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Sample records for achievable alara principle

  1. Implementation of the principle of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) for medical and dental personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report is part of a series prepared under the auspices of Scientific Committee 46, Operational Radiation Safety. It provides guidance on the process of implementing the as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principle for the use of radiation by medical and dental personnel. The use of cost-benefit analysis is recommended as a basic method upon which to base ALARA decisions. Examples are provided to illustrate the ALARA principle as a process of optimization and to provide a starting point for the development of individualized ALARA programs. NCRP Report No. 91, Recommendations on Limits for Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, calls for the use of reference ranges for occupational exposures. This report recommends the use of 2 reference ranges, one based on individual dose equivalents, and the other based on collective dose equivalent. In accordance with the recommendations of NCRP Report No. 82, SI Units in Radiation Protection and Measurements, as of January 1990, only SI units are used in the text. Readers needing factors for conversion of SI to conventional units are encouraged to consult Report No. 82. 84 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. [The ALARA-principle. Backgrounds and enforcement in dental practices].

    PubMed

    Berkhout, W E R

    2015-05-01

    Optimization of radiation protection began soon after the discovery of X-rays. The optimization-concept has been refined more and more as a result of increa-sing knowledge of radiation and its effect on people. Since 1973 the acronym ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) has been used to designate the optimization of X-ray doses. For the dentist the ALARA-principle entails the obligation to minimize the radiation dose to patient and surroundings to a level as low as reasonably achievable. Currently in radiology the acronym ALADA is also used: As Low As Diagnostically Acceptable. To establish ALARA goals Diagnostic Reference Levels are employed in medical radiology. These Diagnostic Reference Levels are also being introduced in dental radiology. Practical measures for ALARA/ALADA in dental practice comprise an awareness of the field of view (for all types of imaging, including cone beam computed tomography) exposure time, and relation to anatomy and diagnostic justification, and shielding. PMID:26210218

  3. Health physics manual of good practices for reducing radiation exposure to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    SciTech Connect

    Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Kathren,., R.L.; Merwin, S.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1988-06-01

    A primary objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) health physics and radiation protection program has been to limit radiation exposures to those levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). As a result, the ALARA concept developed into a program and a set of operational principles to ensure that the objective was consistently met. Implementation of these principles required that a guide be produced. The original ALARA guide was issued by DOE in 1980 to promote improved understanding of ALARA concepts within the DOE community and to assist those responsible for operational ALARA activities in attaining their goals. Since 1980, additional guidance has been published by national and international organizations to provide further definition and clarification to ALARA concepts. As basic ALARA experience increased, the value and role of the original guide prompted the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) to support a current revision. The revised manual of good practices includes six sections: 1.0 Introduction, 2.0 Administration, 3.0 Optimization, 4.0 Setting and Evaluating ALARA Goals, 5.0 Radiological Design, and 6.0 Conduct of Operations. The manual is directed primarily to contractor and DOE staff who are responsible for conduct and overview of radiation protection and ALARA programs at DOE facilities. The intent is to provide sufficient guidance such that the manual, if followed, will ensure that radiation exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable and will establish the basis for a formally structured and auditable program. 118 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W. Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose.

  5. Guide to reducing radiation exposure to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    SciTech Connect

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    This document is designed to provide DOE contractor personnel with general guidance regarding programs and techniques to reduce radiation exposures to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Thus it is directed towards a broad audience, and should have special relevance and interest for operating management as well as radiation protection personnel. It is well recognized that each contractor has needs specific and critical to its radiation protection program. Hence no single set of specific and detailed criteria can be set down as a prescription for achieving the ALARA goal. Rather, general guidance in the form of broad principles is given in order to acquaint management with ALARA needs and concepts. The purpose is to encourage maximum management support of the technical personnel responsible for carrying out day-to-day radiation protection activities. Although primarily written for management, this document also contains technical guidance of potential value to those directly involved in radiation protection activities. Again it should be stressed that what is provided is guidance, and is therefore not mandatory.

  6. What is ALARA

    SciTech Connect

    Auxier, J.A.; Dickson, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) philosophy as it applies to personnel radiation exposure has been with us for a long time. The essential tenets of this philosophy surfaced quite early in the history of the Manhattan Project. Although the terminology has suffered through various translations and the application has seen many organizations and agencies come and go, the principles remain as valid today as ever. It is regretable that some regulatory agencies claim ALARA as their newfound miracle drug and that application according to their prescriptions will result in endless rounds of cyclical improvement in radiation protection practices. Others have taken advantage of the popularity of ALARA and have bastardized the philosophy to mean whatever is expedient for their purposes. In this paper, we review briefly the history of ALARA and what it seemingly means to different interest groups and offer a balanced viewpoint that health physicists should adopt.

  7. [Place of the radiation safety officer in the implementation of the ALARA principle through European directive 97-43 items].

    PubMed

    Mozziconacci, J G; Ayivi, J; Loat, A; Ifergan, J; Mourbrun, M; Drevet, B

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to define the role of the radiation safety officer in raising the awareness of the radiology staff to the ALARA (As low as reasonable achievable) principle specified in European directive 97-43. The actions taken and the techniques used in our hospital, as well as the potential improvements that could be achieved with extra funding, will be presented. The didactic value of flow charts recording technical factors and fluoroscopy times for quality improvement will be demonstrated. In the future, a dosimeter incorporated on the new equipment could allow direct recording of the dose. The different items presented in this paper should allow routine implementation of the required elements described in the law 2003-270, i.e the French translation of European Directive 97-43. PMID:16114200

  8. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed though a variety of dose reduction techniques. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction, quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report. 30 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  9. Project W-320 ALARA Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, W.M.

    1995-06-06

    This supporting document establishes the As Low As Reasonable Achievable (ALARA) Plan to be followed during Sluicing Project W-320 design and construction activities to minimize personnel exposure to radiation and hazardous materials.

  10. ALARA Center of Technology -- resource guide

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The purpose is to provide a source of information that can be used to assist personnel in the planning, training, and execution of radiological work using the principles of ALARA. This document is not intended to replace HNF or WHC Control Manual requirements. The ALARA Tools-List provides detailed information on the use and procurement of engineered controls, mockup training guidelines, and good radiological work practices that have been proven to be ALARA.

  11. Using Weibull Distribution Analysis to Evaluate ALARA Performance

    SciTech Connect

    E. L. Frome, J. P. Watkins, and D. A. Hagemeyer

    2009-10-01

    As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) is the underlying principle for protecting nuclear workers from potential health outcomes related to occupational radiation exposure. Radiation protection performance is currently evaluated by measures such as collective dose and average measurable dose, which do not indicate ALARA performance. The purpose of this work is to show how statistical modeling of individual doses using the Weibull distribution can provide objective supplemental performance indicators for comparing ALARA implementation among sites and for insights into ALARA practices within a site. Maximum likelihood methods were employed to estimate the Weibull shape and scale parameters used for performance indicators. The shape parameter reflects the effectiveness of maximizing the number of workers receiving lower doses and is represented as the slope of the fitted line on a Weibull probability plot. Additional performance indicators derived from the model parameters include the 99th percentile and the exceedance fraction. When grouping sites by collective total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) and ranking by 99th percentile with confidence intervals, differences in performance among sites can be readily identified. Applying this methodology will enable more efficient and complete evaluation of the effectiveness of ALARA implementation.

  12. ALARA in pediatric interventional and fluoroscopic imaging: striving to keep radiation doses as low as possible during fluoroscopy of pediatric patients--a white paper executive summary.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Keith J; Kaste, Sue C

    2006-09-01

    Pediatric patients might be as much as 10 times more radiosensitive than adults. Thus, adherence to the principle of "As low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) represents a practice mandate that minimizes ionizing radiation exposure while optimizing imaging results. This symposium is the third multidisciplinary program that focused on the ALARA principle in pediatric imaging and addressed issues associated with pediatric fluoroscopy and interventional imaging techniques. PMID:17412149

  13. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).'' The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,'' requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  14. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, ``Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).`` The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, ``Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,`` requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  15. Chernobyl Deconstruction ALARA Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, Dillard B.; Batiy, Valeriy; Povlovsky, Leonid; Schmidt, John P.; Schmieman, Eric A.

    2004-03-24

    The Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium has recently completed the conceptual design for the Chernobyl New Safe Confinement (NSC). Battelle has the scope of work related to environment and safety of the design. As part of the safety analysis, an ALARA analysis was performed for deconstruction of the major, unstable elements of the Shelter Object over the destroyed Unit 4 of the reactor complex. The major elements addressed in the analysis included the current roof sections and the major beams supporting the roof sections. The analysis was based on the existing configuration of the Shelter Object, the developing conceptual design of the NSC arch structure, the developing conceptual design of the facilities within and associated with the NSC (including handling and processing of deconstructed elements, and waste management), and existing Ukranian regulations and working processes and procedures. KSK (a Ukranian Consortium) is a subcontractor to the Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium and performed much of the dose analysis. The analysis concluded that ALARA could be achieved with appropriate implementation of existing Ukrainian regulations and procedures, and developing conceptual design criteria and features.

  16. BNL ALARA Center: ALARA Notes, No. 9

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.; Beckman, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    This issue of the Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Alara Notes includes the agenda for the Third International Workshop on ALARA and specific instructions on the use of the on-line fax-on-demand service provided by BNL. Other topics included in this issue are: (1) A discussion of low-level discharges from Canadian nuclear plants, (2) Safety issues at French nuclear plants, (3) Acoustic emission as a means of leak detection, (4) Replacement of steam generators at Doel-3, Beaznau, and North Anna-1, (5) Remote handling equipment at Bruce, (6) EPRI`s low level waste program, (7) Radiation protection during concrete repairs at Savannah River, (8) Reactor vessel stud removal/repair at Comanche Peak-1, (9) Rework of reactor coolant pump motors, (10) Restoration of service water at North Anna-1 and -2, (11) Steam generator tubing problems at Mihama-1, (12) Full system decontamination at Indian Point-2, (13) Chemical decontamination at Browns Ferry-2, and (14) Inspection methodolody in France and Japan.

  17. Applied ALARA techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  18. ALARA pre-job studies using the VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, Fernand

    2005-01-01

    The optimisation of the radiation protection for the workers in nuclear industry is an important part of the safety culture. The application of the ALARA concept (to keep exposures as low as reasonably achievable) is not always straightforward as it is influenced by the site geometry, source distribution and work organisation. A good ALARA pre-job study must therefore be performed and should contain predicted doses for the different suggested work scenarios and provide a quantitative basis to select between various alternative work scenarios for a specific operation. In order to handle this information, SCK-CEN developed the VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool. The tool makes it possible to evaluate the dose due to external gamma exposure based on the simulation of work scenarios taking into account worker positions and subsequent geometry and source distribution changes in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:16381732

  19. 42 CFR 3.304 - Principles for achieving compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principles for achieving compliance. 3.304 Section 3.304 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program §...

  20. Maintaining radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) for dental personnel operating portable hand-held x-ray equipment.

    PubMed

    McGiff, Thomas J; Danforth, Robert A; Herschaft, Edward E

    2012-08-01

    Clinical experience indicates that newly available portable hand-held x-ray units provide advantages compared to traditional fixed properly installed and operated x-ray units in dental radiography. However, concern that hand-held x-ray units produce higher operator doses than fixed x-ray units has caused regulatory agencies to mandate requirements for use of hand-held units that go beyond those recommended by the manufacturer and can discourage the use of this technology. To assess the need for additional requirements, a hand-held x-ray unit and a pair of manikins were used to measure the dose to a simulated operator under two conditions: exposures made according to the manufacturer's recommendations and exposures made according to manufacturer's recommendation except for the removal of the x-ray unit's protective backscatter shield. Dose to the simulated operator was determined using an array of personal dosimeters and a pair of pressurized ion chambers. The results indicate that the dose to an operator of this equipment will be less than 0.6 mSv y⁻¹ if the device is used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. This suggests that doses to properly trained operators of well-designed, hand-held dental x-ray units will be below 1.0 mSv y⁻¹ (2% of the annual occupational dose limit) even if additional no additional operational requirements are established by regulatory agencies. This level of annual dose is similar to those reported as typical dental personnel using fixed x-ray units and appears to satisfy the ALARA principal for this class of occupational exposures. PMID:22739973

  1. An operational-based ALARA design program

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, W.A.; Stocknoff, M.S. ); Pike, D.L.; Ward, K.D. )

    1985-01-01

    A frequent criticism of the nuclear power plant design and construction process is that operational considerations for maintaining occupational radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable are not addressed until it is too late to incorporate desirable modifications. Lessons that have been learned in the construction and operation of another plants and problems foreseen by the utility's radiation protection and engineering personnel often simply do not get the attention they deserve during the design and field engineering stages. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation and Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation have sought to avoid just such problems by jointly implementing a comprehensive, multidisciplinary ALARA design program for the Nine Mile Point Unit 2 nuclear power plant. This paper reports that this ALARA design program is organized to: directly incorporate NMPC's operational experience and philosophy, efficiently review the design and identify improvements from an occupational exposure viewpoint, and expedite design modifications while minimizing cost and schedule impacts.

  2. ALARA Design Review for the Resumption of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Cementation Process Project Activities

    SciTech Connect

    DAYLEY, L.

    2000-06-14

    The requirements for the performance of radiological design reviews are codified in 10CFR835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The basic requirements for the performance of ALARA design reviews are presented in the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM). The HSRCM has established trigger levels requiring radiological reviews of non-routine or complex work activities. These requirements are implemented in site procedures HNF-PRO-1622 and 1623. HNF-PRO-1622 Radiological Design Review Process requires that ''radiological design reviews [be performed] of new facilities and equipment and modifications of existing facilities and equipment''. In addition, HNF-PRO-1623 Radiological Work Planning Process requires a formal ALARA Review for planned activities that are estimated to exceed 1 person-rem total Dose Equivalent (DE). The purpose of this review is to validate that the original design for the PFP Cementation Process ensures that the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) were included in the original project design. That is, that the design and operation of existing Cementation Process equipment and processes allows for the minimization of personnel exposure in its operation, maintenance and decommissioning and that the generation of radioactive waste is kept to a minimum.

  3. ALARA Review of the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring and Transfer Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.

    2003-06-30

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed to meet the growing need for new tools that will deepen our understanding in materials science, life science, chemistry, fundamental and nuclear physics, earth and environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. The SNS is an accelerator-based neutron-scattering facility that when operational will produce an average beam power of 2 MW at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The accelerator complex consists of the front-end systems, which will include an ion source; a 1-GeV full-energy linear accelerator; a single accumulator ring and its transfer lines; and a liquid mercury target. This report documents an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) review of the accumulator ring and transfer lines at their early design stage. An ALARA working group was formed and conducted a review of the SNS ring and transfer lines at the {approx}25% complete design stage to help ensure that ALARA principles are being incorporated into the design. The radiological aspects of the SNS design criteria were reviewed against regulatory requirements and ALARA principles. Proposed features and measures were then reviewed against the SNS design criteria. As part of the overall review, the working group reviewed the design manual; design drawings and process and instrumentation diagrams; the environment, safety, and health manual; and other related reports and literature. The group also talked with SNS design engineers to obtain explanations of pertinent subject matter. The ALARA group found that ALARA principles are indeed being incorporated into the early design stage. Radiation fields have been characterized, and shielding calculations have been performed. Radiological issues are being adequately addressed with regard to equipment selection, access control, confinement structure and ventilation, and contamination control. Radiation monitoring instrumentation for worker and environment protection are also being considered--a good practice at this

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA Report for Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, S.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1993 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes information regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, and skin contaminations. The collective whole-body radiation dose to employees during 1993 was 0.58 person-sievert (58 person-rem). This dose was 11 percent lower than the projected dose of 0.65 person-sievert (65 person-rem). The Radiation Protection Section`s Field Dosimetry Services group projected that no PNL employee`s dose would exceed 0.02 sievert (2 rem) based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the limit by the end of CY 1993. There were 15 reported cases of skin contamination for PNL employees during 1993. This number of 60 percent of the projected total of 25 cases. There were an additional 21 cases of personal-effects contamination to PNL staff: Nine of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building, nine occurred at the 325 Building, one occurred in the 327 Building, one occurred in the 3720 Building, and one occurred in the 326 Building. Line management set numerous challenging and production ALARA goals for their facilities. Appendix A describes the final status of the 1993 ALARA goals. Appendix B describes the radiological ALARA goals for 1994. The Radiation Protection Section of the Laboratory Safety Dept. routinely perform audits of radiological ALARA requirements for specific facilities with significant potential for exposure. These ALARA audits are part of a comprehensive safety audit of the facility, designed to evaluate and improve total safety performance.

  5. ALARA Review for the Sediment Relocation and Removal from the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Demers, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    This as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) review revision provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposure, control contamination levels, and airborne radioactivity concentrations during sediment relocation and removal in the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin. This document updates and supercedes the ALARA review of the sediment-related activities contained in 100-N Basin Stabilization Project As Low As Reasonably Achievable Plan (BHI 1995).

  6. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. PMID:24279835

  7. Achieving sustainable plant disease management through evolutionary principles.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jiasui; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

    2014-09-01

    Plants and their pathogens are engaged in continuous evolutionary battles and sustainable disease management requires novel systems to create environments conducive for short-term and long-term disease control. In this opinion article, we argue that knowledge of the fundamental factors that drive host-pathogen coevolution in wild systems can provide new insights into disease development in agriculture. Such evolutionary principles can be used to guide the formulation of sustainable disease management strategies which can minimize disease epidemics while simultaneously reducing pressure on pathogens to evolve increased infectivity and aggressiveness. To ensure agricultural sustainability, disease management programs that reflect the dynamism of pathogen population structure are essential and evolutionary biologists should play an increasing role in their design. PMID:24853471

  8. High level waste tank closure project: ALARA applications at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Steven B; Butler, Richard; Butterworth, Steven W; Quigley, Keith D

    2005-05-01

    Bechtel BWXT Idaho, Maintenance and Operating Contractor for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, has emptied, cleaned, and sampled six of the eleven 1.135 x 10(6) L high level waste underground storage tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, well ahead of the State of Idaho Consent Order cleaning schedule. Cleaning of a seventh tank is expected to be complete by the end of calendar year 2004. The tanks, with associated vaults, valve boxes, and distribution systems, are being closed to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and Department of Energy orders. The use of remotely operated equipment placed in the tanks through existing tank riser access points, sampling methods and application of as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) principles have proven effective in keeping personnel dose low during equipment removal, tank, vault, and valve box cleaning, and sampling activities, currently at 0.03 Sv. PMID:15824589

  9. Innovative ALARA Techniques Used at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2002-02-08

    An ALARA Center of Technology was established at Hanford to show workers the latest tools, equipment, and work practices used in the industry in an effort to improve how radiological work gets accomplished using better engineered controls.

  10. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    NELSEN LA

    2009-01-30

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

  11. Five-Year ALARA Review of Dosimetry Results 1 January 2010 through 31 December 2014.

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, Luke R.

    2015-06-01

    A review of dosimetry results from 1 January 2010 through 31 December 2014 was conducted to demonstrate that radiation protection methods used are compliant with regulatory limits and conform to the philosophy to keep exposures to radiation As Low As is Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). This included a review and evaluation of personnel dosimetry (external and internal) results at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico as well as at Sandia National Laboratories, California. Additionally, results of environmental monitoring efforts at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico were reviewed. ALARA is a philosophical approach to radiation protection by managing and controlling radiation exposures (individual and collective) to the work force and to the general public to levels that are As Low As is Reasonably Achievable taking social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations into account. ALARA is not a dose limit but a process which has the objective of attaining doses as far below applicable dose limits As Low As is Reasonably Achievable.

  12. Five-year ALARA review of dosimetry results : 1 January 2008 through 31 December 2012.

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, Luke R.

    2013-08-01

    A review of personnel dosimetry (external and internal) and environmental monitoring results from 1 January 2008 through 31 December 2012 performed at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico was conducted to demonstrate that radiation protection methods used are compliant with regulatory limits and conform with the ALARA philosophy. ALARA is the philosophical approach to radiation protection by managing and controlling radiation exposures (individual and collective) to the work force and to the general public to levels that are As Low As is Reasonably Achievable taking social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations into account. ALARA is not a dose limit but a process which has the objective of attaining doses as far below applicable dose limits As Low As is Reasonably Achievable.

  13. Five-Year ALARA Review of Dosimetry Results 1 January 2009 through 31 December 2013.

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, Luke R

    2014-08-01

    A review of dosimetry results from 1 January 2009 through 31 December 2013 was conducted to demonstrate that radiation protection methods used are compliant with regulatory limits and conform to the ALARA philosophy. This included a review and evaluation of personnel dosimetry (external and internal) results at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico as well as at Sandia National Laboratories, California. Additionally, results of environmental monitoring efforts at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico were reviewed. ALARA is a philosophical approach to radiation protection by managing and controlling radiation exposures (individual and collective) to the work force and to the general public to levels that are As Low As is Reasonably Achievable taking social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations into account. ALARA is not a dose limit but a process which has the objective of attaining doses as far below applicable dose limits As Low As is Reasonably Achievable.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for CY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Ceffalo, G.M.; Oxley, C.L.; Wright, P.A.

    1992-05-01

    This report provides summary results of the CY 1990 ALARA Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Information has been included regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, and the nonradiological ALARA program.

  15. Lessons Learned at Envirocare of Utah's Containerized Waste Facility (CWF): Dose Minimization Through ALARA Techniques and Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Heckman, J.; Gardner, J.; Ledoux, M. R.

    2003-02-24

    Envirocare of Utah, Inc. (Envirocare) commenced operation of its Class A Containerized Waste Facility (CWF) on October 25, 2001. The opening of this facility began a new era for Envirocare, in that; their core business had always been low level, high volume, bulk radioactive waste. The CWF commenced operations to dispose of low level, low volume, high activity, containerized radioactive waste. Due to the potential for high dose rates on the waste disposal containers, the ALARA principle (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) plays an important role in the operation of the CWF and its mission to properly dispose of waste while minimizing doses to the workers, public, and the environment. This paper will enumerate some of the efforts made by the management and staff of the CWF that have contributed to significant dose reductions.

  16. Proceedings of the Department of Energy ALARA Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W.

    1992-12-31

    The report contains summaries of papers, discussions, and operational exercises presented at the first Department of Energy ALARA Workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York on April 21--22, 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for, and enhance communication among, ALARA personnel, as well as to inform DOE`s field office and contractor personnel about the Office of Health`s programs and expectations from the entire DOE complex efforts in the ALARA area.The two-day workshop consisted of one day dedicated to presentations on implementing various elements of a formal ALARA program at the DOE contractors` facilities, regulatory aspects of ALARA programs, and DOE Headquarters` ALARA expectations/initiatives. The second day was devoted to detailed discussions on ALARA improvements and problems, and operational exercises on cost-benefit analyses and on ALARA job/experiment reviews. At this workshop, 70 health physicists and radiation safety engineers from 5 DOE Headquarter Offices, 7 DOE operations/area offices, and 27 contractor facilities exchanged information, which is expected to stimulate further improvement in the DOE contractors` ALARA programs. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  17. Proceedings of the Department of Energy ALARA Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains summaries of papers, discussions, and operational exercises presented at the first Department of Energy ALARA Workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York on April 21--22, 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for, and enhance communication among, ALARA personnel, as well as to inform DOE's field office and contractor personnel about the Office of Health's programs and expectations from the entire DOE complex efforts in the ALARA area.The two-day workshop consisted of one day dedicated to presentations on implementing various elements of a formal ALARA program at the DOE contractors' facilities, regulatory aspects of ALARA programs, and DOE Headquarters' ALARA expectations/initiatives. The second day was devoted to detailed discussions on ALARA improvements and problems, and operational exercises on cost-benefit analyses and on ALARA job/experiment reviews. At this workshop, 70 health physicists and radiation safety engineers from 5 DOE Headquarter Offices, 7 DOE operations/area offices, and 27 contractor facilities exchanged information, which is expected to stimulate further improvement in the DOE contractors' ALARA programs. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  18. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Study of ALARA programs. Status 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Meinhold, C.B.; Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1992-08-01

    This report provides the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors with information that will be useful for reducing occupational radiation doses at DOE`s nuclear facilities. In 1989 and 1990, health physicists from the Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) ALARA Center visited twelve DOE contractor facilities with annual collective dose equivalents greater than 100 person-rem (100 person-cSv). The health physicists interviewed radiological safety staff, engineers, and training personnel who were responsible for dose control. The status of ALARA practices at the major contractor facilities was compared with the requirements and recommendation in DOE Order 5480.11 ``Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers`` and PNL-6577 ``Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are as Low as Reasonably Achievable.`` The information and data collected are described and examples of successful practices are presented. The findings on the status of the DOE Contractor ALARA Programs are summarized and evaluated. In addition, the supplement to this report contains examples of good-practice documents associated with implementing the major elements of a formally documented ALARA program for a major DOE contractor facility.

  19. New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2008-08-01

    We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from use of such a tool: students are often taught a list of concepts and a separate list of parameters for mathematical equations. The link between the two can be elusive. While wet-lab experimentation is the proven approach to developing this link, in silico simulation can provide a means of acquiring important insight and understanding within a time frame and at a cost that cannot be achieved otherwise. We suggest that simulations and their representation of laboratory experiments in the classroom can become a key component in student achievement by helping to develop a student's positive attitude towards science and his or her creativity in scientific inquiry. We present results of two simulation experiments that validate against data taken from current literature. We follow with a classroom example demonstrating how this tool can be seamlessly integrated within the traditional pharmacology learning experience.

  20. IMPROVED WELL PLUGGING EQUIPMENT AND WASTE MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES EXCEED ALARA GOALS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteside, R.; Pawlowicz, R.; Whitehead, L.; Arnseth, R.

    2002-02-25

    In 2000, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) contracted Tetra Tech NUS, Inc. (TtNUS) and their sub-contractor, Texas World Operations, Inc. (TWO), to plug and abandon (P&A) 111 wells located in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). One hundred and seven of those wells were used to monitor fluid movement and subsurface containment of the low level radioactive liquid waste/grout slurry that was injected into the Pumpkin Valley Shale Formation, underlying ORNL. Four wells were used as hydrofracture injection wells to emplace the waste in the shale formation. Although the practice of hydrofracturing was and is considered by many to pose no threat to human health or the environment, the practice was halted in 1982 after the Federal Underground Injection Control regulations were enacted by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) making it necessary to properly close the wells. The work is being performed for the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations (DOE ORO). The project team is using the philosophy of minimum waste generation and the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) as key project goals to minimize personnel and equipment exposure, waste generation, and project costs. Achievement of these goals was demonstrated by the introduction of several new pieces of custom designed well plugging and abandonment equipment that were tested and used effectively during field operations. Highlights of the work performed and the equipment used are presented.

  1. ALARA{trademark} 1146 strippable coating

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, V.

    1999-12-17

    Strippable or temporary coatings are innovative technologies for decontamination that effectively reduce loose contamination at low cost. These coatings have become a viable option during the deactivation and decommissioning of both US Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial nuclear facilities to remove or fix loose contamination on both vertical and horizontal surfaces. The ALARA{trademark} 1146 strippable coating was demonstrated as part of the Savannah River Site LSDDP and successfully removed transferable (surface) contamination from multiple surfaces (metal and concrete) with an average decontamination factor for alpha contamination of 6.68 and an average percentage of alpha contamination removed of 85.0%. Beta contamination removed was an average DF of 5.55 and an average percentage removed of 82.0%. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users. This Innovative Technology offers a 35% cost savings over the Baseline Technology.

  2. ALARA plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project is to remove the liquid low-level waste from the five underground storage tanks located at OHF and transfer the resulting slurry to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks facility for treatment and disposal. Among the technical objectives for the OHF Project, there is a specific provision to maintain personnel exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) during each activity of the project and to protect human health and the environment. The estimated doses and anticipated conditions for accomplishing this project are such that an ALARA Plan is necessary to facilitate formal radiological review of the campaign. This ALARA Plan describes the operational steps necessary for accomplishing the job together with the associated radiological impacts and planned controls. Individual and collective dose estimates are also provided for the various tasks. Any significant changes to this plan (i.e., planned exposures that are greater than 10% of original dose estimates) will require formal revision and concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page. Deviations from this plan (i.e., work outside the scope covered by this plan) also require the preparation of a task-specific ALARA Review that will be amended to this plan with concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page.

  3. The Impact of Learning Styles on Achievement in Principles of Microeconomics: A Natural Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terregrossa, Ralph; Englander, Fred; Englander, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how a natural experiment occurring in the teaching of principles of microeconomics allows a test of the Dunn and Dunn learning styles model (Dunn & Griggs, 2000). The material for the first exam, based on essential definitions and theoretical foundations, was taught in a conventional, inductive style, more compatible with…

  4. New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2008-01-01

    We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from…

  5. Using Achieving the Dream to Meet Accreditation Requirements. Principles and Practices of Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Terri Mulkins

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental concepts of Achieving the Dream--using evidence to develop and evaluate strategies for improving student learning and success--are also important to successful efforts to meet accreditation requirements. Following the Achieving the Dream approach can help community colleges organize and document improvement efforts in ways that are…

  6. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

  7. Cone-beam computed tomography: Time to move from ALARA to ALADA

    PubMed Central

    Jaju, Sushma P.

    2015-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is routinely recommended for dental diagnosis and treatment planning. CBCT exposes patients to less radiation than does conventional CT. Still, lack of proper education among dentists and specialists is resulting in improper referral for CBCT. In addition, aiming to generate high-quality images, operators may increase the radiation dose, which can expose the patient to unnecessary risk. This letter advocates appropriate radiation dosing during CBCT to the benefit of both patients and dentists, and supports moving from the concept of "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) to "as low as diagnostically acceptable" (ALADA). PMID:26730375

  8. Cone-beam computed tomography: Time to move from ALARA to ALADA.

    PubMed

    Jaju, Prashant P; Jaju, Sushma P

    2015-12-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is routinely recommended for dental diagnosis and treatment planning. CBCT exposes patients to less radiation than does conventional CT. Still, lack of proper education among dentists and specialists is resulting in improper referral for CBCT. In addition, aiming to generate high-quality images, operators may increase the radiation dose, which can expose the patient to unnecessary risk. This letter advocates appropriate radiation dosing during CBCT to the benefit of both patients and dentists, and supports moving from the concept of "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) to "as low as diagnostically acceptable" (ALADA). PMID:26730375

  9. Engaging Faculty in the Achieving the Dream Initiative. Principles and Practices of Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnback, Lara; Friedman, Will

    2009-01-01

    Stakeholder engagement is critical to the success of Achieving the Dream. Broad-based support for the college's student success agenda and institutional change efforts requires engaging faculty, staff, students, community members, and others in the change process. These stakeholders can bring to light critical obstacles to student success and help…

  10. Using Achievement Goal Theory to Translate Psychological Principles into Practice in the Secondary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Sandra A.

    2004-01-01

    As teachers begin to respond to educational reform efforts that stipulate the use of research-based practices in the classroom and translate them into feasible everyday approaches in the secondary classroom, many have turned to the field of educational psychology for guidance. This article uses educational psychology research on achievement goal…

  11. What Matters for Elementary Literacy Coaching? Guiding Principles for Instructional Improvement and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Allier, Susan; Elish-Piper, Laurie; Bean, Rita M.

    2010-01-01

    Literacy coaches provide job-embedded professional development for teachers, and the number of literacy coaches in elementary schools is increasing. Although literacy coaching offers promise in terms of improving teacher practice and student achievement, guidance is needed regarding the qualifications, activities, and roles of literacy coaches.…

  12. Closing the Achievement Gap: Principles for Improving the Educational Success of All Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This digest reviews educational policies and practices that have been proven effective in closing the achievement gap, offering a list of resources with detailed information about them. The digest focuses on state and district roles (e.g., developing and implementing educational goals, rigorous standards, and accountability standards and providing…

  13. Difficulties of Academic Achievement in Principles of Accounting Courses from the Student Perspective: Evidence from Libya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tailab, Mohamed M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies by researchers and accounting educators explore various factors associated with the success or failure of accounting majors in college level accounting courses. This paper identifies and summarizes the main obstacles associated with low student academic achievement in introductory courses in the College of Accounting at Al-Jabal…

  14. The Relation among School District Health, Total Quality Principles for School Organization and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jon; Pritchard, Ruie; Gunderson, Betsey

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the congruence among W. E. Deming's 14 points for Total Quality Management (TQM), the organizational health of school districts, and student achievement. Based on Kanter's (1983) concept of a Culture of Pride with a Climate of Success, healthy districts were defined as having an organizational culture…

  15. Principles of Technology Student Achievement in Advanced Physics Measured by a Normed Physics Test.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, James Alan

    1991-02-01

    The Principles of Technology (PT) curriculum, now in approximately 1,200 schools, has produced a profound change in the delivery of applied physics. If high school PT programs and traditional physics courses deliver comparable student outcomes, as some research suggests, the PT curriculum may find wider acceptance in vocational programs and postsecondary schools may have rationale for accepting PT as physics. This study measured PT student performance on an advanced physics test, after they have had one year (7 units) of PT. The 1988R version of the National Association of Physics Teachers and National Science Teachers Association physics test, with more than 7500 copies sold, was selected as the research instrument. This test covers advanced aspects of traditional high school physics. A secondary enquiry included an attempt to link PT teacher preparation and credentialing and/or PT site demographics to variation in PT student scores on the 1988R test. The 10 PT sites in this study were self-selected from the 29 PT field study schools, the most mature PT sites. The researcher determined, that the 1988R physics test lacked content validity for the PT students tested. The PT students tested had a composite mean score of 17.67 questions correct out of 80, (below the second percentile), not statistically different than a chance score. No differences were found between site mean scores. Interpretation of the results regarding the effect of teachers, or demographics was not justified. The value of PT to the vocational-technical programs that it was designed for was not measured, nor was the awarding of general science credit for PT completion. One year of the PT curriculum, at the sampled schools, has not prepared students in the advanced scientific aspects of traditional physics found on the 1988R examination. The primary implication is that educators should not expect year one PT to prepare students for classes or curricula that include traditional physics as a

  16. Integration of Formal Job Hazard Analysis & ALARA Work Practice

    SciTech Connect

    NELSEN, D.P.

    2002-09-01

    ALARA work practices have traditionally centered on reducing radiological exposure and controlling contamination. As such, ALARA policies and procedures are not well suited to a wide range of chemical and human health issues. Assessing relative risk, identifying appropriate engineering/administrative controls and selecting proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for non nuclear work activities extends beyond the limitations of traditional ALARA programs. Forging a comprehensive safety management program in today's (2002) work environment requires a disciplined dialog between health and safety professionals (e.g. safety, engineering, environmental, quality assurance, industrial hygiene, ALARA, etc.) and personnel working in the field. Integrating organizational priorities, maintaining effective pre-planning of work and supporting a team-based approach to safety management represents today's hallmark of safety excellence. Relying on the mandates of any single safety program does not provide industrial hygiene with the tools necessary to implement an integrated safety program. The establishment of tools and processes capable of sustaining a comprehensive safety program represents a key responsibility of industrial hygiene. Fluor Hanford has built integrated safety management around three programmatic attributes: (1) Integration of radiological, chemical and ergonomic issues under a single program. (2) Continuous improvement in routine communications among work planning/scheduling, job execution and management. (3) Rapid response to changing work conditions, formalized work planning and integrated worker involvement.

  17. Implementation of ALARA radiation protection on the ISS through polyethylene shielding augmentation of the Service Module Crew Quarters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Zapp, N.; Barber, R. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Qualls, G.; Toupes, L.; Ramsey, S.; Vinci, V.; Smith, G.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2004-01-01

    With 5-7 month long duration missions at 51.6° inclination in Low Earth Orbit, the ionizing radiation levels to which International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are exposed will be the highest planned occupational exposures in the world. Even with the expectation that regulatory dose limits will not be exceeded during a single tour of duty aboard the ISS, the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) precept requires that radiological risks be minimized when possible through a dose optimization process. Judicious placement of efficient shielding materials in locations where crewmembers sleep, rest, or work is an important means for implementing ALARA for spaceflight. Polyethylene (C nH n) is a relatively inexpensive, stable, and, with a low atomic number, an effective shielding material that has been certified for use aboard the ISS. Several designs for placement of slabs or walls of polyethylene have been evaluated for radiation exposure reduction in the Crew Quarters (CQ) of the Zvezda (Star) Service Module. Optimization of shield designs relies on accurate characterization of the expected primary and secondary particle environment and modeling of the predicted radiobiological responses of critical organs and tissues. Results of the studies shown herein indicate that 20% or more reduction in equivalent dose to the CQ occupant is achievable. These results suggest that shielding design and risk analysis are necessary measures for reducing long-term radiological risks to ISS inhabitants and for meeting legal ALARA requirements. Verification of shield concepts requires results from specific designs to be compared with onboard dosimetry.

  18. Implementation of ALARA radiation protection on the ISS through polyethylene shielding augmentation of the Service Module crew quarters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavers, M.; Zapp, N.; Barber, R.; Wilson, J.; Qualls, G.; Toupes, L.; Ramsey, S.; Vinci, V.; Smith, G.; Cucinotta, F.

    With 5 to 7-month long duration missions at 51.6° inclination in Low Earth Orbit, the ionizing radiation levels to which International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are exposed will be the highest planned occupational exposures in the world. Even with the expectation that regulatory dose limits will not be exceeded during a single tour of duty aboard the ISS, the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) precept requires that radiological risks be minimized when possible through an dose optimization process. Judicious placement of efficient shielding materials in locations where crewmembers sleep, rest, or work is an important means for implementing ALARA for spaceflight. Polyethylene (Cn Hn ), is a relatively inexpensive, stable, and, with a low atomic number, an effective shielding material that has been certified for use aboard the ISS. Several designs for placement of slabs or walls of polyethylene have been evaluated for radiation exposure reduction in the Crew Quarters (CQ) of the Zvezda (Star) Service Module. Optimization of shield designs relies on accurate characterization of the expected primary and secondary particle environment and modeling of the predicted radiobiological responses of critical organs and tissues. Results of the studies shown herein indicate that 20% or more reduction in dose equivalent to the CQ occupant is achievable. These results suggest that shielding design and risk analysis are necessary measures for reducing long-term radiological risks to ISS inhabitants and for meeting legal ALARA requirements. Verification of shield concepts requires results from specific designs to be compared with onboard dosimetry.

  19. Implementation of ALARA radiation protection on the ISS through polyethylene shielding augmentation of the Service Module Crew Quarters.

    PubMed

    Shavers, M R; Zapp, N; Barber, R E; Wilson, J W; Qualls, G; Toupes, L; Ramsey, S; Vinci, V; Smith, G; Cucinotta, F A

    2004-01-01

    With 5-7 month long duration missions at 51.6 degrees inclination in Low Earth Orbit, the ionizing radiation levels to which International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are exposed will be the highest planned occupational exposures in the world. Even with the expectation that regulatory dose limits will not be exceeded during a single tour of duty aboard the ISS, the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) precept requires that radiological risks be minimized when possible through a dose optimization process. Judicious placement of efficient shielding materials in locations where crewmembers sleep, rest, or work is an important means for implementing ALARA for spaceflight. Polyethylene (CnHn) is a relatively inexpensive, stable, and, with a low atomic number, an effective shielding material that has been certified for use aboard the ISS. Several designs for placement of slabs or walls of polyethylene have been evaluated for radiation exposure reduction in the Crew Quarters (CQ) of the Zvezda (Star) Service Module. Optimization of shield designs relies on accurate characterization of the expected primary and secondary particle environment and modeling of the predicted radiobiological responses of critical organs and tissues. Results of the studies shown herein indicate that 20% or more reduction in equivalent dose to the CQ occupant is achievable. These results suggest that shielding design and risk analysis are necessary measures for reducing long-term radiological risks to ISS inhabitants and for meeting legal ALARA requirements. Verification of shield concepts requires results from specific designs to be compared with onboard dosimetry. PMID:15880921

  20. Design Principles for Heteroatom-Doped Nanocarbon to Achieve Strong Anchoring of Polysulfides for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ting-Zheng; Chen, Xiang; Peng, Hong-Jie; Huang, Jia-Qi; Li, Bo-Quan; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been intensively concerned to fulfill the urgent demands of high capacity energy storage. One of the major unsolved issues is the complex diffusion of lithium polysulfide intermediates, which in combination with the subsequent paradox reactions is known as the shuttle effect. Nanocarbon with homogeneous nonpolar surface served as scaffolding materials in sulfur cathode basically cannot afford a sufficient binding and confining effect to maintain lithium polysulfides within the cathode. Herein, a systematical density functional theory calculation of various heteroatoms-doped nanocarbon materials is conducted to elaborate the mechanism and guide the future screening and rational design of Li-S cathode for better performance. It is proved that the chemical modification using N or O dopant significantly enhances the interaction between the carbon hosts and the polysulfide guests via dipole-dipole electrostatic interaction and thereby effectively prevents shuttle of polysulfides, allowing high capacity and high coulombic efficiency. By contrast, the introduction of B, F, S, P, and Cl monodopants into carbon matrix is unsatisfactory. To achieve the strong-couple effect toward Li2 Sx , the principles for rational design of doped carbon scaffolds in Li-S batteries to achieve a strong electrostatic dipole-dipole interaction are proposed. An implicit volcano plot is obtained to describe the dependence of binding energies on electronegativity of dopants. Moreover, the codoping strategy is predicted to achieve even stronger interfacial interaction to trap lithium polysulfides. PMID:27168000

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for Calendar Year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, S.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1994 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program performance at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes data regarding performance in the area of personnel exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, control of contaminated areas, minimization of radioactive waste, and control of radioactive releases. In CY 1994: (1) The collective total effective dose equivalent to PNL employees during 1994 was 55 person-rem. The Field Dosimetry Services of the Radiological Control Department, Technical Support Section, projected that no PNL employee`s dose would exceed 2 rem based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the projection-by the end of CY 1994. The maximum dose to any individual was 1.11 rem. (2) There were 34 instances of skin and personal-clothing contamination events for PNL employees during 1994. Eighteen of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building; eleven occurred at the 325 Building; two occurred in the 327 Building; one occurred in the 326 Building; one occurred in the 3708 Building; and one occurred in the RTL Building. (3) PNL facilities contained 12 Airborne Radioactivity Areas, and 60 Contamination Areas and High Contamination Areas. The area of the Airborne Radioactivity Areas was 383 m{sup 2}(4125 ft{sup 2}). The area of the Contamination Areas was 5290 m{sup 2}(56,947 ft{sup 2}). The area of the High Contamination Areas was 266 m{sup 2}(2863 ft{sup 2}). (4) PNL disposed of 10.5 m{sup 3}(371 ft{sup 3}) of compacted low level waste. Also disposed was 423 m{sup 3} (14,949 ft{sup 3}) of noncompacted low level and mixed waste that was not subject to volume reduction. The total radioactivity of the disposed waste was 1217 Ci. (5) PNL facilities released 165.2 Ci of noble gas, 3.0E-5 Ci of airborne particulate radioactive material, and 12.2 Ci of tritium to the environment.

  2. History and Culture of Alara--The Action Learning and Action Research Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun; Passfield, Ron

    2016-01-01

    As co-founders of the Action Learning and Action Research Association (ALARA), we tell the story of this international network organisation through our personal experience. Our history traces the evolution of ALARA from origins at the first World Congress in 1990 in Brisbane, Australia, through development over two and a half decades, to its…

  3. Implementation of ALARA radiation protection on the ISS through polyethylene shielding augmentation of the Service Module Crew Quarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Zapp, N.; Barber, R. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Qualls, G.; Toupes, L.; Ramsey, S.; Vinci, V.; Smith, G.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2004-01-01

    With 5-7 month long duration missions at 51.6 degrees inclination in Low Earth Orbit, the ionizing radiation levels to which International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are exposed will be the highest planned occupational exposures in the world. Even with the expectation that regulatory dose limits will not be exceeded during a single tour of duty aboard the ISS, the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) precept requires that radiological risks be minimized when possible through a dose optimization process. Judicious placement of efficient shielding materials in locations where crewmembers sleep, rest, or work is an important means for implementing ALARA for spaceflight. Polyethylene (CnHn) is a relatively inexpensive, stable, and, with a low atomic number, an effective shielding material that has been certified for use aboard the ISS. Several designs for placement of slabs or walls of polyethylene have been evaluated for radiation exposure reduction in the Crew Quarters (CQ) of the Zvezda (Star) Service Module. Optimization of shield designs relies on accurate characterization of the expected primary and secondary particle environment and modeling of the predicted radiobiological responses of critical organs and tissues. Results of the studies shown herein indicate that 20% or more reduction in equivalent dose to the CQ occupant is achievable. These results suggest that shielding design and risk analysis are necessary measures for reducing long-term radiological risks to ISS inhabitants and for meeting legal ALARA requirements. Verification of shield concepts requires results from specific designs to be compared with onboard dosimetry. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The program of the ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    In 1984 the Brookhaven National Laboratory was asked by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set up a Center to monitor dose-reduction efforts in the US and abroad and to focus the industry's attention on ALARA. The paper summarizes the main work of the ALARA Center between 1984 and 1992. The Center maintains nine data bases for the NRC and the Nuclear Power Industry. These databases are constantly updated and access to them is provided through a personal computer and a modem and by periodic publications in the form of a newsletter and NUREG reports. Also described briefly are eight other projects related to dose-reduction at nuclear power plants that the Center has carried out for the NRC. Among these are projects that analyze the cost-effectiveness of engineering modifications, look at worldwide activities at dose reduction and compare US and foreign dose experience, examine high-dose worker groups and high-dose jobs, develop optimum techniques to control contamination at nuclear plants, and look at the doses being received by men and women in all sectors of the nuclear industry.

  5. The program of the ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-04-01

    In 1984 the Brookhaven National Laboratory was asked by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set up a Center to monitor dose-reduction efforts in the US and abroad and to focus the industry`s attention on ALARA. The paper summarizes the main work of the ALARA Center between 1984 and 1992. The Center maintains nine data bases for the NRC and the Nuclear Power Industry. These databases are constantly updated and access to them is provided through a personal computer and a modem and by periodic publications in the form of a newsletter and NUREG reports. Also described briefly are eight other projects related to dose-reduction at nuclear power plants that the Center has carried out for the NRC. Among these are projects that analyze the cost-effectiveness of engineering modifications, look at worldwide activities at dose reduction and compare US and foreign dose experience, examine high-dose worker groups and high-dose jobs, develop optimum techniques to control contamination at nuclear plants, and look at the doses being received by men and women in all sectors of the nuclear industry.

  6. ALARA studies on spent fuel and waste casks

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, S.H.

    1980-04-01

    In this report, some implications of applying the ALARA concept to cask designs for transporting spent fuel, high-level commercial and defense waste, and remote-handled transuranic waste are investigated. The XSDRNPM, one-dimensional radiation transport code, was used to obtain potential shield designs that would yield total dose rates at 1.8 m from the cask surface of 10, 5, and 2 mrem/h. Gamma shields of depleted uranium, lead, and steel were studied. The capacity of the casks was assumed to be 1, 4, or 7 elements or canisters, and the wastes were 1, 3, 5, and 10 years old. Depending on the dose rate, the cask empty weights and lifetime transportation costs were estimated.

  7. Multilateral analysis of increasing collective dose and new ALARA programme.

    PubMed

    Oumi, Tadashi; Morii, Yasuki; Imai, Toshirou

    2011-07-01

    JAPC (The Japan Atomic Power Company) is the only electric power company that operates different types of nuclear reactors in Japan; it operates two BWRs (boiling water reactors), one pressurised water reactor and one gas cooled reactor. JAPC has been conducting various activities aimed at reducing radiation dose received by workers for over 45 y. Recently, the collective dose resulting from periodic maintenance has increased at each plant because of the replacement of large equipment and the unexpected extension of the outage period. In particular, the collective dose at Tokai-2 is one of the highest among Japanese BWR plants((1)), owing to the replacement and strengthening of equipment to meet earthquake-proof requirements. In this study, the authors performed a multilateral analysis of unacceptably a large collective dose and devised a new ALARA programme that includes a 3D dose prediction map and the development of machines to assist workers. PMID:21652597

  8. Failure Is Not an Option (TM). Six Principles That Guide Student Achievement in High-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankstein, Alan M.

    2004-01-01

    The author builds upon a foundation which identifies courageous school leadership and the professional learning community as the center of effective school reform. The author offers six guiding principles steps for creating and sustaining a high-performing school: (1) Common mission, vision, values, and goals: (2) Systems for prevention and…

  9. The Effects of Social Cue Principles on Cognitive Load, Situational Interest, Motivation, and Achievement in Pedagogical Agent Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sanghoon

    2015-01-01

    Animated pedagogical agents have become popular in multimedia learning with combined delivery of verbal and non-verbal forms of information. In order to reduce unnecessary cognitive load caused by such multiple forms of information and also to foster generative cognitive processing, multimedia design principles with social cues are suggested…

  10. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cr-doped Si achieved by controlling atomic structure, Cr concentration, and carrier densities: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xin-Yuan; Yang, Zhong-Qin; Zhu, Yan; Li, Yun

    2015-04-28

    By using first-principles calculations, we investigated how to achieve a strong ferromagnetism in Cr-doped Si by controlling the atomic structure and Cr concentration as well as carrier densities. We found that the configuration in which the Cr atom occupies the tetrahedral interstitial site can exist stably and the Cr atom has a large magnetic moment. Using this doping configuration, room-temperature ferromagnetism can be achieved in both n-type and p-type Si by tuning Cr concentration and carrier densities. The results indicate that the carrier density plays a crucial role in realizing strong ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  11. Achieving a culture of continuous improvement by adopting the principles of self-assessment and business excellence.

    PubMed

    Jackson, S

    1999-01-01

    Following a brief description of the inception of self-assessment and the European Foundation for Quality business excellence model, this article describes how one clinical directorate in an NHS Trust used the principles of both to secure a culture of continuous improvement. The journey from a mainly hierarchical, bureaucratic, individualist culture to one where the norms, values and beliefs reflected teamwork, involvement and empowerment is described. The highs, lows and learning points are all included, in an attempt to enlighten other healthcare organisations considering the benefits and pitfalls of using the business excellence model to improve the quality of their healthcare delivery. PMID:10537858

  12. Hands-on Activities versus Worksheets in Reinforcing Physical Science Principles: Effects on Student Achievement and Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald M.; Wardlow, George W.; Franklin, Timothy D.

    1997-01-01

    A group of 132 agricultural science students were divided into an experimental group who completed hands-on activities on Ohm's Law and incline plane and a control group who completed worksheets. There were no significant differences in immediate or follow-up measures of achievement. Hands-on students had significantly more positive attitudes. (SK)

  13. Engaged Partners: The Achieving the Dream Partnership. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case in Brief Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantmakers for Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Engaged Partners" focuses on the decisions made by the creators of the Achieving the Dream initiative to build a broad and diverse range of stakeholders--including funders--who would take ownership of the problem of poor student success rates in community colleges. The case study illustrates the virtues--and some pitfalls--of encouraging…

  14. Core Academic Literacy Principles versus Culture-Specific Practices: A Multi-Case Study of Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia; Pujol, Merce

    2003-01-01

    Compares how three culturally distinct groups of undergraduates--mainstream American, Catalan, Latino immigrants to the United States--interact with course content to achieve academically. Analysis of interviews and documents reveals four informational operations--exposure, extraction, manipulation, and display--used to move content from sources…

  15. ALARA and de minimis concepts in regulation of personnel exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The ALARA process should not be limited by a de minimis level on either collective or individual dose, but should be limited or defined by an acceptable discount-rate on future costs and effects, and a monetary value for detriment, to be used in cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit calculations at dose levels well below the regulatory limits. This approach would provide the desired benefit of simplifying the decision process, it makes it more cost effective, and would avoid the inconsistencies of limits on only one of the four parameters of importance in the optimization process. These are average individual effective dose equivalent rate, number of individuals to be included in the summation, years of exposure, and costs, which include costs of analysis to reduce the exposure. This approach emphasizes that these doses to an individual may not be considered trivial by society when given to a very large population, especially if they could easily be avoided. 32 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Review of ALARA plan for activities at the 105 K-East fuel storage basin

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Durham, J.S.; Hickey, E.E.; Stansbury, P.S.; Cicotte, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of its ongoing efforts to reduce doses to workers to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) tasked the Health Protection Department of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to review operations at the 105 K-East Fuel Storage Basin (105 K-East). This review included both routine operations and a proposed campaign to encapsulate N-Reactor fuel stored there. This report summarizes the results of PNL`s reviews of policy, procedures, and practices for operations at 105 K-East as well as an evaluation of the major sources of occupational radiation exposures. Where possible, data previously collected by WHC and its predecessors were used. In addition, PNL staff developed a three-dimensional model of the radiological environment within 105 K-East to assess the relative contributions of different radiation sources to worker dose and to provide a decision tool for use in evaluating alternative methods of dose rate reduction. The model developed by PNL indicates that for most areas in the basin the primary source of occupational radiation exposure is the contaminated concrete surfaces of the basin near the waterline. Basin cooling water piping represents a significant source in a number of areas, particularly the Technical Viewing Pit. This report contains specific recommendations to reduce the impact of these sources of occupational radiation exposure in 105 K-East. Other recommendations to reduce doses to workers during activities such as filter changes and filter sampling are also included.

  17. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique.

  18. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report.

  19. The Use of Ecological Restoration Principles To Achieve Remedy Protection At the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Johnston, F.; Homer, J.; Deyo, Y.

    2008-07-01

    At both the Fernald Preserve and the Weldon Spring Site, the development of ecological restoration goals and objectives was used to complement and even enhance achievement of selected remedies. Warm-season native grasses and forbs were used for revegetation of remediated areas. The hardiness and ability to establish in low-nutrient conditions make native grasses ideal candidates for reestablishment of vegetation in excavated areas. At the Fernald Preserve, native grasses were used for vegetative cover on an on-site disposal facility as well. Also at the Fernald Preserve, excavation footprints were optimized to increase the quantity and quality of created wetlands. Drainage features in a couple instances provide passive groundwater recharge, potentially accelerating groundwater remediation efforts. In addition, a number of clean materials and structures were beneficially reused as part of ecological restoration designs, including wood-chip mulch and woody debris, clean concrete, and a rail trestle. At the Weldon Spring Site, several methods were used to control erosion for three years after the initial seeding of native species. A field evaluation of soil conditions and general species diversity was performed in 2007 and it was determined that erosion at the site was typical and repairing naturally. These approaches resulted in 'win-win' strategies needed to successfully remediate and restore complex projects such as the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring. (authors)

  20. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the implementation of ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Roecklein, A.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the papers presented and the discussions that took place at the Third International Workshop on ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants, held in Hauppauge, Long Island, New York from May 8--11, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, health physicists, regulators, managers and other persons who are involved with occupational dose control and ALARA issues. The countries represented were: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop was organized into twelve sessions and three panel discussions. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  1. INNOVATIVE ALARA TECHNIQUES & WORK PRACTICES USED AT HANFORD FOR D & D

    SciTech Connect

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2005-01-05

    The Department of Energy's Hanford Site has several nuclear facilities in the process of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) with many more to follow. These facilities contain hazardous and highly radioactive materials in plant systems, gloveboxes, hot cells, rooms, collection tanks, ventilation ducts, fuel pools and outside these facilities. Some of the radioactive isotopes are fissile material and have to be closely guarded and require special handling. To safely work in this environment, workers had to learn new skills and develop innovative techniques to decontaminate, remove all equipment and demolish these radioactive work facilities without spreading contamination to the environment. Changing the workscope and worker attitudes involves a culture change for workers, managers, Department of Energy (DOE) and support organizations. D&D involves making different types of risk-based decisions than were made when the plants were operated or sitting dormant. Management involvement, use of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), communications and sharing lessons learned are essential ingredients in developing a successful D&D strategy. New technologies have to be learned including the use of robotic devices and manipulative arms due to high dose rates and amount of radioactive contamination. Minimizing the amount of Transuranic and Mixed radioactive waste and learning how to ship the large quantities of waste are additional skills the Hanford workers have had to learn. D&D work at Hanford is in progress and Hanford Contractors have completed some very difficult and intense D&D work. This presentation will provide information on the best As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) protective measures, work practices, and the lessons learned to date.

  2. A simplified ALARA approach to demonstration of compliance with surface contaminated object regulatory requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Boyle, R.W.; Cook, J.C.

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have jointly prepared a comprehensive set of draft guidance for consignors and inspectors to use when applying the newly imposed regulatory requirements for low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCOs). The guidance is being developed to facilitate compliance with the new LSA material and SCO requirements, not to impose additional requirements. These new requirements represent, in some areas, significant departures from the manner in which packaging and transportation of these materials and objects were previously controlled. On occasion, it may be appropriate to use conservative approaches to demonstrate compliance with some of the requirements, ensuring that personnel are not exposed to radiation at unnecessary levels, so that exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). In the draft guidance, one such approach would assist consignors preparing a shipment of a large number of SCOs in demonstrating compliance without unnecessarily exposing personnel. In applying this approach, users need to demonstrate that four conditions are met. These four conditions are used to categorize non-activated, contaminated objects as SCO-2. It is expected that, by applying this approach, it will be possible to categorize a large number of small contaminated objects as SCO-2 without the need for detailed, quantitative measurements of fixed, accessible contamination, or of total (fixed and non-fixed) contamination on inaccessible surfaces. The method, which is based upon reasoned argument coupled with limited measurements and the application of a sum of fractions rule, is described and examples of its use are provided.

  3. International workshop on new developments in occupational dose control and ALARA implementation at nuclear power plants and similar facilities: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.; Kahn, T.A. )

    1990-02-01

    This report contains summaries of papers and discussions presented at the International Workshop on New Developments in Occupational Dose Control and ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants and Similar Facilities held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, September 18--21, 1989. The purpose of this workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, regulators, and administrators who are involved with occupational dose control at nuclear facilities to exchange information on recent developments from their countries. The eleven countries represented included: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The workshop was organized into seven sessions with 20-minute papers and four sessions with 5-minute discussions. The topics for the paper sessions included: Session 1, ALARA status, studies, and organization; Session 3, ALARA engineering in design and modifications; Session 5, system chemistry and water purification; Session 7, ALARA in operation I; Session 9, ALARA in operation II; Session 10, ALARA in operation III; and Session 11, the NEA Information System on Occupational Exposure. This workshop was sponsored jointly by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the US Department of Energy, in cooperation with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency. Each individual paper has been catalogued separately.

  4. CSER 95-002: ALARA shielding for IAEA SNM container movement

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.M.

    1995-03-07

    This CSER qualifies use of a 5% borated, lead foil lined polyethylene 1 inch annulus as a bucket and in a small carrier to move sealed containers of plutonium. The containers are Oversize Cans or smaller containing plutonium limited in mass and H/Pu ratio by PFP storage and transportation CPS`s. These ALARA shielding units reduce personnel exposure to the radiation from the containers as they are moved for assay and other required activities.

  5. ALARA Center of Technology promotes good radiological work practices at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, L.O., Westinghouse Hanford, Richland, WA

    1997-10-31

    The central Radiological Control Organization, originally under the previous Management and Operations contractor (Westinghouse Hanford Company) decided that a significant improvement in ALARA implementation would result if examples of engineered controls used for radiological work were assembled in one location to provide a ``showcase`` for workers and managers. The facility would be named the ALARA Center of Technology (ACT) and would include the latest technologies used to accomplish radiological work, as well as proven techniques, tools, and equipment. A location for the Center was selected in the 200 East Area of Hanford in a central location to be easily accessible to all facilities and contractors. Since there was little money available for this project, a decision was made to contact several vendors and request loans of their tools, equipment, and materials. In return, the center would help market products on site and assist with product demonstrations when the vendors visited Hanford. Out of 28 vendors originally contacted, 16 responded with offers to loan products. This included a containment tent, several glove bags, BEPA filtered vacuum cleaners, portable ventilation systems, fixatives, temporary shielding, pumps, and several special tools. Vendors who could not provide products sent videos and brochures. Westinghouse Hanford Company began using the ACT in June 1996. Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., the present Management and Integrating Contractor for the Hanford Site, held the formal opening ceremony of the ALARA Center of Technology on October 1, 1996. The Center now has about 1200 ft{sup 2} of floor space fi Iled with tools, equipment and material used to perform radiological work.

  6. On enforcing maximum principles and achieving element-wise species balance for advection-diffusion-reaction equations under the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudunuru, M. K.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a robust computational framework for advective-diffusive-reactive systems that satisfies maximum principles, the non-negative constraint, and element-wise species balance property. The proposed methodology is valid on general computational grids, can handle heterogeneous anisotropic media, and provides accurate numerical solutions even for very high Péclet numbers. The significant contribution of this paper is to incorporate advection (which makes the spatial part of the differential operator non-self-adjoint) into the non-negative computational framework, and overcome numerical challenges associated with advection. We employ low-order mixed finite element formulations based on least-squares formalism, and enforce explicit constraints on the discrete problem to meet the desired properties. The resulting constrained discrete problem belongs to convex quadratic programming for which a unique solution exists. Maximum principles and the non-negative constraint give rise to bound constraints while element-wise species balance gives rise to equality constraints. The resulting convex quadratic programming problems are solved using an interior-point algorithm. Several numerical results pertaining to advection-dominated problems are presented to illustrate the robustness, convergence, and the overall performance of the proposed computational framework.

  7. An Analysis of the Relationship of Teaching Methodology and the Students' Level of Cognition with Student Achievement in Principles of Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Kenneth Glenn

    A study investigated the relationship of students' cognitive level of development and teaching methodology with student achievement. The sample was composed of 79 students in two sections of the introductory marketing course at the University of Northern Colorado. The control group was taught by a lecture strategy, and the experimental group by a…

  8. Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact: The Donors' Education Collaborative of New York City. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case in Brief Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantmakers for Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, constituency building and advocacy for better public education have grown steadily in New York City. "Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact" explores how that growth was fueled by the Donors' Education Collaborative of New York, which pools its members' financial resources and expertise to advance shared grantmaking…

  9. Commissioning of experimental enclosures (Hutches) at the Advanced Photon Source - A to Z ALARA.

    SciTech Connect

    Vacca, J.; Job, P. K.; Rauchas, A.; Justus, A.; Veluri, V. R.

    2000-11-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), 7 GeV electron Storage Ring at the Argonne National Laboratory is designed to be a major national user facility providing high-brilliance x-ray beams. Figure 1 shows a plan view of the APS. At completion, APS will have 35 bending magnet (BM) beamlines and 35 insertion device (ID) beamlines. A typical x-ray beamline at APS comprises of a front end (FE) that confines the beam; a first optics enclosure (FOE) which houses optics to filter and monochromatize the beam; and beam transports, additional optics, and the experiment stations. Figure 2 shows a section of the storage ring with the layout of the ID and BM beamlines and typical experiment stations. The first x-ray beam was delivered to an experiment station in 1995. Ever since, to date, over 120 experimental stations (hutches) have been commissioned and are receiving intense x-ray beams of varying energies for various experiments. This paper describes in some detail the steps involved in the process of commissioning experimental stations and the implementation of the ALARA at each step.

  10. Bernoulli's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  11. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  12. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  13. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose reduction activities, with a focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and aocelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts. An author index and a subject index are provided to facilitate use. Both indices contain the abstract numbers from previous volumes, as well as the current volume. Information that the reader feels might be included in the next volume of this bibliography should be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center.

  14. Buridan's Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamport, Leslie

    2012-08-01

    Buridan's principle asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the principle could have serious consequences.

  15. Principled Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,…

  16. Utilizing 3D-visualization to apply compulsory ALARA principles in nuclear power plant design and day-to-day operation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R. L.; Lake, J. E.

    2006-07-01

    The development of an advanced visualization and simulation tool to support both design as well as day-to-day operation is presented. This tool exploits cutting edge computer graphics, physics-based effects modeling, virtual reality, and gaming technologies to establish a system that can eventually be used for the administrative planning and training of plant operators and design engineers. (authors)

  17. Principles of Natural Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Krewald, Vera; Retegan, Marius; Pantazis, Dimitrios A

    2016-01-01

    Nature relies on a unique and intricate biochemical setup to achieve sunlight-driven water splitting. Combined experimental and computational efforts have produced significant insights into the structural and functional principles governing the operation of the water-oxidizing enzyme Photosystem II in general, and of the oxygen-evolving manganese-calcium cluster at its active site in particular. Here we review the most important aspects of biological water oxidation, emphasizing current knowledge on the organization of the enzyme, the geometric and electronic structure of the catalyst, and the role of calcium and chloride cofactors. The combination of recent experimental work on the identification of possible substrate sites with computational modeling have considerably limited the possible mechanistic pathways for the critical O-O bond formation step. Taken together, the key features and principles of natural photosynthesis may serve as inspiration for the design, development, and implementation of artificial systems. PMID:26099285

  18. ALARA Controls and the Radiological Lessons Learned During the Uranium Fuel Removal Projects at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, B. J.; Chapman, J. A.; Jugan, M. R.

    2002-02-26

    The removal of uranium-233 (233 U) from the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), performed from January through May 2001, created both unique radiological challenges and widely-applicable lessons learned. In addition to the criticality concerns and alpha contamination, 233U has an associated intense gamma photon from the cocontaminant uranium-232 (232U) decaying to thallium-208 (208Tl). Therefore, rigorous contamination controls and significant shielding were implemented. Extensive, timed mock-up training was also imperative to minimize individual and collective personnel exposures. Back-up shielding and containment techniques (that had been previously developed for defense in depth) were used successfully to control significant, changed conditions. Additional controls were placed on tests and on recovery designs to assure a higher level of safety throughout the removal operations. This paper delineates the manner in which each difficulty was solved, while relating the relevance of the results and the methodology to other projects with high dose-rate, highly-contaminated ionizing radiation hazards. Because of the distinctive features of and current interest in molten salt technology, a brief overview is provided. Also presented is the detailed, practical application of radiological controls integrated into, rather than added after, each evolution of the project--thus demonstrating the broad-based benefits of radiological engineering and ALARA reviews. The resolution of the serious contamination-control problems caused by unexpected uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gaseous diffusion is also explicated. Several tables and figures document the preparations, equipment and operations. A comparison of the pre-job dose calculations for the various functions of the uranium deposit removal (UDR) and the post-job dose-rate data are included in the conclusion.

  19. Principles of smile design

    PubMed Central

    Bhuvaneswaran, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    An organized and systematic approach is required to evaluate, diagnose and resolve esthetic problems predictably. It is of prime importance that the final result is not dependent only on the looks alone. Our ultimate goal as clinicians is to achieve pleasing composition in the smile by creating an arrangement of various esthetic elements. This article reviews the various principles that govern the art of smile designing. The literature search was done using PubMed search and Medline. This article will provide a basic knowledge to the reader to bring out a functional stable smile. PMID:21217950

  20. Determination of the structure of {gamma}-alumina from interatomic potential and first-principles calculations: The requirement of significant numbers of nonspinel positions to achieve an accurate structural model

    SciTech Connect

    Paglia, Gianluca; Rohl, Andrew L.; Gale, Julian D.; Buckley, Craig E.

    2005-06-01

    We have performed an extensive computational study of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, beginning with the geometric analysis of approximately 1.47 billion spinel-based structural candidates, followed by derivative method energy minimization calculations of approximately 122 000 structures. Optimization of the spinel-based structural models demonstrated that structures exhibiting nonspinel site occupancy after simulation were more energetically favorable, as suggested in other computational studies. More importantly, none of the spinel structures exhibited simulated diffraction patterns that were characteristic of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This suggests that cations of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are not exclusively held in spinel positions, that the spinel model of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} does not accurately reflect its structure, and that a representative structure cannot be achieved from molecular modeling when the spinel representation is used as the starting structure. The latter two of these three findings are extremely important when trying to accurately model the structure. A second set of starting models were generated with a large number of cations occupying c symmetry positions, based on the findings from recent experiments. Optimization of the new c symmetry-based structural models resulted in simulated diffraction patterns that were characteristic of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The modeling, conducted using supercells, yields a more accurate and complete determination of the defect structure of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} than can be achieved with current experimental techniques. The results show that on average over 40% of the cations in the structure occupy nonspinel positions, and approximately two-thirds of these occupy c symmetry positions. The structures exhibit variable occupancy in the site positions that follow local symmetry exclusion rules. This variation was predominantly represented by a migration of cations away from a symmetry positions to other

  1. Determination of the structure of γ -alumina from interatomic potential and first-principles calculations: The requirement of significant numbers of nonspinel positions to achieve an accurate structural model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paglia, Gianluca; Rohl, Andrew L.; Buckley, Craig E.; Gale, Julian D.

    2005-06-01

    We have performed an extensive computational study of γ-Al2O3 , beginning with the geometric analysis of approximately 1.47 billion spinel-based structural candidates, followed by derivative method energy minimization calculations of approximately 122 000 structures. Optimization of the spinel-based structural models demonstrated that structures exhibiting nonspinel site occupancy after simulation were more energetically favorable, as suggested in other computational studies. More importantly, none of the spinel structures exhibited simulated diffraction patterns that were characteristic of γ-Al2O3 . This suggests that cations of γ-Al2O3 are not exclusively held in spinel positions, that the spinel model of γ-Al2O3 does not accurately reflect its structure, and that a representative structure cannot be achieved from molecular modeling when the spinel representation is used as the starting structure. The latter two of these three findings are extremely important when trying to accurately model the structure. A second set of starting models were generated with a large number of cations occupying c symmetry positions, based on the findings from recent experiments. Optimization of the new c symmetry-based structural models resulted in simulated diffraction patterns that were characteristic of γ-Al2O3 . The modeling, conducted using supercells, yields a more accurate and complete determination of the defect structure of γ-Al2O3 than can be achieved with current experimental techniques. The results show that on average over 40% of the cations in the structure occupy nonspinel positions, and approximately two-thirds of these occupy c symmetry positions. The structures exhibit variable occupancy in the site positions that follow local symmetry exclusion rules. This variation was predominantly represented by a migration of cations away from a symmetry positions to other tetrahedral site positions during optimization which were found not to affect the diffraction

  2. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  3. ALARA notes, Number 8

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Beckman, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    This document contains information dealing with the lessons learned from the experience of nuclear plants. In this issue the authors tried to avoid the `tyranny` of numbers and concentrated on the main lessons learned. Topics include: filtration devices for air pollution abatement, crack repair and inspection, and remote handling equipment.

  4. Disturbance, the uncertainty principle and quantum optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, Hans; Demuynck, Willem M.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown how a disturbance-type uncertainty principle can be derived from an uncertainty principle for joint measurements. To achieve this, we first clarify the meaning of 'inaccuracy' and 'disturbance' in quantum mechanical measurements. The case of photon number and phase is treated as an example, and it is applied to a quantum non-demolition measurement using the optical Kerr effect.

  5. Three basic principles of success.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger

    2003-06-01

    Basic business principles all but ensure success when they are followed consistently. Putting strategies, objectives and tactics in place is the first step toward being able to document systems, initiate scripting and improve staff training. Without the basic steps, systems, scripting and training the practice for performance would be hit or miss, at best. More importantly, applying business principles ensures that limited practice resources are dedicated to the achievement of the strategy. By following this simple, three-step process, a dental practice can significantly enhance both financial success and dentist and staff satisfaction. PMID:12839415

  6. 45 CFR 160.304 - Principles for achieving compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 160.304 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Compliance and Investigations § 160.304... cooperation of covered entities in obtaining compliance with the applicable administrative...

  7. 45 CFR 160.304 - Principles for achieving compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 160.304 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Compliance and Investigations § 160.304... cooperation of covered entities in obtaining compliance with the applicable administrative...

  8. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  9. GASB Achieves Standardization, Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissell, George E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1984 the Governmental Accounting Standards Board, created to solidify accounting principles for government entities, enumerated Generally Accepted Accounting Principles endorsed by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the National Council on Governmental Accounting. These principles have recently been approved for school…

  10. Chemical Principls Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1973-01-01

    Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating principles of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating principles of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)

  11. Principles of project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  12. Principles of Modern Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beim, George

    This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…

  13. Chemical Principles Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1970-01-01

    This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating principles of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that…

  14. Driving Toward Guiding Principles

    PubMed Central

    Buckovich, Suzy A.; Rippen, Helga E.; Rozen, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    As health care moves from paper to electronic data collection, providing easier access and dissemination of health information, the development of guiding privacy, confidentiality, and security principles is necessary to help balance the protection of patients' privacy interests against appropriate information access. A comparative review and analysis was done, based on a compilation of privacy, confidentiality, and security principles from many sources. Principles derived from ten identified sources were compared with each of the compiled principles to assess support level, uniformity, and inconsistencies. Of 28 compiled principles, 23 were supported by at least 50 percent of the sources. Technology could address at least 12 of the principles. Notable consistencies among the principles could provide a basis for consensus for further legislative and organizational work. It is imperative that all participants in our health care system work actively toward a viable resolution of this information privacy debate. PMID:10094065

  15. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  16. Principles of Bioremediation Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, E. L.

    2001-12-01

    Although microorganisms have successfully and spontaneously maintained the biosphere since its inception, industrialized societies now produce undesirable chemical compounds at rates that outpace naturally occurring microbial detoxification processes. This presentation provides an overview of both the complexities of contaminated sites and methodological limitations in environmental microbiology that impede the documentation of biodegradation processes in the field. An essential step toward attaining reliable bioremediation technologies is the development of criteria which prove that microorganisms in contaminated field sites are truly active in metabolizing contaminants of interest. These criteria, which rely upon genetic, biochemical, physiological, and ecological principles and apply to both in situ and ex situ bioremediation strategies include: (i) internal conservative tracers; (ii) added conservative tracers; (iii) added radioactive tracers; (iv) added isotopic tracers; (v) stable isotopic fractionation patterns; (vi) detection of intermediary metabolites; (vii) replicated field plots; (viii) microbial metabolic adaptation; (ix) molecular biological indicators; (x) gradients of coreactants and/or products; (xi) in situ rates of respiration; (xii) mass balances of contaminants, coreactants, and products; and (xiii) computer modeling that incorporates transport and reactive stoichiometries of electron donors and acceptors. The ideal goal is achieving a quantitative understanding of the geochemistry, hydrogeology, and physiology of complex real-world systems.

  17. Magnetism: Principles and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craik, Derek J.

    2003-09-01

    If you are studying physics, chemistry, materials science, electrical engineering, information technology or medicine, then you'll know that understanding magnetism is fundamental to success in your studies and here is the key to unlocking the mysteries of magnetism....... You can: obtain a simple overview of magnetism, including the roles of B and H, resonances and special techniques take full advantage of modern magnets with a wealth of expressions for fields and forces develop realistic general design programmes using isoparametric finite elements study the subtleties of the general theory of magnetic moments and their dynamics follow the development of outstanding materials appreciate how magnetism encompasses topics as diverse as rock magnetism, chemical reaction rates, biological compasses, medical therapies, superconductivity and levitation understand the basis and remarkable achievements of magnetic resonance imaging In his new book, Magnetism, Derek Craik throws light on the principles and applications of this fascinating subject. From formulae for calculating fields to quantum theory, the secrets of magnetism are exposed, ensuring that whether you are a chemist or engineer, physicist, medic or materials scientist Magnetism is the book for our course.

  18. ALARA plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Amendment 1 for Appendix B: Install flex-pipe on tank riser spools

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-13

    This amendment to Appendix B contains the specific ALARA evaluations for installing flex-pipe on riser spools to accommodate ventilation duct connections to the north risers of each tank. The work will be a routine task that is part of the Equipment Installation and Mobilization phase of the project. The dose rates were estimated using the recent Radiological Surveillance Section radiological survey: SAAS-97-063S. Task B-6 has been added to the OHF Project ALARA review process to address a field decision to modify an approach to installing the tank ventilation system. The revised approach will incorporate 12-in. diameter, 36-in. long, stainless steel flex-pipe connected to each north riser spool to address the problem of pipe fitting multiple bends and turns expected with the 12-in. PVC duct. This improved approach will reduce the time necessary to install the duct system between the tanks and the ventilation skid. However, the task includes opening the 12-in. riser spool connections to replace the currently installed blind gaskets. Since a riser spool for each tank will be opened, there is a potential for significant personnel exposure and spread of contamination that will addressed through this ALARA review process.

  19. The validity of the extended energy principle

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, M.S.; Johnson, J.L.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1994-04-01

    A recent analysis of plasma stability based on modifications of the extended energy principle for magnetohydrodynamic stability led to conclusions that are too optimistic. The original interpretation of this principle is indeed applicable. The present analysis demonstrates explicitly the fallacy of using the wrong functional for {delta}W in the extended energy principle. It then shows that the original energy principle functional {delta}W{sub B} is also obtained for a model in which a surface mass is incorporated to provide pressure balance. This work therefore indicates, but does not prove, that the eigenfunctions that are obtained from a minimization of the extended energy principle with the proper kinetic energy norm provide a good representation of what would be achieved with an exact treatment.

  20. Guiding Principles for Evaluators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R., Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The 12 articles (including an index) of this theme issue are devoted to documenting and critiquing the American Evaluation Association's "Guiding Principles for Evaluators," a code of ethics and standards. The development of these principles is traced, and their strengths and weaknesses are analyzed at general and specific levels. (SLD)

  1. Assessment Principles and Tools

    PubMed Central

    Golnik, Karl C.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of ophthalmology residency training is to produce competent ophthalmologists. Competence can only be determined by appropriately assessing resident performance. There are accepted guiding principles that should be applied to competence assessment methods. These principles are enumerated herein and ophthalmology-specific assessment tools that are available are described. PMID:24791100

  2. Principled Grammar Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Rob; Ellis, Rod

    2009-01-01

    A key aspect of the acquisition of grammar for second language learners involves learning how to make appropriate connections between grammatical forms and the meanings which they typically signal. We argue that learning form/function mappings involves three interrelated principles. The first is the Given-to-New Principle, where existing world…

  3. Hamilton's Principle for Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brun, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a…

  4. The genetic difference principle.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Colin

    2004-01-01

    In the newly emerging debates about genetics and justice three distinct principles have begun to emerge concerning what the distributive aim of genetic interventions should be. These principles are: genetic equality, a genetic decent minimum, and the genetic difference principle. In this paper, I examine the rationale of each of these principles and argue that genetic equality and a genetic decent minimum are ill-equipped to tackle what I call the currency problem and the problem of weight. The genetic difference principle is the most promising of the three principles and I develop this principle so that it takes seriously the concerns of just health care and distributive justice in general. Given the strains on public funds for other important social programmes, the costs of pursuing genetic interventions and the nature of genetic interventions, I conclude that a more lax interpretation of the genetic difference principle is appropriate. This interpretation stipulates that genetic inequalities should be arranged so that they are to the greatest reasonable benefit of the least advantaged. Such a proposal is consistent with prioritarianism and provides some practical guidance for non-ideal societies--that is, societies that do not have the endless amount of resources needed to satisfy every requirement of justice. PMID:15186680

  5. The Principles of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gerald P.

    The primary but not exclusive concern in this monograph is the principles and qualities of dynamic leaders of people rather than of ideas or cultural and artistic pursuits. Theories of leadership in the past, present, and future are discussed, as are the principles, rewards, exercise, and philosophy of leadership. A bibliography is included. (MSE)

  6. Government Information Policy Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernon, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes the utility of policy principles advanced by professional associations for public access to government information. The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS), the Information Industry Association (IIA), and the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) urge the adoption of principles for the dissemination of public…

  7. Dynamic sealing principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.

  8. Principlism and communitarianism.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    2003-10-01

    The decline in the interest in ethical theory is first outlined, as a background to the author's discussion of principlism. The author's own stance, that of a communitarian philosopher, is then described, before the subject of principlism itself is addressed. Two problems stand in the way of the author's embracing principlism: its individualistic bias and its capacity to block substantive ethical inquiry. The more serious problem the author finds to be its blocking function. Discussing the four scenarios the author finds that the utility of principlism is shown in the two scenarios about Jehovah's Witnesses but that when it comes to selling kidneys for transplantation and germline enhancement, principlism is of little help. PMID:14519838

  9. A Human Achievement: Mathematics without Boundaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzioglu, Tosun

    This paper describes three fundamental principles, dictated by Wilhelm von Humboldt, that were widely adapted as the basic philosophy of higher education in the United States, and proposes to revise the unfulfilled dream of von Humboldt to make it come true. This paper stresses the achievements of humanity not only in technology, health, or the…

  10. A Theory of School Achievement: A Quantum View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2012-01-01

    In most school achievement research, the relationships between achievement and explanatory variables follow the Newton and Einstein concept/principle and the viewpoint of the macro-observer: Deterministic measures based on the mean value of a sufficiently large number of schools. What if the relationships between achievement and explanatory…

  11. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kires, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  12. Chemical Principles Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1972-01-01

    Collection of two short descriptions of chemical principles seen in life situations: the autocatalytic reaction seen in the bombardier beetle, and molecular potential energy used for quick roasting of beef. Brief reference is also made to methanol lighters. (PS)

  13. Global ethics and principlism.

    PubMed

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together. PMID:22073817

  14. Principles of Tendon Transfer.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, Danielle; Hammert, Warren C

    2016-08-01

    Tendon transfers provide a substitute, either temporary or permanent, when function is lost due to neurologic injury in stroke, cerebral palsy or central nervous system lesions, peripheral nerve injuries, or injuries to the musculotendinous unit itself. This article reviews the basic principles of tendon transfer, which are important when planning surgery and essential for an optimal outcome. In addition, concepts for coapting the tendons during surgery and general principles to be followed during the rehabilitation process are discussed. PMID:27387072

  15. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  16. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  17. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  18. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  19. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  20. Sources of Funding and Academic Performance in Economics Principles Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulk, Dagney; Srinivasan, Arun K.; Bingham, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine two factors that may affect student achievement in economics principles courses: working for pay and the primary source of funds (employer tuition reimbursement, loans, scholarships, financial aid, self-financing, parental transfers, other) used to pay for college for a sample of students in economics principles classes at a…

  1. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  2. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  3. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  4. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  5. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  6. The traveltime holographic principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  7. Applying the four principles.

    PubMed

    Macklin, R

    2003-10-01

    Gillon is correct that the four principles provide a sound and useful way of analysing moral dilemmas. As he observes, the approach using these principles does not provide a unique solution to dilemmas. This can be illustrated by alternatives to Gillon's own analysis of the four case scenarios. In the first scenario, a different set of factual assumptions could yield a different conclusion about what is required by the principle of beneficence. In the second scenario, although Gillon's conclusion is correct, what is open to question is his claim that what society regards as the child's best interest determines what really is in the child's best interest. The third scenario shows how it may be reasonable for the principle of beneficence to take precedence over autonomy in certain circumstances, yet like the first scenario, the ethical conclusion relies on a set of empirical assumptions and predictions of what is likely to occur. The fourth scenario illustrates how one can draw different conclusions based on the importance given to the precautionary principle. PMID:14519836

  8. Spaceborne receivers: Basic principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The underlying principles of operation of microwave receivers for space observations of planetary surfaces were examined. The design philosophy of the receiver as it is applied to operate functionally as an efficient receiving system, the principle of operation of the key components of the receiver, and the important differences among receiver types are explained. The operating performance and the sensitivity expectations for both the modulated and total power receiver configurations are outlined. The expressions are derived from first principles and are developed through the important intermediate stages to form practicle and easily applied equations. The transfer of thermodynamic energy from point to point within the receiver is illustrated. The language of microwave receivers is applied statistics.

  9. Teaching/learning principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

  10. Itch Management: General Principles.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental. PMID:27578069

  11. The Idiom Principle Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Martinez, Ron

    2015-01-01

    John Sinclair's Idiom Principle famously posited that most texts are largely composed of multi-word expressions that "constitute single choices" in the mental lexicon. At the time that assertion was made, little actual psycholinguistic evidence existed in support of that holistic, "single choice," view of formulaic language. In…

  12. Reprographic Principles Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, J. B.

    Means for reproducing graphic materials are explained. There are several types of processes: those using light sensitive material, those using heat sensitive material, those using photo conductive materials (electrophotography), and duplicating processes using ink. For each of these, the principles behind them are explained, the necessary…

  13. PRINCIPLES OF WATER FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews principles involved in the processes commonly used to filter drinking water for public water systems. he most common approach is to chemically pretreat water and filter it through a deep (2-1/2 to 3 ft) bed of granuu1ar media (coal or sand or combinations of th...

  14. Extended Mach Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Joe

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the meaning of symmetry of the laws of physics and symmetry of the universe and the connection between symmetries and asymmetries of the laws of physics and those of the universe. An explanation of Hamilton's principle is offered. The material is suitable for informal discussions with students. (Author/SK)

  15. Basic Comfort Heating Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Chalmer T.

    The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

  16. Matters of Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    1999-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at individuals who have stood on principle against authority or popular opinion. The first article investigates John Adams and his defense of British soldiers at the Boston Massacre trials. The second article explores Archbishop Thomas Becket's fatal conflict with England's King Henry II. The final…

  17. Principles of Biomedical Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Athar, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making. PMID:23610498

  18. Fermat's Principle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamat, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)

  19. The Physical Principles of Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrish, Allan H.

    2001-01-01

    " The Physical Principles of Magnetism . . . is such a classic a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of magnetism . . . The corrected reissue is a welcome addition to this much-needed archival series. Dr. Morrish presents an excellent introduction to the physics and mathematics of magnetism without oversimplification . . . This respected and timeless book clearly elucidates these principles."" Edward Della Torre, The George Washington University, President of the IEEE Magnetics Society The IEEE Press is pleased to reissue this essential book for understanding the basis of modern magnetic materials. Diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism, and antiferromagnetism are covered in an integrated manner unifying subject matter from physics, chemistry, metallurgy, and engineering. Magnetic phenomena are discussed both from an experimental and theoretical point of view. The underlying physical principles are presented first, followed by macroscopic or microscopic theories. Although quantum mechanical theories are given, a phenomenological approach is emphasized. More than half the book is devoted to a discussion of strongly coupled dipole systems, where the molecular field theory is emphasized. THE PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF MAGNETISM is a classic must read for anyone working in the magnetics, electromagnetics, computing, and communications fields. About the Author Allan Henry Morrish is a distinguished professor of physics at the University of Manitoba, Canada. He received a B.Sc. degree from the University of Manitoba in 1943, an M.A. from the University of Toronto in 1946, and a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1949, specializing in nuclear physics. From 1953 to 1964, Dr. Morrish was with the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis, where he held the rank of professor from 1959. During 1974-1975, Dr. Morrish was president of the Canadian Association of Physicists and in 1977 he was awarded their gold

  20. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  1. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  2. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  3. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  4. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  5. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  19. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  20. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  1. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  4. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency. PMID:16846117

  5. Principles of effective performance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.F.

    1996-07-01

    As with any endeavor connected with trendy words and phrases, {open_quotes}performance measurement{close_quotes} means different things to different people. To some, performance means {open_quotes}customer satisfaction{close_quotes}, and little, if anything, else. To others, it is productivity; to still others, it is procedural. In most real-world situations there are elements of all three of these dimensions. Whatever your definition of performance, it is important that it be clear in your own mind what you are trying to achieve, and that you make sure that those working with and for you have the same understanding. This paper is written from the point of view that performance is primarily productivity; after acceptable productivity is achieved, performance is customer satisfaction. I consider performance to be procedural only insofar as necessary to maintain legality and propriety. Rather than adopting the standard bureaucratic approach to procedure (i.e., everything not required is forbidden), I believe that consistently excellent performance demands the complementary philosophy: everything not forbidden is permitted. Remember: wars are won by the general who knows when to break the rules. The principles enunciated below are not unique to DOE or to the office environment: They are applicable to any performance measurement program. I have tried, however, to provide examples that apply to the office or that are likely to be familiar to those of us working with office information technology today.

  6. PRINCIPLE OF INTERACTION REGION LOCAL CORRECTION

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.

    1999-09-07

    For hadron storage rings like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the machine performance at collision is usually limited by the field quality of the interaction region (IR) magnets. A robust local correction for the IR region is valuable in improving the dynamic aperture with practically achievable magnet field quality. The authors present in this paper the action-angle kick minimization principle on which the local IR correction for both RHIC and the LHC are based.

  7. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720

  8. Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summhammer, Johann

    1994-01-01

    In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.

  9. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  10. A correspondence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Barry D.; Ninham, Barry W.

    2016-02-01

    A single mathematical theme underpins disparate physical phenomena in classical, quantum and statistical mechanical contexts. This mathematical "correspondence principle", a kind of wave-particle duality with glorious realizations in classical and modern mathematical analysis, embodies fundamental geometrical and physical order, and yet in some sense sits on the edge of chaos. Illustrative cases discussed are drawn from classical and anomalous diffusion, quantum mechanics of single particles and ideal gases, quasicrystals and Casimir forces.

  11. Pauli Exclusion Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A principle of quantum theory, devised in 1925 by Wolfgang Pauli (1900-58), which states that no two fermions may exist in the same quantum state. The quantum state of a particle is defined by a set of numbers that describe quantities such as energy, angular momentum and spin. Fermions are particles such as quarks, protons, neutrons and electrons, that have spin = ½ (in units of h/2π, where h is ...

  12. Computational principles of memory.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Rishidev; Fiete, Ila

    2016-03-01

    The ability to store and later use information is essential for a variety of adaptive behaviors, including integration, learning, generalization, prediction and inference. In this Review, we survey theoretical principles that can allow the brain to construct persistent states for memory. We identify requirements that a memory system must satisfy and analyze existing models and hypothesized biological substrates in light of these requirements. We also highlight open questions, theoretical puzzles and problems shared with computer science and information theory. PMID:26906506

  13. Principles of nuclear geology

    SciTech Connect

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

  14. Heisenberg's observability principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Johanna

    2014-02-01

    Werner Heisenberg's 1925 paper 'Quantum-theoretical re-interpretation of kinematic and mechanical relations' marks the beginning of quantum mechanics. Heisenberg famously claims that the paper is based on the idea that the new quantum mechanics should be 'founded exclusively upon relationships between quantities which in principle are observable'. My paper is an attempt to understand this observability principle, and to see whether its employment is philosophically defensible. Against interpretations of 'observability' along empiricist or positivist lines I argue that such readings are philosophically unsatisfying. Moreover, a careful comparison of Heisenberg's reinterpretation of classical kinematics with Einstein's argument against absolute simultaneity reveals that the positivist reading does not fit with Heisenberg's strategy in the paper. Instead the appeal to observability should be understood as a specific criticism of the causal inefficacy of orbital electron motion in Bohr's atomic model. I conclude that the tacit philosophical principle behind Heisenberg's argument is not a positivistic connection between observability and meaning, but the idea that a theory should not contain causally idle wheels.

  15. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  16. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  17. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  18. Principles of cryopreservation by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Gregory M; Wowk, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Vitrification is an alternative approach to cryopreservation that enables hydrated living cells to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures in the absence of ice. Vitrification simplifies and frequently improves cryopreservation because it eliminates mechanical injury from ice, eliminates the need to find optimal cooling and warming rates, eliminates the importance of differing optimal cooling and warming rates for cells in mixed cell type populations, eliminates the need to find a frequently imperfect compromise between solution effects injury and intracellular ice formation, and enables cooling to be rapid enough to "outrun" chilling injury, but it complicates the osmotic effects of adding and removing cryoprotective agents and introduces a greater risk of cryoprotectant toxicity during the addition and removal of cryoprotectants. Fortunately, a large number of remedies for the latter problem have been discovered over the past 30+ years, and the former problem can in most cases be eliminated or adequately controlled by careful attention to technique. Vitrification is therefore beginning to realize its potential for enabling the superior and convenient cryopreservation of most types of biological systems (including molecules, cells, tissues, organs, and even some whole organisms), and vitrification is even beginning to be recognized as a successful strategy of nature for surviving harsh environmental conditions. However, many investigators who employ vitrification or what they incorrectly imagine to be vitrification have only a rudimentary understanding of the basic principles of this relatively new and emerging approach to cryopreservation, and this often limits the practical results that can be achieved. A better understanding may therefore help to improve present results while pointing the way to new strategies that may be yet more successful in the future. To assist this understanding, this chapter describes the basic principles of vitrification and indicates the

  19. An Exploratory Review of Design Principles in Constructivist Gaming Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario, Roberto A. Munoz; Widmeyer, George R.

    2009-01-01

    Creating a design theory for Constructivist Gaming Learning Environment necessitates, among other things, the establishment of design principles. These principles have the potential to help designers produce games, where users achieve higher levels of learning. This paper focuses on twelve design principles: Probing, Distributed, Multiple Routes,…

  20. Principles of tendon transfers.

    PubMed

    Coulet, B

    2016-04-01

    Tendon transfers are carried out to restore functional deficits by rerouting the remaining intact muscles. Transfers are highly attractive in the context of hand surgery because of the possibility of restoring the patient's ability to grip. In palsy cases, tendon transfers are only used when a neurological procedure is contraindicated or has failed. The strategy used to restore function follows a common set of principles, no matter the nature of the deficit. The first step is to clearly distinguish between deficient muscles and muscles that could be transferred. Next, the type of palsy will dictate the scope of the program and the complexity of the gripping movements that can be restored. Based on this reasoning, a surgical strategy that matches the means (transferable muscles) with the objectives (functions to restore) will be established and clearly explained to the patient. Every paralyzed hand can be described using three parameters. 1) Deficient segments: wrist, thumb and long fingers; 2) mechanical performance of muscles groups being revived: high energy-wrist extension and finger flexion that require strong transfers with long excursion; low energy-wrist flexion and finger extension movements that are less demanding mechanically, because they can be accomplished through gravity alone in some cases; 3) condition of the two primary motors in the hand: extrinsics (flexors and extensors) and intrinsics (facilitator). No matter the type of palsy, the transfer surgery follows the same technical principles: exposure, release, fixation, tensioning and rehabilitation. By performing an in-depth analysis of each case and by following strict technical principles, tendon transfer surgery leads to reproducible results; this allows the surgeon to establish clear objectives for the patient preoperatively. PMID:27117119

  1. Protection - Principles and practice.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, G. S.; Denning, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The protection mechanisms of computer systems control the access to objects, especially information objects. The principles of protection system design are formalized as a model (theory) of protection. Each process has a unique identification number which is attached by the system to each access attempted by the process. Details of system implementation are discussed, taking into account the storing of the access matrix, aspects of efficiency, and the selection of subjects and objects. Two systems which have protection features incorporating all the elements of the model are described.

  2. The principle of reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Hoult, D I

    2011-12-01

    The circumstances surrounding the realisation that NMR signal reception could be quantified in a simple fundamental manner using Lorentz's Principle of Reciprocity are described. The poor signal-to-noise ratio of the first European superconducting magnet is identified as a major motivating factor, together with the author's need to understand phenomena at a basic level. A summary is then given of the thought processes leading to the very simple pseudo-static formula that has been the basis of signal-to-noise calculations for over a generation. PMID:21889377

  3. Talus fractures: surgical principles.

    PubMed

    Rush, Shannon M; Jennings, Meagan; Hamilton, Graham A

    2009-01-01

    Surgical treatment of talus fractures can challenge even the most skilled foot and ankle surgeon. Complicated fracture patterns combined with joint dislocation of variable degrees require accurate assessment, sound understanding of principles of fracture care, and broad command of internal fixation techniques needed for successful surgical care. Elimination of unnecessary soft tissue dissection, a low threshold for surgical reduction, liberal use of malleolar osteotomy to expose body fracture, and detailed attention to fracture reduction and joint alignment are critical to the success of treatment. Even with the best surgical care complications are common and seem to correlate with injury severity and open injuries. PMID:19121756

  4. Nonequilibrium quantum Landauer principle.

    PubMed

    Goold, John; Paternostro, Mauro; Modi, Kavan

    2015-02-13

    Using the operational framework of completely positive, trace preserving operations and thermodynamic fluctuation relations, we derive a lower bound for the heat exchange in a Landauer erasure process on a quantum system. Our bound comes from a nonphenomenological derivation of the Landauer principle which holds for generic nonequilibrium dynamics. Furthermore, the bound depends on the nonunitality of dynamics, giving it a physical significance that differs from other derivations. We apply our framework to the model of a spin-1/2 system coupled to an interacting spin chain at finite temperature. PMID:25723198

  5. Academic Principles: A Brief Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2013

    2013-01-01

    For many decades certain core principles have guided the conduct of teaching, research, and scholarship at American universities, as well as the ways in which these institutions are governed. There is ample evidence that these principles have strongly contributed to the quality of American universities. The principles have also made these…

  6. Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

  7. Principles of climate service development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buontempo, Carlo; Liggins, Felicity; Newton, Paula

    2015-04-01

    In November 2014, a group of 30 international experts in climate service development gathered in Honiton, UK, to discuss and identify the key principles that should be considered when developing new climate services by all the actors involved. Through an interactive and dynamic workshop the attendees identified seven principles. This contribution summarises these principles.

  8. Principles of Safety Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

    2008-01-01

    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.). PMID:18604233

  9. Principles of immunology.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Ashley K; Feezor, Robert J

    2003-12-01

    The immune system, composed of innate and acquired immunity, allows an organism to fight off foreign pathogens. Healthy immunity accomplishes four essential principles: (1) ability to detect and fight off infection; (2) ability to recognize a host's own cells as "self," thereby protecting them from attack; (3) a memory from previous foreign infections; and (4) ability to limit the response after the pathogen has been removed. In an unaltered state, the intricate network of immunologic organs and cells creates an environment for proper host defense. Without adequate execution of immunologic mechanisms, a host is rendered defenseless against pathogens. Conversely, an unchecked immune response can be self-destructive. As a result of either of these untoward sequelae, immune dysfunction can elicit disease states in the host. The goal of this review is to elucidate the characteristics of a healthy immune system, focusing on the principles of immunity and the cells that participate in host protection. We also briefly discuss the clinical ramifications of immune dysfunction. PMID:16215081

  10. Fracture mechanics principles.

    PubMed

    Mecholsky, J J

    1995-03-01

    The principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) were developed in the 1950s by George Irwin (1957). This work was based on previous investigations of Griffith (1920) and Orowan (1944). Irwin (1957) demonstrated that a crack shape in a particular location with respect to the loading geometry had a stress intensity associated with it. He also demonstrated the equivalence between the stress intensity concept and the familiar Griffith criterion of failure. More importantly, he described the systematic and controlled evaluation of the toughness of a material. Toughness is defined as the resistance of a material to rapid crack propagation and can be characterized by one parameter, Kic. In contrast, the strength of a material is dependent on the size of the initiating crack present in that particular sample or component. The fracture toughness of a material is generally independent of the size of the initiating crack. The strength of any product is limited by the size of the cracks or defects during processing, production and handling. Thus, the application of fracture mechanics principles to dental biomaterials is invaluable in new material development, production control and failure analysis. This paper describes the most useful equations of fracture mechanics to be used in the failure analysis of dental biomaterials. PMID:8621030

  11. Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle.

    PubMed

    Evers, Ellen R K; Lakens, Daniël

    2014-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977, Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived similarity between items within clusters is expected to increase, while similarity between items in different clusters decreases. Here, we present two pre-registered replications of the studies on the diagnosticity effect reported in Tversky (1977). Additionally, one alternative mechanism that has been proposed to play a role in the original studies, an increase in the choice for distractor items (a substitution effect, see Medin et al., 1995), is examined. Our results replicate those found by Tversky (1977), revealing an average diagnosticity-effect of 4.75%. However, when we eliminate the possibility of substitution effects confounding the results, a meta-analysis of the data provides no indication of any remaining effect of diagnosticity. PMID:25161638

  12. Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Ellen R. K.; Lakens, Daniël

    2013-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977, Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived similarity between items within clusters is expected to increase, while similarity between items in different clusters decreases. Here, we present two pre-registered replications of the studies on the diagnosticity effect reported in Tversky (1977). Additionally, one alternative mechanism that has been proposed to play a role in the original studies, an increase in the choice for distractor items (a substitution effect, see Medin et al., 1995), is examined. Our results replicate those found by Tversky (1977), revealing an average diagnosticity-effect of 4.75%. However, when we eliminate the possibility of substitution effects confounding the results, a meta-analysis of the data provides no indication of any remaining effect of diagnosticity. PMID:25161638

  13. Principles of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landé, Alfred

    2013-10-01

    Preface; Introduction: 1. Observation and interpretation; 2. Difficulties of the classical theories; 3. The purpose of quantum theory; Part I. Elementary Theory of Observation (Principle of Complementarity): 4. Refraction in inhomogeneous media (force fields); 5. Scattering of charged rays; 6. Refraction and reflection at a plane; 7. Absolute values of momentum and wave length; 8. Double ray of matter diffracting light waves; 9. Double ray of matter diffracting photons; 10. Microscopic observation of ρ (x) and σ (p); 11. Complementarity; 12. Mathematical relation between ρ (x) and σ (p) for free particles; 13. General relation between ρ (q) and σ (p); 14. Crystals; 15. Transition density and transition probability; 16. Resultant values of physical functions; matrix elements; 17. Pulsating density; 18. General relation between ρ (t) and σ (є); 19. Transition density; matrix elements; Part II. The Principle of Uncertainty: 20. Optical observation of density in matter packets; 21. Distribution of momenta in matter packets; 22. Mathematical relation between ρ and σ; 23. Causality; 24. Uncertainty; 25. Uncertainty due to optical observation; 26. Dissipation of matter packets; rays in Wilson Chamber; 27. Density maximum in time; 28. Uncertainty of energy and time; 29. Compton effect; 30. Bothe-Geiger and Compton-Simon experiments; 31. Doppler effect; Raman effect; 32. Elementary bundles of rays; 33. Jeans' number of degrees of freedom; 34. Uncertainty of electromagnetic field components; Part III. The Principle of Interference and Schrödinger's equation: 35. Physical functions; 36. Interference of probabilities for p and q; 37. General interference of probabilities; 38. Differential equations for Ψp (q) and Xq (p); 39. Differential equation for фβ (q); 40. The general probability amplitude Φβ' (Q); 41. Point transformations; 42. General theorem of interference; 43. Conjugate variables; 44. Schrödinger's equation for conservative systems; 45. Schr

  14. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  15. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  16. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  17. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  18. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  19. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  20. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  1. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  2. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  3. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  4. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  5. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  6. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  7. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  8. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  9. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  10. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  11. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  12. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  13. Competency-Based Achievement System

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Shelley; Poth, Cheryl N.; Donoff, Michel; Humphries, Paul; Steiner, Ivan; Schipper, Shirley; Janke, Fred; Nichols, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Family medicine residency programs require innovative means to assess residents’ competence in “soft” skills (eg, patient-centred care, communication, and professionalism) and to identify residents who are having difficulty early enough in their residency to provide remedial training. Objective of program To develop a method to assess residents’ competence in various skills and to identify residents who are having difficulty. Program description The Competency-Based Achievement System (CBAS) was designed to measure competence using 3 main principles: formative feedback, guided self-assessment, and regular face-to-face meetings. The CBAS is resident driven and provides a framework for meaningful interactions between residents and advisors. Residents use the CBAS to organize and review their feedback, to guide their own assessment of their progress, and to discern their future learning needs. Advisors use the CBAS to monitor, guide, and verify residents’ knowledge of and competence in important skills. Conclusion By focusing on specific skills and behaviour, the CBAS enables residents and advisors to make formative assessments and to communicate their findings. Feedback indicates that the CBAS is a user-friendly and helpful system to assess competence. PMID:21918129

  14. What is the outcome of applying principlism?

    PubMed

    Hine, Kristen

    2011-12-01

    The four principles approach to bioethics, an approach most associated with the work of Tom Beauchamp and James Childress, is supposed to provide a framework for reasoning through moral issues in medicine. One might wonder, if one were to guide one's thinking by the method suggested by principlism, will one identify and perform the objectively morally right action? Will one's decision making be justified, and consequently, will the action that flows from that decision itself be justified? In this paper, I show that principlism can, and has been, characterized in these two different ways. I also argue that when it is understood according to the first characterization, the view cannot be put into practice. However, when it is understood as an account of justification, there is reason to think that it is indeed action-guiding. Given the problems that confront the first version of the view, perhaps it is best to understand principlism, and biomedical ethical theories generally, not as action-guiding theories of right action, but rather, as procedures by which one's decisions and actions in medicine can achieve a reasonable degree of moral justification. PMID:21710224

  15. System level electrochemical principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional electrochemical storage concepts are difficult to translate into high power, high voltage multikilowatt storage systems. The increased use of electronics, and the use of electrochemical couples that minimize the difficulties associated with the corrective measures to reduce the cell to cell capacity dispersion were adopted by battery technology. Actively cooled bipolar concepts are described which represent some attractive alternative system concepts. They are projected to have higher energy densities lower volumes than current concepts. They should be easier to scale from one capacity to another and have a closer cell to cell capacity balance. These newer storage system concepts are easier to manage since they are designed to be a fully integrated battery. These ideas are referred to as system level electrochemistry. The hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cells (RFC) is probably the best example of the integrated use of these principles.

  16. Principles of Induction Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs*, Richard J.

    The basic concepts involved in induction accelerators are introduced in this chapter. The objective is to provide a foundation for the more detailed coverage of key technology elements and specific applications in the following chapters. A wide variety of induction accelerators are discussed in the following chapters, from the high current linear electron accelerator configurations that have been the main focus of the original developments, to circular configurations like the ion synchrotrons that are the subject of more recent research. The main focus in the present chapter is on the induction module containing the magnetic core that plays the role of a transformer in coupling the pulsed power from the modulator to the charged particle beam. This is the essential common element in all these induction accelerators, and an understanding of the basic processes involved in its operation is the main objective of this chapter. (See [1] for a useful and complementary presentation of the basic principles in induction linacs.)

  17. Basic Principles in Oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Thomas J.

    The evolving field of interventional oncology can only be considered as a small integrative part in the complex area of oncology. The new field of interventional oncology needs a standardization of the procedures, the terminology, and criteria to facilitate the effective communication of ideas and appropriate comparison between treatments and new integrative technology. In principle, ablative therapy is a part of locoregional oncological therapy and is defined either as chemical ablation using ethanol or acetic acid, or thermotherapies such as radiofrequency, laser, microwave, and cryoablation. All these new evolving therapies have to be exactly evaluated and an adequate terminology has to be used to define imaging findings and pathology. All the different technologies and evaluated therapies have to be compared, and the results have to be analyzed in order to improve the patient outcome.

  18. Kepler and Mach's Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Julian

    The definitive ideas that led to the creation of general relativity crystallized in Einstein's thinking during 1912 while he was in Prague. At the centenary meeting held there to mark the breakthrough, I was asked to talk about earlier great work of relevance to dynamics done at Prague, above all by Kepler and Mach. The main topics covered in this chapter are: some little known but basic facts about the planetary motions; the conceptual framework and most important discoveries of Ptolemy and Copernicus; the complete change of concepts that Kepler introduced and their role in his discoveries; the significance of them in Newton's work; Mach's realization that Kepler's conceptual revolution needed further development to free Newton's conceptual world of the last vestiges of the purely geometrical Ptolemaic world view; and the precise formulation of Mach's principle required to place GR correctly in the line of conceptual and technical evolution that began with the ancient Greek astronomers.

  19. Neuronavigation. Principles. Surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Marcel; Ciurea, Alexandru Vlad

    2009-01-01

    Neuronavigation and stereotaxy are techniques designed to help neurosurgeons precisely localize different intracerebral pathological processes by using a set of preoperative images (CT, MRI, fMRI, PET, SPECT etc.). The development of computer assisted surgery was possible only after a significant technological progress, especially in the area of informatics and imagistics. The main indications of neuronavigation are represented by the targeting of small and deep intracerebral lesions and choosing the best way to treat them, in order to preserve the neurological function. Stereotaxis also allows lesioning or stimulation of basal ganglia for the treatment of movement disorders. These techniques can bring an important amount of confort both to the patient and to the neurosurgeon. Neuronavigation was introduced in Romania around 2003, in four neurosurgical centers. We present our five-years experience in neuronavigation and describe the main principles and surgical techniques. PMID:20108488

  20. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-10-15

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?.

  1. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  2. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  3. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  4. Training the endoscopy trainer: From general principles to specific concepts

    PubMed Central

    Coderre, Sylvain; Anderson, John; Rostom, Alaa; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Endoscopy instruction has progressed a great deal in recent years, evolving from the age-old dictum of ‘see one, do one’ to the current skillful application of sound educational principles. Some of these educational principles are generic and applicable to the teaching of any content at all levels, while others are quite specific to technical skills training. The present review summarizes these important principles under the following headings: creating a learner-centred curriculum; delivering an achievable learning task; and moving from theory to practice. The present article challenges national gastroenterology organizations to embrace these concepts in structured, outcome-based educational programs. PMID:21165376

  5. Using transformational learning principles to change behavior in the OR.

    PubMed

    McNaron, Mary E

    2009-05-01

    Achieving the goal of "best practice" in the perioperative field requires continuous education and reflection. Applying transformational learning principles can improve perioperative nursing practice by allowing staff members to reflect on their current practices, discover faulty assumptions, and revise them. Using a proactive approach, leaders can apply transformational learning principles on a case-by-case basis to build professional teams that are effective and efficient. Leaders who use transformational principles and act as role models can influence other staff members to be accountable for their own practice and self-development. If leaders are effective and inspirational, individual practice and even departmental or institutional cultures can be changed. PMID:19422943

  6. Principles of rock deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, A.

    1987-01-01

    This text focuses on the recent achievements in the analysis of rock deformation. It gives an analytical presentation of the essential structures in terms of kinetic and dynamic interpretation. The physical properties underlying the interpretation of rock structures are exposed in simple terms. Emphasized in the book are: the role of fluids in rock fracturing; the kinematic analysis of magnetic flow structures; the application of crystalline plasticity to the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the large deformation imprinted in many metamorphic rocks.

  7. The precautionary principle: a double edged sword?

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Mark

    2010-08-01

    There is no doubt that the introduction of quality system principles and regulation to blood and tissue services in the 1990's has brought about significant improvements in the control of processes and the quality of products being released for patient care. But, as regulation extends into new areas of cellular and tissue therapy, it is perhaps time to review the regulatory paradigm within which we work, and the principles that underpin it. At what point do the costs of regulation exceed the benefits to be gained? At what point to regulations cease to yield measurable benefits to patient care and safety at all, but instead become simply a burden on service providers and businesses, and ultimately the community as a whole? And is there a point at which regulation actually compromises patient care and safety, or the development of new technologies? In the early stages of regulation, there is demonstrable cost-benefit as assessed by product quality and patient outcomes. However, there is inevitably a "law of diminishing returns", whereby the degree of improvement that can be achieved decreases and the cost of achieving that benefit increases. What has not yet been determined is whether, as regulations and regulators become more precise and more demanding, there remains a measurable net cost benefit over time, or whether there is a point at which the cost of further improvement matches, or even exceeds, the benefits to be gained. A key underpinning of the regulatory philosophy is the "Precautionary Principle". This paper will focus on the application of the Precautionary Principle in the area of blood and tissues, which encompasses the burgeoning field of cellular therapies. PMID:20512629

  8. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  9. Using Principles of Programmed Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Harry

    1971-01-01

    Although programmed instruction in accounting is available, it is limited in scope and in acceptance. Teachers, however, may apply principles of programming to the individualizing of instruction. (Author)

  10. The Principle of General Tovariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N. P.; Spitters, B.

    2008-06-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance and his equivalence principle, as well as by the two mysterious dogmas of Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. his doctrine of classical concepts and his principle of complementarity. An appropriate mathematical language for combining these ideas is topos theory, a framework earlier proposed for physics by Isham and collaborators. Our principle of general tovariance states that any mathematical structure appearing in the laws of physics must be definable in an arbitrary topos (with natural numbers object) and must be preserved under so-called geometric morphisms. This principle identifies geometric logic as the mathematical language of physics and restricts the constructions and theorems to those valid in intuitionism: neither Aristotle's principle of the excluded third nor Zermelo's Axiom of Choice may be invoked. Subsequently, our equivalence principle states that any algebra of observables (initially defined in the topos Sets) is empirically equivalent to a commutative one in some other topos.

  11. Principles of alternative gerontology

    PubMed Central

    Bilinski, Tomasz; Bylak, Aneta; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Surveys of taxonomic groups of animals have shown that contrary to the opinion of most gerontologists aging is not a genuine trait. The process of aging is not universal and its mechanisms have not been widely conserved among species. All life forms are subject to extrinsic and intrinsic destructive forces. Destructive effects of stochastic events are visible only when allowed by the specific life program of an organism. Effective life programs of immortality and high longevity eliminate the impact of unavoidable damage. Organisms that are capable of agametic reproduction are biologically immortal. Mortality of an organism is clearly associated with terminal specialisation in sexual reproduction. The longevity phenotype that is not accompanied by symptoms of senescence has been observed in those groups of animals that continue to increase their body size after reaching sexual maturity. This is the result of enormous regeneration abilities of both of the above-mentioned groups. Senescence is observed when: (i) an organism by principle switches off the expression of existing growth and regeneration programs, as in the case of imago formation in insect development; (ii) particular programs of growth and regeneration of progenitors are irreversibly lost, either partially or in their entirety, in mammals and birds. “We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.” (Ascribed to Albert Einstein) PMID:27017907

  12. Principles of alternative gerontology.

    PubMed

    Bilinski, Tomasz; Bylak, Aneta; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-04-01

    Surveys of taxonomic groups of animals have shown that contrary to the opinion of most gerontologists aging is not a genuine trait. The process of aging is not universal and its mechanisms have not been widely conserved among species. All life forms are subject to extrinsic and intrinsic destructive forces. Destructive effects of stochastic events are visible only when allowed by the specific life program of an organism. Effective life programs of immortality and high longevity eliminate the impact of unavoidable damage. Organisms that are capable of agametic reproduction are biologically immortal. Mortality of an organism is clearly associated with terminal specialisation in sexual reproduction. The longevity phenotype that is not accompanied by symptoms of senescence has been observed in those groups of animals that continue to increase their body size after reaching sexual maturity. This is the result of enormous regeneration abilities of both of the above-mentioned groups. Senescence is observed when: (i) an organism by principle switches off the expression of existing growth and regeneration programs, as in the case of imago formation in insect development; (ii) particular programs of growth and regeneration of progenitors are irreversibly lost, either partially or in their entirety, in mammals and birds. PMID:27017907

  13. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  14. Principles of Electromigration Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Electromigration techniques provide the separation of analyzed sample components owing to external voltage generating electrokinetic phenomena—electrophoresis and electroosmosis. Taking into account the relatively large number of parameters dealt with during electrophoretic analyses, it is essential to know their influence on the achieved separation of analytes. In this chapter the theoretical and practical aspects of a resolution optimization, as well as the effect of different separation parameters on the migration behavior are described. These, among others, include migration time, efficiency, selectivity, and resolution. The influence of electrods polarization, applied voltage, temperature, capillary, background electrolyte, and various additives on the separation is also discussed.

  15. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  16. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  17. Physical Principles of Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Peter

    Theoretical biology is incomplete without a comprehensive theory of evolution, since evolution is at the core of biological thought. Evolution is visualized as a migration process in genotype or sequence space that is either an adaptive walk driven by some fitness gradient or a random walk in the absence of (sufficiently large) fitness differences. The Darwinian concept of natural selection consisting in the interplay of variation and selection is based on a dichotomy: All variations occur on genotypes whereas selection operates on phenotypes, and relations between genotypes and phenotypes, as encapsulated in a mapping from genotype space into phenotype space, are central to an understanding of evolution. Fitness is conceived as a function of the phenotype, represented by a second mapping from phenotype space into nonnegative real numbers. In the biology of organisms, genotype-phenotype maps are enormously complex and relevant information on them is exceedingly scarce. The situation is better in the case of viruses but so far only one example of a genotype-phenotype map, the mapping of RNA sequences into RNA secondary structures, has been investigated in sufficient detail. It provides direct information on RNA selection in vitro and test-tube evolution, and it is a basis for testing in silico evolution on a realistic fitness landscape. Most of the modeling efforts in theoretical and mathematical biology today are done by means of differential equations but stochastic effects are of undeniably great importance for evolution. Population sizes are much smaller than the numbers of genotypes constituting sequence space. Every mutant, after all, has to begin with a single copy. Evolution can be modeled by a chemical master equation, which (in principle) can be approximated by a stochastic differential equation. In addition, simulation tools are available that compute trajectories for master equations. The accessible population sizes in the range of 10^7le Nle 10

  18. Principles of ecosystem sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, F.S. III; Torn, M.S.; Tateno, Masaki

    1996-12-01

    Many natural ecosystems are self-sustaining, maintaining an characteristic mosaic of vegetation types of hundreds to thousands of years. In this article we present a new framework for defining the conditions that sustain natural ecosystems and apply these principles to sustainability of managed ecosystems. A sustainable ecosystem is one that, over the normal cycle of disturbance events, maintains its characteristics diversity of major functional groups, productivity, and rates of biogeochemical cycling. These traits are determined by a set of four {open_quotes}interactive controls{close_quotes} (climate, soil resource supply, major functional groups of organisms, and disturbance regime) that both govern and respond to ecosystem processes. Ecosystems cannot be sustained unless the interactive controls oscillate within stable bounds. This occurs when negative feedbacks constrain changes in these controls. For example, negative feedbacks associated with food availability and predation often constrain changes in the population size of a species. Linkages among ecosystems in a landscape can contribute to sustainability by creating or extending the feedback network beyond a single patch. The sustainability of managed systems can be increased by maintaining interactive controls so that they form negative feedbacks within ecosystems and by using laws and regulations to create negative feedbacks between ecosystems and human activities, such as between ocean ecosystems and marine fisheries. Degraded ecosystems can be restored through practices that enhance positive feedbacks to bring the ecosystem to a state where the interactive controls are commensurate with desired ecosystem characteristics. The possible combinations of interactive controls that govern ecosystem traits are limited by the environment, constraining the extent to which ecosystems can be managed sustainably for human purposes. 111 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. The Seven Cardinal Principles Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Harold G.

    1976-01-01

    The seven cardinal principles of education as stated in 1918--health, command of fundamental processes; worthy home membership, vocation; citizenship, use of leisure, and ethical character--were reassessed by panelists and the future development of each principle examined in the light of a changing world. (JD)

  20. Principles of Instructed Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2005-01-01

    This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general principles for language pedagogy. These principles address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on…

  1. Multimedia Principle in Teaching Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kari Jabbour, Khayrazad

    2012-01-01

    Multimedia learning principle occurs when we create mental representations from combining text and relevant graphics into lessons. This article discusses the learning advantages that result from adding multimedia learning principle into instructions; and how to select graphics that support learning. There is a balance that instructional designers…

  2. Children's Understanding of Conversational Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Daniel J.; Camras, Linda A.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates the development of awareness of conversational principles in preschool, first-, and third-grade children by presenting them with short stories ending with a verbal statement by a story character. Results suggest that children's understanding of conversational principles improves considerably between preschool and first grade.…

  3. Ideario Educativo (Principles of Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) which discusses an overall educational policy for Mexico based on Constitutional principles and those of humanism. The basic principles that should guide Mexican education as seen by the National Technical Council for Education are the following: (1) love of country; (2)…

  4. Principles of Play for Soccer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, John

    2004-01-01

    Soccer coaches must understand the principles of play if they want to succeed. The principles of play are the rules of action that support the basic objectives of soccer and the foundation of a soccer coaching strategy. They serve as a set of permanent criteria that coaches can use to evaluate the efforts of their team. In this article, the author…

  5. Meaty Principles for Environmental Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockcastle, V. N.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that educated persons should be exposed to a body of conceptual knowledge which includes basic principles of the biological and physical sciences. Practical examples involving force, sound, light, waves, and density of water are cited. A lesson on animal tracks using principles of force and pressure is also described. (DH)

  6. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  7. Hamilton's principle in stochastic mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavon, Michele

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we establish three variational principles that provide new foundations for Nelson's stochastic mechanics in the case of nonrelativistic particles without spin. The resulting variational picture is much richer and of a different nature with respect to the one previously considered in the literature. We first develop two stochastic variational principles whose Hamilton-Jacobi-like equations are precisely the two coupled partial differential equations that are obtained from the Schrödinger equation (Madelung equations). The two problems are zero-sum, noncooperative, stochastic differential games that are familiar in the control theory literature. They are solved here by means of a new, absolutely elementary method based on Lagrange functionals. For both games the saddle-point equilibrium solution is given by the Nelson's process and the optimal controls for the two competing players are precisely Nelson's current velocity v and osmotic velocity u, respectively. The first variational principle includes as special cases both the Guerra-Morato variational principle [Phys. Rev. D 27, 1774 (1983)] and Schrödinger original variational derivation of the time-independent equation. It also reduces to the classical least action principle when the intensity of the underlying noise tends to zero. It appears as a saddle-point action principle. In the second variational principle the action is simply the difference between the initial and final configurational entropy. It is therefore a saddle-point entropy production principle. From the variational principles it follows, in particular, that both v(x,t) and u(x,t) are gradients of appropriate principal functions. In the variational principles, the role of the background noise has the intuitive meaning of attempting to contrast the more classical mechanical features of the system by trying to maximize the action in the first principle and by trying to increase the entropy in the second. Combining the two variational

  8. Principles of Coordination Polymerisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuran, Witold

    2001-11-01

    The first all-inclusive text covering coordination polymerisation, including important classes of non-hydrocarbon monomers. Charting the achievements and progress in the field, in terms of both basic and industrial research, this book offers a unified and complete overview of coordination polymerisation. Provides detailed description of the historical development of the subject Presents a unified view of catalysis, mechanisms, structures and utility Encourages learning through a step-by-step progression from basic to in-depth text Features end-of-chapter exercises to reinforce understanding Offers a full bibliography and comprehensive literature review Requisite reading for research students studying introductory and advanced courses in; polymer science, catalysis and polymerisation catalysis, and valuable reference for researchers and technicians in industry.

  9. An Inconvenient Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    At the end of the XIXth century, physics was dominated by two main theories: classical (or Newtonian) mechanics and electromagnetism. To be entirely correct, we should add thermodynamics, which seemed to be grounded on different principles, but whose links with mechanics were progressively better understood thanks to the work of Maxwell and Boltzmann, among others. Classical mechanics, born with Galileo and Newton, claimed to explain the motion of lumps of matter under the action of forces. The paradigm for a lump of matter is a particle, or a corpuscle, which one can intuitively think of as a billiard ball of tiny dimensions, and which will be dubbed a micro-billiard ball in what follows. The second main component of XIXth century physics, electromagnetism, is a theory of the electric and magnetic fields and also of optics, thanks to the synthesis between electromagnetism and optics performed by Maxwell, who understood that light waves are nothing other than a particular case of electromagnetic waves. We had, on the one hand, a mechanical theory where matter exhibiting a discrete character (particles) was carried along well localized trajectories and, on the other hand, a wave theory describing continuous phenomena which did not involve transport of matter. The two theories addressed different domains, the only obvious link being the law giving the force on a charged particle submitted to an electromagnetic field, or Lorentz force. In 1905, Einstein put an end to this dichotomic wave/particle view and launched two revolutions of physics: special relativity and quantum physics. First, he showed that Newton's equations of motion must be modified when the particle velocities are not negligible with respect to that of light: this is the special relativity revolution, which introduces in mechanics a quantity characteristic of optics, the velocity of light. However, this is an aspect of the Einsteinian revolution which will not interest us directly, with the exception

  10. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  11. What are the core ideas behind the Precautionary Principle?

    PubMed

    Persson, Erik

    2016-07-01

    The Precautionary Principle is both celebrated and criticized. It has become an important principle for decision making, but it is also subject to criticism. One problem that is often pointed out with the principle is that is not clear what it actually says and how to use it. I have taken on this problem by performing an analysis of some of the most influential formulations of the principle in an attempt to identify the core ideas behind it, with the purpose of producing a formulation of the principle that is clear and practically applicable. It was found that what is called the Precautionary Principle is not a principle that tells us what do to achieve extra precaution or how to handle situations when extra precaution is called for. Instead, it was found to be a list of circumstances that each justify extra precaution. An analysis of some of the most common and influential formulations of the Precautionary Principle identified four such circumstances: (1) When we deal with important values that tend to be systematically downplayed by traditional decision methods - such as human health and the environment. (2) When we suspect that the decision might lead to irreversible and severe consequences and the values at stake are also irreplaceable, (3) When timing is at least as important as being right. (4) When it is more important to avoid false negatives than false positives. This interpretation of the Precautionary Principle does not say anything about what kind of actions to take when extra precaution is called for, but it does provide a clear and practically useful list of circumstances that call for extra precaution and that is not subject to the most common objections to the Precautionary Principle. PMID:26994801

  12. Stem cell bioprocessing: fundamentals and principles.

    PubMed

    Placzek, Mark R; Chung, I-Ming; Macedo, Hugo M; Ismail, Siti; Mortera Blanco, Teresa; Lim, Mayasari; Cha, Jae Min; Fauzi, Iliana; Kang, Yunyi; Yeo, David C L; Ma, Chi Yip Joan; Polak, Julia M; Panoskaltsis, Nicki; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, the potential of stem cell research for tissue engineering-based therapies and regenerative medicine clinical applications has become well established. In 2006, Chung pioneered the first entire organ transplant using adult stem cells and a scaffold for clinical evaluation. With this a new milestone was achieved, with seven patients with myelomeningocele receiving stem cell-derived bladder transplants resulting in substantial improvements in their quality of life. While a bladder is a relatively simple organ, the breakthrough highlights the incredible benefits that can be gained from the cross-disciplinary nature of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) that encompasses stem cell research and stem cell bioprocessing. Unquestionably, the development of bioprocess technologies for the transfer of the current laboratory-based practice of stem cell tissue culture to the clinic as therapeutics necessitates the application of engineering principles and practices to achieve control, reproducibility, automation, validation and safety of the process and the product. The successful translation will require contributions from fundamental research (from developmental biology to the 'omics' technologies and advances in immunology) and from existing industrial practice (biologics), especially on automation, quality assurance and regulation. The timely development, integration and execution of various components will be critical-failures of the past (such as in the commercialization of skin equivalents) on marketing, pricing, production and advertising should not be repeated. This review aims to address the principles required for successful stem cell bioprocessing so that they can be applied deftly to clinical applications. PMID:19033137

  13. Stem cell bioprocessing: fundamentals and principles

    PubMed Central

    Placzek, Mark R.; Chung, I-Ming; Macedo, Hugo M.; Ismail, Siti; Mortera Blanco, Teresa; Lim, Mayasari; Min Cha, Jae; Fauzi, Iliana; Kang, Yunyi; Yeo, David C.L.; Yip Joan Ma, Chi; Polak, Julia M.; Panoskaltsis, Nicki; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the potential of stem cell research for tissue engineering-based therapies and regenerative medicine clinical applications has become well established. In 2006, Chung pioneered the first entire organ transplant using adult stem cells and a scaffold for clinical evaluation. With this a new milestone was achieved, with seven patients with myelomeningocele receiving stem cell-derived bladder transplants resulting in substantial improvements in their quality of life. While a bladder is a relatively simple organ, the breakthrough highlights the incredible benefits that can be gained from the cross-disciplinary nature of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) that encompasses stem cell research and stem cell bioprocessing. Unquestionably, the development of bioprocess technologies for the transfer of the current laboratory-based practice of stem cell tissue culture to the clinic as therapeutics necessitates the application of engineering principles and practices to achieve control, reproducibility, automation, validation and safety of the process and the product. The successful translation will require contributions from fundamental research (from developmental biology to the ‘omics’ technologies and advances in immunology) and from existing industrial practice (biologics), especially on automation, quality assurance and regulation. The timely development, integration and execution of various components will be critical—failures of the past (such as in the commercialization of skin equivalents) on marketing, pricing, production and advertising should not be repeated. This review aims to address the principles required for successful stem cell bioprocessing so that they can be applied deftly to clinical applications. PMID:19033137

  14. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  15. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the principle vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with…

  16. Curriculum Alignment: Exploring Student Perception of Learning Achievement Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Kerri-Ann L.; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn R.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of constructively aligned curriculum is well understood in higher education. Based on the principles of constructive alignment, this research considers whether student perception of learning achievement measures can be used to gain insights into how course activities and pedagogy are assisting or hindering students in accomplishing…

  17. The Role of Universities in Achieving Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Social justice is not only a vital ethical principle of the human society but also the all-important value of the entire social system. As a public sphere, the university undertakes the purpose to achieve public interest. It plays a significant role in reflecting, defending, and fostering social justice. Nurturing people with social justice…

  18. Promoting Achievement in School through Sports. First Year Impact Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Sports Inst., Mill Valley, CA.

    Promoting Achievement in School through Sports (PASS) is an academic high school curriculum developed by the American Sports Institute. It is a daily, year-long, credit-bearing, physical education elective for students who love sports but are not performing up to their academic potential. PASS is based on the concept that the principles and skills…

  19. Principles and techniques for designing precision machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L C

    1999-02-01

    This thesis is written to advance the reader's knowledge of precision-engineering principles and their application to designing machines that achieve both sufficient precision and minimum cost. It provides the concepts and tools necessary for the engineer to create new precision machine designs. Four case studies demonstrate the principles and showcase approaches and solutions to specific problems that generally have wider applications. These come from projects at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in which the author participated: the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine, Accuracy Enhancement of High- Productivity Machine Tools, the National Ignition Facility, and Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography. Although broad in scope, the topics go into sufficient depth to be useful to practicing precision engineers and often fulfill more academic ambitions. The thesis begins with a chapter that presents significant principles and fundamental knowledge from the Precision Engineering literature. Following this is a chapter that presents engineering design techniques that are general and not specific to precision machines. All subsequent chapters cover specific aspects of precision machine design. The first of these is Structural Design, guidelines and analysis techniques for achieving independently stiff machine structures. The next chapter addresses dynamic stiffness by presenting several techniques for Deterministic Damping, damping designs that can be analyzed and optimized with predictive results. Several chapters present a main thrust of the thesis, Exact-Constraint Design. A main contribution is a generalized modeling approach developed through the course of creating several unique designs. The final chapter is the primary case study of the thesis, the Conceptual Design of a Horizontal Machining Center.

  20. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  1. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    PubMed Central

    Fenner, Ashley A.; Howie, Erin K.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Gray, Cindy M.; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian “Floyd”; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human–computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity. PMID:26181680

  2. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames.

    PubMed

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-02-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human-computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity. PMID:26181680

  3. 4 CFR 2.4 - Merit system principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., color, sex, religion, age, or national origin. Central to this principle is the protection of employees... force reflective of the Nation's diversity, must assure that both in operation and results the merit... appropriate sources in an endeavor to achieve a work force from all segments of society, and selection...

  4. 4 CFR 2.4 - Merit system principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., color, sex, religion, age, or national origin. Central to this principle is the protection of employees... force reflective of the Nation's diversity, must assure that both in operation and results the merit... appropriate sources in an endeavor to achieve a work force from all segments of society, and selection...

  5. 4 CFR 2.4 - Merit system principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., color, sex, religion, age, or national origin. Central to this principle is the protection of employees... force reflective of the Nation's diversity, must assure that both in operation and results the merit... appropriate sources in an endeavor to achieve a work force from all segments of society, and selection...

  6. Displacement transducers using magnetostrictive delay line principle in amorphous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meydan, T.; Elshebani, M. S. M.

    1992-07-01

    Amorphous materials, due to their large magnetostriction and small anisotropy, can possess large delay-time variations with a low bias field. This principle has been exploited as a displacement transducer. The time delays were achieved by using an external bias field source.

  7. Teaching Principles of Management through Experiential and Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furutan, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Management faculties often use cases, simulations, and research projects to achieve learning objectives in the Principles of Management class. This class typically aims to introduce students to the topics of "planning, organizing, coordinating, staffing, directing, budgeting, controlling, and evaluating functions of management; leadership…

  8. Principles of Pharmacotherapy: I. Pharmacodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pallasch, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper and the ensuing series present the principles guiding and affecting the ability of drugs to produce therapeutic benefit or untoward harm. The principles of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, the physiologic basis of adverse drug reactions and suitable antidotal therapy, and the biologic basis of drug allergy, drug-drug interactions, pharmacogenetics, teratology and hematologic reactions to chemicals are explored. These principles serve to guide those administering and using drugs to attain the maximum benefit and least attendant harm from their use. Such is the goal of rational therapeutics. PMID:3046440

  9. Get Provoked: Applying Tilden's Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Carol A.

    1995-01-01

    This address given to the Division of Interpretation, Yellowstone National Park, Interpretive Training, June 1993, examines successes and failures in interpretive programs for adults and children in light of Tilden's principles. (LZ)

  10. Equivalence Principle and Gravitational Redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Hohensee, Michael A.; Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger; Peters, Achim

    2011-04-15

    We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Moessbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10{sup -6} level.

  11. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  12. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  13. Predicting Mathematics Achievement: The Influence of Prior Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Grootenboer, Peter; Kay, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Achievement in mathematics is inextricably linked to future career opportunities, and therefore, understanding those factors that influence achievement is important. This study sought to examine the relationships among attitude towards mathematics, ability and mathematical achievement. This examination was also supported by a focus on gender…

  14. Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

    PubMed Central

    Durston, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them. PMID:22489210

  15. Minimum Principles in Motor Control.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Sascha E.

    2001-06-01

    Minimum (or minimal) principles are mathematical laws that were first used in physics: Hamilton's principle and Fermat's principle of least time are two famous example. In the past decade, a number of motor control theories have been proposed that are formally of the same kind as the minimum principles of physics, and some of these have been quite successful at predicting motor performance in a variety of tasks. The present paper provides a comprehensive review of this work. Particular attention is given to the relation between minimum theories in motor control and those used in other disciplines. Other issues around which the review is organized include: (1) the relation between minimum principles and structural models of motor planning and motor control, (2) the empirically-driven development of minimum principles and the danger of circular theorizing, and (3) the design of critical tests for minimum theories. Some perspectives for future research are discussed in the concluding section of the paper. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11401453

  16. [Research Reports on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latts, Sander; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Four counselors studied the relation between achievement and choice of major, achievement and motivation, counseling and motivation, and achievement and employment. To see if those with definite majors or career choices in mind did better than those without, 300 students were tested according to the certainty of their choice. No significant…

  17. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  18. Meeting the Curricular Needs of Academically Low-Achieving Students in Middle Grade Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, John; Brown, Cyrus

    2006-01-01

    An important component of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards is the equity principle: All students should have access to a coherent, challenging mathematics curriculum. Many in the mathematics reform community have maintained that this principle can be achieved through one well-designed curriculum. However, the extant…

  19. Resourcing the National Goals for Schooling: An Agreed Framework of Principles for Funding Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Funding for school education in Australia should be on the basis of clear and agreed policy principles for achieving effectiveness, efficiency, equity and a socially and culturally cohesive society. On the basis of these principles a national framework for funding schools will be supported by complementary State and Commonwealth models for funding…

  20. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  1. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  2. 7 CFR 3430.31 - Guiding principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Pre-award: Application Review and Evaluation § 3430.31 Guiding principles. The guiding principle for Federal assistance application review...

  3. Achieving food security in times of crisis.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M S

    2010-11-30

    In spite of several World Food Summits during the past decade, the number of people going to bed hungry is increasing and now exceeds one billion. Food security strategies should therefore be revisited. Food security systems should begin with local communities who can develop and manage community gene, seed, grain and water banks. At the national level, access to balanced diet and clean drinking water should become a basic human right. Implementation of the right to food will involve concurrent attention to production, procurement, preservation and public distribution. Higher production in perpetuity should be achieved through an ever-green revolution based on the principles of conservation and climate-resilient farming. This will call for a blend of traditional ecological prudence with frontier technologies, particularly biotechnology and information communication technologies. PMID:20708722

  4. Technologies for Achieving Field Ubiquitous Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Akira

    Although the term “ubiquitous” may sound like jargon used in information appliances, ubiquitous computing is an emerging concept in industrial automation. This paper presents the author's visions of field ubiquitous computing, which is based on the novel Internet Protocol IPv6. IPv6-based instrumentation will realize the next generation manufacturing excellence. This paper focuses on the following five key issues: 1. IPv6 standardization; 2. IPv6 interfaces embedded in field devices; 3. Compatibility with FOUNDATION fieldbus; 4. Network securities for field applications; and 5. Wireless technologies to complement IP instrumentation. Furthermore, the principles of digital plant operations and ubiquitous production to support the above key technologies to achieve field ubiquitous systems are discussed.

  5. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  6. Principles of Virus Structural Organization

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

  7. Quantum measurements and Landauer's principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V.

    2015-05-01

    Information processing systems must obey laws of physics. One of particular examples of this general statement is known as Landauer's principle - irreversible operations (such as erasure) performed by any computing device at finite temperature have to dissipate some amount of heat bound from below. Together with other results of this kind, Landauer's principle represents a fundamental limit any modern or future computer must obey. We discuss interpretation of the physics behind the Landauer's principle using a model of Unruh-DeWitt detector. Of particular interest is the validity of this limit in quantum domain. We systematically study finite time effects. It is shown, in particular, that in high temperature limit finiteness of measurement time leads to renormalization of the detector's temperature.

  8. The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

    SciTech Connect

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-04-28

    It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible.

  9. Principle Paradigms Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The Dublin Core "1:1 Principle" asserts that "related but conceptually different entities, for example a painting and a digital image of the painting, are described by separate metadata records" (Woodley et al., 2005). While this seems to be a simple requirement, studies of metadata quality have found that cultural heritage…

  10. Principles for assessing disease management outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fitzner, Karen; Sidorov, Jaan; Fetterolf, Don; Wennberg, David; Eisenberg, Edward; Cousins, Michael; Hoffman, Joel; Haughton, John; Charlton, Warwick; Krause, David; Woolf, Allen; Mcdonough, Kenneth; Todd, Warren; Fox, Kathe; Plocher, David; Juster, Iver; Stiefel, Matt; Villagra, Victor; Duncan, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Disease management (DM) is rapidly becoming an important force in the late 20th and early 21st century as a strategy for managing the chronic illness of large populations. Given the increasing visibility of DM programs, the clinical, economic and financial impact of this support are vital to DM program accountability and its acceptance as a solution to the twin challenges of achieving affordable, quality health care. Measuring and reporting outcomes in DM is difficult. DM programs must adapt to local market conditions and customer desires, which in turn limits generalizability, and still account for the overlapping/interlocking/multifaceted nature of the interventions included in any DM program. The Disease Management Association of America convened a Steering Committee to suggest a preferred approach, not a mandated or standardized approach for DM program evaluation. This paper presents the Steering Committee's "Consensus Statement" and "Guiding Principles" for robust evaluation. PMID:15669579

  11. The principles of whole-cell modeling.

    PubMed

    Karr, Jonathan R; Takahashi, Koichi; Funahashi, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Whole-cell models which comprehensively predict how phenotypes emerge from genotype promise to enable rational bioengineering and precision medicine. Here, we outline the key principles of whole-cell modeling which have emerged from our work developing bacterial whole-cell models: single-cellularity; functional, genetic, molecular, and temporal completeness; biophysical realism including temporal dynamics and stochastic variation; species-specificity; and model integration and reproducibility. We also outline the whole-cell model construction process, highlighting existing resources. Numerous challenges remain to achieving fully complete models including developing new experimental tools to more completely characterize cells and developing a strong theoretical understanding of hybrid mathematics. Solving these challenges requires collaboration among computational and experimental biologists, biophysicists, biochemists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and software engineers. PMID:26115539

  12. RPL Dosimetry: Principles and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Takayoshi

    2011-05-05

    The principle of radio-photoluminescence (RPL) is applied to the glass dosimeter, which is one of the most excellent solid state dosimeters. The silver activated phosphate glass irradiated with ionizing radiations emits luminescence when exposed to UV light. This phenomenon is called RPL. The most characteristic features of the glass dosimeters are data accumulation and no fading. The basic principle of RPL is described and then how it is applied to the glass dosimeter is explained. Finally some applications of RPL will be introduced.

  13. Principle of least wave change.

    PubMed

    Abramson, N

    1989-05-01

    Fermat's principle of least time has some well-known limitations. It does not, for example, apply to diffraction gratings and holograms, because it does not include the concept of waves. The substitution of least number of waves in flight for least time of flight and the addition of a term that is a function of the grating frequency result in a generalized principle. It is easy to remember because it is based on only the number of waves minus the number of grooves, and it would be especially useful when refraction and diffraction are combined, as, for example, in some holographic optical elements. PMID:2723846

  14. RGD-based Therapy: Principles of Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Rubtsov, Mikhail A; Syrkina, Marina S; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2016-01-01

    Design of selective anticancer drugs that are targeting RGD-binding integrin receptors which are known to be one of the perspective directions in the field of oncology. Significant progress in the development and application of these types compounds is already demonstrated. The accumulating body of basic and clinical evidence demonstrates potential significant effects on both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. However, the specific mechanism of action of these compounds is generally not a fully elucidated or the exact target responsible for the achievement of stated effects hasn't yet been defined sufficiently. To date eight types of integrin receptors, which are capable to recognize RGD-motif in natural ligands, has in fact been identified as (namely αIIbβ3, αvβ1, αvβ3, αvβ5, αvβ6, αvβ8, α5β1, α8β1). Even so, the estimation of the affinity of one particular RGD-bearing anticancer agent is often based on the determination of the binding efficacy to only one or rarely two integrin receptors. Traditionally the range of targets is restricted by the integrins, which are known to be highly expressed in a particular model system. While potential interactions of such an agent with other RGD-recognizing receptors usually remain beyond the research. Nonetheless, such interactions may also affect the viability and behavior of cancer cells. In this review we attempt to critically analyze the principles of selectivity achievement in the case of RGD-bearing natural ligands and the applicability of these principles in the context of the anticancer drug design. PMID:26648463

  15. Radiation protection principles of NCRP.

    PubMed

    Kase, Kenneth R

    2004-09-01

    The current recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) relative to ionizing radiation are based on radiation protection principles that developed historically as information about radiation effects on human populations became available. Because the NCRP Charter states that the NCRP will cooperate with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the basic principles and recommendations for radiation protection of the NCRP are closely coupled with those of the ICRP. Thus, the fundamental principles of justification, optimization, and dose limitation as initially stated in ICRP Publication 26 have been adopted and applied by the NCRP in its recommendations. ICRP and NCRP recommendations on dose limitation for the general public and for occupationally exposed individuals are based on the same analyses of radiation risk, and, while similar, there are differences reflecting the aspects of radiation application and exposure circumstances unique to the United States. The NCRP has recently extended its guidance to address exposure to individuals engaged in space activities. Several reports have been issued or are in preparation to provide recommendations on dose limitation and the development of radiation safety programs to apply the radiation protection principles in space activities. The biological basis for these recommendations is provided in these and accompanying NCRP reports. Recommendations for the application of basic radiation protection principles have been made in many reports over the years. Those that are most current appear in approximately 50 reports published in the last 15 y. These address radiation safety practices in industrial and medical institutions, control of radionuclides in the environment, protection of the public, and assessment of radiation risk. Some of the aspects of these recommendations will be discussed. Current recommendations related to radiation safety practice are based

  16. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  17. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  18. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  19. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  20. Engaged Partners: The Achieving the Dream Partnership. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case Study Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Tonika Cheek

    2008-01-01

    Confronting two unhealthy approaches that surface frequently in philanthropy--the tendency for grantmakers to think they alone have all the answers and the tensions that arise when national and local funders try to work together--this case study is intended to help grantmakers think more deeply about the concept of "engaged partners," one of…

  1. Every Moment Counts: Five Principles for Boosting the Achievement of Struggling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerzon-Kessler, Ari

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates her difficult experiences as a novice teacher when she started teaching bilingual third-graders in Spanish at Spangler Elementary School in 2002. She relates that her teaching strategy of balancing rigor and sweetness had its rewards as her students' rate of reading proficiency on the Colorado Student Assessment…

  2. Excellence through Equity: Five Principles of Courageous Leadership to Guide Achievement for Every Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankstein, Alan M., Ed.; Noguera, Pedro, Ed.; Kelly, Lorena, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    "Excellence Through Equity" is an inspiring look at how real-world educators are creating schools where all students are able to thrive. In these schools, educators understand that equity is not about treating all children the same. They are deeply committed to ensuring that each student receives what he or she individually needs to…

  3. Investigating the Relationship between STEM Learning Principles and Student Achievement in Math and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Michael; Gonzalez, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) advocates commonly emphasize an interdisciplinary, authentic, project-based, and technology-based approach to learning, though the strength of prior research varies. This study examines the association between a range of classroom activities and academic performance gains in math and science. Using…

  4. Optimal thickness of silicon membranes to achieve maximum thermoelectric efficiency: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Claudia; Neogi, Sanghamitra; Donadio, Davide

    2016-08-01

    Silicon nanostructures with reduced dimensionality, such as nanowires, membranes, and thin films, are promising thermoelectric materials, as they exhibit considerably reduced thermal conductivity. Here, we utilize density functional theory and Boltzmann transport equation to compute the electronic properties of ultra-thin crystalline silicon membranes with thickness between 1 and 12 nm. We predict that an optimal thickness of ˜7 nm maximizes the thermoelectric figure of merit of membranes with native oxide surface layers. Further thinning of the membranes, although attainable in experiments, reduces the electrical conductivity and worsens the thermoelectric efficiency.

  5. Unlocking the Curriculum: Principles for Achieving Access in Deaf Education. Working Paper 89-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert E.; And Others

    The paper documents the "failure" of deaf education and proposes a model program for the education of deaf children. Reasons given for this failure include lack of linguistic access to curricular content and the cycle of low expectations. Early acquisition of American Sign Language (ASL) is encouraged both to develop cognitive skills and improve…

  6. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  7. 48 CFR 49.113 - Cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost principles. 49.113... TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.113 Cost principles. The cost principles and procedures in the..., negotiating, or determining costs relevant to termination settlements under contracts with other...

  8. 48 CFR 49.113 - Cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost principles. 49.113 Section 49.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.113 Cost principles. The cost principles and procedures in...

  9. 32 CFR 203.6 - Cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) For-profit contractors and subcontractors must comply with the cost principles in the FAR (48 CFR part... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost principles. 203.6 Section 203.6 National... Cost principles. (a) Non-profit contractors must comply with the cost principles in OMB Circular...

  10. 32 CFR 203.6 - Cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) For-profit contractors and subcontractors must comply with the cost principles in the FAR (48 CFR part... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost principles. 203.6 Section 203.6 National... Cost principles. (a) Non-profit contractors must comply with the cost principles in OMB Circular...

  11. 48 CFR 49.113 - Cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost principles. 49.113 Section 49.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.113 Cost principles. The cost principles and procedures in...

  12. 48 CFR 49.113 - Cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost principles. 49.113 Section 49.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.113 Cost principles. The cost principles and procedures in...

  13. 48 CFR 49.113 - Cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost principles. 49.113 Section 49.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.113 Cost principles. The cost principles and procedures in...

  14. Bayes and the Simplicity Principle in Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of the foundations of perceptual inference have often centered on 2 governing principles, the likelihood principle and the simplicity principle. Historically, these principles have usually been seen as opposed, but contemporary statistical (e.g., Bayesian) theory tends to see them as consistent, because for a variety of reasons simpler…

  15. Aesthetic Principles for Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    This article offers principles that contribute to developing the aesthetics of instructional design. Rather than describing merely the surface qualities of things and events, the concept of aesthetics as applied here pertains to heightened, integral experience. Aesthetic experiences are those that are immersive, infused with meaning, and felt as…

  16. Physical Therapy Principles in Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Sparto, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    The use of vestibular rehabilitation for persons with balance and vestibular disorders is used to improve function and decrease dizziness symptoms. Principles of a vestibular rehabilitation program are described including common exercises and outcome measures used to report change. A review of negative and positive predictive factors related to recovery is also provided. PMID:22027077

  17. Reciprocity principle and crack identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrieux, Stéphane; Ben Abda, Amel; Duong Bui, Huy

    1999-02-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the planar crack identification problem defined by a unique complete elastostatic overdetermined boundary datum. Based on the reciprocity gap principle, we give a direct process for locating the host plane and we establish a new constuctive identifiability result for 3D planar cracks.

  18. Principles and practice of sonography

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, A.C.; James, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a text of sonographic technique, emphasizing clinical and diagnostic procedures. Ultrasound images and explanatory line drawings are placed side-by-side to facilitate interpretation. This book covers instrumentation and scanning principles, obstetric, gynecologic, abdominal, renal and urologic, pediatric, plus superficial structure sonography.

  19. Chemical Principles Revisited: Chemical Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes: (1) Law of Mass Action; (2) equilibrium constant and ideal behavior; (3) general form of the equilibrium constant; (4) forward and reverse reactions; (5) factors influencing equilibrium; (6) Le Chatelier's principle; (7) effects of temperature, changing concentration, and pressure on equilibrium; and (8) catalysts and equilibrium. (JN)

  20. Pauli Principle and Pion Scattering

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bethe, H. A.

    1972-10-01

    It is pointed out that if the Pauli principle is taken into account in the discussion of pion scattering by complex nuclei (as it ought, of course, to be) some rather implausible consequences of some earlier treatments of this problem can be avoided. (auth)

  1. Mentoring: Contemporary Principles and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bey, Theresa M., Ed.; Holmes, C. Thomas, Ed.

    In the spirit of educational reform efforts, an initiative exists to restructure the education of teachers through collaborative action, using mentoring to build alliances. This monograph, based on contemporary principles and issues of mentoring, presents ways to conceptualize the professional preparation and development of teachers. Following a…

  2. Energy principle with global invariants

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Dewar, R.L.; Monticello, D.A.

    1980-05-01

    A variational principle is proposed for constructing equilibria with low free energy in toroidal plasmas in which relaxation is dominated by a tearing mode of single helicity. States with current density vanishing on the boundary are constructed. Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data from reversed field pinches and tokamaks.

  3. Psychological Principles in Materials Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Cynthia M.

    Those psychological principles which might aid the teacher in the selection of instructional materials are examined. Since learning is a process which builds sequentially on past learning, beginning reading materials should include words that have personal relevance for the individual child. Meaningful material is learned more quickly than…

  4. Electronic Structure Principles and Aromaticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattaraj, P. K.; Sarkar, U.; Roy, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between aromaticity and stability in molecules on the basis of quantities such as hardness and electrophilicity is explored. The findings reveal that aromatic molecules are less energetic, harder, less polarizable, and less electrophilic as compared to antiaromatic molecules, as expected from the electronic structure principles.

  5. Classroom Demonstrations of Polymer Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes several techniques to help students visualize the principles of polymer chemistry. Outlines demonstrations using simple materials (such as pop-it beads, thread, and wire) to illustrate the size of macromolecules, the composition of copolymers, and the concept of molecular mass. (TW)

  6. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  7. Principles for Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTaggart, Robin

    1991-01-01

    Nine principles of participatory action research (PAR) are identification of individual and collective projects; changing power distribution; changing group and institutional culture; acting and reflecting; unifying intellectual and practical projects; producing knowledge; engaging the politics; using methodological resources; and creating theory.…

  8. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  9. Demonstrating Fermat's principle in optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either maximum or minimum geometrical lengths.

  10. Nursing Principles & Skills. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains 14 units for a course on nursing principles and skills needed by practical nurses. The 14 units of instruction cover the following: (1) using medical terminology; (2) practicing safety procedures; (3) using the nursing process for care planning; (4) using infection control techniques; (5) preparing a patient…

  11. General Achievement Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. The Process of Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  13. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  14. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  15. Motivational Factors in School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    A summary is presented of the literature on motivation relating to achievement in the classroom. Special attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns may serve to enhance motivation to achieve in the classroom. In considering what determines motivation and personal investment in educational pursuits, the following…

  16. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  17. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  20. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  1. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  2. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  3. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  4. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  5. Superintendent Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the influence of superintendent tenure on student achievement in rural Appalachian Kentucky school districts. Superintendent tenure was compared to aggregated student achievement scores for 2011 and to changes in students' learning outcomes over the course of the superintendents' tenure. The…

  6. Achievements of the Iranian family planning programmes 1956-2006.

    PubMed

    Simbar, M

    2012-03-01

    Family planning programmes initiated in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1966 met with limited success. Following the 1986 census family planning was considered a priority and was supported by the country's leaders. Appropriate strategies based on the principles of health promotion led to an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women from 49.0% in 1989 to 73.8% in 2006. This paper reviews the family planning programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran and their achievements during the last 4 decades and discusses the principles of health promotion and theories of behaviour change which may explain these achievements. Successful strategies included: creation of a supportive environment, reorientation of family planning services, expanding of coverage of family planning services, training skilled personnel, providing free contraceptives as well as vasectomy and tubectomy services, involvement of volunteers and nongovernmental organizations and promotion of male participation. PMID:22574484

  7. Low thermal mass gas chromatography: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Luong, Jim; Gras, Ronda; Mustacich, Robert; Cortes, Hernan

    2006-01-01

    In gas chromatography (GC), temperature programming is often considered to be the second most important parameter to control, the first being column selectivity. A radically new GC technology to achieve ultrafast temperature programming with an unprecedented cool down time and low power consumption has recently become available. This technology is referred to as low thermal mass GC (LTMGC). Though the technology has its roots in resistive heating, which forms the basis of principle and design concept, the approach taken to achieve ultrafast heating and cool down time by LTMGC represents a significant break-through in GC. Despite some rectifiable shortcomings, LTMGC has proven to be an ideal methodology to deliver near/real time GC data, high precision, and high throughput applications. It is a new approach for modern high-speed GC. This paper documents the fundamental design principles behind LTMGC, performance data, and examples of applications investigated. PMID:16774710

  8. Some current legal issues that may affect oral and maxillofacial radiology: part 1. Basic principles in digital dental radiology.

    PubMed

    MacDonald-Jankowski, David S; Orpe, Elaine C

    2007-06-01

    Developments in oral and maxillofacial radiology affect almost every aspect of dentistry: some change the legal framework in which Canadian dentists practise; some re-emphasize established standards of care, such as the dental radiologist's mantra, ALARA (using a dose that is as low as reasonably achievable) and viewing images in reduced ambient lighting. Developments in the legislation that regulates the use of radiology, such as Health Canada"s Safety Code 30 for radiation safety in dentistry and the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act, also affect the practice of dental radiology. Some technical developments, such as charge-coupled devices and photostimulatable phosphors, are already well-known to the profession. Teleradiology, currently used in hospitals, but unfamiliar to most dentists (especially those working in urban communities), may soon have an impact on dentistry when it is used for Canada"s electronic health record, now under development. In this first of 2 articles about dental digital technology, we discuss the legal impact of developments in oral and maxillofacial radiology on dental practice and patient care. PMID:17555651

  9. Integrating principles and multidisciplinary projects in design education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gale E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The critical need to improve engineering design education in the U.S. is presented and a number of actions to achieve that end are discussed. The importance of teaching undergraduates the latest methods and principles through the means of team design in multidisciplinary projects leading to a testable product is emphasized. Desirable training for design instructors is described and techniques for selecting and managing projects that teach effectively are discussed.

  10. Kirchhoff's loop law and the maximum entropy production principle.

    PubMed

    Zupanović, Pasko; Juretić, Davor; Botrić, Srećko

    2004-11-01

    In contrast to the standard derivation of Kirchhoff's loop law, which invokes electric potential, we show, for the linear planar electric network in a stationary state at the fixed temperature, that loop law can be derived from the maximum entropy production principle. This means that the currents in network branches are distributed in such a way as to achieve the state of maximum entropy production. PMID:15600693

  11. Proof of the entropy principle in Einstein-Maxwell theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Sijie

    We consider a self-gravitating charged perfect fluid in a static spacetime. We assume that the Einstein constraint equation is satisfied. Then we prove that the extrema of the total entropy of fluid implies other components of Einstein's equation. Conversely, if Einstein's equation is satisfied, we show that the total entropy achieves an extremum. This work suggests that the maximum entropy principle is consistent with Einstein's equation when an electrostatic field is taken into account.

  12. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdami, M.

    1985-01-01

    The book covers the principles of AI, the main areas of application, as well as considering some of the social implications. The applications chapters have a common format structured as follows: definition of the topic; approach with conventional computing techniques; why 'intelligence' would provide a better approach; and how AI techniques would be used and the limitations. The contents discussed are: Principles of artificial intelligence; AI programming environments; LISP, list processing and pattern-making; AI programming with POP-11; Computer processing of natural language; Speech synthesis and recognition; Computer vision; Artificial intelligence and robotics; The anatomy of expert systems - Forsyth; Machine learning; Memory models of man and machine; Artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology; Breaking out of the chinese room; Social implications of artificial intelligence; and Index.

  13. Mechanics, cosmology and Mach's principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essén, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    It is pointed out that recent cosmological findings seem to support the view that the mass/energy distribution of the universe defines the Newtonian inertial frames, as originally suggested by Mach. The background concepts of inertial frame, Newton's second law and fictitious forces are clarified. A precise definition of Mach's principle is suggested. Then, an approximation to general relativity discovered by Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann is used and it is found that this precise formulation of Mach's principle is realized provided the mass/energy density of the universe has a specific value. This value turns out to be twice the critical density. The implications of this approximate result are put into context.

  14. Principles for system level electrochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    The higher power and higher voltage levels anticipated for future space missions have required a careful review of the techniques currently in use to preclude battery problems that are related to the dispersion characteristics of the individual cells. Not only are the out-of-balance problems accentuated in these larger systems, but the thermal management considerations also require a greater degree of accurate design. Newer concepts which employ active cooling techniques are being developed which permit higher rates of discharge and tighter packing densities for the electrochemical components. This paper will put forward six semi-independent principles relating to battery systems. These principles will progressively address cell, battery and finally system related aspects of large electrochemical storage systems.

  15. Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms, and which can be extracted from cells and then used to catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. This chapter covers the basic principles of enzymology, such as classification, structure, kinetics and inhibition, and also provides an overview of industrial applications. In addition, techniques for the purification of enzymes are discussed. PMID:26504249

  16. The Principles of Phototransferred Thermoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Moscovitch, Marko

    2011-05-05

    The principles of phototransferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) are described, and some of the basic theoretical ideas underlying this technique are presented. It is demonstrated that the PTTL efficiency is dependent on the photon energy as well as on the activation energies of the various traps involved in the process. A simple two-traps-one-recombination-center model is capable of predicting a variety of different PTTL behaviors, some already were observed experimentally.

  17. Energy principles in architectural design

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, E.

    1981-01-01

    A foundation of basic information pertaining to design and energy use in buildings is presented with emphasis on principles and concepts rather than applications of particular solution. Energy impacts of landforms and topography, vegetation, wind and ventilation, and sun on planning and designing the site are discused. General design considerations involving passive heating, cooling, and lighting systems are detailed. For the design of active building systems, heating, cooling, lighting, and HVAC systems are described. (MCW)

  18. Protein Multifunctionality: Principles and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zaretsky, Joseph Z.; Wreschner, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    In the review, the nature of protein multifunctionality is analyzed. In the first part of the review the principles of structural/functional organization of protein are discussed. In the second part, the main mechanisms involved in development of multiple functions on a single gene product(s) are analyzed. The last part represents a number of examples showing that multifunctionality is a basic feature of biologically active proteins. PMID:21566747

  19. Turnaround in Texas: How One District Closed Its Minority Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    Describes how one district closed its minority achievement gap by employing the Brazosport model, a combination of effective-schools research and Total Quality Management principles. The model includes an eight-step "plan-do-check" instructional cycle for teachers and emphasizes teacher training and tracking data. Student-achievement data, not the…

  20. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  1. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  2. 7 CFR 3430.31 - Guiding principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Pre-award: Application Review and Evaluation § 3430.31 Guiding principles. The guiding principle for Federal assistance application review and evaluation is to ensure that each proposal...

  3. American Evaluation Association Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.

  4. THE MAXIMIUM POWER PRINCIPLE: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The maximum power principle is a potential guide to understanding the patterns and processes of ecosystem development and sustainability. The principle predicts the selective persistence of ecosystem designs that capture a previously untapped energy source. This hypothesis was in...

  5. Lags in Minority Achievement Defy Traditional Explanations. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This second in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist notes that standard explanations for why minority students trail behind non-Hispanic whites are not good enough, suggesting that no single explanation for the gap exists, but instead a multitude of factors are influential. Poverty, though not the single most important cause,…

  6. Central Iowa Low Achiever Mathematics Project - Low Achiever Motivational Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joseph T.

    The materials in this booklet are designed especially for the low achieving student in mathematics. Containing some materials from a course in general mathematics, the booklet is intended to be used in conjunction with conventional textbook materials and is designed to serve as a source of new ideas for teachers and to relieve the teacher of much…

  7. TRAS principles blight arterial bypass and plasty.

    PubMed

    Kothari, M V; Mehta, L A; Kothari, V M

    1997-01-01

    A new concept--Tissue Requisitions (Principle I)/Relinquishes (Principle II) Arterial Supply--of TRAS principles is introduced to help appreciate the failures/successes of modern medicine's attempts at restoring arterial flow in luminally compromised coronary/carotid fields, an invasive branch rightly called vascular ReRheology, which comprises diagnosing/treating arterial blocks. The technical wizardry of arterial reconstruction (bypass) or lumen--restoration (plasty) has to reckon with the TRAS principles all the time. PMID:10740714

  8. Ethics committees, principles and consequences.

    PubMed

    Häyry, M

    1998-04-01

    When ethics committees evaluate the research proposals submitted to them by biomedical scientists, they can seek guidance from laws and regulations, their own beliefs, values and experiences, and from the theories of philosophers. The starting point of this paper is that philosophers can only be helpful to the members of ethics committees if they take into account in their models both the basic moral intuitions that most of us share and the consequences of people's choices. A moral view which can be labelled as a consequentialist interpretation of mid-level principlism is developed, defended and applied to some real-life and hypothetical research proposals. PMID:9602993

  9. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination. PMID:22851522

  10. Principles of nanoscience: an overview.

    PubMed

    Behari, Jitendra

    2010-10-01

    The scientific basis of nanotechnology as envisaged from the first principles is compared to bulk behavior. Development of nanoparticles having controllable physical and electronic properties has opened up possibility of designing artificial solids. Top down and bottom up approaches are emphasized. The role of nanoparticle (quantum dots) application in nanophotonics (photovoltaic cell), and drug delivery vehicle is discussed. Fundamentals of DNA structure as the prime site in bionanotechnological manipulations is also discussed. A summary of presently available devices and applications are presented. PMID:21299044

  11. Exergy analysis: Principles and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, M. J.; Sciubba, E.

    1994-04-01

    The importance of the goal of developing systems that effectively use nonrenewable energy resources such as oil, natural gas, and coal is apparent. The method of exergy analysis is well suited for furthering this goal, for it enables the location, type and true magnitude of waste and loss to be determined. Such information can be used to design new systems and to reduce the inefficiency of existing systems. This paper provides a brief survey of both exergy principles and the current literature of exergy analysis with emphasis on areas of application.

  12. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  13. Principles of liquids working in heat engines

    PubMed Central

    Allen, P. C.; Knight, W. R.; Paulson, D. N.; Wheatley, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of liquids suggest that they should be powerful working fluids in heat engines. Their use requires heat engines based conceptually on the Stirling and Malone principles. The principles are explained, and then experiments on propylene are presented that demonstrate the principles and confirm the thermodynamic analysis. PMID:16592756

  14. Principles of liquids working in heat engines.

    PubMed

    Allen, P C; Knight, W R; Paulson, D N; Wheatley, J C

    1980-01-01

    The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of liquids suggest that they should be powerful working fluids in heat engines. Their use requires heat engines based conceptually on the Stirling and Malone principles. The principles are explained, and then experiments on propylene are presented that demonstrate the principles and confirm the thermodynamic analysis. PMID:16592756

  15. 7 CFR 3015.111 - Cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost principles. 3015.111 Section 3015.111... § 3015.111 Cost principles. (a) The cost principles prescribed by subpart T of this part require prior approval of certain types of costs. Except when waived, those prior approval requirements apply to...

  16. 7 CFR 3015.111 - Cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost principles. 3015.111 Section 3015.111... § 3015.111 Cost principles. (a) The cost principles prescribed by subpart T of this part require prior approval of certain types of costs. Except when waived, those prior approval requirements apply to...

  17. Software for Fermat's principle and lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihas, Pavlos

    2012-05-01

    Fermat's principle is considered as a unifying concept. It is usually presented erroneously as a 'least time principle'. In this paper we present some software that shows cases of maxima and minima and the application of Fermat's principle to the problem of focusing in lenses.

  18. Software for Fermat's Principle and Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihas, Pavlos

    2012-01-01

    Fermat's principle is considered as a unifying concept. It is usually presented erroneously as a "least time principle". In this paper we present some software that shows cases of maxima and minima and the application of Fermat's principle to the problem of focusing in lenses. (Contains 12 figures.)

  19. Cooperative Principle in Oral English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Mai

    2009-01-01

    The Cooperative Principle by American linguist Grice is one of the major principles guiding people's communication. Observing the Cooperative Principle will be helpful for people to improve the flexibility and accuracy of language communication. The ultimate aim of spoken English teaching is to develop students' communicative competence.…

  20. The Spurious Paternity of Business Communication Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagge, John

    1989-01-01

    Examines the history of business communication principles. Concludes that principles supposedly developed for business communication can be found in turn-of-the-century composition textbooks and can be traced to a 2000-year-old tradition of epistolographic writings. Questions the viability of principles whose validity depends on rhetorical…

  1. The Precautionary Principle, epidemiology and the ethics of delay.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elihu D; Laster, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Ethics tells us: do good and do no harm and invokes the norms of justice, equity and respect for autonomy in protecting and promoting health and well-being. The Precautionary Principle, a contemporary re-definition of Bradford Hill's case for action, gives us a common sense rule for doing good by preventing harm to public health from delay: when in doubt about the presence of a hazard, there should be no doubt about its prevention or removal. It shifts the burden of proof from showing presence of risk to showing absence of risk, aims to do good by preventing harm, and subsumes the upstream strategies of the Driving Forces Pressure Stress Exposure Effect Action model and downstream strategies from molecular epidemiology for detection and prevention of risk. The Precautionary Principle has emerged because of the ethical import of delays in detection of risks to human health and the environment. Ethical principles, the Precautionary Principle, the DPSEEA model and molecular epidemiology all imply re-emphasizing epidemiology's classic role for early detection and prevention. Delays in recognizing risks from past exposures and acting on the findings (e.g., cigarette smoking and lung cancer, asbestos, organochlorines and endocrine disruption, radiofrequency, raised travel speeds) were examples of failures that were not only scientific, but ethical, since they resulted in preventable harm to exposed populations. These may delay results from, among other things, external and internal determinants of epidemiologic investigations of hazard and risk, including misuse of tests of statistical significance. Furthermore, applying the Precautionary Principle to ensure justice, equity, and respect for autonomy raises questions concerning the short-term costs of implementation to achieve long-term goals and the principles that guide compensation. PMID:15212202

  2. Nanodosimetry: Principle and Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Reinhard W.

    2011-05-01

    Due to the success of theoretical track structure Monte Carlo simulations, showing that features of ionization patterns on the nanometer level are important for the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation, several new methods for experimental track structure investigations have been developed in recent years. These methods all use the principle of density scaling in low-pressure gas to probe track structure in macroscopic dimensions, ideally with single-ionization resolution. The new field of experimental track structure investigation, which has been called nanodosimetry, can be approached in two ways: (1) the number of ionizations in a defined, ideally wall-less, sensitive volume is registered per single primary particle and cluster size distributions are obtained, or (2) the full track structure of an ion track segment is "imaged". Existing nanodosimetric methods are based on the first approach, but a track structure imaging detector is currently under development at Loma Linda University. This contribution will review the principle and existing technical approaches to nanodosimetry and will give an outlook on future developments and applications.

  3. Aposematism and the handicap principle.

    PubMed

    Holen, Øistein Haugsten; Svennungsen, Thomas Owens

    2012-11-01

    Aposematic prey use conspicuous warning signals to advertise their defenses to predators. It has long been recognized that the efficiency of a warning signal may be reduced if poorly defended prey (automimics) are present in the population. The handicap principle suggests that the use of warning signals by poorly defended prey may be kept in check if signaling is costly. Three mechanisms that involve signal costs have been proposed to facilitate honest warning signals in prey: go-slow behavior in predators, resource allocation trade-offs, and costs of detection alone. We study all three in a unified game-theoretical framework. We find that the go-slow mechanism and the resource allocation mechanism can introduce differential benefits and differential costs of signaling, respectively, and can support honest signaling in accordance with the handicap principle. When honest signaling is maintained by the go-slow mechanism, conspicuous prey will necessarily suffer more attacks on average than cryptic prey. In contrast, when honest signaling is maintained by the resource allocation mechanism, cryptic prey will suffer more attacks. The detection cost mechanism lacks differential costs and benefits, and its potential for maintaining honest signaling equilibria is limited. We relate our results to intra- and interspecific correlations between conspicuousness and defense. PMID:23070323

  4. The principle of conformational signaling.

    PubMed

    Tompa, Peter

    2016-07-25

    Signal transduction is the primary process by which cells respond to changes in their physical and chemical environments. Cellular response is initiated through a signaling protein (a receptor), which interacts with the "signal", most often a novel molecule outside or inside the cell. The mechanism of activation of the receptor is a conformational change and/or covalent modification, which then sets in motion a signaling pathway, i.e. a cascade of modification and binding events that relay and amplify the message to eventually alter the state of the cell. In reflection of this general perception, concepts such as the "second messenger" and the "phosphorylation cascade" dominate our views of signal transduction. The idea I advocate here is that the non-covalent change in protein conformation itself might serve as the initial or intermittent "signal" in the cascade, and it is often the primary event being recognized and interpreted by downstream receptor(s). This signaling principle is intertwined with many other cellular regulatory concepts, such as (pathway) allostery, conformational spread, induced folding/unfolding, conformational memory, the hierarchical assembly of complexes, and the action of regulatory chaperones and prions. By elaborating on many examples and also recent advances in experimental methodology, I show that conformational signaling, although thus far underappreciated, is a general and robust signaling principle that most of the time operates in close interplay with covalent signals in the cell. PMID:27242242

  5. Principles of Hydrogeology, Second Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferø, Paul

    Hydrogeology is a broadbased field of study, bringing together geology, physics, hydraulics, chemistry, geography, biology, and many branches of engineering. As a result, practicing hydrogeologists come from diverse back-grounds and must work closely with professionals with skills and experiences different from their own. Thorough understanding of the underlying physical, geological, and chemical principles of hydrogeology is a requisite basis for technical communication among hydrogeologists. A convenient source of working definitions and commonly used parameters is a useful tool for hydrogeologic practice.Principles of Hydrogeology falls somewhere between a complete introduction to the underlying concepts of hydrogeology and a detailed description of hydrogeologic methods. The simplified, schematic figures used throughout the text are clear and readable, well-suited for use in classroom instruction. Many sample calculations are provided together with tables of useful parameter values. A wide range of topics relevant to the practice of hydrogeology are introduced. Its clarity and brevity will make this book a useful primer for professionals working in fields related to hydrogeology for students at the beginning of their careers, and for hydrogeologic technicians who need an accessible source of definitions of hydrogeologic concepts.

  6. Disease prioritarianism: a flawed principle.

    PubMed

    Jebari, Karim

    2016-03-01

    Disease prioritarianism is a principle that is often implicitly or explicitly employed in the realm of healthcare prioritization. This principle states that the healthcare system ought to prioritize the treatment of disease before any other problem. This article argues that disease prioritarianism ought to be rejected. Instead, we should adopt 'the problem-oriented heuristic' when making prioritizations in the healthcare system. According to this idea, we ought to focus on specific problems and whether or not it is possible and efficient to address them with medical means. This has radical implications for the extension of the healthcare system. First, getting rid of the binary disease/no-disease dichotomy implicit in disease prioritarianism would improve the ability of the healthcare system to address chronic conditions and disabilities that often defy easy classification. Second, the problem-oriented heuristic could empower medical practitioners to address social problems without the need to pathologize these conditions. Third, the problem-oriented heuristic clearly states that what we choose to treat is a normative consideration. Under this assumption, we can engage in a discussion on de-medicalization without distorting preconceptions. Fourth, this pragmatic and de-compartmentalizing approach should allow us to reconsider the term 'efficiency'. PMID:25976770

  7. Nanodosimetry: Principle and Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Reinhard W.

    2011-05-05

    Due to the success of theoretical track structure Monte Carlo simulations, showing that features of ionization patterns on the nanometer level are important for the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation, several new methods for experimental track structure investigations have been developed in recent years. These methods all use the principle of density scaling in low-pressure gas to probe track structure in macroscopic dimensions, ideally with single-ionization resolution. The new field of experimental track structure investigation, which has been called nanodosimetry, can be approached in two ways: (1) the number of ionizations in a defined, ideally wall-less, sensitive volume is registered per single primary particle and cluster size distributions are obtained, or (2) the full track structure of an ion track segment is 'imaged'. Existing nanodosimetric methods are based on the first approach, but a track structure imaging detector is currently under development at Loma Linda University. This contribution will review the principle and existing technical approaches to nanodosimetry and will give an outlook on future developments and applications.

  8. Management Principles for Nonproliferation Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen

    2012-03-06

    This paper identifies business models and six management principles that can be applied by a nonproliferation organization to maximize the value and effectiveness of its products. The organizations responsible for reducing the nuclear proliferation threat have experienced a substantial growth in responsibility and visibility since the September 11 attacks. Since then, the international community has witnessed revelations of clandestine nuclear facilities, nuclear black markets, periodic nuclear tests, and a resurgence of interest by countries worldwide in developing nuclear capabilities. The security environment will likely continue to evolve in unexpected ways since most of the proliferation threats with which the world will be forced to contend remain unforeseen. To better prepare for and respond to this evolving security environment, many nonproliferation organizations are interested in finding new or better ways to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations. Of course, all organizations, whether they are market driven or non-profit, must operate effectively and efficiently if they are to succeed. Indeed, as this study demonstrates, many of the management principles that this study recommends can help all organizations succeed. However, this study pays particular attention to nonproliferation organizations because of the mission they are responsible for fulfilling. Nonproliferation organizations, including nonproliferation programs that operate within a larger national security organization, are responsible for reducing the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. These organizations have an enduring mandate from the public and the international community not to fail in the completion of their mission for failure could have detrimental impacts on international security, public health and the environment. Moreover, the public expects nonproliferation organizations and programs to fulfill their mission, even when resources are limited

  9. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  10. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  11. The Achievement-Assessment Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia; Husid, Whitney

    2011-01-01

    The recent recession, school budget cuts, and predictions of school libraries' demise because of technology advances put pressure on school librarians to prove the utility, relevance, and value of school libraries to student learning. While national studies document that school libraries increase student achievement, school librarians must…

  12. Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Research evidence shows that cooperative learning strategies are not equally effective, though most positively affect self-esteem, intergroup relations, and the ability to work with others. To produce achievement gains, these methods must include both a group goal and individual accountability. Includes 19 references. (MLH)

  13. Curricular Diversity and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Reginald

    1991-01-01

    Educational achievement should be intellectually and philosophically divorced from cultural affirmation, which is merely a byproduct of the inclusion of diverse voices in the search for truth. A model based on the relationship between the valuation of oneself by others and by oneself is presented to explain differential effects of schooling on…

  14. School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C.; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S.; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista

    2007-01-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for…

  15. Teacher Certification and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Patricia Lewis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to determine if there is a significant difference between the achievement of students who are taught by traditionally prepared teachers and that of students who are taught by alternatively prepared teachers. The study further addressed the perspectives of both groups of teachers regarding selected…

  16. Achieving Safety through Security Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, John

    Whilst the achievement of safety objectives may not be possible purely through the administration of an effective Information Security Management System (ISMS), your job as safety manager will be significantly eased if such a system is in place. This paper seeks to illustrate the point by drawing a comparison between two of the prominent standards within the two disciplines of security and safety management.

  17. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  18. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  19. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  20. Measuring and Recording Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Measuring and Recording Student Achievement Scoping Group was established by Universities UK and the Standing Conference of Principals (SCOP), with the support of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in October 2003 to review the recommendations from the UK Government White Paper "The Future of Higher Education" relating…

  1. Academic Achievement in Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basque, Marc; Bouchamma, Yamina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of achievement in mathematics in elementary schools in New Brunswick (Canada). Data Collection: Both teachers and school leaders (N = 111) completed a questionnaire on their practices and on school functioning. Findings: Multiple regression analyses revealed that the students'…

  2. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  3. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

  4. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  5. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  6. Believing and Achieving. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerald, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    This research brief takes a look at the role of teacher efficacy-how teachers' beliefs in their own abilities affect student achievement. The brief examines the influence of perceived efficacy and building teacher confidence (social persuasion, collegiality, and shared decision making). It concludes by asserting that more positive steps must be…

  7. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  8. Achieving Ideological Change within Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Dennis R.

    Psychologists who are interested in the nature of ideology and the achievement of social change generally focus their primary theoretical and empirical attention on those people outside academia who are trying to change or to prevent change in one political sphere or another. There may be some value in looking at psychology and psychologists as…

  9. Five Standards and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, R. William; Hilberg, R. Soleste; Pinal, America; Tharp, Roland G.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies examine the influence of the Standards for Effective Pedagogy on student achievement gains. Participants were 15 teachers and 266 students (grades 3 to 5) in a public elementary school serving predominantly low-income Latino English Language Learners (ELLs). Implications for teaching practice and research are discussed. (Author/VWL)

  10. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  11. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  12. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  13. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  14. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  15. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  16. MEMS temperature scanner: principles, advances, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Thomas; Saupe, Ray; Stock, Volker; Gessner, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Contactless measurement of temperatures has gained enormous significance in many application fields, ranging from climate protection over quality control to object recognition in public places or military objects. Thereby measurement of linear or spatially temperature distribution is often necessary. For this purposes mostly thermographic cameras or motor driven temperature scanners are used today. Both are relatively expensive and the motor drive devices are limited regarding to the scanning rate additionally. An economic alternative are temperature scanner devices based on micro mirrors. The micro mirror, attached in a simple optical setup, reflects the emitted radiation from the observed heat onto an adapted detector. A line scan of the target object is obtained by periodic deflection of the micro scanner. Planar temperature distribution will be achieved by perpendicularly moving the target object or the scanner device. Using Planck radiation law the temperature of the object is calculated. The device can be adapted to different temperature ranges and resolution by using different detectors - cooled or uncooled - and parameterized scanner parameters. With the basic configuration 40 spatially distributed measuring points can be determined with temperatures in a range from 350°C - 1000°C. The achieved miniaturization of such scanners permits the employment in complex plants with high building density or in direct proximity to the measuring point. The price advantage enables a lot of applications, especially new application in the low-price market segment This paper shows principle, setup and application of a temperature measurement system based on micro scanners working in the near infrared range. Packaging issues and measurement results will be discussed as well.

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project dose management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsman, K.H.

    1996-03-01

    This dose management plan facilitates meeting the dose management and ALARA requirements applicable to the design activities of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, and establishes consistency of information used by multiple subprojects in ALARA evaluations. The method for meeting the ALARA requirements applicable to facility designs involves two components. The first is each Spent Nuclear Fuel Project subproject incorporating ALARA principles, ALARA design optimizations, and ALARA design reviews throughout the design of facilities and equipment. The second component is the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project management providing overall dose management guidance to the subprojects and oversight of the subproject dose management efforts.

  18. Relationships between Learning Styles and Academic Achievement and Brain Hemispheric Dominance and Academic Performance in Business and Accounting Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carthey, Joseph H.

    A study determined if relationships exist between learning styles and academic achievement and brain hemispheric dominance and academic performance in the courses of principles of management, business law, intermediate accounting, and principles of economics. All second-year accounting students (64 students) at Northeast Iowa Community College…

  19. Endorsement of universal health coverage financial principles in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Agier, Isabelle; Ly, Antarou; Kadio, Kadidiatou; Kouanda, Seni; Ridde, Valéry

    2016-02-01

    In West Africa, health system funding rarely involves cross-subsidization among population segments. In some countries, a few community-based or professional health insurance programs are present, but coverage is very low. The financial principles underlying universal health coverage (UHC) sustainability and solidarity are threefold: 1) anticipation of potential health risks; 2) risk sharing and; 3) socio-economic status solidarity. In Burkina Faso, where decision-makers are favorable to national health insurance, we measured endorsement of these principles and discerned which management configurations would achieve the greatest adherence. We used a sequential exploratory design. In a qualitative step (9 interviews, 12 focus groups), we adapted an instrument proposed by Goudge et al. (2012) to the local context and addressed desirability bias. Then, in a quantitative step (1255 respondents from the general population), we measured endorsement. Thematic analysis (qualitative) and logistic regressions (quantitative) were used. High levels of endorsement were found for each principle. Actual practices showed that anticipation and risk sharing were not only intentions. Preferences were given to solidarity between socio-economic status (SES) levels and progressivity. Although respondents seemed to prefer the national level for implementation, their current solidarity practices were mainly focused on close family. Thus, contribution levels should be set so that the entire family benefits from healthcare. Some critical conditions must be met to make UHC financial principles a reality through health insurance in Burkina Faso: trust, fair and mandatory contributions, and education. PMID:26803656

  20. Twelve Principles for Green Energy Storage in Grid Applications.

    PubMed

    Arbabzadeh, Maryam; Johnson, Jeremiah X; Keoleian, Gregory A; Rasmussen, Paul G; Thompson, Levi T

    2016-01-19

    The introduction of energy storage technologies to the grid could enable greater integration of renewables, improve system resilience and reliability, and offer cost effective alternatives to transmission and distribution upgrades. The integration of energy storage systems into the electrical grid can lead to different environmental outcomes based on the grid application, the existing generation mix, and the demand. Given this complexity, a framework is needed to systematically inform design and technology selection about the environmental impacts that emerge when considering energy storage options to improve sustainability performance of the grid. To achieve this, 12 fundamental principles specific to the design and grid application of energy storage systems are developed to inform policy makers, designers, and operators. The principles are grouped into three categories: (1) system integration for grid applications, (2) the maintenance and operation of energy storage, and (3) the design of energy storage systems. We illustrate the application of each principle through examples published in the academic literature, illustrative calculations, and a case study with an off-grid application of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). In addition, trade-offs that can emerge between principles are highlighted. PMID:26629882

  1. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.

    1991-07-01

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic {sup 3}He separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering {sup 3}He levels in the feed gas to <0.005%. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized. 34 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Peach bottom recirculation piping replacement ALARA program

    SciTech Connect

    Englesson, G.A.; Hilsmeier, A.E.; Mann, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    In late 1983, Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) began detailed planning to replace the recirculation, residual heat removal, and part of the reactor water cleanup piping of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 reactor. Included in this work was an estimate of the collective exposure expected during piping replacement. That initial estimate, 1945 man-rem, is compared with the actual collective dose incurred during the piping replacement program. Also included are the exposures incurred during two additional tasks (safe end replacement and recirculation pump disassembly and decontamination) not considered in the initial estimate.

  3. Virtual radiation fields for ALARA determination

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, T.W.

    1995-12-31

    As computing power has increased, so too has the ability to model and simulate complex systems and processes. In addition, virtual reality technology has made it possible to visualize and understand many complex scientific and engineering problems. For this reason, a virtual dosimetry program called Virtual Radiation Fields (VRF) is developed to model radiation dose rate and cumulative dose to a receptor operating in a virtual radiation environment. With the design and testing of many facilities and products taking place in the virtual world, this program facilitates the concurrent consideration of radiological concerns during the design process. Three-dimensional (3D) graphical presentation of the radiation environment is made possible through the use of IGRIP, a graphical modeling program developed by Deneb Robotics, Inc. The VRF simulation program was designed to model and display a virtual dosimeter. As a demonstration of the program`s capability, the Hanford tank, C-106, was modeled to predict radiation doses to robotic equipment used to remove radioactive waste from the tank. To validate VRF dose predictions, comparison was made with reported values for tank C-106, which showed agreement to within 0.5%. Graphical information is presented regarding the 3D dose rate variation inside the tank. Cumulative dose predictions were made for the cleanup operations of tank C-106. A four-dimensional dose rate map generated by VRF was used to model the dose rate not only in 3D space but also as a function of the amount of waste remaining in the tank. This allowed VRF to predict dose rate at any stage in the waste removal process for an accurate simulation of the radiological conditions throughout the tank cleanup procedure.

  4. Principles of thermoacoustic energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avent, A. W.; Bowen, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Thermoacoustics exploit a temperature gradient to produce powerful acoustic pressure waves. The technology has a key role to play in energy harvesting systems. A time-line in the development of thermoacoustics is presented from its earliest recorded example in glass blowing through to the development of the Sondhauss and Rijke tubes to Stirling engines and pulse-tube cryo-cooling. The review sets the current literature in context, identifies key publications and promising areas of research. The fundamental principles of thermoacoustic phenomena are explained; design challenges and factors influencing efficiency are explored. Thermoacoustic processes involve complex multi-physical coupling and transient, highly non-linear relationships which are computationally expensive to model; appropriate numerical modelling techniques and options for analyses are presented. Potential methods of harvesting the energy in the acoustic waves are also examined.

  5. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community. PMID:21282489

  6. Fundamental base closure environmental principles

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Military base closures present a paradox. The rate, scale and timing of military base closures is historically unique. However, each base itself typically does not present unique problems. Thus, the challenge is to design innovative solutions to base redevelopment and remediation issues, while simultaneously adopting common, streamlined or pre-approved strategies to shared problems. The author presents six environmental principles that are fundamental to base closure. They are: remediation not clean up; remediation will impact reuse; reuse will impact remediation; remediation and reuse must be coordinated; environmental contamination must be evaluated as any other initial physical constraint on development, not as an overlay after plans are created; and remediation will impact development, financing and marketability.

  7. Photoacoustic tomography: principles and advances

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jun; Yao, Junjie; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging imaging modality that shows great potential for preclinical research and clinical practice. As a hybrid technique, PAT is based on the acoustic detection of optical absorption from either endogenous chromophores, such as oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin, or exogenous contrast agents, such as organic dyes and nanoparticles. Because ultrasound scatters much less than light in tissue, PAT generates high-resolution images in both the optical ballistic and diffusive regimes. Over the past decade, the photoacoustic technique has been evolving rapidly, leading to a variety of exciting discoveries and applications. This review covers the basic principles of PAT and its different implementations. Strengths of PAT are highlighted, along with the most recent imaging results. PMID:25642127

  8. Extended uncertainty from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Filho, Raimundo N.; Braga, João P. M.; Lira, Jorge H. S.; Andrade, José S.

    2016-04-01

    A translation operator acting in a space with a diagonal metric is introduced to describe the motion of a particle in a quantum system. We show that the momentum operator and, as a consequence, the uncertainty relation now depend on the metric. It is also shown that, for any metric expanded up to second order, this formalism naturally leads to an extended uncertainty principle (EUP) with a minimum momentum dispersion. The Ehrenfest theorem is modified to include an additional term related to a tidal force arriving from the space curvature introduced by the metric. For one-dimensional systems, we show how to map a harmonic potential to an effective potential in Euclidean space using different metrics.

  9. The renewal of aristocratic principles.

    PubMed

    Didić, E

    1999-06-01

    The term of "aristocracy" has always risen various questions, such as its real meaning, its role, its types, its purposes, who composes aristocracy, etc. In this text, I have tried to give my point of view to those questions, not only in a historical and traditional line of development, but also applied to present systems, relations and sets of values. I have differentiated two types of aristocracy, so called "aristocracy of soul" and "aristocracy of property" and decsribed main features. Furthermore, there is a view to traditional role of aristocracy, its principles and laws of existence, together with its dangers. Based on those categories, further direction of development leads to the questions of aristocracy in democratic societies with all the contemporary "specificum". The last part deals with the matter of aristocracy in regard to politics and its wide range of application. PMID:10402730

  10. Principles of military communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrieri, D. J.

    This book is devoted to an analytical study of those aspects of communication theory which have special relevance to military systems. The book is intended for graduate students and practicing engineers with a background in communication theory. Aspects of communication warfare are considered, taking into account power and propagation, analog communications, digital communications, and pulsed jamming. Pseudonoise spread-spectrum systems are examined, giving attention to principles, pseudonoise sequences, the concealment of pseudonoise waveforms, error probabilities in presence of interference, jamming, code synchronization, pseudonoise networks, and burst-communication systems. Frequency hopping is discussed along with interception, adaptive antenna systems, and cryptographic digital communications. Topics reviewed in an appendix are related to derivations of conditional bit error probabilities for frequency-shift keying, and the noncentral chi-squared distribution.

  11. First principles of Hamiltonian medicine

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Bernard; Foster, Kevin; Úbeda, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the field of Hamiltonian medicine, which centres on the roles of genetic relatedness in human health and disease. Hamiltonian medicine represents the application of basic social-evolution theory, for interactions involving kinship, to core issues in medicine such as pathogens, cancer, optimal growth and mental illness. It encompasses three domains, which involve conflict and cooperation between: (i) microbes or cancer cells, within humans, (ii) genes expressed in humans, (iii) human individuals. A set of six core principles, based on these domains and their interfaces, serves to conceptually organize the field, and contextualize illustrative examples. The primary usefulness of Hamiltonian medicine is that, like Darwinian medicine more generally, it provides novel insights into what data will be productive to collect, to address important clinical and public health problems. Our synthesis of this nascent field is intended predominantly for evolutionary and behavioural biologists who aspire to address questions directly relevant to human health and disease. PMID:24686937

  12. Optimality Principles of Undulatory Swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nangia, Nishant; Bale, Rahul; Patankar, Neelesh

    2015-11-01

    A number of dimensionless quantities derived from a fish's kinematic and morphological parameters have been used to describe the hydrodynamics of swimming. In particular, body/caudal fin swimmers have been found to swim within a relatively narrow range of these quantities in nature, e.g., Strouhal number or the optimal specific wavelength. It has been hypothesized or shown that these constraints arise due to maximization of swimming speed, efficiency, or cost of transport in certain domains of this large dimensionless parameter space. Using fully resolved simulations of undulatory patterns, we investigate the existence of various optimality principles in fish swimming. Using scaling arguments, we relate various dimensionless parameters to each other. Based on these findings, we make design recommendations on how kinematic parameters for a swimming robot or vehicle should be chosen. This work is supported by NSF Grants CBET-0828749, CMMI-0941674, CBET-1066575 and the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1324585.

  13. Generalized Edgeworth-Pareto principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noghin, V. D.

    2015-12-01

    The general multicriteria choice problem with m individual preference relations and an asymmetric collective preference relation is considered. The concept of a k-effective alternative is introduced, which coincides with an effective alternative for k = 1 and represents a weakly effective alternative for k = m. For the other integer values of k, it lies somewhere in between. In terms of the general multicriteria choice problem, the Pareto axiom and the exclusion axiom for dominated alternatives are stated. Assuming that these axioms hold, a generalized Edgeworth-Pareto principle is established, which was earlier introduced by the author in the special case k = 1. The results are extended to a fuzzy collective preference relation and to a fuzzy set of initial alternatives.

  14. Optimal quantum state estimation with use of the no-signaling principle

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yeong-Deok; Bae, Joonwoo; Wang Xiangbin; Hwang, Won-Young

    2010-12-15

    A simple derivation of the optimal state estimation of a quantum bit was obtained by using the no-signaling principle. In particular, the no-signaling principle determines a unique form of the guessing probability independent of figures of merit, such as the fidelity or information gain. This proves that the optimal estimation for a quantum bit can be achieved by the same measurement for almost all figures of merit.

  15. Principles of rehabilitation and reactivation.

    PubMed

    Osadnik, Christian R; Rodrigues, Fernanda M M; Camillo, Carlos A; Loeckx, Matthias; Janssens, Wim; Dooms, Christophe; Troosters, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle dysfunction and physical inactivity are two clinically important features of a wide range of acute and chronic respiratory conditions. Optimisation of both of these features is important in order to improve physical function, prevent clinical deterioration and maximise community participation. One of the most potent and evidence-based interventions to address these physical deficits is pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Whilst the majority of PR research has been conducted in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there is widespread recognition that PR can benefit many other respiratory patient groups. These include patients with interstitial lung diseases, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, pre-/post-lung surgery (e.g. lung cancer, transplantation) and cystic fibrosis to name a few. Exercise training must be appropriately prescribed by a skilled healthcare professional with comprehensive knowledge of the pathology and physiology of these conditions, as well as a sound understanding of the exercise physiology and core principles of exercise prescription, monitoring and progression. It has also become increasingly recognised that people with respiratory conditions, particularly those with chronic disease, are considerably less active than those of good health. PR should therefore aim to induce behavioural change to facilitate the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In addition, PR should pay attention to the psychological well-being of patients and self-management of their lung disease in all its aspects. To that end, multidisciplinary individualised programs should be offered. This review sets the scene of PR principles for a series of papers that will focus on specific diseases other than chronic obstructive pulmonary disease where rehabilitation may offer a clinically important aspect of care over and above conventional pharmacological treatment. PMID:25591614

  16. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  17. Bound on Hardy's nonlocality from the principle of information causality

    SciTech Connect

    Ahanj, Ali; Kunkri, Samir; Rai, Ashutosh; Rahaman, Ramij; Joag, Pramod S.

    2010-03-15

    Recently, the principle of nonviolation of information causality [Nature 461, 1101 (2009)] has been proposed as one of the foundational properties of nature. We explore the Hardy's nonlocality theorem for two-qubit systems, in the context of generalized probability theory, restricted by the principle of nonviolation of information causality. Applying a sufficient condition for information causality violation, we derive an upper bound on the maximum success probability of Hardy's nonlocality argument. We find that the bound achieved here is higher than that allowed by quantum mechanics but still much less than what the no-signaling condition permits. We also study the Cabello type nonlocality argument (a generalization of Hardy's argument) in this context.

  18. The Galilean Relativity Principle as Non-Relativistic Limit of EINSTEIN'S One in Extended Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennisi, S.; Carrisi, M. C.; Scanu, A.

    2006-03-01

    It is well known that, in the relativistic context the relativity principle isn't imposed by separating variables into convective and non convective parts, but by imposing that the costitutive functions satisfy particular conditions; likely to this, the present considerations show that the same results are obtained also in the classical context. The result is achieved by taking the non-relativistic limit of Einstein's Relativity Principle. This fact furnishes further arguments on the naturalness of the work “A new method to exploit the Entropy Principle and Galilean invariance in the macroscopic approach of Extended Thermodynamics” by Pennisi and Ruggeri.

  19. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  20. Management principles of osteoporotic fractures.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Michael J; Collinge, Cory

    2016-06-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are difficult to manage. They pose a number of difficulties to the surgeon arising from the underlying poor bone stock compromising the intention to achieve optimum fixation. Moreover, the frail elderly patients present with a variety of medical co-morbidities increasing the risk of developing perioperative complications. Despite these recognized challenges, there are currently a number of improving technologies and strategies at the surgeon's disposal to provide more confidence with fracture fixation and maximize the chance of success. PMID:27338225

  1. Deriving and applying generally applicable safety principles

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.

    1998-08-01

    The nuclear detonation safety of modern nuclear weapons depends on a coordinated safety theme incorporating three general safety principles: isolation, inoperability, and incompatibility. The success of this approach has encouraged them to study whether these and/or other principles might be useful in other applications. Not surprisingly, no additional first-principles (based on physical laws) have been identified. However, a more widely applicable definition and application of the principle-based approach has been developed, resulting in a selection of strategies that are basically subsets and varied combinations of the more general principles above. However, identification of principles to be relied on is only one step in providing a safe design. As one other important example, coordinating overall architecture and strategy is essential: the authors term this a safety theme.

  2. Non-differentiable variational principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresson, Jacky

    2005-07-01

    We develop a calculus of variations for functionals which are defined on a set of non-differentiable curves. We first extend the classical differential calculus in a quantum calculus, which allows us to define a complex operator, called the scale derivative, which is the non-differentiable analogue of the classical derivative. We then define the notion of extremals for our functionals and obtain a characterization in term of a generalized Euler-Lagrange equation. We finally prove that solutions of the Schrödinger equation can be obtained as extremals of a non-differentiable variational principle, leading to an extended Hamilton's principle of least action for quantum mechanics. We compare this approach with the scale relativity theory of Nottale, which assumes a fractal structure of space-time.Résumé (Principes variationnels non différentiable). Nous développons un calcul des variations pour des fonctionnelles définies sur un ensemble de courbes non différentiables. Pour cela, nous étendons le calcul différentiel classique, en calcul appelé calcul quantique, qui nous permet de définir un opérateur à valeur complexes, appelé dérivée d'échelle, qui est l'analogue non différentiable de la dérivée usuelle. On définit alors la notion d'extremale pour ces fonctionnelles pour lesquelles nous obtenons une caractérisation via une équation d'Euler-Lagrange généralisée. On prouve enfin que les solutions de l'équation de Schrödinger peuvent s'obtenir comme solution d'un problème variationnel non différentiable, étendant ainsi le principe de moindre action de Hamilton au cadre de la mécanique quantique. On discute enfin la connexion entre ce travail et la théorie de la relativité d'échelle développée par Nottale, et qui suppose une structure fractale de l'espace-temps.

  3. Teaching the principle of biological optimization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Among the important principles in biology that should be taught in biological engineering educational programs is the principle of optimization, what it means, why it is important, and how it comes about. This material can be presented at numerous levels throughout the curriculum. Understanding of this principle can lead biological engineers to expect it in many, if not all, biological system applications. Understanding optimization in biological systems can help understand the predictive power of evolutionary principles and what to expect from living things incorporated in designs. PMID:23421993

  4. Calculation principles for a synchronous electromagnetic clutch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panasenkov, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed explanation of the calculation principles, for a synchronous salient-pole electromagnetic clutch with lumped excitation windings is supplied by direct current. Practical recommendations are given.

  5. Maximizing usability: the principles of universal design.

    PubMed

    Story, M F

    1998-01-01

    The Center for Universal Design at North Carolina State University has developed a set of seven Principles of Universal Design that may be used to guide the design process, to evaluate existing or new designs, and to teach students and practitioners. This article presents preceding design guidelines and evaluation criteria, describes the process of developing the Principles, lists The Principles of Universal Design and provides examples of designs that satisfy each, and suggests future developments that would facilitate applying the Principles to assess the usability of all types of products and environments. PMID:10181150

  6. The precautionary principle: is it safe.

    PubMed

    Gignon, Maxime; Ganry, Olivier; Jardé, Olivier; Manaouil, Cécile

    2013-06-01

    The precautionary principle is generally acknowledged to be a powerful tool for protecting health but it was originally invoked by policy makers for dealing with environmental issues. In the 1990s, the principle was incorporated into many legislative and regulatory texts in international law. One can consider that the precautionary principle has turned into "precautionism" necessary to prove to the people, taking account of risk in decisions. There is now a risk that these abuses will deprive the principle of its meaning and value. When pushed to its limits, the precautionary principle can even be dangerous when applied to the healthcare field. This is why a critical analysis of the principle is necessary. Through the literature, it sometimes seems to deviate somehow from the essence of the precautionary principle as it is commonly used in relation to health. We believe that educational work is necessary to familiarize professionals, policy makers and public opinion of the precautionary principle and avoid confusion. We propose a critical analysis of the use and misuse of the precautionary principle. PMID:23984492

  7. Finite Frames and Graph Theoretic Uncertainty Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Paul J.

    The subject of analytical uncertainty principles is an important field within harmonic analysis, quantum physics, and electrical engineering. We explore uncertainty principles in the context of the graph Fourier transform, and we prove additive results analogous to the multiplicative version of the classical uncertainty principle. We establish additive uncertainty principles for finite Parseval frames. Lastly, we examine the feasibility region of simultaneous values of the norms of a graph differential operator acting on a function f ∈ l2(G) and its graph Fourier transform.

  8. Vapourisers: physical principles and classification.

    PubMed

    Dhulkhed, Vithal; Shetti, Akshaya; Naik, Shraddha; Dhulkhed, Pavan

    2013-09-01

    Vapourisers have evolved from rudimentary inhalers to the microprocessor controlled, temperature compensated and flow sensing devices, which are universal today. The improvements in the design was influenced by the development of potent inhalational anaesthetics, unique properties of some agents, a deeper understanding of their mechanism of action, inherent flaws in the older vapourisers, mechanical problems due to thymol deposition, factors influencing their output such as temperature and pressure variations. It is important to review the principles governing the design of the vapouriser to gain insight into their working. It is fascinating to know how some of the older vapourisers, popularly used in the past, functioned. The descendant of Oxford Miniature Vapourizer, the Triservice vapouriser is still a part of the military anaesthesia draw over equipment meant for field use whereas the Copper Kettle the first precision device is the fore-runner of the Tec 6 and Aladdin cassette vapouriser. Anaesthesia trainees if exposed to draw over techniques get a deeper understanding of equipment and improved skills for disaster situations. In the recent advanced versions of the vapouriser a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine controls the operation by continuously monitoring and adjusting fresh gas flow through the vapouriser to maintain desired concentration of the vapour. PMID:24249878

  9. Gas cell neutralizers (Fundamental principles)

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehrer, B.

    1985-06-01

    Neutralizing an ion-beam of the size and energy levels involved in the neutral-particle-beam program represents a considerable extension of the state-of-the-art of neutralizer technology. Many different mediums (e.g., solid, liquid, gas, plasma, photons) can be used to strip the hydrogen ion of its extra electron. A large, multidisciplinary R and D effort will no doubt be required to sort out all of the ''pros and cons'' of these various techniques. The purpose of this particular presentation is to discuss some basic configurations and fundamental principles of the gas type of neutralizer cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the ''Gasdynamic Free-Jet'' neutralizer since this configuration has the potential of being much shorter than other type of gas cells (in the beam direction) and it could operate in nearly a continuous mode (CW) if necessary. These were important considerations in the ATSU design which is discussed in some detail in the second presentation entitled ''ATSU Point Design''.

  10. Culturing conceptions: From first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Lee, Yew Jin; Hwang, Sungwon

    2008-07-01

    Over the past three decades, science educators have accumulated a vast amount of information on conceptions--variously defined as beliefs, ontologies, cognitive structures, mental models, or frameworks--that generally (at least initially) have been derived from interviews about certain topics. During the same time period, cultural studies has emerged as a field in which everyday social practices are interrogated with the objective to understand culture in all its complexity. Science educators have however yet to ask themselves what it would mean to consider the possession of conceptions as well as conceptual change from the perspective of cultural studies. The purpose of this article is thus to articulate in and through the analysis of an interview about natural phenomenon the first principles of such a cultural approach to scientific conceptions. Our bottom-up approach in fact leads us to develop the kind of analyses and theories that have become widespread in cultural studies. This promises to generate less presupposing and more parsimonious explanations of this core issue within science education than if conceptions are supposed to be structures inhabiting the human mind.

  11. Challenging the principle of proportionality.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Anna-Karin Margareta

    2016-04-01

    The first objective of this article is to examine one aspect of the principle of proportionality (PP) as advanced by Alan Gewirth in his 1978 bookReason and Morality Gewirth claims that being capable of exercising agency to some minimal degree is a property that justifies having at least prima facie rights not to get killed. However, according to the PP, before the being possesses the capacity for exercising agency to that minimal degree, the extent of her rights depends on to what extent she approaches possession of agential capacities. One interpretation of PP holds that variations in degree of possession of the physical constitution necessary to exercise agency are morally relevant. The other interpretation holds that only variations in degree of actual mental capacity are morally relevant. The first of these interpretations is vastly more problematic than the other. The second objective is to argue that according to the most plausible interpretation of the PP, the fetus' level of development before at least the 20th week of pregnancy does not affect the fetus' moral rights status. I then suggest that my argument is not restricted to such fetuses, although extending my argument to more developed fetuses requires caution. PMID:26839114

  12. Turbulence and the Stabilization Principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    Further results of research, reported in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, were obtained on a mathematical formalism for postinstability motions of a dynamical system characterized by exponential divergences of trajectories leading to chaos (including turbulence). To recapitulate: Fictitious control forces are introduced to couple the dynamical equations with a Liouville equation that describes the evolution of the probability density of errors in initial conditions. These forces create a powerful terminal attractor in probability space that corresponds to occurrence of a target trajectory with probability one. The effect in ordinary perceived three-dimensional space is to suppress exponential divergences of neighboring trajectories without affecting the target trajectory. Con sequently, the postinstability motion is represented by a set of functions describing the evolution of such statistical quantities as expectations and higher moments, and this representation is stable. The previously reported findings are analyzed from the perspective of the authors Stabilization Principle, according to which (1) stability is recognized as an attribute of mathematical formalism rather than of underlying physics and (2) a dynamical system that appears unstable when modeled by differentiable functions only can be rendered stable by modifying the dynamical equations to incorporate intrinsic stochasticity.

  13. Design principles for riboswitch function.

    PubMed

    Beisel, Chase L; Smolke, Christina D

    2009-04-01

    Scientific and technological advances that enable the tuning of integrated regulatory components to match network and system requirements are critical to reliably control the function of biological systems. RNA provides a promising building block for the construction of tunable regulatory components based on its rich regulatory capacity and our current understanding of the sequence-function relationship. One prominent example of RNA-based regulatory components is riboswitches, genetic elements that mediate ligand control of gene expression through diverse regulatory mechanisms. While characterization of natural and synthetic riboswitches has revealed that riboswitch function can be modulated through sequence alteration, no quantitative frameworks exist to investigate or guide riboswitch tuning. Here, we combined mathematical modeling and experimental approaches to investigate the relationship between riboswitch function and performance. Model results demonstrated that the competition between reversible and irreversible rate constants dictates performance for different regulatory mechanisms. We also found that practical system restrictions, such as an upper limit on ligand concentration, can significantly alter the requirements for riboswitch performance, necessitating alternative tuning strategies. Previous experimental data for natural and synthetic riboswitches as well as experiments conducted in this work support model predictions. From our results, we developed a set of general design principles for synthetic riboswitches. Our results also provide a foundation from which to investigate how natural riboswitches are tuned to meet systems-level regulatory demands. PMID:19381267

  14. Design principles underlying circadian clocks.

    PubMed Central

    Rand, D. A.; Shulgin, B. V.; Salazar, D.; Millar, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    A fundamental problem for regulatory networks is to understand the relation between form and function: to uncover the underlying design principles of the network. Circadian clocks present a particularly interesting instance, as recent work has shown that they have complex structures involving multiple interconnected feedback loops with both positive and negative feedback. While several authors have speculated on the reasons for this, a convincing explanation is still lacking.We analyse both the flexibility of clock networks and the relationships between various desirable properties such as robust entrainment, temperature compensation, and stability to environmental variations and parameter fluctuations. We use this to argue that the complexity provides the flexibility necessary to simultaneously attain multiple key properties of circadian clocks. As part of our analysis we show how to quantify the key evolutionary aims using infinitesimal response curves, a tool that we believe will be of general utility in the analysis of regulatory networks. Our results suggest that regulatory and signalling networks might be much less flexible and of lower dimension than their apparent complexity would suggest. PMID:16849158

  15. Solar energy: principles and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    As the world faces an impending dearth of fossil fuels, most immediately oil, alternative sources of energy must be found. 174 PW worth of energy falls onto the top of the Earth's atmosphere in the form of sunlight which is almost 10,000 times the total amount of energy used by humans on Earth, as taken from all sources, oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear and hydroelectric power combined. If even a fraction of this could be harvested efficiently, the energy crunch could in principle be averted. Various means for garnering energy from the Sun are presented, including photovoltaics (PV), thin film solar cells, quantum dot cells, concentrating PV and thermal solar power stations, which are more efficient in practical terms. Finally the prospects of space based (satellite) solar power are considered. The caveat is that even if the entire world electricity budget could be met using solar energy, the remaining 80% of energy which is not used as electricity but thermal power (heat) still needs to be found in the absence of fossil fuels. Most pressingly, the decline of cheap plentiful crude oil (peak oil) will not find a substitution via solar unless a mainly electrified transportation system is devised and it is debatable that there is sufficient time and conventional energy remaining to accomplish this. The inevitable contraction of transportation will default a deconstruction of the globalised world economy into that of a system of localised communities. PMID:20222355

  16. The Species Delimitation Uncertainty Principle

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Byron J.

    2001-01-01

    If, as Einstein said, "it is the theory which decides what we can observe," then "the species problem" could be solved by simply improving our theoretical definition of what a species is. However, because delimiting species entails predicting the historical fate of evolutionary lineages, species appear to behave according to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, which states that the most philosophically satisfying definitions of species are the least operational, and as species concepts are modified to become more operational they tend to lose their philosophical integrity. Can species be delimited operationally without losing their philosophical rigor? To mitigate the contingent properties of species that tend to make them difficult for us to delimit, I advocate a set of operations that takes into account the prospective nature of delimiting species. Given the fundamental role of species in studies of evolution and biodiversity, I also suggest that species delimitation proceed within the context of explicit hypothesis testing, like other scientific endeavors. The real challenge is not so much the inherent fallibility of predicting the future but rather adequately sampling and interpreting the evidence available to us in the present. PMID:19265874

  17. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski. PMID:20624042

  18. Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The Austin Independent School District (AISD) office of Research and Evaluation presents Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82 (BSA). The BSA answers the following questions: (1) How does AISD student achievement compare to student achievement nationwide? (2) How does AISD's 1981-82 student achievement compare to the achievement of students in past…

  19. Some Novel Design Principles for Collective Behaviors in Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    OSBOURN, GORDON C.

    2002-09-01

    We present a set of novel design principles to aid in the development of complex collective behaviors in fleets of mobile robots. The key elements are: the use of a graph algorithm that we have created, with certain proven properties, that guarantee scalable local communications for fleets of arbitrary size; the use of artificial forces to simplify the design of motion control; the use of certain proximity values in the graph algorithm to simplify the sharing of robust navigation and sensor information among the robots. We describe these design elements and present a computer simulation that illustrates the behaviors readily achievable with these design tools.

  20. Accurately Predicting Complex Reaction Kinetics from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, William

    Many important systems contain a multitude of reactive chemical species, some of which react on a timescale faster than collisional thermalization, i.e. they never achieve a Boltzmann energy distribution. Usually it is impossible to fully elucidate the processes by experiments alone. Here we report recent progress toward predicting the time-evolving composition of these systems a priori: how unexpected reactions can be discovered on the computer, how reaction rates are computed from first principles, and how the many individual reactions are efficiently combined into a predictive simulation for the whole system. Some experimental tests of the a priori predictions are also presented.

  1. Meta-principles for developing smart, sustainable, and healthy cities.

    PubMed

    Ramaswami, Anu; Russell, Armistead G; Culligan, Patricia J; Sharma, Karnamadakala Rahul; Kumar, Emani

    2016-05-20

    Policy directives in several nations are focusing on the development of smart cities, linking innovations in the data sciences with the goal of advancing human well-being and sustainability on a highly urbanized planet. To achieve this goal, smart initiatives must move beyond city-level data to a higher-order understanding of cities as transboundary, multisectoral, multiscalar, social-ecological-infrastructural systems with diverse actors, priorities, and solutions. We identify five key dimensions of cities and present eight principles to focus attention on the systems-level decisions that society faces to transition toward a smart, sustainable, and healthy urban future. PMID:27199418

  2. LARES/WEBER-SAT and the equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, L.

    2007-11-01

    It has often been claimed that the proposed Earth artificial satellite LARES/WEBER-SAT —whose primary goal is, in fact, the measurement of the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect at a some percent level— would allow greatly improving, among (many) other things, the present-day (10-13) level of accuracy in testing the equivalence principle as well. Recent claims point towards even two orders of magnitude better, i.e. 10-15. In this letter we show that such a goal is, in fact, unattainable by many orders of magnitude being, instead, the achievable level ≈10-9.

  3. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  4. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  5. Achieving Quality in Occupational Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, Michele (Editor); Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The conference convened approximately 100 registered participants of invited guest speakers, NASA presenters, and a broad spectrum of the Occupational Health disciplines representing NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Centers. Centered on the theme, "Achieving Quality in Occupational Health," conferees heard presentations from award winning occupational health program professionals within the Agency and from private industry; updates on ISO 9000 status, quality assurance, and information technologies; workshops on ergonomics and respiratory protection; an overview from the newly commissioned NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team; and a keynote speech on improving women's health. In addition, NASA occupational health specialists presented 24 poster sessions and oral deliveries on various aspects of current practice at their field centers.

  6. The Principle of Maximum Conformality

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J; Giustino, Di; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    A key problem in making precise perturbative QCD predictions is the uncertainty in determining the renormalization scale of the running coupling {alpha}{sub s}({mu}{sup 2}). It is common practice to guess a physical scale {mu} = Q which is of order of a typical momentum transfer Q in the process, and then vary the scale over a range Q/2 and 2Q. This procedure is clearly problematic since the resulting fixed-order pQCD prediction will depend on the renormalization scheme, and it can even predict negative QCD cross sections at next-to-leading-order. Other heuristic methods to set the renormalization scale, such as the 'principle of minimal sensitivity', give unphysical results for jet physics, sum physics into the running coupling not associated with renormalization, and violate the transitivity property of the renormalization group. Such scale-setting methods also give incorrect results when applied to Abelian QED. Note that the factorization scale in QCD is introduced to match nonperturbative and perturbative aspects of the parton distributions in hadrons; it is present even in conformal theory and thus is a completely separate issue from renormalization scale setting. The PMC provides a consistent method for determining the renormalization scale in pQCD. The PMC scale-fixed prediction is independent of the choice of renormalization scheme, a key requirement of renormalization group invariance. The results avoid renormalon resummation and agree with QED scale-setting in the Abelian limit. The PMC global scale can be derived efficiently at NLO from basic properties of the PQCD cross section. The elimination of the renormalization scheme ambiguity using the PMC will not only increases the precision of QCD tests, but it will also increase the sensitivity of colliders to new physics beyond the Standard Model.

  7. Principle of minimal work fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality 〈e-βW〉=e-βΔF, a change in the fluctuations of e-βW may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-βW converges towards the theoretical value e-βΔF, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and ΔF is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014)]. PMID:26382367

  8. Principle of minimal work fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality =e-β Δ F , a change in the fluctuations of e-β W may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-β W converges towards the theoretical value e-β Δ F, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and Δ F is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052132].

  9. Pyroelectric energy conversion: optimization principles.

    PubMed

    Sebald, Gael; Lefeuvre, Elie; Guyomar, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    In the framework of microgenerators, we present in this paper the key points for energy harvesting from temperature using ferroelectric materials. Thermoelectric devices profit from temperature spatial gradients, whereas ferroelectric materials require temporal fluctuation of temperature, thus leading to different applications targets. Ferroelectric materials may harvest perfectly the available thermal energy whatever the materials properties (limited by Carnot conversion efficiency) whereas thermoelectric material's efficiency is limited by materials properties (ZT figure of merit). However, it is shown that the necessary electric fields for Carnot cycles are far beyond the breakdown limit of bulk ferroelectric materials. Thin films may be an excellent solution for rising up to ultra-high electric fields and outstanding efficiency. Different thermodynamic cycles are presented in the paper: principles, advantages, and drawbacks. Using the Carnot cycle, the harvested energy would be independent of materials properties. However, using more realistic cycles, the energy conversion effectiveness remains dependent on the materials properties as discussed in the paper. A particular coupling factor is defined to quantify and check the effectiveness of pyroelectric energy harvesting. It is defined similarly to an electromechanical coupling factor as k2=p2theta0/(epsilontheta33cE), where p, theta0, epsilontheta33, cE are pyroelectric coefficient, maximum working temperature, dielectric permittivity, and specific heat, respectively. The importance of the electrothermal coupling factor is shown and discussed as an energy harvesting figure of merit. It gives the effectiveness of all techniques of energy harvesting (except the Carnot cycle). It is finally shown that we could reach very high efficiency using 1110.75Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-0.25PbTiO3 single crystals and synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (almost 50% of Carnot efficiency). Finally, practical implementation key

  10. Maximum Entropy Principle for Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilich, F.; DaSilva, R.

    2008-11-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  11. Principles of the Unification of Our Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Klas

    2011-01-01

    Do we need principles of the unification of our agency, our mode of acting? Immanuel Kant and Christine Korsgaard argue that the reflective structure of our mind forces us to have some conception of ourselves, others and the world--including our agency--and that it is through will and reason, and in particular principles of our agency, that we…

  12. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Basic principles. 551.401 Section 551.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All...

  13. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic principles. 551.401 Section 551.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All...

  14. 49 CFR 212.101 - Program principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program principles. 212.101 Section 212.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State/Federal Roles § 212.101 Program principles. (a) The purpose of the...

  15. Operating Principles and Early Lexical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervis, Carolyn B.

    Two types of operating principles thought to play an important role in early lexical development are discussed. The principles are those concerned with: (1) assignment of reference or meaning to words; and (2) formation and evolution of categories. Discussion also addresses related issues, such as the developmentally important relationship between…

  16. 43 CFR 2091.07 - Principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Principles. 2091.07 Section 2091.07 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Lands § 2091.07 Principles. (a) Generally, segregated lands are not available for application,...

  17. 43 CFR 2091.07 - Principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Principles. 2091.07 Section 2091.07 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Lands § 2091.07 Principles. (a) Generally, segregated lands are not available for application,...

  18. 43 CFR 2091.07 - Principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Principles. 2091.07 Section 2091.07 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Lands § 2091.07 Principles. (a) Generally, segregated lands are not available for application,...

  19. 43 CFR 2091.07 - Principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Principles. 2091.07 Section 2091.07 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Lands § 2091.07 Principles. (a) Generally, segregated lands are not available for application,...

  20. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT AND THE PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Precautionary Principle, generated during the late 1980s as a unifying principle for regulating discharge of hazardous material into the North Sea, has been broadened to include a shifting of the burden of proof to the proponent of a proposed activity, adoption of a more holi...