Science.gov

Sample records for achievable alara policy

  1. Implementation of the principle of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) for medical and dental personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report is part of a series prepared under the auspices of Scientific Committee 46, Operational Radiation Safety. It provides guidance on the process of implementing the as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principle for the use of radiation by medical and dental personnel. The use of cost-benefit analysis is recommended as a basic method upon which to base ALARA decisions. Examples are provided to illustrate the ALARA principle as a process of optimization and to provide a starting point for the development of individualized ALARA programs. NCRP Report No. 91, Recommendations on Limits for Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, calls for the use of reference ranges for occupational exposures. This report recommends the use of 2 reference ranges, one based on individual dose equivalents, and the other based on collective dose equivalent. In accordance with the recommendations of NCRP Report No. 82, SI Units in Radiation Protection and Measurements, as of January 1990, only SI units are used in the text. Readers needing factors for conversion of SI to conventional units are encouraged to consult Report No. 82. 84 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Guide to reducing radiation exposure to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    SciTech Connect

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    This document is designed to provide DOE contractor personnel with general guidance regarding programs and techniques to reduce radiation exposures to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Thus it is directed towards a broad audience, and should have special relevance and interest for operating management as well as radiation protection personnel. It is well recognized that each contractor has needs specific and critical to its radiation protection program. Hence no single set of specific and detailed criteria can be set down as a prescription for achieving the ALARA goal. Rather, general guidance in the form of broad principles is given in order to acquaint management with ALARA needs and concepts. The purpose is to encourage maximum management support of the technical personnel responsible for carrying out day-to-day radiation protection activities. Although primarily written for management, this document also contains technical guidance of potential value to those directly involved in radiation protection activities. Again it should be stressed that what is provided is guidance, and is therefore not mandatory.

  3. Health physics manual of good practices for reducing radiation exposure to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    SciTech Connect

    Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Kathren,., R.L.; Merwin, S.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1988-06-01

    A primary objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) health physics and radiation protection program has been to limit radiation exposures to those levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). As a result, the ALARA concept developed into a program and a set of operational principles to ensure that the objective was consistently met. Implementation of these principles required that a guide be produced. The original ALARA guide was issued by DOE in 1980 to promote improved understanding of ALARA concepts within the DOE community and to assist those responsible for operational ALARA activities in attaining their goals. Since 1980, additional guidance has been published by national and international organizations to provide further definition and clarification to ALARA concepts. As basic ALARA experience increased, the value and role of the original guide prompted the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) to support a current revision. The revised manual of good practices includes six sections: 1.0 Introduction, 2.0 Administration, 3.0 Optimization, 4.0 Setting and Evaluating ALARA Goals, 5.0 Radiological Design, and 6.0 Conduct of Operations. The manual is directed primarily to contractor and DOE staff who are responsible for conduct and overview of radiation protection and ALARA programs at DOE facilities. The intent is to provide sufficient guidance such that the manual, if followed, will ensure that radiation exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable and will establish the basis for a formally structured and auditable program. 118 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. What is ALARA

    SciTech Connect

    Auxier, J.A.; Dickson, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) philosophy as it applies to personnel radiation exposure has been with us for a long time. The essential tenets of this philosophy surfaced quite early in the history of the Manhattan Project. Although the terminology has suffered through various translations and the application has seen many organizations and agencies come and go, the principles remain as valid today as ever. It is regretable that some regulatory agencies claim ALARA as their newfound miracle drug and that application according to their prescriptions will result in endless rounds of cyclical improvement in radiation protection practices. Others have taken advantage of the popularity of ALARA and have bastardized the philosophy to mean whatever is expedient for their purposes. In this paper, we review briefly the history of ALARA and what it seemingly means to different interest groups and offer a balanced viewpoint that health physicists should adopt.

  5. Project W-320 ALARA Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, W.M.

    1995-06-06

    This supporting document establishes the As Low As Reasonable Achievable (ALARA) Plan to be followed during Sluicing Project W-320 design and construction activities to minimize personnel exposure to radiation and hazardous materials.

  6. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).'' The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,'' requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  7. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, ``Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).`` The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, ``Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,`` requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  8. Chernobyl Deconstruction ALARA Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, Dillard B.; Batiy, Valeriy; Povlovsky, Leonid; Schmidt, John P.; Schmieman, Eric A.

    2004-03-24

    The Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium has recently completed the conceptual design for the Chernobyl New Safe Confinement (NSC). Battelle has the scope of work related to environment and safety of the design. As part of the safety analysis, an ALARA analysis was performed for deconstruction of the major, unstable elements of the Shelter Object over the destroyed Unit 4 of the reactor complex. The major elements addressed in the analysis included the current roof sections and the major beams supporting the roof sections. The analysis was based on the existing configuration of the Shelter Object, the developing conceptual design of the NSC arch structure, the developing conceptual design of the facilities within and associated with the NSC (including handling and processing of deconstructed elements, and waste management), and existing Ukranian regulations and working processes and procedures. KSK (a Ukranian Consortium) is a subcontractor to the Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium and performed much of the dose analysis. The analysis concluded that ALARA could be achieved with appropriate implementation of existing Ukrainian regulations and procedures, and developing conceptual design criteria and features.

  9. Five-Year ALARA Review of Dosimetry Results 1 January 2010 through 31 December 2014.

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, Luke R.

    2015-06-01

    A review of dosimetry results from 1 January 2010 through 31 December 2014 was conducted to demonstrate that radiation protection methods used are compliant with regulatory limits and conform to the philosophy to keep exposures to radiation As Low As is Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). This included a review and evaluation of personnel dosimetry (external and internal) results at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico as well as at Sandia National Laboratories, California. Additionally, results of environmental monitoring efforts at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico were reviewed. ALARA is a philosophical approach to radiation protection by managing and controlling radiation exposures (individual and collective) to the work force and to the general public to levels that are As Low As is Reasonably Achievable taking social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations into account. ALARA is not a dose limit but a process which has the objective of attaining doses as far below applicable dose limits As Low As is Reasonably Achievable.

  10. Five-year ALARA review of dosimetry results : 1 January 2008 through 31 December 2012.

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, Luke R.

    2013-08-01

    A review of personnel dosimetry (external and internal) and environmental monitoring results from 1 January 2008 through 31 December 2012 performed at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico was conducted to demonstrate that radiation protection methods used are compliant with regulatory limits and conform with the ALARA philosophy. ALARA is the philosophical approach to radiation protection by managing and controlling radiation exposures (individual and collective) to the work force and to the general public to levels that are As Low As is Reasonably Achievable taking social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations into account. ALARA is not a dose limit but a process which has the objective of attaining doses as far below applicable dose limits As Low As is Reasonably Achievable.

  11. Five-Year ALARA Review of Dosimetry Results 1 January 2009 through 31 December 2013.

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, Luke R

    2014-08-01

    A review of dosimetry results from 1 January 2009 through 31 December 2013 was conducted to demonstrate that radiation protection methods used are compliant with regulatory limits and conform to the ALARA philosophy. This included a review and evaluation of personnel dosimetry (external and internal) results at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico as well as at Sandia National Laboratories, California. Additionally, results of environmental monitoring efforts at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico were reviewed. ALARA is a philosophical approach to radiation protection by managing and controlling radiation exposures (individual and collective) to the work force and to the general public to levels that are As Low As is Reasonably Achievable taking social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations into account. ALARA is not a dose limit but a process which has the objective of attaining doses as far below applicable dose limits As Low As is Reasonably Achievable.

  12. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed though a variety of dose reduction techniques. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction, quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report. 30 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  13. BNL ALARA Center: ALARA Notes, No. 9

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.; Beckman, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    This issue of the Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Alara Notes includes the agenda for the Third International Workshop on ALARA and specific instructions on the use of the on-line fax-on-demand service provided by BNL. Other topics included in this issue are: (1) A discussion of low-level discharges from Canadian nuclear plants, (2) Safety issues at French nuclear plants, (3) Acoustic emission as a means of leak detection, (4) Replacement of steam generators at Doel-3, Beaznau, and North Anna-1, (5) Remote handling equipment at Bruce, (6) EPRI`s low level waste program, (7) Radiation protection during concrete repairs at Savannah River, (8) Reactor vessel stud removal/repair at Comanche Peak-1, (9) Rework of reactor coolant pump motors, (10) Restoration of service water at North Anna-1 and -2, (11) Steam generator tubing problems at Mihama-1, (12) Full system decontamination at Indian Point-2, (13) Chemical decontamination at Browns Ferry-2, and (14) Inspection methodolody in France and Japan.

  14. Applied ALARA techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  15. ALARA pre-job studies using the VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, Fernand

    2005-01-01

    The optimisation of the radiation protection for the workers in nuclear industry is an important part of the safety culture. The application of the ALARA concept (to keep exposures as low as reasonably achievable) is not always straightforward as it is influenced by the site geometry, source distribution and work organisation. A good ALARA pre-job study must therefore be performed and should contain predicted doses for the different suggested work scenarios and provide a quantitative basis to select between various alternative work scenarios for a specific operation. In order to handle this information, SCK-CEN developed the VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool. The tool makes it possible to evaluate the dose due to external gamma exposure based on the simulation of work scenarios taking into account worker positions and subsequent geometry and source distribution changes in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:16381732

  16. Policy, Leadership, and Student Achievement: Implications for Urban Communities. The Achievement Gap, Research, Practice, and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, C. Kent, Ed.; Ikpa, Vivian W., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This is the second book in the series examining student achievement. The chapters in this book reflect the scholarly papers presented at the July 2006 Education Policy, Leadership Summer Institute (EPLSI) by K-16 educators, researchers, community advocates, and policymakers who work in urban communities. The Institute serves as a place where…

  17. Maintaining radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) for dental personnel operating portable hand-held x-ray equipment.

    PubMed

    McGiff, Thomas J; Danforth, Robert A; Herschaft, Edward E

    2012-08-01

    Clinical experience indicates that newly available portable hand-held x-ray units provide advantages compared to traditional fixed properly installed and operated x-ray units in dental radiography. However, concern that hand-held x-ray units produce higher operator doses than fixed x-ray units has caused regulatory agencies to mandate requirements for use of hand-held units that go beyond those recommended by the manufacturer and can discourage the use of this technology. To assess the need for additional requirements, a hand-held x-ray unit and a pair of manikins were used to measure the dose to a simulated operator under two conditions: exposures made according to the manufacturer's recommendations and exposures made according to manufacturer's recommendation except for the removal of the x-ray unit's protective backscatter shield. Dose to the simulated operator was determined using an array of personal dosimeters and a pair of pressurized ion chambers. The results indicate that the dose to an operator of this equipment will be less than 0.6 mSv y⁻¹ if the device is used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. This suggests that doses to properly trained operators of well-designed, hand-held dental x-ray units will be below 1.0 mSv y⁻¹ (2% of the annual occupational dose limit) even if additional no additional operational requirements are established by regulatory agencies. This level of annual dose is similar to those reported as typical dental personnel using fixed x-ray units and appears to satisfy the ALARA principal for this class of occupational exposures. PMID:22739973

  18. An operational-based ALARA design program

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, W.A.; Stocknoff, M.S. ); Pike, D.L.; Ward, K.D. )

    1985-01-01

    A frequent criticism of the nuclear power plant design and construction process is that operational considerations for maintaining occupational radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable are not addressed until it is too late to incorporate desirable modifications. Lessons that have been learned in the construction and operation of another plants and problems foreseen by the utility's radiation protection and engineering personnel often simply do not get the attention they deserve during the design and field engineering stages. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation and Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation have sought to avoid just such problems by jointly implementing a comprehensive, multidisciplinary ALARA design program for the Nine Mile Point Unit 2 nuclear power plant. This paper reports that this ALARA design program is organized to: directly incorporate NMPC's operational experience and philosophy, efficiently review the design and identify improvements from an occupational exposure viewpoint, and expedite design modifications while minimizing cost and schedule impacts.

  19. Reshaping Personnel Policies to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.; Gerstein, Amy

    2007-01-01

    The "Getting Down to Facts" (GDTF) studies released in March 2007 offered a clear diagnosis of the issues facing California's education system. Now, as California moves beyond the facts and begins the search for ways to improve the performance of California schools and students, the state faces a critical policy dilemma. On the one hand, the…

  20. Radon Policy in Finland, Achievements and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Arvela, Hannu; Maekelaeinen, Ilona; Reisbacka, Heikki

    2008-08-07

    Finland is a country of high indoor radon concentrations. Since 1980 the authority regulations, guidance, radon mapping and research work supporting decision making have been developed continuously. Clear regulations directed to citizens and authorities form the basis for radon policy. Active mapping work and measurement ordered by private home owners has resulted in 100.000 houses measured. National indoor radon data base forms a good basis for decision making, communication and research. The number of new houses provided with radon preventive constructions has increased remarkably. New radon campaigns has increased measurement and mitigation activity. Furher increasing of public awareness is the key challenge.

  1. Multilingualism, Mathematics Achievement and Instructional Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Rachel Singal

    2010-01-01

    A significant and growing proportion of students in the United States speak primarily a non-English language at home. This dissertation contributes to the understanding of academic achievement patterns among language minority students in the United States. The first essay uses data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey Kindergarten Class…

  2. Using Weibull Distribution Analysis to Evaluate ALARA Performance

    SciTech Connect

    E. L. Frome, J. P. Watkins, and D. A. Hagemeyer

    2009-10-01

    As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) is the underlying principle for protecting nuclear workers from potential health outcomes related to occupational radiation exposure. Radiation protection performance is currently evaluated by measures such as collective dose and average measurable dose, which do not indicate ALARA performance. The purpose of this work is to show how statistical modeling of individual doses using the Weibull distribution can provide objective supplemental performance indicators for comparing ALARA implementation among sites and for insights into ALARA practices within a site. Maximum likelihood methods were employed to estimate the Weibull shape and scale parameters used for performance indicators. The shape parameter reflects the effectiveness of maximizing the number of workers receiving lower doses and is represented as the slope of the fitted line on a Weibull probability plot. Additional performance indicators derived from the model parameters include the 99th percentile and the exceedance fraction. When grouping sites by collective total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) and ranking by 99th percentile with confidence intervals, differences in performance among sites can be readily identified. Applying this methodology will enable more efficient and complete evaluation of the effectiveness of ALARA implementation.

  3. Washington State Student Achievement Initiative Policy Study: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Wachen, John; Moore, Colleen; Shulock, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges launched a performance funding policy called the Student Achievement Initiative (SAI) both to improve public accountability by more accurately describing what students achieve from enrolling in community colleges and to provide incentives to colleges through financial rewards…

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA Report for Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, S.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1993 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes information regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, and skin contaminations. The collective whole-body radiation dose to employees during 1993 was 0.58 person-sievert (58 person-rem). This dose was 11 percent lower than the projected dose of 0.65 person-sievert (65 person-rem). The Radiation Protection Section`s Field Dosimetry Services group projected that no PNL employee`s dose would exceed 0.02 sievert (2 rem) based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the limit by the end of CY 1993. There were 15 reported cases of skin contamination for PNL employees during 1993. This number of 60 percent of the projected total of 25 cases. There were an additional 21 cases of personal-effects contamination to PNL staff: Nine of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building, nine occurred at the 325 Building, one occurred in the 327 Building, one occurred in the 3720 Building, and one occurred in the 326 Building. Line management set numerous challenging and production ALARA goals for their facilities. Appendix A describes the final status of the 1993 ALARA goals. Appendix B describes the radiological ALARA goals for 1994. The Radiation Protection Section of the Laboratory Safety Dept. routinely perform audits of radiological ALARA requirements for specific facilities with significant potential for exposure. These ALARA audits are part of a comprehensive safety audit of the facility, designed to evaluate and improve total safety performance.

  5. [The ALARA-principle. Backgrounds and enforcement in dental practices].

    PubMed

    Berkhout, W E R

    2015-05-01

    Optimization of radiation protection began soon after the discovery of X-rays. The optimization-concept has been refined more and more as a result of increa-sing knowledge of radiation and its effect on people. Since 1973 the acronym ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) has been used to designate the optimization of X-ray doses. For the dentist the ALARA-principle entails the obligation to minimize the radiation dose to patient and surroundings to a level as low as reasonably achievable. Currently in radiology the acronym ALADA is also used: As Low As Diagnostically Acceptable. To establish ALARA goals Diagnostic Reference Levels are employed in medical radiology. These Diagnostic Reference Levels are also being introduced in dental radiology. Practical measures for ALARA/ALADA in dental practice comprise an awareness of the field of view (for all types of imaging, including cone beam computed tomography) exposure time, and relation to anatomy and diagnostic justification, and shielding. PMID:26210218

  6. Integration of Formal Job Hazard Analysis & ALARA Work Practice

    SciTech Connect

    NELSEN, D.P.

    2002-09-01

    ALARA work practices have traditionally centered on reducing radiological exposure and controlling contamination. As such, ALARA policies and procedures are not well suited to a wide range of chemical and human health issues. Assessing relative risk, identifying appropriate engineering/administrative controls and selecting proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for non nuclear work activities extends beyond the limitations of traditional ALARA programs. Forging a comprehensive safety management program in today's (2002) work environment requires a disciplined dialog between health and safety professionals (e.g. safety, engineering, environmental, quality assurance, industrial hygiene, ALARA, etc.) and personnel working in the field. Integrating organizational priorities, maintaining effective pre-planning of work and supporting a team-based approach to safety management represents today's hallmark of safety excellence. Relying on the mandates of any single safety program does not provide industrial hygiene with the tools necessary to implement an integrated safety program. The establishment of tools and processes capable of sustaining a comprehensive safety program represents a key responsibility of industrial hygiene. Fluor Hanford has built integrated safety management around three programmatic attributes: (1) Integration of radiological, chemical and ergonomic issues under a single program. (2) Continuous improvement in routine communications among work planning/scheduling, job execution and management. (3) Rapid response to changing work conditions, formalized work planning and integrated worker involvement.

  7. ALARA Review for the Sediment Relocation and Removal from the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Demers, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    This as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) review revision provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposure, control contamination levels, and airborne radioactivity concentrations during sediment relocation and removal in the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin. This document updates and supercedes the ALARA review of the sediment-related activities contained in 100-N Basin Stabilization Project As Low As Reasonably Achievable Plan (BHI 1995).

  8. State Policy and Service Achievements in Early Childhood Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, William W.

    1984-01-01

    This study documents each state's 1982-1983 policy and service achievements in early childhood special education (ECSE) along four dimensions: (1) legislation; (2) guidelines/regulations; (3) certification standards; and (4) interagency agreements. Recommendations for future directions are given based on the supportive social and political…

  9. ALARA Center of Technology -- resource guide

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The purpose is to provide a source of information that can be used to assist personnel in the planning, training, and execution of radiological work using the principles of ALARA. This document is not intended to replace HNF or WHC Control Manual requirements. The ALARA Tools-List provides detailed information on the use and procurement of engineered controls, mockup training guidelines, and good radiological work practices that have been proven to be ALARA.

  10. Innovative ALARA Techniques Used at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2002-02-08

    An ALARA Center of Technology was established at Hanford to show workers the latest tools, equipment, and work practices used in the industry in an effort to improve how radiological work gets accomplished using better engineered controls.

  11. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    NELSEN LA

    2009-01-30

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

  12. Leveraging Mindsets to Promote Academic Achievement: Policy Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Aneeta; Savani, Krishna; Chugh, Dolly; Dweck, Carol S

    2015-11-01

    The United States must improve its students' educational achievement. Race, gender, and social class gaps persist, and, overall, U.S. students rank poorly among peers globally. Scientific research shows that students' psychology-their "academic mindsets"-have a critical role in educational achievement. Yet policymakers have not taken full advantage of cost-effective and well-validated mindset interventions. In this article, we present two key academic mindsets. The first, a growth mindset, refers to the belief that intelligence can be developed over time. The second, a belonging mindset, refers to the belief that people like you belong in your school or in a given academic field. Extensive research shows that fostering these mindsets can improve students' motivation; raise grades; and reduce racial, gender, and social class gaps. Of course, mindsets are not a panacea, but with proper implementation they can be an excellent point of entry. We show how policy at all levels (federal, state, and local) can leverage mindsets to lift the nation's educational outcomes. PMID:26581725

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for CY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Ceffalo, G.M.; Oxley, C.L.; Wright, P.A.

    1992-05-01

    This report provides summary results of the CY 1990 ALARA Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Information has been included regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, and the nonradiological ALARA program.

  14. Health in All (Foreign) Policy: challenges in achieving coherence.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald

    2014-06-01

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach is generally perceived as an intersectoral approach to national or sub-national public policy development, such that health outcomes are given full consideration by non-health sectors. Globalization, however, has created numerous 'inherently global health issues' with cross-border causes and consequences, requiring new forms of global governance for health. Although such governance often includes both state and non-state (private, civil society) actors in agenda setting and influence, different actors have differing degrees of power and authority and, ultimately, it is states that ratify intergovernmental covenants or normative declarations that directly or indirectly affect health. This requires public health and health promotion practitioners working within countries to give increased attention to the foreign policies of their national governments. These foreign policies include those governing national security, foreign aid, trade and investment as well as the traditional forms of diplomacy. A new term has been coined to describe how health is coming to be positioned in governments' foreign policies: global health diplomacy. To become adept at this nuanced diplomatic practice requires familiarity with the different policy frames by which health might be inserted into the foreign policy deliberations, and thence intergovernmental/global governance negotiations. This article discusses six such frames (security, trade, development, global public goods, human rights, ethical/moral reasoning) that have been analytically useful in assessing the potential for greater and more health-promoting foreign policy coherence: a 'Health in All (Foreign) Policies' approach. PMID:25217356

  15. Washington State Student Achievement Initiative: Achievement Points Analysis for Academic Years 2007-2011. CCRC-IHELP Student Achievement Initiative Policy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges launched the Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), a system-wide policy to reward colleges for improvements in student achievement. Under the SAI, since 2009, the state has awarded some funds based on how much colleges have increased student achievement relative to their own…

  16. Parsing the Achievement Gap II. Policy Information Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Paul E.; Coley, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Gaps in school achievement among racial/ethnic groups and between students from different socioeconomic circumstances are well documented. They are wide and persistent, well known and widely acknowledged. This report focuses on the conditions and experiences that create and perpetuate achievement gaps. It is the second edition of the report…

  17. Hybridization, Resistance, and Compliance: Negotiating Policies to Support Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Jodene

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses a veteran teacher's literacy pedagogy in response to policies at the district, state, and national level. The yearlong ethnographic case study analyzed the teacher's resistance, compliance, and innovative hybridization of both "official" and "unofficial" curriculum. The author collected data through weekly co-planning…

  18. Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W. Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose.

  19. Reforms that Could Help Narrow the Achievement Gap. Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Americans have concluded that the achievement gap is the fault of "failing schools" because it makes no common sense that it could be otherwise. After all, how much money a family has, or a child's skin color, should not influence how well that child learns to read. If teachers know how to teach and if schools permit no distractions, children…

  20. Monitoring Achievement of Educational Governance/Management Policy Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sederberg, Charles H.; Hendrix, Vernon L.

    This paper reports on a field test of a system for monitoring the achievement of selected educational governance/management goals. The study entailed (1) collection of enrollment, revenue, expenditure, and teacher assignment data from a stratified random sample of Minnesota districts for a seven-year period, 1969-70 through 1975-76; (2) reduction…

  1. Raising the Achievement of Low-Performing Students. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Bryan

    This brief synthesizes seven papers commissioned for a series of meetings convened by Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning to discuss raising the achievement of low-performing students. The purpose of the brief is to identify some causes of the low performance of marginalized students, and then offer research-based solutions for what…

  2. Costa Rica: Achievements of a Heterodox Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Buitrón, René; Soors, Werner

    2008-01-01

    Costa Rica is a middle-income country with a strong governmental emphasis on human development. For more than half a century, its health policies have applied the principles of equity and solidarity to strengthen access to care through public services and universal social health insurance. Costa Rica’s population measures of health service coverage, health service use, and health status are excellent, and in the Americas, life expectancy in Costa Rica is second only to that in Canada. Many of these outcomes can be linked to the performance of the public health care system. However, the current emphasis of international aid organizations on privatization of health services threatens the accomplishments and universality of the Costa Rican health care system. PMID:17901439

  3. Proceedings of the Department of Energy ALARA Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W.

    1992-12-31

    The report contains summaries of papers, discussions, and operational exercises presented at the first Department of Energy ALARA Workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York on April 21--22, 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for, and enhance communication among, ALARA personnel, as well as to inform DOE`s field office and contractor personnel about the Office of Health`s programs and expectations from the entire DOE complex efforts in the ALARA area.The two-day workshop consisted of one day dedicated to presentations on implementing various elements of a formal ALARA program at the DOE contractors` facilities, regulatory aspects of ALARA programs, and DOE Headquarters` ALARA expectations/initiatives. The second day was devoted to detailed discussions on ALARA improvements and problems, and operational exercises on cost-benefit analyses and on ALARA job/experiment reviews. At this workshop, 70 health physicists and radiation safety engineers from 5 DOE Headquarter Offices, 7 DOE operations/area offices, and 27 contractor facilities exchanged information, which is expected to stimulate further improvement in the DOE contractors` ALARA programs. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  4. Proceedings of the Department of Energy ALARA Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains summaries of papers, discussions, and operational exercises presented at the first Department of Energy ALARA Workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York on April 21--22, 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for, and enhance communication among, ALARA personnel, as well as to inform DOE's field office and contractor personnel about the Office of Health's programs and expectations from the entire DOE complex efforts in the ALARA area.The two-day workshop consisted of one day dedicated to presentations on implementing various elements of a formal ALARA program at the DOE contractors' facilities, regulatory aspects of ALARA programs, and DOE Headquarters' ALARA expectations/initiatives. The second day was devoted to detailed discussions on ALARA improvements and problems, and operational exercises on cost-benefit analyses and on ALARA job/experiment reviews. At this workshop, 70 health physicists and radiation safety engineers from 5 DOE Headquarter Offices, 7 DOE operations/area offices, and 27 contractor facilities exchanged information, which is expected to stimulate further improvement in the DOE contractors' ALARA programs. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  5. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Study of ALARA programs. Status 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Meinhold, C.B.; Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1992-08-01

    This report provides the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors with information that will be useful for reducing occupational radiation doses at DOE`s nuclear facilities. In 1989 and 1990, health physicists from the Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) ALARA Center visited twelve DOE contractor facilities with annual collective dose equivalents greater than 100 person-rem (100 person-cSv). The health physicists interviewed radiological safety staff, engineers, and training personnel who were responsible for dose control. The status of ALARA practices at the major contractor facilities was compared with the requirements and recommendation in DOE Order 5480.11 ``Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers`` and PNL-6577 ``Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are as Low as Reasonably Achievable.`` The information and data collected are described and examples of successful practices are presented. The findings on the status of the DOE Contractor ALARA Programs are summarized and evaluated. In addition, the supplement to this report contains examples of good-practice documents associated with implementing the major elements of a formally documented ALARA program for a major DOE contractor facility.

  6. Review of ALARA plan for activities at the 105 K-East fuel storage basin

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Durham, J.S.; Hickey, E.E.; Stansbury, P.S.; Cicotte, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of its ongoing efforts to reduce doses to workers to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) tasked the Health Protection Department of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to review operations at the 105 K-East Fuel Storage Basin (105 K-East). This review included both routine operations and a proposed campaign to encapsulate N-Reactor fuel stored there. This report summarizes the results of PNL`s reviews of policy, procedures, and practices for operations at 105 K-East as well as an evaluation of the major sources of occupational radiation exposures. Where possible, data previously collected by WHC and its predecessors were used. In addition, PNL staff developed a three-dimensional model of the radiological environment within 105 K-East to assess the relative contributions of different radiation sources to worker dose and to provide a decision tool for use in evaluating alternative methods of dose rate reduction. The model developed by PNL indicates that for most areas in the basin the primary source of occupational radiation exposure is the contaminated concrete surfaces of the basin near the waterline. Basin cooling water piping represents a significant source in a number of areas, particularly the Technical Viewing Pit. This report contains specific recommendations to reduce the impact of these sources of occupational radiation exposure in 105 K-East. Other recommendations to reduce doses to workers during activities such as filter changes and filter sampling are also included.

  7. Family Policies and Children's School Achievement in Single- versus Two-Parent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-Ling; Dronkers, Jaap; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the gap in math and science achievement of third- and fourth-graders who live with a single parent versus those who live with two parents in 11 countries. Finds single parenthood to be less detrimental when family policies equalize resources between single- and two-parent families. Concludes that national family policies can offset…

  8. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Effects of Welfare Policies on Early School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Gassman-Pines, Anna; Morris, Pamela A.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Godfrey, Erin B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of employment-based policies on children's math and reading achievement differed for African American, Latino and Caucasian children of welfare receiving parents, and if so, why. Two kinds of employment policies were examined: "education-first" programs with an emphasis on adult education and job training;…

  9. States' Accommodations Policies and Development of Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards: A Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Cormier, Damien C.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of a state's accommodations policy may affect a state's decision about whether to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). A very restrictive accommodations policy may make it more difficult for some students to participate in the state's regular assessment used for accountability…

  10. ALARA in pediatric interventional and fluoroscopic imaging: striving to keep radiation doses as low as possible during fluoroscopy of pediatric patients--a white paper executive summary.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Keith J; Kaste, Sue C

    2006-09-01

    Pediatric patients might be as much as 10 times more radiosensitive than adults. Thus, adherence to the principle of "As low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) represents a practice mandate that minimizes ionizing radiation exposure while optimizing imaging results. This symposium is the third multidisciplinary program that focused on the ALARA principle in pediatric imaging and addressed issues associated with pediatric fluoroscopy and interventional imaging techniques. PMID:17412149

  11. Measuring Teacher Quality: Continuing the Search for Policy-Relevant Predictors of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoeppel, Robert C.; Logan, Joyce P.; Keiser, Clare M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential viability of the variable certification by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) as a policy-relevant predictor of student achievement. Because research has identified the teacher as the most important school-related predictor of student achievement, more research…

  12. Reshaping Teacher Policies to Improve Student Achievement. Policy Brief 08-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2008-01-01

    Local school administrators, board members, and unions are in the best position to devise the compensation, evaluation, and professional development models that work for their communities. Many changes in personnel policy will be the subject of negotiations between school boards and local unions. But the state also has a vital role to play in…

  13. Policy Implications of Trends for Asian American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #2: Asian American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Asian American students, who comprise almost 5% of public school students in the U.S., are a very diverse group. In the aggregate, Asian Americans often have the highest achievement on state tests among major racial/ethnic subgroups. But this overall high performance can sometimes lead educators and policymakers to overlook the needs of…

  14. Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good Practices from High-Achieving Countries. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri Lanka,…

  15. Using Student Achievement Data in Teacher and Principal Evaluations: A Policy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piro, Jody; Wiemers, Roger; Shutt, Tammy

    2011-01-01

    Tennessee was one of the first states to win Race to the Top funds in 2010, partly based on new state policy which tied student achievement measures to teacher and principal evaluations. Nearly half of state legislatures in the United States have passed similar legislation in the past two years. This article examines recent state legislative…

  16. ALARA Design Review for the Resumption of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Cementation Process Project Activities

    SciTech Connect

    DAYLEY, L.

    2000-06-14

    The requirements for the performance of radiological design reviews are codified in 10CFR835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The basic requirements for the performance of ALARA design reviews are presented in the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM). The HSRCM has established trigger levels requiring radiological reviews of non-routine or complex work activities. These requirements are implemented in site procedures HNF-PRO-1622 and 1623. HNF-PRO-1622 Radiological Design Review Process requires that ''radiological design reviews [be performed] of new facilities and equipment and modifications of existing facilities and equipment''. In addition, HNF-PRO-1623 Radiological Work Planning Process requires a formal ALARA Review for planned activities that are estimated to exceed 1 person-rem total Dose Equivalent (DE). The purpose of this review is to validate that the original design for the PFP Cementation Process ensures that the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) were included in the original project design. That is, that the design and operation of existing Cementation Process equipment and processes allows for the minimization of personnel exposure in its operation, maintenance and decommissioning and that the generation of radioactive waste is kept to a minimum.

  17. ALARA Review of the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring and Transfer Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.

    2003-06-30

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed to meet the growing need for new tools that will deepen our understanding in materials science, life science, chemistry, fundamental and nuclear physics, earth and environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. The SNS is an accelerator-based neutron-scattering facility that when operational will produce an average beam power of 2 MW at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The accelerator complex consists of the front-end systems, which will include an ion source; a 1-GeV full-energy linear accelerator; a single accumulator ring and its transfer lines; and a liquid mercury target. This report documents an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) review of the accumulator ring and transfer lines at their early design stage. An ALARA working group was formed and conducted a review of the SNS ring and transfer lines at the {approx}25% complete design stage to help ensure that ALARA principles are being incorporated into the design. The radiological aspects of the SNS design criteria were reviewed against regulatory requirements and ALARA principles. Proposed features and measures were then reviewed against the SNS design criteria. As part of the overall review, the working group reviewed the design manual; design drawings and process and instrumentation diagrams; the environment, safety, and health manual; and other related reports and literature. The group also talked with SNS design engineers to obtain explanations of pertinent subject matter. The ALARA group found that ALARA principles are indeed being incorporated into the early design stage. Radiation fields have been characterized, and shielding calculations have been performed. Radiological issues are being adequately addressed with regard to equipment selection, access control, confinement structure and ventilation, and contamination control. Radiation monitoring instrumentation for worker and environment protection are also being considered--a good practice at this

  18. ALARA{trademark} 1146 strippable coating

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, V.

    1999-12-17

    Strippable or temporary coatings are innovative technologies for decontamination that effectively reduce loose contamination at low cost. These coatings have become a viable option during the deactivation and decommissioning of both US Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial nuclear facilities to remove or fix loose contamination on both vertical and horizontal surfaces. The ALARA{trademark} 1146 strippable coating was demonstrated as part of the Savannah River Site LSDDP and successfully removed transferable (surface) contamination from multiple surfaces (metal and concrete) with an average decontamination factor for alpha contamination of 6.68 and an average percentage of alpha contamination removed of 85.0%. Beta contamination removed was an average DF of 5.55 and an average percentage removed of 82.0%. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users. This Innovative Technology offers a 35% cost savings over the Baseline Technology.

  19. ALARA plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project is to remove the liquid low-level waste from the five underground storage tanks located at OHF and transfer the resulting slurry to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks facility for treatment and disposal. Among the technical objectives for the OHF Project, there is a specific provision to maintain personnel exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) during each activity of the project and to protect human health and the environment. The estimated doses and anticipated conditions for accomplishing this project are such that an ALARA Plan is necessary to facilitate formal radiological review of the campaign. This ALARA Plan describes the operational steps necessary for accomplishing the job together with the associated radiological impacts and planned controls. Individual and collective dose estimates are also provided for the various tasks. Any significant changes to this plan (i.e., planned exposures that are greater than 10% of original dose estimates) will require formal revision and concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page. Deviations from this plan (i.e., work outside the scope covered by this plan) also require the preparation of a task-specific ALARA Review that will be amended to this plan with concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page.

  20. Disparities in academic achievement and health: the intersection of child education and health policy.

    PubMed

    Fiscella, Kevin; Kitzman, Harriet

    2009-03-01

    Recent data suggest that that the United States is failing to make significant progress toward the Healthy People 2010 goal of eliminating health disparities. One missing element from the US strategy for achieving this goal is a focus on gaps in child development and achievement. Academic achievement and education seem to be critical determinants of health across the life span and disparities in one contribute to disparities in the other. Despite these linkages, national policy treats child education and health as separate. Landmark education legislation, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, is due for Congressional reauthorization. It seeks to eliminate gaps in academic child achievement by 2014. It does so by introducing accountability for states, school districts, and schools. In this special article, we review health disparities and contributors to child achievement gaps. We review changes in achievement gaps over time and potential contributors to the limited success of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, including its unfunded mandates and unfounded assumptions. We conclude with key reforms, which include addressing gaps in child school readiness through adequate investment in child health and early education and reductions in child poverty; closing the gap in child achievement by ensuring equity in school accountability standards; and, importantly, ensuring equity in school funding so that resources are allocated on the basis of the needs of the students. This will ensure that schools, particularly those serving large numbers of poor and minority children, have the resources necessary to promote optimal learning. PMID:19255042

  1. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

  2. Cone-beam computed tomography: Time to move from ALARA to ALADA

    PubMed Central

    Jaju, Sushma P.

    2015-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is routinely recommended for dental diagnosis and treatment planning. CBCT exposes patients to less radiation than does conventional CT. Still, lack of proper education among dentists and specialists is resulting in improper referral for CBCT. In addition, aiming to generate high-quality images, operators may increase the radiation dose, which can expose the patient to unnecessary risk. This letter advocates appropriate radiation dosing during CBCT to the benefit of both patients and dentists, and supports moving from the concept of "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) to "as low as diagnostically acceptable" (ALADA). PMID:26730375

  3. Cone-beam computed tomography: Time to move from ALARA to ALADA.

    PubMed

    Jaju, Prashant P; Jaju, Sushma P

    2015-12-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is routinely recommended for dental diagnosis and treatment planning. CBCT exposes patients to less radiation than does conventional CT. Still, lack of proper education among dentists and specialists is resulting in improper referral for CBCT. In addition, aiming to generate high-quality images, operators may increase the radiation dose, which can expose the patient to unnecessary risk. This letter advocates appropriate radiation dosing during CBCT to the benefit of both patients and dentists, and supports moving from the concept of "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) to "as low as diagnostically acceptable" (ALADA). PMID:26730375

  4. Achievements and challenges on policies for allied health professionals who use telehealth in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Hailey, D; Foerster, V; Nakagawa, B; Wapshall, T M; Murtagh, J A; Smitten, J; Steblecki, J A; Wong, G

    2005-01-01

    We formulated policies and procedures for allied health professionals (AHPs) who provide services using telehealth in Nunavut, Canada's newest Arctic territory. These are a supplement to the clinical policies and procedures already established for Nunavut physicians and nurses. The services were in the areas of audiology, dietetics/nutrition, midwifery, occupational therapy, ophthalmic services, pharmacy, physiotherapy, psychology, respiratory therapy, social work and speech therapy. Documents specific to each of the services were developed, drawing on information from Government of Nunavut data, Nunavut healthcare providers and links made through the Internet. Topics included the scope and limitations of telehealth services, staff responsibilities, training and reporting, professional standards and cultural considerations. We also considered generic policies covering common issues such as jurisdiction, licensing and liability. The policies and procedures for AHPs will enhance and expand the successes already achieved with telehealth in Nunavut. The challenges are to balance the preferred approaches to service provision with the realities of health care and communications in an Arctic setting. PMID:16375792

  5. Implementation of ALARA radiation protection on the ISS through polyethylene shielding augmentation of the Service Module Crew Quarters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Zapp, N.; Barber, R. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Qualls, G.; Toupes, L.; Ramsey, S.; Vinci, V.; Smith, G.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2004-01-01

    With 5-7 month long duration missions at 51.6° inclination in Low Earth Orbit, the ionizing radiation levels to which International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are exposed will be the highest planned occupational exposures in the world. Even with the expectation that regulatory dose limits will not be exceeded during a single tour of duty aboard the ISS, the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) precept requires that radiological risks be minimized when possible through a dose optimization process. Judicious placement of efficient shielding materials in locations where crewmembers sleep, rest, or work is an important means for implementing ALARA for spaceflight. Polyethylene (C nH n) is a relatively inexpensive, stable, and, with a low atomic number, an effective shielding material that has been certified for use aboard the ISS. Several designs for placement of slabs or walls of polyethylene have been evaluated for radiation exposure reduction in the Crew Quarters (CQ) of the Zvezda (Star) Service Module. Optimization of shield designs relies on accurate characterization of the expected primary and secondary particle environment and modeling of the predicted radiobiological responses of critical organs and tissues. Results of the studies shown herein indicate that 20% or more reduction in equivalent dose to the CQ occupant is achievable. These results suggest that shielding design and risk analysis are necessary measures for reducing long-term radiological risks to ISS inhabitants and for meeting legal ALARA requirements. Verification of shield concepts requires results from specific designs to be compared with onboard dosimetry.

  6. Implementation of ALARA radiation protection on the ISS through polyethylene shielding augmentation of the Service Module crew quarters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavers, M.; Zapp, N.; Barber, R.; Wilson, J.; Qualls, G.; Toupes, L.; Ramsey, S.; Vinci, V.; Smith, G.; Cucinotta, F.

    With 5 to 7-month long duration missions at 51.6° inclination in Low Earth Orbit, the ionizing radiation levels to which International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are exposed will be the highest planned occupational exposures in the world. Even with the expectation that regulatory dose limits will not be exceeded during a single tour of duty aboard the ISS, the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) precept requires that radiological risks be minimized when possible through an dose optimization process. Judicious placement of efficient shielding materials in locations where crewmembers sleep, rest, or work is an important means for implementing ALARA for spaceflight. Polyethylene (Cn Hn ), is a relatively inexpensive, stable, and, with a low atomic number, an effective shielding material that has been certified for use aboard the ISS. Several designs for placement of slabs or walls of polyethylene have been evaluated for radiation exposure reduction in the Crew Quarters (CQ) of the Zvezda (Star) Service Module. Optimization of shield designs relies on accurate characterization of the expected primary and secondary particle environment and modeling of the predicted radiobiological responses of critical organs and tissues. Results of the studies shown herein indicate that 20% or more reduction in dose equivalent to the CQ occupant is achievable. These results suggest that shielding design and risk analysis are necessary measures for reducing long-term radiological risks to ISS inhabitants and for meeting legal ALARA requirements. Verification of shield concepts requires results from specific designs to be compared with onboard dosimetry.

  7. Implementation of ALARA radiation protection on the ISS through polyethylene shielding augmentation of the Service Module Crew Quarters.

    PubMed

    Shavers, M R; Zapp, N; Barber, R E; Wilson, J W; Qualls, G; Toupes, L; Ramsey, S; Vinci, V; Smith, G; Cucinotta, F A

    2004-01-01

    With 5-7 month long duration missions at 51.6 degrees inclination in Low Earth Orbit, the ionizing radiation levels to which International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are exposed will be the highest planned occupational exposures in the world. Even with the expectation that regulatory dose limits will not be exceeded during a single tour of duty aboard the ISS, the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) precept requires that radiological risks be minimized when possible through a dose optimization process. Judicious placement of efficient shielding materials in locations where crewmembers sleep, rest, or work is an important means for implementing ALARA for spaceflight. Polyethylene (CnHn) is a relatively inexpensive, stable, and, with a low atomic number, an effective shielding material that has been certified for use aboard the ISS. Several designs for placement of slabs or walls of polyethylene have been evaluated for radiation exposure reduction in the Crew Quarters (CQ) of the Zvezda (Star) Service Module. Optimization of shield designs relies on accurate characterization of the expected primary and secondary particle environment and modeling of the predicted radiobiological responses of critical organs and tissues. Results of the studies shown herein indicate that 20% or more reduction in equivalent dose to the CQ occupant is achievable. These results suggest that shielding design and risk analysis are necessary measures for reducing long-term radiological risks to ISS inhabitants and for meeting legal ALARA requirements. Verification of shield concepts requires results from specific designs to be compared with onboard dosimetry. PMID:15880921

  8. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Many countries have enacted legislation to protect animals. In the 1800's the primary concern was to protect animals from cruelty but more recent legislative changes also seek to ensure that human beings uphold a duty of care towards those animals for which they are responsible. Today animal welfare concerns all aspects of our interaction with other animals. Although, the diversity of views in society can present challenges, the whole community needs to be engaged in the development and implementation of policies and initiatives so as to achieve sustainable improvements in animal welfare. Abstract Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800's that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950's, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted

  9. Achieving universal health coverage in France: policy reforms and the challenge of inequalities.

    PubMed

    Nay, Olivier; Béjean, Sophie; Benamouzig, Daniel; Bergeron, Henri; Castel, Patrick; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-05-28

    Since 1945, the provision of health care in France has been grounded in a social conception promoting universalism and equality. The French health-care system is based on compulsory social insurance funded by social contributions, co-administered by workers' and employers' organisations under State control and driven by highly redistributive financial transfers. This system is described frequently as the French model. In this paper, the first in The Lancet's Series on France, we challenge conventional wisdom about health care in France. First, we focus on policy and institutional transformations that have affected deeply the governance of health care over past decades. We argue that the health system rests on a diversity of institutions, policy mechanisms, and health actors, while its governance has been marked by the reinforcement of national regulation under the aegis of the State. Second, we suggest the redistributive mechanisms of the health insurance system are impeded by social inequalities in health, which remain major hindrances to achieving objectives of justice and solidarity associated with the conception of health care in France. PMID:27145707

  10. A Call to Action to Raise Achievement for African American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #1: African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    One out of every six public school students in the U.S. is African American. The achievement of African American students as a group will have a significant impact on the nation's economic strength and social well-being. This brief looks at the performance of African American students on state reading and mathematics tests and considers the policy…

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for Calendar Year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, S.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1994 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program performance at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes data regarding performance in the area of personnel exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, control of contaminated areas, minimization of radioactive waste, and control of radioactive releases. In CY 1994: (1) The collective total effective dose equivalent to PNL employees during 1994 was 55 person-rem. The Field Dosimetry Services of the Radiological Control Department, Technical Support Section, projected that no PNL employee`s dose would exceed 2 rem based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the projection-by the end of CY 1994. The maximum dose to any individual was 1.11 rem. (2) There were 34 instances of skin and personal-clothing contamination events for PNL employees during 1994. Eighteen of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building; eleven occurred at the 325 Building; two occurred in the 327 Building; one occurred in the 326 Building; one occurred in the 3708 Building; and one occurred in the RTL Building. (3) PNL facilities contained 12 Airborne Radioactivity Areas, and 60 Contamination Areas and High Contamination Areas. The area of the Airborne Radioactivity Areas was 383 m{sup 2}(4125 ft{sup 2}). The area of the Contamination Areas was 5290 m{sup 2}(56,947 ft{sup 2}). The area of the High Contamination Areas was 266 m{sup 2}(2863 ft{sup 2}). (4) PNL disposed of 10.5 m{sup 3}(371 ft{sup 3}) of compacted low level waste. Also disposed was 423 m{sup 3} (14,949 ft{sup 3}) of noncompacted low level and mixed waste that was not subject to volume reduction. The total radioactivity of the disposed waste was 1217 Ci. (5) PNL facilities released 165.2 Ci of noble gas, 3.0E-5 Ci of airborne particulate radioactive material, and 12.2 Ci of tritium to the environment.

  12. Whatever the Law Says: Language Policy Implementation and Early-Grade Literacy Achievement in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudell, Barbara; Piper, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Language policy is generally seen as a national-level decision regarding which languages the state will support, and in which public domains. However, the reality is that language policy plays out at regional and local levels as well. In fact, it could be argued that the most important instantiations of language policy are those which directly…

  13. The effects of school policies and practices on eighth-grade science achievement: A multilevel analysis of TIMSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Carol Ann Mary

    Identifying the relative importance of both alterable school policies and fairly stable contextual factors as they relate to middle level science achievement, a domain of identified national concern, requires simultaneous investigation of multilevel predictors (i.e., student level and school level) specific to the grade level and academic subject area. The school level factors are predictors associated with both the school (e.g., average socioeconomic status, tracking, and instructional time) and the classroom (e.g., average academic press of peers, teacher collaboration, and instructional strategies). The current study assessed the effects of school policies, practices, and contextual factors on the science achievement of eighth grade students. These influences were considered to be both additive (i.e., influencing the mean achievement in a school after controlling for student characteristics) and interactive (i.e., affecting the relationships between student background characteristics and individual achievement). To account for the nested structure of predictors and cross level interactions among predictors, a multilevel model for middle level science achievement was estimated using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) with data collected from eighth grade students, science teachers, and administrators in 1995 as part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The major findings of this research suggest that although average eighth grade science achievement in a school was primarily associated with the contextual characteristics of the classroom and the school (e.g., average socioeconomic status and average academic press), both the academic differentiating influence of prior achievement and the social differentiating influence of parental education on the science achievement of eighth grade students were related not only to contextual characteristics of the classroom and the school, but also to the instructional policies of the classroom

  14. High level waste tank closure project: ALARA applications at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Steven B; Butler, Richard; Butterworth, Steven W; Quigley, Keith D

    2005-05-01

    Bechtel BWXT Idaho, Maintenance and Operating Contractor for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, has emptied, cleaned, and sampled six of the eleven 1.135 x 10(6) L high level waste underground storage tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, well ahead of the State of Idaho Consent Order cleaning schedule. Cleaning of a seventh tank is expected to be complete by the end of calendar year 2004. The tanks, with associated vaults, valve boxes, and distribution systems, are being closed to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and Department of Energy orders. The use of remotely operated equipment placed in the tanks through existing tank riser access points, sampling methods and application of as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) principles have proven effective in keeping personnel dose low during equipment removal, tank, vault, and valve box cleaning, and sampling activities, currently at 0.03 Sv. PMID:15824589

  15. Achieving a Wealth of Riches: Delivering on the Promise of Data to Transform Teaching and Learning. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, M.

    2009-01-01

    Ensuring that teachers are rich in data, rich in information, and rich in the skills that enable them to improve student achievement requires focused attention from leaders at all levels, including federal policymakers. For federal policy to best support teachers' use of data to prepare all students for college and careers, there must be a…

  16. Achievement at Whose Expense? A Literature Review of Test-Based Grade Retention Policies in U.S. Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    The author uses Maxwell's method of literature reviews for educational research to focus on literature relevant to test-based grade retention policies to make the following argument: although some studies have documented average gains in academic achievement through test-based grade retention, there is increasing evidence that these gains…

  17. Latino Achievement in the Sciences, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. ETS Policy Notes. Volume 14, Number 2, Summer 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scatton, Linda H., Ed.; Coley, Richard J., Ed.; McBride, Amanda, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This issue of ETS Policy Notes highlights the ETS Symposium on Latino Achievement in the Sciences, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), held by ETS, the College Board, and the Hispanic Research Center at Arizona State University in Princeton, NJ, November 20-22, 2005. The conference had three major goals: (1) Exploring the challenges,…

  18. A Mixed Method Analysis of the Interaction between Teacher Variables, Teacher Absences, School District Policies, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillehay, Glenn Woodrow, III.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher absenteeism is expensive, disrupts the continuity of educational activities, and results in students attending classes with less qualified substitute teachers. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships among teacher variables, teacher absenteeism, student achievement, and school district policy governing teacher…

  19. The Search for an Effective Rural Policy: An Endless Quest or an Achievable Goal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freshwater, David; Scorsone, Eric

    The United States does not have a coherent national rural policy. The federal government has focused on a sector-based policy that has only indirect impact on rural America. State governments have failed to move beyond their traditional focus areas of education, corrections, Medicaid, and other state services. The diversity of rural America makes…

  20. Translating school health research to policy. School outcomes related to the health environment and changes in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Snelling, Anastasia M; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Watts, Erin; George, Stephanie; Van Dyke, Hugo; Malloy, Elizabeth; Kalicki, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes an exploration of the relationship between mathematic achievement and the school health environment relative to policy-driven changes in the school setting, specifically with regard to physical education/physical activity. Using school-level data, the authors seek to understand the relationship between mathematics achievement and the school health environment and physical education minutes. This work provides a description of the aspects of the school health environment, an exploration of the interrelationships between school health and student achievement, and an assessment of the effects of the school health policy and practice on student performance and health status. Based on these findings, we identify additional research necessary to describe the relationship between obesity and learning in children. PMID:26050913

  1. History and Culture of Alara--The Action Learning and Action Research Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun; Passfield, Ron

    2016-01-01

    As co-founders of the Action Learning and Action Research Association (ALARA), we tell the story of this international network organisation through our personal experience. Our history traces the evolution of ALARA from origins at the first World Congress in 1990 in Brisbane, Australia, through development over two and a half decades, to its…

  2. Trade-offs of different land and bioenergy policies on the path to achieving climate targets

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Wise, Marshall A.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-10-16

    Many papers have shown that bioenergy and land-use are potentially important elements in a strategy to limit anthropogenic climate change. But, significant expansion of bioenergy production can have a large terrestrial footprint. In this paper, we test the implications for land use, the global energy system, carbon cycle, and carbon prices of meeting a specific climate target, using a single fossil fuel and industrial sector policy instrument—the carbon tax, but with five alternative bioenergy and land-use policy architectures. We find that the policies we examined have differing effects on the different segments of the economy. Comprehensive land policies can reduce land-use change emissions, increasing allowable emissions in the energy system, but have implications for the cost of food. Bioenergy taxes and constraints, on the other hand, have little effect on food prices, but can result in increased carbon and energy prices.

  3. Implementation of ALARA radiation protection on the ISS through polyethylene shielding augmentation of the Service Module Crew Quarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Zapp, N.; Barber, R. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Qualls, G.; Toupes, L.; Ramsey, S.; Vinci, V.; Smith, G.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2004-01-01

    With 5-7 month long duration missions at 51.6 degrees inclination in Low Earth Orbit, the ionizing radiation levels to which International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are exposed will be the highest planned occupational exposures in the world. Even with the expectation that regulatory dose limits will not be exceeded during a single tour of duty aboard the ISS, the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) precept requires that radiological risks be minimized when possible through a dose optimization process. Judicious placement of efficient shielding materials in locations where crewmembers sleep, rest, or work is an important means for implementing ALARA for spaceflight. Polyethylene (CnHn) is a relatively inexpensive, stable, and, with a low atomic number, an effective shielding material that has been certified for use aboard the ISS. Several designs for placement of slabs or walls of polyethylene have been evaluated for radiation exposure reduction in the Crew Quarters (CQ) of the Zvezda (Star) Service Module. Optimization of shield designs relies on accurate characterization of the expected primary and secondary particle environment and modeling of the predicted radiobiological responses of critical organs and tissues. Results of the studies shown herein indicate that 20% or more reduction in equivalent dose to the CQ occupant is achievable. These results suggest that shielding design and risk analysis are necessary measures for reducing long-term radiological risks to ISS inhabitants and for meeting legal ALARA requirements. Verification of shield concepts requires results from specific designs to be compared with onboard dosimetry. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heritability and Educational Policy: Genetic and Environmental Effects on IQ, Aptitude and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr, Sandra

    The effects of family background on adolescents' IQ, aptitude, and school achievement test scores challenge some of the usual beliefs about the fairness of achievement rather than IQ tests, and the role of genetic differences among individuals and social class groups in academic achievements. Subjects included 115 adoptive families with adolescent…

  5. Parsing the Achievement Gap: Baselines for Tracking Progress. Policy Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Paul E.

    The gaps in school achievement among racial and ethnic groups and between students from poor and nonpoor families are well documented. They are large, and have been persistent. This publication is about conditions that help create and perpetuate achievement gaps. It focuses on the many antecedents of differences in school achievement college-going…

  6. The program of the ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    In 1984 the Brookhaven National Laboratory was asked by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set up a Center to monitor dose-reduction efforts in the US and abroad and to focus the industry's attention on ALARA. The paper summarizes the main work of the ALARA Center between 1984 and 1992. The Center maintains nine data bases for the NRC and the Nuclear Power Industry. These databases are constantly updated and access to them is provided through a personal computer and a modem and by periodic publications in the form of a newsletter and NUREG reports. Also described briefly are eight other projects related to dose-reduction at nuclear power plants that the Center has carried out for the NRC. Among these are projects that analyze the cost-effectiveness of engineering modifications, look at worldwide activities at dose reduction and compare US and foreign dose experience, examine high-dose worker groups and high-dose jobs, develop optimum techniques to control contamination at nuclear plants, and look at the doses being received by men and women in all sectors of the nuclear industry.

  7. The program of the ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-04-01

    In 1984 the Brookhaven National Laboratory was asked by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set up a Center to monitor dose-reduction efforts in the US and abroad and to focus the industry`s attention on ALARA. The paper summarizes the main work of the ALARA Center between 1984 and 1992. The Center maintains nine data bases for the NRC and the Nuclear Power Industry. These databases are constantly updated and access to them is provided through a personal computer and a modem and by periodic publications in the form of a newsletter and NUREG reports. Also described briefly are eight other projects related to dose-reduction at nuclear power plants that the Center has carried out for the NRC. Among these are projects that analyze the cost-effectiveness of engineering modifications, look at worldwide activities at dose reduction and compare US and foreign dose experience, examine high-dose worker groups and high-dose jobs, develop optimum techniques to control contamination at nuclear plants, and look at the doses being received by men and women in all sectors of the nuclear industry.

  8. Differences in Pupil Achievement in Kenya: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungi, Njora; Thuku, Florence W.

    2010-01-01

    In this study the authors employed multilevel analyses procedures to examine pupil, class and school levels factors that influenced pupil achievement in Kenya. Pupil's age, pupil's socioeconomic background and pupil-teacher ratio were important factors in the prediction of pupil achievement. The provinces with the largest between-school variation…

  9. Narrowing the Achievement Gap: A Review of Research, Policies, and Issues. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertert, Linda; Teague, Jackie

    Student achievement tests consistently show that certain groups of children score far below children in other groups. The data document a strong association between poverty and students' academic success. The achievement gap begins early in children's lives as the result of physical, social, and emotional deprivations. California is attempting to…

  10. Kindergarten Entrance Age and Children's Achievement: Impacts of State Policies, Family Background, and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Todd E.; Lubotsky, Darren H.

    2009-01-01

    We present evidence that the positive relationship between kindergarten entrance age and school achievement primarily reflects skill accumulation prior to kindergarten, rather than a heightened ability to learn in school among older children. The association between achievement test scores and entrance age appears during the first months of…

  11. Is Teacher Experience Associated with Mathematics Achievement? Policy Brief No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Jaschinski, Katrin; Fraser, Pablo; Ikoma, Sakiko

    2015-01-01

    There is general agreement that teacher quality provides an added value to effective education; hence, in recent years, organizations such as IEA, UNESCO, and OECD, as well as governments around the world, have shown an increased interest in areas related to teachers and teacher policy. Previous research has shown that teacher experience plays an…

  12. Evaluating the Impact of National Educational Policy to Reduce Retention and Increase Achievement in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, M. Clara; Calheiros, M. Manuela; Patrício, Joana Nunes; Graça, João; Lima, M. Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Despite the accumulated evidence that retention is an ineffective and potentially harmful remedial strategy, several countries struggle with high levels of retention in compulsory schooling. This article provides evidence of the impact of the Portuguese national educational policy "Programa Mais Sucesso Escolar" (PMSE) using class size,…

  13. Policy actions to achieve integrated community-based mental health services.

    PubMed

    DeSilva, Mary; Samele, Chiara; Saxena, Shekhar; Patel, Vikram; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    Globally, the majority of people with mental health problems do not receive evidence-based interventions that can transform their lives. We describe six mental health policy actions adopted at the World Innovation Summit for Health in 2013. For each policy action, we offer real-world examples of mental health innovations that governments and health care providers can implement to move toward universal health coverage for mental health. The six policy actions are empowering people with mental health problems and their families, building a diverse mental health workforce, developing collaborative and multidisciplinary mental health teams, using technology to increase access to mental health care, identifying and treating mental health problems early, and reducing premature mortality in people with mental health problems. Challenges to implementing these policy actions include the lack of recognition of mental health as a global health priority and the resulting lack of investment in mental health, the difficulties of integrating mental health into primary care health services because of a scarcity of human and financial resources, and the lack of evidence on the effectiveness and costs of taking innovations to a national scale. PMID:25201664

  14. "Count Us In"--Achieving Inclusion in Scottish Schools: An Analysis of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Inclusive education is now established as part of a global agenda and as such national governments, and their agencies, strive to produce and implement policies to promote inclusion. Scotland is no exception and in 2002 Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education (HMIe) published a review of "good practice" in the field of inclusion in Scottish…

  15. Is Participation in Preschool Education Associated with Higher Student Achievement? Policy Brief No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval-Hernandez, Andres; Taniguchi, Kyoko; Aghakasiri, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Preschool education is a major topic on many national educational agendas. Countries and supranational organizations have promoted reforms aimed at readying children for entry into formal schooling, and preschool coverage rates have steadily increased in recent decades. In this policy brief the authors analyze data from 37 education systems that…

  16. ALARA studies on spent fuel and waste casks

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, S.H.

    1980-04-01

    In this report, some implications of applying the ALARA concept to cask designs for transporting spent fuel, high-level commercial and defense waste, and remote-handled transuranic waste are investigated. The XSDRNPM, one-dimensional radiation transport code, was used to obtain potential shield designs that would yield total dose rates at 1.8 m from the cask surface of 10, 5, and 2 mrem/h. Gamma shields of depleted uranium, lead, and steel were studied. The capacity of the casks was assumed to be 1, 4, or 7 elements or canisters, and the wastes were 1, 3, 5, and 10 years old. Depending on the dose rate, the cask empty weights and lifetime transportation costs were estimated.

  17. Multilateral analysis of increasing collective dose and new ALARA programme.

    PubMed

    Oumi, Tadashi; Morii, Yasuki; Imai, Toshirou

    2011-07-01

    JAPC (The Japan Atomic Power Company) is the only electric power company that operates different types of nuclear reactors in Japan; it operates two BWRs (boiling water reactors), one pressurised water reactor and one gas cooled reactor. JAPC has been conducting various activities aimed at reducing radiation dose received by workers for over 45 y. Recently, the collective dose resulting from periodic maintenance has increased at each plant because of the replacement of large equipment and the unexpected extension of the outage period. In particular, the collective dose at Tokai-2 is one of the highest among Japanese BWR plants((1)), owing to the replacement and strengthening of equipment to meet earthquake-proof requirements. In this study, the authors performed a multilateral analysis of unacceptably a large collective dose and devised a new ALARA programme that includes a 3D dose prediction map and the development of machines to assist workers. PMID:21652597

  18. Achieving Healthy School Siting and Planning Policies: Understanding Shared Concerns of Environmental Planners, Public Health Professionals, and Educators

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Policy decisions regarding the quality of the physical school environment—both, school siting and school facility planning policies—are often considered through the lens of environmental planning, public health, or education policy, but rarely through all three. Environmental planners consider environmental justice issues on a local level and/or consider the regional impact of a school. Public health professionals focus on toxic exposures and populations particularly vulnerable to negative health outcomes. Educators and education policymakers emphasize investing in human capital of both students and staff. By understanding these respective angles and combining these efforts around the common goals of achieving adequacy and excellence, we can work towards a regulatory system for school facilities that recognizes children as a uniquely vulnerable population and seeks to create healthier school environments in which children can learn and adults can work. PMID:20359991

  19. Student Achievement and Education Policy in a Period of Rapid Expansion: Assessment Data Evidence from Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Nessay, Puth; Hok, Ung Ngo; Savoeun, Va; Tinon, Soeur; Veasna, Meung

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses student achievement and school quality in large samples of schools in Cambodia. Descriptive summaries of student proficiency levels in language and mathematics reveal large gaps between average performance in grades three and six. Given the near universal completion rates for grade three--and lower access to grade six--these…

  20. Paradigms and poverty in global energy policy: research needs for achieving universal energy access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Bazilian, Morgan; Toman, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This research letter discusses elements of a long-term interdisciplinary research effort needed to help ensure the maximum social, economic, and environmental benefits of achieving secure universal access to modern energy services. Exclusion of these services affects the lives and livelihoods of billions of people. The research community has an important, but not yet well-defined, role to play.

  1. Change and Continuity in Student Achievement from Grades 3 to 5: A Policy Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Mary; Burross, Heidi Legg; Good, Thomas L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we examine student performance on mandated tests in grades 3, 4, and 5 in one state. We focus on this interval, which w e term "the fourth grade window," based on our hypothesis that students in grade four are particularly vulnerable to decrements in achievement. The national focus on the third grade as the critical benchmark in…

  2. Impact of Health on Education Access and Achievement. Policy Brief Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, P.

    2008-01-01

    Access to education is recognized as a basic human right and yet projections based on current trends show that more than 50 countries will not achieve universal primary education by 2015. This briefing paper looks at the role of malnutrition and diseases in the failure of countries to meet EFA targets. It is based on the CREATE Pathways to Access…

  3. Coincidence or Conspiracy? Whiteness, Policy and the Persistence of the Black/White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David

    2008-01-01

    Adopting an approach shaped by critical race theory (CRT) the paper proposes a radical analysis of the nature of race inequality in the English educational system. Focusing on the relative achievements of White school leavers and their Black (African Caribbean) peers, it is argued that long standing Black/White inequalities have been obscured by a…

  4. Intercultural Education and Academic Achievement: A Framework for School-Based Policies in Multilingual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviews quantitative and qualitative research evidence regarding the relationship between intercultural education and academic achievement among students from socially marginalized communities. Intercultural education is conceptualized as including a focus both on generating understanding and respect for diverse cultural traditions and…

  5. The Public Administration of the Public Schools: Complex Policy Models of Educational Achievement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cnudde, Charles F.

    Previous researchers, notably James Coleman, found that schools had very weak effects on student achievement and that socioeconomic factors had very strong effects. They made this discovery by measuring the effects of schools when socioeconomic factors were held constant, and they found negligible effects of schools. This study's hypotheses are…

  6. Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Achievement Standards: Policy, Practice, and Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, William D., Ed.; Lissitz, Robert W., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    What really works in alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards? Every state is working to know the answer--both to comply with federal requirements for evaluating students with severe cognitive disabilities, and to ensure that all students reach their full potential. This comprehensive book is the first to gather today's best…

  7. From Individuals to International Policy: Achievements and Ongoing Needs in Diabetes Advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Oser, Sean M.; Close, Kelly L.; Liu, Nancy F.; Hood, Korey K.; Anderson, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes impacts tens of millions of people in the United States of America and 9 % of the worldwide population. Given the public health implications and economic burden of diabetes, the needs of people with diabetes must be addressed through strategic and effective advocacy efforts. Diabetes advocacy aims to increase public awareness about diabetes, raise funds for research and care, influence policy impacting people with diabetes, and promote optimal individual outcomes. We present a framework for diabetes advocacy activities by individuals and at the community, national, and international levels and identify challenges and gaps in current diabetes advocacy. Various groups have organized successful diabetes advocacy campaigns toward these goals, and lessons for further advancing diabetes advocacy can be learned from other health-related populations. Finally, we discuss the role of healthcare providers and mental/behavioral health professionals in advocacy efforts that can benefit their patients and the broader population of people with diabetes. PMID:26194156

  8. [Place of the radiation safety officer in the implementation of the ALARA principle through European directive 97-43 items].

    PubMed

    Mozziconacci, J G; Ayivi, J; Loat, A; Ifergan, J; Mourbrun, M; Drevet, B

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to define the role of the radiation safety officer in raising the awareness of the radiology staff to the ALARA (As low as reasonable achievable) principle specified in European directive 97-43. The actions taken and the techniques used in our hospital, as well as the potential improvements that could be achieved with extra funding, will be presented. The didactic value of flow charts recording technical factors and fluoroscopy times for quality improvement will be demonstrated. In the future, a dosimeter incorporated on the new equipment could allow direct recording of the dose. The different items presented in this paper should allow routine implementation of the required elements described in the law 2003-270, i.e the French translation of European Directive 97-43. PMID:16114200

  9. Breakfast, midday meals and academic achievement in rural primary schools in Uganda: implications for education and school health policy

    PubMed Central

    Acham, Hedwig; Kikafunda, Joyce K.; Malde, Marian K.; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H.; Egal, AbdulKadir A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Underachievement in schools is a global problem and is especially prevalent in developing countries. Indicators of educational performance show that Uganda has done remarkably well on education access-related targets since the introduction of universal primary education in 1997. However, educational outcomes remain disappointing. The absence of school feeding schemes, one of the leading causes of scholastic underachievement, has not been given attention by the Ugandan authorities. Instead, as a national policy, parents are expected to provide meals even though many, especially in the rural areas, cannot afford to provide even the minimal daily bowl of maize porridge. Objective To assess and demonstrate the effect of breakfast and midday meal consumption on academic achievement of schoolchildren. Design, Materials and Methods We assessed household characteristics, feeding patterns and academic achievement of 645 schoolchildren (aged 9–15 years) in Kumi district, eastern Uganda, in 2006–2007, using a modified cluster sampling design which involved only grade 1 schools (34 in total) and pupils of grade four. Household questionnaires and school records were used to collect information on socio-demographic factors, feeding patterns and school attendance. Academic achievement was assessed using unstandardized techniques, specifically designed for this study. Results Underachievement (the proportion below a score of 120.0 points) was high (68.4%); in addition, significantly higher achievement and better feeding patterns were observed among children from the less poor households (p<0.05). Achievement was significantly associated with consumption of breakfast and a midday meal, particularly for boys (p<0.05), and a greater likelihood of scoring well was observed for better nourished children (all OR values>1.0). Conclusion We observed that underachievement was relatively high; inadequate patterns of meal consumption, particularly for the most poor

  10. ALARA and de minimis concepts in regulation of personnel exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The ALARA process should not be limited by a de minimis level on either collective or individual dose, but should be limited or defined by an acceptable discount-rate on future costs and effects, and a monetary value for detriment, to be used in cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit calculations at dose levels well below the regulatory limits. This approach would provide the desired benefit of simplifying the decision process, it makes it more cost effective, and would avoid the inconsistencies of limits on only one of the four parameters of importance in the optimization process. These are average individual effective dose equivalent rate, number of individuals to be included in the summation, years of exposure, and costs, which include costs of analysis to reduce the exposure. This approach emphasizes that these doses to an individual may not be considered trivial by society when given to a very large population, especially if they could easily be avoided. 32 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Achieving the Dream in Connecticut: State Policies Affecting Access to, and Success in, Community Colleges for Students of Color and Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Reid, Monica

    2006-01-01

    This report provides an audit of state policies in Connecticut affecting access to, and success in, community colleges for students of color and low-income students. It was commissioned by Lumina Foundation for Education as part of a series of policy audits of the states involved in Achieving the Dream. Lumina Foundation is the primary funder of…

  12. Achieving the Dream in Ohio: State Policies Affecting Access to, and Success in, Community Colleges for Students of Color and Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Marshall, James; Soonachan, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    This report provides an audit of state policies in Ohio affecting access to, and success in, community colleges for students of color and low-income students. It was commissioned by Lumina Foundation for Education as part of a series of policy audits of the states involved in Achieving the Dream. Lumina Foundation is the primary funder of the…

  13. The Effects of Health Insurance Coverage on the Math Achievement Trajectories of School Children in Yuma County, Arizona: Implications for Education Accountability Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcy, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Federal and state education policies place considerable emphasis on assessing the effects that schools and teachers have on student test score performance. It is important for education policy makers to also consider other factors that can affect student achievement. This study finds that an exogenous school factor, discontinuous health…

  14. Policies to reduce heat islands: Magnitudes of benefits and incentives to achieve them

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, A.H.; Romm, J.J.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Taha, H.G.

    1996-05-01

    A ``Cool Communities`` strategy of lighter-colored reroofs and resurfaced pavements, and shade trees, can directly lower annual air conditioning bills in Los Angeles (LA) by about $100 million (M), cool the air in the LA Basin (thereby saving indirectly $70M more in air conditioning), and reduce smog exceedance by about 10%, worth another $360M, for a total savings of about $0.5 billion per year. Trees are most effective if they shade buildings; but they are still very cost effective if they merely cool the air by evapotranspiration. Avoided peak power for air conditioning can be about 1.5GW (more than 15% of LA air conditioning). Extrapolated to the entire US, the authors estimate 20GW avoided and potential annual electricity savings of about $5--10B in 2015. To achieve these savings, they call for ratings and labels for cool materials, buildings` performance standards, utility incentive programs, and an extension of the existing smog-offset trading market (RECLAIM) to include credit for cool surfaces and trees. EPA can include cool materials and trees in its proposed regional ``open market smog-offset trading credits``.

  15. Deep Vadose Zone Remediation: Technical and Policy Challenges, Opportunities, and Progress in Achieving Cleanup Endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.; Lee, Michelle H.

    2013-02-24

    Current requirements for site remediation and closure are standards-based and are often overly conservative, costly, and in some cases, technically impractical. Use of risk-informed alternate endpoints provides a means to achieve remediation goals that are permitted by regulations and are protective of human health and the environment. Alternate endpoints enable the establishment of a path for cleanup that may include intermediate remedial milestones and transition points and/or regulatory alternatives to standards-based remediation. A framework is presented that is centered around developing and refining conceptual models in conjunction with assessing risks and potential endpoints as part of a system-based assessment that integrates site data with scientific understanding of processes that control the distribution and transport of contaminants in the subsurface and pathways to receptors. This system-based assessment and subsequent implementation of the remediation strategy with appropriate monitoring are targeted at providing a holistic approach to addressing risks to human health and the environment. This holistic approach also enables effective predictive analysis of contaminant behavior to provide defensible criteria and data for making long-term decisions. Developing and implementing an alternate endpoint-based approach for remediation and waste site closure presents a number of challenges and opportunities. Categories of these challenges include scientific and technical, regulatory, institutional, and budget and resource allocation issues. Opportunities exist for developing and implementing systems-based approaches with respect to supportive characterization, monitoring, predictive modeling, and remediation approaches.

  16. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  17. The Role of Technology for Achieving Climate Policy Objectives: Overview of the EMF 27 Study on Technology Strategies and Climate Policy Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegler, Elmar; Weyant, John; Blanford, Geoffrey J.; Krey, Volker; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Luderer, Gunnar; Riahi, Keywan; Richels, Richard G.; Rose, Steven; Tavoni, Massimo; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-01

    This article presents the synthesis of results from the Stanford Energy Modeling Forum Study 27, an inter-comparison of 19 energy-economy and integrated assessment models. The study investigated the value of individual mitigation technologies such as energy intensity improvements, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), nuclear power, solar and wind power and bioenergy for climate mitigation. Achieving atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration targets at 450 and 550 ppm CO2 equivalent requires massive greenhouse gas emissions reductions. A fragmented policy approach at the level of current ambition is inconsistent with these targets. The availability of a negative emissions technology, in most models biofuels with CCS, proved to be a key element for achieving the climate targets. Robust characteristics of the transformation of the energy system are increased energy intensity improvements and the electrification of energy end use coupled with a fast decarbonization of the electricity sector. Non-electric energy end use is hardest to decarbonize, particularly in the transport sector. Technology is a key element of climate mitigation. Versatile technologies such as CCS and bioenergy have largest value, due in part to their combined ability to produce negative emissions. The individual value of low-carbon power technologies is more limited due to the many alternatives in the sector. The scale of the energy transformation is larger for the 450 ppm than for the 550 ppm CO2e target. As a result, the achievability and the costs of the 450 ppm target are more sensitive to variations in technology variability. Mitigation costs roughly double when moving from 550 ppm to 450 ppm CO2e, but remain below 3% of GDP for most models.

  18. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique.

  19. Lessons Learned at Envirocare of Utah's Containerized Waste Facility (CWF): Dose Minimization Through ALARA Techniques and Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Heckman, J.; Gardner, J.; Ledoux, M. R.

    2003-02-24

    Envirocare of Utah, Inc. (Envirocare) commenced operation of its Class A Containerized Waste Facility (CWF) on October 25, 2001. The opening of this facility began a new era for Envirocare, in that; their core business had always been low level, high volume, bulk radioactive waste. The CWF commenced operations to dispose of low level, low volume, high activity, containerized radioactive waste. Due to the potential for high dose rates on the waste disposal containers, the ALARA principle (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) plays an important role in the operation of the CWF and its mission to properly dispose of waste while minimizing doses to the workers, public, and the environment. This paper will enumerate some of the efforts made by the management and staff of the CWF that have contributed to significant dose reductions.

  20. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report.

  1. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the implementation of ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Roecklein, A.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the papers presented and the discussions that took place at the Third International Workshop on ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants, held in Hauppauge, Long Island, New York from May 8--11, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, health physicists, regulators, managers and other persons who are involved with occupational dose control and ALARA issues. The countries represented were: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop was organized into twelve sessions and three panel discussions. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  2. Addressing Achievement Gaps: School Finance and the Achievement Gap--Funding Programs That Work. Policy Notes. Volume 16, Number 3, Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    In education reform, money matters, but so does spending it wisely--on programs designed to meet the ambitious goal of helping low-income and minority children achieve at the same levels as their more affluent peers. The latest in the Educational Testing Service's (ETS's) series of symposia on Addressing Achievement Gaps brought researchers,…

  3. Teacher Layoffs, Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: The Implementation and Consequences of a Discretionary Reduction-in-Force Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that "last hired, first fired" policies maximize the number of teachers subject to reductions in force by eliminating those teachers that are lowest on the pay scale first. Until now, advocates of effectiveness-based reduction-in-force (RIF) policies could only point to simulated policy exercises as evidence of the…

  4. INNOVATIVE ALARA TECHNIQUES & WORK PRACTICES USED AT HANFORD FOR D & D

    SciTech Connect

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2005-01-05

    The Department of Energy's Hanford Site has several nuclear facilities in the process of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) with many more to follow. These facilities contain hazardous and highly radioactive materials in plant systems, gloveboxes, hot cells, rooms, collection tanks, ventilation ducts, fuel pools and outside these facilities. Some of the radioactive isotopes are fissile material and have to be closely guarded and require special handling. To safely work in this environment, workers had to learn new skills and develop innovative techniques to decontaminate, remove all equipment and demolish these radioactive work facilities without spreading contamination to the environment. Changing the workscope and worker attitudes involves a culture change for workers, managers, Department of Energy (DOE) and support organizations. D&D involves making different types of risk-based decisions than were made when the plants were operated or sitting dormant. Management involvement, use of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), communications and sharing lessons learned are essential ingredients in developing a successful D&D strategy. New technologies have to be learned including the use of robotic devices and manipulative arms due to high dose rates and amount of radioactive contamination. Minimizing the amount of Transuranic and Mixed radioactive waste and learning how to ship the large quantities of waste are additional skills the Hanford workers have had to learn. D&D work at Hanford is in progress and Hanford Contractors have completed some very difficult and intense D&D work. This presentation will provide information on the best As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) protective measures, work practices, and the lessons learned to date.

  5. A simplified ALARA approach to demonstration of compliance with surface contaminated object regulatory requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Boyle, R.W.; Cook, J.C.

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have jointly prepared a comprehensive set of draft guidance for consignors and inspectors to use when applying the newly imposed regulatory requirements for low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCOs). The guidance is being developed to facilitate compliance with the new LSA material and SCO requirements, not to impose additional requirements. These new requirements represent, in some areas, significant departures from the manner in which packaging and transportation of these materials and objects were previously controlled. On occasion, it may be appropriate to use conservative approaches to demonstrate compliance with some of the requirements, ensuring that personnel are not exposed to radiation at unnecessary levels, so that exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). In the draft guidance, one such approach would assist consignors preparing a shipment of a large number of SCOs in demonstrating compliance without unnecessarily exposing personnel. In applying this approach, users need to demonstrate that four conditions are met. These four conditions are used to categorize non-activated, contaminated objects as SCO-2. It is expected that, by applying this approach, it will be possible to categorize a large number of small contaminated objects as SCO-2 without the need for detailed, quantitative measurements of fixed, accessible contamination, or of total (fixed and non-fixed) contamination on inaccessible surfaces. The method, which is based upon reasoned argument coupled with limited measurements and the application of a sum of fractions rule, is described and examples of its use are provided.

  6. Title III Accountability Policies and Outcomes for K-12: Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for English Language Learner Students in Southeast Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly S.; Dufford-Melendez, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This report details Title III accountability policies and outcomes for K-12 English language learner (ELL) students for school year 2007/08 in the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) under the Title III annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAO) provision of the No Child…

  7. Expanding School Resources and Increasing Time on Task: Effects of a Policy Experiment in Israel on Student Academic Achievement and Behavior. NBER Working Paper No. 18369

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Victor

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine how student academic achievements and behavior were affected by a school finance policy experiment undertaken in elementary schools in Israel. Begun in 2004, the funding formula changed from a budget set per class to a budget set per student, with more weight given to students from lower socioeconomic and lower educational…

  8. Relationships among Language Ideologies, Family Language Policies, and Children's Language Achievement: A Look at Cantonese-English Bilinguals in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Genevieve; Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the reported language ideologies and family language policies of the parents of Cantonese-English bilinguals in the U.S. in relation to their children's achievement scores in Cantonese and English. We explore the relationships first by language of instruction. Results show children in bilingual classrooms scored higher than…

  9. Attendance and Chronic Absenteeism in Indiana: The Impact on Student Achievement. Education Policy Brief, Volume 10, Number 3, Summer 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spradlin, Terry; Cierniak, Katherine; Shi, Dingjing; Chen, Minge

    2012-01-01

    This Education Policy Brief summarizes the research and data analysis completed by the Center for Evaluation and Education Policy (CEEP) on Indiana's student attendance and absenteeism data. The study was initiated by The Indiana Partnerships Center and conducted by CEEP with funding from USA Funds and State Farm. Additional partners in the study…

  10. Breast cancer early diagnosis experience in Florence: can a self referral policy achieve the results of service screening?

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, D; Paci, E; Zappa, M; Rosselli del Turco, M

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To assess the impact of a breast clinic on a specific target population and evaluate early diagnosis performance indicators for breast cancer in the presence of a self referral policy. DESIGN--Women living in Florence between 1980 and 1989 who had undergone mammography at a self referral breast clinic were studied. Main outcome measures were the use of mammography in relation to age, symptoms, and the interval between two subsequent tests, and early diagnosis performance indicators were the detection rate (DR), the prevalence/incidence ratio, and the proportion of early detected cancers. Performance indicators were compared with those from formal screening programmes. SETTING--Florence, Italy. PATIENTS--All mammograms performed at the clinic from 1980-89 in 40-69 year old women living in Florence were examined (n = 42,226). Records included the date of birth and of the examination, the reason for testing (asymptomatic/presence of pain/presence of symptoms other than pain), and the TNM classification for breast cancer cases. MAIN RESULTS--The total number of mammograms performed per annum increased by 70% over the decade, but much of this was routine repeat mammography (54.1% in 1989). Rates of first examinations in asymptomatic women increased in the second half of the decade from 17 per 1000 in 1985 to 31 per 1000 in 1989. Mammographic coverage decreased with increasing age from 12.6% in 40-49 year olds to 6.0% in 60-69 years old. Performance indicators of the activity in asymptomatic women were comparable with those expected in service screening. The proportion of not advanced cancers detected in asymptomatic women was 62.3% with a DR of 5.3 per 1000, and the average prevalence/incidence ratio was 2.9. CONCLUSIONS--High quality mammography performed in a breast clinic in self referred asymptomatic women can achieve as good results as a formal invitation screening service. Only a few of these women will benefit, but those who do are likely to be

  11. The Black-White-Other Test Score Gap: Academic Achievement among Mixed Race Adolescents. Institute for Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Melissa R.

    This paper describes the achievement patterns of a sample of 1,492 multiracial high school students and examines how their achievement fits into existing theoretical models that explain monoracial differences in achievement. These theoretical models include status attainment, parenting style, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes. The…

  12. IMPROVED WELL PLUGGING EQUIPMENT AND WASTE MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES EXCEED ALARA GOALS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteside, R.; Pawlowicz, R.; Whitehead, L.; Arnseth, R.

    2002-02-25

    In 2000, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) contracted Tetra Tech NUS, Inc. (TtNUS) and their sub-contractor, Texas World Operations, Inc. (TWO), to plug and abandon (P&A) 111 wells located in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). One hundred and seven of those wells were used to monitor fluid movement and subsurface containment of the low level radioactive liquid waste/grout slurry that was injected into the Pumpkin Valley Shale Formation, underlying ORNL. Four wells were used as hydrofracture injection wells to emplace the waste in the shale formation. Although the practice of hydrofracturing was and is considered by many to pose no threat to human health or the environment, the practice was halted in 1982 after the Federal Underground Injection Control regulations were enacted by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) making it necessary to properly close the wells. The work is being performed for the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations (DOE ORO). The project team is using the philosophy of minimum waste generation and the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) as key project goals to minimize personnel and equipment exposure, waste generation, and project costs. Achievement of these goals was demonstrated by the introduction of several new pieces of custom designed well plugging and abandonment equipment that were tested and used effectively during field operations. Highlights of the work performed and the equipment used are presented.

  13. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate achievements along…

  14. International workshop on new developments in occupational dose control and ALARA implementation at nuclear power plants and similar facilities: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.; Kahn, T.A. )

    1990-02-01

    This report contains summaries of papers and discussions presented at the International Workshop on New Developments in Occupational Dose Control and ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants and Similar Facilities held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, September 18--21, 1989. The purpose of this workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, regulators, and administrators who are involved with occupational dose control at nuclear facilities to exchange information on recent developments from their countries. The eleven countries represented included: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The workshop was organized into seven sessions with 20-minute papers and four sessions with 5-minute discussions. The topics for the paper sessions included: Session 1, ALARA status, studies, and organization; Session 3, ALARA engineering in design and modifications; Session 5, system chemistry and water purification; Session 7, ALARA in operation I; Session 9, ALARA in operation II; Session 10, ALARA in operation III; and Session 11, the NEA Information System on Occupational Exposure. This workshop was sponsored jointly by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the US Department of Energy, in cooperation with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency. Each individual paper has been catalogued separately.

  15. CSER 95-002: ALARA shielding for IAEA SNM container movement

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.M.

    1995-03-07

    This CSER qualifies use of a 5% borated, lead foil lined polyethylene 1 inch annulus as a bucket and in a small carrier to move sealed containers of plutonium. The containers are Oversize Cans or smaller containing plutonium limited in mass and H/Pu ratio by PFP storage and transportation CPS`s. These ALARA shielding units reduce personnel exposure to the radiation from the containers as they are moved for assay and other required activities.

  16. Quality Afterschool: Helping Programs Achieve It and Strengthening Policies to Support It. Afterschool Alert. Issue Brief No. 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    For years, policy makers, program directors and parents have attested to the widespread benefits of afterschool programs. Fortunately, a wide variety of research ranging from quantitative studies and polls to qualitative reports and field observations has corroborated the need for afterschool enrichment. As the field grows and resources thin…

  17. Addressing Achievement Gaps: Advancing Success for Black Men in College. Policy Notes. Volume 22, Number 1, Spring 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This issue of ETS Policy Notes (Vol. 22, No. 1) provides highlights from a recent symposium sponsored by ETS and the Children Defense Fund (CDF), "Advancing Success for Black Men in College," held on June 23, 2014, in Washington, DC. The symposium is part of a two-conference series: It was the 18th of ETS's "Addressing Achievement…

  18. Choosing More School: Extended Time Policies and Student Achievement across Seasons in Charter and Traditional Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Marc L.; Rose, Bess A.

    2011-01-01

    This study looks at the question of whether charter schools are more innovative in their provision of extended time policies than a matched set of traditional public schools. Data for this study was collected from a sample of traditional public and charter schools that partner with the Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) for interim…

  19. Cross-National Policy Borrowing and Educational Innovation: Improving Achievement in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochs, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of the London Education Authority of Barking and Dagenham's borrowing of Swiss educational practices, and the implementation and internalisation of those foreign practices in the teaching of mathematics in primary schools. The study employs analytical frameworks that might be used by policy makers or researchers…

  20. School Vouchers and Student Achievement: What We Know So Far. Policy Briefs: Education Reform. Volume 3, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.

    2003-01-01

    Although small, carefully managed voucher programs might provide a helpful safety valve for some disadvantaged children, policy makers should be under no illusion that such programs will address the fundamental challenge of providing an adequate education to the large numbers of such students in many urban centers. Contrary to the claims of many…

  1. Closing the Classroom Door and the Achievement Gap: Teach for America Alumni Teachers' Appropriation of Arizona Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineke, Amy J.; Cameron, Quanna

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored Teach for America (TFA) alumni teachers' discourse on Arizona language policy, conducted with eight teachers in the Phoenix metropolitan area who received their professional teacher preparation from TFA, a national organization that uses alternative paths to certification to place teachers in low-income schools.…

  2. Title III Policy: State of the States. ESEA Evaluation Brief: The English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Andrea; O'Day, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    "Title III Policy: State of the States" (2010) discusses state implementation of the Title III accountability requirements based on phone interviews with six state Title III Directors in the spring of 2009, interviews with six experts and university-based researchers who work on education for English Learners, and based on earlier data collected…

  3. The Education of English Language Learners in Arizona: A Legacy of Persisting Achievement Gaps in a Restrictive Language Policy Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Lawton, Kerry; Diniz de Figueiredo, Eduardo H.

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews achievement gaps in both reading and math between ELL and non-ELL students in Arizona over the post-Proposition 203 period 2005-2009 and during the first year of implementation of the 4 hour ELD block, 2008-09. The study finds that Arizona has made little to no progress in closing the achievement gap between ELL and non-ELL…

  4. Minnesota Developmental Achievement Centers: An Update to Welsch Policy Analysis Papers No. 6-9, 17, and 23. Policy Analysis Series, No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Governor's Planning Council on Developmental Disabilities, St. Paul.

    This paper reports the results of analyzing financial, program, and client data collected from Minnesota's Developmental Achievement Centers (DACs) for 1986. A total of 4,883 adults were receiving services, with the largest group being severely mentally retarded. Persons with additional disabilities numbered 1,263, with severe behavior problems,…

  5. Achieving the integrated and smart health and wellbeing paradigm: a call for policy research and action on governance and business models.

    PubMed

    Stroetmann, Karl A

    2013-04-01

    To assure sustainability of our health systems and improve quality, implementing integrated wellness, health and social care service models have been proposed. They will need the enabling power of Health ICT facilitated systems and applications. Such solutions support the efficient coordination of service provision across provider and jurisdictional boundaries, the sharing of data, information and knowledge, and the streamlining as well as individualisation of care. Achieving such change in health systems with limited resources requires refocusing the trend of medico-technical progress. Health ICT innovations must be scrutinised for their potential to indeed contribute not only to decreasing costs, but - at the same time - improving the quality of life and ability to cope with challenges like the increasing prevalence of certain chronic diseases or new expectations from healthy people and patients alike. This paper argues that decision-oriented governance models leading to focused policy interventions are needed at several levels: Governments should provide for comprehensive Health ICT infrastructures to enable provider market success. At the individual actor level, sustainable business models reflecting in their value propositions the expectations of their clients (patients and funders) need to be developed. Health policy should design intelligent reimbursement systems providing incentives to indeed optimise services. Smart health innovations should only be implemented where they help achieve the goal of increasing the productivity of health value chains and the quality of overall service delivery value systems. To assure allocational efficiency, regulatory impact analyses (RIA) can support evidence based policy making. PMID:22727880

  6. The Perkins Act of 2006: Connecting Career and Technical Education with the College and Career Readiness Agenda. Achieve Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeder, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Policymakers and educators around the nation are wrestling with an important challenge--how to raise expectations for high school achievement, while increasing relevance and engagement in learning to keep students in school. Career and technical education (CTE) is receiving renewed attention as a strategy for increasing school engagement and rigor…

  7. Addressing Achievement Gaps: The Family--America's Smallest School. Policy Notes. Volume 19, Number 1, Winter 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    When parents are married and employed, when they turn off the television and monitor homework, their children are more likely to succeed in school. Today, however, many families are struggling, and their struggles contribute to the stubborn achievement gap separating low-income and minority students from their more affluent White and Asian peers.…

  8. Implementation of the Language-in-Education Policy and Achieving Education for All Goals in Botswana Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokibelo, Eureka

    2016-01-01

    Nations are tasked with expanding education, increasing its accessibility and quality to develop skilled labour forces needed to compete in the global world. Every nation is under pressure to strive to give their learners an opportunity to explore their potential to achieve the national and global educational goals. In learning, language and…

  9. ALARA Center of Technology promotes good radiological work practices at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, L.O., Westinghouse Hanford, Richland, WA

    1997-10-31

    The central Radiological Control Organization, originally under the previous Management and Operations contractor (Westinghouse Hanford Company) decided that a significant improvement in ALARA implementation would result if examples of engineered controls used for radiological work were assembled in one location to provide a ``showcase`` for workers and managers. The facility would be named the ALARA Center of Technology (ACT) and would include the latest technologies used to accomplish radiological work, as well as proven techniques, tools, and equipment. A location for the Center was selected in the 200 East Area of Hanford in a central location to be easily accessible to all facilities and contractors. Since there was little money available for this project, a decision was made to contact several vendors and request loans of their tools, equipment, and materials. In return, the center would help market products on site and assist with product demonstrations when the vendors visited Hanford. Out of 28 vendors originally contacted, 16 responded with offers to loan products. This included a containment tent, several glove bags, BEPA filtered vacuum cleaners, portable ventilation systems, fixatives, temporary shielding, pumps, and several special tools. Vendors who could not provide products sent videos and brochures. Westinghouse Hanford Company began using the ACT in June 1996. Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., the present Management and Integrating Contractor for the Hanford Site, held the formal opening ceremony of the ALARA Center of Technology on October 1, 1996. The Center now has about 1200 ft{sup 2} of floor space fi Iled with tools, equipment and material used to perform radiological work.

  10. Bringing evidence to policy to achieve health-related MDGs for all: justification and design of the EPI-4 project in China, India, Indonesia, and Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Sarah; Ng, Nawi; Biao, Xu; Bondjers, Göran; Kusnanto, Hari; Liem, Nguyen Tanh; Mavalankar, Dileep; Målqvist, Mats; Diwan, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Background The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are monitored using national-level statistics, which have shown substantial improvements in many countries. These statistics may be misleading, however, and may divert resources from disadvantaged populations within the same countries that are showing progress. The purpose of this article is to set out the relevance and design of the “Evidence for Policy and Implementation project (EPI-4)”. EPI-4 aims to contribute to the reduction of inequities in the achievement of health-related MDGs in China, India, Indonesia and Vietnam through the promotion of research-informed policymaking. Methods Using a framework provided by the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), we compare national-level MDG targets and results, as well as their social and structural determinants, in China, India, Indonesia and Vietnam. Results To understand country-level MDG achievements it is useful to analyze their social and structural determinants. This analysis is not sufficient, however, to understand within-country inequities. Specialized analyses are required for this purpose, as is discussion and debate of the results with policymakers, which is the aim of the EPI-4 project. Conclusion Reducing health inequities requires sophisticated analyses to identify disadvantaged populations within and between countries, and to determine evidence-based solutions that will make a difference. The EPI-4 project hopes to contribute to this goal. PMID:23490302

  11. More Effective VET and Lifelong Learning Policies: Awareness Raising, Analysis and Advice--Cedefop's Achievements in 2012 and Plans for 2013. Briefing Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Reform of vocational education and training (VET) in Europe is complex, especially at a time of economic crisis. Cedefop raises awareness and provides analysis and advice to policy-makers at European level and in Member States to help them decide on policies and actions. Cedefop's work supports the European policy agenda for VET and lifelong…

  12. Closing the Achievement Gap Series: Part I. Is Indiana Ready for State-Sponsored Prekindergarten Programs? Education Policy Brief. Volume 4, Number 7, Summer 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn-Powers, Michael; Cross, Alice F.; Zapf, Jason S.

    2006-01-01

    In this Education Policy Brief, Indiana University's Center for Evaluation and Education Policy and Indiana Institute on Disability and Community tackle major policy questions regarding publicly-funded prekindergarten programs: Why should Indiana invest in prekindergarten? Who should be served? What should prekindergarten look like in Indiana? And…

  13. Commissioning of experimental enclosures (Hutches) at the Advanced Photon Source - A to Z ALARA.

    SciTech Connect

    Vacca, J.; Job, P. K.; Rauchas, A.; Justus, A.; Veluri, V. R.

    2000-11-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), 7 GeV electron Storage Ring at the Argonne National Laboratory is designed to be a major national user facility providing high-brilliance x-ray beams. Figure 1 shows a plan view of the APS. At completion, APS will have 35 bending magnet (BM) beamlines and 35 insertion device (ID) beamlines. A typical x-ray beamline at APS comprises of a front end (FE) that confines the beam; a first optics enclosure (FOE) which houses optics to filter and monochromatize the beam; and beam transports, additional optics, and the experiment stations. Figure 2 shows a section of the storage ring with the layout of the ID and BM beamlines and typical experiment stations. The first x-ray beam was delivered to an experiment station in 1995. Ever since, to date, over 120 experimental stations (hutches) have been commissioned and are receiving intense x-ray beams of varying energies for various experiments. This paper describes in some detail the steps involved in the process of commissioning experimental stations and the implementation of the ALARA at each step.

  14. Controversies in knowledge translation for community-based drug treatment: the need to the end policies of the war on drugs and mass incarceration of drug offenders to achieve health equity.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Barbara C

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to discuss significant challenges to the achievement of urban health, specifically acknowledging numerous controversies in knowledge translation for community-based drug treatment that prevent the achievement of health equity. Seven specific controversies are analyzed in this article. The results of the analysis are recommendations for moving toward the resolution of each controversy. Among the most important recommendations is a call to end the policies of the war on drugs and mass incarceration of drug offenders-as policies reflecting how politics and the misuse of power may derail knowledge translation. The article provides justification for evidence-based policy that supports community-based drug treatment as a public health approach consistent with the goals of health equity, ethical practice, and effective knowledge translation. PMID:22566149

  15. Title III Accountability Policies and Outcomes for K-12: Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for English Language Learner Students in Southeast Region States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly S.; Dufford-Melendez, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This report details Title III accountability policies and outcomes for K-12 English language learner (ELL) students for school year 2007/08 in the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) under the Title III annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAO) provision of the No Child…

  16. The Effectiveness of the Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) Program's Administrative and Policy-Making Processes. A Report to the Legislature in Response to Assembly Bill 610 (1985). Commission Report 89-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    The Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) Program was established in 1970 to increase the number of minority students in college programs. This paper reports the MESA administrative operations and policy-making processes. Part 1 summarizes the background of this study. Part 2 describes MESA's administrative operations and provides…

  17. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  18. An Evaluation of the Policy Context on Psychosocial Risks and Mental Health in the Workplace in the European Union: Achievements, Challenges, and the Future.

    PubMed

    Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Iavicoli, Sergio; Di Tecco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area. PMID:26557655

  19. An Evaluation of the Policy Context on Psychosocial Risks and Mental Health in the Workplace in the European Union: Achievements, Challenges, and the Future

    PubMed Central

    Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Iavicoli, Sergio; Di Tecco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area. PMID:26557655

  20. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. Gold Standards?: State Standards Reform and Student Achievement. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 12-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of the recent and widely adopted Common Core State Standards argue that high quality curricular standards are critical to students' educational success. Little clear evidence exists, however, linking the quality of such standards to student achievement. I remedy this by connecting data on state-level student achievement from 1994-2011…

  14. Is Montgomery County's Housing Policy One Answer to Baltimore's Education Achievement Gap? The Abell Report. Volume 24, No.3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    In 1966, the Coleman Report firmly established the link between a family's socioeconomic status and a child's educational outcomes. Known as the "income achievement gap," the disparity between the achievement of poor and rich children has become entrenched in our nation's educational landscape: with few exceptions, schools…

  15. Family Policies and Academic Achievement by Young Children in Single-Parent Families: An International Comparison. Population Research Institute Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-ling; Dronkers, Jaap; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    This study investigates the differences in the degree of low academic achievement of third and fourth graders living with single-parent families from 11 industrialized countries. The United States ranks first among the countries compared in terms of the achievement gap for children in single- and two-parent families. After controlling for…

  16. Addressing Achievement Gaps: Black Male Teens--Moving to Success in the High School Years. Policy Notes. Volume 21, Number 3, Winter 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This issue of ETS Policy Notes (Vol. 21, No. 3) provides highlights from the symposium, "Black Male Teens: Moving to Success in the High School Years" held on June 24, 2013, in Washington, DC. The third in a series of four symposia cosponsored by ETS and the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), the seminar examined the education and status of…

  17. Aligning and Inventing Practices to Achieve Inclusive Assessment Policies: A Decade of Work toward Optimal Access for US Students with Disabilities 2001-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigert, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The decade following the publication of the No Child Left Behind Act 2001 was an innovative period with respect to inclusive assessment practices for students with disabilities (SWDs). As the United States educational policies under the Obama Administration's Race to the Top initiative re-conceive the inclusion of SWDs in state assessment-based…

  18. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  19. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  20. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose reduction activities, with a focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and aocelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts. An author index and a subject index are provided to facilitate use. Both indices contain the abstract numbers from previous volumes, as well as the current volume. Information that the reader feels might be included in the next volume of this bibliography should be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center.

  1. Preparation by Candidate Countries for Involvement in the EU Lifelong Learning Policy: Achievements, Gaps and Challenges. Synthesis of the Monographs Exercise. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Jean-Raymond

    The reforms undertaken in the vocational education and training systems and the public employment services systems of European Union (EU) candidate countries in the 10 years since the transition have resulted in the following achievements: (1) participation in upper secondary and tertiary education has increased and curricula for general education…

  2. Reading Reform and the Role of Policy, Practice and Instructional Leadership on Reading Achievement: A Case Study of Grissom Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Faith Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether William Deming's 8 Step Model would increase reading achievement in 3rd grade students. The study investigated how well the process based plan-do-check-act model when used as a treatment with fidelity, coupled with the principal as instructional leader would result in success in the age of…

  3. Representation in the Classroom: The Effect of Own-Race Teacher Assignment on Student Achievement. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 14-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egalite, Anna J.; Kisida, Brian; Winters, Marcus A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that there are academic benefits when students and teachers share the same race/ethnicity because such teachers can serve as role models, mentors, advocates, or cultural translators. In this paper, we obtain estimates of achievement changes as students are assigned to teachers of different races/ethnicities from grades 3…

  4. New Schools, Overcrowding Relief, and Achievement Gains in Los Angeles--Strong Returns from a $19.5 Billion Investment. Policy Brief 12-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, William; Coghlan, Erin; Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to relieve overcrowded schools operating on multiple tracks, the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) has invested more than $19 billion to build 130 new facilities over the past decade. District leaders asked researchers at Berkeley to estimate the achievement effects of this massive initiative--benefits that may stem from entering…

  5. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  6. Participating in a policy debate program and academic achievement among at-risk adolescents in an urban public school district: 1997-2007.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Susannah; Mezuk, Briana

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the relationship between participating in a high school debate program on college-readiness in the Chicago Public School district over a 10-year period. At-risk school students were identified using an index including 8th grade achievement, poverty status, and enrollment in special education. Regression analyses were used to assess the association between debate participation and graduation and ACT performance. Overall, debaters were 3.1 times more likely to graduate from high school (95% confidence interval: 2.7-3.5) than non-debaters, and more likely to reach the college-readiness benchmarks on the English, Reading, and Science portions of the ACT. This association was similar for both low-risk and at-risk students. Debate intensity was positively related to higher scores on all sections of the ACT. Findings indicate that debate participation is associated with improved academic performance for at-risk adolescents. PMID:22633913

  7. Achieving a Healthy Zoning Policy in Baltimore: Results of a Health Impact Assessment of the TransForm Baltimore Zoning Code Rewrite

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Amelia; Fichtenberg, Caroline M.; Feingold, Beth J.; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Jennings, Jacky M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The social determinants of health (SDH) include factors apart from genes and biology that affect population health. Zoning is an urban planning tool that influences neighborhood built environments. We describe the methods and results of a health impact assessment (HIA) of a rezoning effort in Baltimore, Maryland, called TransForm Baltimore. We highlight findings specific to physical activity, violent crime, and obesity. Methods We conducted a multistage HIA of TransForm Baltimore using HIA practice guidelines. Key informant interviews identified focus areas for the quantitative assessment. A literature review and a zoning code analysis evaluated potential impacts on neighborhood factors including physical activity, violent crime, and obesity. We estimated potential impacts in high- and low-poverty neighborhoods. The findings resulted in recommendations to improve the health-promoting potential of TransForm Baltimore. Results Mixed-use and transit-oriented development were key goals of TransForm Baltimore. Health impacts identified by stakeholders included walkability and healthy communities. For Baltimore residents, we estimated that (1) the percentage of people living in districts allowing mixed-use and off-premise alcohol outlets would nearly triple, (2) 18% would live in transit-oriented development zones, and (3) all residents would live in districts with new lighting and landscaping guidelines. Limiting the concentration of off-premise alcohol outlets represented an opportunity to address health promotion. Conclusions Changes to Baltimore's zoning code could improve population health including decreasing violent crime. HIAs are an important platform for applying SDH to public health practice. This HIA specifically linked municipal zoning policy with promoting healthier neighborhoods. PMID:24179284

  8. General Achievement Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. Federal water policy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Federal Water Policy is a statement of the federal government's philosophy and goals for the nation's freshwater resources, and of the proposed ways of achieving them in cooperation with provincial governments. This document provides an overview of the policy, then presents details on the policy itself, the strategies for achievement of that policy, methods of applying it, and specific policy statements. These statements cover such topics as the management of toxic chemicals, water quality, ground water contamination, municipal water and sewer infrastructure, safe drinking water, wetlands preservation, hydroelectric development, navigation, native water rights, and Canada-US boundary management, among others.

  12. ALARA Controls and the Radiological Lessons Learned During the Uranium Fuel Removal Projects at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, B. J.; Chapman, J. A.; Jugan, M. R.

    2002-02-26

    The removal of uranium-233 (233 U) from the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), performed from January through May 2001, created both unique radiological challenges and widely-applicable lessons learned. In addition to the criticality concerns and alpha contamination, 233U has an associated intense gamma photon from the cocontaminant uranium-232 (232U) decaying to thallium-208 (208Tl). Therefore, rigorous contamination controls and significant shielding were implemented. Extensive, timed mock-up training was also imperative to minimize individual and collective personnel exposures. Back-up shielding and containment techniques (that had been previously developed for defense in depth) were used successfully to control significant, changed conditions. Additional controls were placed on tests and on recovery designs to assure a higher level of safety throughout the removal operations. This paper delineates the manner in which each difficulty was solved, while relating the relevance of the results and the methodology to other projects with high dose-rate, highly-contaminated ionizing radiation hazards. Because of the distinctive features of and current interest in molten salt technology, a brief overview is provided. Also presented is the detailed, practical application of radiological controls integrated into, rather than added after, each evolution of the project--thus demonstrating the broad-based benefits of radiological engineering and ALARA reviews. The resolution of the serious contamination-control problems caused by unexpected uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gaseous diffusion is also explicated. Several tables and figures document the preparations, equipment and operations. A comparison of the pre-job dose calculations for the various functions of the uranium deposit removal (UDR) and the post-job dose-rate data are included in the conclusion.

  13. Systemic Educational Policy. Education Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clune, William H.

    Issues in systemic educational policy are discussed in this paper, with a focus on improving student achievement. First, the limitations of the current educational policy as a means to improve student achievement are described, and a conceptual framework for systemic educational policy is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of centralized…

  14. Student Achievement and National Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Luo, Xiaowei; Schofer, Evan; Meyer, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Educational policy around the world has increasingly focused on improving aggregate student achievement as a means to increase economic growth. In the last two decades, attention has focused especially on the importance of achievement in science and mathematics. Yet, the policy commitments involved have not been based on research evidence. The…

  15. Population policy.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  16. Toward transparent clinical policies.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Richard N; Marcuse, Edgar K; Moyer, Virginia A; Neuspiel, Daniel R; Hodgson, Elizabeth Susan; Glade, Gordon; Harbaugh, Norman; Miller, Marlene R; Sevilla, Xavier; Simpson, Lisa; Takata, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    Clinical policies of professional societies such as the American Academy of Pediatrics are valued highly, not only by clinicians who provide direct health care to children but also by many others who rely on the professional expertise of these organizations, including parents, employers, insurers, and legislators. The utility of a policy depends, in large part, on the degree to which its purpose and basis are clear to policy users, an attribute known as the policy's transparency. This statement describes the critical importance and special value of transparency in clinical policies, guidelines, and recommendations; helps identify obstacles to achieving transparency; and suggests several approaches to overcome these obstacles. PMID:18310217

  17. ALARA notes, Number 8

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Beckman, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    This document contains information dealing with the lessons learned from the experience of nuclear plants. In this issue the authors tried to avoid the `tyranny` of numbers and concentrated on the main lessons learned. Topics include: filtration devices for air pollution abatement, crack repair and inspection, and remote handling equipment.

  18. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  19. Trajectories of Achievement within Race/Ethnicity: "Catching Up" in Achievement across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Jager, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap has long been the focus of educational research, policy, and intervention. The authors took a new approach to examining the achievement gap by examining achievement trajectories within each racial group. To identify these trajectories they used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, which is a nationally…

  20. Closing the Achievement Gap. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The "achievement gap" is a matter of race and class. Across the U.S., a gap in academic achievement persists between minority and disadvantaged students and their white counterparts. This is one of the most pressing education-policy challenges that states currently face. For decades, policymakers, researchers, and school reformers have sought ways…

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps between…

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  5. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals...

  6. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals...

  7. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals...

  8. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals...

  9. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  10. ALARA plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Amendment 1 for Appendix B: Install flex-pipe on tank riser spools

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-13

    This amendment to Appendix B contains the specific ALARA evaluations for installing flex-pipe on riser spools to accommodate ventilation duct connections to the north risers of each tank. The work will be a routine task that is part of the Equipment Installation and Mobilization phase of the project. The dose rates were estimated using the recent Radiological Surveillance Section radiological survey: SAAS-97-063S. Task B-6 has been added to the OHF Project ALARA review process to address a field decision to modify an approach to installing the tank ventilation system. The revised approach will incorporate 12-in. diameter, 36-in. long, stainless steel flex-pipe connected to each north riser spool to address the problem of pipe fitting multiple bends and turns expected with the 12-in. PVC duct. This improved approach will reduce the time necessary to install the duct system between the tanks and the ventilation skid. However, the task includes opening the 12-in. riser spool connections to replace the currently installed blind gaskets. Since a riser spool for each tank will be opened, there is a potential for significant personnel exposure and spread of contamination that will addressed through this ALARA review process.

  11. Human Capital: Building the Information Technology Workforce To Achieve Results. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Technology and Procurement Policy, Committee on Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David M.

    The Comptroller General of the United States testified before Congress regarding the General Accounting Office's (GAO's) framework for building the information technology (IT) work force to achieve results. The following were among the key points of his testimony: (1) the federal government is facing pervasive human capital challenges that are…

  12. Narrowing the Achievement Gap: Perspectives and Strategies for Challenging Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Thomas B., Ed.; Maxwell-Jolly, Julie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This timely and thoughtful book provides multiple perspectives on closing achievement gaps. Closing persistent gaps in educational outcomes between different groups of students has been a central goal of educational policy for the past forty years. The commitment to close existing achievement gaps poses an unprecedented challenge to policy makers,…

  13. Evaluating the Effects of Programs for Reducing Achievement Gaps: A Case Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Lan; Kuo, Nien-Ping; Chang, Tien-Ying; Chiou, Jia-Min

    2014-01-01

    Considering that achievement gaps have become a serious educational problem worldwide, the Ministry of Education in Taiwan has been addressing a series of policies to reduce achievement gaps, but the effect of these policies has not yet been carefully examined. Therefore, the present study investigated current educational policies, achievement gap…

  14. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms, the…

  15. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  16. Academic Bankruptcy. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Amy Berk; Lewis, Anne C.

    In an effort to improve student achievement in low-performing districts, 22 states have developed academic bankruptcy laws, allowing them to intervene in districts that consistently fail to satisfy state education performance standards. This policy brief presents an overview of these statutes. The text offers a comparative summary of state…

  17. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the 2000 edition of the "Education Policy Analysis Archives." The papers include: (1) "Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence" (Linda Darling-Hammond); (2) "America Y2K: The Obsolescence of Educational Reforms" (Sherman Dorn); (3) "Forces for Change in Mathematics Education: The Case of…

  18. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the 19 articles published in the Electronic Journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 1996: (1) "The Achievement Crisis Is Real: A Review of 'The Manufactured Crisis'" (Lawrence C. Stedman); (2) "Staff Development Policy: Fuzzy Choices in an Imperfect Market" (Robert T. Stout); (3) "Making Molehills out of…

  19. Space Policy and Humanities Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frodeman, Robert

    2005-05-01

    In his 14 January 2004 speech on the future of space exploration, U.S. President George W. Bush proposed a return to the Moon followed by ``human missions to Mars and to worlds beyond.'' Bush's proposal called for robotic missions and new manned space vehicles to replace an aging set of space shuttles, and sought a new justification for space exploration. In the words of former NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe, in The Vision for Space Exploration, this plan is not ``merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that might be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophic questions.'' Bush's proposal stimulated renewed reflection on the goals of our nation's space policy and on the means (financial and otherwise) for achieving these goals. A return to such first-order questioning of our goals for space has been long overdue. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board, which was convened by NASA in 2003 following the shuttle disaster, described ``a lack, over the past three decades, of any national mandate providing NASA a compelling mission requiring human presence in space'' [Keiper, 2003].

  20. Greater Energy Savings through Building Energy Performance Policy: Four Leading Policy and Program Options

    SciTech Connect

    SEE Action Existing Commercial Buildings Working Group

    2014-05-30

    This paper lays out recommendations for linking existing policies and developing new policies, such that their success is based on the real energy savings achieved in buildings. This approach has the potential to affect the entire building lifecycle.

  1. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeh, Eligar

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers an evolutionary perspective of space policy. It is argued that (1) space policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the past fifty years of the space-age; and that (2) space policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. To this end, the paper analyzes space policy at several levels of analysis. This includes: (1) historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes, and policy outcomes; (2) the symbiotic relationships between policy and space technology; and (3) future space policy trends and developments likely to occur in the 21st century. A "Space Politics and Policy Framework" is developed in this paper to represent the evolution of space policy. Space policy involves both the process of policy formation and policy change over time (e.g., emergence of commercialization) and the courses of action taken to achieve political (and technological) determined outcomes. The evolution of space policy over time takes place through policy change. On this basis, public policy processes over the course of the space-age have involved the mobilization of governmental resources, actors, and institutions. Concomitantly, nongovernmental actors, such as private corporations and commercial enterprises, increasingly play a role in space. As a result, market factors in addition to political forces influence space policy.

  2. Intellectually Gifted Students: Issues and Policy Implications. Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.

    The paper examines policy issues in the area of gifted education. The first section reviews the problem area including definitions of giftedness and aims of gifted education. The next section briefly outlines major research influences which focus on learning rate, socialization, school achievement, and life achievement. The third section reviews…

  3. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  4. Supporting Adolescent Literacy Achievement. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ilene

    2009-01-01

    This brief enhances recommendations and policy strategies from the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) publication "Reading to Achieve: A Governor's Guide to Adolescent Literacy". It reflects lessons from recent research and best practices from states selected to receive NGA Center support to develop statewide…

  5. Assets and Educational Achievement: Theory and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William; Sherraden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Economics of Education Review explores the role of savings and asset holding in post-secondary educational achievement. Most college success research has focused on income rather than assets as a predictor, and most college financing policy has focused on tuition support and educational debt, rather than asset accumulation.…

  6. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  7. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  8. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  9. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  10. 44 CFR 331.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 331.2 Section 331.2... SURPLUS AREAS § 331.2 Policy. (a) It is the policy of the Federal Government to award appropriate..., and to make the best use of our natural, industrial and labor resources in order to achieve...

  11. 48 CFR 927.402-2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 927.402-2 Section 927.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights 927.402-2 Policy. The technical data policy is directed toward achieving the...

  12. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals and to follow the procedures declared by...

  13. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  14. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  15. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  16. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  17. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  18. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  19. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  20. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  1. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  2. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  3. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  4. Undergraduate Education: Assessing College Student Achievement. Item #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    An evaluation was conducted of the implementation by public universities and community colleges in Illinois of state policies on student scholarship and achievement in undergraduate education. The policies were proposed in 1986 and revised in 1990 by the Illinois State Board of Higher Education in the context of state and national education…

  5. Labour Policy for Lower Achievers, Special Needs and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    This article notes that the attempt to include all young people in education, an aim of Labour governments over the years, still relies on an expanded and expensive special educational needs "industry". How to include all lower attainers and those with disabilities in the education system and the economy is a political issue for a Labour…

  6. Achievement, Poverty and Privatization in England: Policy and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry

    2012-01-01

    For many years, England has been the epitome of high-stakes accountability, often playing leapfrog with the USA. It represents an extreme of centralized surveillance, with schools organized as a quasi-market and supervised through a punitive combination of external inspection, the use of test data to name and shame schools, and ultimately closure…

  7. The Contradictions of Education Policy: Disadvantage and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alma; Ranson, Stewart

    2005-01-01

    In England, New Labour's Five Year Strategy for Children and Learners is presented as the most radical for a generation, addressing systemic weaknesses and enabling a new social democratic settlement to secure education in the public sphere. In this article the authors test these claims against proposals in the Strategy that acknowledge and seek…

  8. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  9. Barriers to Policy Change and a Suggested Path for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Yijia

    2013-01-01

    China's one-child policy has been an unprecedented policy experiment in human history. Despite its significant achievements, the policy has induced equally significant potential problems. As problems of the one-child policy have been widely noticed and suggestions for adjustments are available, the leadership transition of China in 2012 and 2013…

  10. The Big Picture: The National Achievement Agenda and Minority Ethnic Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes issues of minority student achievement in the context of United Kingdom government policies and the government's Standards and Effectiveness Unit (SEU). Discusses: (1) the big picture; (2) data on ethnic student achievement; (3) SEU policies; (4) government approaches to the Ethnic Minority Achievement Grant; and (5) issues for the…

  11. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  12. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  13. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  14. No Child Left Behind: Meeting Challenges, Seizing Opportunities, Improving Achievement. Achieve Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Joseph, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This brief examines issues raised by the No Child Left Behind Act critical to long-term success of states' reforms. These issues include building a coherent testing program (lead with standards, not tests, and ensure the quality of all tests, particularly their alignment with state standards); managing trade-offs between high expectations and high…

  15. Academic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL.

    This statement outlines the academic policies of the City Colleges of Chicago. Part I outlines the Institution's academic standards, covering: (1) student class attendance; (2) the grading system; (3) mid-term grades; (4) the use of non-grade designations; i.e., administrative initiated withdrawal, auditor, no-show withdrawal, incomplete, and…

  16. Formative Evaluation of the Student Achievement Initiative "Learning Year"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Ellwein, Todd; Boswell, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    In September 2007, the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC) officially launched the Student Achievement Initiative, a system-wide policy to reward colleges for improvements in student achievement. Developed by a task force comprised of State Board members, college trustees, presidents, and faculty representatives,…

  17. Examining Charter Student Achievement Effects across Seven States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Ron; Gill, Brian; Booker, Kevin; Lavertu, Stephane; Witte, John

    2012-01-01

    Since their inception, charter schools have been a lighting rod for controversy, with much of the debate revolving around their effectiveness in improving student achievement. Previous research has shown mixed results for student achievement; this could be the consequence of different policy environments or varying methodological approaches with…

  18. Is the Achievement Gap in Indiana Narrowing? Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spradlin, Terry E.; Kirk, Ryan; Walcott, Crystal; Kloosterman, Peter; Zaman, Khadija; McNabb, Sarah; Zapf, Jason

    2005-01-01

    In this Special Report, the Center for Evaluation and Education Policy at Indiana University examines the factors that contribute to student achievement gaps, defines the scope of the achievement gaps that exist in Indiana, evaluates whether these gaps are narrowing or will persist as Neal suggests, and offers strategies that have been identified…

  19. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  20. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  1. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  2. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  3. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  4. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  5. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  6. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  7. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  8. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  9. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  10. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  11. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  12. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  13. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  14. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  15. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  16. Rural Schools: Diverse Needs Call for Flexible Policies. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Michael L.

    The development of effective policies to improve rural schools is impeded by the lack of a consistent definition of "rural" and a paucity of good rural education research. The argument for consolidating small rural schools into larger ones is based on the assumptions that larger school systems can achieve economies of scale that reduce per-pupil…

  17. A review of EIAs on trade policy in China: Exploring the way for economic policy EIAs

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng; Kørnøv, Lone; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-01-15

    During the discussion on the “Environmental Protection Law Amendment (draft)” in 2011, it was decided to drop the proposed clauses related to environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on policy, which means that there remained no provisions for policy EIAs, and China's strategic environmental assessment system stayed limited to the planning level. However, considering that economic policy making is causing significant direct and indirect environmental problems and that almost every aspect of governmental policy has an economic aspect, EIAs on economic policies are of the utmost urgency. The purpose of this study is to review the EIA work that has been carried out on trade policy in China through four case studies, and illustrate how trade policy EIAs can be helpful in achieving better environmental outcomes in the area of trade. Through the trade policy EIA case studies we try to argue for the feasibility of conducting EIAs on economic policies in China. We also discuss the implications of the case studies from the point of view of how to proceed with EIAs on economic policy and how to promote their practice. - Highlights: • SEA system is incomplete and stays limited to the plan EIA level in China. • EIA on economic policy is of utmost importance for all the developing countries. • Four case studies of trade policy EIA in China are reviewed for policy implications. • Departmental competition for political power impedes economic policy EIAs in China. • Legislative regulation on policy EIA is the first thing needed to overcome barrier.

  18. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  19. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  20. Toward a Rural Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, James G.

    The study examines programs aimed at encouraging the economic, social, and cultural development of rural areas; the nature of activities undertaken and results achieved; major provisions of the new Rural Development Act; and directions which future policies and programs should take. A statement by the National Planning Association (NPA)…

  1. Internet Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  2. Developmental Pathways from Parental Substance Use to Childhood Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Saar, Naomi S.; Brook, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the pathways to childhood academic achievement in 209 African American and Puerto Rican children and their mothers. There were three pathways to childhood academic achievement: (a) the mother-child relationship and the child’s personality mediated between parental substance use and childhood academic achievement; (b) the child’s personality mediated between parental education and childhood academic achievement; and (c) there was a direct relationship between the child’s gender and childhood academic achievement. Policy and clinical implications suggest the importance of increasing educational opportunities for all parents, providing substance use treatment and self-esteem workshops, and altering the school curriculum. PMID:20525035

  3. School Uniform Policies in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsma, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The movement for school uniforms in public schools continues to grow despite the author's research indicating little if any impact on student behavior, achievement, and self-esteem. The author examines the distribution of uniform policies by region and demographics, the impact of these policies on perceptions of school climate and safety, and…

  4. 48 CFR 223.570-1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570-1 Policy. DoD policy is to ensure that its contractors maintain a program for achieving a drug-free work force....

  5. 48 CFR 223.570-1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570-1 Policy. DoD policy is to ensure that its contractors maintain a program for achieving a drug-free work force....

  6. 44 CFR 206.341 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Coastal Barrier Resources Act § 206.341 Policy. It shall be the policy of FEMA to achieve the goals of CBRA in carrying out disaster relief on units of the... to fish, wildlife and other natural resources associated with coastal barriers along the Atlantic...

  7. 48 CFR 223.570-1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570-1 Policy. DoD policy is to ensure that its contractors maintain a program for achieving a drug-free work force....

  8. Reaching beyond Democracy in Educational Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    Educational policy analyses have tended toward either the impact of policies on student achievement or the furthering of progressive ideals, regularly theorized through concepts of democracy. In this theoretical essay, I suggest that democracy has become a vehicle for cauterized projects of individualized and contingent state status rather than…

  9. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  10. Policy opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

  11. Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and differentiated activities which involve both…

  12. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  13. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  14. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  15. Implementing Nunavut Education Act: Compulsory School Attendance Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwarteng, E. Fredua

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of Nunavut compulsory school attendance policy as part of the Nunavut Education Act (2002). Using a bottom-up approach to policy implementation in the literature and the author's six years teaching experience in Nunavut, the paper argues that the compulsory school attendance policy may not achieve its…

  16. 16 CFR 1012.1 - General policy considerations; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General policy considerations; scope. 1012.1 Section 1012.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL MEETINGS POLICY-MEETINGS BETWEEN AGENCY PERSONNEL AND OUTSIDE PARTIES § 1012.1 General policy considerations; scope. (a) To achieve its goals of involving the public...

  17. Integrating agricultural policies and water policies under water supply and climate uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MejíAs, Patricia; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Flichman, Guillermo

    2004-07-01

    Understanding the interactions of water and agricultural policies is crucial for achieving an efficient management of water resources. In the EU, agricultural and environmental policies are seeking to converge progressively toward mutually compatible objectives and, in this context, the recently reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the EU Water Framework Directive constitute the policy framework in which irrigated agriculture and hence water use will evolve. In fact, one of the measures of the European Water Directive is to establish a water pricing policy for improving water use and attaining a more efficient water allocation. The aim of this research is to investigate the irrigators' responses to these changing policy developments in a self-managed irrigation district in southern Spain. A stochastic programming model has been developed to estimate farmers' response to the application of water pricing policies in different agricultural policy scenarios when water availability is subject to varying climate conditions and water storage capacity in the district's reservoir. Results show that irrigators are price-responsive, but a similar water-pricing policy in different agricultural policy options could have distinct effects on water use, farmers' income, and collected revenue by the water authority. Water availability is a critical factor, and pricing policies are less effective for reducing water consumption in drought years. Thus there is a need to integrate the objectives of water policies within the objectives of the CAP programs to avoid distortion effects and to seek synergy between these two policies.

  18. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  19. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  20. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  1. Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

    2009-01-01

    The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

  2. Management Matters. Selection Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important policy documents for a school library media center is the selection policy or the collection development policy. A well-developed selection policy provides a rationale for the selection decisions made by the school library media specialist. A selection policy represents the criteria against which a challenged book is…

  3. Pegram Lecture: Science Policy & Current Policy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Marburger, III

    2008-11-18

    Drawing on his experience as a research scientist, academic administrator, national laboratory director and presidential science advisor, Marburger focuses on the intellectual machinery of science policy and current policy issues.

  4. [Population policy: speeches and actions].

    PubMed

    Soto Lopez, A

    1991-06-01

    Mexico's population policy was created almost 20 years ago in response to the need to regulate the country's population growth. Currently the policy stresses more balanced distribution of the population in accordance with realistic development possibilities. By 1986 it was recognized that population policy in Mexico had gone beyond mere control of fertility to encompass direct government intervention in more complex global problems. It was concluded that the possibility of achieving rational population distribution depended on balanced regional development. A strong family planning policy, efforts to integrate demographic programs into general development plans, employment policies, and measures to encourage harmonious spatial distribution were viewed as necessary, but it was also felt that greater speed was required and that the population policy should play a larger role in the development strategy. The National Population Program for 1989-94 has the objectives of promoting the integration of demographic objectives into economic and social planning and promoting a decline in the rate of population growth from 1.8% in 1995 to 1.5% in 2000 through fertility decline. It seeks a more rational population distribution in which the weight of large metropolitan zones would be reduced and growth of intermediate and small cities promoted. It seeks to encourage greater participation by women in the nation's life, and to contribute to integrated development and elevation in the living standards of indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. Greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous populations

  5. An Examination of Two Policy Networks Involved in Advancing Smokefree Policy Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Carothers, Bobbi J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines smokefree policy networks in two cities—Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri—one that was successful in achieving widespread policy success, and one that was not. Descriptive social network analyses and visual network mapping were used to compare importance and contact relationships among actors involved in the smokefree policy initiatives. In Kansas City, where policy adoption was achieved, there was a higher level of connectivity among members, with network members being in contact with an average of more than five people, compared to just over two people for the St. Louis network. For both cities, despite being recognized as important, politicians were in contact with the fewest number of people. Results highlight the critical need to actively engage a variety of stakeholders when attempting city wide public health policy change. As evident by the success in smokefree policy adoption throughout Kansas City compared to St. Louis, closer linkages and continued communication among stakeholders including the media, coalitions, public health agencies, policymakers, and other partners are essential if we are to advance and broaden the impact of public health policy. Results indicate that the presence of champions, or those that play leadership roles in actively promoting policy by linking individuals and organizations, play an important role in advancing public health policy. Those working in public health should examine their level of engagement with the policy process and implement strategies for improving that engagement through relationship building and ongoing interactions with a variety of stakeholders, including policymakers. PMID:26371022

  6. An Examination of Two Policy Networks Involved in Advancing Smokefree Policy Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Carothers, Bobbi J

    2015-09-01

    This study examines smokefree policy networks in two cities—Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri—one that was successful in achieving widespread policy success, and one that was not. Descriptive social network analyses and visual network mapping were used to compare importance and contact relationships among actors involved in the smokefree policy initiatives. In Kansas City, where policy adoption was achieved, there was a higher level of connectivity among members, with network members being in contact with an average of more than five people, compared to just over two people for the St. Louis network. For both cities, despite being recognized as important, politicians were in contact with the fewest number of people. Results highlight the critical need to actively engage a variety of stakeholders when attempting city wide public health policy change. As evident by the success in smokefree policy adoption throughout Kansas City compared to St. Louis, closer linkages and continued communication among stakeholders including the media, coalitions, public health agencies, policymakers, and other partners are essential if we are to advance and broaden the impact of public health policy. Results indicate that the presence of champions, or those that play leadership roles in actively promoting policy by linking individuals and organizations, play an important role in advancing public health policy. Those working in public health should examine their level of engagement with the policy process and implement strategies for improving that engagement through relationship building and ongoing interactions with a variety of stakeholders, including policymakers. PMID:26371022

  7. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  8. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  9. Predicting Mathematics Achievement: The Influence of Prior Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Grootenboer, Peter; Kay, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Achievement in mathematics is inextricably linked to future career opportunities, and therefore, understanding those factors that influence achievement is important. This study sought to examine the relationships among attitude towards mathematics, ability and mathematical achievement. This examination was also supported by a focus on gender…

  10. [Prevention in regional policy].

    PubMed

    Masi, M; Caponetti, A

    2006-01-01

    Prevention, safety and health promotion represent fondamental issues in the Regional policy. With this regard, the implementation of the Regional policy has been thought as the promotion of an integrated system which links different fields such as health, work-related information and education, job orientation and work in general. It is recommended that a good standard of prevention is achieved through the synergic actions and the collaborations among all the different actors playing a role in safety and prevention in workplace, including occupational physicians, safety and prevention operators, safety representatives for workers, trade unions, employers associations and public institutions. It is also necessary to adopt a strategy in order to decrease the number of misdiagnosed occupational diseases as well as to promote the "culture of safety in workplaces", increasing the awareness of all figures, with special focus on employers category. All this has to be set in the new scenario of the nowadays work characterized by the progressive increase of atypical job contracts, renewing the emphasis on the necessity of keeping joined "the right to a job with the right to health". PMID:17144418

  11. Student Health and Academic Achievement

    MedlinePlus

    ... 11 Resources Health and Academics Data and Statistics Bullying and Absenteeism: Information for State and Local Education Agencies [PDF - 624 KB] Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ...

  12. Want to Close the Achievement Gap? Close the Teaching Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    For years now, educators have looked to international tests as a yardstick to measure how well students from the United States are learning compared with their peers. The answer has been: not so well. The United States has been falling further behind other nations and has struggled with a large achievement gap. Federal policy under No Child Left…

  13. Does Children's Academic Achievement Improve when Single Mothers Marry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagmiller, Robert L., Jr.; Gershoff, Elizabeth; Veliz, Philip; Clements, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Promoting marriage, especially among low-income single mothers with children, is increasingly viewed as a promising public policy strategy for improving developmental outcomes for disadvantaged children. Previous research suggests, however, that children's academic achievement either does not improve or declines when single mothers marry. In this…

  14. Integrating Technology for Academic Achievement in Phonics and Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Hope I.

    2010-01-01

    With the push for teacher accountability and the controversy concerning high-stakes testing, more teachers are looking for systematic ways to increase academic achievement. If the U.S. is to regain its global position as number 1 in the education arena, education policy must dictate that teachers integrate technology as a regular part of core…

  15. "Brains before "Beauty"?" High Achieving Girls, School and Gender Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky; Read, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In recent years educational policy on gender and achievement has concentrated on boys' underachievement, frequently comparing it with the academic success of girls. This has encouraged a perception of girls as the "winners" of the educational stakes and assumes that they no longer experience the kinds of gender inequalities identified in earlier…

  16. Classroom, School, and District Impacts on Diverse Student Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Kristen Campbell; Lawson, Hal A.; Angelis, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Prior research has investigated the literacy achievement gap with particular focus on ethnically and linguistically diverse students' performance. This study extends that research by examining the relationships among classroom instructional practices, school priorities, and district policies in higher performing schools.…

  17. Student Achievement Levels Raised at Chandler High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Profiles, Programs & Products, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Chandler (Arizona) High School has reported a dramatic increase in student achievement levels since implementing a number of management, curriculum, and discipline policy changes. Among the program changes that contributed to these gains are: (1) creation of a positive school environment, with high expectations for teachers, emphasis on high…

  18. Educating Girls: Strategies To Increase Access, Persistence, and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tietjen, Karen; Prather, Cynthia, Ed.

    This document reviews the interventions, such as policies, programs, and projects, that have been implemented by governments, donors, and other institutions to increase girls' access, persistence, and achievement at the primary school level. It examines both the formal system of primary education and nontraditional, alternative approaches to reach…

  19. Minority Student Report 2005: A Snapshot of Arizona's Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester, Christine A.; Drake, Tonya M.

    2005-01-01

    This document, from the Arizona Minority Education Policy Analysis Center (AMEPAC), reports the educational achievement of minority students in Arizona, from kindergarten through college. As a snapshot it is simply a description of what is, and the data are, thus, open to interpretation. How the numbers look and what they mean may be two different…

  20. Are Teachers Responsible for Low Achievement by Poor Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Backers of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) based their support on the belief that teachers and administrators primarily were responsible for low levels of achievement by America's poor. But this one-sided view is both inadequate and unsupported by the evidence. The author argues that harsh social policies and the pernicious effects of poverty are more…

  1. Instructional Conditions in Charter Schools and Students' Mathematics Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Mark; Goldring, Ellen; Stein, Marc; Cravens, Xiu

    2010-01-01

    Since charter school research on student achievement is mixed, many researchers and policy makers advocate looking inside the "black box" of schools to better understand the conditions under which schools of choice may be effective. We begin to address this issue with data from charter schools and a comparison group of traditional public schools.…

  2. Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This study confirms that there is reason for concern about…

  3. Policy issues in space analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, Robin N.; Facktor, Debra D.

    Space mission planning is increasingly focusing on destinations beyond Earth orbit. Advancements in technology will inevitably be required to enable long-duration human spaceflight missions, and breakthroughs in the policy arena will also be needed to achieve success in such missions. By exploring how policy issues have been addressed in analogous extreme environments, policymakers can develop a framework for addressing these issues as they apply to long-term human spaceflight. Policy issues that need to be addressed include: crew selection, training, organization, and activities, medical testing, illness, injury, and death; communication; legal accountability and liability; mission safety and risk management; and environmental contamination. This paper outlines the approach of a study underway by The George Washington University and ANSER to examine how these policy issues have been addressed in several analogues and how the experiences of these analogues can help formulate policies for long-duration human spaceflight missions. Analogues being studied include Antarctic bases, submarine voyages, undersea stations, Biosphere 2, and the U.S. Skylab and Russian Mir space stations.

  4. [Research Reports on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latts, Sander; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Four counselors studied the relation between achievement and choice of major, achievement and motivation, counseling and motivation, and achievement and employment. To see if those with definite majors or career choices in mind did better than those without, 300 students were tested according to the certainty of their choice. No significant…

  5. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  6. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  7. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  8. The analytical foundations of conservation policy

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    The conservation paradigm is described here as: (1) reflecting the policy goal of energy efficiency, (2) the investment model that market barrier inhibit energy efficiency investments and (3) the emphasis of engineering estimates of market efficiency. In contrast, the economics paradigm emphasizes: (1) economic efficiency and equity, (2) market failures or market imperfections as impediments to achieving economic efficiency and (3) the behavior of markets to make efficient choices. Market barriers discourage investments in energy efficiency, but this is irrelevant for policy purposes where energy efficiency differs from economic efficiency. Where market barriers discourage economically efficient investments, they are of dubious significance for policy purposes unless they are market failures. The market barriers alleged in the conservation literature typically do not coincide with market failures. In a competitive and efficient market economy, investments judged efficient by engineering and present value calculations will not instantaneously achieve a market share of 100 percent. Barriers that delay diffusion are not necessarily appropriate for Government policy.

  9. Implementation of pro-poor exemption policy in Tanzania: policy versus reality.

    PubMed

    Idd, Aisha; Yohana, Odongo; Maluka, Stephen Oswald

    2013-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Tanzania has been implementing user fee policy in its health sector since the early 1990s. Accompanying user fee, mechanisms were designed that exempted the poor and vulnerable groups of the society from paying user charges. Although studies on the implementation of exemption policies in Tanzania exist, very few have documented the actual process of translating exemption policies into actions-the process of implementation. Drawing from policy analysis and implementation theories, this paper documents the implementation of the waiver (need-based exemptions) policy in Tanzania. The findings indicate that waiver systems, while potentially effective in principle, were ineffective in implementation. Lack of specification of criteria by which the poor could be identified made policy implementers at different levels to implement the policy in their own style. Low level of public awareness about the existence of waiver mechanisms hindered the poor to demand exemptions. Furthermore, fear of loss of revenue at the health facilities and ineffective enforcement mechanisms provided little incentives for local government leaders and health workers to communicate the policy to beneficiaries. It is concluded from this study that to better achieve the objectives of the pro-poor exemption policy, it is important to engage policy implementers more actively in the management and implementation of policies. Additionally, it is imperative to understand the behaviour and practices of policy implementers, especially district health managers, health workers and village and ward leaders, who may react negatively to new policies and implement the policies in ways contrary to what policy makers had intended. PMID:23553614

  10. The Uneven Implementation of Universal School Policies: Maternal Education and Florida's Mandatory Grade Retention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LiCalsi, Christina; Ozek, Umut; Figlio, David

    2016-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates a strong, positive relationship between parents' socioeconomic status and children's educational achievement. This achievement gap is already present when children enter school in kindergarten and, despite the numerous policies aimed at leveling the educational playing field for disadvantaged students, it does…

  11. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  12. [Does Poland need a population policy?].

    PubMed

    Holzer, J Z

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to present some important issues relative to population policy, and to prove the need for such a policy in Poland. A population policy is defined as a combination of direct and indirect actions by the state to influence the growth of the population, as well as its distribution and structure. As in most European countries, an average Polish household has 2 children, a smallpercentage of families have 3 children, and many households have no children, or only 1 child. Therefore, a probirth policy is recommended to maintain the birth rate at 2.10-2.20. However, within such a policy, a family should be free to make its own plans for reproduction. Contraceptives must be available and abortion should be permitted. Given the unsaturated market and permanent shortage of essential goods, a Polish population policy can only be considered from the perspective of a general socioeconomic policy. To pursue the goals of an efficient population policy, an acceptable standard of living should be achieved. Strategically, population policy in Poland should be aimed at creating an optimal structure that would correspond to the stable and, at some point, stationary population model. An evolutionary transition to a stable (or stationary) model should take place over 2 or 3 generations. Such structural changes should go hand-in-hand with permanent improvements in the health, welfare, and cultural life of the population. PMID:12314830

  13. Operations Policy Manual, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council's (TEAC's) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Contents include: (1) Policies Related to TEAC Members; (2) Policies Related…

  14. Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: Becoming Policy Aware, Policy Wise and Policy Active.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    Stemming from my article entitled, "Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: The Changing Emphasis in Educational Policy Analysis," this article describes the changing landscape of educational policy analysis. Here, I illustrate that traditionally teachers have been, to a certain degree, involved in policy processes. However, the degree to which…

  15. Integrating policy-based management and SLA performance monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tzong-Jye; Lin, Chin-Yi; Chang, Shu-Hsin; Yen, Meng-Tzu

    2001-10-01

    Policy-based management system provides the configuration capability for the system administrators to focus on the requirements of customers. The service level agreement performance monitoring mechanism helps system administrators to verify the correctness of policies. However, it is difficult for a device to process the policies directly because the policies are the management concept. This paper proposes a mechanism to decompose a policy into rules that can be efficiently processed by a device. Thus, the device may process the rule and collect the performance statistics information efficiently; and the policy-based management system may collect these performance statistics information and report the service-level agreement performance monitoring information to the system administrator. The proposed policy-based management system achieves both the policy configuration and service-level agreement performance monitoring requirements. A policy consists of a condition part and an action part. The condition part is a Boolean expression of a source host IP group, a destination host IP group, etc. The action part is the parameters of services. We say that an address group is compact if it only consists of a range of IP address that can be denoted by a pair of IP address and corresponding IP mask. If the condition part of a policy only consists of the compact address group, we say that the policy is a rule. Since a device can efficiently process a compact address and a system administrator prefers to define a range of IP address, the policy-based management system has to translate policy into rules and supplements the gaps between policy and rules. The proposed policy-based management system builds the relationships between VPN and policies, policy and rules. Since the system administrator wants to monitor the system performance information of VPNs and policies, the proposed policy-based management system downloads the relationships among VPNs, policies and rules to the

  16. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  17. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  18. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  19. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  20. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  1. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  2. FROM ASSESSMENT TO POLICY--LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE U.S. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The process of translating scientific information into timely and useful insights that inform policy and resource management decisions, despite the existence of uncertainties, is a difficult and challenging task. Policy-focused assessment is one approach to achieving this end. ...

  3. Social-Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap.

    PubMed

    Becker, Bronwyn E; Luthar, Suniya S

    2002-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social-emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social-emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students' learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social-emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  4. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  5. Educated Parents, Educated Children: Toward a Multiple Life Cycles Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticht, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Given the important intergenerational effects of parents' education level on the achievement of their children, education policies should shift from a focus on one life cycle to a focus on "multiple life cycles". Such a policy would explicitly recognize that adults transfer their educational achievements to the achievement of their children. It…

  6. The Process of Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  7. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  8. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  9. Motivational Factors in School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    A summary is presented of the literature on motivation relating to achievement in the classroom. Special attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns may serve to enhance motivation to achieve in the classroom. In considering what determines motivation and personal investment in educational pursuits, the following…

  10. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  11. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  12. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  13. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  14. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  15. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  16. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  17. Superintendent Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the influence of superintendent tenure on student achievement in rural Appalachian Kentucky school districts. Superintendent tenure was compared to aggregated student achievement scores for 2011 and to changes in students' learning outcomes over the course of the superintendents' tenure. The…

  18. Does Homework Really Improve Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Should public school teachers assign daily homework? Should school districts have policies requiring teachers to assign homework? Is homework beneficial to students? Do students learn from completing daily homework? In this article, a review of literature is included offering pros and cons to students doing homework with various counterpoint…

  19. A TWO CENTURY HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Achieving ecological sustainability is a daunting challenge. In the Pacific Northwest one of the most highly visible public policy debates concerns the future of salmon populations. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeare...

  20. Position Paper: Applying Machine Learning to Software Analysis to Achieve Trusted, Repeatable Scientific Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J; Symons, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Producing trusted results from high-performance codes is essential for policy and has significant economic impact. We propose combining rigorous analytical methods with machine learning techniques to achieve the goal of repeatable, trustworthy scientific computing.

  1. UPM: unified policy-based network management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Eddie; Saxena, Achint

    2001-07-01

    Besides providing network management to the Internet, it has become essential to offer different Quality of Service (QoS) to users. Policy-based management provides control on network routers to achieve this goal. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has proposed a two-tier architecture whose implementation is based on the Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). However, there are several limitations to this design such as scalability and cross-vendor hardware compatibility. To address these issues, we present a functionally enhanced multi-tier policy management architecture design in this paper. Several extensions are introduced thereby adding flexibility and scalability. In particular, an intermediate entity between the policy server and policy rule database called the Policy Enforcement Agent (PEA) is introduced. By keeping internal data in a common format, using a standard protocol, and by interpreting and translating request and decision messages from multi-vendor hardware, this agent allows a dynamic Unified Information Model throughout the architecture. We have tailor-made this unique information system to save policy rules in the directory server and allow executions of policy rules with dynamic addition of new equipment during run-time.

  2. Facing up to Realities: Harvard Economist Investigates the Racial Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    As an economist, Dr. Ronald F. Ferguson often applies quantitative analysis to public policy dilemmas, which yields data models and quantitative measures of complex issues. In tackling the racial achievement gap, the Harvard-based social policy expert has added investigation techniques from sociology and psychology to explore what might seem a…

  3. Parental Involvement during the Foundational K-6 Years in Education, School Choice, and Student Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rebekah A.

    2013-01-01

    Parental involvement in education has long been recognized as an important indicator of student academic achievement. Teachers, administrators, policy makers, and our state and federal government continue to recognize the vital role of the parent in education. Policies and mandates, with titles such as "No Child Left Behind" and…

  4. Minority Student Report 2007: A Snapshot of Arizona's Educational Achievement. Pre Kindergarden-Postsecondary Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Tonya M.; Osborne, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    Arizona Minority Education Policy Analysis Center (AMEPAC) is a policy center of the Arizona Commission for Postsecondary Education. AMEPAC's mission is to stimulate, through studies, statewide discussion, and debate, constructive improvement of Arizona minority students' early awareness, access, and achievement throughout all sectors of…

  5. Decentralization and Policy Design. CPRE Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for Policy Research in Education, New Brunswick, NJ.

    This policy brief focuses on design issues surrounding decentralization policies, drawing from the following three reports: "Working Models of Choice in Public Education," by Richard F. Elmore; "Diversity Amidst Standardization: State Differential Treatment of Districts," by Susan H. Fuhrman; and "School District Restructuring in Santa Fe, New…

  6. [Energy policy rather than climate policy].

    PubMed

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy. PMID:20025789

  7. Food and beverage policies and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2015-06-01

    Government food and beverage policies can play an important role in promoting public health. Few people would question this assumption. Difficult questions can arise, however, when policymakers, public health officials, citizens, and businesses deliberate about food and beverage policies, because competing values may be at stake, such as public health, individual autonomy, personal responsibility, economic prosperity, and fairness. An ethically justified policy strikes a reasonable among competing values by meeting the following criteria: (1) the policy serves important social goal(s); (2) the policy is likely to be effective at achieving those goal(s); (3) less burdensome options are not likely to be effective at achieving the goals; (4) the policy is fair. PMID:24132618

  8. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  9. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  10. Communication Policies in Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekovic, Zdravko; Bjelica, Mihalo

    This report on communication policies in Yugoslavia is part of a larger project, sponsored by UNESCO and intended to analyze communication policies as they exist at public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Included in this report are: (1) the premise of Yugoslavian communication policy; (2) historical development of…

  11. Ethnography of Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David Cassels

    2009-01-01

    While theoretical conceptualizations of language policy have grown increasingly rich, empirical data that test these models are less common. Further, there is little methodological guidance for those who wish to do research on language policy interpretation and appropriation. The ethnography of language policy is proposed as a method which makes…

  12. Telecommunications Regulations and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimmer, Karl W.

    1981-01-01

    Addresses shifts in basic telecommunication common carrier regulatory policies over the past decade; technological and economic changes prompting these policy shifts; major regulatory action resulting from these policy shifts; and the emerging regulatory issue of alternatives to local telephone service and its possible implication for online…

  13. Materials Selection Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulsa City-County Library System, OK.

    The emphasis of the revised Tulsa (Oklahoma) City-County Library System selection policy is on meeting needs of the community rather than balancing the collection in any one library. The policy includes the "Library Bill of Rights" and covers objectives, responsibilities, maintenance of the collection, controversial materials, gifts, policy in…

  14. When Policy Joins Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen; Davin, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Policy influences practice. Policy has the capacity to strengthen practice by demanding accountability for both process and results through clear expectations as well as deliberate sanctions for failure to meet those expectations. Policies can also provide resources to meet expectations. In this article, the authors discuss how several national…

  15. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  16. Markets and childhood obesity policy.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    -effectiveness studies. Researchers, however, have as yet undertaken few such studies of obesity-related policy options. Such analyses, once available, will help policymakers achieve the greatest benefit from a fixed budget. PMID:16532659

  17. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010). This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames looking at investments and

  18. Macroeconomic policy, growth, and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Lawn, Philip

    2008-12-01

    To successfully achieve biodiversity conservation, the amount of ecosystem structure available for economic production must be determined by, and subject to, conservation needs. As such, the scale of economic systems must remain within the limits imposed by the need to preserve critical ecosystems and the regenerative and waste assimilative capacities of the ecosphere. These limits are determined by biophysical criteria, yet macroeconomics involves the use of economic instruments designed to meet economic criteria that have no capacity to achieve biophysically based targets. Macroeconomic policy cannot, therefore, directly solve the biodiversity erosion crisis. Nevertheless, good macroeconomic policy is still important given that bad macroeconomy policy is likely to reduce human well-being and increase the likelihood of social upheaval that could undermine conservation efforts. PMID:19076875

  19. Entering the policy debate: An economic evaluation of groundwater policy in flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, Marie Leigh; Garrido, Alberto

    2004-12-01

    This is an age of transition in groundwater policy. The ownership and control of aquifers, changing groundwater quality, and the impact of groundwater on the environment command the attention of policy makers around the globe. Substantial pressure exists for change in the laws and regulations governing groundwater, which are critical to the management of this critical resource. The objective of this paper is to contribute to the practical policy debate from an economic perspective. This study begins by outlining the basic stages of change in groundwater policy and their economic relevance. A set of physical, economic, and institutional indicators are suggested that may help to understand various country issues. The indicators are used to describe some actual experiences in groundwater policy in the United States and Spain that are examined for insights into common policy questions. This study suggests that the public authority to initiate groundwater policy innovations often results from the physical ties between surface and groundwater. In contexts rich with spatial and temporal externalities the situation is more complex, but this increases the social benefits that result from successful reform. A credible threat of losing rights is often necessary to create enough incentives to firm existing rights. Reductions in overall use are better achieved through purchasing and retiring rights, rather than through compensation for nonuse. Finally, the policy issues important to groundwater are often more fundamental than pricing alone. These insights may help policy makers adapt to emerging groundwater management problems.

  20. Transnational Education: Current Developments and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the transnational education trend took off since the 1980s, transnational education has come to bearing political, economic and cultural implications. Different approaches have been formulated to achieve specific policy objectives by both importing and exporting countries. Such approaches demonstrate a four dimensional composition,…

  1. Promoting Effective Preschool Programs. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn; Zellman, Gail; Li, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This is one in a series of policy briefs on key education issues prepared by the RAND Corporation for the Obama administration. Preschool education plays an important role in increasing school readiness and closing achievement gaps for children at risk. However, access to high-quality preschool programs varies greatly. Therefore, policymakers…

  2. Student Equity Policy: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Gus

    Following the introduction of first-time student fees in the California Community Colleges (CCC) in 1984, minority student enrollments decreased markedly. A special statewide symposium was convened by the Board of Governors (BOG) of the CCC, and in 1986 a major policy statement was adopted to improve minority student access and achievement. In…

  3. Drug Policy of the Framingham Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    The policy of the Framingham School System with respect to drug use and abuse is to establish a climate within its schools that is conducive to the understanding and respect for the proper use of drugs and an attitude toward nonabuse of drugs. To achieve this climate, some basic measures described in this report were taken. One measure was to set…

  4. 75 FR 63851 - Draft Friends Organizations Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Friends Organizations Policy AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... effectiveness in achieving the Service's mission through partnerships with Friends organizations (volunteer/advocate). Today, Friends organizations play a vital role in helping to fulfill the Service's mission...

  5. [Ethics and health policies].

    PubMed

    De los Santos-Briones, Saúl; Cruz-Lavadores, Dulce María

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this essay is highlight the need to establish an ethical frame of reference to formulate public health interventions. Politics and public health programs are viewed as an interaction between people where their own beliefs, moral values and expectations come together. One of the main reasons for the failure of public health interventions is that often they do not focus on the impact they will have in people's belief system and moral values. Aside from economic and epidemiological considerations, public health interventions must take into account essential human principles as self-determination, autonomy, justice, beneficence and non maleficence, social inclusion, equity, co-responsibility, citizenship, pluralism, solidarity, the right to information, privacy, confidentiality and fair treatment among others. International experiences in the establishment of ethical principles that regulate the medical profession constitute a good starting point to show that is possible to achieve a consensus for an ethical frame of reference to formulate public health policies; furthermore the accomplishment of this ethical framework will make public health more humane and dignified PMID:16025995

  6. Working Downstream: A Beginning EL Teacher Negotiating Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malsbary, Christine Brigid; Appelgate, Mollie H.

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes how a beginning teacher struggled to meet her students' needs in an ESL classroom. Her struggle demonstrated the interrelated nature of policy and practice: Policy effects in her school isolated her and made her feel solely responsible for the achievement of her newly arrived English-learning (EL) students. Her case…

  7. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Estimating Effect Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The previous articles on class size and other productivity research paint a complex and confusing picture of the relationship between policy variables and student achievement. Missing is a conceptual scheme capable of combining the seemingly unrelated research and dissimilar estimates of effect size into a unified structure for policy analysis and…

  8. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-10-02

    These Quality Policies (QPs) describe the Quality Management System of the Tank Waste Characterization Project (hereafter referred to as the Characterization Project), Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Quality Policies and quality requirements described herein are binding on all Characterization Project organizations. To achieve quality, the Characterization Project management team shall implement this Characterization Project Quality Management System.

  9. An Empirical Evaluation of Government Scholarship Policy in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehmet, Ozay; Hoong, Yip Yat

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of Malaysian government scholarships, designed to achieve restructuring objectives of the New Economic Policy, was studied. A survey of 1982-1983 graduates revealed that the scholarship policy is now generating a mismatch in the high-level personnel market. In addition, distribution of scholarships benefits high-income students.…

  10. Beyond Inclusion: Reconsidering Policies, Curriculum, and Pedagogy for Roma Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskovic, Maja; Curcic, Svjetlana

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the policies and politics of including European Roma students in mainstream educational systems within the context of two European Union (EU) policies: the Decade of Roma Inclusion (2005-2015) and EU National Roma Integration Strategies (2013-2020). Drawing on the scholarship about inclusion and its practical achievements,…

  11. A National Snapshot of Local School Wellness Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moag-Stahlberg, Alicia; Howley, Nora; Luscri, Lorry

    2008-01-01

    Background: The federal mandate for local wellness policies (LWP) provides an unprecedented opportunity to improve schools' practices that support student health, which, in turn, supports academic achievement. With a full agenda and budget challenges, districts need resources and support to turn policies into sustainable practices. The purpose of…

  12. Charting the Research on the Policies and Politics of Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    Facing relentless pressure to improve student achievement, many states and districts are using coaching as a policy lever to promote changes in practice. This special issue centers on the policies and politics of coaching, and this editorial commentary highlights what we know about the role of coaches and coaching in the field of education. Then I…

  13. Addressing Social Aggression in State Anti-Bullying Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temkin, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Social aggression, or victimization using social exclusion, rumors, and body language, has been overlooked in state anti-bullying policies since the policy surge following the 1999 Columbine Massacres. Social aggression has been associated with social anxiety disorder, depression and suicide, and lowered academic achievement and involvement. An…

  14. 21 CFR 25.10 - Policies and NEPA planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR 1502.25 and the HHS General Administration Manual, part 30: Environmental Protection. ... policies and programs will be planned, developed, and implemented to achieve the policies declared by NEPA and required by CEQ's regulations to ensure responsible stewardship of the environment for present...

  15. The Influence of a Mandatory School Uniform Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Sharon Shamburger

    This essay examines the influence of a mandatory school-uniform dress code on academic achievement and discipline infractions. In addition, student gender and type of school district were compared to show the influence of this policy. Only schools that implemented a mandatory school-uniform policy in 1996 and had data for discipline infractions…

  16. Nutrition policy process challenges in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goshtaei, Massomeh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Sari, Ali Akbari; Abdollahi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutrition transition is occurring rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. The nutrition transition occurred in Iran very fast due to urbanization and changes in the lifestyle of people, leading to overweight and obesity. However, nutritional deficiencies are still detected due to economic factors and low nutritional knowledge. Nutrition policies do not adequately respond to the nutrition challenges in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the nutrition policy process challenges in Iran. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 59 policy makers and nutrition experts of medical universities across Iran. Interviews were continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were supplemented with surveys and documentary analysis. Thematic analysis was guided by the propositions of the stages heuristic framework. Results The results were categorized into four main themes and eight sub-themes. The main themes were 1) nutrition problem definition, 2) policy formulation, 3) implementation of the policies, and 4) evaluation of the policies. However, the multi-faceted nature of the nutritional problem makes it difficult to deal with, so a multi-sectoral approach is needed. Conclusion Nutrition policies have been implemented in Iran with varying degrees of success and with different levels of cross-sectoral collaboration. The nutrition policies sometimes have not been able to respond to the nutritional problems. One of the important reasons is that nutrition is not a priority for policy makers. Many policies suffer from a lack of adequate and appropriate resource allocation. Cooperation mechanisms to resolve nutritional problems are sometimes ineffective and inefficient. PMID:27053992

  17. EPA clarifies its environmental auditing policy

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, L.L.

    1994-10-01

    EPA's audit policy is entitled ''Environmental Auditing Policy Statement.'' EPA's current policy is intended to encourage regulated entities to develop, implement and periodically upgrade environmental auditing programs. The policy outlines the elements EPA believes must be included in an audit program if it is to be effective. These include: Explicit top management support for environmental auditing and commitment to follow up on audit findings; An environmental auditing function independent of auditing activities; Adequate team staffing and auditor training; Explicit audit program objectives, scope, resources and frequency; A process that collects, analyzes, interprets and documents information sufficient to achieve audit objectives. A process that includes specific procedure to prepare promptly candid, clear and appropriate written reports on audit findings, corrective actions and schedules for implementation; and A process that includes quality assurance procedures.

  18. Policy initiation and political levers in health policy: lessons from Ghana’s health insurance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    examined the policy environment and the political leverages in retrospect at arriving at Ghana’s health insurance policy and design. New perspectives have been brought to the dynamics of the interactions of the 3 streams of problem, policy and politics. It provides lessons which suggest that in understanding the policy process, it is important that actors engage with the content as well as the context to understand viewpoints that may be expressed by interest groups. This will empower policy proponents to achieve easier results and limit the frustrations associated with the policy process. There are no straight and determined pathways for achieving outcomes so appreciating the evidence and basis for design, negotiation process and building coalitions along the way are skills to be mastered. PMID:22992292

  19. Lags in Minority Achievement Defy Traditional Explanations. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This second in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist notes that standard explanations for why minority students trail behind non-Hispanic whites are not good enough, suggesting that no single explanation for the gap exists, but instead a multitude of factors are influential. Poverty, though not the single most important cause,…

  20. Central Iowa Low Achiever Mathematics Project - Low Achiever Motivational Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joseph T.

    The materials in this booklet are designed especially for the low achieving student in mathematics. Containing some materials from a course in general mathematics, the booklet is intended to be used in conjunction with conventional textbook materials and is designed to serve as a source of new ideas for teachers and to relieve the teacher of much…

  1. Modeling sustainable groundwater management: packaging and sequencing of policy interventions.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Encarna; Dinar, Ariel

    2013-04-15

    Of the many studies estimating effectiveness of policy reforms most have been considering various types of policy reforms in isolation from each other. Such pattern has also been the case in water resource regulations. In the case of groundwater almost all policy interventions considered in the literature have been implemented individually, without taking into account the possible interactions and impacts among them. In this paper, we focus on two policy instruments: water quota and uniform water tax. The paper demonstrates how packaging and sequencing sets of policy interventions, with possible triggers to initiate their time of implementation, may be more effective in achieving a sustainable groundwater management than single policies when environmental externalities exist. The policy instruments are applied to the Western la Mancha aquifer in Southeast Spain, a major aquifer that is managed by a command and control approach. PMID:23467104

  2. Successful Track Record with Diverse Policies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center helps governments, advisors, and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through its no-cost offerings, the Solutions Center enables countries to learn from and share policy best practices, data, and analysis tools, creating an international dialogue on clean energy policies that raises global awareness of emerging policy issues and innovations. As part of these efforts, the Solutions Center provides an indispensable service by connecting those seeking policy information and advice with a policy expert who can help them achieve their goals. The Solutions Center's Ask an Expert service matches policymakers with one of the more than 30 global experts selected as authoritative leaders on specific clean energy policy topics.

  3. Achieving interoperability for accountable care.

    PubMed

    Bordenick, Jennifer Covich; Okubo, Tracy H; Kontur, Alex; Siddiqui, Nadeen

    2015-02-01

    Based on findings of a recent survey, accountable care organizations should keep eight points in mind as they seek to establish interoperability among their provider constituents: Create a shared governance structure to make IT decisions. Conduct a readiness assessment and gap analysis. Reconfigure the technology infrastructure and processes to support new value-based care delivery protocols. Consider targeting programs around high-risk groups. Develop real-time data-sharing systems. Ensure privacy and security policies and procedures are in place. Assess and address workforce issues expeditiously. Participate in broader interoperability efforts. PMID:26665540

  4. Making Policy Practice in Afterschool Programs

    PubMed Central

    Beets, Michael W.; Weaver, R. Glenn; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S.; Pate, Russell R.; Freedman, Darcy; Hutto, Brent; Moore, Justin B.; Beighle, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the U.S., afterschool programs are asked to promote moderate to vigorous physical activity. One policy that has considerable public health importance is California’s afterschool physical activity guidelines that indicate all children attending an afterschool program accumulate 30 minutes each day the program is operating. Few effective strategies exist for afterschool programs to meet this policy goal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multistep adaptive intervention designed to assist afterschool programs in meeting the 30-minute/day moderate to vigorous physical activity policy goal. Design A 1-year group randomized controlled trial with baseline (spring 2013) and post-assessment (spring 2014). Data were analyzed 2014. Setting/participants Twenty afterschool programs, serving >1,700 children (aged 6–12 years), randomized to either an intervention (n=10) or control (n=10) group. Intervention The employed framework, Strategies To Enhance Practice, focused on intentional programming of physical activity opportunities in each afterschool program’s daily schedule, and included professional development training to establish core physical activity competencies of staff and afterschool program leaders with ongoing technical assistance. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was accelerometry-derived proportion of children meeting the 30-minute/day moderate to vigorous physical activity policy. Results Children attending intervention afterschool programs had an OR of 2.37 (95% CI=1.58, 3.54) to achieve the physical activity policy at post-assessment compared to control afterschool programs. Sex-specific models indicated that the percentage of intervention girls and boys achieving the physical activity policy increased from 16.7% to 21.4% (OR=2.85, 95% CI=1.43, 5.68) and 34.2% to 41.6% (OR=2.26, 95% CI=1.35, 3.80), respectively. At post-assessment, six intervention afterschool programs increased the proportion of boys achieving the

  5. Improving Achievement for the Growing Latino Population Is Critical to the Nation's Future. Student Achievement Policy Brief #3: Latino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    More than one-fifth of the nation's public school students are Latino. By 2025, the share of Latino children is projected to increase to nearly 3 in 10 school-age children (Fry & Passel, 2009). The fast-growing Latino student population will shape the nation's future, so it is critical that these students are well-prepared for college, careers,…

  6. Academic Achievement, Race, and Reform: Six Essays on Understanding Assessment Policy, Standardized Achievement Tests, and Anti-Racist Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlak, Harold

    This set of six essays was written as a resource for those working in their schools and communities to promote social justice, combat racism, and encourage quality education for all youth. The six essays address the following set of questions: (1) What is the Academic Performance Index (API)? Where did it come from? What are the connections…

  7. Data Dashboards for School Directors: Using Data for Accountability and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State School Directors' Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This guide is designed to inform school directors about the value of a data dashboard and to provide information on how districts can create a data dashboard for school directors. A data dashboard is a tool for viewing and analyzing student achievement and performance data. Key data for monitoring student achievement and directing policy level…

  8. How and Why do Teacher Credentials Matter for Student Achievement? NBER Working Paper No. 12828

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2007-01-01

    Education researchers and policy makers agree that teachers differ in terms of quality and that quality matters for student achievement. Despite prodigious amounts of research, however, debate still persists about the causal relationship between specific teacher credentials and student achievement. In this paper, we use a rich administrative data…

  9. The Impact of Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports (PBIS) on Student Behavior and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Linda Clark

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, policymakers have enforced increasingly greater accountability demands for student achievement and zero tolerance policies. Legislators have outlined proficient measures for student achievement which includes students enrolled in general and special education classes and all ethnicities and socioeconomic levels. Schools…

  10. A Systematic Review of the Relationships between Principal Characteristics and Student Achievement. REL 2016-091

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Herrington, Carolyn D.

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review of the relationships between principal characteristics and student achievement was created for educators, administrators, policy-makers, and other individuals interested in a comprehensive catalogue of research on relations between principal characteristics and student achievement. It synthesizes what is known about…

  11. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  12. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  13. The Achievement-Assessment Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia; Husid, Whitney

    2011-01-01

    The recent recession, school budget cuts, and predictions of school libraries' demise because of technology advances put pressure on school librarians to prove the utility, relevance, and value of school libraries to student learning. While national studies document that school libraries increase student achievement, school librarians must…

  14. Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Research evidence shows that cooperative learning strategies are not equally effective, though most positively affect self-esteem, intergroup relations, and the ability to work with others. To produce achievement gains, these methods must include both a group goal and individual accountability. Includes 19 references. (MLH)

  15. Curricular Diversity and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Reginald

    1991-01-01

    Educational achievement should be intellectually and philosophically divorced from cultural affirmation, which is merely a byproduct of the inclusion of diverse voices in the search for truth. A model based on the relationship between the valuation of oneself by others and by oneself is presented to explain differential effects of schooling on…

  16. School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C.; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S.; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista

    2007-01-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for…

  17. Teacher Certification and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Patricia Lewis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to determine if there is a significant difference between the achievement of students who are taught by traditionally prepared teachers and that of students who are taught by alternatively prepared teachers. The study further addressed the perspectives of both groups of teachers regarding selected…

  18. Achieving Safety through Security Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, John

    Whilst the achievement of safety objectives may not be possible purely through the administration of an effective Information Security Management System (ISMS), your job as safety manager will be significantly eased if such a system is in place. This paper seeks to illustrate the point by drawing a comparison between two of the prominent standards within the two disciplines of security and safety management.

  19. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  20. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  1. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  2. Measuring and Recording Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Measuring and Recording Student Achievement Scoping Group was established by Universities UK and the Standing Conference of Principals (SCOP), with the support of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in October 2003 to review the recommendations from the UK Government White Paper "The Future of Higher Education" relating…

  3. Academic Achievement in Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basque, Marc; Bouchamma, Yamina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of achievement in mathematics in elementary schools in New Brunswick (Canada). Data Collection: Both teachers and school leaders (N = 111) completed a questionnaire on their practices and on school functioning. Findings: Multiple regression analyses revealed that the students'…

  4. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  5. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

  6. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  7. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  8. Believing and Achieving. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerald, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    This research brief takes a look at the role of teacher efficacy-how teachers' beliefs in their own abilities affect student achievement. The brief examines the influence of perceived efficacy and building teacher confidence (social persuasion, collegiality, and shared decision making). It concludes by asserting that more positive steps must be…

  9. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  10. Achieving Ideological Change within Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Dennis R.

    Psychologists who are interested in the nature of ideology and the achievement of social change generally focus their primary theoretical and empirical attention on those people outside academia who are trying to change or to prevent change in one political sphere or another. There may be some value in looking at psychology and psychologists as…

  11. Five Standards and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, R. William; Hilberg, R. Soleste; Pinal, America; Tharp, Roland G.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies examine the influence of the Standards for Effective Pedagogy on student achievement gains. Participants were 15 teachers and 266 students (grades 3 to 5) in a public elementary school serving predominantly low-income Latino English Language Learners (ELLs). Implications for teaching practice and research are discussed. (Author/VWL)

  12. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  13. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  14. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  15. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  16. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  17. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  18. Is preschool executive function causally related to academic achievement?

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Michael T; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Voegler-Lee, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to reevaluate the well-established result that preschoolers' performance on executive function tasks are positively associated with their performance on academic achievement tests. The current study replicated the previously established concurrent associations between children's performance on EF tasks and academic achievement tests. Specifically, children's performance on measures of inhibitory and motor control were positively associated with their performance on tests of reading, writing, and mathematics achievement (rs = .2-.5); moreover, although diminished in magnitude, most of these associations held up even after including an earlier measure of academic achievement as a covariate (rs = .1-.3). However, the application of an alternative analytic method, fixed effects analysis, a method that capitalizes on repeated measures data to control for all time stable measured and unmeasured covariates, rendered the apparent positive associations between executive function and academic achievement nonsignificant (rs = .0-.1). Taken together, these results suggest that the well-replicated association between executive function abilities and academic achievement may be spurious. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of utilizing analytic methods and research designs that facilitate strong causal inferences between executive function and academic achievement in early childhood, as well as the limitations of making curriculum development recommendations and/or public policy decisions based on studies that have failed to do so. PMID:21707258

  19. Peach bottom recirculation piping replacement ALARA program

    SciTech Connect

    Englesson, G.A.; Hilsmeier, A.E.; Mann, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    In late 1983, Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) began detailed planning to replace the recirculation, residual heat removal, and part of the reactor water cleanup piping of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 reactor. Included in this work was an estimate of the collective exposure expected during piping replacement. That initial estimate, 1945 man-rem, is compared with the actual collective dose incurred during the piping replacement program. Also included are the exposures incurred during two additional tasks (safe end replacement and recirculation pump disassembly and decontamination) not considered in the initial estimate.

  20. Virtual radiation fields for ALARA determination

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, T.W.

    1995-12-31

    As computing power has increased, so too has the ability to model and simulate complex systems and processes. In addition, virtual reality technology has made it possible to visualize and understand many complex scientific and engineering problems. For this reason, a virtual dosimetry program called Virtual Radiation Fields (VRF) is developed to model radiation dose rate and cumulative dose to a receptor operating in a virtual radiation environment. With the design and testing of many facilities and products taking place in the virtual world, this program facilitates the concurrent consideration of radiological concerns during the design process. Three-dimensional (3D) graphical presentation of the radiation environment is made possible through the use of IGRIP, a graphical modeling program developed by Deneb Robotics, Inc. The VRF simulation program was designed to model and display a virtual dosimeter. As a demonstration of the program`s capability, the Hanford tank, C-106, was modeled to predict radiation doses to robotic equipment used to remove radioactive waste from the tank. To validate VRF dose predictions, comparison was made with reported values for tank C-106, which showed agreement to within 0.5%. Graphical information is presented regarding the 3D dose rate variation inside the tank. Cumulative dose predictions were made for the cleanup operations of tank C-106. A four-dimensional dose rate map generated by VRF was used to model the dose rate not only in 3D space but also as a function of the amount of waste remaining in the tank. This allowed VRF to predict dose rate at any stage in the waste removal process for an accurate simulation of the radiological conditions throughout the tank cleanup procedure.

  1. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  2. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  3. Extended Policies case

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2016 (AEO2016) Extended Policies case includes selected policies that go beyond current laws and regulations. Existing tax credits that have scheduled reductions and sunset dates are assumed to remain unchanged through 2040. Other efficiency policies, including corporate average fuel economy standards, appliance standards, and building codes, are expanded beyond current provisions; and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Power Plan (CPP) regulations that reduce carbon dioxide emissions from electric power generation are tightened after 2030.

  4. Modelling for policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-03-01

    Environmental economist Jonah Busch worked with a team of economists, geographers and policy specialists to assess different incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation in Indonesia.

  5. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  6. Pain management and health care policy.

    PubMed

    Naccache, Nicole; Abou Zeid, Hicham; Nasser Ayoub, Eliane; Antakly, Marie-Claire

    2008-01-01

    Opioid analgesics are essential for the management of moderate to severe pain. In spite of their documented effectiveness, opioids are often underutilized, a factor which has contributed significantly to the undertreatment of pain. Many countries have developed true national policies on cancer pain and palliative care, and in others only guidelines for care have been developed. Ideally, national policies facilitate and legislate not only a patient's right to care, but also the necessary components of education and drug availability which are so critical for the appropriate achievement of public health programs. PMID:19534079

  7. International Development of Health Manpower Policy. WHO Offset Publication No. 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulop, Tamas; Roemer, Milton I.

    This report: (1) identifies the main policies, objectives, and thrusts in the health manpower development (HMD) program of the World Health Organization (WHO); (2) identifies factors influencing or determining these policies, and examines how they have shaped the HMD program; (3) investigates how policy changes and achievements in health manpower…

  8. Econometric Methods for Causal Evaluation of Education Policies and Practices: A Non-Technical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlotter, Martin; Schwerdt, Guido; Woessmann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    Education policy-makers and practitioners want to know which policies and practices can best achieve their goals. But research that can inform evidence-based policy often requires complex methods to distinguish causation from accidental association. Avoiding econometric jargon and technical detail, this paper explains the main idea and intuition…

  9. Slippage and/or Symbolism: Gender, Policy and Educational Governance in Scotland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Joan; Ohrn, Elisabet; Weiner, Gaby

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview and analysis of the relationship between gender, educational policy, and governance in Scotland and Sweden and the two countries' response to European Union and global legislative and policy change. In Scotland, gender is mainly invisible in recent policies on inclusion, achievement beyond academic attainment, and…

  10. Teacher-Student Relationship Climate and School Outcomes: Implications for Educational Policy Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barile, John P.; Donohue, Dana K.; Anthony, Elizabeth R.; Baker, Andrew M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Henrich, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    In recent discussions regarding concerns about the academic achievement of US students, educational policy makers have suggested the implementation of certain teacher policies. To address the limited empirical research on the putative educational impact of such policies, this study used multilevel structural equation models to investigate the…

  11. The Federal Policy Landscape: A Look at How Legislation Affects Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islas, M. Rene

    2010-01-01

    Four years ago, Learning Forward established "affecting the policy context" as the first of five strategic priorities that would guide its efforts through 2011. Learning Forward believes that good policy promotes good practice and that laws and policies that promote and support effective professional development are needed to achieve the…

  12. Positioning Ontario's Character Development Initiative in/through Its Policy Web of Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Constructing a policy web of relationships is proposed as a useful way to identify and understand complex relationships between policies and their contexts. In Canada, the province of Ontario's "Character Development Initiative" (CDI) and its relationships to student achievement, citizenship education, and safe schools policies provide an…

  13. Malaria control: achievements, problems and strategies.

    PubMed

    Nájera, J A

    2001-06-01

    Even if history has not always been the Magistra vitae, Cicero expected it to be, it should provide, as Baas said, a mirror in which to observe and compare the past and present in order to draw therefrom well-grounded conclusions for the future. Based on this belief, this paper aims to provide an overview of the foundations and development of malaria control policies during the XX century. It presents an analysis of the conflicting tendencies which shaped the development of these policies and which appear to have oscillated between calls for frontal attack in an all-out campaign and calls for sustainable gains, even if slow. It discusses the various approaches to the control of malaria, their achievements and their limitations, not only to serve as a background to understand better the foundations of current policies, but also to prevent that simplistic generalisations may again lead to exaggerated expectations and disillusion. The first part of the paper is devoted to the development of malaria control during the first half of the century, characterised by the ups and downs in the reliance on mosquito control as the control measure applicable everywhere. The proliferation of "man-made-malaria", which accompanied the push for economic development in most of the endemic countries, spurred the need for control interventions and, while great successes were obtained in many specific projects, the general campaigns proposed by the enthusiasts of vector control faced increasing difficulties in their practical implementation in the field. Important events, which may be considered representative of this period are, on the campaign approach, the success of Gorgas in the Panama Canal, but also the failure of the Mian Mir project in India; while on the developmental approach, the Italian and Dutch schools of malariology, the Tennessee Valley and the development of malaria sanitation, included the so called species sanitation. The projection of these developments to a global

  14. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  15. Perspectives of Fijian Policymakers on the Obesity Prevention Policy Landscape.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Delai, Mere Y; Thow, Anne-Marie; Gubbels, Jessica S; De Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J; Jansen, Maria W J

    2015-01-01

    In Fiji and other Pacific Island countries, obesity has rapidly increased in the past decade. Therefore, several obesity prevention policies have been developed. Studies show that their development has been hampered by factors within Fiji's policy landscape such as pressure from industry. Since policymakers in the Fijian national government are primarily responsible for the development of obesity policies, it is important to understand their perspectives; we therefore interviewed 15 policymakers from nine Fijian ministries. By applying the "attractor landscape" metaphor from dynamic systems theory, we captured perceived barriers and facilitators in the policy landscape. A poor economic situation, low food self-sufficiency, power inequalities, inappropriate framing of obesity, limited policy evidence, and limited resource sharing hamper obesity policy developments in Fiji. Facilitators include policy entrepreneurs and policy brokers who were active when a window of opportunity opened and who strengthened intersectoral collaboration. Fiji's policy landscape can become more conducive to obesity policies if power inequalities are reduced. In Fiji and other Pacific Island countries, this may be achievable through increased food self-sufficiency, strengthened intersectoral collaboration, and the establishment of an explicit functional focal unit within government to monitor and forecast the health impact of policy changes in non-health sectors. PMID:26380307

  16. Perspectives of Fijian Policymakers on the Obesity Prevention Policy Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Delai, Mere Y.; Thow, Anne-Marie; Gubbels, Jessica S.; De Vries, Nanne K.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Jansen, Maria W. J.

    2015-01-01

    In Fiji and other Pacific Island countries, obesity has rapidly increased in the past decade. Therefore, several obesity prevention policies have been developed. Studies show that their development has been hampered by factors within Fiji's policy landscape such as pressure from industry. Since policymakers in the Fijian national government are primarily responsible for the development of obesity policies, it is important to understand their perspectives; we therefore interviewed 15 policymakers from nine Fijian ministries. By applying the “attractor landscape” metaphor from dynamic systems theory, we captured perceived barriers and facilitators in the policy landscape. A poor economic situation, low food self-sufficiency, power inequalities, inappropriate framing of obesity, limited policy evidence, and limited resource sharing hamper obesity policy developments in Fiji. Facilitators include policy entrepreneurs and policy brokers who were active when a window of opportunity opened and who strengthened intersectoral collaboration. Fiji's policy landscape can become more conducive to obesity policies if power inequalities are reduced. In Fiji and other Pacific Island countries, this may be achievable through increased food self-sufficiency, strengthened intersectoral collaboration, and the establishment of an explicit functional focal unit within government to monitor and forecast the health impact of policy changes in non-health sectors. PMID:26380307

  17. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies

    SciTech Connect

    Trible, T.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This quality plan describes the system used by Characterization Project management to achieve quality. This plan is comprised on eleven quality policies which, when taken together, form a management system deployed to achieve quality. This quality management system is based on the customer`s quality requirements known as the `RULE`, 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance.

  18. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies

    SciTech Connect

    Board, D.C.

    1997-09-24

    This quality plan describes the system used by Characterization Project management to achieve quality. This plan is comprised of eleven quality policies which, when taken together, form a management system deployed to achieve quality. This quality management system is based on the customer`s quality requirements known as the `RULE`, 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance.

  19. Case Study: Using Geographic Information Systems for Education Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvenon, Sean W.; Wang, Kening; McKenzie, Sarah; Airola, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Effective exploration of spatially referenced educational achievement data can help educational researchers and policy analysts accelerate interpretation of datasets to gain valuable insights. This paper illustrates the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze educational achievement gaps in Arkansas. It introduces the Geographic…

  20. Manipulable Variables of Policy Importance: The Case of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borland, Melvin V.; Howsen, Roy M.

    2000-01-01

    Corrects for potential bias and inconsistency in the estimated coefficient on market competition (among schools) by constructing a system of equations with endogenous expressions of student achievement and market competition. Policy makers seeking to improve student achievement should encourage market competition among schools. (Contains 13…

  1. Curriculum Policies for Students with Special Needs in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee; Talukdar, Joy

    2012-01-01

    The curriculum policies for students with special needs across Australia have been reviewed. The Curriculum Framework in the Australian Capital Territory is used to inform their school based curriculum. The Northern Territory Curriculum Framework describes what learners are expected to achieve and what learners have achieved. The New South Wales…

  2. Do family policy regimes matter for children's well-being?

    PubMed

    Engster, Daniel; Stensöta, Helena Olofsdotter

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the impact of different welfare state regimes, and particularly family policy regimes, on gender equality. Very little research has been conducted, however, on the association between different family policy regimes and children's well-being. This article explores how the different family policy regimes of twenty OECD countries relate to children's well-being in the areas of child poverty, child mortality, and educational attainment and achievement. We focus specifically on three family policies: family cash and tax benefits, paid parenting leaves, and public child care support. Using panel data for the years 1995, 2000, and 2005, we test the association between these policies and child well-being while holding constant for a number of structural and policy variables. Our analysis shows that the dual-earner regimes, combining high levels of support for paid parenting leaves and public child care, are strongly associated with low levels of child poverty and child mortality. We find little long-term effect of family policies on educational achievement, but a significant positive correlation between high family policy support and higher educational attainment. We conclude that family policies have a significant impact on improving children's well-being, and that dual-earner regimes represent the best practice for promoting children's health and development. PMID:21692245

  3. Addressing Achievement Gaps: Educational Testing in America: State Assessments, Achievement Gaps, National Policy and Innovations. ETS Policy Notes. Volume 17, Number 1, Winter 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah; Coley, Richard J., Ed.; Pliskin, Richard, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Annual standardized testing lies at the heart of the accountability system that American education reformers and policymakers have established during the past decade in an effort to ensure equal opportunity for all students, no matter their race, ethnicity or wealth. The new testing regime has brought national attention to the schooling of…

  4. Narrowing the Achievement Gap in a (Re) Segregated Urban School District: Research, Policy and Practice. The Achievement Gap, Research, Practice, and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikpa, Vivian W.; McGuire, C. Kent

    2009-01-01

    The interplay between sociopolitical forces and economic agendas becomes apparent when one examines the June 28, 2007 United States Supreme Court Decision, Parents Involved In Community Schools v. Seattle School District . In a reversal of the 1954 Brown Decision, the United States Supreme Court ruled that public schools could not use race as a…

  5. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies.

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  6. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  7. Ontario Ministry of Education Policy and Aboriginal Learners' Epistemologies: A Fundamental Disconnect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Lorenzo; Hodson, John

    2008-01-01

    The Ontario Ministry of Education has made a recent commitment to address the achievement gap between Aboriginal and non-aboriginal students with the release of various policy documents. Yet, there appears to be a disconnect between the policy principles and the standardized means of reconciling these differences in achievement, teacher education,…

  8. Reserve policy for the nuclear age: the development of post-war American reserve policy, 1943-1955

    SciTech Connect

    Sinks, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    This study isolates three key themes: the influence of non-military considerations in reserve policy; inter-service differences over reserve policy; and the conflict between traditional reserve policies and the strategic requirements of the post-war era. After a brief review of Army and Navy reserve policy from the turn of the century to World War II, the wartime plans of the War Department for post-war reserve policy are examined. Key problems are UMT, the post-war role of the National Guard and the unit-pool conflict. The dissertation then traces the activation phase of Army reserve policy in 1946-47. The post-war development and implementation of Navy and Army Air Forces reserve policies are also examined. The differences in reserve policy among the four services are highlighted. The various attempts to review and refashion reserve policy in 1948-49 are then reviewed in detail. The second half of the dissertation focuses on the impact of the Korean War and the New Look on reserve policy. It is concluded that given the tremendous obstacles to the development of a coherent, rational reserve policy in the post-war era, the reserve structure created after World War II must be regarded as a significant achievement.

  9. Achieving a Launch on Demand Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to place payloads [satellites] into orbit as and when required, often referred to as launch on demand, continues to be an elusive and yet largely unfulfilled goal. But what is the value of achieving launch on demand [LOD], and what metrics are appropriate? Achievement of a desired level of LOD capability must consider transportation system thruput, alternative transportation systems that comprise the transportation architecture, transportation demand, reliability and failure recovery characteristics of the alternatives, schedule guarantees, launch delays, payload integration schedules, procurement policies, and other factors. Measures of LOD capability should relate to the objective of the transportation architecture: the placement of payloads into orbit as and when required. Launch on demand capability must be defined in probabilistic terms such as the probability of not incurring a delay in excess of T when it is determined that it is necessary to place a payload into orbit. Three specific aspects of launch on demand are considered: [1] the ability to recover from adversity [i.e., a launch failure] and to keep up with the steady-state demand for placing satellites into orbit [this has been referred to as operability and resiliency], [2] the ability to respond to the requirement to launch a satellite when the need arises unexpectedly either because of an unexpected [random] on-orbit satellite failure that requires replacement or because of the sudden recognition of an unanticipated requirement, and [3] the ability to recover from adversity [i.e., a launch failure] during the placement of a constellation into orbit. The objective of this paper is to outline a formal approach for analyzing alternative transportation architectures in terms of their ability to provide a LOD capability. The economic aspect of LOD is developed by establishing a relationship between scheduling and the elimination of on-orbit spares while achieving the desired level of on

  10. Structure of Black Male Students Academic Achievement in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rascoe, Barbara

    Educational policies and practices have been largely unsuccessful in closing the achievement gap between Black and White students "Schwartz, 2001". This achievement gap is especially problematic for Black students in science "Maton, Hrabrowski, - Schmitt, 2000. Given the fact that the Black-White achievement gap is still an enigma, the purpose of this article is to address the Black female-Black male academic achievement gap in science majors. Addressing barriers that Black male students may experience as college science and engineering majors, this article presents marketing strategies relative to politics, emotional intelligence, and issues with respect to how science teaching, and Black male students' responses to it, are different. Many Black male students may need to experience a paradigm shift, which structures and enhances their science achievement. Paradigm shifts are necessary because exceptional academic ability and motivation are not enough to get Black males from their first year in a science, technology, education, and mathematics "STEM" major to a bachelor's degree in science and engineering. The conclusions focus on the balance of truth-slippery slopes concerning the confluence of science teachers' further ado and Black male students' theories, methods, and values that position their academic achievement in science and engineering majors.

  11. Public Policy Agenda, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  12. Morality and Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Henry

    1985-01-01

    Morality as an enduring element in United States foreign policy is discussed. In order to strengthen the steady purpose and responsible involvement of the American people, human rights policy must be presented in the context of a realistic assessment of world affairs. (RM)

  13. Cultural Policies in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaigne, Jacques

    The booklet presents a synopsis of reports on national cultural policies by government officials of nations belonging to the Council of Europe. The main purpose of the document is to provide an overview of institutional facilities, financial resources, and goals of cultural policy. The document is presented in five major sections. Section I…

  14. Government Information Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearstyne, Bruce W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six articles discuss government information policy in context of technology and electronic records; policies on information resources management from OMB (Office of Management and Budget); state information resources, including Council of State Governments (CSG); state record laws and preservation of archival records; and management of electronic…

  15. Operations Policy Manual, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council, Inc. An index is also included.

  16. Procedures and Policies Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jane M.

    2006-01-01

    This document was developed by the Middle Tennessee State University James E. Walker Library Collection Management Department to provide policies and procedural guidelines for the cataloging and processing of bibliographic materials. This document includes policies for cataloging monographs, serials, government documents, machine-readable data…

  17. Policy Research and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    1988-01-01

    Explores what it means to do research intended to be relevant for public policy. Argues against perception of policy research as politically neutral technical exercise. Discusses political implications of methodology. Discusses research examples to illustrate point. Discusses implications for how research might be used in political process.…

  18. Neutrality in Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The unavoidability of language makes it critical that language policies appeal to some notion of language neutrality as part of their rationale, in order to assuage concerns that the policies might otherwise be unduly discriminatory. However, the idea of language neutrality is deeply ideological in nature, since it is not only an attempt to treat…

  19. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  20. Public Policy and You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article is devoted to public policies and child care providers. The author talks about how these policies affect providers and their work with young children. The author stresses that child care providers should help legislators by keeping them aware of what goes on in the child care communities.

  1. Public Policy Agenda, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  2. Public Policy Agenda, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  3. Income and Employment Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, William; And Others

    This paper isolates critical rural economic development issues and identifies needed federal policy interventions. Despite a long history of federal efforts to improve rural economic conditions, recent policies and programs aimed at stimulating rural development have had little impact. Reasons include: (1) narrowly focused economic development…

  4. Language Policy in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  5. Communication Policies in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szecsko, Tamas; Fodor, Gabor

    This book is one of a series of studies--undertaken as part of the program adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO--related to the analysis of communication policies as they exist at the public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Discussed in this book about Hungary's communication policies are such topics as mass…

  6. Action Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Murray, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific…

  7. Employment Policy and Territories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthet, Thierry; Cuntigh, Philippe; Guitton, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    France's employment policy has historically been governed by a strategy of interventions aimed at specific categories of individuals, including victims of industrial restructuring, entry workers, the long-term unemployed, and the disabled. Since the 1980s, France has had the following main lines of employment policy: (1) assistance to victims of…

  8. Policy as Assemblage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorur, Radhika

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author tells the story of her search for appropriate tools to conceptualise policy work. She had set out to explore the relationship between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Australia's education policy, but early interview data…

  9. Protective Policy Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrin, Donald D.

    1994-01-01

    Offers ways to help student affairs administrators understand protective policy laws and regulations. Looks at how such federal guidelines affect campus policies, practices, and procedures. Examines the Buckley Amendment, student consumer information, student right-to-know, campus security, and the Drug Free Schools and Communities Act. (Includes…

  10. Analysing the Policy Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humes, Walter M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the recent development of educational policy analysis as a research field within Scottish education. Discusses "inside" and "outside" approaches to policy analysis; the value of theoretical models for making sense of source material; the potential of discourse analysis, illustrated by reference to Foucault and Lyotard; and the need for…

  11. Public Policy Agenda, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  12. A Web Policy Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Sound technology policies can spell the difference between an effective website and an online nightmare. An effective web development policy addresses six key areas: roles and responsibilities, content/educational value, privacy and safety, adherence to copyright laws, technical standards, and use of commercial sites and services. (MLH)

  13. Mentoring, Policy and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gary

    2007-01-01

    In this policy brief, former P/PV President Gary Walker asks, "Is mentoring now a durable part of American social policy? If so, is this unalloyed good news?" Adapted from an article that first appeared in "The Handbook of Youth Mentoring" (DuBois and Karcher, ed. 2005), the brief reflects on the impact and appeal of mentoring, addresses various…

  14. Social Policy Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, Lonnie, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document is comprised of the four 2001 issues of a publication providing a forum for scholarly reviews and discussion of developmental research and implications for social policies affecting children. The topics featured in each of the issues are: (1) "Youth Civic Development: Implications of Research for Social Policy and Programs"…

  15. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  16. Intercultural Policies and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Susana, Ed.; Carpenter, Markus A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Intercultural Policies and Education is concerned with educational challenges in multicultural societies. Educational policies, practices and strategies for fruitful coexistence in the multicultural school and classroom are explored and analysed through a collection of chapters designed and selected to provide readers with international,…

  17. Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, William D.; McKenna, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    States that, although policies and procedure documents play an important role in developing and maintaining a consistent quality of interaction in organizations, research literature is weak in this area. Initiates further discussion by defining and describing policy/procedure documents. Identifies a third kind, work instructions. Uses a genre…

  18. Oil Independence: Achievable National Goal or Empty Slogan?

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; Leiby, Paul Newsome; Patterson, Philip D; Plotkin, Steven E; Singh, Margaret K

    2007-01-01

    Oil independence has been a goal of U.S. energy policy for the past 30 years yet has never been rigorously defined. A rigorous, measurable definition is proposed: to reduce the costs of oil dependence to less than 1% of GDP in the next 20 to 25 years, with 95% probability. A simulation model incorporating the possibility of future oil supply disruptions and other sources of uncertainty is used to test whether two alternative energy policy strategies, Business as Usual and an interpretation of the strategy proposed by the National Commission on Energy Policy (NCEP), can achieve oil independence for the United States. Business as Usual does not produce oil independence. The augmented NCEP strategy comes close to achieving oil independence for the U.S. economy within the next 20-25 years but more is needed. The success of the strategy appears to be robust regardless of how the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) responds to it. Expected annual savings are estimated to exceed $250 billion per year by 2030.

  19. Advanced Placement: Model Policy Components. Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP), launched in 1955 by the College Board as a program to offer gifted high school students the opportunity to complete entry-level college coursework, has since expanded to encourage a broader array of students to tackle challenging content. This Education Commission of the State's Policy Analysis identifies key components of…

  20. Fact-Challenged Policy. Policy Memorandum #182

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a response on the topic of school reform efforts being promoted by Bill Gates and other prominent education policy advocates. Last week, Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates published an op-ed in the Washington Post, "How Teacher Development could Revolutionize our Schools," proposing that American public schools should do a better job of…