flux Tranfer Events (FTEs)) occur at the dayside magnetopause are considered. The nature of the FTE related ionospheric flows, the associated current systems, and the plasma precipitation, are discussed. In particular, the nature of the time dependent cusp precipitation which occurs on this case is outlined and expectations are compared with those based on steady magnetopause reconnection.

  15. Solar Decathlon 2005: The Event in Review

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S.; Nahan, R.; Warner, C.; Wassmer, M.

    2006-06-01

    Solar Decathlon 2005: The Event in Review is a technical report describing the 2005 Solar Decathlon, an event sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy wherein 18 collegiate teams competed in 10 contests to design, build, and operate an attractive, efficient, entirely solar-powered home. The report gives an overview of the competition, including final results, team strategies, and detailed descriptions the 18 homes.

  16. Long-life relativistic electron enhancement events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaochao, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Chinese 'Fengyun-1' series are low earth orbit satellites, the Space Particle Component Detector on 'Fengyun-1' have detected continuously relativistic electrons at the low earth orbit for a long time, obtained plenty of observations. From July, 2004 to February, 2005 'Fengyun-1'observed two strong relativistic electron enhancement (REE) events lasting a long time. These two events were all very intense, electron fluxes enhanced more than 3 orders of magnitude. And they all lasted a long time, are all rarely long-life events, the 'lifetime' of electrons during these two events are 24 and 23 days individually. The enhancement extent of electron fluxes is varied at different L-positions. In order to seek causes of these special events and the acceleration mechanism driving them, we investigate the simultaneous interplanetary and magnetospheric environments. Then it is found: before or on commencements of these two events, interplanetary and magnetospheric environments disturbed intensively, Dst index disturbed continuously for three times; evident southward interplanetary magnetic field and strong substorm activities are important factors to drive relativistic electrons enhancement dramatically, the substorm activities produced copious quantities of energetic electrons in the energy range 100~300keV, and provided an important seed population of energetic electrons needed for major relativistic electron events; frequently dynamic pressure fluctuations in the solar wind may be another key factor for these two extraordinary events, Fourier transforms of the solar wind dynamic pressure confirms that the pulsations occurred at several discrete frequencies about mHz, these fluctuations could lead to magnetospheric ULF pulsations at the same frequencies, and the mode numbers of these ULF pulsations were appropriate, then they could accelerated the 'seed' electrons to relativistic electrons effectively.

  17. Modeling of ESD events from polymeric surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant

    2014-03-01

    Transient electrostatic discharge (ESD) events are studied to assemble a predictive model of discharge from polymer surfaces. An analog circuit simulation is produced and its response is compared to various literature sources to explore its capabilities and limitations. Results suggest that polymer ESD events can be predicted to within an order of magnitude. These results compare well to empirical findings from other sources having similar reproducibility.

  18. Multi-event universal kriging (MEUK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonkin, Matthew J.; Kennel, Jonathan; Huber, William; Lambie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-event universal kriging (MEUK) is a method of interpolation that creates a series of maps, each corresponding to a specific sampling "event", which exhibit spatial relationships that persist over time. MEUK is computed using minimum-variance unbiased linear prediction from data obtained via a sequence of events. MEUK assumes multi-event data can be described by a sum of (a) spatial trends that vary over time, (b) spatial trends that are invariant over time, and (c) spatially- and temporally-stationary correlation among the residuals from the combination of these trends. The fundamental advance made by MEUK versus traditional universal kriging (UK) lies with the generalized least squares (GLS) model and the multi-event capability it facilitates, rather than in the geostatistics, although it is shown how use of MEUK can greatly reduce predictive variances versus UK. For expediency, MEUK assumes a spatial covariance that does not change over time - although it does not have to - which is an advantage over space-time methods that employ a full space-time covariance function. MEUK can be implemented with large multi-event datasets, as demonstrated by application to a large water level dataset. Often, MEUK enables the stable solution of multiple events for similar computational effort as for a single event. MEUK provides an efficient basis for developing "wheel-and-axle" monitoring strategies [32] that combines frequently sampled locations used monitor changes over time with many more locations sampled periodically to provide synoptic depictions. MEUK can aid in the identification of the core monitoring locations, allowing for reduced sampling frequency elsewhere. Although MEUK can incorporate longitudinal variograms as in other space-time methods, doing so reduces the computational advantages of MEUK.

  19. Dynamic simulation recalls condensate piping event

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, R.J.; Reneberg, K.O. ); Moy, H.C. )

    1994-05-01

    This article describes how experience gained from simulating and reconstructing a condensate piping event will be used by Consolidated Edison to analyze control system problems. A cooperative effort by Con Edison and the Chemical Engineering Department at Polytechnic University used modular modeling system to investigate the probable cause of a Con Edison condensate piping event. Con Edison commissioned the work to serve as a case study for the more general problem of control systems analysis using dynamic simulation and MMS.

  20. Source regions of solar wind disappearance events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janardhan, P.; Fujiki, K.; Sawant, H. S.; Kojima, M.; Hakamada, K.; Krishnan, R.

    2008-03-01

    During the period 1999-2002 there have been three instances, in May 1999, March 2002, and May 2002, respectively, when the solar wind densities at 1 AU dropped to abnormally low values (<0.1 cm-3) for extended periods of time (12-24 h). These long-lasting low-density anomalies observed at 1 AU are referred to as "solar wind disappearance events" and in this paper, we locate the solar sources of the two disappearance events in March and May 2002 and show that like the well-studied disappearance event of 11 May 1999, these events too originate in active region complexes located at central meridian and are characterized by highly nonradial solar wind outflows. We also show that during disappearance events, the interplanetary magnetic field is stable and unipolar and the associated solar wind outflows have extended Alfvén radii. Using the fact that solar wind flows from active regions have higher ratios of O7+/O6+ than wind from coronal holes, we try to pinpoint the solar sources of these very unusual and rare events and show that they represent the dynamic evolution of either active region open fields or small coronal hole boundaries embedded in or near large active region complexes located at or close to central meridian.

  1. Special event planning for the emergency manager.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Peter T

    2009-11-01

    In the domain of emergency management and homeland security there is a lack of a formal planning process at the local level when it comes to special event planning. The unique nature of special event planning demands an understanding of the planning process for both traditional and non-traditional planning partners. This understanding will make certain that local governments apply due diligence when planning for the safety of the public. This paper offers a practical roadmap for planning at the local level. It will address those 'special events' that are beyond routine local events but not of a sufficient scale to be granted National Special Security Event status. Due to the infrequency of 'special events' in most communities, it is imperative that deliberate planning takes place. Upon conclusion, the reader will be able to construct a planning process tailored to the needs of their community, guide both traditional and non-traditional planning partners through the planning process, determine priorities, explore alternatives, plan for contingencies, conduct a confirmation brief, facilitate operations and assemble an after-action report and improvement plan. PMID:20378490

  2. Inflight Medical Events in the Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisden, Denise L.; Effenhauser, R. K.; Wear, Mary L.

    1999-01-01

    Since the first launch of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the astronauts and their flight surgeons have dealt with a variety of inflight medical issues. A review will be provided of these issues as well as medications used in the treatment of these medical problems. Detailed medical debriefs are conducted by the flight ,surgeon with the individual crewmembers three days after landing. These debriefs were review for Shuttle flights from 1988 through 1999 to determine the frequency of inflight medical events. Medical events were grouped by ICD category and the frequency of medical events within those categories were reviewed. The ICD category of Symptoms, Signs and Ill-defined Conditions had the most medical events. Facial fullness and headache were the most common complaints within this category. The ICD category of Respiratory System had the next most common medical events with sinus congestion being the most common complaint. This was followed by Digestive System complaints and Nervous System/Sense Organ complaints. A variety of inflight medical events have occurred throughout the Shuttle program. Fortunately, the majority of these problems have been minor and have been well within the capability of the medical equipment flown and the skills of the Crew Medical Officers. Medical ,problems/procedures that are routine on the ground often present unique problems in the space flight environment. It is important that the flight surgeon understand the common medical problems encountered.

  3. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Kappes

    1999-09-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M&O 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS).

  4. Multimedia event detection using visual concept signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younessian, Ehsan; Quinn, Michael; Mitamura, Teruko; Hauptmann, Alex

    2013-03-01

    Multimedia Event Detection (MED) is a multimedia retrieval task with the goal of finding videos of a particular event in a large-scale Internet video archive, given example videos and text descriptions. In this paper, we mainly focus on an 'ad-hoc' scenario in MED where we do not use any example video. We aim to retrieve test videos based on their visual semantics using a Visual Concept Signature (VCS) generated for each event only derived from the event description provided as the query. Visual semantics are described using the Semantic INdexing (SIN) feature which represents the likelihood of predefined visual concepts in a video. To generate a VCS for an event, we project the given event description to a visual concept list using the proposed textual semantic similarity. Exploring SIN feature properties, we harmonize the generated visual concept signature and the SIN feature to improve retrieval performance. We conduct different experiments to assess the quality of generated visual concept signatures with respect to human expectation, and in the context of the MED task to retrieve the SIN feature of videos in the test dataset when we have no or only very few training videos.

  5. Asynchronous event-based binocular stereo matching.

    PubMed

    Rogister, Paul; Benosman, Ryad; Ieng, Sio-Hoi; Lichtsteiner, Patrick; Delbruck, Tobi

    2012-02-01

    We present a novel event-based stereo matching algorithm that exploits the asynchronous visual events from a pair of silicon retinas. Unlike conventional frame-based cameras, recent artificial retinas transmit their outputs as a continuous stream of asynchronous temporal events, in a manner similar to the output cells of the biological retina. Our algorithm uses the timing information carried by this representation in addressing the stereo-matching problem on moving objects. Using the high temporal resolution of the acquired data stream for the dynamic vision sensor, we show that matching on the timing of the visual events provides a new solution to the real-time computation of 3-D objects when combined with geometric constraints using the distance to the epipolar lines. The proposed algorithm is able to filter out incorrect matches and to accurately reconstruct the depth of moving objects despite the low spatial resolution of the sensor. This brief sets up the principles for further event-based vision processing and demonstrates the importance of dynamic information and spike timing in processing asynchronous streams of visual events. PMID:24808513

  6. Comparison of the 26 May 2012 SEP Event with the 3 November 2011 SEP Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makela, P. A.; Gopalswamy, N.; Thakur, N.; Xie, H.

    2015-12-01

    We compare the solar and interplanetary events associated with two large solar energetic particle (SEP) events on 26 May 2012 and 3 November 2011. Both SEP events were detected at three longitudinally widely separated locations by STEREO A and B spacecraft (more than 100 deg away from Earth) and the Wind and SOHO spacecraft near Earth. In Earth view, the November 2011 eruption occurred far behind the east limb at N09E154, whereas the May 2012 eruption occurred closer to the west limb at N15W121, suggesting that SEPs accelerated during the 2012 event might have easier access to Earth. Even though the 2012 event was more intense in the GOES >10 MeV proton channel (peak intensity 14 pfu) than the 2011 event (peak intensity 4 pfu), we find that the latter event was more intense at higher energies (> 40 MeV). Also, the initial rise at lower energies was slightly faster for the 2011 event as measured by SOHO/ERNE. In addition, the CME associated with the May 2012 event was faster with an estimated space speed of ~2029 km/s than that in the November 2011 event (1188 km/s). STEREO/EUVI images of the associated post-eruption arcades (PEAs) indicate that their orientations were different: the PEA of the May 2012 event had a high inclination (north-south), while the inclination of the PEA of the 2011 event was more moderate. Differences in the flux rope orientation may also have effect on the longitudinal extent of the SEP events. These observations suggest that the dependence of solar proton intensities on the observer's longitudinal distance from the solar source is more complex than traditionally assumed.

  7. Characteristics of Extreme Auroral Charging Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Parker, Linda Neergard

    2014-01-01

    The highest level spacecraft charging observed in low Earth orbit (LEO) occurs when spacecraft are exposed to energetic auroral electrons. Since auroral charging has been identified as a mechanism responsible for on-orbit anomalies and even possible satellite failures it is important to consider extreme auroral charging events as design and test environments for spacecraft to be used in high inclination LEO orbits. This paper will report on studies of extreme auroral charging events using data from the SSJ/4 and SSJ/5 precipitating electron and ion sensors on the Defense Meteorology Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites. Early studies of DMSP charging to negative potentials =100 V focused on statistics of the electron environment responsible for charging. Later statistical studies of auroral charging have generally focused on solar cycle dependence of charging behavior and magnitude of the maximum potential and duration of the charging events. We extend these studies to focus on more detailed investigations of extreme charging event characteristics that are required to evaluate potential threats to spacecraft systems. A collection of example auroral charging events is assembled from the DMSP data set using the criteria that "extreme auroral charging" is defined as periods with spacecraft negative potentials =400 V. Specific characteristics to be treated include (but are not limited to) maximum and mean potentials, time history of spacecraft potentials through the events, total charging duration and the time potentials exceed voltage thresholds, frame charging/discharging rates, and information on geographic and geomagnetic latitudes at which the events are observed. Finally, we will comment on the implications of these studies for potential auroral charging risks to the International Space Station.

  8. [A near-miss event. A new approach in the study of adverse events].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Cía, I; Obón Azuara, B; Aibar Remón, C

    2008-04-01

    A near-miss event is defined as an event that could have resulted in an injury, fatality, or property damage if it had not been prevented. Analysis of near-miss events could be an efficient method in the study of adverse events. Reporting of near-misses has many benefits in the study of adverse events since near-misses occur more frequently than adverse events. In addition, as they have no consequences, fear that the professionals involved would have to report them is less. However, up to now, this method has been slow to develop. We present two clinical cases that help to understand the usefulness of the near-miss reporting system.

  9. Probabilistic Models for Solar Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Dietrich, W. F.; Xapsos, M. A.; Welton, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic Models of Solar Particle Events (SPEs) are used in space mission design studies to provide a description of the worst-case radiation environment that the mission must be designed to tolerate.The models determine the worst-case environment using a description of the mission and a user-specified confidence level that the provided environment will not be exceeded. This poster will focus on completing the existing suite of models by developing models for peak flux and event-integrated fluence elemental spectra for the Z>2 elements. It will also discuss methods to take into account uncertainties in the data base and the uncertainties resulting from the limited number of solar particle events in the database. These new probabilistic models are based on an extensive survey of SPE measurements of peak and event-integrated elemental differential energy spectra. Attempts are made to fit the measured spectra with eight different published models. The model giving the best fit to each spectrum is chosen and used to represent that spectrum for any energy in the energy range covered by the measurements. The set of all such spectral representations for each element is then used to determine the worst case spectrum as a function of confidence level. The spectral representation that best fits these worst case spectra is found and its dependence on confidence level is parameterized. This procedure creates probabilistic models for the peak and event-integrated spectra.

  10. The mental representation of plural events.

    PubMed

    Patson, Nikole D; Warren, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of work suggests that in the absence of strong cues to individuation, comprehenders leave their mental representations of plural entities underspecified-that is, they mentally represent plural noun phrases (NPs) as groups or nondifferentiated sets. The current paper investigates whether this also holds for plural events. Experiments 1a-1b used an aspectual coercion manipulation to provide evidence that event plurality can be indexed by the number-of-words judgement task that Patson and Warren [2010. Evidence for distributivity effects in comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 36, 782-789] used to investigate the mental representation of plural nouns. Experiment 2 confirmed this by showing that comprehenders mentally represent predicates associated with distributive quantifiers as plural, and they do so immediately at the verb rather than waiting until the completion of the predicate. Experiment 3 probed inherently distributed verbs and showed that inherent distributivity is not enough to push comprehenders to mentally represent multiple events. Only when the subject of an inherently distributed verb is a conjoined NP, rather than a plural definite description, do comprehenders mentally represent multiple events. Experiment 4 replicated and extended Experiment 3. This body of findings suggests that in the absence of strong cues to individuation, plural events are left underspecified. However, when disambiguating information is provided, comprehenders do mentally represent number information explicitly and incrementally.

  11. Event Pileup in AXAF's ACIS CCD Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    AXAF's high resolution mirrors will focus a point source near the optical axis to a spot that is contained within a radius of about two pixels on the ACIS Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) camera. Because of the small spot size, the accuracy to which fluxes and spectral energy distributions of bright point sources can be measured will be degrad3ed by event pileup. Event pileup occurs when two or more X-ray photons arrive simultaneously in a single detection cell on a CCD readout frame. When pileup occurs, ACIS's event detection algorithm registers the photons as a single X-ray event. The pulse height channel of the event will correspond to an energy E approximately E-1 + E-2...E-n, where n is the number of photons registered per detection cell per readout frame. As a result, pileup artificially hardens the observed spectral energy distribution. I will discuss the effort at the AXAF Science Center Lo calibrate pileup in ACIS using focused, nearly monochromatic X-ray source. I will discuss techniques for modeling and correcting pileup effects in polychromatic spectra.

  12. Tsunami event information dissemination through Tweb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, E. F.; Kamb, L.; Gately, K.

    2014-12-01

    Tweb is a novel approach for a tsunami modeling and forecasting application. It is completely web-based and it's supporting components can be hosted in the cloud. This application core functionality, designed and built into Tweb from the initial release, is the capability to selectively share tsunami event information for authorized users. These users, typically state-level Emergency Managers, can log into Tweb to view tsunami event products in a web browser. As a tsunami event evolves the forecasted information could change. Tweb allows a privileged user (tsunami forecaster) to change what the information view-only user can see for a specific event. This "live document" capability is important as it allows users, dependant on tsunami wave arrival and inundation information for their emergency management role, to always see the latest information the tsunami experts have the most confidence in. Components of this application are now being considered for use by NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs). This presentation will illustrate the integration with the SIFT and Tweb Forecasting tool, show how this information is rendered in the View-Only client, and demonstrate how the user will always see the latest iteration of the shared tsunami event information.

  13. Understanding the LIGO GW150914 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naselsky, Pavel; Jackson, Andrew D.; Liu, Hao

    2016-08-01

    We present a simplified method for the extraction of meaningful signals from Hanford and Livingston 32 second data for the GW150914 event made publicly available by the LIGO collaboration, and demonstrate its ability to reproduce the LIGO collaboration's own results quantitatively given the assumption that all narrow peaks in the power spectrum are a consequence of physically uninteresting signals and can be removed. After the clipping of these peaks and return to the time domain, the GW150914 event is readily distinguished from broadband background noise. This simple technique allows us to identify the GW150914 event without any assumption regarding its physical origin and with minimal assumptions regarding its shape. We also confirm that the LIGO GW150914 event is uniquely correlated in the Hanford and Livingston detectors for the full 4096 second data at the level of 6-7 σ with a temporal displacement of τ = 6.9 ± 0.4 ms. We have also identified a few events that are morphologically close to GW150914 but less strongly cross correlated with it.

  14. Anomalous event diagnosis for environmental satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Bruce H.

    1993-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is responsible for the operation of the NOAA geostationary and polar orbiting satellites. NESDIS provides a wide array of operational meteorological and oceanographic products and services and operates various computer and communication systems on a 24-hour, seven days per week schedule. The Anomaly Reporting System contains a database of anomalous events regarding the operations of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), communication, or computer systems that have degraded or caused the loss of GOES imagery. Data is currently entered manually via an automated query user interface. There are 21 possible symptoms (e.g., No Data), and 73 possible causes (e.g., Sectorizer - World Weather Building) of an anomalous event. The determination of an event's cause(s) is made by the on-duty computer operator, who enters the event in a paper based daily log, and by the analyst entering the data into the reporting system. The determination of the event's cause(s) impacts both the operational status of these systems, and the performance evaluation of the on-site computer and communication operations contractor.

  15. Observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, C.; Di Martino, M.; Ferreri, W.; Osservatorio Astronomico, Turin )

    1989-07-01

    As part of the planned 'Pluto-Charon Mutual Eclipse Season Campaign', one mutual event was observed at the ESO Observatory on July 10, 1986 and seven mutual events were observed at the Serra La Nave stellar station of Catania Astrophysical Observatory from April 29 to July 21, 1987. At ESO the measurements were performed at the 61-cm Bochum telescope equipped with a photon-counting system and U, B, V, filters; at Serra La Nave the Cassegrain focus of the 91-cm reflector was equipped with a photon-counting system and B and V filters. The observed light losses and contact times do not show relevant systematic deviations from the predicted ones. An examination of the behavior of the B and V light curves gives slight indications of a different slope of the B and V light loss of the same event for a superior or an inferior event, and shows that the superior events are shallower at wavelengths longer than B. 6 refs.

  16. Solar Energetic Particle Events Observed by MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. O.; Larson, D. E.; Lillis, R. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Halekas, J. S.; Brain, D.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; Epavier, F.; Thiemann, E.; Zeitlin, C.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    We present observations of solar energetic particle (SEP) events made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) SEP instrument, which measures energetic ions and electrons impacting the upper Martian atmosphere. Since the arrival of the MAVEN spacecraft at Mars, a large number of solar flares and a few major coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupted from the Sun. The SEPs are accelerated by the related shock in the solar corona or by the propagating interplanetary shock ahead of the CME ejecta. Mixed in with these SEPs are particles accelerated by the shocks of corotating streams, some of which have recurred for several solar cycles due to the persistent coronal hole sources. The SEP events are analyzed together with the upstream solar wind observations from the MAVEN Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) and magnetometer (MAG). The sources of the SEP events are determined from Earth-based solar imagery and the MAVEN Extreme Ultra-violet Monitor (EUVM) together with numerical simulations of the inner heliospheric conditions. A comparison with the radiation dose rate measurements from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) reveals a lack of ground signatures during the onset of the highest energy SEPs for the events observed by MAVEN, indicating that the SEPs fully deposit their energies into the Martian atmosphere. Using measurements made from the ensemble of instruments onboard MAVEN, we investigate the consequences of SEPs at Mars for a number of events observed during the primary science mapping phase of the MAVEN mission.

  17. Major adverse cardiac events during endurance sports.

    PubMed

    Belonje, Anne; Nangrahary, Mary; de Swart, Hans; Umans, Victor

    2007-03-15

    Major adverse cardiac events in endurance exercise are usually due to underlying and unsuspected heart disease. The investigators present an analysis of major adverse cardiac events that occurred during 2 consecutive annual long distance races (a 36-km beach cycling race and a 21-km half marathon) over the past 5 years. All patients with events were transported to the hospital. Most of the 62,862 participants were men (77%; mean age 40 years). Of these, 4 men (3 runners, 1 cyclist; mean age 48 years) collapsed during (n = 2) or shortly after the races, rendering a prevalence of 0.006%. Two patients collapsed after developing chest pain, 1 of whom needed resuscitation at the event site, which was successful. These patients had acute myocardial infarctions and underwent primary angioplasty. The third patient was resuscitated at the site but did not have coronary disease or inducible ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and collapsed presumably because of catecholamine-induced ventricular fibrillation. The fourth patient experienced heat stroke and had elevated creatine kinase-MB and troponins in the absence of electrocardiographic changes. In conclusion, the risk for major adverse cardiac events during endurance sports in well-trained athletes is very low.

  18. EventWeb: towards social life networks.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ramesh

    2013-03-28

    The Web has changed the way we live, work and socialize. The nodes in the current Web are documents and hence the current World Wide Web is a Document Web. Advances in technology and requirements of emerging applications require formation of a parallel and closely connected Web of events, the EventWeb, in which each node is an event. In this paper, we explore growth of EventWeb as a natural next step in the evolution of the Web with rich multimodal sensory information. Social networks use events extensively and have revolutionized communication among people. Mobile phones, equipped with myriads of sensors and being used by more than 75% of living humans, are bringing the next generation of social networks, not only to connect people with other people, but also to connect people with other people and essential life resources. We call these networks social life networks, and believe that this is the right time to focus efforts to discover and develop technology and infrastructure to design and build these networks and to apply them for solving some essential human problems.

  19. Developing future precipitation events from historic events: An Amsterdam case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manola, Iris; van den Hurk, Bart; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    Due to climate change, the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events is expected to increase. It is therefore of high importance to develop climate change scenarios tailored towards the local and regional needs of policy makers in order to develop efficient adaptation strategies to reduce the risks from extreme weather events. Current approaches to tailor climate scenarios are often not well adopted in hazard management, since average changes in climate are not a main concern to policy makers, and tailoring climate scenarios to simulate future extremes can be complex. Therefore, a new concept has been introduced recently that uses known historic extreme events as a basis, and modifies the observed data for these events so that the outcome shows how the same event would occur in a warmer climate. This concept is introduced as 'Future Weather', and appeals to the experience of stakeholders and users. This research presents a novel method of projecting a future extreme precipitation event, based on a historic event. The selected precipitation event took place over the broader area of Amsterdam, the Netherlands in the summer of 2014, which resulted in blocked highways, disruption of air transportation, flooded buildings and public facilities. An analysis of rain monitoring stations showed that an event of such intensity has a 5 to 15 years return period. The method of projecting a future event follows a non-linear delta transformation that is applied directly on the observed event assuming a warmer climate to produce an "up-scaled" future precipitation event. The delta transformation is based on the observed behaviour of the precipitation intensity as a function of the dew point temperature during summers. The outcome is then compared to a benchmark method using the HARMONIE numerical weather prediction model, where the boundary conditions of the event from the Ensemble Prediction System of ECMWF (ENS) are perturbed to indicate a warmer climate. The two

  20. The Earth Observatory Natural Event Tracker (EONET): An API for Matching Natural Events to GIBS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, K.

    2015-12-01

    Hidden within the terabytes of imagery in NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) collection are hundreds of daily natural events. Some events are newsworthy, devastating, and visibly obvious at a global scale, others are merely regional curiosities. Regardless of the scope and significance of any one event, it is likely that multiple GIBS layers can be viewed to provide a multispectral, dataset-based view of the event. To facilitate linking between the discrete event and the representative dataset imagery, NASA's Earth Observatory Group has developed a prototype application programming interface (API): the Earth Observatory Natural Event Tracker (EONET). EONET supports an API model that allows users to retrieve event-specific metadata--date/time, location, and type (wildfire, storm, etc.)--and web service layer-specific metadata which can be used to link to event-relevant dataset imagery in GIBS. GIBS' ability to ingest many near real time datasets, combined with its growing archive of past imagery, means that API users will be able to develop client applications that not only show ongoing events but can also look at imagery from before and after. In our poster, we will present the API and show examples of its use.

  1. DEVS representation of dynamical systems - Event-based intelligent control. [Discrete Event System Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Bernard P.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown how systems can be advantageously represented as discrete-event models by using DEVS (discrete-event system specification), a set-theoretic formalism. Such DEVS models provide a basis for the design of event-based logic control. In this control paradigm, the controller expects to receive confirming sensor responses to its control commands within definite time windows determined by its DEVS model of the system under control. The event-based contral paradigm is applied in advanced robotic and intelligent automation, showing how classical process control can be readily interfaced with rule-based symbolic reasoning systems.

  2. 29 CFR 4043.20 - Post-Event filing obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Post-Event filing obligation. 4043.20 Section 4043.20 Labor... EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.20 Post-Event filing obligation. The plan administrator and each contributing sponsor of a plan for which...

  3. 29 CFR 4043.20 - Post-Event filing obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Post-Event filing obligation. 4043.20 Section 4043.20 Labor... EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.20 Post-Event filing obligation. The plan administrator and each contributing sponsor of a plan for which...

  4. The Challenges of On-Campus Recruitment Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Amy

    2012-01-01

    On-campus admissions events are the secret weapon that colleges and universities use to convince students to apply and enroll. On-campus events vary depending on the size, location, and type of institution; they include campus visitations, open houses, preview days, scholarship events, admitted student events, and summer yield events. These events…

  5. The 1989 Solar Maximum Mission event list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    This document contains information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1989 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (4) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter, and (6) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Satellite (GOES) X-ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

  6. The 1980 solar maximum mission event listing

    SciTech Connect

    Speich, D.M.; Nelson, J.J.; Licata, J.P.; Tolbert, A.K.

    1991-06-01

    Information is contained on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1980 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Hard X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer, (4) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (6) Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter, and (7) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x-ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from Sun center are also included.

  7. The 1988 Solar Maximum Mission event list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1988 pointed observations is presented. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) gamma ray spectrometer; (2) hard x ray burst spectrometer; (3) flat crystal spectrometers; (4) bent crystal spectrometer; (5) ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter; and (6) coronagraph/polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts, or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observation. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

  8. Detecting Extreme Events in Gridded Climate Data

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandra, Bharathkumar; Gadiraju, Krishna; Vatsavai, Raju; Kaiser, Dale Patrick; Karnowski, Thomas Paul

    2016-01-01

    Detecting and tracking extreme events in gridded climatological data is a challenging problem on several fronts: algorithms, scalability, and I/O. Successful detection of these events will give climate scientists an alternate view of the behavior of different climatological variables, leading to enhanced scientific understanding of the impacts of events such as heat and cold waves, and on a larger scale, the El Nin o Southern Oscillation. Recent advances in computing power and research in data sciences enabled us to look at this problem with a different perspective from what was previously possible. In this paper we present our computationally efficient algorithms for anomalous cluster detection on climate change big data. We provide results on detection and tracking of surface temperature and geopotential height anomalies, a trend analysis, and a study of relationships between the variables. We also identify the limitations of our approaches, future directions for research and alternate approaches.

  9. Multi-threaded Event Reconstruction with JANA

    SciTech Connect

    David Lawrence

    2007-09-01

    The C++ reconstruction framework JANA has been written to support the next generation of Nuclear Physics experiments at Jefferson Lab in anticipation of the 12GeV upgrade. The JANA framework was designed to allow multi-threaded event processing with a minimal impact on developers of reconstruction software. As we enter the multi-core (and soon many-core) era, thread-enabled code will become essential to utilizing the full processor power available without invoking the logistical overhead of managing many individual processes. Event-based reconstruction lends itself naturally to mutli-threaded processing. Emphasis will be placed on the multi-threading features of the framework. Test results of the scaling of event processing rates with number of threads are presented.

  10. Multi-threaded Event Processing with JANA

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, David

    2008-11-01

    The C++ reconstruction framework JANA has been written to support the next generation of Nuclear Physics experiments at Jefferson Lab in anticipation of the 12GeV upgrade. This includes the GlueX experiment in the planned 4th experimental hall "Hall-D". The JANA framework was designed to allow multi-threaded event processing with a minimal impact on developers of reconstruction software. As we enter the multi-core era, thread-enabled code will become essential to utilizing the full processor power available without invoking the logistical overhead of managing many individual processes. Event-based reconstruction lends itself naturally to mutli-threaded processing. Emphasis will be placed on the multi-threading features of the framework. Test results of the scaling of event processing rates with number of threads will be shown.

  11. Predictability of Extreme Events in Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Miotto, José M.; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2014-01-01

    It is part of our daily social-media experience that seemingly ordinary items (videos, news, publications, etc.) unexpectedly gain an enormous amount of attention. Here we investigate how unexpected these extreme events are. We propose a method that, given some information on the items, quantifies the predictability of events, i.e., the potential of identifying in advance the most successful items. Applying this method to different data, ranging from views in YouTube videos to posts in Usenet discussion groups, we invariantly find that the predictability increases for the most extreme events. This indicates that, despite the inherently stochastic collective dynamics of users, efficient prediction is possible for the most successful items. PMID:25369138

  12. Brunswikian resources for event-perception research.

    PubMed

    Kirlik, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Recent psychological research aimed at determining whether dynamic event perception is direct or mediated by cue-based inference convincingly demonstrates evidence of both modes of perception or apprehension. This work also shows that noise is involved in attaining any perceptual variable, whether it perfectly (invariantly) specifies or imperfectly (fallibly) indicates the value of a target or criterion variable. As such, event-perception researchers encounter both internal (sensory or inferential) and external ecological sources of noise or uncertainty, owing to the organism's possible use of imperfect or 'nonspecifying' variables (or cues) and cue-based inference. Because both sources play central roles in Egon Brunswik's theory of probabilistic functionalism and methodology of representative design, event-perception research will benefit by explicitly leveraging original Brunswikian and, more recent, neo-Brunswikian scientific resources. Doing so will result in a more coherent and powerful approach to perceptual and cognitive psychology than is currently displayed in the scientific literature.

  13. Recurrent events and the exploding Cox model

    PubMed Central

    Gjessing, Håkon K.; Røysland, Kjetil; Pena, Edsel A.; Aalen, Odd O.

    2014-01-01

    Counting process models have played an important role in survival and event history analysis for more than 30 years. Nevertheless, almost all models that are being used have a very simple structure. Analyzing recurrent events invites the application of more complex models with dynamic covariates. We discuss how to define valid models in such a setting. One has to check carefully that a suggested model is well defined as a stochastic process. We give conditions for this to hold. Some detailed discussion is presented in relation to a Cox type model, where the exponential structure combined with feedback lead to an exploding model. In general, counting process models with dynamic covariates can be formulated to avoid explosions. In particular, models with a linear feedback structure do not explode, making them useful tools in general modeling of recurrent events. PMID:20625827

  14. [Nursing iatrogenic events in hospitalized elderly patients].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Jussara Carvalho; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional quantitative study was to identify iatrogenic nursing events involving elderly patients hospitalized in two nursing wards of a university hospital (Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil). Data was collected among 100 patient records (50 men, 50 women) using an instrument created by the authors. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics in addition to Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results were significant at p < 0.05. Latrogenic events in the 26 files included: loss of intravenous site (14), pressure ulcers (8) and falls (2), among others. Reports were not detailed and failed to indicate interventions to prevent new occurrences. The findings suggest the importance of creating ways to encourage nursing professionals to accurately report iatrogenic events, as well as creating wards specifically for the elderly population.

  15. Constructing event trees for volcanic crises

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newhall, C.; Hoblitt, R.

    2002-01-01

    Event trees are useful frameworks for discussing probabilities of possible outcomes of volcanic unrest. Each branch of the tree leads from a necessary prior event to a more specific outcome, e.g., from an eruption to a pyroclastic flow. Where volcanic processes are poorly understood, probability estimates might be purely empirical - utilizing observations of past and current activity and an assumption that the future will mimic the past or follow a present trend. If processes are better understood, probabilities might be estimated from a theoritical model, either subjectively or by numerical simulations. Use of Bayes' theorem aids in the estimation of how fresh unrest raises (or lowers) the probabilities of eruptions. Use of event trees during volcanic crises can help volcanologists to critically review their analysis of hazard, and help officials and individuals to compare volcanic risks with more familiar risks. Trees also emphasize the inherently probabilistic nature of volcano forecasts, with multiple possible outcomes.

  16. Predictability of extreme events in social media.

    PubMed

    Miotto, José M; Altmann, Eduardo G

    2014-01-01

    It is part of our daily social-media experience that seemingly ordinary items (videos, news, publications, etc.) unexpectedly gain an enormous amount of attention. Here we investigate how unexpected these extreme events are. We propose a method that, given some information on the items, quantifies the predictability of events, i.e., the potential of identifying in advance the most successful items. Applying this method to different data, ranging from views in YouTube videos to posts in Usenet discussion groups, we invariantly find that the predictability increases for the most extreme events. This indicates that, despite the inherently stochastic collective dynamics of users, efficient prediction is possible for the most successful items. PMID:25369138

  17. Tense Operators on Spaces of Numerical Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chajda, Ivan; Länger, Helmut

    2014-10-01

    Spaces of numerical events were introduced for the sake to establish a propositional logic of physical phenomena. Since physical phenomena are variable in time, it is a natural task to develop temporal logic for this description. Hence we adopt the concept of tense operators used in classical propositional logic and in several sorts of non-classical one (e. g. Lukasiewicz many-valued logic, intuitionistic logic etc.). It turns out that the full set of states on a given space of numerical events can serve as a time scale if it is equipped with a suitable relation of time preference. A construction of tense operators is developed and a certain representation is derived. Finally, tense operators on spaces of numerical events whose elements have only the values 0 or 1 are characterized.

  18. An algebra of discrete event processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, Michael; Meyer, George

    1991-01-01

    This report deals with an algebraic framework for modeling and control of discrete event processes. The report consists of two parts. The first part is introductory, and consists of a tutorial survey of the theory of concurrency in the spirit of Hoare's CSP, and an examination of the suitability of such an algebraic framework for dealing with various aspects of discrete event control. To this end a new concurrency operator is introduced and it is shown how the resulting framework can be applied. It is further shown that a suitable theory that deals with the new concurrency operator must be developed. In the second part of the report the formal algebra of discrete event control is developed. At the present time the second part of the report is still an incomplete and occasionally tentative working paper.

  19. Carbon-poor solar flare events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of energetic particle flux enhancements over the period from October 1973 to December 1977 has been performed by using the University of Maryland/Max-Planck-Institut ULET sensor on the IMP 8 spacecraft. During the four-year period of the study, it is found that the most extreme periods of Fe enrichment compared with oxygen were during solar flare events in February 1974 and May 1974. In these same events, the carbon abundance with respect to oxygen was significantly depleted when compared with a value C:O of about 0.45:1 for typical solar flares. These observations, taken together with previously reported He-3 enrichment in these events, give strong evidence for the importance of a wave-particle interaction in the preinjection heating of the ambient matter.

  20. [Life events and self-destructive behavior].

    PubMed

    Vizán Ferrero, R; Benítez, M H; Gracia Marco, R; González de Rivera y Revuelta, J L

    1993-01-01

    The role of life events in precipitating self-destructive behaviour, especially in suicide attempts, needs to be studied in this paper the social readjustment rating scale (Holmes and Rahe), in its spanish version, in a sample of 100 suicide attempters are reported. The mean social readjustment index was 255.2 +/- 137.01, which is a higher score than that observed in medical inpatients (180.69 +/- 72.03) in our context. The mean life events index was 8.69 +/- 4.32, higher valves than were recorded in the somatic in patients sample (5.97 +/- 2.99). No sex differences were found in any of the two indexes. The finding of a greater number of unpleasant life events by different researchers is discussed.

  1. Medical coverage of youth basketball events.

    PubMed

    Ching, Brian K; Khalili-Borna, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Basketball is among the most popular team sports for boys and girls in the United States and is continuing to grow in popularity worldwide. Increased popularity translates to an increased number of events and, unfortunately, the injuries that occur as a result. In this article, we discuss ways to be prepared in the coverage of youth basketball events, with an emphasis on the evaluation and treatment of some of the most commonly encountered injuries within the sport of basketball. We also give special consideration to injuries that are specific to the skeletally immature athlete. By having a greater knowledge and understanding of these injuries, a provider of medical coverage for basketball events hopefully will gain a higher sense of confidence in handling associated problems as they arise.

  2. Dual attention to dynamically structured naturalistic events.

    PubMed

    Stoffregen, T A; Becklen, R C

    1989-12-01

    Videotapes of two naturalistic events, a basketball-like game and a vocalizing human face, were presented in a dual-task situation, with subjects responding to target events in individual episodes. The fact that the stimulus episodes consisted of natural motions permitted subjects to base their attention on the partially determinate structure that characterizes such motions. Simultaneous visual presentations were in full transparent overlap. the auditory presentations were overlapped spatially. Performance on the dual task improved significantly in all experimental conditions over two days of practice. Performance approached control-group ceiling levels for events available to different modalities (hearing and sight). When information was available only in a single modality, performance was lower over-all, but practice effects were still significant. The results are discussed in the context of a cognitive skills approach to attention.

  3. Event identification by acoustic signature recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.; Kercel, S.W.

    1995-07-01

    Many events of interest to the security commnnity produce acoustic emissions that are, in principle, identifiable as to cause. Some obvious examples are gunshots, breaking glass, takeoffs and landings of small aircraft, vehicular engine noises, footsteps (high frequencies when on gravel, very low frequencies. when on soil), and voices (whispers to shouts). We are investigating wavelet-based methods to extract unique features of such events for classification and identification. We also discuss methods of classification and pattern recognition specifically tailored for acoustic signatures obtained by wavelet analysis. The paper is divided into three parts: completed work, work in progress, and future applications. The completed phase has led to the successful recognition of aircraft types on landing and takeoff. Both small aircraft (twin-engine turboprop) and large (commercial airliners) were included in the study. The project considered the design of a small, field-deployable, inexpensive device. The techniques developed during the aircraft identification phase were then adapted to a multispectral electromagnetic interference monitoring device now deployed in a nuclear power plant. This is a general-purpose wavelet analysis engine, spanning 14 octaves, and can be adapted for other specific tasks. Work in progress is focused on applying the methods previously developed to speaker identification. Some of the problems to be overcome include recognition of sounds as voice patterns and as distinct from possible background noises (e.g., music), as well as identification of the speaker from a short-duration voice sample. A generalization of the completed work and the work in progress is a device capable of classifying any number of acoustic events-particularly quasi-stationary events such as engine noises and voices and singular events such as gunshots and breaking glass. We will show examples of both kinds of events and discuss their recognition likelihood.

  4. On the prediction of GLE events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, Marlon; Reyes, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    A model for predicting the occurrence of GLE events is presented. This model uses the UMASEP scheme based on the lag-correlation between the time derivatives of soft X-ray flux (SXR) and near-earth proton fluxes (Núñez, 2011, 2015). We extended this approach with the correlation between SXR and ground-level neutron measurements. This model was calibrated with X-ray, proton and neutron data obtained during the period 1989-2015 from the GOES/HEPAD instrument, and neutron data from the Neutron Monitor Data Base (NMDB). During this period, 32 GLE events were detected by neutron monitor stations. We consider that a GLE prediction is successful when it is triggered before the first GLE alert is issued by any neutron station of the NMDB network. For the most recent 16 years (2015-2000), the model was able to issue successful predictions for the 53.8% (7 of 13 GLE events), obtaining a false alarm ratio (FAR) of 36.4% (4/11), and an average warning time of 10 min. For the first years of the evaluation period (1989-1999), the model was able to issue successful predictions for the 31.6% (6 of 19 GLE events), obtaining a FAR of 33.3% (3/9), and an AWT of 17 min. A preliminary conclusion is that the model is not able to predict the promptest events but the more gradual ones. The final goal of this project, which is now halfway through its planned two-year duration, is the prediction of >500 MeV events. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under agreement No 637324.

  5. Elucidating the event-by-event flow fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions via the event-shape selection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Peng; Jia, Jiangyong; Mohapatra, Soumya

    2014-08-01

    The presence of large event-by-event flow fluctuations in heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) provides an opportunity to study a broad class of flow observables. This paper explores the correlations among harmonic flow coefficients vn and their phases Φn, as well as the rapidity fluctuation of vn. The study is carried out using the Pb + Pb events generated by the multiphase transport (AMPT) model with fixed impact parameter. The overall ellipticity or triangularity of events is varied by selecting on the eccentricities ɛn or the magnitudes of the flow vector qn in a subevent for n =2 and 3, respectively. The responses of the harmonic coefficients, the event-plane correlations, and the rapidity fluctuations to the change in ɛn and qn are then systematized. Strong positive correlations are observed among all even harmonics v2, v4, and v6 (all increase with q2), between v2 and v5 (both increase with q2), and between v3 and v5 (both increase with q3), consistent with the effects of nonlinear collective response. In contrast, an anticorrelation is observed between v2 and v3 similar to that seen between ɛ2 and ɛ3. These correlation patterns are found to be independent of whether selecting on qn or ɛn, validating the ability of qn in selecting the initial geometry. A forward/backward asymmetry of vn(η) is observed for events selected on qn but not on ɛn, reflecting dynamical fluctuations exposed by the qn selection. Many event-plane correlators show good agreement between qn and ɛn selections, suggesting that their variations with qn are controlled by the change of ɛn in the initial geometry. Hence these correlators may serve as promising observables for disentangling the fluctuations generated in various stages of the evolution of the matter created in heavy ion collisions.

  6. Phenological Event Detection from Multitemporal Image Data

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring biomass over large geographic regions for seasonal changes in vegetation and crop phenology is important for many applications. In this paper we a present a novel clustering based change detection method using MODIS NDVI time series data. We used well known EM technique to find GMM parameters and Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) for determining the number of clusters. KL Divergence measure is then used to establish the cluster correspondence across two years (2001 and 2006) to determine changes between these two years. The changes identied were further analyzed for understanding phenological events. This preliminary study shows interesting relationships between key phenological events such as onset, length, end of growing seasons.

  7. Psychotic Events in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Pamela L.; Buckwalter, Kathleen C.

    2011-01-01

    © 2009 iStockphoto.com/ChrisSchmidt This article focuses on a review of the literature related to the known prevalence of psychotic events in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and associated aggressive, violent behavior toward family caregivers. It also describes the impact of behavioral disturbances on family caregivers and how use of the Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold model and nonpharmacological interventions cited in the literature can help manage these behaviors. Geriatric nurses armed with this information will be better prepared to provide caregivers with much-needed education to better understand psychotic events, as well as strategies to cope with associated behaviors. PMID:19681559

  8. Multi-threaded Event Processing with DANA

    SciTech Connect

    David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2007-05-14

    The C++ data analysis framework DANA has been written to support the next generation of Nuclear Physics experiments at Jefferson Lab commensurate with the anticipated 12GeV upgrade. The DANA framework was designed to allow multi-threaded event processing with a minimal impact on developers of reconstruction software. This document describes how DANA implements multi-threaded event processing and compares it to simply running multiple instances of a program. Also presented are relative reconstruction rates for Pentium4, Xeon, and Opteron based machines.

  9. Reducing medical errors and adverse events.

    PubMed

    Pham, Julius Cuong; Aswani, Monica S; Rosen, Michael; Lee, HeeWon; Huddle, Matthew; Weeks, Kristina; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Medical errors account for ∼98,000 deaths per year in the United States. They increase disability and costs and decrease confidence in the health care system. We review several important types of medical errors and adverse events. We discuss medication errors, healthcare-acquired infections, falls, handoff errors, diagnostic errors, and surgical errors. We describe the impact of these errors, review causes and contributing factors, and provide an overview of strategies to reduce these events. We also discuss teamwork/safety culture, an important aspect in reducing medical errors.

  10. Describing response-event relations: Babel revisited

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, Kennon A.; Poling, Alan D.

    1981-01-01

    The terms used to describe the relations among the three components of contingencies of reinforcement and punishment include many with multiple meanings and imprecise denotation. In particular, usage of the term “contingency” and its variants and acceptance of unsubstantiated functional, rather than procedural, descriptions of response-event relations are especially troublesome in the behavior analysis literature. Clarity seems best served by restricting the term “contingency” to its generic usage and by utilizing procedural descriptions of response-event relations. PMID:22478546

  11. Tracking Solar Events through Iterative Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, D. J.; Angryk, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we combine two approaches to multiple-target tracking: the first is a hierarchical approach to iteratively growing track fragments across gaps in detections; the second is a network flow based optimization method for data association. The network flow based optimization method is utilized for data association in an iteratively growing manner. This process is applied to solar data, retrieved from the Heliophysics Event Knowledge base (HEK) and utilizes precomputed image parameter values. These precomputed image parameter values are used to compare visual similarity of detected events, to determine the best matching track fragment associations, which leads to a globally optimal track fragment association hypothesis.

  12. Large natural geophysical events: planetary planning

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.B.; Smith, J.V.

    1984-09-01

    Geological and geophysical data suggest that during the evolution of the earth and its species, that there have been many mass extinctions due to large impacts from comets and large asteroids, and major volcanic events. Today, technology has developed to the stage where we can begin to consider protective measures for the planet. Evidence of the ecological disruption and frequency of these major events is presented. Surveillance and warning systems are most critical to develop wherein sufficient lead times for warnings exist so that appropriate interventions could be designed. The long term research undergirding these warning systems, implementation, and proof testing is rich in opportunities for collaboration for peace.

  13. Comparative study of the 2016 DPRK event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Fekadu; Jonathan, Ezekiel; Graham, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Effective monitoring of any violations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends upon the State Parties' ability to determine the nature of the source of the signals recorded by the IMS stations. Analysis by the IDC of the data gives some of the required information but makes no effort to determine the nature of source as specified by the Treaty. On January 6, 2016 the IMS network of stations recorded unusual seismic event from the DPRK. This was the fourth time that such an event from a man-made event was recorded from this area. Past detections of announced nuclear tests were on 9 October 2006, 25 May 2009, and 12 February 2013. There are a few natural earthquakes that have been recorded in this region. This study presents results of an assessment of waveform data and amplitude spectra obtained from seismic events observed at regional and/or local distance ranges, for both natural and man-made events located in the DPRK. The study reveals that the waveform displays of the four man-made events are practically simple and have nearly the same signature, yet they are significantly different to those of the observed natural earthquakes occurring in the region. The similarities of the waveforms obtained from the man-made events are due to the closeness of the epicentres and hence no difference in path effects for the Stations considered. The computed amplitude spectra of the waveform for the man-made and natural events also show differences in their relative amplitudes between the respective Primary and Secondary seismic phases, indicating that their sources are different. The study clearly shows the importance of studying the signature of the recorded seismic waves to determine the nature of the source of the energy, if it is man-made or natural, particularly for regions where records of natural earthquakes exist. Determination of the nature of source of recorded seismic waves is fundamental to CTBT verification. Thus data observed at regional and

  14. Iterative phase retrieval strategy of transient events.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tuck Wah; Chua, Adrian Sau Ling

    2012-01-20

    Important nuances of a process or processes in action can be obtained from the phase retrieval of diffraction patterns for analysis of transient events. A significant limitation associated with the iterative approach is that predictive input functions are needed and can result in situations of nonconvergence. In dealing with a transient event recorded as a series of Fourier magnitude patterns, such a hit-and-miss characteristic, on the surface, appears computationally daunting. We report and demonstrate a strategy here that effectively minimizes this by using a prior retrieved frame as the predictive function for the current retrieval process. PMID:22270666

  15. Discrete event simulation of continuous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J

    2007-01-01

    Computer simulation of a system described by differential equations requires that some element of the system be approximated by discrete quantities. There are two system aspects that can be made discrete; time and state. When time is discrete, the differential equation is approximated by a difference equation (i.e., a discrete time system), and the solution is calculated at fixed points in time. When the state is discrete, the differential equation is approximated by a discrete event system. Events correspond to jumps through the discrete state space of the approximation.

  16. Electrostatic precursors to granular slip events

    PubMed Central

    Shinbrot, Troy; Kim, Nam H.; Thyagu, N. Nirmal

    2012-01-01

    It has been known for over a century that electrical signals are produced by material failure, for example during crack formation of crystals and glasses, or stick-slip motion of liquid mercury on glass. We describe here new experiments revealing that slip events in cohesive powders also produce electrical signals, and remarkably these signals can appear significantly in advance of slip events. We have confirmed this effect in two different experimental systems and using two common powdered materials, and in a third experiment we have demonstrated that similar voltage signals are produced by crack-like defects in several powdered materials. PMID:22689956

  17. Cardiovascular Events in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Rúa-Figueroa, Íñigo; López-Longo, Francisco J.; Galindo-Izquierdo, María; Calvo-Alén, Jaime; Olivé-Marqués, Alejandro; Ordóñez-Cañizares, Carmen; Martín-Martínez, María A.; Blanco, Ricardo; Melero-González, Rafael; Ibáñez-Rúan, Jesús; Bernal-Vidal, José Antonio; Tomero-Muriel, Eva; Uriarte-Isacelaya, Esther; Horcada-Rubio, Loreto; Freire-González, Mercedes; Narváez, Javier; Boteanu, Alina L.; Santos-Soler, Gregorio; Andreu, José L.; Pego-Reigosa, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article estimates the frequency of cardiovascular (CV) events that occurred after diagnosis in a large Spanish cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and investigates the main risk factors for atherosclerosis. RELESSER is a nationwide multicenter, hospital-based registry of SLE patients. This is a cross-sectional study. Demographic and clinical variables, the presence of traditional risk factors, and CV events were collected. A CV event was defined as a myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, and/or peripheral artery disease. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the possible risk factors for atherosclerosis. From 2011 to 2012, 3658 SLE patients were enrolled. Of these, 374 (10.9%) patients suffered at least a CV event. In 269 (7.4%) patients, the CV events occurred after SLE diagnosis (86.2% women, median [interquartile range] age 54.9 years [43.2–66.1], and SLE duration of 212.0 months [120.8–289.0]). Strokes (5.7%) were the most frequent CV event, followed by ischemic heart disease (3.8%) and peripheral artery disease (2.2%). Multivariate analysis identified age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.03 [1.02–1.04]), hypertension (1.71 [1.20–2.44]), smoking (1.48 [1.06–2.07]), diabetes (2.2 [1.32–3.74]), dyslipidemia (2.18 [1.54–3.09]), neurolupus (2.42 [1.56–3.75]), valvulopathy (2.44 [1.34–4.26]), serositis (1.54 [1.09–2.18]), antiphospholipid antibodies (1.57 [1.13–2.17]), low complement (1.81 [1.12–2.93]), and azathioprine (1.47 [1.04–2.07]) as risk factors for CV events. We have confirmed that SLE patients suffer a high prevalence of premature CV disease. Both traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to this higher prevalence. Although it needs to be verified with future studies, our study also shows—for the first time—an association between diabetes and CV events in SLE patients. PMID:26200625

  18. Fractional field equations for highly improbable events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinert, H.

    2013-06-01

    Free and weakly interacting particles perform approximately Gaussian random walks with collisions. They follow a second-quantized nonlinear Schrödinger equation, or relativistic versions of it. By contrast, the fields of strongly interacting particles extremize more involved effective actions obeying fractional wave equations with anomalous dimensions. Their particle orbits perform universal Lévy walks with heavy tails, in which rare events are much more frequent than in Gaussian random walks. Such rare events are observed in exceptionally strong windgusts, monster or rogue waves, earthquakes, and financial crashes. While earthquakes may destroy entire cities, the latter have the potential of devastating entire economies.

  19. Identification of victims in extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talipova, Yu.; Polukhina, O.

    2009-04-01

    Catastrophic natural disasters including tsunami events are increased the frequency in last years. One of very important problems here is the identification of personality of the victims. Due to difficult identification of the dead bodies lied into water for a long time the analysis of tooth-jaw system is proposed to apply because teeth are extremely stable to the destructive actions of environment. The method of identification of the age, sex and race of victims based on the mathematic model of pattern recognition and collected database is described. Some examples from extreme sea wave events are analyzed.

  20. If It Happened, I Would Remember It: Strategic Use of Event Memorability in the Rejection of False Autobiographical Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghetti, Simona; Alexander, Kristen Weede

    2004-01-01

    The present research investigated the link between perceived event memorability and false-event rejection. In 2 studies, event salience, plausibility, and recency were manipulated. Study 1 showed that high-salience events elicited higher memorability ratings than low-salience events for 5-, 7-, 9-year-olds and adults. Plausibility and recency…

  1. Event management for large scale event-driven digital hardware spiking neural networks.

    PubMed

    Caron, Louis-Charles; D'Haene, Michiel; Mailhot, Frédéric; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Rouat, Jean

    2013-09-01

    The interest in brain-like computation has led to the design of a plethora of innovative neuromorphic systems. Individually, spiking neural networks (SNNs), event-driven simulation and digital hardware neuromorphic systems get a lot of attention. Despite the popularity of event-driven SNNs in software, very few digital hardware architectures are found. This is because existing hardware solutions for event management scale badly with the number of events. This paper introduces the structured heap queue, a pipelined digital hardware data structure, and demonstrates its suitability for event management. The structured heap queue scales gracefully with the number of events, allowing the efficient implementation of large scale digital hardware event-driven SNNs. The scaling is linear for memory, logarithmic for logic resources and constant for processing time. The use of the structured heap queue is demonstrated on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with an image segmentation experiment and a SNN of 65,536 neurons and 513,184 synapses. Events can be processed at the rate of 1 every 7 clock cycles and a 406×158 pixel image is segmented in 200 ms.

  2. Event Coverage Detection and Event Source Determination in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhangbing; Xing, Riliang; Duan, Yucong; Zhu, Yueqin; Xiang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of the Internet of Underwater Things, smart things are deployed in the ocean space and establish underwater wireless sensor networks for the monitoring of vast and dynamic underwater environments. When events are found to have possibly occurred, accurate event coverage should be detected, and potential event sources should be determined for the enactment of prompt and proper responses. To address this challenge, a technique that detects event coverage and determines event sources is developed in this article. Specifically, the occurrence of possible events corresponds to a set of neighboring sensor nodes whose sensory data may deviate from a normal sensing range in a collective fashion. An appropriate sensor node is selected as the relay node for gathering and routing sensory data to sink node(s). When sensory data are collected at sink node(s), the event coverage is detected and represented as a weighted graph, where the vertices in this graph correspond to sensor nodes and the weight specified upon the edges reflects the extent of sensory data deviating from a normal sensing range. Event sources are determined, which correspond to the barycenters in this graph. The results of the experiments show that our technique is more energy efficient, especially when the network topology is relatively steady. PMID:26694394

  3. Event Coverage Detection and Event Source Determination in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhangbing; Xing, Riliang; Duan, Yucong; Zhu, Yueqin; Xiang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of the Internet of Underwater Things, smart things are deployed in the ocean space and establish underwater wireless sensor networks for the monitoring of vast and dynamic underwater environments. When events are found to have possibly occurred, accurate event coverage should be detected, and potential event sources should be determined for the enactment of prompt and proper responses. To address this challenge, a technique that detects event coverage and determines event sources is developed in this article. Specifically, the occurrence of possible events corresponds to a set of neighboring sensor nodes whose sensory data may deviate from a normal sensing range in a collective fashion. An appropriate sensor node is selected as the relay node for gathering and routing sensory data to sink node(s). When sensory data are collected at sink node(s), the event coverage is detected and represented as a weighted graph, where the vertices in this graph correspond to sensor nodes and the weight specified upon the edges reflects the extent of sensory data deviating from a normal sensing range. Event sources are determined, which correspond to the barycenters in this graph. The results of the experiments show that our technique is more energy efficient, especially when the network topology is relatively steady. PMID:26694394

  4. 77 FR 34215 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Swim Event; Lake Gaston, Littleton, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Regulation is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the event. This action... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The..., Swim Event, Lake Gaston; Littleton, NC'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 19954). We received no...

  5. Zooming in on Life Events: Is Hedonic Adaptation Sensitive to the Temporal Distance from the Event?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uglanova, Ekaterina A.; Staudinger, Ursula M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed the effect of major positive and negative life events (marriage, divorce, birth of child, widowhood, and unemployment) on life satisfaction. For the first time, this study estimated the effects of life events not with a precision of 12 months but of 3 months. Specifically, two questions were addressed: (1) Does the precision of…

  6. 77 FR 19954 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Swim Event, Lake Gaston; Littleton, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Swim Event...: The Coast Guard proposes establishment of Special Local Regulations for ``The Crossing'' swim...

  7. Event Coverage Detection and Event Source Determination in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhangbing; Xing, Riliang; Duan, Yucong; Zhu, Yueqin; Xiang, Jianming

    2015-12-15

    With the advent of the Internet of Underwater Things, smart things are deployed in the ocean space and establish underwater wireless sensor networks for the monitoring of vast and dynamic underwater environments. When events are found to have possibly occurred, accurate event coverage should be detected, and potential event sources should be determined for the enactment of prompt and proper responses. To address this challenge, a technique that detects event coverage and determines event sources is developed in this article. Specifically, the occurrence of possible events corresponds to a set of neighboring sensor nodes whose sensory data may deviate from a normal sensing range in a collective fashion. An appropriate sensor node is selected as the relay node for gathering and routing sensory data to sink node(s). When sensory data are collected at sink node(s), the event coverage is detected and represented as a weighted graph, where the vertices in this graph correspond to sensor nodes and the weight specified upon the edges reflects the extent of sensory data deviating from a normal sensing range. Event sources are determined, which correspond to the barycenters in this graph. The results of the experiments show that our technique is more energy efficient, especially when the network topology is relatively steady.

  8. Life Event Attributions as a Potential Source of Vulnerability Following Exposure to a Traumatic Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Matt J.; Lombardo, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    Attributions for traumatic events have been identified as a potential source of vulnerability for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following exposure to a traumatic event. In this study, 516 undergraduates were screened for traumatic exposure and the development of significant symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Twenty-nine individuals with…

  9. Assessment of Major and Daily Stressful Events During Adolescence: The Adolescent Perceived Events Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Conducted four studies to develop Adolescent Perceived Events Scale (APES), measure of major and daily stressful events during adolescence. Describes test construction, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity of APES. Summarizes subsequent research showing APES to be significantly related to behavior problems and psychological…

  10. Event Structure Influences Language Production: Evidence from Structural Priming in Motion Event Description

    PubMed Central

    Bunger, Ann; Papafragou, Anna; Trueswell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    This priming study investigates the role of conceptual structure during language production, probing whether English speakers are sensitive to the structure of the event encoded by a prime sentence. In two experiments, participants read prime sentences aloud before describing motion events. Primes differed in 1) syntactic frame, 2) degree of lexical and conceptual overlap with target events, and 3) distribution of event components within frames. Results demonstrate that conceptual overlap between primes and targets led to priming of (a) the information that speakers chose to include in their descriptions of target events, (b) the way that information was mapped to linguistic elements, and (c) the syntactic structures that were built to communicate that information. When there was no conceptual overlap between primes and targets, priming was not successful. We conclude that conceptual structure is a level of representation activated during priming, and that it has implications for both Message Planning and Linguistic Formulation. PMID:24072953

  11. Solar He-3-rich events and non-relativistic electron events: A new association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.; Vonrosenvinge, T. T.; Lin, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    In 15 months of observation by the ISEE-e spacecraft, it was found that virtually all solar greater than or approximately equal to 1.3 MeV/nucleon He-3-rich events are associated with impulsive 2 to approximately 100 keV electron events, although many electron events were not accompanied by detectable He-3 increases. Both the He-3 and the electrons exhibit nearly scatter-free propagation in the interplanetary medium, and the times of onset and maximum for the He-3 and electron increases are closely related by velocity dispertion. The electron events and their related type III solar radio bursts provide, for the first time, identification of the flares which produce He-3-rich events. He-3 appears to be accelerated at the flash phase of solar flares along with nonrelativistic electrons.

  12. Topography's crucial role in Heinrich Events

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, William H. G.; Valdes, Paul J.; Payne, Antony J.

    2014-01-01

    Heinrich Events, the abrupt changes in the Laurentide Ice Sheet that cause the appearance of the well-observed Heinrich Layers, are thought to have a strong effect on the global climate. The focus of most studies that have looked at the climate’s response to these events has been the freshwater flux that results from melting icebergs. However, there is the possibility that the varying height of the ice sheet could force a change in the climate. In this study, we present results from a newly developed coupled climate/ice sheet model to show what effect this topographic change has both on its own and in concert with the flux of freshwater from melting icebergs. We show that the topographic forcing can explain a number of the climate changes that are observed during Heinrich Events, such as the warming and wettening in Florida and the warm sea surface temperatures in the central North Atlantic, which freshwater forcing alone cannot. We also find regions, for example the tropical Atlantic, where the response is a mixture of the two: Here observations may help disentangle the relative importance of each mechanism. These results suggest that the simple paradigm of a Heinrich Event causing climate change via freshwater inputs into the North Atlantic needs to be revised. PMID:25368154

  13. Combating Violence at School Sports Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2006-01-01

    It is absolutely critical that high school games be organized in the safest way possible--both for the students, the staff who are directly involved and for all the spectators who watch these games. School officials have become vigilant with safety measures as a string of violent incidents has occurred in several school athletic events across the…

  14. Bulletin Board Ideas: Worldwide Scientific Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Maurice K.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a bulletin board activity that identifies scientific phenomena occurring worldwide during the school year. A map of the world is marked with colored pins as students find news information of places and kind of event (e.g.; volcanoes, floods, crop failures, human epidemics). (CS)

  15. Kids and Chemistry: Large Event Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinnesand, Michael

    This guide is intended to provide Kids and Chemistry (K&C) with a variety of age-appropriate, fun, and safe demonstrations. It features information on planning a large event and includes safety guidelines. Several activities are included under each major topic. Topics include: (1) Acids and Bases; (2) Unsigned; (3) Kool Tie-Dye; (4) Secret…

  16. Automated Detection of Events of Scientific Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    A report presents a slightly different perspective of the subject matter of Fusing Symbolic and Numerical Diagnostic Computations (NPO-42512), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. Briefly, the subject matter is the X-2000 Anomaly Detection Language, which is a developmental computing language for fusing two diagnostic computer programs one implementing a numerical analysis method, the other implementing a symbolic analysis method into a unified event-based decision analysis software system for real-time detection of events. In the case of the cited companion NASA Tech Briefs article, the contemplated events that one seeks to detect would be primarily failures or other changes that could adversely affect the safety or success of a spacecraft mission. In the case of the instant report, the events to be detected could also include natural phenomena that could be of scientific interest. Hence, the use of X- 2000 Anomaly Detection Language could contribute to a capability for automated, coordinated use of multiple sensors and sensor-output-data-processing hardware and software to effect opportunistic collection and analysis of scientific data.

  17. Response to Vestibular Sensory Events in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the response to vestibular sensory events in persons with autism. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to age- and gender-matched community controls. The…

  18. 77 FR 48492 - Event Data Recorders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... vehicle models and avoid disabling legacy EDR systems for a limited number of vehicle models. The agency... the agency's understanding of crash events and safety system performance, thereby potentially... performance requirements. \\1\\ 71 FR 50998. \\2\\ Walk-in van-type trucks or vehicles designed to be...

  19. An Event Model of Student Departure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardins, S. L.; Ahlburg, D. A.; McCall, B. P.

    1999-01-01

    Employs event-history modeling to examine temporal dimensions of student departure from a large research university. Asian students are less likely to depart in year 1 than Whites. African-Americans are more likely to leave during junior and senior years. Dynamic models may presage sound dropout-intervention strategies. (54 references) (MLH)

  20. Event reconstruction algorithms for the ATLAS trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    F-Martin, T.; Abolins, M.; Adragna, P.; Aleksandrov, E.; Aleksandrov, I.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Asquith, L.; Avolio, G.; Backlund, S.; Badescu, E.; Baines, J.; Barria, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Batreanu, S.; Beck, H. P.; Bee, C.; Bell, P.; Bell, W. H.; Bellomo, M.; Benslama, K.; Berge, D.; Berger, N.; Berry, T.; Biglietti, M.; Blair, R. R.; Bogaerts, A.; Bold, T.; Bosman, M.; Boyd, J.; Brelier, B.; Burckhart, C. D.; Buttar, C.; Campanelli, M.; Caprini, M.; Carlino, G.; Casadei, D.; Casado, P.; Cataldi, G.; Cimino, D.; Ciobotaru, M.; Clements, D.; Coccaro, A.; Conde, M. P.; Conventi, F.; Corso, R. A.; Costa, M. J.; Coura, T. R.; Cranfield, R.; Cranmer, K.; Crone, G.; Dam, M.; Damazio, D.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.; DeAlmeida Simoes, A. J.; DeCecco, S.; DeSanto, A.; Della Pietra, M.; Delsart, P.-A.; Demers, S.; Demirkoz, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Dionisi, C.; Djilkibaev, R.; Dobinson, R.; Dobson, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.; Drake, G.; Dufour, M.-A.; Eckweiler, S.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Ellis, N.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D.; Ermoline, Y.; Eschrich, I.; Facius, K.; Falciano, S.; Farthouat, P.; Feng, E.; Ferland, J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, M. L.; Fischer, G.; Francis, D.; Gadomski, S.; Garitaonandia, E. H.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; George, S.; Giagu, S.; Goncalo, R.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gowdy, S.; Grabowska, B. I.; Grancagnolo, S.; Green, B.; Haas, S.; Haberichter, W.; Hadavand, H.; Haeberli, C.; Haller, J.; Hamilton, A.; Hansen, J. R.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Head, S.; Hillier, S.; Hoecker, A.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hughes, J. R.; Huston, J.; Idarraga, J.; Igonkina, O.; Inada, M.; Jain, V.; Johns, K.; Joos, M.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kazarov, A.; Kehoe, R.; Khoriauli, G.; Kieft, G.; Kilvington, G.; Kirk, J.; Kiyamura, H.; Kolos, S.; Kono, T.; Konstantinidis, N.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Kotov, V.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kubota, T.; Kugel, A.; Kuhn, D.; Kurasige, H.; Kuwabara, T.; Kwee, R.; Lankford, A.; LeCompte, T.; Leahu, L.; Leahu, M.; Ledroit, F.; Lehmann, M. G.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, D.; Leyton, M.; Li, S.; Lim, H.; Lohse, T.; Losada, M.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Mapelli, L.; Martin, B.; Martin, B. T.; Marzano, F.; Masik, J.; McMahon, T.; Mcpherson, R.; Medinnis, M.; Meessen, C.; Meirosu, C.; Messina, A.; Mincer, A.; Mineev, M.; Misiejuk, A.; Moenig, K.; Monticelli, F.; Moraes, A.; Moreno, D.; Morettini, P.; Murillo, G. R.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Negri, A.; Nemethy, P.; Neusiedl, A.; Nisati, A.; Nozicka, M.; Omachi, C.; Osculati, B.; Osuna, C.; Padilla, C.; Panikashvili, N.; Parodi, F.; Pasqualucci, E.; Pauly, T.; Perera, V.; Perez, E.; Perez Reale, V.; Petersen, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J.; Pinzon, G.; Pope, B.; Potter, C.; Primavera, M.; Radescu, V.; Rajagopalan, S.; Renkel, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rieke, S.; Risler, C.; Riu, I.; Robertson, S.; Roda, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Rogriquez, Y.; Ryabov, Y.; Ryan, P.; Salvatore, D.; Santamarina, C.; Santamarina, R. C.; Scannicchio, D.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schiavi, C.; Schlereth, J.; Scholtes, I.; Schooltz, D.; Scott, W.; Segura, E.; Shimbo, N.; Sidoti, A.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S.; Sloper, J. E.; Smizanska, M.; Soloviev, I.; Soluk, R.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiwoks, R.; Stancu, S.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, J.; Stradling, A.; Strom, D.; Strong, J.; Su, D.; Sushkov, S.; Sutton, M.; Szymocha, T.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarem, Z.; Teixeira, D. P.; Tokoshuku, K.; Torrence, E.; Touchard, F.; Tremblet, L.; Tripiana, M.; Usai, G.; Vachon, B.; Vandelli, W.; Ventura, A.; Vercesi, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Von Der Schmitt, J.; Wang, M.; Watson, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, P.; Wheeler, E. S.; Wickens, F.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers M, M.; Wilkens, H.; Winklmeier, F.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wu, S.-L.; Wu, X.; Xella, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yu, M.; Zema, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, L.; Zobernig, H.; dos Anjos, A.; zur Nedden, M.; zcan, E.; nel, G.

    2008-07-01

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 109 interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  1. Two Components in Major Solar Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Cane, H. V.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    A study has been made of 29 intense, solar particle events observed in the energy range 25-100 MeV/nuc near Earth in the years 1997 through 2001. It is found that the majority of the events (19/29) had Fe to O ratios which were reasonably constant with time and energy, and with values above coronal. These all originated on the Sun s western hemisphere and most had intensities that rose rapidly at the time of an associated flare, and coronal mass ejection (CME), and then decayed more gradually. Few interplanetary shocks were observed during these increases. The spectra were mainly power laws. The remaining 10 events had different intensity-time profiles and Fe to O ratios that varied with time and energy with values at or below coronal. Most of these originated near central meridian and 6 had strong interplanetary shocks that were observed near Earth. In general the spectra were not power laws but steepened at high energies, particularly for Fe. There were four events with two peaks in the intensity-time profiles, the first near the time of the associated flare and the other at shock passage. The results, considered in the light of other recent work, suggest that the high energy particles that occur shortly after flares are indeed flare particles. At the highest rigidities considered here shock-accelerated particles are uncommon and are observed only in association with unusually fast shocks.

  2. Analysis hierarchical model for discrete event systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciortea, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    The This paper presents the hierarchical model based on discrete event network for robotic systems. Based on the hierarchical approach, Petri network is analysed as a network of the highest conceptual level and the lowest level of local control. For modelling and control of complex robotic systems using extended Petri nets. Such a system is structured, controlled and analysed in this paper by using Visual Object Net ++ package that is relatively simple and easy to use, and the results are shown as representations easy to interpret. The hierarchical structure of the robotic system is implemented on computers analysed using specialized programs. Implementation of hierarchical model discrete event systems, as a real-time operating system on a computer network connected via a serial bus is possible, where each computer is dedicated to local and Petri model of a subsystem global robotic system. Since Petri models are simplified to apply general computers, analysis, modelling, complex manufacturing systems control can be achieved using Petri nets. Discrete event systems is a pragmatic tool for modelling industrial systems. For system modelling using Petri nets because we have our system where discrete event. To highlight the auxiliary time Petri model using transport stream divided into hierarchical levels and sections are analysed successively. Proposed robotic system simulation using timed Petri, offers the opportunity to view the robotic time. Application of goods or robotic and transmission times obtained by measuring spot is obtained graphics showing the average time for transport activity, using the parameters sets of finished products. individually.

  3. Assessment of NGNP Moisture Ingress Events

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Landman

    2011-04-01

    An assessment of modular HTGR moisture ingress events, making use of a phenomena identification and ranking process, was conducted by a panel of experts in the related areas for the U.S. next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design. Consideration was given mainly to the prismatic core gas-cooled reactor configurations incorporating a steam generator within the primary circuit.

  4. Searching Current Events--Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Lucinda D.

    1986-01-01

    Provides description of principal database sources for information on current events--newspaper indexes (e.g., INFORMATION BANK, VU/TEXT, NEWSPAPER INDEX); magazine databases (e.g., NEXIS-MAGS, MAGAZINE ASAP); wire service databases (e.g., NewsNet, WIRES, NEWS); and reference databases (encyclopedias, yearbooks, FACTS ON FILE). A list of the 37…

  5. Stressful Life Events and Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Finds, studying 491 adults, stress (measured by life events) was unrelated to time spent viewing TV but, for women, was positively related to television "addiction." Finds, studying 329 families, confirmation of mood management theory--stress was associated with increased comedy and decreased news viewing. Finds, studying 140 adults, positive…

  6. Event Specific Drinking Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.

    2011-01-01

    College represents a period of risk for heavy drinking and experiencing unwanted consequences associated with drinking. Previous research has identified specific events including holidays (e.g., New Years), school breaks (e.g., Spring Break) and personally relevant events (e.g., 21st birthdays) that are associated with elevated risk of heavy drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. The systematic evaluation of relative risk offers insights into event specific drinking and an empirical basis upon which to consider allocation of limited prevention resources. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to provide a comparative index of drinking across a wide range of holidays and compare holiday drinking to 21st birthday drinking. Participants were 1,124 students (55% female) who had turned 21 within the previous three weeks in 2008 and provided 90-day retrospective reports of their drinking using the Timeline Follow-back. Results based on a hurdle mixed model for blood alcohol content (BAC) revealed several holidays that stand out for elevated drinking, including New Year’s Eve and July 4th, whereas other holidays appear more similar to weekend drinking, such as Spring Break (approximately last week of March) and graduation (mid-June). Drinking on holidays or special days was substantially lower than drinking on 21st birthdays. Results are discussed in terms of practical applications for targeted intervention efforts on college campuses toward specific events where elevated drinking is known to occur. PMID:21639597

  7. Eventful Play: Preschooler's Scripts for Pretense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Susan

    Two studies were conducted to analyze script and event structures of preschool children's dialogues during play. To identify scripts in discourse data, the following procedural guidelines were developed and followed: (1) identify exchanges of continuous discourse, (2) delineate all conversational episodes, (3) select all episodes with pretend play…

  8. Event Structure and Grammatical Patterns: Resultative Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the nature of grammatical patterns through an in-depth study of resultative constructions in Mandarin and Thai. At the heart of the thesis lies the proposal that event structure templates--complex, meaning-based grammatical patterns--must be recognised as primary objects of linguistic analysis. As content-theoretic objects…

  9. 36 CFR 331.11 - Special events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special events. 331.11 Section 331.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  10. 36 CFR 331.11 - Special events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special events. 331.11 Section 331.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  11. 36 CFR 331.11 - Special events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special events. 331.11 Section 331.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  12. 36 CFR 331.11 - Special events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Special events. 331.11 Section 331.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  13. Single event phenomena in atmospheric neutron environments

    SciTech Connect

    Gossett, C.A.; Hughlock, B.W.; Katoozi, M.; LaRue, G.S. ); Wender, S.A. )

    1993-12-01

    As integrated circuit technology achieves higher density through smaller feature sizes and as the airplane manufacturing industry integrates more sophisticated electronic components into the design of new aircraft, it has become increasingly important to evaluate the contribution of single event effects, primarily Single Event Upset (SEU), to the safety and reliability of commercial aircraft. In contrast to the effects of radiation on electronic systems in space applications for which protons and heavy ions are of major concern, in commercial aircraft applications the interactions of high energy neutrons are the dominant cause of single event effects. These high energy neutrons are produced by the interaction of solar and galactic cosmic rays, principally protons and heavy ions, in the upper atmosphere. This paper will describe direct experimental measurements of neutron-induced Single Event Effect (SEE) rates in commercial high density static random access memories in a neutron environment characteristic of that at commercial airplane altitudes. The first experimental measurements testing current models for neutron-silicon burst generation rates will be presented, as well as measurements of charge collection in silicon test structures as a function of neutron energy. These are the first laboratory SEE and charge collection measurements using a particle beam having a continuum energy spectrum and with a shape nearly identical to that observed during flight.

  14. Exploring Evolving Media Discourse Through Event Cueing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yafeng; Steptoe, Michael; Burke, Sarah; Wang, Hong; Tsai, Jiun-Yi; Davulcu, Hasan; Montgomery, Douglas; Corman, Steven R; Maciejewski, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Online news, microblogs and other media documents all contain valuable insight regarding events and responses to events. Underlying these documents is the concept of framing, a process in which communicators act (consciously or unconsciously) to construct a point of view that encourages facts to be interpreted by others in a particular manner. As media discourse evolves, how topics and documents are framed can undergo change, shifting the discussion to different viewpoints or rhetoric. What causes these shifts can be difficult to determine directly; however, by linking secondary datasets and enabling visual exploration, we can enhance the hypothesis generation process. In this paper, we present a visual analytics framework for event cueing using media data. As discourse develops over time, our framework applies a time series intervention model which tests to see if the level of framing is different before or after a given date. If the model indicates that the times before and after are statistically significantly different, this cues an analyst to explore related datasets to help enhance their understanding of what (if any) events may have triggered these changes in discourse. Our framework consists of entity extraction and sentiment analysis as lenses for data exploration and uses two different models for intervention analysis. To demonstrate the usage of our framework, we present a case study on exploring potential relationships between climate change framing and conflicts in Africa.

  15. Teaching Cultural History from Primary Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Robert N.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between specific cultural events such as Galileo's work with the pendulum and a curriculum design that seeks to establish in skeletal form a comprehensive epic narrative about the co-evolution of cultural systems and human consciousness. The article explores some of the challenges and some of the strategies…

  16. Single Event Gate Rupture in EMCCD technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evagora, A. M.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Burt, D.

    2012-12-01

    The high electric fields (typically 3 MV/cm2 interpoly field) utilised in Electron Multiplying Charged Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) reveal a potential vulnerability from Single Event Phenomena (SEP), in particular Single Event Gate Rupture (SEGR). SEGR is where a conduction path between two conductive areas of the CCD is produced, causing device failure. If EMCCDs are to be used for space applications the susceptibility to these events needs to be explored. A positive result from such an investigation can increase the technology readiness level of the device moving it another step closer to being used in space. Testing undertaken at the CYClotron of LOuvain la NEuve (CYCLONE), using the Heavy Ion Facility (HIF), conclusively showed EMCCD technology to have resilience to heavy ions that surpassed initial expectations. The simulations undertaken prior to experiment suggested gate rupture would occur at 20-40 MeV cm2/mg, however Linear Energy Transfers (LETs) greater than 100 MeV cm2/mg proved to not cause a rupture event. Within the radiation belts heavy ions with an LET greater than 60 MeV cm2/mg are not very common when compared to the fluxes used at the HIF. Possible reasons for this result are discussed in this work, leading to a conclusion that EMCCD technology is a secure choice for space flight.

  17. The Bananas' Manual on Event Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bananas, Inc., Oakland, CA.

    Written for individuals and/or groups, this manual provides a step-by-step guide to the implementation of day care during special events such as fund raisers and workshops. The introduction includes information on staff, site, and insurance requirements. Next, instruction is provided on the preparation of business forms, meeting the unique needs…

  18. 77 FR 59566 - Event Data Recorders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 563 RIN 2127-AL14 Event Data Recorders Correction In rule document 2012-19580, appearing on pages 47552-47557 in the issue of Thursday, August...

  19. Neutrino induced events in the MINOS detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, Reuben Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The MINOS experiment is designed to study neutrino oscillations. It uses an accelerator generated beam of neutrinos and two detectors, the smaller at a distance of 1km and the larger at 735 km. By comparing the spectrum and flavour composition of the beam at the two detectors precise determinations of the oscillation parameters are possible. This thesis concentrates on the analysis of data from the larger Far Detector. By studying the spectrum of neutral current events it is possible to look for evidence of non-interacting 'sterile' neutrinos. The thesis describes how events are selected for this analysis, and a method for discriminating between charged current and neutral current events. The systematic uncertainties resulting from these cuts are evaluated. Several techniques for using Near Detector data to eliminate systematic uncertainties in the predicted Far Detector spectrum are compared. An oscillation analysis, based on the first year of MINOS data, uses the selected events to make a measurement of f{sub s}, the fraction of unseen neutrinos that are sterile. The measured value is fs = 0.07+0.32 at 68%C.L., and is consistent with the standard three-neutrino picture, which has no sterile neutrino.

  20. Current Events in Basic Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hook, Barry L.

    1974-01-01

    The author suggests the use of current events to stimulate student interest in basic business courses. Suggested topics described are monetary devaluation, interest rate adjustments, Illinois no-fault automobile insurance, labor-management disputes, Dow-Jones average, Picasso's death, energy crisis, sale of surplus wheat, local consumer assistance…

  1. Using Satire to Study Current Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that recognizing and analyzing satire in the media is a thought-provoking and enjoyable way to teach current events. Provides an eight-step student guide for analyzing and discussing satire. Includes suggestions for teachers who want to use satire in the classroom. (CFR)

  2. Discrete Events as Units of Perceived Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liverence, Brandon M.; Scholl, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    In visual images, we perceive both space (as a continuous visual medium) and objects (that inhabit space). Similarly, in dynamic visual experience, we perceive both continuous time and discrete events. What is the relationship between these units of experience? The most intuitive answer may be similar to the spatial case: time is perceived as an…

  3. What's Next? Judging Sequences of Binary Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskarsson, An T.; Van Boven, Leaf; McClelland, Gary H.; Hastie, Reid

    2009-01-01

    The authors review research on judgments of random and nonrandom sequences involving binary events with a focus on studies documenting gambler's fallacy and hot hand beliefs. The domains of judgment include random devices, births, lotteries, sports performances, stock prices, and others. After discussing existing theories of sequence judgments,…

  4. Planning high security/high profile events.

    PubMed

    McCafferty, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The author who has lead in the planning and implementation of some of the most notorious trials and events, both in Canada and internationally, describes how such these experiences could be applied to focused high security planning in the health care industry. PMID:24020318

  5. Event Reconstruction Algorithms for the ATLAS Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca-Martin, T.; Abolins, M.; Adragna, P.; Aleksandrov, E.; Aleksandrov, I.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Asquith, L.; Avolio, G.; Backlund, S.; Badescu, E.; Baines, J.; Barria, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Batreanu, S.; Beck, H.P.; Bee, C.; Bell, P.; Bell, W.H.; /more authors..

    2011-11-09

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10{sup 9} interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  6. Infrasound Event Analysis into the IDC Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mialle, Pierrick; Bittner, Paulina; Brachet, Nicolas; Brown, David; Given, Jeffrey; Le Bras, Ronan; Coyne, John

    2010-05-01

    The first atmospheric event built only from infrasound arrivals was reported in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in 2003. In the last decade, 42 infrasound stations from the International Monitoring System (IMS) have been installed and are transmitting data to the IDC. The growing amount of infrasound data and detections produced by the automatic system challenged the station and network processing at the IDC, which required the Organization to redesign the way infrasound data are processed. Each infrasound array is processed separately for signal detection using a progressive multi-channel correlation method (DFX-PMCC). For each detection, signal features - onset time, amplitude, frequency, duration, azimuth, phase velocity, F-statistics - are measured and used to identify a detection as infrasonic, seismic, or noise (including clutter). Infrasonic signals along with seismic and hydroacoustic signals are subsequently associated with Global Association software (GA) between stations to locate events. During detection and association phases, criteria are applied to eliminate clutter, identify signals of interest, and keep the number of automatic events containing infrasound detections to a manageable level for analyst review. The IDC has developed analysis and visualization tools specifically for infrasound review (e.g. Geotool-PMCC). The IDC has continued to build the Infrasound Reference Event Database (IRED) from observations on the IMS network. This database assists both the routine IDC infrasound analysis and analyst training as it reflects the global detection capability of the network, illustrates the spatial and temporal variability of the observed phenomena, and demonstrates the various origins of infragenic sources. Since 2007, the IDC has introduced new analyst procedures to review and add selected infrasound events to the REB. In early 2010, the IDC

  7. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods that occurred in the same area. In analogy to 'Paired catchment studies' - a well-established method in hydrology to understand how changes in land use affect streamflow - we will investigate how and why resulting flood damage in a region differed between the first and second consecutive flood events. One example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number of resulting dyke breaches. Additionally, exposure hotspots like the city of Dresden at the Elbe river as well as some smaller municipalities at the river Mulde (e.g. Grimma, Eilenburg, Bitterfeld, Dessau) were severely impacted. However, affected parties and authorities learned from the extreme flood in 2002, and many governmental flood risk programs and initiatives were launched. Considerable improvements since 2002 occurred on many levels that deal with flood risk reduction and disaster response, in particular in 1) increased flood prevention by improved spatial planning, 2) an increased number of property-level mitigation measures, 3) more effective early warning and improved coordination of disaster response and 4) a more targeted maintenance of flood defence systems and their

  8. Unusual Mesospheric Bore Event Observed Over Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. J.; Nielsen, K.; Stockwell, R.; Picard, R. H.; Jarvis, M.

    All-sky CCD observations of mesospheric gravity waves have been made from Halley Station Antarctica (75.5 S, 26.7 W) as part of a collaborative research program between British Antarctic Survey, U.K. and Utah State University, USA. One goal of this investigation is the determination of the characteristics and sources of short-period (< 1 hour) gravity waves observed during the Antarctic winter in the absence of local tropospheric convection. This report describes an unusual mesospheric ``bore'' event that was observed near-simultaneously in three nightglow emissions: the OH (˜ 87 km), O2(0,1) (˜ 94 km) and Na (589.2 nm) (˜ 90 km), over a period of ˜ 3 hours on the 27-28 May, 2001. Mesospheric bores are rare wave events that have previously only been reported at low- and mid latitudes. This Antarctic event is particularly interesting for several reasons, (a) it was characterized by an extensive, high contrast linear wave front that rotated significantly in azimuth as it passed overhead, (b) the associated wave train was observed to grow in the number of crests, consistent with that expected for a ducted, bore-like motion, (c) the individual wave crests exhibited a spatially localized acceleration, possibly due to a sudden change in depth of the duct, and (d) the primary direction of motion of the event was due southwards towards the Antarctic pole suggesting exceptionally long range wave propagation from potential tropospheric sources close to Africa. The evolution and characteristics of this remarkable wave event will be presented together with a discussion of its possible origin.

  9. Dynamic Event Tree Analysis Through RAVEN

    SciTech Connect

    A. Alfonsi; C. Rabiti; D. Mandelli; J. Cogliati; R. A. Kinoshita; A. Naviglio

    2013-09-01

    Conventional Event-Tree (ET) based methodologies are extensively used as tools to perform reliability and safety assessment of complex and critical engineering systems. One of the disadvantages of these methods is that timing/sequencing of events and system dynamics is not explicitly accounted for in the analysis. In order to overcome these limitations several techniques, also know as Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (D-PRA), have been developed. Monte-Carlo (MC) and Dynamic Event Tree (DET) are two of the most widely used D-PRA methodologies to perform safety assessment of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). In the past two years, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed its own tool to perform Dynamic PRA: RAVEN (Reactor Analysis and Virtual control ENvironment). RAVEN has been designed in a high modular and pluggable way in order to enable easy integration of different programming languages (i.e., C++, Python) and coupling with other application including the ones based on the MOOSE framework, developed by INL as well. RAVEN performs two main tasks: 1) control logic driver for the new Thermo-Hydraulic code RELAP-7 and 2) post-processing tool. In the first task, RAVEN acts as a deterministic controller in which the set of control logic laws (user defined) monitors the RELAP-7 simulation and controls the activation of specific systems. Moreover, RAVEN also models stochastic events, such as components failures, and performs uncertainty quantification. Such stochastic modeling is employed by using both MC and DET algorithms. In the second task, RAVEN processes the large amount of data generated by RELAP-7 using data-mining based algorithms. This paper focuses on the first task and shows how it is possible to perform the analysis of dynamic stochastic systems using the newly developed RAVEN DET capability. As an example, the Dynamic PRA analysis, using Dynamic Event Tree, of a simplified pressurized water reactor for a Station Black-Out scenario is presented.

  10. EventRiver: visually exploring text collections with temporal references.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dongning; Yang, Jing; Krstajic, Milos; Ribarsky, William; Keim, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Many text collections with temporal references, such as news corpora and weblogs, are generated to report and discuss real life events. Thus, event-related tasks, such as detecting real life events that drive the generation of the text documents, tracking event evolutions, and investigating reports and commentaries about events of interest, are important when exploring such text collections. To incorporate and leverage human efforts in conducting such tasks, we propose a novel visual analytics approach named EventRiver. EventRiver integrates event-based automated text analysis and visualization to reveal the events motivating the text generation and the long term stories they construct. On the visualization, users can interactively conduct tasks such as event browsing, tracking, association, and investigation. A working prototype of EventRiver has been implemented for exploring news corpora. A set of case studies, experiments, and a preliminary user test have been conducted to evaluate its effectiveness and efficiency.

  11. Event-by-Event pseudorapidity fluctuation analysis: An outlook to multiplicity and phase space dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoumik, Gopa; Bhattacharyya, Swarnapratim; Deb, Argha; Ghosh, Dipak

    2016-07-01

    A detailed study of Event-by-Event pseudorapidity fluctuation of the pions produced in 16O -AgBr interactions at 60A GeV and 32S -AgBr interactions at 200A GeV has been carried out in terms of φ , a variable defined as a measure of fluctuation. Non-zero φ values indicate the presence of strong correlation among the pions for both interactions. Multiplicity and rapidity dependence of the Event-by-Event pseudorapidity fluctuation has been investigated. A decrease of φ with average multiplicity and increase of the same variable with pseudorapidity width are observed. Decrease of φ with average multiplicity is concluded as the particle emission by several independent sources occurs for higher-multiplicity events. The increase in φ values with pseudorapidity width, taken around central rapidity, might hint towards the presence of long-range correlation and its dominance over short range one. We have compared our experimental results with Monte Carlo simulation generated assuming independent particle emission. Comparison shows that the source of correlation and fluctuation is the dynamics of the pion production process. We have also compared our results with events generated by FRITIOF code. Such events also show the presence of fluctuation and correlation; however they fail to replicate the experimental findings.

  12. Systematic Analysis of Adverse Event Reports for Sex Differences in Adverse Drug Events.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Chen, Jun; Li, Dingcheng; Wang, Liwei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-04-22

    Increasing evidence has shown that sex differences exist in Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). Identifying those sex differences in ADEs could reduce the experience of ADEs for patients and could be conducive to the development of personalized medicine. In this study, we analyzed a normalized US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Chi-squared test was conducted to discover which treatment regimens or drugs had sex differences in adverse events. Moreover, reporting odds ratio (ROR) and P value were calculated to quantify the signals of sex differences for specific drug-event combinations. Logistic regression was applied to remove the confounding effect from the baseline sex difference of the events. We detected among 668 drugs of the most frequent 20 treatment regimens in the United States, 307 drugs have sex differences in ADEs. In addition, we identified 736 unique drug-event combinations with significant sex differences. After removing the confounding effect from the baseline sex difference of the events, there are 266 combinations remained. Drug labels or previous studies verified some of them while others warrant further investigation.

  13. Systematic Analysis of Adverse Event Reports for Sex Differences in Adverse Drug Events

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Chen, Jun; Li, Dingcheng; Wang, Liwei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that sex differences exist in Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). Identifying those sex differences in ADEs could reduce the experience of ADEs for patients and could be conducive to the development of personalized medicine. In this study, we analyzed a normalized US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Chi-squared test was conducted to discover which treatment regimens or drugs had sex differences in adverse events. Moreover, reporting odds ratio (ROR) and P value were calculated to quantify the signals of sex differences for specific drug-event combinations. Logistic regression was applied to remove the confounding effect from the baseline sex difference of the events. We detected among 668 drugs of the most frequent 20 treatment regimens in the United States, 307 drugs have sex differences in ADEs. In addition, we identified 736 unique drug-event combinations with significant sex differences. After removing the confounding effect from the baseline sex difference of the events, there are 266 combinations remained. Drug labels or previous studies verified some of them while others warrant further investigation. PMID:27102014

  14. NASA's Earth Observatory Natural Event Tracker: Curating Metadata for Linking Data and Images to Natural Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, K.

    2015-12-01

    On any given date, there are multiple natural events occurring on our planet. Storms, wildfires, volcanoes and algal blooms can be analyzed and represented using multiple dataset parameters. These parameters, in turn, may be visualized in multiple ways and disseminated via multiple web services. Given these multiple-to-multiple relationships, we already have the makings of a microverse of linked data. In an attempt to begin putting this microverse to practical use, NASA's Earth Observatory Group has developed a prototype system called the Earth Observatory Natural Event Tracker (EONET). EONET is a metadata-driven service that is exploring digital curation as a means to adding value to the intersection of natural event-related data and existing web service-enabled visualization systems. A curated natural events database maps specific events to topical groups (e.g., storms, fires, volcanoes), from those groups to related web service visualization systems and, eventually, to the source data products themselves. I will discuss the complexities that arise from attempting to map event types to dataset parameters, and the issues of granularity that come from trying to define exactly what is, and what constrains, a single natural event, particularly in a system where one of the end goals is to provide a group-curated database.

  15. Analysing adverse events by time-to-event models: the CLEOPATRA study.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Tanja; Schumacher, Martin

    2016-07-01

    When analysing primary and secondary endpoints in a clinical trial with patients suffering from a chronic disease, statistical models for time-to-event data are commonly used and accepted. This is in contrast to the analysis of data on adverse events where often only a table with observed frequencies and corresponding test statistics is reported. An example is the recently published CLEOPATRA study where a three-drug regimen is compared with a two-drug regimen in patients with HER2-positive first-line metastatic breast cancer. Here, as described earlier, primary and secondary endpoints (progression-free and overall survival) are analysed using time-to-event models, whereas adverse events are summarized in a simple frequency table, although the duration of study treatment differs substantially. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of time-to-event models to first serious adverse events using the data of the CLEOPATRA study. This will cover the broad range between a simple incidence rate approach over survival and competing risks models (with death as a competing event) to multi-state models. We illustrate all approaches by means of graphical displays highlighting the temporal dynamics and compare the obtained results. For the CLEOPATRA study, the resulting hazard ratios are all in the same order of magnitude. But the use of time-to-event models provides valuable and additional information that would potentially be overlooked by only presenting incidence proportions. These models adequately address the temporal dynamics of serious adverse events as well as death of patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. ADVANCED WAVEFORM SIMULATION FOR SEISMIC MONITORING EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Helmberger, Donald V.; Tromp, Jeroen; Rodgers, Arthur J.

    2008-10-17

    This quarter, we have focused on several tasks: (1) Building a high-quality catalog of earthquake source parameters for the Middle East and East Asia. In East Asia, we computed source parameters using the CAP method for a set of events studied by Herrman et al., (MRR, 2006) using a complete waveform technique. Results indicated excellent agreement with the moment magnitudes in the range 3.5 -5.5. Below magnitude 3.5 the scatter increases. For events with more than 2-3 observations at different azimuths, we found good agreement of focal mechanisms. Depths were generally consistent, although differences of up to 10 km were found. These results suggest that CAP modeling provides estimates of source parameters at least as reliable as complete waveform modeling techniques. However, East Asia and the Yellow Sea Korean Paraplatform (YSKP) region studied are relatively laterally homogeneous and may not benefit from the CAP method’s flexibility to shift waveform segments to account for path-dependent model errors. A more challenging region to study is the Middle East where strong variations in sedimentary basin, crustal thickness and crustal and mantle seismic velocities greatly impact regional wave propagation. We applied the CAP method to a set of events in and around Iran and found good agreement between estimated focal mechanisms and those reported by the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) catalog. We found a possible bias in the moment magnitudes that may be due to the thick low-velocity crust in the Iranian Plateau. (2) Testing Methods on a Lifetime Regional Data Set. In particular, the recent 2/21/08 Nevada Event and Aftershock Sequence occurred in the middle of USArray, producing over a thousand records per event. The tectonic setting is quite similar to Central Iran and thus provides an excellent testbed for CAP+ at ranges out to 10°, including extensive observations of crustal thinning and thickening and various Pnl complexities. Broadband modeling in 1D, 2D

  17. Earthquake Clustering and Triggering of Large Events in Simulated Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilchrist, J. J.; Dieterich, J. H.; Richards-Dinger, K. B.; Xu, H.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate large event clusters (e.g. earthquake doublets and triplets) wherein secondary events in a cluster are triggered by stress transfer from previous events. We employ the 3D boundary element code RSQSim with a California fault model to generate synthetic catalogs spanning from tens of thousands up to a million years. The simulations incorporate rate-state fault constitutive properties, and the catalogs include foreshocks, aftershocks and occasional clusters of large events. Here we define a large event cluster as two or more M≥7 events within a few years. Most clustered events are closely grouped in space as well as time. Large event clusters show highly productive aftershock sequences where the aftershock locations of the first event in a cluster appear to correlate with the location of the next large event in the cluster. We find that the aftershock productivity of the first events in large event clusters is roughly double that of the unrelated, non-clustered events and that aftershock rate is a proxy for the stress state of the faults. The aftershocks of the first event in a large-event cluster migrate toward the point of nucleation of the next event in a large-event cluster. Furthermore, following a normal aftershock sequence, the average event rate increases prior to the second event in a large-event cluster. These increased event rates prior to the second event in a cluster follow an inverse Omori's law, which is characteristic of foreshocks. Clustering probabilities based on aftershock rates are higher than expected from Omori aftershock and Gutenberg-Richter magnitude frequency laws, which suggests that the high aftershock rates indicate near-critical stresses for failure in a large earthquake.

  18. Stochastic Event Counter for Discrete-Event Systems Under Unreliable Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia

    2008-06-01

    This paper addresses the issues of counting the occurrence of special events in the framework of partiallyobserved discrete-event dynamical systems (DEDS). First, we develop a noble recursive procedure that updates active counter information state sequentially with available observations. In general, the cardinality of active counter information state is unbounded, which makes the exact recursion infeasible computationally. To overcome this difficulty, we develop an approximated recursive procedure that regulates and bounds the size of active counter information state. Using the approximated active counting information state, we give an approximated minimum mean square error (MMSE) counter. The developed algorithms are then applied to count special routing events in a material flow system.

  19. Polarimetry with the Event Horizon Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael; Doeleman, Sheperd; Fish, Vincent L.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Marrone, Daniel P.; Kosowsky, Michael; Wardle, John F. C.; Lu, Rusen

    2014-06-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is an effort to develop millimeter and submillimeter VLBI to image nearby black holes at resolutions comparable to their event horizons. Past work with the EHT has measured compact emission on such scales for Sgr A* and M87, and has also measured sub-parsec structure in more distant quasars. Polarimetry with the EHT enables a powerful extension of this work, mapping magnetic field structures via the highly polarized synchrotron emission. Polarization is also an excellent probe of rapid variability, especially for Sgr A*, and can convey rich astrometric information even with incomplete imaging. We report on results from our 2013 campaign, which demonstrate a sharp increase in the linear polarization fraction and variability with increasing baseline, and we demonstrate that current EHT data can potentially achieve microarcsecond relative astrometry of flaring regions on timescales of minutes.

  20. Survey of International Space Station Charging Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, P. D.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Parker, Linda N.

    2009-01-01

    With the negative grounding of the 160V Photovoltaic (PV) arrays, the International Space Station (ISS) can experience varied and interesting charging events. Since August 2006, there has been a multi-probe p ackage, called the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), availa ble to provide redundant measurements of the floating potential of th e ISS as well as the density and temperature of the local plasma environment. The FPMU has been operated during intermittent data campaigns since August 2006 and has collected over 160 days of information reg arding the charging of the ISS as it has progressed in configuration from one to three PV arrays and with various additional modules such as the European Space Agency?s Columbus laboratory and the Japan Aeros pace Exploration Agency's Kibo laboratory. This paper summarizes the charging of the ISS and the local environmental conditions that contr ibute to those charging events, both as measured by the FPMU.

  1. Adverse events related to blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Sandeep; Hemlata; Verma, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    The acute blood transfusion reactions are responsible for causing most serious adverse events. Awareness about various clinical features of acute and delayed transfusion reactions with an ability to assess the serious reactions on time can lead to a better prognosis. Evidence-based medicine has changed today's scenario of clinical practice to decrease adverse transfusion reactions. New evidence-based algorithms of transfusion and improved haemovigilance lead to avoidance of unnecessary transfusions perioperatively. The recognition of adverse events under anaesthesia is always challenging. The unnecessary blood transfusions can be avoided with better blood conservation techniques during surgery and with anaesthesia techniques that reduce blood loss. Better and newer blood screening methods have decreased the infectious complications to almost negligible levels. With universal leukoreduction of red blood cells (RBCs), selection of potential donors such as use of male donors only plasma and restriction of RBC storage, most of the non-infectious complications can be avoided. PMID:25535415

  2. Lightning and severe thunderstorms in event management.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Katie M

    2012-01-01

    There are a few national position stands/guidelines that address environmental conditions in athletics, yet they do not govern all outdoor sports. Extreme heat and cold, lightning, and severe wind can all be fatal, yet the majority of outdoor sports have no published guidelines addressing these conditions in relation to activity. Available research on extreme heat and cold conditions in athletics provides prevention strategies, to include acclimatization. Lightning and severe wind are two environmental conditions to which humans cannot accommodate, and they both can be deadly. There are strong positions on extreme heat/cold and lightning safety in athletics, but none affiliated with severe winds. Medical personnel involved in planning large outdoor sporting events must know of the presence of nationally published weather-related documents and apply them to their event. In addition, research needs to be expanded in the realm of establishing guidelines for safety to participants and spectators in severe wind conditions. PMID:22580490

  3. Computational Techniques in Radio Neutrino Event Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beydler, M.; ARA Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) is a high-energy cosmic neutrino detector constructed with stations of radio antennas buried in the ice at the South Pole. Event reconstruction relies on the analysis of the arrival times of the transient radio signals generated by neutrinos interacting within a few kilometers of the detector. Because of its depth dependence, the index of refraction in the ice complicates the interferometric directional reconstruction of possible neutrino events. Currently, there is an ongoing endeavor to enhance the programs used for the time-consuming computations of the curved paths of the transient wave signals in the ice as well as the interferometric beamforming. We have implemented a fast, multi-dimensional spline table lookup of the wave arrival times in order to enable raytrace-based directional reconstructions. Additionally, we have applied parallel computing across multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) in order to perform the beamforming calculations quickly.

  4. Full randomness from arbitrarily deterministic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Rodrigo; Masanes, Lluis; de la Torre, Gonzalo; Dhara, Chirag; Aolita, Leandro; Acín, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    Do completely unpredictable events exist? Classical physics excludes fundamental randomness. Although quantum theory makes probabilistic predictions, this does not imply that nature is random, as randomness should be certified without relying on the complete structure of the theory being used. Bell tests approach the question from this perspective. However, they require prior perfect randomness, falling into a circular reasoning. A Bell test that generates perfect random bits from bits possessing high—but less than perfect—randomness has recently been obtained. Yet, the main question remained open: does any initial randomness suffice to certify perfect randomness? Here we show that this is indeed the case. We provide a Bell test that uses arbitrarily imperfect random bits to produce bits that are, under the non-signalling principle assumption, perfectly random. This provides the first protocol attaining full randomness amplification. Our results have strong implications onto the debate of whether there exist events that are fully random.

  5. The mid-Carboniferous conodont extinction event

    SciTech Connect

    Nemirovskaya, T.I. ); Nigmadzhanov, I.M. )

    1992-01-01

    The biotic turnover defining the mid-Carboniferous boundary was a consequence of a worldwide eustatic event that lowered sea level, interrupted sedimentation, and greatly reduced taxonomic diversity in marine basins. The event, which affected ammonoids, foraminifers, corals, and crinoids, nearly eliminated Lower Carboniferous conodonts. Reorganization of conodonts around the mid-Carboniferous boundary occurred in four stages: (1) destabilization of assemblages and radiation of new species of the dominant genus Gnathodus at the beginning of the ecological crisis; (2) appearance of Upper Carboniferous genera, Declinognathodus and Idiognathoides, and initial attempts to adapt to new environments; (3) mass extinction of typical Lower Carboniferous gnathodids and paragnathodids; and (4) start of adaptive radiation of declinognathodids and idiognathoidids.

  6. Subnoise detection of a fast random event.

    PubMed

    Ataie, V; Esman, D; Kuo, B P-P; Alic, N; Radic, S

    2015-12-11

    Observation of random, nonrepetitive phenomena is of critical importance in astronomy, spectroscopy, biology, and remote sensing. Heralded by weak signals, hidden in noise, they pose basic detection challenges. In contrast to repetitive waveforms, a single-instance signal cannot be separated from noise through averaging. Here, we show that a fast, randomly occurring event can be detected and extracted from a noisy background without conventional averaging. An isolated 80-picosecond pulse was received with confidence level exceeding 99%, even when accompanied by noise. Our detector relies on instantaneous spectral cloning and a single-step, coherent field processor. The ability to extract fast, subnoise events is expected to increase detection sensitivity in multiple disciplines. Additionally, the new spectral-cloning receiver can potentially intercept communication signals that are presently considered secure. PMID:26659052

  7. Event-recording devices with identification codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, David G. (Inventor); Huestis, David L. (Inventor); Bahr, Alfred J. (Inventor); Vidmar, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A recording device allows wireless interrogation to determine its identity and its state. The state indicates whether one or more physical or chemical events have taken place. In effect, the one or more physical or chemical events are recorded by the device. The identity of the device allows it to be distinguished from a number of similar devices. The recording device may be used in an array of devices that allows wireless probing by an interrogation unit. When probed, each device tells the interrogator who it is and what state it is in. The devices allow multiple use and the interrogator may use a logical reset to determine the state of each device. The interrogator can thus easily identify particular items in an array that have reached a particular condition. The device may record the status of each device in a database to maintain a history for each.

  8. Constraining Light Colored Particles with Event Shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, David E.; Schwartz, Matthew D.

    2008-07-11

    Using recently developed techniques for computing event shapes with soft-collinear effective theory, CERN Large Electron Positron Collider event shape data are used to derive strong model-independent bounds on new colored particles. In the effective field theory computation, colored particles contribute in loops not only to the running of {alpha}{sub s} but also to the running of hard, jet, and soft functions. Moreover, the differential distribution in the effective theory explicitly probes many energy scales, so even shapes have a strong sensitivity to new particle thresholds. Using thrust data from ALEPH and OPAL, colored adjoint fermions (such as a gluino) below 51.0 GeV are ruled out to 95% confidence. This is nearly an order-of-magnitude improvement over the previous model-independent bound of 6.3 GeV.

  9. Single-event effects in avionics

    SciTech Connect

    Normand, E.

    1996-04-01

    The occurrence of single-event upset (SEU) in aircraft electronics has evolved from a series of interesting anecdotal incidents to accepted fact. A study completed in 1992 demonstrated that SEU`s are real, that the measured in-flight rates correlate with the atmospheric neutron flux, and that the rates can be calculated using laboratory SEU data. Once avionics DEU was shown to be an actual effect, it had to be dealt with in avionics designs. The major concern is in random access memories (RAM`s), both static (SRAM`s) and dynamic (DRAM`s), because these microelectronic devices contain the largest number of bits, but other parts, such as microprocessors, are also potentially susceptible to upset. In addition, other single-event effects (SEE`s), specifically latch-up and burnout, can also be induced by atmospheric neutrons.

  10. JUNIOR JADE - containment phenomenology of decoupled events

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.W.

    1995-02-01

    With five 8 pound high-explosive experiments, the author has investigated aspects of the containment phenomenology of partially decoupled events. In three experiments he observed multiple fractures and little cavity growth. In the final two experiments there were no fractures and cavity volumes grew by factors of approximately two and three. With the five experiments a spectrum of results ranging from hydraulic fracture - like crack propagation through multiple fracture propagation to the no fracture, or fully contained, case, was observed. For the multiple fracture experiments a partial residual stress field may have controlled the release of the cavity pressure. Measurements of cavity pressure versus time provided containment diagnostics; post event mining allowed visual observation of the cavities and fractures.

  11. Energetic particle pressure in intense ESP events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lario, D.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Viñas, A.-F.

    2015-09-01

    We study three intense energetic storm particle (ESP) events in which the energetic particle pressure PEP exceeded both the pressure of the background thermal plasma Pth and the pressure of the magnetic field PB. The region upstream of the interplanetary shocks associated with these events was characterized by a depression of the magnetic field strength coincident with the increase of the energetic particle intensities and, when plasma measurements were available, a depleted solar wind density. The general feature of cosmic-ray mediated shocks such as the deceleration of the upstream background medium into which the shock propagates is generally observed. However, for those shocks where plasma parameters are available, pressure balance is not maintained either upstream of or across the shock, which may result from the fact that PEP is not included in the calculation of the shock parameters.

  12. Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Obradovich, J.

    1981-01-01

    Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events had been compared with ages of the same events determined by the 14C and KAr methods at several localities. The localities, ranging in age from 1200 to over 1 million yr, include Newberry Craters, Oregon; Coso Hot Springs, California; Salton Sea, California; Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming; and Mineral Range, Utah. In most cases the agreement is quite good. A number of factors including volcanic glass composition and exposuretemperature history must be known in order to relate hydration thickness to age. The effect of composition can be determined from chemical analysis or the refractive index of the glass. Exposure-temperature history requires a number of considerations enumerated in this paper. ?? 1981.

  13. Magnetic field fluctuations of THEMIS substorm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. Z.; Chang, T.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the origin of waves leading to current disruption and dipolarization observed by THEMIS satellites in the near-Earth plasma sheet near substorm expansion onset events on 29 January 2008. Based on the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) technique we analyze the magnetic activity associated with current disruption which shows clearly low frequency fluctuations in the Pi 2 range growing exponentially before the time of magnetic field depolarization and continuing well into the expansion phase. Higher frequency waves are excited at or after the depolarization process starts. These features of magnetic activities are present in almost all three substorm events on January 29, 2008. We identify the low frequency instability as the kinetic ballooning modes destabilized by the free energy associated with the plasma pressure gradient in the bad magnetic field curvature via the wave-particle magnetic drift resonance effect.

  14. Identifying Adverse Drug Events by Relational Learning.

    PubMed

    Page, David; Costa, Vítor Santos; Natarajan, Sriraam; Barnard, Aubrey; Peissig, Peggy; Caldwell, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The pharmaceutical industry, consumer protection groups, users of medications and government oversight agencies are all strongly interested in identifying adverse reactions to drugs. While a clinical trial of a drug may use only a thousand patients, once a drug is released on the market it may be taken by millions of patients. As a result, in many cases adverse drug events (ADEs) are observed in the broader population that were not identified during clinical trials. Therefore, there is a need for continued, post-marketing surveillance of drugs to identify previously-unanticipated ADEs. This paper casts this problem as a reverse machine learning task, related to relational subgroup discovery and provides an initial evaluation of this approach based on experiments with an actual EMR/EHR and known adverse drug events. PMID:24955289

  15. Spatiotemporal rogue events in optical multiple filamentation.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, Simon; Nibbering, Erik T J; Brée, Carsten; Skupin, Stefan; Demircan, Ayhan; Genty, Goëry; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2013-12-13

    The transient appearance of bright spots in the beam profile of optical filaments formed in xenon is experimentally investigated. Fluence profiles are recorded with high-speed optical cameras at the kilohertz repetition rate of the laser source. A statistical analysis reveals a thresholdlike appearance of heavy-tailed fluence distributions together with the transition from single to multiple filamentation. The multifilament scenario exhibits near-exponential probability density functions, with extreme events exceeding the significant wave height by more than a factor of 10. The extreme events are isolated in space and in time. The macroscopic origin of these experimentally observed heavy-tail statistics is shown to be local refractive index variations inside the nonlinear medium, induced by multiphoton absorption and subsequent plasma thermalization. Microscopically, mergers between filament strings appear to play a decisive role in the observed rogue wave statistics. PMID:24483663

  16. Multiple Autonomous Discrete Event Controllers for Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, Timothy C.

    2003-01-01

    The Multiple Autonomous Discrete Event Controllers for Constellations (MADECC) project is an effort within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center's (NASA/GSFC) Information Systems Division to develop autonomous positioning and attitude control for constellation satellites. It will be accomplished using traditional control theory and advanced coordination algorithms developed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL). This capability will be demonstrated in the discrete event control test-bed located at JHU/APL. This project will be modeled for the Leonardo constellation mission, but is intended to be adaptable to any constellation mission. To develop a common software architecture. the controllers will only model very high-level responses. For instance, after determining that a maneuver must be made. the MADECC system will output B (Delta)V (velocity change) value. Lower level systems must then decide which thrusters to fire and for how long to achieve that (Delta)V.

  17. Attachment and capitalizing on positive events.

    PubMed

    Gosnell, Courtney L; Gable, Shelly L

    2013-01-01

    Although previous work has examined how individual differences in attachment security affect support processes for negative events, little work has looked at how attachment security affects support for positive events (capitalization). In a 10-day diary study of romantic couples, we examined the association between individual differences in attachment security and perceptions of capitalization support. We also examined how attachment security moderated the relationship between capitalization support and daily emotions, relationship satisfaction, and life satisfaction. The results showed that stronger avoidance orientations were associated with reduced perceptions of partner responsiveness. Anxiety moderated the association between responsive support and daily outcomes; for those high (versus low) on anxiety, daily relationship and life satisfaction were more strongly tied to partners' capitalization responses, and more negative emotions were experienced regarding those responses. Overall, insecure attachment was associated with mixed reactions to receiving responsive capitalization support. PMID:23582025

  18. Adverse events occurring after smallpox vaccination.

    PubMed

    Lane, J Michael; Goldstein, Joel

    2003-07-01

    We reviewed the literature on adverse events reported to occur after smallpox vaccination. Nearly one-half of the United States population is vaccinia-naïve and may be at risk for development of serious adverse events. We describe the clinical features of postvaccinial central nervous system disease, progressive vaccinia, eczema vaccinatum, accidental implantations, "generalized vaccinia," and the common erythematous and/or urticarial rashes. In the 1960s, death occurred approximately once in every million primary vaccinations, with fatalities resulting from progressive vaccinia, postvaccinial encephalitis, and eczema vaccinatum. Death in revaccinees occurred less commonly and almost entirely from progressive vaccinia. In today's population, death rates might be higher because of the increased prevalence of immune deficiency and atopic dermatitis.

  19. The tragic events of April 1996.

    PubMed

    Coulehan, J

    2000-06-01

    In the early 19th century, Port Arthur, Tasmania, was the site of a notorious prison in a land at the end of the world. In 1996, Port Arthur was also the site of the worst mass murder in modern Australian history. A gunman with a semiautomatic weapon stepped into a tourist coffee shop and systematically shot dead 35 men, women, and children. Throughout Australia, an outpouring of grief, shame, and anger followed this tragic event and led quickly to more stringent gun control legislation. Several years later, Australians still remember the mass murder at Port Arthur with shame and horror as a personal affront, rather than simply a historical event. In the more violent society of the United States, many Americans perceive themselves as helpless victims or detached observers, rather than as persons who are responsible for promoting change. PMID:10836919

  20. Meteoritic event recorded in Antarctic ice

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.P.; Dunbar, N.W.; McIntosh, W.C.; Esser, R.P.; Nishiizumi, Kuni; Taylor, S.; Caffee, M.W.

    1998-07-01

    During systematic sampling of volcanic ash (tephra) layers at a well-known Antarctic meteorite collection site (the Allan Hills main ice field), a band of unusually dark and rounded (many spheroidal) particles was discovered. This debris layer (BIT-58) extends parallel to the stratigraphy of the ice established from the tephra bands, apparently marking a single depositional event. The shapes, internal texture, major element composition, and levels of cosmogenic nuclides of particles from within BIT-58 all strongly suggest that this material represents ablation debris from the passage of a large H-group ordinary chondrite. Preliminary cosmogenic isotope dating suggests an age of 2.8 Ma, implying that the East Antarctic ice sheet has been stable since that time. The relationship of the Bit-58 layer to known impact events is not clear.