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Sample records for achieve background-limited sensitivity

  1. Scalable Background-Limited Polarization-Sensitive Detectors for mm-wave Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostem, Karwan; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe A.; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin L.; Essinger-Hileman, Tom; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Towner, Deborah W.; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the status and development of polarization-sensitive detectors for millimeter-wave applications. The detectors are fabricated on single-crystal silicon, which functions as a low-loss dielectric substrate for the microwave circuitry as well as the supporting membrane for the Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. The orthomode transducer (OMT) is realized as a symmetric structure and on-chip filters are employed to define the detection bandwidth. A hybridized integrated enclosure reduces the high-frequency THz mode set that can couple to the TES bolometers. An implementation of the detector architecture at Q-band achieves 90% efficiency in each polarization. The design is scalable in both frequency coverage, 30-300 GHz, and in number of detectors with uniform characteristics. Hence, the detectors are desirable for ground-based or space-borne instruments that require large arrays of efficient background-limited cryogenic detectors.

  2. Ultra-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensors for the Background Limited Infrared/Sub-mm Spectrograph (BLISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, A. D.; Kenyon, M. E.; Echternach, P. M.; Chui, T.; Eom, B.-H.; Day, P. K.; Bock, J. J.; Holmes, W.A.; Bradford, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report progress in fabricating ultra-sensitive superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) for BLISS. BLISS is a suite of grating spectrometers covering 35-433 micron with R approx. 700 cooled to 50 mK that is proposed to fly on the Japanese space telescope SPICA. The detector arrays for BLISS are TES bolometers readout with a time domain SQUID multiplexer. The required noise equivalent power (NEP) for BLISS is NEP = 10(exp -19) W/Hz(exp 1/2) with an ultimate goal of NEP= 5 x 10(exp -20) W/Hz(exp 1/2) to achieve background limited noise performance. The required and goal response times are tau = 150 ms and tau = 50ms respectively to achieve the NEP at the required and goal optical chop frequency 1-5 Hz. We measured prototype BLISS arrays and have achieved NEP = 6 x 10(exp -18) W/Hz(exp 1/2) and tau = 1.4 ms with a Ti TES (T(sub C) = 565 mK) and NEP approx. 2.5 x 10(exp -19) W/Hz(exp 1/2) and tau approximates 4.5 ms with an Ir TES (T(sub C) = 130 mK). Dark power for these tests is estimated at 1-5 fW.

  3. Semiconductor Bolometers Give Background-Limited Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John; McMurray, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor bolometers that are capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation over most or all of the infrared spectrum and that give background-limited performance at operating temperatures from 20 to 300 K have been invented. The term background-limited performance as applied to a bolometer, thermopile, or other infrared detector signifies that the ability to detect infrared signals that originate outside the detector is limited primarily by thermal noise attributable to the background radiation generated external to the bolometer. The signal-to-noise ratios and detectivities of the bolometers and thermopiles available prior to this invention have been lower than those needed for background-limited performance by factors of about 100 and 10, respectively. Like other electrically resistive bolometers, a device according to the invention exhibits an increase in electrical resistance when heated by infrared radiation. Depending on whether the device is operated under the customary constant- current or constant-voltage bias, the increase in electrical resistance can be measured in terms of an increase in voltage across the device or a decrease in current through the device, respectively. In the case of a semiconductor bolometer, it is necessary to filter out visible and shorter-wavelength light that could induce photoconductivity and thereby counteract all or part of the desired infrared- induced increase in resistance. The basic semiconductor material of a bolometer according to the invention is preferably silicon doped with one or more of a number of elements, each of which confers a different variable temperature coefficient of resistance. Suitable dopants include In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, As, P, and Sb. The concentration of dopant preferably lies in the range between 0.1 and 1,000 parts per billion.

  4. Background-Limited Infrared-Submillimeter Spectroscopy (BLISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Charles Matt

    2004-01-01

    The bulk of the cosmic far-infrared background light will soon be resolved into its individual sources with Spitzer, Astro-F, Herschel, and submm/mm ground-based cameras. The sources will be dusty galaxies at z approximately equal to 1-4. Their physical conditions and processes in these galaxies are directly probed with moderate-resolution spectroscopy from 20 micrometers to 1 mm. Currently large cold telescopes are being combined with sensitive direct detectors, offering the potential for mid-far-IR spectroscopy at the background limit (BLISS). The capability will allow routine observations of even modest high-redshift galaxies in a variety of lines. The BLISS instrument's capabilities are described in this presentation.

  5. Sub-Kelvin cooler configuration study for the Background Limited Infrared Submillimeter Spectrometer BLISS on SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, W.; Bock, J. J.; Matt Bradford, C.; Chui, T. C. P.; Koch, T. C.; Lamborn, A. U.; Moore, D.; Paine, C. G.; Thelen, M. P.; Yazzie, A.

    2010-09-01

    The Background Limited Infrared Submillimeter Spectrometer (BLISS) is an instrument proposed for the Japanese space borne telescope mission SPICA. The BLISS concept is a suite of grating spectrometers which combine to cover the 40-400 μm range at resolving power R˜700 with detector sensitivity approaching the natural photon background limits. To achieve the high sensitivity, the BLISS detectors require cooling to 50 mK, well below the 1.7 K cold stage provided on the SPICA spacecraft. We present a thermal architecture for BLISS that includes a thermal intercept stage actively cooled to a temperature in between the 1.7 K cold tip and the detector stage at 50 mK. This architecture requires, essentially, two coolers; one to cool the intercept stage from 1.7 K and one to cool the detectors from the intercept stage temperature to 50 mK. We compared several configurations of flight-heritage coolers to cool the intercept and detector stages. Of the various configurations studied, a continuous adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) for each stage has the highest maturity, lowest heat dump at 1.7 K and total mass comparable to other approaches. Other options, such as a Herschel 3He sorption cooler-ADR hybrid and the recently demonstrated closed cycle version of the dilution cooler on Planck are also feasible for BLISS on SPICA.

  6. Evaluating the Instructional Sensitivity of Four States' Student Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2016-01-01

    As state tests of student achievement are used for an increasingly wide array of high- and low-stakes purposes, evaluating their instructional sensitivity is essential. This article uses data from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Measures of Effective Project to examine the instructional sensitivity of 4 states' mathematics and English…

  7. Background limited mid-infrared photodetection with photovoltaic HgTe colloidal quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe Roberts, John Andris

    2015-12-21

    The photovoltaic response of thin films of HgTe colloidal quantum dots in the 3–5 μm range is observed. With no applied bias, internal quantum efficiency exceeding 40%, specific detectivity above 10{sup 10} Jones and microseconds response times are obtained at 140 K. The cooled devices detect the ambient thermal radiation. A detector with 5.25 μm cut-off achieves Background Limited Infrared Photodetection at 90 K.

  8. Barriers to background-limited performance for uncooled IR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Charles M.

    2004-08-01

    Substantial activity over the past few years has been devoted to improving the performance of uncooled IR detectors. These efforts have been rewarded by impressive progress in the reduction of pixel size, with sustained further improvements in NETD. Recent bolometer arrays are only a factor of two or three away from the temperature-fluctuation noise limit for current values of thermal isolation, and optimism remains high for further advances. However, essentially all bolometer-based thermal imaging sensors are currently limited by spatial noise, not by temporal noise. Whenever temporal noise is visible on the display of an uncooled IR imager, it is a good bet that spatial noise will be visible as well. Although fixed-pattern noise is an important part of spatial noise, it is not the only part. Spatially coherent temporal noise, 1/f noise, and drift all contribute to degrading sensor performance, and, like fixed-pattern noise, the degradation exceeds the expectation set by simple numerical comparison. These effects degrade imager performance more significantly than an equal variation from truly random temporal noise, because the eye integrates both temporally and spatially to suppress the latter. By including in our analysis a simple model of the eye-brain response we can determine the specifications necessary to suppress these effects so that true background-limited performance can be realized. This paper examines the sources of spatial noise, analyzes the effect on performance, and attempts to set expectations for performance limits. To limit the scope, the analysis is restricted to pulse-biased, current-mode bolometers.

  9. Development of Fast, Background-Limited Transition-Edge Sensors for the Background-Limited Infrared/Sub-Millimetre Spectrograph (BLISS) for SPICA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Andrew D.; Runyan, M. C.; Kenyon, M.; Echternach, P. M.; Chui, T.; Bumble, B.; Bradford, C. M.; Holmes, W. A.; Bock, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    We report experimental progress toward demonstrating background-limited arrays of membrane-isolated transition-edge sensors (TESs) for the Background Limited Infrared/Sub-mm Spectrograph (BLISS). BLISS is a space-borne instrument with grating spectrometers for wavelengths lambda = 35-435 microns and with R = lambda/(delta)lambda approx. 500. The goals for BLISS TESs are: noise equivalent power (NEP) = 5x10(exp -20) W/Hz(1/2) and response time t<30ms. We expect background-limited performance from bilayers TESs with T(sub c)=65mK and G=15fW/K. However, such TESs cannot be operated at 50mK unless stray power on the devices, or dark power PD, is less than 200aW. We describe criteria for measuring P? that requires accurate knowledge of TC. Ultimately, we fabricated superconducting thermistors from Ir (T(sub c) > or = 135mK) and Mo/Cu proximitized bilayers, where T(sub c) is the thermistor transition temperature. We measured the Ir TES arrays in our 50mK adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator test system, which can measure up to eight 1x32 arrays simultaneously using a time-division multiplexer, as well as our single-pixel test system which can measure down to 15mK. In our previous Ir array measurements our best reported performance was NEP=2.5x10(exp -19) W/Hz(1/2) and tapprox.5ms for straight-beam TESs. In fact, we expected NEPapprox.1.5x10(exp -19)W/Hz(1/2) for meander beam TESs, but did not achieve this previously due to 1/f noise. Here, we detail improvements toward measuring the expected NEP and demonstrate NEP=(1.3+0.2)x10(exp -19)W/Hz(1/2) in our single-pixel test system and NEP=(1.6+0.3)x10(exp -19)W/Hz(1/2) in our array test system.

  10. Development of Fast, Background-Limited Transition-Edge Sensors for the Background-Limited Infrared/Sub-mm Spectrograph (BLISS) for SPICA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Andrew D.; Runyan, M. C.; Kenyon, M.; Echternach, P. M .; Chui, T.; Bumble, B.; Bradford, C. M.; Holmes, W. A.; Bock, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    We report experimental progress toward demonstrating background-limited arrays of membrane-isolated transition-edge sensors (TESs) for the Background Limited Infrared/Sub-mm Spectrograph (BLISS). BLISS is a space-borne instrument with grating spectrometers for wavelengths lambda=35-435 micron and with R=lambda/delta lambda approximately equals 500. The goals for BLISS TESs are: noise equivalent power (NEP) = 5x10 (sup -20) W/Hz(exp 1/2) and response time tau <30ms. We expect background-limited performance from bilayers TESs with T(sub c) = 65mK and G=15fW/K. However, such TESs cannot be operated at 50mK unless stray power on the devices, or dark power P(sub D), is less than 200aW. We describe criteria for measuring P(sub D) that requires accurate knowledge of TC. Ultimately, we fabricated superconducting thermistors from Ir (T(sub c) >= 135mK) and Mo/Cu proximitized bilayers, where T(sub c) is the thermistor transition temperature. We measured the Ir TES arrays in our 50mK adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator test system, which can measure up to eight 1x32 arrays simultaneously using a time-division multiplexer, as well as our single-pixel test system which can measure down to 15mK. In our previous Ir array measurements our best reported performance was NEP=2.5x10(exp -19) W/Hz(sub 1/2) and Tau approximately equals 5ms for straight-beam TESs. In fact, we expected NEP approximately equals 1.5x10(exp -19)?W/Hz(sup 1/2) for meander beam TESs, but did not achieve this previously due to 1/f noise. Here, we detail improvements toward measuring the expected NEP and demonstrate NEP=(1.3+0.2)x10 (sup -19)W/Hz(exp 1/2) in our single-pixel test system and NEP=(1.6+/-0.3)x10(sup -19)W/Hz(sup 1/2) in our array test system.

  11. TEACH (Train to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maulitz, Russell; Santarelli, Thomas; Barnieu, Joanne; Rosenzweig, Larry; Yi, Na Yi; Zachary, Wayne; OConnor, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Personnel from diverse ethnic and demographic backgrounds come together in both civilian and military healthcare systems, facing diagnoses that at one level are equalizers: coronary disease is coronary disease, breast cancer is breast cancer. Yet the expression of disease in individuals from different backgrounds, individual patient experience of disease as a particular illness, and interactions between patients and providers occurring in any given disease scenario, all vary enormously depending on the fortuity of the equation of "which patient happens to arrive in whose exam room." Previously, providers' absorption of lessons-learned depended on learning as an apprentice would when exposed over time to multiple populations. As a result, and because providers are often thrown into situations where communications falter through inadequate direct patient experience, diversity in medicine remains a training challenge. The questions then become: Can simulation and virtual training environments (VTEs) be deployed to short-track and standardize this sort of random-walk problem? Can we overcome the unevenness of training caused by some providers obtaining the valuable exposure to diverse populations, whereas others are left to "sink or swim"? This paper summarizes developing a computer-based VTE called TEACH (Training to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare). TEACH was developed to enhance healthcare providers' skills in delivering culturally sensitive care to African-American women with breast cancer. With an authoring system under development to ensure extensibility, TEACH allows users to role-play in clinical oncology settings with virtual characters who interact on the basis of different combinations of African American sub-cultural beliefs regarding breast cancer. The paper reports on the roll-out and evaluation of the degree to which these interactions allow providers to acquire, practice, and refine culturally appropriate communication skills and to

  12. Achieving the background limit on SOFIA: a stray-light issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Jacqueline A.; Harvey, Paul M.; Peterson, Gary L.

    2000-06-01

    This paper will summarize the stray-light study commissioned by USRA from BRO (Breault Research Organization) to estimate the level of dynamic background that might be observable at SOFIA's focal plane. This dynamic background is due to cavity and aircraft motions with respect to the inertially fixed telescope. BRO used their ASAP program to trace rays emitted from the Earth, aircraft engines, and telescope cavity to the focal plane through reflection and scatter off a number of surfaces (including Level 500 contaminated optics).

  13. Near-infrared InGaAs detectors for background-limited imaging and photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Peter W.; Croll, Bryce; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2014-07-01

    Originally designed for night-vision equipment, InGaAs detectors are beginning to achieve background-limited performance in broadband imaging from the ground. The lower cost of these detectors can enable multi-band instruments, arrays of small telescopes, and large focal planes that would be uneconomical with high-performance HgCdTe detectors. We developed a camera to operate the FLIR AP1121 sensor using deep thermoelectric cooling and up-the-ramp sampling to minimize noise. We measured a dark current of 163 e- s-1 pix-1, a read noise of 87 e- up-the-ramp, and a well depth of 80k e-. Laboratory photometric testing achieved a stability of 230 ppm hr-1/2, which would be required for detecting exoplanet transits. InGaAs detectors are also applicable to other branches of near-infrared time-domain astronomy, ranging from brown dwarf weather to gravitational wave follow-up.

  14. Cryocooled terahertz photoconductive detector system with background-limited performance in 1.5–4 THz frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Makoto; Hiromoto, Norihisa

    2015-10-15

    We describe a 4-K-cryocooled dual-band terahertz (THz) photoconductive detector system with background-limited performance. The detector system comprises two THz photoconductive detectors covering a response in a wide frequency range from 1.5 to 4 THz, low noise amplifiers, optical low-pass filters to eliminate input radiation of higher frequencies, and a mechanical 4 K Gifford-McMahon refrigerator that provides practical and convenient operation without a liquid He container. The electrical and optical performances of the THz detector system were evaluated at a detector temperature of 4 K under 300 K background radiation. We proved that the detector system can achieve background-limited noise-equivalent-power on the order of 10{sup −14} W/Hz{sup 1/2} in the frequency range from 1.5 to 4 THz even if the vibration noise of the mechanical refrigerator is present.

  15. Cryocooled terahertz photoconductive detector system with background-limited performance in 1.5-4 THz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Makoto; Hiromoto, Norihisa

    2015-10-01

    We describe a 4-K-cryocooled dual-band terahertz (THz) photoconductive detector system with background-limited performance. The detector system comprises two THz photoconductive detectors covering a response in a wide frequency range from 1.5 to 4 THz, low noise amplifiers, optical low-pass filters to eliminate input radiation of higher frequencies, and a mechanical 4 K Gifford-McMahon refrigerator that provides practical and convenient operation without a liquid He container. The electrical and optical performances of the THz detector system were evaluated at a detector temperature of 4 K under 300 K background radiation. We proved that the detector system can achieve background-limited noise-equivalent-power on the order of 10-14 W/Hz1/2 in the frequency range from 1.5 to 4 THz even if the vibration noise of the mechanical refrigerator is present.

  16. Cryocooled terahertz photoconductive detector system with background-limited performance in 1.5-4 THz frequency range.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Makoto; Hiromoto, Norihisa

    2015-10-01

    We describe a 4-K-cryocooled dual-band terahertz (THz) photoconductive detector system with background-limited performance. The detector system comprises two THz photoconductive detectors covering a response in a wide frequency range from 1.5 to 4 THz, low noise amplifiers, optical low-pass filters to eliminate input radiation of higher frequencies, and a mechanical 4 K Gifford-McMahon refrigerator that provides practical and convenient operation without a liquid He container. The electrical and optical performances of the THz detector system were evaluated at a detector temperature of 4 K under 300 K background radiation. We proved that the detector system can achieve background-limited noise-equivalent-power on the order of 10(-14) W/Hz(1/2) in the frequency range from 1.5 to 4 THz even if the vibration noise of the mechanical refrigerator is present. PMID:26520978

  17. Achieving tunable sensitivity in composite high-energy density materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashkeev, Sergey; Tsyshevsky, Roman; Kuklja, Maija

    2015-06-01

    Laser irradiation provides a unique opportunity for selective, predictive, and controlled initiation of energetic materials. We propose a consistent micro-scale mechanism of photoexcitation at the interface, formed by a molecular energetic material and a metal oxide. A specific PETN-MgO model composite is used to illustrate and explain seemingly puzzling experiments on selective laser initiation of energetic materials, which reported that the presence of metal oxide additives triggered the photoinitiation by an unusually low energy. We suggest that PETN photodecomposition is catalyzed by oxygen vacancies (F0 centers) at the MgO surface. The proposed model suggests ways to tune sensitivity of energetic molecular materials to photoinitiation. Our quantum-chemical calculations suggest that the structural defects (e.g., oxygen vacancies) strongly interact with the molecular material (e.g., adsorbed energetic molecules) by inducing a charge transfer at the interface and hence play an imperative role in governing both energy absorption and energy release in the system. Our approach and conclusions provide a solid basis for novel design of energetic interfaces with desired properties and offers a new perspective in the field of explosive materials and devices.

  18. Towards Background-Limited Kinetic Inductance Detectors for a Cryogenic Far-Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyhrie, A.; Glenn, J.; Wheeler, J.; Day, P.; Eom, B. H.; Leduc, H.; Skrutskie, M.

    2016-02-01

    Arrays of tens of thousands of sensitive far-infrared detectors coupled to a cryogenic 4-6 m class orbital telescope are needed to trace the assembly of galaxies over cosmic time. The sensitivity of a 4 Kelvin telescope observing in the far-infrared (30-300 \\upmu m) would be limited by zodiacal light and Galactic interstellar dust emission, and require broadband detector noise equivalent powers (NEPs) in the range of 3× 10^{-19} W/√{Hz} . We are fabricating and testing 96 element arrays of lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed to reach NEPs near this level in a low-background laboratory environment. The LEKIDs are fabricated with aluminum: the low normal-state resistivity of Al permits the use of very thin wire-grid absorber lines (150 nm) for efficient absorption of radiation, while the small volumes enable high sensitivities because quasiparticle densities are high. Such narrow absorption lines present a fabrication challenge, but we deposit TiN atop the Al to increase the robustness of the detectors and achieve a 95 % yield. We present the design of these Al/TiN bilayer LEKIDs and preliminary sensitivity measurements at 350 \\upmu m optically loaded by cold blackbody radiation.

  19. Towards Background-Limited Kinetic Inductance Detectors for a Cryogenic Far-Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyhrie, A.; Glenn, J.; Wheeler, J.; Day, P.; Eom, B. H.; Leduc, H.; Skrutskie, M.

    2016-08-01

    Arrays of tens of thousands of sensitive far-infrared detectors coupled to a cryogenic 4-6 m class orbital telescope are needed to trace the assembly of galaxies over cosmic time. The sensitivity of a 4 Kelvin telescope observing in the far-infrared (30-300 \\upmu m) would be limited by zodiacal light and Galactic interstellar dust emission, and require broadband detector noise equivalent powers (NEPs) in the range of 3× 10^{-19} W/√{Hz}. We are fabricating and testing 96 element arrays of lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed to reach NEPs near this level in a low-background laboratory environment. The LEKIDs are fabricated with aluminum: the low normal-state resistivity of Al permits the use of very thin wire-grid absorber lines (150 nm) for efficient absorption of radiation, while the small volumes enable high sensitivities because quasiparticle densities are high. Such narrow absorption lines present a fabrication challenge, but we deposit TiN atop the Al to increase the robustness of the detectors and achieve a 95 % yield. We present the design of these Al/TiN bilayer LEKIDs and preliminary sensitivity measurements at 350 \\upmu m optically loaded by cold blackbody radiation.

  20. The Development of Product Parity Sensitivity in Children with Mathematics Learning Disability and in Typical Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    Parity helps us determine whether an arithmetic equation is true or false. The current research examines the development of sensitivity to parity cues in multiplication in typically achieving (TA) children (grades 2, 3, 4 and 6) and in children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD, grades 6 and 8), via a verification task. In TA children…

  1. Response to Marie Paz Morales' ``Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-12-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript.

  2. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-01-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  3. Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems. PMID:23318940

  4. Progress on Background-Limited Membrane-Isolated TES Bolometers for Far-IR/Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, M.; Day, P. K.; Bradford, C. M.; Bock, J. J.; Leduc, H. G.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the lowest attainable phonon noise equivalent power (NEP) for membrane-isolation bolometers, we fabricated and measured the thermal conductance of suspended Si3N4 beams with different geometries via a noise thermometry technique. We measured beam cross-sectional areas ranging from 0.35 x 0.5 (micro)m(sup 2) to 135 x 1.0 (micro)m(sup 2) and beam lengths ranging from (micro)m to 8300 (micro)m. The measurements directly imply that membrane-isolation bolometers are capable of reaching a phonon noise equivalent power (NEP) of 4 x 10(sup -20)W/Hz(sup 1)/O . This NEP adequate for the Background-Limited Infrared-Submillimeter Spectrograph (BLISS) proposed for the Japanese SPICA observatory, and adequate for NASA's SAFIR observatory, a 10-meter, 4 K telescope to be deployed at L2. Further, we measured the heat capacity of a suspended Si3N4 membrane and show how this result implies that one can make membrane-isolation bolometers with a response time which is fast enough for BLISS.

  5. Using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography to achieve comprehensive depth resolved microvasculature mapping for human retina.

    PubMed

    An, Lin; Shen, Tueng T; Wang, Ruikang K

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents comprehensive and depth-resolved retinal microvasculature images within human retina achieved by a newly developed ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) system. Due to its high flow sensitivity, UHS-OMAG is much more sensitive to tissue motion due to the involuntary movement of the human eye and head compared to the traditional OMAG system. To mitigate these motion artifacts on final imaging results, we propose a new phase compensation algorithm in which the traditional phase-compensation algorithm is repeatedly used to efficiently minimize the motion artifacts. Comparatively, this new algorithm demonstrates at least 8 to 25 times higher motion tolerability, critical for the UHS-OMAG system to achieve retinal microvasculature images with high quality. Furthermore, the new UHS-OMAG system employs a high speed line scan CMOS camera (240 kHz A-line scan rate) to capture 500 A-lines for one B-frame at a 400 Hz frame rate. With this system, we performed a series of in vivo experiments to visualize the retinal microvasculature in humans. Two featured imaging protocols are utilized. The first is of the low lateral resolution (16 μm) and a wide field of view (4 × 3 mm(2) with single scan and 7 × 8 mm(2) for multiple scans), while the second is of the high lateral resolution (5 μm) and a narrow field of view (1.5 × 1.2 mm(2) with single scan). The great imaging performance delivered by our system suggests that UHS-OMAG can be a promising noninvasive alternative to the current clinical retinal microvasculature imaging techniques for the diagnosis of eye diseases with significant vascular involvement, such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. PMID:22029360

  6. Using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography to achieve comprehensive depth resolved microvasculature mapping for human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Lin; Shen, Tueng T.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents comprehensive and depth-resolved retinal microvasculature images within human retina achieved by a newly developed ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) system. Due to its high flow sensitivity, UHS-OMAG is much more sensitive to tissue motion due to the involuntary movement of the human eye and head compared to the traditional OMAG system. To mitigate these motion artifacts on final imaging results, we propose a new phase compensation algorithm in which the traditional phase-compensation algorithm is repeatedly used to efficiently minimize the motion artifacts. Comparatively, this new algorithm demonstrates at least 8 to 25 times higher motion tolerability, critical for the UHS-OMAG system to achieve retinal microvasculature images with high quality. Furthermore, the new UHS-OMAG system employs a high speed line scan CMOS camera (240 kHz A-line scan rate) to capture 500 A-lines for one B-frame at a 400 Hz frame rate. With this system, we performed a series of in vivo experiments to visualize the retinal microvasculature in humans. Two featured imaging protocols are utilized. The first is of the low lateral resolution (16 μm) and a wide field of view (4 × 3 mm2 with single scan and 7 × 8 mm2 for multiple scans), while the second is of the high lateral resolution (5 μm) and a narrow field of view (1.5 × 1.2 mm2 with single scan). The great imaging performance delivered by our system suggests that UHS-OMAG can be a promising noninvasive alternative to the current clinical retinal microvasculature imaging techniques for the diagnosis of eye diseases with significant vascular involvement, such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration.

  7. Modified surface loading process for achieving improved performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongxiu; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Yafeng; Zhou, Li; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    Achieving high surface coverage of the colloidal quantum dots (QDs) on TiO2 films has been challenging for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Herein, a general surface engineering approach was proposed to increase the loading of these QDs. It was found that S2- treatment/QD re-uptake process can significantly improve the attachment of the QDs on TiO2 films. Surface concentration of the QDs was improved by ∼60%, which in turn greatly enhances light absorption and decreases carrier recombination in QDSCs. Ensuing QDSCs with optimized QD loading exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.66%, 83% higher than those fabricated with standard procedures.

  8. A Study to Assess the Achievement Motivation of Higher Secondary Students in Relation to Their Noise Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latha, Prema

    2014-01-01

    Disturbing sounds are often referred to as noise, and if extreme enough in degree, intensity or frequency, it is referred to as noise pollution. Achievement refers to a change in study behavior in relation to their noise sensitivity and learning in the educational sense by achieving results in changed responses to certain types of stimuli like…

  9. Relationship of Gender and Academic Achievement to Finnish Students' Intercultural Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the intercultural sensitivity of Finnish 12-16-year-old secondary school students (N=549) with a 23-item Intercultural Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ICSSQ). The ICSSQ is based on Bennett's (1993) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS), which is a conceptual tool to situate certain reactions towards cultural…

  10. Infrared-fiber-optic fire sensor developments - Role of measurement uncertainty in evaluation of background limited range. [in spacecraft safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Kays, Randy; Porter, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Fire-detector systems based on distributed infrared fiber-sensors have been investigated for potential applications in the aerospace industry. Responsivities to blackbody and flame radiations were measured with various design configurations of an infrared fiber-optic sensor. Signal processing techniques were also investigated, and the results show significant differences in the fire-sensor performance depending on the design configuration. Measurement uncertainties were used to determine the background-limited ranges for the various fire-sensor concepts, and the probability of producing false alarms caused by fluctuations in the background signals were determined using extreme probability theory. The results of the research show that infrared fiber-optic fire sensors are feasible for application on manned spacecraft; however, additional development work will be required to eliminate false alarms caused by high temperature objects such as incandescent lamps.

  11. A luciferin analogue generating near-infrared bioluminescence achieves highly sensitive deep-tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Iwano, Satoshi; Kiyama, Masahiro; Mitsumata, Shun; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Niwa, Haruki; Maki, Shojiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2016-01-01

    In preclinical cancer research, bioluminescence imaging with firefly luciferase and D-luciferin has become a standard to monitor biological processes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the emission maximum (λmax) of bioluminescence produced by D-luciferin is 562 nm where light is not highly penetrable in biological tissues. This emphasizes a need for developing a red-shifted bioluminescence imaging system to improve detection sensitivity of targets in deep tissue. Here we characterize the bioluminescent properties of the newly synthesized luciferin analogue, AkaLumine-HCl. The bioluminescence produced by AkaLumine-HCl in reactions with native firefly luciferase is in the near-infrared wavelength ranges (λmax=677 nm), and yields significantly increased target-detection sensitivity from deep tissues with maximal signals attained at very low concentrations, as compared with D-luciferin and emerging synthetic luciferin CycLuc1. These characteristics offer a more sensitive and accurate method for non-invasive bioluminescence imaging with native firefly luciferase in various animal models. PMID:27297211

  12. A luciferin analogue generating near-infrared bioluminescence achieves highly sensitive deep-tissue imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Iwano, Satoshi; Kiyama, Masahiro; Mitsumata, Shun; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Niwa, Haruki; Maki, Shojiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2016-01-01

    In preclinical cancer research, bioluminescence imaging with firefly luciferase and D-luciferin has become a standard to monitor biological processes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the emission maximum (λmax) of bioluminescence produced by D-luciferin is 562 nm where light is not highly penetrable in biological tissues. This emphasizes a need for developing a red-shifted bioluminescence imaging system to improve detection sensitivity of targets in deep tissue. Here we characterize the bioluminescent properties of the newly synthesized luciferin analogue, AkaLumine-HCl. The bioluminescence produced by AkaLumine-HCl in reactions with native firefly luciferase is in the near-infrared wavelength ranges (λmax=677 nm), and yields significantly increased target-detection sensitivity from deep tissues with maximal signals attained at very low concentrations, as compared with D-luciferin and emerging synthetic luciferin CycLuc1. These characteristics offer a more sensitive and accurate method for non-invasive bioluminescence imaging with native firefly luciferase in various animal models. PMID:27297211

  13. The design of an animal PET: flexible geometry for achieving optimal spatial resolution or high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Weber, S; Terstegge, A; Herzog, H; Reinartz, R; Reinhart, P; Rongen, F; Müller-Gärtner, H W; Halling, H

    1997-10-01

    We present the design of a positron emission tomograph (PET) with flexible geometry dedicated to in vivo studies of small animals (TierPET). The scanner uses two pairs of detectors. Each detector consists of 400 small individual yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) scintillator crystals of dimensions 2 x 2 x 15 mm3, optically isolated and glued together, which are coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT's). The detector modules can be moved in a radial direction so that the detector-to-detector spacing can be varied. Special hardware has been built for coincidence detection, position detection, and real-time data acquisition, which is performed by a PC. The single-event data are transferred to workstations where the radioactivity distribution is reconstructed. The dimensions of the crystals and the detector layout are the result of extensive simulations which are described in this report, taking into account sensitivity, spatial resolution and additional parameters like parallax error or scatter effects. For the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction a genuine 3-D expectation-maximization (EM)-algorithm which can include the characteristics of the detector system has been implemented. The reconstruction software is flexible and matches the different detector configurations. The main advantage of the proposed animal PET scanner is its high flexibility, allowing the realization of various detector-system configurations. By changing the detector-to-detector spacing, the system is capable of either providing good spatial resolution or high sensitivity for dynamic studies of pharmacokinetics. PMID:9368124

  14. Sensitivity and noise in GC-MS: Achieving low limits of detection for difficult analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialkov, Alexander B.; Steiner, Urs; Lehotay, Steven J.; Amirav, Aviv

    2007-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument limit of detection (LOD) is typically listed by major vendors as that of octafluoronaphthalene (OFN). Most current GC-MS instruments can achieve LODs in the low femtogram range. However, GC-MS LODs for realistic analytes in actual samples are often a few orders of magnitude higher than OFN's. Users seldom encounter 1 pg LOD in the single ion monitoring mode in their applications. We define this detectability difference as the "OFN gap." In this paper, we demonstrate and discuss how the OFN gap can be significantly reduced by the use of GC-MS with supersonic molecular beams (SMB). Experimental results were obtained with a recently developed GC-MS with SMB named 1200-SMB, that is based on the conversion of the Varian 1200 system into a GC-MS-MS with SMB. With this 1200-SMB system, the LOD of all types of analytes, including OFN, in real samples is significantly improved through the combination of: (a) enhanced molecular ion; (b) elimination of vacuum background noise; (c) elimination of mass independent noise; (d) elimination of ion source peak tailing and degradation; (e) significantly increased range of thermally labile and low volatility compounds that are amenable for analysis through lower sample elution temperatures; (f) reduced column bleed and ghost peaks through sample elution at lower temperatures; (g) improved compatibility with large volume injections; and (h) reduced matrix interferences through the combination of enhanced molecular ion and MS-MS. As a result, the 1200-SMB LODs of common and/or difficult compounds are much closer to its OFN LOD, even in complex matrices. We crossed the <1 fg OFN LOD milestone to achieve the lowest LOD to date using GC-MS, but more importantly, we attained LOD of 2 fg for diazinon, a common pesticide analyte. In another example, we achieved an LOD of 10 fg for underivatized testosterone, which is not amenable in traditional GC-MS analysis, and conducted many analyses

  15. Achieving effective terminal exciton delivery in quantum dot antenna-sensitized multistep DNA photonic wires.

    PubMed

    Spillmann, Christopher M; Ancona, Mario G; Buckhout-White, Susan; Algar, W Russ; Stewart, Michael H; Susumu, Kimihiro; Huston, Alan L; Goldman, Ellen R; Medintz, Igor L

    2013-08-27

    Assembling DNA-based photonic wires around semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) creates optically active hybrid architectures that exploit the unique properties of both components. DNA hybridization allows positioning of multiple, carefully arranged fluorophores that can engage in sequential energy transfer steps while the QDs provide a superior energy harvesting antenna capacity that drives a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) cascade through the structures. Although the first generation of these composites demonstrated four-sequential energy transfer steps across a distance >150 Å, the exciton transfer efficiency reaching the final, terminal dye was estimated to be only ~0.7% with no concomitant sensitized emission observed. Had the terminal Cy7 dye utilized in that construct provided a sensitized emission, we estimate that this would have equated to an overall end-to-end ET efficiency of ≤ 0.1%. In this report, we demonstrate that overall energy flow through a second generation hybrid architecture can be significantly improved by reengineering four key aspects of the composite structure: (1) making the initial DNA modification chemistry smaller and more facile to implement, (2) optimizing donor-acceptor dye pairings, (3) varying donor-acceptor dye spacing as a function of the Förster distance R0, and (4) increasing the number of DNA wires displayed around each central QD donor. These cumulative changes lead to a 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the exciton transfer efficiency to the final terminal dye in comparison to the first-generation construct. The overall end-to-end efficiency through the optimized, five-fluorophore/four-step cascaded energy transfer system now approaches 10%. The results are analyzed using Förster theory with various sources of randomness accounted for by averaging over ensembles of modeled constructs. Fits to the spectra suggest near-ideal behavior when the photonic wires have two sequential acceptor dyes (Cy3 and Cy3.5) and

  16. Pre-Type 1 Diabetes Dysmetabolism: Maximal sensitivity achieved with Both Oral and Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Jennifer M.; McFann, Kim; Harrison, Leonard C.; Fourlanos, Spiros; Krischer, Jeffrey; Cuthbertson, David; Chase, H. Peter; Eisenbarth, George S.; Group, the DPT-1 Study

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of intravenous (IVGTT) and oral (OGTT) glucose tolerance tests abnormalities to diabetes development in a high-risk pre-diabetic cohort and identify an optimal testing strategy for detecting pre-clinical diabetes. Study design Diabetes Prevention Trial Type 1 randomized subjects to oral (n=372) and parenteral (n=339) insulin prevention trials. Subjects were followed with IVGTTs and OGTTs. Factors associated with progression to diabetes were evaluated. Results Survival analysis revealed that higher quartiles of 2-hour glucose and lower quartiles of FPIR at baseline were associated with decreased diabetes-free survival. Cox proportional hazards modeling showed that baseline BMI, FPIR and 2-hour glucose levels were significantly associated with an increased hazard for diabetes. On testing performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis, 3% (1/32) had normal first phase insulin response (FPIR) and normal 2-hour glucose on OGTT. The sensitivities for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and low FPIR performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis were equivalent (76% vs. 73%). Conclusions Most (97%) subjects had abnormal IVGTTs and/or OGTTs prior to the development of diabetes. The highest sensitivity is achieved using both tests. PMID:17188609

  17. A Genetically Sensitive Investigation of the Effects of the School Environment and Socio-Economic Status on Academic Achievement in Seven-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sheila O.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Although it is well established that school characteristics (SCH) and socio-economic status (SES) are associated with academic achievement (ACH), these correlations are not necessarily causal. Because academic achievement shows substantial genetic influence, it is useful to embed such investigations in genetically sensitive designs in order to…

  18. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  19. Predictive models of lameness in dairy cows achieve high sensitivity and specificity with force measurements in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Dunthorn, Jason; Dyer, Robert M; Neerchal, Nagaraj K; McHenry, Jonathan S; Rajkondawar, Parimal G; Steingraber, Gary; Tasch, Uri

    2015-11-01

    Lameness remains a significant cause of production losses, a growing welfare concern and may be a greater economic burden than clinical mastitis . A growing need for accurate, continuous automated detection systems continues because US prevalence of lameness is 12.5% while individual herds may experience prevalence's of 27.8-50.8%. To that end the first force-plate system restricted to the vertical dimension identified lame cows with 85% specificity and 52% sensitivity. These results lead to the hypothesis that addition of transverse and longitudinal dimensions could improve sensitivity of lameness detection. To address the hypothesis we upgraded the original force plate system to measure ground reaction forces (GRFs) across three directions. GRFs and locomotion scores were generated from randomly selected cows and logistic regression was used to develop a model that characterised relationships of locomotion scores to the GRFs. This preliminary study showed 76 variables across 3 dimensions produced a model with greater than 90% sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). The result was a marked improvement on the 52% sensitivity, and 85% specificity previously observed with the 1 dimensional model or the 45% sensitivities reported with visual observations. Validation of model accuracy continues with the goal to finalise accurate automated methods of lameness detection. PMID:26278403

  20. Enhanced Conversion Efficiencies in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieved through Self-Assembled Platinum(II) Metallacages

    PubMed Central

    He, Zuoli; Hou, Zhiqiang; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin; Yin, Xingtian; Que, Meidan; Shao, Jinyou; Que, Wenxiu; Stang, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes with particular photo-physical property, wherein unique donors are combined with a single metal acceptor, can be utilized for many applications including in photo-devices. In this communication, we described the synthesis and characterization of two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) bearing triazine and porphyrin faces with promising light-harvesting properties. These complexes were obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyT) or 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TPyP). The greatly improved conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells were 6.79 and 6.08 respectively, while these SCCs were introduced into the TiO2 nanoparticle film photoanodes. In addition, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells was also increased to 0.769 and 0.768 V, which could be ascribed to the inhibited interfacial charge recombination due to the addition of SCCs. PMID:27404912

  1. Sensitivity improvement of an electrical sensor achieved by control of biomolecules based on the negative dielectrophoretic force.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Jinsik; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jung Ho; Hwang, Kyo Seon

    2016-11-15

    Effective control of nano-scale biomolecules can enhance the sensitivity and limit of detection of an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) sensor. Manipulation of the biomolecules by dielectrophoresis (DEP), especially the negative DEP (nDEP) force, so that they are trapped between electrodes (sensing regions) was predicted to increase the binding efficiency of the antibody and target molecules, leading to a more effective reaction. To prove this concept, amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein were respectively trapped between the sensing region owing to the nDEP force under 5V and 0.05V, which was verified with COMSOL simulation. Using the simulation value, the resistance change (ΔR/Rb) of the IME sensor from the specific antibody-antigen reaction of the two biomolecules and the change in fluorescence intensity were compared in the reference (pDEP) and nDEP conditions. The ΔR/Rb value improved by about 2-fold and 1.66-fold with nDEP compared to the reference condition with various protein concentrations, and these increases were confirmed with fluorescence imaging. Overall, nDEP enhanced the detection sensitivity for Aβ42 and PSA by 128% and 258%, respectively, and the limit of detection improved by up to 2-orders of magnitude. These results prove that DEP can improve the biosensor's performance. PMID:27449966

  2. Enhanced Conversion Efficiencies in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieved through Self-Assembled Platinum(II) Metallacages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zuoli; Hou, Zhiqiang; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin; Yin, Xingtian; Que, Meidan; Shao, Jinyou; Que, Wenxiu; Stang, Peter J.

    2016-07-01

    Two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes with particular photo-physical property, wherein unique donors are combined with a single metal acceptor, can be utilized for many applications including in photo-devices. In this communication, we described the synthesis and characterization of two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) bearing triazine and porphyrin faces with promising light-harvesting properties. These complexes were obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyT) or 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TPyP). The greatly improved conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells were 6.79 and 6.08 respectively, while these SCCs were introduced into the TiO2 nanoparticle film photoanodes. In addition, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells was also increased to 0.769 and 0.768 V, which could be ascribed to the inhibited interfacial charge recombination due to the addition of SCCs.

  3. Enhanced Conversion Efficiencies in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieved through Self-Assembled Platinum(II) Metallacages.

    PubMed

    He, Zuoli; Hou, Zhiqiang; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin; Yin, Xingtian; Que, Meidan; Shao, Jinyou; Que, Wenxiu; Stang, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes with particular photo-physical property, wherein unique donors are combined with a single metal acceptor, can be utilized for many applications including in photo-devices. In this communication, we described the synthesis and characterization of two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) bearing triazine and porphyrin faces with promising light-harvesting properties. These complexes were obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyT) or 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TPyP). The greatly improved conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells were 6.79 and 6.08 respectively, while these SCCs were introduced into the TiO2 nanoparticle film photoanodes. In addition, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells was also increased to 0.769 and 0.768 V, which could be ascribed to the inhibited interfacial charge recombination due to the addition of SCCs. PMID:27404912

  4. Simultaneous stability and sensitivity in model cortical networks is achieved through anti-correlations between the in- and out-degree of connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Juan C.; Houweling, Arthur R.; Tiesinga, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal networks in rodent barrel cortex are characterized by stable low baseline firing rates. However, they are sensitive to the action potentials of single neurons as suggested by recent single-cell stimulation experiments that reported quantifiable behavioral responses in response to short spike trains elicited in single neurons. Hence, these networks are stable against internally generated fluctuations in firing rate but at the same time remain sensitive to similarly-sized externally induced perturbations. We investigated stability and sensitivity in a simple recurrent network of stochastic binary neurons and determined numerically the effects of correlation between the number of afferent (“in-degree”) and efferent (“out-degree”) connections in neurons. The key advance reported in this work is that anti-correlation between in-/out-degree distributions increased the stability of the network in comparison to networks with no correlation or positive correlations, while being able to achieve the same level of sensitivity. The experimental characterization of degree distributions is difficult because all pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons have to be identified and counted. We explored whether the statistics of network motifs, which requires the characterization of connections between small subsets of neurons, could be used to detect evidence for degree anti-correlations. We find that the sample frequency of the 3-neuron “ring” motif (1→2→3→1), can be used to detect degree anti-correlation for sub-networks of size 30 using about 50 samples, which is of significance because the necessary measurements are achievable experimentally in the near future. Taken together, we hypothesize that barrel cortex networks exhibit degree anti-correlations and specific network motif statistics. PMID:24223550

  5. Direct Coupling of Solid-Phase Microextraction with Mass Spectrometry: Sub-pg/g Sensitivity Achieved Using a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ionization Source.

    PubMed

    Mirabelli, Mario F; Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-07-19

    We report a new strategy for the direct coupling of Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) with mass spectrometry, based on thermal desorption of analytes extracted on the fibers, followed by ionization by a dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI) source. Limits of detection as low as 0.3 pg/mL and a linear dynamic range of ≥3 orders of magnitude were achieved, with a very simple and reproducible approach. Different from direct analysis in real time (DART), desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), or low-temperature plasma (LTP), the desorption of the analytes from the SPME devices in our setup is completely separated from the ionization event. This enhances the reproducibility of the method and minimizes ion suppression phenomena. The analytes were quantitatively transferred from the SPME to the DBDI source, and the use of an active capillary ionization embodiment of the DBDI source greatly enhanced the ion transmission to the MS. This, together with the extraordinary sensitivity of DBDI, allowed subpg/mL sensitivities to be reached and to skip conventional and time-consuming chromatographic separation. PMID:27332082

  6. Efficient dye regeneration at low driving force achieved in triphenylamine dye LEG4 and TEMPO redox mediator based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenxing; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hao, Yan; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2015-06-28

    Minimizing the driving force required for the regeneration of oxidized dyes using redox mediators in an electrolyte is essential to further improve the open-circuit voltage and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Appropriate combinations of redox mediators and dye molecules should be explored to achieve this goal. Herein, we present a triphenylamine dye, LEG4, in combination with a TEMPO-based electrolyte in acetonitrile (E(0) = 0.89 V vs. NHE), reaching an efficiency of up to 5.4% under one sun illumination and 40% performance improvement compared to the previously and widely used indoline dye D149. The origin of this improvement was found to be the increased dye regeneration efficiency of LEG4 using the TEMPO redox mediator, which regenerated more than 80% of the oxidized dye with a driving force of only ∼0.2 eV. Detailed mechanistic studies further revealed that in addition to electron recombination to oxidized dyes, recombination of electrons from the conducting substrate and the mesoporous TiO2 film to the TEMPO(+) redox species in the electrolyte accounts for the reduced short circuit current, compared to the state-of-the-art cobalt tris(bipyridine) electrolyte system. The diffusion length of the TEMPO-electrolyte based DSSCs was determined to be ∼0.5 μm, which is smaller than the ∼2.8 μm found for cobalt-electrolyte based DSSCs. These results show the advantages of using LEG4 as a sensitizer, compared to previously record indoline dyes, in combination with a TEMPO-based electrolyte. The low driving force for efficient dye regeneration presented by these results shows the potential to further improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSCs by utilizing redox couples and dyes with a minimal need of driving force for high regeneration yields. PMID:26016854

  7. The Effects of Head Start on Children's Kindergarten Retention, Reading and Math Achievement in Fall Kindergarten--An Application of Propensity Score Method and Sensitivity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), this paper applied optimal propensity score matching method to evaluate the effects of Head Start on children's kindergarten retention, reading and math achievement in fall kindergarten comparing with center-based care. Both parametric and nonparametric…

  8. Synthesis of grafted phosphorylcholine polymer layers as specific recognition ligands for C-reactive protein focused on grafting density and thickness to achieve highly sensitive detection.

    PubMed

    Kamon, Yuri; Kitayama, Yukiya; Itakura, Akiko N; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Toshifumi

    2015-04-21

    We studied the effects of layer thickness and grafting density of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) thin layers as specific ligands for the highly sensitive binding of C-reactive protein (CRP). PMPC layer thickness was controlled by surface-initiated activators generated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET ATRP). PMPC grafting density was controlled by utilizing mixed self-assembled monolayers with different incorporation ratios of the bis[2-(2-bromoisobutyryloxy)undecyl] disulfide ATRP initiator, as modulated by altering the feed molar ratio with (11-mercaptoundecyl)tetra(ethylene glycol). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize the modified surfaces. PMPC grafting densities were estimated from polymer thickness and the molecular weight obtained from sacrificial initiator during surface-initiated AGET ATRP. The effects of thickness and grafting density of the obtained PMPC layers on CRP binding performance were investigated using surface plasmon resonance employing a 10 mM Tris-HCl running buffer containing 140 mM NaCl and 2 mM CaCl2 (pH 7.4). Furthermore, the non-specific binding properties of the obtained layers were investigated using human serum albumin (HSA) as a reference protein. The PMPC layer which has 4.6 nm of thickness and 1.27 chains per nm(2) of grafting density showed highly sensitive CRP detection (limit of detection: 4.4 ng mL(-1)) with low non-specific HSA adsorption, which was improved 10 times than our previous report of 50 ng mL(-1). PMID:25783194

  9. Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells achieved through using Pt-free Nb2O5/C composite counter electrode and iodide-free redox couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Lu, Qi; Li, Wenyan; Li, Xiaowei; Hagfeldt, Anders; Zhang, Wenming; Wu, Mingxing

    2016-03-01

    To improve the catalytic activity of Nb2O5, a composite Nb2O5/C (Nb2O5 imbedded in carbon support) is synthesized with a simple in situ method and then introduced the composite into dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as a counter electrode (CE) catalyst. Based on the analysis of the cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Tafel-polarization curve measurements, the catalytic activity of the Nb2O5/C composite for the regeneration of iodide-free redox couples of polysulfide (T2/T-) and cobalt complex (Co3+/2+) is indeed enhanced significantly as compared with pure Nb2O5, because the composite electrode eliminates the particle aggregation and forms a mesoporous network structure with large pore size. The T2/T- electrolyte based DSCs with Nb2O5/C CE yields a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.11%, generating a great improvement of 63.8% as compared to the Pt CE based DSCs. In addition, the Nb2O5/C exhibits higher catalytic activity than Pt for regenerating the Co3+/2+ redox couple and the DSCs using Nb2O5/C CE shows a high PCE of 9.86%.

  10. These Shoes Are Made for Walking: Sensitivity Performance Evaluation of Commercial Activity Monitors under the Expected Conditions and Circumstances Required to Achieve the International Daily Step Goal of 10,000 Steps

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Kelly, Lisa; Murphy, Elaine; Beirne, Sorcha; Burke, Niall; Kilgannon, Orlaith; Quinlan, Leo R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a vitally important part of a healthy lifestyle, and is of major benefit to both physical and mental health. A daily step count of 10,000 steps is recommended globally to achieve an appropriate level of physical activity. Accurate quantification of physical activity during conditions reflecting those needed to achieve the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps is essential. As such, we aimed to assess four commercial activity monitors for their sensitivity/accuracy in a prescribed walking route that reflects a range of surfaces that would typically be used to achieve the recommended daily step count, in two types of footwear expected to be used throughout the day when aiming to achieve the recommended daily step count, and in a timeframe required to do so. Methods Four commercial activity monitors were worn simultaneously by participants (n = 15) during a prescribed walking route reflective of surfaces typically encountered while achieving the daily recommended 10,000 steps. Activity monitors tested were the Garmin Vivofit ™, New Lifestyles’ NL-2000 ™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2) ™, and Fitbit One ™. Results All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection over the variety of different surfaces tested (natural lawn grass, gravel, ceramic tile, tarmacadam/asphalt, linoleum), when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes. Conclusion All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection sensitivity and are valid monitors for physical activity quantification over the variety of different surfaces tested, when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes, and over a timeframe necessary for accumulating the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps. However, it is important to consider the accuracy of activity monitors, particularly when physical activity in the form of stepping activities is prescribed as an intervention in the

  11. Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection stacking for verteporfin drug to achieve highly sensitive enantioseparation and detection in artificial urine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongqi; Li, Aimei; Wang, Yongle; Chen, Zhilong; Hirokawa, Takeshi

    2014-08-15

    Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI) was applied for negatively charged verteporfin (VER) overloading and inline stacking, which targeted highly sensitive enantioseparation by CE. The essential step of PAEKI is a constant pressure used to counterbalance the electroosmotic flow (EOF), consequently, the large amount of analyte could be permitted into capillary and concentrated at the motionless boundary of the sample zone and background electrolyte (BGE). Aiming to know the balance, the velocity of the whole BGE in capillary by the impetus of pressure (0.2-2.0psi), and the velocity of EOF depending on the length of sample plug and voltage (5.0-20kV) was investigated, respectively. The velocity of bulk flow in capillary has good linearity with the pressure or applied voltage. Through the pattern of EOF marked peak and analyte peaks (dissolved in pure water), the constant pressure (0.8psi) vs. the added voltage (-10.3kV) during PAEKI was confirmed to immobilize the bulk flow of BGE, thus the sample injection time could sustain 2.0min without compromising separation efficiency. The obtained LOD (S/N=3) of each isomer at UV detection (428nm) was around 10.3μg/L, which was improved to 116 and 39-fold in comparison with normal hydrodynamic injection (HDI) and electrokinetic injection (EKI). The LOD is far below the reported value with LIF detection of VER. The RSD (n=5) of migration time and peak area was, respectively, around 3.5% and 5.7% for the proposed PAEKI method. Finally, PAEKI was used for the detection of VER in artificial urine to investigate the matrix interference. PMID:24951290

  12. The pH-tunable Oxidase-like Activity of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Achieves Sensitive Fluorigenic Detection of Cancer Biomarkers at Neutral pH

    PubMed Central

    Asati, Atul; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Santra, Santimukul; Perez, J Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The reliable and sensitive detection of cancer-specific biomarkers is important for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Hence, detection of these biomarkers has to be reliably and rapidly performed in diverse settings. A limitation of the conventional biomarker-screening method of ELISA is the employment of labile components, such as hydrogen peroxide and horseradish peroxidase. Previously, we reported that nanoceria is able to oxidize various colorimertic dyes at acidic pH, such as TMB and AzBTS, and an assay was designed for screening the folate receptor. Herein, we show that the ability of nanoceria to oxidize a substrate can be tuned by modulating the pH. Results showed that nanoceria can oxidize the non-fluorescent substrate ampliflu, either to the very stable fluorescent product resorufin at pH 7.0 or to the non-fluorescent resazurin at pH 4.0. Based on these findings, we conjugated Protein G to immobilize antibodies on the surface of nanoceria, in order to detect the expression of prototypic cancer biomarkers at pH 7.0, such as the folate receptor and EpCAM. We found that within 3 h, nanoceria identified the expression of the folate receptor and EpCAM on lung carcinoma and breast adenocarcinoma cells respectively. Traditional ELISA had a readout time of 15 h and a higher detection threshold, while requiring multiple washing steps. Considering these results and nanoceria’s ability to oxidize ampliflu to its stable fluorescent product at neutral pH, the use of antibody-carrying nanoceria in the lab and point-of-care molecular diagnostics is anticipated. PMID:21370817

  13. Second-order advantage achieved by modeling excitation-emission fluorescence matrices affected by inner filter effects using a strategy which combines standardization and calibration: reducing experimental and increasing analytical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Schenone, Agustina V; Culzoni, María J; Galera, María Martínez; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2013-05-15

    A methodology based on second-order data (excitation emission matrices) modeling with one of most popular algorithms presenting the second-order advantage, parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), combined with transference of calibration is proposed to predict the analyte concentration when significant inner filter effects occur, even in the presence of unexpected sample components. The quantitation of phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE) in water samples (concentrations ranged between 250 and 750 ng mL(-1)) in the presence of ibuprofen, acetyl salicylic acid and paracetamol (which produce inner filter effect across the useful wavelength range) was achieved. The strategy allows reducing the experimental work and increasing the analytical sensitivity in the determination of the analyte of interest in the presence of unexpected compounds and matrix effect caused by inner filter, avoiding the preparation of a large number of solutions and maintaining acceptable figures of merit. Recoveries between 97 and 102% for validation and real spiked water samples, respectively, and a relative prediction error of 5% were achieved. Results were compared with those obtained after the application of the classical standard addition method combined with PARAFAC, carrying out five additions to each sample, in triplicate. The presented methodology constitutes a simple and low-cost method for the determination of PHE in water samples with a considerable reduction in standard handling and time. This methodology can be extended to other systems presenting matrix effect and, consequently, can become in a useful tool to know the amount of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment and to evaluate the effect of conventional wastewater treatment plants in the elimination of pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:23618146

  14. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  15. Socio-Cognitive Correlates to School Achievement Using the TEMAS (Tell-Me-A-Story) Culturally Sensitive Test with Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grades At Risk Puerto Rican Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardalda, Elsa B.; Costantino, Giuseppe

    The Tell-Me-A-Story (TEMAS) Culturally Sensitive Test was administered to 74 Puerto Rican students in a New York City school in order to measure such personality resources as conflict resolution skills and cognitive structuring of narratives. The resulting data was used to examine the degree to which these early adolescents' personality resources…

  16. Study on Optical Filter Heating in Background Limited Detector Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, J.; de Visser, P. J.; Doyle, S.; Baselmans, J. J. A.

    2014-09-01

    Cryogenic test setups with controlled stray light environments capable of reaching ultra-low radiative background levels are required to test far infrared (FIR) and submillimeter (sub-mm) wave radiation detectors for future space based observatories. In recent experiments (Nature Commun 5:3130, 2014), in which 1.54 THz radiation was coupled onto an antenna-coupled kinetic inductance detector (KID), we found a higher than expected optical loading. We show that this can be explained by assuming heating of the metal mesh IR filters and re-radiation onto the KID. Note that the total power from the cryogenic black body source used in the experiments (at T = - K) is much larger than the power inside the - THz band we use to calibrate our detector. The out-of-band radiation can have up to 5 orders of magnitude more power than inside the - THz band of interest. A strategy to mitigate the filter heating problem is presented, and when it is implemented, the validated upper limit for stray light at the detector level is down to few aW.

  17. Mentoring Emotionally Sensitive Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Self, Elizabeth

    Mentoring individuals who are gifted, talented, and creative, but somewhat emotionally sensitive is a challenging and provocative arena. Several reasons individuals experience heightened sensitivity include: lack of nurturing, abuse, alcoholism in the family, low self-esteem, unrealistic parental expectations, and parental pressure to achieve.…

  18. Tuned cavity magnetometer sensitivity.

    SciTech Connect

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2009-09-01

    We have developed a high sensitivity (achieve similar sensitivity levels.

  19. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  20. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  1. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  2. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  3. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  4. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  5. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  6. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  7. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  8. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  9. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  3. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  4. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  5. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  8. Sensitivity of Achievement Estimation to Conditioning Model Misclassification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), and Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) use a sophisticated assessment administration design called matrix sampling that minimizes the testing burden on individual…

  9. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  10. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  11. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  12. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  13. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  14. Proven Strategies for Improving Learning & Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Duane

    The purpose of this book is to give student support personnel tools that: (1) will be recognized by educators as directly related to enhancing academic performance; (2) can be used with confidence that they will have the desired impact on achievement; and (3) are culturally sensitive. Chapters contain detailed presentation of the technology as…

  15. Climate Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Lindzen, Richard

    2011-11-09

    Warming observed thus far is entirely consistent with low climate sensitivity. However, the result is ambiguous because the sources of climate change are numerous and poorly specified. Model predictions of substantial warming aredependent on positive feedbacks associated with upper level water vapor and clouds, but models are notably inadequate in dealing with clouds and the impacts of clouds and water vapor are intimately intertwined. Various approaches to measuring sensitivity based on the physics of the feedbacks will be described. The results thus far point to negative feedbacks. Problems with these approaches as well as problems with the concept of climate sensitivity will be described.

  16. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  17. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  18. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  19. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  20. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  1. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  2. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  3. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  4. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  5. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  6. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  7. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  8. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  9. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  10. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  11. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  12. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  13. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  14. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  15. Gluten Sensitivity

    MedlinePlus

    Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. It is found mainly in foods but ... products like medicines, vitamins, and supplements. People with gluten sensitivity have problems with gluten. It is different ...

  16. Gluten Sensitivity

    MedlinePlus

    ... have problems with gluten. It is different from celiac disease, an immune disease in which people can't ... the symptoms of gluten sensitivity are similar to celiac disease. They include tiredness and stomachaches. It can cause ...

  17. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  18. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  19. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  20. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  1. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  2. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  3. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

  4. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  5. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  6. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  7. Gluten Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Catassi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome characterized by intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in subjects who are not affected by either celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA). The prevalence of NCGS is not clearly defined yet. Indirect evidence suggests that NCGS is slightly more common than CD, the latter affecting around 1% of the general population. NCGS has been mostly described in adults, particularly in females in the age group of 30-50 years; however, pediatric case series have also been reported. Since NCGS may be transient, gluten tolerance needs to be reassessed over time in patients with NCGS. NCGS is characterized by symptoms that usually occur soon after gluten ingestion, disappear with gluten withdrawal, and relapse following gluten challenge within hours/days. The 'classical' presentation of NCGS is a combination of irritable bowel syndrome-like symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, bowel habit abnormalities (either diarrhea or constipation), and systemic manifestations such as 'foggy mind', headache, fatigue, joint and muscle pain, leg or arm numbness, dermatitis (eczema or skin rash), depression, and anemia. In recent years, several studies explored the relationship between the ingestion of gluten-containing food and the appearance of neurological and psychiatric disorders/symptoms like ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, schizophrenia, autism, depression, anxiety, and hallucinations (so-called gluten psychosis). The diagnosis of NCGS should be considered in patients with persistent intestinal and/or extraintestinal complaints showing a normal result of the CD and WA serological markers on a gluten-containing diet, usually reporting worsening of symptoms after eating gluten-rich food. NCGS should not be an exclusion diagnosis only. Unfortunately, no biomarker is sensitive and specific enough for diagnostic purposes; therefore, the diagnosis of NCGS is currently based on

  8. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  9. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  10. Predicting Mathematics Achievement: The Influence of Prior Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Grootenboer, Peter; Kay, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Achievement in mathematics is inextricably linked to future career opportunities, and therefore, understanding those factors that influence achievement is important. This study sought to examine the relationships among attitude towards mathematics, ability and mathematical achievement. This examination was also supported by a focus on gender…

  11. Tuberculin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Eason, R J

    1987-06-01

    A prospective study of tuberculin sensitivity has been conducted among 3610 subjects under 20 years old in the Solomon Islands, Western Province. Mantoux positivity (greater than or equal to mm induration after 5 TU) fell from 81% during the 6 months following birth BCG vaccination to 13% for children aged 1-8 years of age among whom it was not significantly higher than the rate of 9% noted for unvaccinated subjects. Birth BCG does not, therefore, hinder the diagnostic usefulness of tuberculin testing for such children. For the study population as a whole, BCG-induced Mantoux positivity was restricted to induration under 15 mm diameter. Stronger responses were considered specific for tuberculin infection and indicated a prevalence rate that rose from 2% to 16% with age. Accelerated BCG reactions recorded among 45% of 162 tuberculin non-reactors under 8 years old indicated that the waning of tuberculin responsiveness at this time could not be equated with loss of clinical protection against tuberculosis. PMID:2441657

  12. High-Sensitivity Microwave Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, W. M., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a 3.33-cm wavelength (9 GHz) microwave system that achieves a high overall signal sensitivity and a well-collimated beam with moderate-size equipment. The system has been used to develop microwave versions of the Michelson interferometer, Bragg reflector, Brewster's law and total internal reflection, and Young's interference experiment.…

  13. [Research Reports on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latts, Sander; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Four counselors studied the relation between achievement and choice of major, achievement and motivation, counseling and motivation, and achievement and employment. To see if those with definite majors or career choices in mind did better than those without, 300 students were tested according to the certainty of their choice. No significant…

  14. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  15. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  16. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  17. CDF's Higgs sensitivity status

    SciTech Connect

    Junk, Tom; /Illinois U., Urbana

    2005-10-01

    The combined sensitivity of CDF's current Standard Model Higgs boson searches is presented. The expected 95% CL limits on the production cross section times the relevant Higgs boson branching ratios are computed for the W{sup {+-}}H {yields} {ell}{sup {+-}}{nu}b{bar b}, ZH {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}}b{bar b}, gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} W{sup {+-}}H {yields} W{sup {+-}}W{sup +}W{sup -} channels as they stand as of the October 2005, using results which were prepared for Summer 2005 conferences and a newer result form the gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} channel. Correlated and uncorrelated systematic uncertainties are taken into account, and the luminosity requirements for 95% CL exclusion, 3{sigma} evidence, and 5{sigma} discovery are computed for median experimental outcomes. A list of improvements required to achieve the sensitivity to a SM Higgs boson as quantified in the Higgs Sensitivity Working Group's report is provided.

  18. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  19. How Community College African American Students with or without a Father or Male Surrogate Presence at Home Develop Their Personal Identity, Academic Self-Concept, Race Theory, Social Sensitivity, Resiliency, and Vision of Their Own Success and the Influence on Their Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, A'lon Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research on African American students' academic achievement and the role mothers play in their child's academic development, few studies (Carter, 2008; Fordham, 1988) examined the role fathers play in the development of their child's academic achievement. The primary aim of this study was to examine how…

  20. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  1. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  2. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  3. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  4. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  5. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  6. General Achievement Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. The Process of Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  8. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  9. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  10. Motivational Factors in School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    A summary is presented of the literature on motivation relating to achievement in the classroom. Special attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns may serve to enhance motivation to achieve in the classroom. In considering what determines motivation and personal investment in educational pursuits, the following…

  11. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  12. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  15. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  16. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  17. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  18. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  19. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  20. Superintendent Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the influence of superintendent tenure on student achievement in rural Appalachian Kentucky school districts. Superintendent tenure was compared to aggregated student achievement scores for 2011 and to changes in students' learning outcomes over the course of the superintendents' tenure. The…

  1. Sensitivity Analysis in Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M. (Compiler); Haftka, Raphael T. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The symposium proceedings presented focused primarily on sensitivity analysis of structural response. However, the first session, entitled, General and Multidisciplinary Sensitivity, focused on areas such as physics, chemistry, controls, and aerodynamics. The other four sessions were concerned with the sensitivity of structural systems modeled by finite elements. Session 2 dealt with Static Sensitivity Analysis and Applications; Session 3 with Eigenproblem Sensitivity Methods; Session 4 with Transient Sensitivity Analysis; and Session 5 with Shape Sensitivity Analysis.

  2. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  3. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  4. Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-Lin; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Nature has chosen chlorophylls in plants as antennae to harvest light for the conversion of solar energy in complicated photosynthetic processes. Inspired by natural photosynthesis, scientists utilized artificial chlorophylls - the porphyrins - as efficient centres to harvest light for solar cells sensitized with a porphyrin (PSSC). After the first example appeared in 1993 of a porphyrin of type copper chlorophyll as a photosensitizer for PSSC that achieved a power conversion efficiency of 2.6%, no significant advance of PSSC was reported until 2005; beta-linked zinc porphyrins were then reported to show promising device performances with a benchmark efficiency of 7.1% reported in 2007. Meso-linked zinc porphyrin sensitizers in the first series with a push-pull framework appeared in 2009; the best cell performed comparably to that of a N3-based device, and a benchmark 11% was reported for a porphyrin sensitizer of this type in 2010. With a structural design involving long alkoxyl chains to envelop the porphyrin core to suppress the dye aggregation for a push-pull zinc porphyrin, the PSSC achieved a record 12.3% in 2011 with co-sensitization of an organic dye and a cobalt-based electrolyte. The best PSSC system exhibited a panchromatic feature for light harvesting covering the visible spectral region to 700 nm, giving opportunities to many other porphyrins, such as fused and dimeric porphyrins, with near-infrared absorption spectral features, together with the approach of molecular co-sensitization, to enhance the device performance of PSSC. According to this historical trend for the development of prospective porphyrin sensitizers used in PSSC, we review systematically the progress of porphyrins of varied kinds, and their derivatives, applied in PSSC with a focus on reports during 2007-2012 from the point of view of molecular design correlated with photovoltaic performance. PMID:23023240

  5. Lags in Minority Achievement Defy Traditional Explanations. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This second in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist notes that standard explanations for why minority students trail behind non-Hispanic whites are not good enough, suggesting that no single explanation for the gap exists, but instead a multitude of factors are influential. Poverty, though not the single most important cause,…

  6. Central Iowa Low Achiever Mathematics Project - Low Achiever Motivational Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joseph T.

    The materials in this booklet are designed especially for the low achieving student in mathematics. Containing some materials from a course in general mathematics, the booklet is intended to be used in conjunction with conventional textbook materials and is designed to serve as a source of new ideas for teachers and to relieve the teacher of much…

  7. High-sensitivity nanosensors for biomarker detection†

    PubMed Central

    Swierczewska, Magdalena; Liu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    High sensitivity nanosensors utilize optical, mechanical, electrical, and magnetic relaxation properties to push detection limits of biomarkers below previously possible concentrations. The unique properties of nanomaterials and nanotechnology are exploited to design biomarker diagnostics. High-sensitivity recognition is achieved by signal and target amplification along with thorough pre-processing of samples. In this tutorial review, we introduce the type of detection signals read by nanosensors to detect extremely small concentrations of biomarkers and provide distinctive examples of high-sensitivity sensors. The use of such high-sensitivity nanosensors can offer earlier detection of disease than currently available to patients and create significant improvements in clinical outcomes. PMID:22187721

  8. Metal-Free Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Sumit; Lin, Jiann T

    2016-06-01

    This review focuses on our work on metal-free sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Sensitizers based on D-A'-π-A architecture (D is a donor, A is an acceptor, A' is an electron-deficient entity) exhibit better light harvesting than D-π-A-type sensitizers. However, appropriate molecular design is needed to avoid excessive aggregation of negative charge at the electron-deficient entity upon photoexcitation. Rigidified aromatics, including aromatic segments comprising fused electron-excessive and -deficient units in the spacer, allow effective electronic communication, and good photoinduced charge transfer leads to excellent cell performance. Sensitizers with two anchors/acceptors, D(-π-A)2 , can more efficiently harvest light, inject electrons, and suppress dark current compared with congeners with a single anchor. Appropriate incorporation of heteroaromatic units in the spacer is beneficial to DSSC performance. High-performance, aqueous-based DSSCs can be achieved with a dual redox couple comprising imidazolium iodide and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-N-oxyl, and/or using dyes of improved wettability through the incorporation of a triethylene oxide methyl ether chain. PMID:27114164

  9. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  10. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  11. The Achievement-Assessment Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia; Husid, Whitney

    2011-01-01

    The recent recession, school budget cuts, and predictions of school libraries' demise because of technology advances put pressure on school librarians to prove the utility, relevance, and value of school libraries to student learning. While national studies document that school libraries increase student achievement, school librarians must…

  12. Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Research evidence shows that cooperative learning strategies are not equally effective, though most positively affect self-esteem, intergroup relations, and the ability to work with others. To produce achievement gains, these methods must include both a group goal and individual accountability. Includes 19 references. (MLH)

  13. Curricular Diversity and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Reginald

    1991-01-01

    Educational achievement should be intellectually and philosophically divorced from cultural affirmation, which is merely a byproduct of the inclusion of diverse voices in the search for truth. A model based on the relationship between the valuation of oneself by others and by oneself is presented to explain differential effects of schooling on…

  14. School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C.; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S.; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista

    2007-01-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for…

  15. Teacher Certification and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Patricia Lewis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to determine if there is a significant difference between the achievement of students who are taught by traditionally prepared teachers and that of students who are taught by alternatively prepared teachers. The study further addressed the perspectives of both groups of teachers regarding selected…

  16. Achieving Safety through Security Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, John

    Whilst the achievement of safety objectives may not be possible purely through the administration of an effective Information Security Management System (ISMS), your job as safety manager will be significantly eased if such a system is in place. This paper seeks to illustrate the point by drawing a comparison between two of the prominent standards within the two disciplines of security and safety management.

  17. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  18. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  19. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  20. Measuring and Recording Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Measuring and Recording Student Achievement Scoping Group was established by Universities UK and the Standing Conference of Principals (SCOP), with the support of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in October 2003 to review the recommendations from the UK Government White Paper "The Future of Higher Education" relating…

  1. Academic Achievement in Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basque, Marc; Bouchamma, Yamina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of achievement in mathematics in elementary schools in New Brunswick (Canada). Data Collection: Both teachers and school leaders (N = 111) completed a questionnaire on their practices and on school functioning. Findings: Multiple regression analyses revealed that the students'…

  2. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  3. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

  4. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  5. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  6. Believing and Achieving. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerald, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    This research brief takes a look at the role of teacher efficacy-how teachers' beliefs in their own abilities affect student achievement. The brief examines the influence of perceived efficacy and building teacher confidence (social persuasion, collegiality, and shared decision making). It concludes by asserting that more positive steps must be…

  7. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  8. Achieving Ideological Change within Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Dennis R.

    Psychologists who are interested in the nature of ideology and the achievement of social change generally focus their primary theoretical and empirical attention on those people outside academia who are trying to change or to prevent change in one political sphere or another. There may be some value in looking at psychology and psychologists as…

  9. Five Standards and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, R. William; Hilberg, R. Soleste; Pinal, America; Tharp, Roland G.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies examine the influence of the Standards for Effective Pedagogy on student achievement gains. Participants were 15 teachers and 266 students (grades 3 to 5) in a public elementary school serving predominantly low-income Latino English Language Learners (ELLs). Implications for teaching practice and research are discussed. (Author/VWL)

  10. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  11. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  12. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  13. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  14. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  15. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  16. How Sensitively Timed Are Sensitive Periods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zener, Rita Schaefer

    2003-01-01

    Reviews Maria Montessori's view of sensitive periods and examines the kinds of help needed from adults: an open mind, specific help from a prepared learning environment, and challenges presented at the right time. Stresses the universality of sensitive periods and their connection to brain development. Focuses on the unconscious nature and…

  17. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  18. High Sensitivity Optically Pumped Quantum Magnetometer

    PubMed Central

    Tiporlini, Valentina; Alameh, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Quantum magnetometers based on optical pumping can achieve sensitivity as high as what SQUID-based devices can attain. In this paper, we discuss the principle of operation and the optimal design of an optically pumped quantum magnetometer. The ultimate intrinsic sensitivity is calculated showing that optimal performance of the magnetometer is attained with an optical pump power of 20 μW and an operation temperature of 48°C. Results show that the ultimate intrinsic sensitivity of the quantum magnetometer that can be achieved is 327 fT/Hz1/2 over a bandwidth of 26 Hz and that this sensitivity drops to 130 pT/Hz1/2 in the presence of environmental noise. The quantum magnetometer is shown to be capable of detecting a sinusoidal magnetic field of amplitude as low as 15 pT oscillating at 25 Hz. PMID:23766716

  19. Nano-textured high sensitivity ion sensitive field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajmirzaheydarali, M.; Sadeghipari, M.; Akbari, M.; Shahsafi, A.; Mohajerzadeh, S.

    2016-02-01

    Nano-textured gate engineered ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs), suitable for high sensitivity pH sensors, have been realized. Utilizing a mask-less deep reactive ion etching results in ultra-fine poly-Si features on the gate of ISFET devices where spacing of the order of 10 nm and less is achieved. Incorporation of these nano-sized features on the gate is responsible for high sensitivities up to 400 mV/pH in contrast to conventional planar structures. The fabrication process for this transistor is inexpensive, and it is fully compatible with standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor fabrication procedure. A theoretical modeling has also been presented to predict the extension of the diffuse layer into the electrolyte solution for highly featured structures and to correlate this extension with the high sensitivity of the device. The observed ultra-fine features by means of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy tools corroborate the theoretical prediction.

  20. Sensitive observations with the Spacelab 2 infrared telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E. T.; Rieke, G. H.; Gautier, T. N.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Low, F. J.; Poteet, W.; Fazio, G. G.; Koch, D.; Traub, W. A.; Urban, E. W.

    The small helium-cooled infrared telescope (Spacelab IRT) is a multiband instrument capable of highly sensitive observations from space. The experiment consists of a cryogenically cooled, very well baffled telescope with a ten channel focal plane array. During the Spacelab 2 flight of the Space Shuttle, this instrument will make observations between 5 and 120 micron wavelength that will be background limited by the expected zodiacal emission. Design considerations necessitated by this level of performance are discussed in this paper. In particular, the operation of a very sensitive focal plane array in the space environment is described. The Spacelab IRT will be used to map the extended, low-surface brightness celestial emission. During the seven day length of the mission better than 70 percent sky coverage is expected. The instrument will also be used to measure the infrared contamination environment of the Space Shuttle. This information will be important in the development of the next generation of infrared astronomical instruments. The performance of the Spacelab IRT, in particular its sensitivity to the contamination environment is detailed.

  1. Sensitive far-IR survey spectroscopy: BLISS for SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, C. M.; Kenyon, Matt; Holmes, Warren; Bock, James; Koch, Timothy

    2008-07-01

    We present a concept for BLISS, a sensitive far-IR-submillimeter spectrograph for SPICA. SPICA is a JAXA-led mission featuring a 3.5-meter telescope actively cooled to below 5K, envisioned for launch in 2017. The low-background platform is especially compelling for moderate-resolution survey spectroscopy, for which BLISS is designed. The BLISS / SPICA combination will offer line sensitivities below 10-20W m-2 in modest integrations, enabling rapid survey spectroscopy of galaxies out to redshift 5. The far-IR fine-structure and molecular transitions which BLISS / SPICA will measure are immune to dust extinction, and will unambiguously reveal these galaxies' redshifts, stellar and AGN contents, gas properties, and heavy-element abundances. Taken together, such spectra will reveal the history of galaxies from 1 GY after the Big Bang to the present day. BLISS is comprised of five sub-bands, each with two R ~ 700 grating spectrometer modules. The modules are configured with polarizing and dichroic splitters to provide complete instantaneous spectral coverage in two sky positions. To approach background-limited performance, BLISS detectors must have sensitivities at or below 5 × 10-20W Hz-1/2, and the format is 10 arrays of several hundred pixels each. It is anticipated that these requirements can be met on SPICA's timescale with leg-isolated superconducting (TES) bolometers cooled with a 50 mK magnetic refrigerator.

  2. Accuracy of Pressure Sensitive Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Guille, M.; Sullivan, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Uncertainty in pressure sensitive paint (PSP) measurement is investigated from a standpoint of system modeling. A functional relation between the imaging system output and luminescent emission from PSP is obtained based on studies of radiative energy transports in PSP and photodetector response to luminescence. This relation provides insights into physical origins of various elemental error sources and allows estimate of the total PSP measurement uncertainty contributed by the elemental errors. The elemental errors and their sensitivity coefficients in the error propagation equation are evaluated. Useful formulas are given for the minimum pressure uncertainty that PSP can possibly achieve and the upper bounds of the elemental errors to meet required pressure accuracy. An instructive example of a Joukowsky airfoil in subsonic flows is given to illustrate uncertainty estimates in PSP measurements.

  3. Noise sensitivity: A neurophenomenological perspective.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel M

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the current limitations of noise sensitivity research and the benefit of undertaking a neurophenomenological approach of investigation. It begins by questioning the invariance of noise sensitivity across different studies and contexts and argues that these are issues associated with the psychometric construct rather than the underlying reaction patterns. It suggest that our definition and operationalization of noise sensitivity might have been misspecified and that it needs to be revised on the basis of heuristically derived first-person data about our experiences of noise. It then shows why the basic principles of the neurophenomenological program are applicable to psychoacoustic research. Namely, it argues that phenomenological training leading to reflexive introspection and verbalization of our susceptibility to noise might have three-fold implication - (i) it will generate deeper understanding of noise sensitivity which will then allow us to deduce a hierarchical structure of meaning and concepts to supplement and be fed to quantitative research, (ii) it will provide better interpretation of neuroimaging and electroencephalographic data related to noise reaction and perception, which in turn will allow a process of reciprocal validation, (iii) and, most importantly, it presents a promising technique for emotional regulation of noise processing via modulation of the amygdalar function, when a state of awareness of this processing has been achieved. PMID:26315447

  4. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski. PMID:20624042

  5. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency. PMID:16846117

  6. Trends in the Black-White Achievement Gap: Clarifying the Meaning of Within- and Between-School Achievement Gaps. NBER Working Paper No. 14213

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Lindsay C.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2008-01-01

    We decompose black-white achievement gap trends between 1971 and 2004 into trends in within- and between-school differences. We show that the previous finding that narrowing within-school inequality explains most of the decline in the black-white achievement gap between 1971 and 1988 is sensitive to methodology. Employing a more detailed partition…

  7. Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The Austin Independent School District (AISD) office of Research and Evaluation presents Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82 (BSA). The BSA answers the following questions: (1) How does AISD student achievement compare to student achievement nationwide? (2) How does AISD's 1981-82 student achievement compare to the achievement of students in past…

  8. Pressure Sensitive Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Bencic, T.; Sullivan, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews new advances and applications of pressure sensitive paints in aerodynamic testing. Emphasis is placed on important technical aspects of pressure sensitive paint including instrumentation, data processing, and uncertainty analysis.

  9. Dynamical compactness and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen; Khilko, Danylo; Kolyada, Sergiĭ; Zhang, Guohua

    2016-05-01

    To link the Auslander point dynamics property with topological transitivity, in this paper we introduce dynamically compact systems as a new concept of a chaotic dynamical system (X , T) given by a compact metric space X and a continuous surjective self-map T : X → X. Observe that each weakly mixing system is transitive compact, and we show that any transitive compact M-system is weakly mixing. Then we discuss the relationships between it and other several stronger forms of sensitivity. We prove that any transitive compact system is Li-Yorke sensitive and furthermore multi-sensitive if it is not proximal, and that any multi-sensitive system has positive topological sequence entropy. Moreover, we show that multi-sensitivity is equivalent to both thick sensitivity and thickly syndetic sensitivity for M-systems. We also give a quantitative analysis for multi-sensitivity of a dynamical system.

  10. Achieving a Strongly Temperature-Dependent Casimir Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Woolf, David; Capasso, Federico; McCauley, Alexander P.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2010-08-06

    We propose a method of achieving large temperature T sensitivity in the Casimir force that involves measuring the stable separation between dielectric objects immersed in a fluid. We study the Casimir force between slabs and spheres using realistic material models, and find large >2 nm/K variations in their stable separations (hundreds of nanometers) near room temperature. In addition, we analyze the effects of Brownian motion on suspended objects, and show that the average separation is also sensitive to changes in T. Finally, this approach also leads to rich qualitative phenomena, such as irreversible transitions, from suspension to stiction, as T is varied.

  11. Latest achievements in PET techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Guerra, Alberto; Belcari, Nicola; Motta, Alfonso; Di Domenico, Giovanni; Sabba, Nicola; Zavattini, Guido

    2003-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has moved from a distinguished research tool in physiology, cardiology and neurology to become a major tool for clinical investigation in oncology, in cardiac applications and in neurological disorders. Much of the PET accomplishments is due to the remarkable improvements in the last 10 years both in hardware and software aspects. Nowadays a similar effort is made by many research groups towards the construction of dedicated PET apparatus in new emerging fields such as molecular medicine, gene therapy, breast cancer imaging and combined modalities. This paper reports on some recent results we have obtained in small animal imaging and positron emission mammography, based on the use of advanced technology in the field of scintillators and photodetectors, such as Position-Sensitive Detectors coupled to crystal matrices, combined use of scintillating fibers and Hybrid-Photo-Diodes readout, and Hamamatsu flat panels. New ideas and future developments are discussed.

  12. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  13. Achieving Quality in Occupational Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, Michele (Editor); Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The conference convened approximately 100 registered participants of invited guest speakers, NASA presenters, and a broad spectrum of the Occupational Health disciplines representing NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Centers. Centered on the theme, "Achieving Quality in Occupational Health," conferees heard presentations from award winning occupational health program professionals within the Agency and from private industry; updates on ISO 9000 status, quality assurance, and information technologies; workshops on ergonomics and respiratory protection; an overview from the newly commissioned NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team; and a keynote speech on improving women's health. In addition, NASA occupational health specialists presented 24 poster sessions and oral deliveries on various aspects of current practice at their field centers.

  14. Sensitivity Test Analysis

    1992-02-20

    SENSIT,MUSIG,COMSEN is a set of three related programs for sensitivity test analysis. SENSIT conducts sensitivity tests. These tests are also known as threshold tests, LD50 tests, gap tests, drop weight tests, etc. SENSIT interactively instructs the experimenter on the proper level at which to stress the next specimen, based on the results of previous responses. MUSIG analyzes the results of a sensitivity test to determine the mean and standard deviation of the underlying population bymore » computing maximum likelihood estimates of these parameters. MUSIG also computes likelihood ratio joint confidence regions and individual confidence intervals. COMSEN compares the results of two sensitivity tests to see if the underlying populations are significantly different. COMSEN provides an unbiased method of distinguishing between statistical variation of the estimates of the parameters of the population and true population difference.« less

  15. Increasing Sensitivity In Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Sensitivity of continuous-flow electrophoresis (CFE) chamber increased by introducing lateral gradients in concentration of buffer solution and thickness of chamber. Such gradients, with resulting enhanced separation, achieved in CFE chamber with wedge-shaped cross section and collateral flow. Enables improved separations of homogeneous components of mixtures of variety of biologically important substances.

  16. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research. PMID:24064502

  17. Competency-Based Achievement System

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Shelley; Poth, Cheryl N.; Donoff, Michel; Humphries, Paul; Steiner, Ivan; Schipper, Shirley; Janke, Fred; Nichols, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Family medicine residency programs require innovative means to assess residents’ competence in “soft” skills (eg, patient-centred care, communication, and professionalism) and to identify residents who are having difficulty early enough in their residency to provide remedial training. Objective of program To develop a method to assess residents’ competence in various skills and to identify residents who are having difficulty. Program description The Competency-Based Achievement System (CBAS) was designed to measure competence using 3 main principles: formative feedback, guided self-assessment, and regular face-to-face meetings. The CBAS is resident driven and provides a framework for meaningful interactions between residents and advisors. Residents use the CBAS to organize and review their feedback, to guide their own assessment of their progress, and to discern their future learning needs. Advisors use the CBAS to monitor, guide, and verify residents’ knowledge of and competence in important skills. Conclusion By focusing on specific skills and behaviour, the CBAS enables residents and advisors to make formative assessments and to communicate their findings. Feedback indicates that the CBAS is a user-friendly and helpful system to assess competence. PMID:21918129

  18. High-Sensitivity GaN Microchemical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Yang, Baohua; Liao, Anna; Moon, Jeongsun; Prokopuk, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Systematic studies have been performed on the sensitivity of GaN HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) sensors using various gate electrode designs and operational parameters. The results here show that a higher sensitivity can be achieved with a larger W/L ratio (W = gate width, L = gate length) at a given D (D = source-drain distance), and multi-finger gate electrodes offer a higher sensitivity than a one-finger gate electrode. In terms of operating conditions, sensor sensitivity is strongly dependent on transconductance of the sensor. The highest sensitivity can be achieved at the gate voltage where the slope of the transconductance curve is the largest. This work provides critical information about how the gate electrode of a GaN HEMT, which has been identified as the most sensitive among GaN microsensors, needs to be designed, and what operation parameters should be used for high sensitivity detection.

  19. Force sensitivity of multilayer graphene optomechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, P.; Güttinger, J.; Noury, A.; Vergara-Cruz, J.; Bachtold, A.

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical resonators based on low-dimensional materials are promising for force and mass sensing experiments. The force sensitivity in these ultra-light resonators is often limited by the imprecision in the measurement of the vibrations, the fluctuations of the mechanical resonant frequency and the heating induced by the measurement. Here, we strongly couple multilayer graphene resonators to superconducting cavities in order to achieve a displacement sensitivity of 1.3 fm Hz-1/2. This coupling also allows us to damp the resonator to an average phonon occupation of 7.2. Our best force sensitivity, 390 zN Hz-1/2 with a bandwidth of 200 Hz, is achieved by balancing measurement imprecision, optomechanical damping, and measurement-induced heating. Our results hold promise for studying the quantum capacitance of graphene, its magnetization, and the electron and nuclear spins of molecules adsorbed on its surface.

  20. Force sensitivity of multilayer graphene optomechanical devices

    PubMed Central

    Weber, P.; Güttinger, J.; Noury, A.; Vergara-Cruz, J.; Bachtold, A.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical resonators based on low-dimensional materials are promising for force and mass sensing experiments. The force sensitivity in these ultra-light resonators is often limited by the imprecision in the measurement of the vibrations, the fluctuations of the mechanical resonant frequency and the heating induced by the measurement. Here, we strongly couple multilayer graphene resonators to superconducting cavities in order to achieve a displacement sensitivity of 1.3 fm Hz−1/2. This coupling also allows us to damp the resonator to an average phonon occupation of 7.2. Our best force sensitivity, 390 zN Hz−1/2 with a bandwidth of 200 Hz, is achieved by balancing measurement imprecision, optomechanical damping, and measurement-induced heating. Our results hold promise for studying the quantum capacitance of graphene, its magnetization, and the electron and nuclear spins of molecules adsorbed on its surface. PMID:27502017

  1. Force sensitivity of multilayer graphene optomechanical devices.

    PubMed

    Weber, P; Güttinger, J; Noury, A; Vergara-Cruz, J; Bachtold, A

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical resonators based on low-dimensional materials are promising for force and mass sensing experiments. The force sensitivity in these ultra-light resonators is often limited by the imprecision in the measurement of the vibrations, the fluctuations of the mechanical resonant frequency and the heating induced by the measurement. Here, we strongly couple multilayer graphene resonators to superconducting cavities in order to achieve a displacement sensitivity of 1.3 fm Hz(-1/2). This coupling also allows us to damp the resonator to an average phonon occupation of 7.2. Our best force sensitivity, 390 zN Hz(-1/2) with a bandwidth of 200 Hz, is achieved by balancing measurement imprecision, optomechanical damping, and measurement-induced heating. Our results hold promise for studying the quantum capacitance of graphene, its magnetization, and the electron and nuclear spins of molecules adsorbed on its surface. PMID:27502017

  2. The Cognitive Determinants of Achieving Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andy

    A cognitive explanation of achievement-related behavior is developed. It is suggested that high and low achievers diverge behaviorally in the achievement situation because they conceptualize the causes of success and failure in different ways. The results of a study are presented which show that subjects high in achievement needs tend to attribute…

  3. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  4. Affiliation Motivation and Hawaiian-American Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallimore, Ronald

    1974-01-01

    Fantasy "n" affiliation (nAff) was correlated with reading achievement test scores, but not math achievement test scores, for a sample of 67 Hawaiian-American high school students. There was no relationship between "n" Ach and achievement test scores. The process linking "n" Aff and Hawaiian American achievement was suggested to involve…

  5. Closing the Achievement Gap: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robards, Shirley N.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the achievement gap between low- and high-achieving public school students is an important goal of public education. This article explores background information and research and discusses examples of best practices to close the achievement gap. Several plans have been proposed as ways to enhance the achievement of under-represented…

  6. Overview of low temperature sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.J.; McCright, R.D.

    1983-12-01

    A review of the literature on low temperature sensitization (LTS) has been conducted to determine if LTS-related microstructural changes can occur in Type 304L stainless steel within the times and temperatures associated with nuclear waste storage. It was found that Type 304L stainless steel is susceptible to sensitization and LTS, and that cold work plays an important role in determining the rate of LTS. Severely cold worked Type 304L stainless steel would clearly develop LTS-related microstructural changes within the times and temperatures associated with nuclear waste storage. These changes could lead to increased susceptibility to corrosion. Significant improvements in the long-term resistance to sensitization, LTS and corrosion can be achieved by modest changes in alloy composition and fabrication practices. Therefore, Type 304L would not be the preferred alloy of construction for nuclear waste storage canisters. The final qualification of an alternate canister alloy should involve corrosion experiments on actual canisters. Suggestions for alternate canister alloys are 316L, 316LN, 316ELC, 347, and XM-19. 47 references, 4 figures.

  7. Comparison of the Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test and Bender-Gestalt: Relationship with Achievement Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Gerald B.; Wallbrown, Fred H.

    1983-01-01

    Compared the Bender Gestalt (BD) and Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test (MPD) in predicting academic achievement for younger children (N=69). Results suggested that the MPD is more sensitive than the Bender in identifying visual-motor perception areas of achievement performance problems. (LLL)

  8. Achievement Motivation across Cultures: Some Puzzles and Their Implications for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufton, Neil; Elliott, Julian G.; Illushin, Leonid

    2002-01-01

    Discusses findings of a cross-cultural study of the relation between self-perception of academic competence and achievement, and attribution of achievement to effort or ability. Considers problems in fitting Anglo-American motivation theory with Russian schooling practice. Calls for culturally sensitive, multimethod approaches in which individual…

  9. Chemotherapy sensitivity testing in human tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, H G; Billington, R W

    1981-01-01

    We have attempted to establish in vitro growth in a consecutive series of 245 malignant tumours submitted for routine histopathology. Initially, three disaggregation procedures were used: mechanical separation, digestion by trypsin, and digestion by collagenase. The resulting cell fractions had varying success rates in establishing growth. Abundant epithelial cell growth was achieved in monolayer culture in 63 tumours, and the sensitivity of the cells to cytotoxic agents was tested. There was no indiscriminate cytotoxic effect, and each tumour type varied in its sensitivity from one patient's lesion to another. While testing of all solid tumours is not possible with present-day techniques, we believe that the employment of in vitro sensitivity testing as a routine procedure may be possible in the future if a suitable system giving correlation between in vitro and in vivo sensitivity can be developed. Images PMID:7240421

  10. Are Psychopaths Morally Sensitive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Bruce; Le Sage, Leonie

    2009-01-01

    Philosophical and psychological opinion is divided over whether moral sensitivity, understood as the ability to pick out a situation's morally salient features, necessarily involves emotional engagement. This paper seeks to offer insight into this question. It reasons that if moral sensitivity does draw significantly on affective capacities of…

  11. The Relationship among Achievement Motivation Orientations, Achievement Goals, and Academic Achievement and Interest: A Multiple Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.; Patrick, Rosan R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the relationships among achievement motivation orientations and academic achievement and interest and whether achievement goals mediate these relationships. A sample of 503 students aged 14-16 years from 8 secondary schools in two Australia cities responded to a questionnaire package, comprising measures…

  12. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  13. Achieving a Launch on Demand Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to place payloads [satellites] into orbit as and when required, often referred to as launch on demand, continues to be an elusive and yet largely unfulfilled goal. But what is the value of achieving launch on demand [LOD], and what metrics are appropriate? Achievement of a desired level of LOD capability must consider transportation system thruput, alternative transportation systems that comprise the transportation architecture, transportation demand, reliability and failure recovery characteristics of the alternatives, schedule guarantees, launch delays, payload integration schedules, procurement policies, and other factors. Measures of LOD capability should relate to the objective of the transportation architecture: the placement of payloads into orbit as and when required. Launch on demand capability must be defined in probabilistic terms such as the probability of not incurring a delay in excess of T when it is determined that it is necessary to place a payload into orbit. Three specific aspects of launch on demand are considered: [1] the ability to recover from adversity [i.e., a launch failure] and to keep up with the steady-state demand for placing satellites into orbit [this has been referred to as operability and resiliency], [2] the ability to respond to the requirement to launch a satellite when the need arises unexpectedly either because of an unexpected [random] on-orbit satellite failure that requires replacement or because of the sudden recognition of an unanticipated requirement, and [3] the ability to recover from adversity [i.e., a launch failure] during the placement of a constellation into orbit. The objective of this paper is to outline a formal approach for analyzing alternative transportation architectures in terms of their ability to provide a LOD capability. The economic aspect of LOD is developed by establishing a relationship between scheduling and the elimination of on-orbit spares while achieving the desired level of on

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

  15. The Intersection of Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbull, Elise; Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    Achievement motivation is something that all members of the school community want to support in students, however few may recognize that it is influenced by culture. The very meaning of "achievement" is culturally variable, and the motives that students have for achieving may be quite different, depending upon their cultural background. The…

  16. Property Value and Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Is there a relationship between the dollar value of property behind each student in a school district and student achievement on standardized tests (or achievement in general)? This paper explains that probably due to the relationship between property taxes and school funding, there is a strong link between property value and student achievement.…

  17. School District Organization and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidwell, Charles E.; Kasarda, John D.

    1975-01-01

    Study examines determinants of organizational effectiveness. Results indicate that pupil-teacher ratio and administrative intensity depress median levels of achievement; whereas, staff qualifications foster student achievement. The percentage of non-whites is said to have a consistently significant direct effect on median achievement level.…

  18. The Influence of Poverty on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt, poverty has a negative influence on student achievement, especially when achievement is measured by state-mandated standardized tests. However, some bureaucrats, such as state commissioners of education and even state governors, continue to downplay the influence of poverty on student achievement. New Jersey's Governor Chris…

  19. Reducing Measurement Error in Student Achievement Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero; Gori, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    The achievement level is a variable measured with error, that can be estimated by means of the Rasch model. Teacher grades also measure the achievement level but they are expressed on a different scale. This paper proposes a method for combining these two scores to obtain a synthetic measure of the achievement level based on the theory developed…

  20. Changes in Achievement Motivation among University Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresel, Markus; Grassinger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Changes in achievement motivation over the first semester of university studies were examined with N = 229 freshmen, who were surveyed twice in the present study. Students' academic self-concepts, achievement goals, and subjective values were chosen as theoretically central components of achievement motivation. The results indicated significant…

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Vermont, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Vermont for 2010. Vermont's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white, low-income,…

  2. The Ohio Vocational Education Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Instructional Materials Lab.

    The Ohio Vocational Achievement Tests are specially designed instruments for use by teachers, supervisors, and administrators to evaluate and diagnose vocational achievement for improving instruction in secondary vocational programs at the 11th and 12th grade levels. This guide explains the Ohio Vocational Achievement Tests and how they are used.…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wyoming, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wyoming for 2010. Wyoming's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, Latino, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white,…

  4. Examining the Stability of Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Edwards, Ordene

    2009-01-01

    We examined stability and change in students' achievement goal orientations over varying tasks. Two naturalistic longitudinal studies were conducted in undergraduate courses. Students completed self-reports designed to measure their achievement goals. Achievement goals were measured four times: prior to two assignments and two exams. Four…

  5. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  6. Self-Beliefs and Student Goal Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Caroline J.; Derrer-Rendall, Nicola M.

    2011-01-01

    Two preliminary studies are presented investigating the self-beliefs that may affect goal achievement in a student population. In Study 1, goal achievement on an abstract task, where goals are externally set by others, is considered in relation to students' levels of optimism. In Study 2, goal achievement on academic performance, where goals are…

  7. [Contrast sensitivity in glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Bartos, D

    1989-05-01

    Author reports on results of the contrast sensitivity examinations using the Cambridge low-contrast lattice test supplied by Clement Clarke International LTD, in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. In glaucoma patients there was observed statistically significant decrease of the contrast sensitivity. In patients with ocular hypertension decrease of the contrast sensitivity was in patients affected by corresponding changes of the visual field and of the optical disc. The main advantages of the Cambridge low-contrast lattice test were simplicity, rapidity and precision of its performance. PMID:2743444

  8. UV curable pressure sensitive adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-12-01

    Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA`s) have become a ubiquitous element in our society, so much so, that the relative status of a society can be determined by the per capita consumption of PSA`s. We discuss new monomers as components of PSA formulations which enable adhesion to be achieved on a variety of substrates. Since solventless coating systems are desirable, the UV PSA market is of utmost importance to meeting the strict environmental guidelines now being imposed worldwide. In addition, highly ethoxylated monomers have shown promise in water dispersed PSA formulations, and a self-emulsifying acrylate monomer has been developed to offer dispersive abilities without using traditional emulsifying agents. This talk will focus on the effects of the materials described on properties of adhesive strength and shear strength in UV PSA formulations.

  9. Achieving BLISS: Challenges for Building Fast, Ultra-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Andrew D.; Runyan, M. C.; Kenyon, M.; Echternach, P. M .; Chui, T.; Bumble, B.; Bradford, C. M.; Holmes, W. A.; Bock, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Topics: 1.Motivation and Intro to TESs. 2. BLISS Specifications-tolerance to dark power. 3.Measuring stray (dark) power-Tc (alpha) and G measurements. a) Overview two methods: JTD vs. TES. b) TES arrays: measurement and complications for Pd, Tc, and alpha. 4. Results: Pd compare, NEP, tau, 1/f issues. LIRGs and ULIRGs: Excellent example of distinct optical/UV and IR luminosity. Interaction long known, but huge luminosity is not predicted based on optical studies. (greater than 90% of the energy is emitted at in the far-IR). Large luminosity has both starburst and accretion components.

  10. Visual sustained attention and numerosity sensitivity correlate with math achievement in children.

    PubMed

    Anobile, Giovanni; Stievano, Paolo; Burr, David C

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated in school-age children the relationship among mathematical performance, the perception of numerosity (discrimination and mapping to number line), and sustained visual attention. The results (on 68 children between 8 and 11 years of age) show that attention and numerosity perception predict math scores but not reading performance. Even after controlling for several variables, including age, gender, nonverbal IQ, and reading accuracy, attention remained correlated with math skills and numerosity discrimination. These findings support previous reports showing the interrelationship between visual attention and both numerosity perception and math performance. It also suggests that attentional deficits may be implicated in disturbances such as developmental dyscalculia. PMID:23933254

  11. Superconductive quantum interference magnetometer with high sensitivity achieved by an induced resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Vettoliere, A.; Granata, C.

    2014-08-15

    A fully integrated low noise superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in a magnetometer configuration is presented. An intrinsic high voltage responsivity as high as 500 μV/Φ{sub 0} has been obtained by introducing a resonance in the voltage – magnetic flux characteristic. This resonance is induced by an integrated superconducting coil surrounding the pick-up coil and connected to one end of the SQUID output. The SQUID magnetometer exhibits a spectral density of magnetic field noise as low as 3 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. In order to verify the suitability of the magnetometer, measurements of bandwidth and slew rate have been performed and compared with those of the same device without the resonance and with additional positive feedback. Due to their good characteristics such devices can be employed in a large number of applications including biomagnetism.

  12. Achieving Citizenship Goals: Demonstrations, Engagement, and Sensitivity in Social Studies. Current Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Roberta

    1993-01-01

    Questions how the goal of participatory citizenship can be taught within the typical classroom environment. Argues that the hidden curriculum, textbooks, and instructional methods do not provide opportunities to see citizenship in action or ways to practice it. Recommends providing students with choices and opportunities for engagement in some…

  13. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  14. Optimization of measurements with pressure sensitive paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglesby, Donald M.; Puram, Chith K.; Upchurch, Billy T.

    1995-01-01

    Use of luminescent paints for the measurement of global pressures on wind tunnel model surfaces requires a full understanding of the inherent accuracy of the technique. Theoretical emission of the paint luminophor follows the well known Stern-Volmer relation. Inherent in this relation are fundamental limits to achievable sensitivity and accuracy. Equations for relative error in pressure as a function of relative signal intensity (emittance), relative error in pressure as a function of pressure, and the relationship between sensitivity and pressure are derived and represented graphically.

  15. Fiber specklegram sensors sensitivities at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Cobo, L.; Lomer, M.; Lopez-Higuera, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the sensitivity of Fiber Specklegram Sensors to high temperatures (up to 800ºC) have been studied. Two multimode silica fibers have been introduced into a tubular furnace while a HeNe laser source was launched into a fiber edge, projecting speckle patterns to a commercial webcam. A computer generated different heating and cooling sweeps while the specklegram evolution was recorded. The achieved results exhibit a remarkably linearity in FSS's sensitivity for temperatures under 800ºC, following the thermal expansion of fused silica.

  16. Sensitivity of photoacoustic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Junjie; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Building on its high spatial resolution, deep penetration depth and excellent image contrast, 3D photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) has grown tremendously since its first publication in 2005. Integrating optical excitation and acoustic detection, PAM has broken through both the optical diffusion and optical diffraction limits. PAM has 100% relative sensitivity to optical absorption (i.e., a given percentage change in the optical absorption coefficient yields the same percentage change in the photoacoustic amplitude), and its ultimate detection sensitivity is limited only by thermal noise. Focusing on the engineering aspects of PAM, this Review discusses the detection sensitivity of PAM, compares the detection efficiency of different PAM designs, and summarizes the imaging performance of various endogenous and exogenous contrast agents. It then describes representative PAM applications with high detection sensitivity, and outlines paths to further improvement. PMID:25302158

  17. Constrained sensitivity theory

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, E.; Williams, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    In sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of to-be-built reactors it is customary to use k-reset sensitivity functions - accounting for the combined effects of the change (or uncertainty) in the input data and of the alteration in some design variable applied to maintain criticality. Critical reactors are usually subjected to several constraints, such as power peaking factor and breeding ratio constraints, in addition to the criticality constraint. Perturbation theory formulations which can account, simultaneously, for several constraints both in critical reactors and in source driven systems (such as radiation shields and blankets of fusion devices) are presented. All the sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of source driven systems carried out so far used unconstrained sensitivity functions despite the fact that such systems can be also subjected to a variety of constraints.

  18. Contact sensitization in children.

    PubMed

    Manzini, B M; Ferdani, G; Simonetti, V; Donini, M; Seidenari, S

    1998-01-01

    Our study concerns contact sensitization in children, the frequency of which is still debated in the literature, even though specific reports are increasing. During a 7 year period (1988-1994) 670 patients, 6 months to 12 years of age, were patch tested with the European standard series, integrated with 24 haptens, at the same concentrations as for adults. We observed positive results in 42% of our patients. Thimerosal, nickel sulfate, Kathon CG, fragrance mix, neomycin, wool alcohols, and ammoniated mercury induced most of the positive responses. The highest sensitization rate was found in children from 0 to 3 years of age. Comments on main positive haptens are reported. Seventy-seven percent of our sensitized patients were atopics, suggesting that atopy represents a predisposing factor for contact hypersensitivity. Patch testing represents a useful diagnostic procedure for the definition of childhood eczematous dermatitis and for the identification of agents inducing contact sensitization which is frequently associated with atopic dermatitis. PMID:9496796

  19. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The results of a LISA telescope sensitivity analysis will be presented, The emphasis will be on the outgoing beam of the Dall-Kirkham' telescope and its far field phase patterns. The computed sensitivity analysis will include motions of the secondary with respect to the primary, changes in shape of the primary and secondary, effect of aberrations of the input laser beam and the effect the telescope thin film coatings on polarization. An end-to-end optical model will also be discussed.

  20. Sensitive Far-Infrared Survey Spectroscopy: Bliss For Spica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Charles; BLISS-SPICA Study Team

    2009-01-01

    We present a concept for BLISS, a sensitive far-IR-submillimeter spectrograph for SPICA. SPICA is a JAXA-led mission featuring a 3.5-meter telescope actively cooled to below 5K, envisioned for launch in 2017. The low-background platform is especially compelling for moderate-resolution survey spectroscopy, for which BLISS is designed. The BLISS / SPICA combination will offer line sensitivities below 1e-20 W/m^2 in modest integrations, enabling rapid survey spectroscopy of galaxies out to redshift 5. The far-IR fine-structure and molecular transitions which BLISS / SPICA will measure are immune to dust extinction, and will unambiguously reveal these galaxies' redshifts, stellar and AGN contents, gas properties, and heavy-element abundances. Taken together, such spectra will reveal the history of of star formation and AGN activity in dusty galaxies from 1 GY after the Big Bang to the present day. BLISS is comprised of five sub-bands, each with two R 700 grating spectrometer modules. The modules are configured with polarizing and dichroic splitters to provide complete instantaneous spectral coverage in two sky positions. A chopping mirror modulates the source between these two sets of spectrometers. To approach background-limited performance with the cold telescope, BLISS detectors must have sensitivities below 1e-19 W/Hz^1/2, and the format is 10 arrays of several hundred pixels each. It is anticipated that these requirements can be met on SPICA's timescale with leg-isolated superconducting (TES) bolometers cooled with a 50 mK magnetic refrigerator.

  1. Academic Attitudes of High Achieving and Low Achieving Academically Able Black Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, John Rhodes

    1981-01-01

    In order to identify the relationships between the attitudes and perceptions of peer pressure and the academic achievement of academically able male adolescents, this study compares the school attitudes of high achieving and low achieving Black male youth. (EF)

  2. Achieving quality excellence at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, S.M.; Taggart, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Quality assurance methods at the Diablo Canyon plant were transformed from the then typical industry practices that often alienated professional and technical people, as well as craftsmen and their foremen, to a cooperative method that allowed plant personnel to work together as a team. It has created an attitude to do it right the first time. The roles of quality professionals were expanded to include teaching and coaching to facilitate enhanced communication between and within functional organizations. This included regular presentations to managers and line personnel in an informal group participative atmosphere. These presentations have become widely known at the plant as quality awareness tailboard sessions. These presentations are intended to increase personnel sensitivity to the subject of quality and quality management. Economic achievement of excellence in quality is essential to remain competitive in today's marketplace. The proactive team-oriented approach of quality assurance achieves the bottom line of high quality with concurrently enhanced productivity and cost-effectiveness.

  3. Gluten Sensitivity Presenting as a Neuropsychiatric Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Lobo, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    There has been increasing recognition in the medical community and the general public of the widespread prevalence of gluten sensitivity. Celiac disease (CD) was initially believed to be the sole source of this phenomenon. Signs and symptoms indicative of nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), in which classical serum and intestinal findings of CD may be absent, have been frequently reported of late. Clinical manifestations in patients with NCGS are characteristically triggered by gluten and are ameliorated or resolved within days to weeks of commencing a gluten-free diet. Emerging scientific literature contains several reports linking gluten sensitivity states with neuropsychiatric manifestations including autism, schizophrenia, and ataxia. A clinical review of gluten sensitivity is presented alongside a case illustrating the life-changing difference achieved by gluten elimination in a patient with a longstanding history of auditory and visual hallucinations. Physicians in clinical practice should routinely consider sensitivity issues as an etiological determinant of otherwise inexplicable symptoms. Pathophysiologic mechanisms to explain the multisystem symptomatology with gluten sensitivity are considered. PMID:24693281

  4. Allergic sensitization: screening methods.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Fry, Jeremy; Goodman, Richard; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Madsen, Charlotte B; Penninks, André; Pomés, Anna; Roggen, Erwin L; Smit, Joost; Wal, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Experimental in silico, in vitro, and rodent models for screening and predicting protein sensitizing potential are discussed, including whether there is evidence of new sensitizations and allergies since the introduction of genetically modified crops in 1996, the importance of linear versus conformational epitopes, and protein families that become allergens. Some common challenges for predicting protein sensitization are addressed: (a) exposure routes; (b) frequency and dose of exposure; (c) dose-response relationships; (d) role of digestion, food processing, and the food matrix; (e) role of infection; (f) role of the gut microbiota; (g) influence of the structure and physicochemical properties of the protein; and (h) the genetic background and physiology of consumers. The consensus view is that sensitization screening models are not yet validated to definitively predict the de novo sensitizing potential of a novel protein. However, they would be extremely useful in the discovery and research phases of understanding the mechanisms of food allergy development, and may prove fruitful to provide information regarding potential allergenicity risk assessment of future products on a case by case basis. These data and findings were presented at a 2012 international symposium in Prague organized by the Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute's Health and Environmental Sciences Institute. PMID:24739743

  5. Sensitivity Analysis Without Assumptions

    PubMed Central

    VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2016-01-01

    Unmeasured confounding may undermine the validity of causal inference with observational studies. Sensitivity analysis provides an attractive way to partially circumvent this issue by assessing the potential influence of unmeasured confounding on causal conclusions. However, previous sensitivity analysis approaches often make strong and untestable assumptions such as having an unmeasured confounder that is binary, or having no interaction between the effects of the exposure and the confounder on the outcome, or having only one unmeasured confounder. Without imposing any assumptions on the unmeasured confounder or confounders, we derive a bounding factor and a sharp inequality such that the sensitivity analysis parameters must satisfy the inequality if an unmeasured confounder is to explain away the observed effect estimate or reduce it to a particular level. Our approach is easy to implement and involves only two sensitivity parameters. Surprisingly, our bounding factor, which makes no simplifying assumptions, is no more conservative than a number of previous sensitivity analysis techniques that do make assumptions. Our new bounding factor implies not only the traditional Cornfield conditions that both the relative risk of the exposure on the confounder and that of the confounder on the outcome must satisfy but also a high threshold that the maximum of these relative risks must satisfy. Furthermore, this new bounding factor can be viewed as a measure of the strength of confounding between the exposure and the outcome induced by a confounder. PMID:26841057

  6. Allergic sensitization: screening methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Experimental in silico, in vitro, and rodent models for screening and predicting protein sensitizing potential are discussed, including whether there is evidence of new sensitizations and allergies since the introduction of genetically modified crops in 1996, the importance of linear versus conformational epitopes, and protein families that become allergens. Some common challenges for predicting protein sensitization are addressed: (a) exposure routes; (b) frequency and dose of exposure; (c) dose-response relationships; (d) role of digestion, food processing, and the food matrix; (e) role of infection; (f) role of the gut microbiota; (g) influence of the structure and physicochemical properties of the protein; and (h) the genetic background and physiology of consumers. The consensus view is that sensitization screening models are not yet validated to definitively predict the de novo sensitizing potential of a novel protein. However, they would be extremely useful in the discovery and research phases of understanding the mechanisms of food allergy development, and may prove fruitful to provide information regarding potential allergenicity risk assessment of future products on a case by case basis. These data and findings were presented at a 2012 international symposium in Prague organized by the Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute’s Health and Environmental Sciences Institute. PMID:24739743

  7. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  8. Absolute sensitivity calibration of extreme ultraviolet photoresists

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Juanita; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Aquila, Andrew; George, Simi; Niakoula, Dimitra

    2008-05-16

    One of the major challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography remains simultaneously achieving resist sensitivity, line-edge roughness, and resolution requirement. Sensitivity is of particular concern owing to its direct impact on source power requirements. Most current EUV exposure tools have been calibrated against a resist standard with the actual calibration of the standard resist dating back to EUV exposures at Sandia National Laboratories in the mid 1990s. Here they report on an independent sensitivity calibration of two baseline resists from the SEMATECH Berkeley MET tool performed at the Advanced Light Source Calibrations and Standards beamline. The results show the baseline resists to be approximately 1.9 times faster than previously thought based on calibration against the long standing resist standard.

  9. Diaphragm based high sensitive FBG pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengal Rao, P.; Srimannarayana, K.; Sai Shankar, M.; Kishore, P.

    2013-06-01

    A high sensitive pressure sensor based on Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) integrated with a thin metal diaphragm was designed and demonstrated. To enhance the pressure sensitivity FBG is firmly glued across the diameter of the diaphragm. Under pressure, the diaphragm deforms and produces an induced strain along the length of the fiber causes shift in Bragg wavelength of the FBG. Pressure measurement is made by measuring the Bragg wavelength shift against change in pressure. The sensor was tested up to the maximum pressure of 140 psi and the corresponding pressure sensitivity was found to be 0.0204 nm/psi, which is approximately 970 times higher than that can be achieved with a bare FBG. The experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical results and possess good linearity and repeatability. This sensor can be used for the measurement of medium pressure, liquid level and depth of underwater.

  10. Polycrystalline silicon ion sensitive field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Estrela, P.; Mo, Y.; Migliorato, P.; Maeda, H.; Inoue, S.; Shimoda, T.

    2005-01-01

    We report the operation of polycrystalline silicon ion sensitive field effect transistors. These devices can be fabricated on inexpensive disposable substrates such as glass or plastics and are, therefore, promising candidates for low cost single-use intelligent multisensors. In this work we have developed an extended gate structure with a Si3N4 sensing layer. Nearly ideal pH sensitivity (54mV /pH) and stable operation have been achieved. Temperature effects have been characterized. A penicillin sensor has been fabricated by functionalizing the sensing area with penicillinase. The sensitivity to penicillin G is about 10mV/mM, in solutions with concentration lower than the saturation value, which is about 7 mM.

  11. CONTINUOUSLY SENSITIVE BUBBLE CHAMBER

    DOEpatents

    Good, R.H.

    1959-08-18

    A radiation detector of the bubble chamber class is described which is continuously sensitive and which does not require the complex pressure cycling equipment characteristic of prior forms of the chamber. The radiation sensitive element is a gas-saturated liquid and means are provided for establishing a thermal gradient across a region of the liquid. The gradient has a temperature range including both the saturation temperature of the liquid and more elevated temperatures. Thus a supersaturated zone is created in which ionizing radiations may give rise to visible gas bubbles indicative of the passage of the radiation through the liquid. Additional means are provided for replenishing the supply of gas-saturated liquid to maintaincontinuous sensitivity.

  12. Sensitivity analysis of SPURR

    SciTech Connect

    Witholder, R.E.

    1980-04-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute has conducted a limited sensitivity analysis on a System for Projecting the Utilization of Renewable Resources (SPURR). The study utilized the Domestic Policy Review scenario for SPURR agricultural and industrial process heat and utility market sectors. This sensitivity analysis determines whether variations in solar system capital cost, operation and maintenance cost, and fuel cost (biomass only) correlate with intuitive expectations. The results of this effort contribute to a much larger issue: validation of SPURR. Such a study has practical applications for engineering improvements in solar technologies and is useful as a planning tool in the R and D allocation process.

  13. RESRAD parameter sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J.J.; Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.

    1991-08-01

    Three methods were used to perform a sensitivity analysis of RESRAD code input parameters -- enhancement of RESRAD by the Gradient Enhanced Software System (GRESS) package, direct parameter perturbation, and graphic comparison. Evaluation of these methods indicated that (1) the enhancement of RESRAD by GRESS has limitations and should be used cautiously, (2) direct parameter perturbation is tedious to implement, and (3) the graphics capability of RESRAD 4.0 is the most direct and convenient method for performing sensitivity analyses. This report describes procedures for implementing these methods and presents a comparison of results. 3 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Dual-Polarization-Sensitive Kinetic Inductance Detectors for Balloon-borne Sub-millimeter Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubmayr, J.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Brevik, J. A.; Cho, H. M.; Che, G.; Devlin, M.; Dober, B.; Gao, J.; Galitzki, N.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Li, D.; Mauskopf, P.; Pappas, D. P.; Van Lanen, J.; Vissers, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    We are developing arrays of kinetic inductance detectors for sub-millimeter polarimetry that will be deployed on the BLAST balloon-borne instrument. The array is feedhorn-coupled, and each pixel contains two lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) made of TiN. The absorbing, inductive sections of the LEKID-pair are orthogonal, which allows simultaneous measurement of both horizontal and vertical polarizations within one spatial pixel. In this paper, we show efficient absorption in TiN films when coupled to waveguide at room temperature and present dark measurements of single polarization devices with varying capacitor geometries. We show that it will be difficult to achieve background-limited performance in BLAST with stoichiometric TiN films with T K, and that non-stoichiometric films with lower T will be required.

  15. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  16. Self-Efficacy and Achievement Goals as Motivational Links between Perceived Contexts and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yi; Song, Juyeon; Lee, Minhye; Bong, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to investigate (a) how the subjectively perceived achievement goals of significant others would predict the academic self-efficacy and achievement goals of Korean adolescents and (b) how those self-efficacy and achievement goals in turn predicted their achievement. We also compared these predictive…

  17. Genetics Home Reference: warfarin sensitivity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions warfarin sensitivity warfarin sensitivity Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Warfarin sensitivity is a condition in which individuals have a ...

  18. Personality, Approaches to Learning and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanberg, Anne Berit; Martinsen, Oyvind Lund

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between the five-factor model of personality, approaches to learning and academic achievement. Based on the previous research, we expected approaches to have a mediating effect between personality and academic achievement. Six hundred and eighty-seven business students participated in a survey; 56%…

  19. Multimedia Technology and Students' Achievement in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaSilva, Edmar Bernardes; Kvasnak, Robb Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this study done at a community college in South Florida, the achievements of students who spoke English as their second language who had attended their K-12 education outside the United States in their home countries, in a U.S. college course on world geography are compared with the achievements of students in the same classes who spoke English…

  20. The Literacy Achievement of Norwegian Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Rita; Roe, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the literacy achievement of Norwegian minority students, their reading habits, and their enjoyment of reading based on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 study. Aspects of their family background and attitudes towards school are related to literacy achievement results. A comparison between Denmark,…

  1. Closing the Achievement Gap. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The "achievement gap" is a matter of race and class. Across the U.S., a gap in academic achievement persists between minority and disadvantaged students and their white counterparts. This is one of the most pressing education-policy challenges that states currently face. For decades, policymakers, researchers, and school reformers have sought ways…

  2. Debating Values: Race, Class and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Penny

    2008-01-01

    The relationships among race, class and academic achievement are complex, yet have been well documented in Canada for the last thirty years. Generations of students have experienced them--lowered expectations for achievement, gross generalizations about parents' backgrounds and aspirations, negative stereotypes of communities, and curricula that…

  3. Mathematics Achievement: Do Teachers Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Ahmad Farid; Ismail, Noor Azina

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of gender of teachers, teachers' qualification, experience and training on mathematics achievement among eighth grade students in Malaysia using data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003. Only gender of teachers has significant influence on student's achievement in mathematics.

  4. Cognitive Style, Operativity, and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.

    1984-01-01

    This developmental study was designed to examine the effects of field dependence-independence and level of operational development on the reading achievement of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Field dependence-independence had no significant effect on reading achievement, but high-operational students scored significantly higher than…

  5. Mathematics Coursework Regulates Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), we examined the extent to which students' mathematics coursework regulates (influences) the rate of growth in mathematics achievement during middle and high school. Graphical analysis showed that students who started middle school with higher achievement took individual mathematics…

  6. School Achievement Strongly Predicts Midlife IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, Ruth; Arndt, Stephan; Caspers, Kristin; Yucuis, Rebecca; McKirgan, L. William; Pfalzgraf, Christopher; Waterman, Elijah

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between measures of IQ and standardized school achievement tests is well established at around r~0.5 when the two are measured in close proximity. The current paper examined the stability of this correlation when comparing elementary school achievement (grades 3-8) and midlife IQ. Iowa Adoption Study participants who had…

  7. Attitudes and Achievement of Bruneian Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. Results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. (Contains 46 references.)…

  8. Psychological Adjustment and Academic Achievement among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood

    2015-01-01

    This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…

  9. The Determinants of Student Achievement in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, M. A.; Uysal, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent achievement test results show that Turkish students have been performing poorly compared to students from other countries. Using science literacy results from the PISA 2006 survey, we aim to measure the determinants of student achievement in Turkey within the education production function framework. We find that program types have large…

  10. Modern Elementary Science Curricula and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ben Afton

    Comparisons of the growth in science achievement of 2,000 elementary science students in six elementary science programs used in Southwestern Michigan were made. Relationships between students' ranking in class, the type of school, sex and growth in achievement were sought, as well as relationships among teacher variables (pre-service science…

  11. The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly publication for parents and community leaders from the Office of Communications and Outreach, U.S. Department of Education. This issue contains the following articles: (1) President Seeks to Build on Law's Results; (2) Bridging the Gap: Ohio Charter School Surmounts Age, Achievement Barriers; (3) Spellings'…

  12. Achieving Communicative Competence Through Gambits and Routines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siskin, H. Jay; Spinelli, Emily

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the importance of conversational gambits and routines in achieving second language communicative competence and then presents a model which uses telephone conversations as a means of achieving this goal. Exercises for drilling and testing gambits and routines are also presented. (Author/CB)

  13. Health and Nutrition: Preconditions for Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negussie, Birgit

    This paper discusses the importance of maternal and infant health for children's educational achievement. Education, health, and nutrition are so closely related that changes in one causes changes in the others. Improvement of maternal and preschooler health and nutrition is a precondition for improved educational achievement. Although parental…

  14. A Multivariate Model of Achievement in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, MarLynn; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that several key variables influence student achievement in geometry, but no research has been conducted to determine how these variables interact. A model of achievement in geometry was tested on a sample of 102 high school students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among…

  15. Motivation and Achievement: A Quantitative Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret E.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    Using analysis of variance and regression techniques, the authors analyzed the results of 40 studies that were conducted between 1953 and 1976 and contained 232 correlations between various measures of motivation and achievement. The motivation variables were restricted to students' achievement motivation, locus-of-control perceptions, and general…

  16. Motivation and Achievement: A Quantitative Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret E.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1979-01-01

    To estimate correlation between motivation and achievement, correlations from a calibration sample of 22 studies and a validation sample of 18 studies were analyzed using analysis of variance and regression techniques. Grade level was the only significant student characteristic; motivation and achievement were more highly correlated in later…

  17. Program for Area Concentration Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Anthony J.

    The Program for Area Concentration Achievement Testing (PACAT) produces the cooperative assessment instrument known as the Area Concentration Achievement Test (ACAT). The ACAT uses a model designed specifically to measure curricular strengths and weaknesses and to provide this information at the departmental level. PACAT has developed 57…

  18. Razalas' Grouping Method and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to raise the achievement level of students in Integral Calculus using Direct Instruction with Razalas' Method of Grouping. The study employed qualitative and quantitative analysis relative to data generated by the Achievement Test and Math journal with follow-up interview. Within the framework of the limitations of the study, the…

  19. Education Watch: Achievement Gap Summary Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Trust, Washington, DC.

    These summary tables focus on the state-by-state academic achievement of African American, Hispanic American, American Indian, Asian American, and white students. Data are presented on achievement gains by state (4th grade reading scale scores, 1992-1998; 8th grade science and scale scores, 1996-2000; 4th grade math scale scores, 1992-2000; and…

  20. A Historical Perspective on Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Although much has been written recently about gaps in the achievement of different groups of students, the problem has been with us for many years. This manuscript presents a historical perspective of the problem, viewing it as one of reducing variation in students' achievement. Specifically, it reviews the work of renowned educator Benjamin S.…

  1. Black Students: Psychosocial Issues and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Gordon LaVern, Ed.; Asamen, Joy Keiko, Ed.

    This collection examines the history and current status of the economic, political, social, and psychological factors that influence the academic achievement of low-income African Americans. The introduction, "Afro-American Students and Academic Achievement" (J. K. Asamen), outlines the historical development of black education and previews the…

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), California students made gains across the board in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math, there were some declines at the basic achievement level. In terms of…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Idaho, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Idaho for 2010. Idaho showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Latino and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. The state has also made progress in narrowing achievement gaps between Latino and white…

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Arizona students showed mostly gains in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math, there were gains at all three achievement levels in grade 8 for these subgroups.…

  5. Youth Perspectives of Achievement: Is Money Everything?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matope, Jasmine; Badroodien, Azeem

    2015-01-01

    This article draws from a qualitative research project completed at Victoria High School (pseudonym) in Cape Town in 2012 which explored 13 learners' perspectives of achievement and its influence on their lives and thinking. The piece problematises and analyses taken-for-granted connections between money, achievement, youth aspirations and views…

  6. Self Regulated Learning of High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathod, Ami

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted on high achievers of Senior Secondary school. Main objectives were to identify the self regulated learners among the high achievers, to find out dominant components and characteristics operative in self regulated learners and to compare self regulated learning of learners with respect to their subject (science and non…

  7. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the…

  8. Brain Wave Analysis and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barry; And Others

    The Brain Wave Analyzer (BWA Ertl 02) was used to measure the brain potentials of 110 public school children. Resulting scores were correlated with concurrent measures of school achievement. Results indicate that certain brain wave scores have relatively low correlations with school achievement compared to traditional intelligence measures but may…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kansas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kansas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kansas students showed across-the-board gains--both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and…

  10. Professional Learning Communities Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jan L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the Professional Learning Community model on student achievement in the state of California. Specifically, the study compared student achievement between two school types: Professional Learning Community schools and Non Professional Learning schools. The research utilized existing API scores for California schools…

  11. Gifted Student Academic Achievement and Program Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Katrina Ann Woolsey

    2010-01-01

    Gifted academic achievement has been identified as a major area of interest for educational researchers. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether there was a relation between the quality of gifted programs as perceived by teachers, coordinators and supervisors of the gifted and the achievement of the same gifted students in 6th and 7th…

  12. Self-Esteem and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Anne E.; Burbach, Harold J.

    This study investigated the directionality of the relationship between self-esteem and reading achievement in 286 students in Lynchburg, Virginia. During the first year of the three-year study, subjects were fourth, fifth, and sixth graders. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the SRA Achievement Series subscales were administered; sex and…

  13. Teaching for Successful Intelligence Raises School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Torff, Bruce; Grigorenko, Elena

    1998-01-01

    A "successful intelligence" intervention improved school achievement for a group of 225 ethnically diverse third-graders, both on performance assessments measuring analytical, creative, and practical achievements and on conventional multiple-choice memory assessments. Teaching for triarchic thinking facilitates factual recall, because learning…

  14. Reducing the White-Nonwhite Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Madelaine

    It is well documented that there continues to be a gap between white and nonwhite student achievement. A study develops and tests a measure of white-nonwhite achievement gap reduction. The ultimate purpose is to use the measure as the dependent variable in a qualitative study of what works in reducing the gap. The strategy used in addressing this…

  15. Computer Use, Parental Expectations, & Latino Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taningco, Maria Teresa V.; Pachon, Harry P.

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, traditionally underrepresented minority children have lower levels of academic achievement than their white counterparts. In the broadest perspective, this quantitative study seeks to help stakeholders and policymakers understand the factors responsible for Hispanic or Latino student achievement relative to that of comparison…

  16. Using Records of Achievement in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiter, Alison, Ed.; Shaw, Eileen, Ed.

    This collection of 22 essays examines the use of records of achievement (student profiles or portfolios) in higher and vocational education in the United Kingdom. They include: (1) "Records of Achievement: Background, Definitions, and Uses" (Alison Assiter and Eileen Shaw); (2) "Profiling in Higher Education" (Alison Assiter and Angela Fenwick);…

  17. Type A Performance Standards and Goal Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Clay H.

    Achievement striving is a central dimension of the Type A behavior pattern. To investigate the relationship between Type A behavior pattern, personal performance goals, and goal achievement on two general information tests, 126 undergraduates participated in a two-phase study. First, behavior patterns were assessed using the Framingham Type A…

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps between…

  19. Student Achievement and National Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Luo, Xiaowei; Schofer, Evan; Meyer, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Educational policy around the world has increasingly focused on improving aggregate student achievement as a means to increase economic growth. In the last two decades, attention has focused especially on the importance of achievement in science and mathematics. Yet, the policy commitments involved have not been based on research evidence. The…

  20. Mathematics Achievement in Rural Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.

    This digest examines the best evidence available on mathematics achievement in rural schools and offers recommendations for further research. Findings on the mathematics achievement of secondary students are presented, based on analyses of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1996 and 2000, the Longitudinal Study of American…

  1. School Choice and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility is examined that school choice programs could be a means to reducing the achievement gap. Data based on meta-analytic research and the examination of nationwide data sets suggest that school choice programs that include private schools could reduce the achievement gap by 25%. The propounding of this possibility is based on research…

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Michigan showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Massachusetts, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Massachusetts for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Massachusetts showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low…

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Delaware students showed consistent gains in math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were mixed results in reading. Achievement gaps narrowed in both reading and math in…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Florida students showed gains almost across the board in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Progress has been made in narrowing achievement gaps in both…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kentucky, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kentucky for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kentucky showed mostly gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls.…

  7. Six Motivational Reasons for Low School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Reiss ("The normal personality: a new way of thinking about people." Cambridge University Press, New York, 2008) empirically derived a reliable and valid taxonomy of 16 life motives ("psychological needs"). The model suggests six motivational reasons for low achievement in school. Low achievement may be motivated by fear of failure (high need for…

  8. Exploring the Psychological Predictors of Programming Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Aydin, Emin; Kabaca, Tolga

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to explore the predictors of programming achievement. With this aim in mind, the students' success in the programming courses is specified as the dependent variable and creativity, problem solving, general aptitudes, computer attitudes and mathematics achievement are specified as the independent variables. A…

  9. Korean Experience and Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the transition of Korean education reform and to weigh Korean experience and achievement in contemporary higher education. The paper first of all illustrates a historical perspective on higher education in light of educational reform. Secondly, this study reviews the achievements of Korean higher education…

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), New Mexico showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major racial/ethnic subgroups and low-income students. Progress in narrowing achievement gaps at grades 4, 8,…

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Missouri showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Pennsylvania showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and boys and girls. Achievement gaps generally narrowed at grades 4 and 8 but…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Alabama students showed gains across the board in reading and math--at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Progress was made in narrowing achievement gaps between racial/ethnic…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Texas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Texas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Texas showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nevada, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Nevada for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nevada showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Illinois students showed mostly gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There was mixed progress made in narrowing achievement gaps in reading and math…

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Rhode Island showed gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for most racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and boys and girls. Achievement gaps between students narrowed in most cases at grades 4 and 8.…

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  20. The Constraints of Poverty on High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.; Beilke, Jayne R.

    2008-01-01

    Research studies on school success often focus on the impact of discrete elements such as race, culture, ethnicity, gender, language, or school location on high achievement. The condition of poverty, however, may be the most important of all student differences in relation to high achievement; although not all schools have racial diversity, nearly…

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), New York showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major subgroups with just a few exceptions. Achievement gaps in reading and math also narrowed at grades 4 and 8 for most…

  2. Schooling and Achievement in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, William H.; And Others

    This book is an outgrowth of an interdisciplinary seminar on achievement processes. The 15 chapters of this book are distributed into three substantive sections. Part One includes a series of chapters dealing in one way or another with achievement in the life cycle. One chapter discusses the causes and consequences of higher education and…

  3. Maryland's Achievements in Public Education, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents Maryland's achievements in public education for 2011. Maryland's achievements include: (1) Maryland's public schools again ranked #1 in the nation in Education Week's 2011 Quality Counts annual report; (2) Maryland ranked 1st nationwide for a 3rd year in a row in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on…

  4. Sex Differences in Adults' Motivation to Achieve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Achievement motivation is considered a prerequisite for success in academic as well as non-academic settings. We studied sex differences in academic and general achievement motivation in an adult sample of 338 men and 497 women (ages 18-70 years). Multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA) for ordered categorical data was used…

  5. A Better Way to Motivate Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Many low income, minority schools in California are within 100 points of closing the achievement gap, a prize worth working for no matter how inconvenient, uncomfortable, or risky. In this article, the author describes a better way to motivate educators to try new things that will accelerate student learning and close the achievement gap. The…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Mississippi, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Mississippi for 2010. Mississippi made changes to its state testing program in the 2007-08 school year. Therefore, subgroup and achievement gap trends could not be calculated because fewer than three consecutive years of data were available, too short a period to constitute a…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  8. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, G.R.

    1999-08-03

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system is described which uses passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor. 1 fig.

  9. The Emotionally Sensitive Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Lehtonen, Kimmo

    This paper provides a list of signs, symptoms, and indicators of emotionally sensitive adolescents includes clinging behavior, withdrawn behavior, shy/inhibited behavior, represses anger, poor reaction to criticism, makes self-disparaging statements, low self-esteem, "can't forgive self or others," ruined by a small critical comment, exploding…

  10. High-Sensitivity Spectrophotometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Selected high-sensitivity spectrophotometric methods are examined, and comparisons are made of their relative strengths and weaknesses and the circumstances for which each can best be applied. Methods include long path cells, noise reduction, laser intracavity absorption, thermocouple calorimetry, photoacoustic methods, and thermo-optical methods.…

  11. Sensitization of Parker fittings

    SciTech Connect

    Wilber, W.W.

    1985-09-01

    At your request, ferrules from 316 SS Parker-Hannifen compression fittings at the FFTF have been examined and evaluated to determine the metallurgical condition as related to carbide precipitation in grain boundaries (known as sensitization) and the implications this may have with regard to corrosion resistance. To accomplish this, two ferrules from new stock, two ferrules from old stock and two ferrules that had seen service were examined metallurgically. The samples were prepared for optical metallography. They were viewed in both the etched and unetched condition and analyzed on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for elemental content. It was confirmed that the ferrules from new stock had a 5 mil thick nitrided layer on the ferrule ID at the lead end and that the 316 SS ferrule material was in the sensitized condition, indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The material from old stock had no nitride layer but was in the sensitized condition indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The ferrules that had seen service had not been nitrided and were not sensitized indicating high resistance to aqueous corrosion.

  12. Sensitization of stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, James P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this experiment is to determine the corrosion rates of 18-8 stainless steels that have been sensitized at various temperatures and to show the application of phase diagrams. The laboratory instructor will assign each student a temperature, ranging from 550 C to 1050 C, to which the sample will be heated. Further details of the experimental procedure are detailed.

  13. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    1999-01-01

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

  14. UNITEC SENS-IT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The UniTec Sens-It is a small gas-sensing device that can measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This sensor is used to measure VOCs in applications such as urban air quality, roadside pollution, and (solid waste) landfill monitoring. This operating procedure explains what yo...

  15. Visual sensitivity tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A.

    1972-01-01

    Testing device uses closed loop film cassettes to project programmed visual stimuli on screen which the observer views through a lens making the stimuli appear to be at optical infinity. Tester is useful for determining changes in glautomatous visual field sensitivity.

  16. Achieving zero stress in iridium, chromium, and nickel thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadway, David M.; Weimer, Jeffrey; Gurgew, Danielle; Lis, Tomasz; Ramsey, Brian D.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Ames, A.; Bruni, R.

    2015-05-01

    We examine a method for achieving zero intrinsic stress in thin films of iridium, chromium, and nickel deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The examination of the stress in these materials is motivated by efforts to advance the optical performance of light-weight x-ray space telescopes into the regime of sub-arc second resolution. A characteristic feature of the intrinsic stress behavior in chromium and nickel is their sensitivity to the magnitude and sign of the intrinsic stress with argon gas pressure, including the existence of a critical pressure that results in zero film stress. This critical pressure scales linearly with the film's density. While the effect of stress reversal with argon pressure has been previously reported by Hoffman and others for nickel and chromium, we have discovered a similar behavior for the intrinsic stress in iridium films. Additionally, we have identified zero stress in iridium shortly after island coalescence in the high adatom mobility growth regime. This feature of film growth is used for achieving a total internal stress of -2.89 MPa for a 15.8 nm thick iridium film with a surface roughness of 5.0 +/- 0.5Å based on x-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurement at CuKα. The surface topography was also examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The examination of the stress in these films has been performed with a novel in-situ measurement device. The methodology and sensitivity of the in-situ instrument is also described herein.

  17. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  18. Benzoporphyrins: Selective Co-sensitization in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lodermeyer, Fabian; Costa, Rubén D; Malig, Jenny; Jux, Norbert; Guldi, Dirk M

    2016-06-01

    A novel class of dyes, namely benzoporphyrins, was synthesized and implemented into dye-sensitized solar cells. They feature complementary absorptions compared to N719, which renders them promising candidates for co-sensitization in DSSCs. Notably, metallated benzoporphyrins reveal a TiO2 -nanoparticle attachment that is size and aggregation dependent. Therefore, unproductive energy-transfer events between the selectively attached dyes can be prevented. In light of the latter, an efficiency improvement of 39 % has been achieved upon selective adsorption of benzoporphyrins and N719 onto different layers of TiO2 photoelectrode. PMID:27105771

  19. Scaling in sensitivity analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Doherty, P.F., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Population matrix models allow sets of demographic parameters to be summarized by a single value 8, the finite rate of population increase. The consequences of change in individual demographic parameters are naturally measured by the corresponding changes in 8; sensitivity analyses compare demographic parameters on the basis of these changes. These comparisons are complicated by issues of scale. Elasticity analysis attempts to deal with issues of scale by comparing the effects of proportional changes in demographic parameters, but leads to inconsistencies in evaluating demographic rates. We discuss this and other problems of scaling in sensitivity analysis, and suggest a simple criterion for choosing appropriate scales. We apply our suggestions to data for the killer whale, Orcinus orca.

  20. Hypochlorite sensitivity in man.

    PubMed

    Hostynek, J J; Patrick, E; Younger, B; Maibach, H I

    1989-01-01

    Observation of an individual with immediate-type reaction following exaggerated dermal exposure to hypochlorite-containing cleaning products prompted review of similar hypersensitivity reactions attributed to hypochlorite or other highly reactive chemicals. This review confirms isolated incidences of hypochlorite sensitivity of the delayed type (allergic contact dermatitis), as well as immediate-type reactions from inhalation or topical challenge of sensitized individuals. We conclude that it is possible that excessive and prolonged exposure to hypochlorite may in some cases result in irritation and damage to the skin. This potentially gives rise to altered proteins which in rare cases may cause hypersensitivity. This reaction is common to other reactive small molecules with a strong irritant action. PMID:2536603

  1. Temperature sensitive auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiujing; Lan, Lan; Shi, Wei; Yu, Lan; Xie, Lin-Yi; Xiong, Fen; Zhao, Cui; Li, Na; Yin, Zifang; Zong, Liang; Guan, Jing; Wang, Dayong; Sun, Wei; Wang, Qiuju

    2016-05-01

    Temperature sensitive auditory neuropathy is a very rare and puzzling disorder. In the present study, we reported three unrelated 2 to 6 year-old children who were diagnosed as auditory neuropathy patients who complained of severe hearing loss when they had fever. Their hearing thresholds varied from the morning to the afternoon. Two of these patients' hearing improved with age, and one patient received positive results from cochlear implant. Genetic analysis revealed that these three patients had otoferlin (OTOF) homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations with the genotypes c.2975_2978delAG/c.4819C>T, c.4819C>T/c.4819C>T, or c.2382_2383delC/c.1621G>A, respectively. Our study suggests that these gene mutations may be the cause of temperature sensitive auditory neuropathy. The long term follow up results suggest that the hearing loss in this type of auditory neuropathy may recover with age. PMID:26778470

  2. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) for the detection of Gravitational Waves is a very long baseline interferometer which will measure the changes in the distance of a five million kilometer arm to picometer accuracies. As with any optical system, even one with such very large separations between the transmitting and receiving, telescopes, a sensitivity analysis should be performed to see how, in this case, the far field phase varies when the telescope parameters change as a result of small temperature changes.

  3. Heat sensitive immunoliposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Heat sensitive immunoliposomes were prepared with derivatized antibody. The liposomes are able to bind specifically to target cells and to release their encapsulated contents upon brief heating. Monoclonal anti-H2K/sup K/ was covalently derivatized with palmitoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide. The palmitoyl antibody was injected at a controlled rate into a suspension of fused unilamellar dipalmitoylphosphati-dylcholine liposomes maintained at a constant temperature. Injection of palmitoyl antibody into a liposome suspension containing 50 mM carboxyfluorescein at 41/sup 0/C resulted in simultaneous antibody incorporation and entrapment of dye. The immunoliposomes were able to release entrapped dye upon heating. Furthermore, this ability was retained when the immunoliposomes were found to the target cells. /sup 3/H-Uridine was entrapped in the heat sensitive immunoliposomes to examine the cellular uptake properties of entrapped contents upon release. The release of uridine from bound heat sensitive immunoliposomes exhibited very similar properties to those obtained for carboxyfluorescein release. The rate of uridine uptake for immunoliposome released uridine was 5 fold greater than bare liposome released uridine and 10 fold greater than that obtained for free uridine. Nucleoside uptake inhibitors were able to inhibit uptake of free uridine and uridine released from immunoliposomes showing the release to be extracellular and uridine uptake was mediated by the nucleoside transporter. These results show that a high local concentration of nucleosides released from immunoliposomes bound to their respective target cell can enhance cellular uptake thus promoting efficient drug delivery.

  4. Sensitivity testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Neyer, B.T.

    1991-01-01

    New methods of sensitivity testing and analysis are proposed. The new test method utilizes Maximum Likelihood Estimates to pick the next test level in order to maximize knowledge of both the mean, {mu}, and the standard deviation, {sigma} of the population. Simulation results demonstrate that this new test provides better estimators (less bias and smaller variance) of both {mu} and {sigma} than the other commonly used tests (Probit, Bruceton, Robbins-Monro, Langlie). A new method of analyzing sensitivity tests is also proposed. It uses the Likelihood Ratio Test to compute regions of arbitrary confidence. It can calculate confidence regions, for {mu}, {sigma}, and arbitrary percentiles. Unlike presently used methods, such as the program ASENT which is based on the Cramer-Rao theorem, it can analyze the results of all sensitivity tests, and it does not significantly underestimate the size of the confidence regions. The new test and analysis methods will be explained and compared to the presently used methods. 19 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Kinematic sensitivity of robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, Marko I.

    1989-01-01

    Kinematic sensitivity vectors and matrices for open-loop, n degrees-of-freedom manipulators are derived. First-order sensitivity vectors are defined as partial derivatives of the manipulator's position and orientation with respect to its geometrical parameters. The four-parameter kinematic model is considered, as well as the five-parameter model in case of nominally parallel joint axes. Sensitivity vectors are expressed in terms of coordinate axes of manipulator frames. Second-order sensitivity vectors, the partial derivatives of first-order sensitivity vectors, are also considered. It is shown that second-order sensitivity vectors can be expressed as vector products of the first-order sensitivity vectors.

  6. Basic Achievement Skills Individual Screener (BASIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the behaviors sampled, test administration, scoring, norms, reliability, and validity of the Basic Achievement Skills Individual Screener (BASIS), an individually administered test that measures skill development in reading, mathematics, spelling, and writing. (BL)

  7. A 2 X 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Elliot, A J; McGregor, H A

    2001-03-01

    A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework comprising mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals was proposed and tested in 3 studies. Factor analytic results supported the independence of the 4 achievement goal constructs. The goals were examined with respect to several important antecedents (e.g., motive dispositions, implicit theories, socialization histories) and consequences (e.g., anticipatory test anxiety, exam performance, health center visits), with particular attention allocated to the new mastery-avoidance goal construct. The results revealed distinct empirical profiles for each of the achievement goals; the pattern for mastery-avoidance goals was, as anticipated, more negative than that for mastery-approach goals and more positive than that for performance-avoidance goals. Implications of the present work for future theoretical development in the achievement goal literature are discussed. PMID:11300582

  8. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  9. Attitudes and achievement of Bruneian science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. The results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. These differences were at moderate level. In single-sex schools, the girls achieved moderately better in science than the boys despite their attitudes were only marginally better than the boys. However, there were no gender differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of students in coeducational schools. The attitudes towards and achievement in science of girls in single-sex schools were moderately better than those of girls in coeducational schools. Whereas the attitudes towards and achievement in science of boys in single-sex schools were only marginally better than the boys in coeducational schools. However, further research to investigate (a) if these differences are repeated at other levels as well as in other subjects, and (b) the extent to which school type contributed towards these differences is recommended.

  10. The Longitudinal Effects of Achievement Goals and Perceived Control on University Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Stewart, Tara L.; Newall, Nancy E. G.; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2014-01-01

    In the area of achievement motivation, students' beliefs pertaining to achievement goals and perceived control have separately guided a large amount theoretical and empirical research. However, limited research has considered the simultaneous effects of goals and control on achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine primary and…

  11. Social Perceptions of Achieving Students and Achievement Goals of Students in Malaysia and the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, Allan B. I.; Ismail, Rosnah

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the hypothesis that country differences in achievement goals of students are associated with differences in how students with different achievement goals are perceived by students in different cultures. University students from Malaysia and the Philippine were asked to complete questionnaires on their achievement goals and…

  12. Influence of Emotional Intelligence and Need for Achievement on Interpersonal Relations and Academic Achievement of Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afolabi, Olukayode Ayooluwa; Ogunmwonyi, Edosa; Okediji, Abayomi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined influence of emotional intelligence and need for achievement on interpersonal relations and academic achievement of undergraduates. Questionnaires were administered to one hundred and ten (110) subjects. The independent variables are emotional intelligence and need for achievement, while the dependent variables are…

  13. Causal Ordering of Academic Self-Concept and Achievement: Effects of Type of Achievement Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinxten, Maarten; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan; D'Haenens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Background: The relation between academic self-concept and achievement has been examined in a large number of studies. The majority of these studies have found evidence for a reciprocal effects model. However, there is an ongoing debate on how students' achievement should be measured and whether the type of achievement indicator (grades, tests,…

  14. Can the Academic Achievement of Korean Students Be Portrayed as a Product of "Shadow Achievement"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunjin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of private tutoring expenditure on two types of Korean students' academic achievements as measured by standardized test achievement and by school performance achievement, applying 5-year data from Korean Educational Longitudinal Study (KELS). It was found that private tutoring…

  15. Achievement Goals in a Presentation Task: Performance Expectancy, Achievement Goals, State Anxiety, and Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Ayumi; Takehara, Takuma; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test the linkages between achievement goals to task performance, as mediated by state anxiety arousal. Performance expectancy was also examined as antecedents of achievement goals. A presentation task in a computer practice class was used as achievement task. Fifty-three undergraduates (37 females and 16 males) were…

  16. Trajectories of Achievement within Race/Ethnicity: "Catching Up" in Achievement across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Jager, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap has long been the focus of educational research, policy, and intervention. The authors took a new approach to examining the achievement gap by examining achievement trajectories within each racial group. To identify these trajectories they used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, which is a nationally…

  17. A Mediation Analysis of Achievement Motives, Goals, Learning Strategies, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. Aims: To investigate the relationship between achievement motives,…

  18. Sensitivity enhancement in high resolution stimulated Raman spectroscopy of gases with hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Doménech, José Luis; Cueto, Maite

    2013-10-15

    We show the first experimental evidence of the sensitivity enhancement that can be achieved in high resolution stimulated Raman spectroscopy of gases using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCFs). Using low power cw lasers and a HCPCF containing the gas, we have observed more than four orders of magnitude enhancement of sensitivity when compared with the cw single focus regime, and a similar sensitivity to that achieved in the more sensitive quasi-cw setups with multipass cells. PMID:24321926

  19. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  20. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  1. Cisplatin sensitivity and thermochemosensitisation in thermotolerant cDDP-sensitive and -resistant cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Hettinga, J. V.; Lemstra, W.; Konings, A. W.; Kampinga, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    Development of thermotolerance is an important phenomenon that must be considered when thermochemotherapy with multiple heat treatments is used clinically. To study the effect of thermotolerance on cellular cisplatin (cDDP) sensitivity at 37 degrees C and 43 degrees C in cell lines with different cDDP sensitivities, two Ehrlich ascites tumour cell lines (one with high cDDP sensitivity and one with in vitro acquired cDDP resistance) were used. The results indicate that in both cell lines the state of thermotolerance per se did not affect the cDDP sensitivity at 37 degrees C. Thus, general elevations in 'all' heat shock protein levels as found in thermotolerant cells apparently do not influence cDDP sensitivity to a considerable extent. The sensitising effect of a (second) heat treatment given simultaneously with a cDDP treatment was less in thermotolerant cells. Thermal enhancement ratios (TERs) at the 10% survival level for heat doses of 43 degrees C for 30 min or 43 degrees C for 60 min were reduced by a factor of 1.6 and 2.1 in cDDP-resistant and -sensitive thermotolerant cells respectively, as compared with control cells. Thus, protection against heat damage in thermotolerant cells seems to be paralleled by diminished thermal chemosensitisation. Although the effect of thermotolerance on the cDDP-sensitising effect was less pronounced in the resistant cells, a modifying effect on the resistance factor was not achieved. Images Figure 2 PMID:7880730

  2. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup. PMID:26075625

  3. Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Kristin

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

  4. An in vitro human skin test for assessing sensitization potential.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S S; Wang, X N; Fielding, M; Kerry, A; Dickinson, I; Munuswamy, R; Kimber, I; Dickinson, A M

    2016-05-01

    Sensitization to chemicals resulting in an allergy is an important health issue. The current gold-standard method for identification and characterization of skin-sensitizing chemicals was the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA). However, for a number of reasons there has been an increasing imperative to develop alternative approaches to hazard identification that do not require the use of animals. Here we describe a human in-vitro skin explant test for identification of sensitization hazards and the assessment of relative skin sensitizing potency. This method measures histological damage in human skin as a readout of the immune response induced by the test material. Using this approach we have measured responses to 44 chemicals including skin sensitizers, pre/pro-haptens, respiratory sensitizers, non-sensitizing chemicals (including skin-irritants) and previously misclassified compounds. Based on comparisons with the LLNA, the skin explant test gave 95% specificity, 95% sensitivity, 95% concordance with a correlation coefficient of 0.9. The same specificity and sensitivity were achieved for comparison of results with published human sensitization data with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. The test also successfully identified nickel sulphate as a human skin sensitizer, which was misclassified as negative in the LLNA. In addition, sensitizers and non-sensitizers identified as positive or negative by the skin explant test have induced high/low T cell proliferation and IFNγ production, respectively. Collectively, the data suggests the human in-vitro skin explant test could provide the basis for a novel approach for characterization of the sensitizing activity as a first step in the risk assessment process. PMID:26251951

  5. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  6. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Michael S.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A.

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  7. Hearing sensitivity in farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Karlovich, R S; Wiley, T L; Tweed, T; Jensen, D V

    1988-01-01

    Hearing sensitivity was measured for tones from 1,000 through 8,000 hertz (Hz) in 534 males and 278 females who resided in rural Wisconsin and ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. The hearing sensitivity for all subjects decreased with advancing age and at higher frequencies, but hearing loss over the range most susceptible to excessive noise exposure (3,000-6,000 Hz) was much greater for males than for females at all ages. The hearing loss was greater than could be accounted for by age and was similar whether the subject was a farmer or not. The results suggested that approximately 25 percent of the males had a communication handicap due to hearing loss by age 30, and the proportion rose to 50 percent by age 50. Less than 20 percent of farmers reported consistent use of personal hearing protection in their farm-related duties. Overall, the findings suggest that men who live in rural areas, including farmers, demonstrate a high prevalence of hearing loss and associated communication problems due to excessive noise exposure. This, in turn, clearly indicates a need for intensification of educational hearing conservation programs for the rural population. PMID:3124200

  8. Coherency Sensitive Hashing.

    PubMed

    Korman, Simon; Avidan, Shai

    2016-06-01

    Coherency Sensitive Hashing (CSH) extends Locality Sensitivity Hashing (LSH) and PatchMatch to quickly find matching patches between two images. LSH relies on hashing, which maps similar patches to the same bin, in order to find matching patches. PatchMatch, on the other hand, relies on the observation that images are coherent, to propagate good matches to their neighbors in the image plane, using random patch assignment to seed the initial matching. CSH relies on hashing to seed the initial patch matching and on image coherence to propagate good matches. In addition, hashing lets it propagate information between patches with similar appearance (i.e., map to the same bin). This way, information is propagated much faster because it can use similarity in appearance space or neighborhood in the image plane. As a result, CSH is at least three to four times faster than PatchMatch and more accurate, especially in textured regions, where reconstruction artifacts are most noticeable to the human eye. We verified CSH on a new, large scale, data set of 133 image pairs and experimented on several extensions, including: k nearest neighbor search, the addition of rotation and matching three dimensional patches in videos. PMID:26372204

  9. Modeling sensitive elasmobranch habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennino, M. Grazia; Muñoz, Facundo; Conesa, David; López-Quílez, Antonio; Bellido, José Marí; a

    2013-10-01

    Basic information on the distribution and habitat preferences of ecologically important species is essential for their management and protection. In the Mediterranean Sea there is increasing concern over elasmobranch species because their biological (ecological) characteristics make them highly vulnerable to fishing pressure. Their removal could affect the structure and function of marine ecosystems, inducing changes in trophic interactions at the community level due to the selective elimination of predators or prey species, competitors and species replacement. In this study Bayesian hierarchical spatial models are used to map the sensitive habitats of the three most caught elasmobranch species (Galeus melastomus, Scyliorhinus canicula, Etmopterus spinax) in the western Mediterranean Sea, based on fishery-dependent bottom trawl data. Results show that habitats associated with hard substrata and sandy beds, mainly in deep waters and with a high seabed gradient, have a greater probability registering the presence of the studied species than those associated with muddy shallow waters. Temperature and chlorophyll-α concentration show a negative relationship with S. canicula occurrence. Our results identify some of the sensitive habitats for elasmobranchs in the western Mediterranean Sea (GSA06 South), providing essential and easy-to-use interpretation tools, such as predictive distribution maps, with the final aim of improving management and conservation of these vulnerable species.

  10. Family and personal correlates of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    García Bacete, F J; Rosel Remírez, J

    2001-04-01

    Researchers and educators raise the question of whether pupils' academic performance can be improved through parental involvement in academic activities. The main objective of the following study is to verify whether parental involvement in school activities and family socioeconomic status are associated with children's academic achievement. 150 Spanish seventh grade pupils completed intelligence tests, and their teachers assessed parents' involvement in the school and estimated parents' cultural levels. To measure academic achievement the pupil's overall grade was taken from the Pupils' Final Evaluation Registers. The education and professional level of the mother and father and home size were obtained from the Pupil Personal Register; these variables define the family socioeconomic status. The data, analyzed through application of structural equations, suggest that academic achievement is directly influenced by the cultural level of the family and the child's intelligence but is indirectly influenced by parental involvement in school activities and the socioeconomic status of the child's family. PMID:11351904

  11. Cognitive skills, student achievement tests, and schools.

    PubMed

    Finn, Amy S; Kraft, Matthew A; West, Martin R; Leonard, Julia A; Bish, Crystal E; Martin, Rebecca E; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, Christopher F O; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive skills predict academic performance, so schools that improve academic performance might also improve cognitive skills. To investigate the impact schools have on both academic performance and cognitive skills, we related standardized achievement-test scores to measures of cognitive skills in a large sample (N = 1,367) of eighth-grade students attending traditional, exam, and charter public schools. Test scores and gains in test scores over time correlated with measures of cognitive skills. Despite wide variation in test scores across schools, differences in cognitive skills across schools were negligible after we controlled for fourth-grade test scores. Random offers of enrollment to oversubscribed charter schools resulted in positive impacts of such school attendance on math achievement but had no impact on cognitive skills. These findings suggest that schools that improve standardized achievement-test scores do so primarily through channels other than improving cognitive skills. PMID:24434238

  12. Five years of achievement in ISCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDuffie, Thomas E., Jr.; Derose, James V.

    Achievement associated with a school district committed to the implementation of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) materials and instructional strategy is the focus of this report. While ISCS is a three level, activity oriented, junior high program, the research was limited to the first year or Level I. Data were gathered from Level I students (mostly seventh graders) during a five year period. Analyses were per- formed to help answer questions such as: Are IQ and reading scores the highest correlates of achievement? Do IQ and reading correlates hold for both quantitative and qualitative indices of achievement? Do ISCS learning relationships hold over time? Are students able to evaluate how well they understand the concepts covered?Received: 21 June 1979; Revised: 11 March 1981;

  13. Home media and children's achievement and behavior.

    PubMed

    Hofferth, Sandra L

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6- to 12-year-olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching TV at home in 1997 and 2003, and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computer use more than boys, and Black children benefited more than White children. Greater computer use in middle childhood was associated with increased achievement for White and Black girls, and for Black but not White boys. Increased video game play was associated with an improved ability to solve applied problems for Black girls but lower verbal achievement for all girls. For boys, increased video game play was linked to increased aggressive behavior problems. PMID:20840243

  14. Academic achievement in high functioning autistic individuals.

    PubMed

    Minshew, N J; Goldstein, G; Taylor, H G; Siegel, D J

    1994-04-01

    Academic achievement levels in 54 high functioning (IQ > 70) autistic subjects were compared with those of 41 normal controls, who did not differ significantly in age, IQ, gender, race, or SES from the autistic subjects. The measures of academic achievement used included portions of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-2, the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement. Based on prior neuropsychological findings, it was hypothesized that autistic subjects would not differ from controls on subtests assessing mechanical and procedural skills, but would differ on subtests measuring comprehension and interpretive skills. As predicted, the autistic subjects performed significantly less well than controls on comprehension tasks, but not on mechanical reading, spelling, and computational tasks. This pattern is at variance with the typical academic profile of individuals with disabilities in reading or spelling, but shares some features with the nonverbal learning disabilities. PMID:8021313

  15. Organic photovoltaic cells with controlled polarization sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Awartani, Omar; O'Connor, Brendan T.; Kudenov, Michael W.

    2014-03-03

    In this study, we demonstrate linearly polarized organic photovoltaic cells with a well-controlled level of polarization sensitivity. The polarized devices were created through the application of a large uniaxial strain to the bulk heterojunction poly(3-hexylthiophene):Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) film and printing the plastically deformed active layer onto a PEDOT:PSS and indium tin oxide coated glass substrate. The P3HT:PCBM layer is processed such that it is able to accommodate high strains (over 100%) without fracture. After printing the strained films, thermal annealing is used to optimize solar cell performance while maintaining polarization sensitivity. A dichroic ratio and short circuit current ratio of ≈6.1 and ≈1.6 were achieved, respectively.

  16. Ligand Engineering for the Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Ruthenium Sensitizers and Cobalt Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Aghazada, Sadig; Gao, Peng; Yella, Aswani; Marotta, Gabriele; Moehl, Thomas; Teuscher, Joël; Moser, Jacques-E; De Angelis, Filippo; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, ruthenium(II)-based dyes have played a pivotal role in turning dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) into a mature technology for the third generation of photovoltaics. However, the classic I3(-)/I(-) redox couple limits the performance and application of this technique. Simply replacing the iodine-based redox couple by new types like cobalt(3+/2+) complexes was not successful because of the poor compatibility between the ruthenium(II) sensitizer and the cobalt redox species. To address this problem and achieve higher power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), we introduce here six new cyclometalated ruthenium(II)-based dyes developed through ligand engineering. We tested DSCs employing these ruthenium(II) complexes and achieved PCEs of up to 9.4% using cobalt(3+/2+)-based electrolytes, which is the record efficiency to date featuring a ruthenium-based dye. In view of the complicated liquid DSC system, the disagreement found between different characterizations enlightens us about the importance of the sensitizer loading on TiO2, which is a subtle but equally important factor in the electronic properties of the sensitizers. PMID:27322854

  17. Sensitivity enhancement in pulse EPR distance measurements.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, G; Bender, A; Paulsen, H; Zimmermann, H; Godt, A

    2004-07-01

    Established pulse EPR approaches to the measurement of small dipole-dipole couplings between electron spins rely on constant-time echo experiments to separate relaxational contributions from dipolar time evolution. This requires a compromise between sensitivity and resolution to be made prior to the measurement, so that optimum data are only obtained if the magnitude of the dipole-dipole coupling is known beforehand to a good approximation. Moreover, the whole dipolar evolution function is measured with relatively low sensitivity. These problems are overcome by a variable-time experiment that achieves suppression of the relaxation contribution by reference deconvolution. Theoretical and experimental results show that this approach leads to significant sensitivity improvements for typical systems and experimental conditions. Further sensitivity improvements or, equivalently, an extension of the accessible distance range can be obtained by matrix deuteration or digital long-pass filtering of the time-domain data. Advantages and limitations of the new variable-time experiment are discussed by comparing it to the established analogous constant-time experiment for measurements of end-to-end distances of 5 and 7.5 nm on rod-like shape-persistent biradicals and for the measurement of a broadly distributed transmembrane distance in a doubly spin-labeled mutant of plant light harvesting complex II. PMID:15183350

  18. Sensitivity distributions of EEG and MEG measurements.

    PubMed

    Malmivuo, J; Suihko, V; Eskola, H

    1997-03-01

    It is generally believed that because the skull has low conductivity to electric current but is transparent to magnetic fields, the measurement sensitivity of the magnetoencephalography (MEG) in the brain region should be more concentrated than that of the electroencephalography (EEG). It is also believed that the information recorded by these techniques is very different. If this were indeed the case, it might be possible to justify the cost of MEG instrumentation which is at least 25 times higher than that of EEG instrumentation. The localization of measurement sensitivity using these techniques was evaluated quantitatively in an inhomogeneous spherical head model using a new concept called half-sensitivity volume (HSV). It is shown that the planar gradiometer has a far smaller HSV than the axial gradiometer. However, using the EEG it is possible to achieve even smaller HSV's than with whole-head planar gradiometer MEG devices. The micro-superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) MEG device does have HSV's comparable to those of the EEG. The sensitivity distribution of planar gradiometers, however, closely resembles that of dipolar EEG leads and, therefore, the MEG and EEG record the electric activity of the brain in a very similar way. PMID:9216133

  19. Leadership Strategies: Achieving Personal and Professional Success.

    PubMed

    Menaker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Physicians and allied health staff in healthcare are finding themselves in situations characterized by uncertainty, chaos, and ambiguity, with high levels of burnout. A major influence is an aging U.S. population, resulting in increasing cost and reimbursement pressures. Medical group practices need leaders who have the capability to thrive in this environment. This article presents an integrated leadership model offering strategies and insights gained from keeping a journal for 40 years. Strategies to be shared include leading self through learning, leading others by developing relationships, leading organizations by achieving excellence, and achieving work-life integration and synergy. PMID:27443052

  20. Predicting genetics achievement in nonmajors college biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Angela; Lawson, Anton E.

    Students enrolled in a non-majors college biology course were pretested to determine their level of intellectual development, degree of field independence, mental capacity, amount of prior genetics knowledge, and amount of fluid intelligence. They were then taught a unit on Mendelian genetics. The only student variables found to not account for a significant amount of variance on a test of reading comprehension and/or a test of genetics achievement was amount of prior genetics knowledge. Developmental level was found to be the most consistent predictor of performance, suggesting that a lack of general hypothetico-deductive reasoning ability is a major factor limiting achievement among these students.

  1. Advanced Math Course Taking: Effects on Math Achievement and College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002-2006, the authors investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course…

  2. Polarization-sensitive QWIP thermal imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekman, Daniel W.; Van Anda, James B.

    2000-07-01

    A polarization-sensitive thermal imager has been assembled using a quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) with peak responsivity in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral band near 9 micrometer. Polarization-dependent responsivity is achieved by etching linear gratings onto each pixel during QWIP FPA fabrication, with adjacent pixels having orthogonal grating orientation. The direct integration of the gratings with the pixels eliminates all pixel registration errors encountered with previous infrared polarimetry instruments. We present here details of the FPA and thermal imaging system design and performance and show examples of polarization-enhanced imagery.

  3. Position Sensitive Detection System for Charged Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Coello, E. A.; Favela, F.; Curiel, Q.; Chavez, E; Huerta, A.; Varela, A.; Shapira, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The position sensitive detection system presented in this work employs the Anger logic algorithm to determine the position of the light spark produced by the passage of charged particles on a 170 x 170 x 10 mm3 scintillator material (PILOT-U). The detection system consists of a matrix of nine photomultipliers, covering a fraction of the back area of the scintillators. Tests made with a non-collimated alpha particle source together with a Monte Carlo simulation that reproduces the data, suggest an intrinsic position resolution of up to 6 mm is achieved.

  4. Auditory word identification in dyslexic and normally achieving readers

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Jennifer L.; Manis, Franklin R.; Keating, Patricia; Sperling, Anne J.; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    The integrity of phonological representation/processing in dyslexic children was explored with a gating task in which children listened to successively longer segments (gates) of a word. At each gate, the task was to decide what the entire word was. Responses were scored for overall accuracy as well as the children’s sensitivity to coarticulation from the final consonant. As a group, dyslexic children were less able than normally achieving readers to detect coarticulation present in the vowel portion of the word, particularly on the most difficult items, namely those ending in a nasal sound. Hierarchical regression and path analyses indicated that phonological awareness mediated the relation of gating and general language ability to word and pseudoword reading ability. PMID:17359994

  5. Cognitive processes and academic achievement in EMR adolescents.

    PubMed

    Blackman, L S; Bilsky, L H; Mar, H

    1976-09-01

    Twelve cognitive process variables were investigated as predictors of reading and arithmetic achievement and studied for internal structure, with 115 EMR adolescent subjects. Stepwise regression and factor analyses were employed to study prediction and structure, respectively. Memory variables were the most important predictors of reading. They were also involved in arithmetic but to a lesser extent. The data suggested that the ability to generate and utilize strategies facilitating the recall of unstructured material as well as the capacity to be sensitive to strategy-relevant structure embedded in stimuli were important prerequisites for the acquisition of reading skills. An oddity task, measuring the ability to maintain the same relational focus for successive applications to new stimulus material, was found to be most pertinent for predicting arithmetic computational skills. PMID:970410

  6. Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities Page Content Article Body Human breast milk typically ... your pediatrician about your family’s medical history. Food Sensitivities A few mothers notice minor reactions to other ...

  7. A high sensitivity THz detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Bo; Duan, Guoteng

    2011-08-01

    We have developed a novel THz detector which uses the cantilever technology and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology to achieve a high sensitivity. The Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) technology is adopted to fabricate the detector, which comprise thermo-sensitive bi-material micro-cantilever, prism and optical readout system. The bi-material of Si3N4 and Al is used to fabricate the micro-cantilever because of the good absorption characteristic for THz of Si3N4 and the great difference in thermal expansion coefficient of the bi-material for the deformation of the micro-cantilever. In order to increase the deformation of micro-cantilever, the method of computer simulation is used to obtain the optimal structure of micro-cantilever and the thickness of Si3N4 and Al. The function of the glass prism is to make the incident light generate total reflection under certain conditions. The gold film is sputtering on the top of glass slide using the method of magnetron sputtering and it is necessary for the generation of SPR performance. The optical readout system can make the change of cantilever bending convert to the change of reflection luminous intensity proportionally. The heat on the micro-cantilever coming from the THz radiation can lose easily in the air, so the detector is placed vertically in a cylindrical vacuum chamber which is sealed with quartz glasses and polyethylene lamina at the two end surfaces respectively. The quartz glass is used for the incidence of visible polarized light and the polyethylene lamina for the THz radiation. In order to maintain the vacuum performance of the chamber, the mechanical pump and molecular pump are adopted. In static mode, THz radiation absorption raises the temperature of micro-cantilever, so it bends proportionally. The micro-cantilever bending changes the thicknesses of the gap between the micro-cantilever and the metallic thin film on the micro-prism. It will result in a shift of the SPR angle. Therefore, the

  8. The Sensitive Skin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:23248357

  9. Neonatal sensitization to latex.

    PubMed

    Worth, J

    2000-05-01

    Babies born in delivery rooms of hospitals are exposed to latex through skin and mucous membrane contact with prepowdered latex gloves worn by midwives and doctors, and through the inhalation of latex-bound starch powder in the air of the delivery room. This paper examines the hypothesis that they are at risk for latex sensitization, and that part of the sharp increase of childhood asthma, eczema and anaphylaxis in the past 30-40 years may be linked. These possibilities seem hitherto unsuspected. In over 700 papers on latex allergy no mention of neonatal exposure to latex has been found. Even obstetric papers discussing the risks for an atopic mother (atopy - a tendency to develop allergies) do not seem to anticipate any risk for the baby, who might also be atopic. Latex allergy is primarily regarded as an occupational hazard. This paper suggests that it is a hazard for every baby handled by latex gloves at birth. PMID:10859678

  10. Position Sensitive Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadleir, J. E.; Hammock, C.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Stahle, C. K.; Bandler, S.; Saab, T.; Lindeman, M.; Porter, F. S.; Chervenak, J.; Brown, G.

    2004-01-01

    A Position Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (PoST) is a microcalorimeter device capable of one-dimensional imaging spectroscopy. The device consists of two Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) connected to the ends of a long X-ray absorbing strip. The energy of a photon hitting the absorber and the position of the absorption event along the strip is measured from the response in the two sensors by analyzing the relative signal sizes, pulse rise times, and the sum of the pulses measured at each sensor, We report on the recent PoST effort at Goddard for applications to large field of view, high-energy- resolution, X-ray astrophysics.

  11. Preloadable vector sensitive latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acres, William R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A preloadable vector-sensitive latch which automatically releases when the force vector from a latch memebr reaches a specified release angle is presented. In addition, it contains means to remove clearance between the latched members and to preload the latch to prevent separation at angles less than the specified release angle. The latch comprises a triangular main link, a free link connected between a first corner of the main link and a yoke member, a housing, and an actuator connected between the yoke member and the housing. A return spring bias means connects the main link to a portion of the housing. A second corner of the main link is slidably and pivotally connected to the housing via a slot in a web portion of the housing. The latch housing has a rigid docking ring alignable with a mating locking ring which is engageable by a locking roller journalled on the third corner of the triangular main link.

  12. Measuring contrast sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Pelli, Denis G.; Bex, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Contrast sensitivity defines the threshold between the visible and invisible, which has obvious significance for basic and clinical vision science. Fechner's 1860 review reported that threshold contrast is 1% for a remarkably wide range of targets and conditions. While printed charts are still in use, computer testing is becoming more popular because it offers efficient adaptive measurement of threshold for a wide range of stimuli. Both basic and clinical studies usually want to know fundamental visual capability, regardless of the observer's subjective criterion. Criterion effects are minimized by the use of an objective task: multiple-alternative forced-choice detection or identification. Having many alternatives reduces the guessing rate, which makes each trial more informative, so fewer trials are needed. Finally, populations who may experience crowding or target confusion should be tested with one target at a time. PMID:23643905

  13. Pharmacogenetics: detecting sensitive populations.

    PubMed Central

    Shields, P G

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment models strive to predict risks to humans from toxic agents. Safety factors and assumptions are incorporated into these models to allow a margin of error. In the case of cancer, substantial evidence shows that the carcinogenic process is a multistage process driven by the interaction of exogenous carcinogenic exposures, genetic traits, and other endogenous factors. Current risk assessment models fail to consider genetic predispositions that make people more sensitive or resistant to exogenous exposures and endogenous processes. Several cytochrome P450 enzymes, responsible for metabolically activating carcinogens and medications, express wide interindividual variation whose genetic coding has now been identified as polymorphic and linked to cancer risk. For example, a restriction fragment-length polymorphism for cytochrome P4501A1, which metabolizes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P4502E1, which metabolizes N-nitrosamines and benzene, is linked to lung cancer risk. Cytochrome P4502D6, responsible for metabolizing many clinically important medications, also is linked to lung cancer risk. The frequency for each of these genetic polymorphisms vary among different ethnic and racial groups. In addition to inherited factors for the detection of sensitive populations, determining the biologically effective doses for carcinogenic exposures also should quantitatively and qualitatively enhance the risk assessment process. Levels of carcinogen-DNA adducts reflect the net effect of exposure, absorption, metabolic activation, detoxification, and DNA repair. These effects are genetically predetermined, inducibility notwithstanding. The combination of adduct and genotyping assays provide an assessment of risk that reflects recent exogenous exposure as well as one's lifetime ability to activate and detoxify carcinogens. PMID:7737047

  14. Minority Achievement Report, 1996, Data Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Higher Education Commission, Annapolis.

    Each Maryland public campus submits annual minority achievement reports as part of the state-mandated accountability process. This is a report of the 1995 data. In 1995, Prince George's Community College had the largest number of African-American undergraduate students (7,623) followed by Morgan (5,337), Baltimore City Community College (4,877),…

  15. A 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, a 3 x 2 model of achievement goals is proposed and tested. The model is rooted in the definition and valence components of competence, and encompasses 6 goal constructs: task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, and other-avoidance. The results from 2 studies provided strong support for…

  16. CLIL Learning: Achievement Levels and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully pupils had learned content in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and to assess pupils' affective learning factors, such as motivation and self-esteem, in CLIL. Learning was presented in terms of achievement level, which was described as the relationship between measured levels…

  17. Faculty Development to Address the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillian-Daniel, Donald L.; Kraemer, Sara B.

    2015-01-01

    Disparities in academic achievement between students who are under-represented minorities, the first in their families to go to college, and/or low income and their more privileged peers affects students from kindergarten through college. Inequities throughout their education, as well as other causes affect the ability of high school graduates to…

  18. Improving Student Achievement through Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finck, Chip; Hansen, Cynthia; Jensen, Jane

    This report describes a program for improving moral character to increase academic achievement. Targeted population consisted of middle school students in a growing middle class community in a northern suburb of Chicago, Illinois. The problem, an absence of proper moral character, was documented through data collected from discipline referrals to…

  19. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  20. How To Achieve Good Library Acoustics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to create a good acoustical environment for college libraries, focusing on requirements related to the HVAC system and lighting, and noting the importance of good maintenance. A sidebar looks at how to design and achieve the most appropriate HVAC and lighting systems for optimum library acoustics. (SM)

  1. Exploratory Studies of Bias in Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross; Draper, John F.

    This paper considers the question of bias in group administered academic achievement tests, bias which is inherent in the instruments themselves. A body of data on the test of performance of three disadvantaged minority groups--northern, urban black; southern, rural black; and, southwestern, Mexican-Americans--as tryout samples in contrast to…

  2. The Achiever. Volume 4, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This Achiever contains a brief summary on the results of two major international studies: (1) 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS); and (2) 2003 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). In the 2003 TIMSS, American fourth- and eighth-graders significantly outperformed many of their international peers. In…

  3. The Growth Patterns of General Medical Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    This longitudinal study investigates the growth of medical achievement as a multilevel process and emphasizes the structure of the growth. Subjects were students in all 15 U.S. osteopathic medical schools, a total of 1,060 (78 percent of the 1987 osteopathic cohort). Students took appropriate portions of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical…

  4. Proficiency-Referencing a Reading Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bormuth, John R.

    A procedure is demonstrated for constructing tables showing, for each score on a commercial reading achievement test, the percentage of real-world materials that the testee is likely to comprehend with at least a criterion level of proficiency, the percentages of students in a local or national sample who can competently comprehend a given…

  5. The Achiever. Volume 4, Number 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly newsletter designed expressly for parents and community leaders. This issue highlights President Bush's proposed budget of $2.6 billion that will provide federal education funding to help families and school systems from the Gulf Coast region that have suffered through Hurricane Katrina as well as communities accepting…

  6. School Community Relations and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, John E., Jr.

    This research examined the relationship between effective school-community relations and student achievement. The purpose of the study was to determine how the five variables of access, communication, involvement, participation, and resolution interact with a measure of effective school-community relations, how the five variables related to…

  7. Sickle Cell Trait and Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Yvonne; Ayrer, James

    1974-01-01

    In a preliminary study, no significant interaction effects were found between scholastic achievement and sickle cell trait in black children currently in eight and ninth grades, as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills over a consecutive period of four years, 1968 through 1971, grades four through seven. (EH)

  8. Academic Achievement of NCAA Division III Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Kathy A.; Hickey, Ann

    2014-01-01

    A study of 215 athletes at a small private liberal arts Division III college revealed that athletes (a) begin their college experience with SATs no different from non-athletes; (b) attain GPAs that do not significantly differ from those of nonathletes; (c) achieve GPAs that do not significantly differ between their "in-season" semester…

  9. Association between Emotional Variables and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Recent psychological studies highlight emotional aspects, and they show an important role within individual learning processes. Hereby, positive emotions were supposed to positively influence learning and achievement processes and negative ones do the contrary. In this study, an educational unit "ecosystem lake" was used during which achievement…

  10. Predicting First-Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Robert F.

    The problem investigated in this study was to determine the best combination of tests or subtests in a research battery which, when administered to beginning first-grade students, would enable the most efficient prediction of reading achievement. A total of 1052 children were randomly selected from first-grade classrooms within the State of…

  11. Teacher Use of Achievement Test Score Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which…

  12. Cultural Influences on Gifted Gender Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Joan

    2004-01-01

    In Britain, and reflected in other countries, the academic achievements of gifted girls in school are surpassing those of gifted boys in almost all areas of study and at all ages. This is not true in every country. The British evidence suggests two major reasons for this surge by the gifted girls. Emotionally, British girls are now showing greater…

  13. Can Code Switching Enhance Learners' Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simasiku, Liswani; Kasanda, Choshi; Smit, Talita

    2015-01-01

    There has been a high failure rate of Grade 10 learners in the year end examinations in the Caprivi Education Region of Namibia over a number of years. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the use of mother tongue in English medium classrooms enhanced learners' academic achievement.The study investigated 12 teachers at 12 schools…

  14. Factors Implicated in High Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Helen J.; Hill, Janelle C.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (2009) mathematical literacy results provide evidence that in Western English-speaking countries, including Australia, the gender gap in achievement appears to be widening in favour of males. In the study reported in this article, the aim was to explore the effects of gender,…

  15. Reliability achievement in high technology space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The production of failure-free hardware is discussed. The elements required to achieve such hardware are: technical expertise to design, analyze, and fully understand the design; use of high reliability parts and materials control in the manufacturing process; and testing to understand the system and weed out defects. The durability of the Hughes family of satellites is highlighted.

  16. Parental Influence and Involvement on Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebor, Jon N.

    A review of the research on the effects of parental influence and parental involvement on children's reading achievement indicates that when parents take an active and positive part in their child's education the results often turn out well for the student. Parental influence is defined as any opinion, attitude, or action (other than direct…

  17. Prediction of Achievement in Clinical Pharmacy Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Lee S.

    1978-01-01

    A study sought to identify student characteristics which account for academic achievement in clinical pharmacy courses. Preclinical grade point average was the best predictor. Subscales of the California Personality Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, work experience, sex, and age were the other predictor variables. (SW)

  18. Do Charter Schools Improve Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Melissa A.; Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Silverberg, Marsha K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a lottery-based study of the impacts of a broad set of 33 charter middle schools across 13 states on student achievement. To estimate charter school impacts, we compare test score outcomes of students admitted to these schools through the randomized admissions lotteries with outcomes of applicants who were not…

  19. Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace Foundation, The, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This Wallace Perspective paper summarizes key findings of a newly-published book, "Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals: The Secondary Principal's Guide," that argues that school counselors could be much more active players in improving student learning. The book, which bases its conclusions heavily on Wallace's Transforming School…

  20. Impact of School Technology on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Larry Douglas, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the impact of school technology on elementary students in grades three through five attending public schools in Indiana. The investigation focused on the impact of various technologies on student achievement as measured on Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress-Plus (ISTEP+). Various comparisons were…

  1. The Impact of Interest on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charry, Myrna B.

    There is ample theoretical and experimental evidence showing the positive impact of interest on academic achievement to suggest that college administrators might be well advised to include "expressed interest" in test batteries designed to facilitate the accurate placement of students in particular courses and curricula. J. Dewey was the first to…

  2. Construct Validation of A Standardized Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrulis, Richard S.

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine the construct validity of a standardized achievement test. The test, administered to over 5800 subjects, is one examination in a diploma program for students pursuing the Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU) designation. Results of factor and multiple discriminant analysis indicated the presence of…

  3. Developing a Motivational Model of College Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Abry, Dennis

    This study involves developing a motivational model of college achievement. The predictor variables, which were procrastination tendency, self-efficacy, self-regulation, intrinsic value, outcome value, cognitive strategy, test anxiety, students grade goals, parent grade goals, and grade point average, as well as the criterion variable exam…

  4. Cognitive Style, Operativity, and Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined the effects of field dependence/independence and the level of operational development on the mathematics achievement of 450 students in grades 6-8. Field-independent students scored significantly higher on total mathematics, concepts, and problem-solving tests. High-operational students scored significantly higher on all tests.…

  5. Evaluating and Reporting Student Achievements in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgart, Neil

    1989-01-01

    Issues that emerged within the context of an Australian national project on secondary education--"Reports and Records of Achievement for School Leavers"--are addressed. The role of external examinations, move toward standards-based assessment, certificates/records, tertiary selection, reporting, student-to-teacher relationship, teacher…

  6. Exploring Causal Models of Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkerson, Jo Ann; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This article evaluates five causal model of educational productivity applied to learning science in a sample of 882 fifth through eighth graders. Each model explores the relationship between achievement and a combination of eight constructs: home environment, peer group, media, ability, social environment, time on task, motivation, and…

  7. Do KIPP Schools Boost Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gill, Brian; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Teh, Bing-ru

    2014-01-01

    The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) is an influential and rapidly growing nationwide network of charter schools serving primarily disadvantaged minority students. Prominent elements of KIPP's educational model include high expectations for student achievement and behavior, and a substantial increase in time in school. KIPP is being watched…

  8. Achievement Goal Orientations and Identity Formation Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Avi; Flum, Hanoch

    2010-01-01

    The present article points to shared underlying theoretical assumptions and central processes of a prominent academic motivation perspective--achievement goal theory--and recent process perspectives in the identity formation literature, and more specifically, identity formation styles. The review highlights the shared definition of achievement…

  9. Achieving Proficiencies in Economics Capstone Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeborg, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that capstone courses in economics should be integrative experiences that require students to demonstrate six core proficiencies. The capstone economics senior seminar at Illinois Wesleyan University is used as an example of how a capstone course that requires completion of an original research paper might achieve these…

  10. Resource Allocation Patterns and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Lori; Pate, James; Leech, Donald; Martin, Ellice; Brockmeier, Lantry; Dees, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative research study was designed to examine the relationship between system resource allocation patterns and student achievement, as measured by eighth grade Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics, eighth grade CRCT reading, eleventh grade Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) mathematics, eleventh grade and…

  11. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Achievement Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aunola, Kaisa; Stattin, Hakan; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the extents to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Respondents (N=354) identified four types of families: those with Authoritative; Authoritarian; Permissive; and Neglectful parenting styles. Results further reveal that adolescents from authoritative…

  12. Multilingualism, Mathematics Achievement and Instructional Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Rachel Singal

    2010-01-01

    A significant and growing proportion of students in the United States speak primarily a non-English language at home. This dissertation contributes to the understanding of academic achievement patterns among language minority students in the United States. The first essay uses data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey Kindergarten Class…

  13. Programmed Student Achievement: A Hawthorne Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Nabil F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Three groups of college students were given instructions using different testing techniques to determine whether the superior performance obtained with Programed Student Achievement (PA) was due to a Hawthorne Effect. Results seem to preclude any attempt to interpret the effectiveness of PA on that basis. (Editor/JT)

  14. Attitude, Gender and Achievement in Computer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship among students' attitudes toward programming, gender and academic achievement in programming. The scale used for measuring students' attitudes toward programming was developed by the researcher and consisted of 35 five-point Likert type items in four subscales. The scale was administered to…

  15. Achieving Fluency: Special Education and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Francis

    2011-01-01

    "Achieving Fluency" presents the understandings that all teachers need to play a role in the education of students who struggle: those with disabilities and those who simply lack essential foundational knowledge. This book serves teachers and supervisors by sharing increasingly intensive instructional interventions for struggling students on…

  16. Designing the Board's New Literature Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.

    1968-01-01

    This article describes the problems that the College Entrance Examination Board's Committee of Review for the Examinations in English encountered in creating a fair, objective, hour-long literature achievement test which would meet four objectives--to measure the breadth of a student's reading, his understanding of that reading, his response to…

  17. Optimism versus Pessimism and Academic Achievement Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpaz-Itay, Yifat; Kaniel, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This article integrates three central theories of optimism-pessimism (OP). The combination of the shared components of these theories--outcome expectancies, emotions, and behavioral intention--may produce an integrative academic achievement evaluation. Little has been written regarding the differentiation between general and domain-specific OP, a…

  18. Athletics, Athletic Leadership, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between athletics, athletic leadership, and academic achievement. This is likely to be a tricky issue as athletes and athletic leaders are not likely to be a random group of students. To address this issue I control for school fixed effects and instrument the endogenous variables with height. I find that…

  19. Handbook of Research on Improving Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon, Ed.

    This handbook is designed to identify classroom practices that research has shown to result in higher student achievement. The fundamental idea behind this book is that in order to succeed, efforts to improve instruction must foucs on the existing knowledge base about effective teaching and learning. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction" (Gordon…

  20. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  1. The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly newsletter designed expressly for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about and from public and private organizations about school improvement in the United States. Highlights of this issue include: (1) New Online Tool Simplifies Financial Aid Process; (2) Rigor in K-6:…

  2. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  3. Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2011-01-01

    The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).…

  4. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  5. Parental Effort, School Resources, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtenville, Andrew J.; Conway, Karen Smith

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates an important factor in student achievement--parental involvement. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), we estimate a value-added education production function that includes parental effort as an input. Parental effort equations are also estimated as a function of child, parent, household, and…

  6. The Achiever. Volume 5, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly publication for parents and community leaders from the Office of Communications and Outreach, U.S. Department of Education (ED). Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. Highlights of this issue include: (1) Budget Proposal Advances NCLB, Introduces Competitiveness…

  7. Attributional Biases: More Barriers to Women's Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni; And Others

    This paper presents three studies dealing with the use of attribution theory in the study of sex differences in achievement. These sex differences are measured in terms of task difficulty, ability, effort, and luck according to the model developed by Weiner, et al (1971). The studies attempt to expand the Weiner model to demonstrate that males and…

  8. Achievement Strategies at School: Types and Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maatta, Sami; Stattin, Hakan; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2002-01-01

    Explores the kinds of strategies adolescents deploy in achievement context in an unselected sample of Swedish adolescents. Six groups of adolescents were identified according to the strategies they deployed. Results showed that membership in the functional strategy groups, such as in mastery-oriented and defensive pessimist groups, was associated…

  9. Explaining Math Achievement: Personality, Motivation, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic-Bebek, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…

  10. High Stakes Testing and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The effects of high stakes testing may be critical in the lives of public school students and may have many consequences for schools and teachers. There are no easy answers in measuring student achievement and in holding teachers accountable for learner progress. High stakes testing also involves responsibilities on the part of the principal who…

  11. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  12. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  13. Piagetian Tasks, Traditional Intelligence and Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, J.; Koops, W.

    1983-01-01

    Reports study which compared the value of Piagetian tasks--seriation, conservation and multiple classification--to that of traditional intelligence tests--Cattell and PMA 5 to 7 subtests--as predictors of number language, simple computation, and verbal arithmetic achievement in 312 children from kindergarten to grade 4. Fifty references are…

  14. Psychological Barriers to Achievement in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lois S.

    1982-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among birth order, number of course credits achieved, and personality integration for 56 women graduate students. No evidence of significant stress was found as these women approached career choice points, nor was there a significant effect from birth order. (Author/RD)

  15. Only Children, Achievement, and Interpersonal Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni

    Many psychological theories point to the importance of siblings in individual personality development. The impact of sibling status on interpersonal and achievement orientation was examined with undergraduates (N=1782) who completed a series of objective personality measures and a background questionnaire. Sibling status was defined in terms of…

  16. Academic Achievements of Children in Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2006-01-01

    Utilizing data on approximately 16,000 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort and a rich set of mediating factors on 16 immigrant groups, this paper examined the associations between children's immigrant generation status and their academic performance. The changes in academic achievements during kindergarten and…

  17. Shared Leadership and Student Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia Educational Laboratory at Edvantia (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This literature review describes ways of thinking about sharing school leadership and to examine the possible link between shared leadership and student achievement. This review examines four different approaches to school leadership that involve more than a single individual. These four were selected because they were most widely represented in…

  18. A Structural Model of Medical Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, T. Joseph; Sanford, Keat

    1990-01-01

    The theoretical model of medical student performance begins with 38 measures, reduced to 18 without loss of information. These measures are shown to reflect five underlying theoretical interrelated variables: medical knowledge; clinical performance; science aptitude; college achievement; and attitudes and values. Results should be useful in…

  19. Academic Freedom, Achievement Standards and Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, D. Royce

    2011-01-01

    The tension between the freedom of academics to grade the achievements of their students without interference or coercion and the prerogative of higher education institutions to control grading standards is often deliberated by weighing up the authority and rights of the two parties. An alternative approach is to start with an analysis of the…

  20. The Achiever. Volume 3, Number 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Various topics are discussed in this issue of "The Achiever", the U.S. Department of Education's biweekly bulletin for parents and community leaders on "No Child Left Behind," the historic, bipartisan education reform law signed by President Bush in January 2002. This issue includes the following articles: "President Bush Announces New Education…

  1. Parenting Style and Black Adolescents' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attaway, Nicole M.; Bry, Brenna Hafer

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between maternal beliefs in control and responsiveness and adolescent academic achievement were examined by interviewing 59 Black mothers and female guardians of adolescents, ages 11 to 19, living in a northeastern small city or adjacent suburb and correlating their answers to year-end report cards of their adolescents.…

  2. Reading Achievement in California: Miracle or Mirage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruddell, Robert B.; Williams, Arthur

    Reading achievement of elementary school children in California has been measured by several separate studies, not all of which appear to present compatible results. This study of three assessments contained in the Miller-Unruh Report analyzes their purposes, methods, results, and recommendations in an effort to produce some way to arrive at an…

  3. Teacher Involvement To Evaluate Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teacher-developed tests can be more valid and reliable than standardized tests or state-mandated tests in evaluating student achievement in science. Many teachers, however, are not acquainted with the standards to use in test writing. The National Research Council has released "Classroom Assessment and the National Education Standards," a…

  4. Mobile Learning and Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asplund, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Students with different achievement goal orientations have different approaches towards learning and studying. There is a widespread interest to find an easy access into learning spaces for those students who have low motivation with fear of failure and academic withdrawal. Mobile learning offers an easily accessible chance with low threshold to…

  5. Military Deployment and Elementary Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Terri; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact that military deployment has upon academic achievement of elementary school students. TerraNova test scores of 137 fourth and fifth grade students in two elementary schools with a high proportion of military dependent children were examined for two consecutive years. Although the academic test performance fell…

  6. Achievement Motivation and the Child's Social Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Martin; And Others

    This research was aimed at identifying some developmental and social-psychological conditions important to the relationship between achievement motivation and scholastic performance. A total of 197 second and fifth grade pupils in two elementary schools were observed near the end of first grade and fourth grade, and then again near the beginning…

  7. Increasing Math Achievement through Use of Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant-Jones, Marian; Shimmins, Kymberley J.; Vega, Jill D.

    This report describes a program for increasing math achievement through the use of musical interventions including repeated exposure to Mozart classical music and School House Rock, and introduction to teacher-made songs that introduce mathematical concepts in the music classroom. The students of the targeted second and fourth grade classes…

  8. Superintendent Length of Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study, utilizing the backward method of multiple regression, examined the relationship between the length of tenure of a superintendent and academic achievement as defined by the percentage of students who scored "Proficient" or better on the 2008 Third Grade Kansas Reading Assessment. To put this relationship into…

  9. Effects of Individualized Assignments on Biology Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    Compared detailed (favoring field dependence and induction) and nondetailed (favoring field dependence and deduction) assignments on biology achievement of grade 10 male students (N=95) over a seven-month period. Detailed assignments, employing pictorial and verbal block diagrams and high structure, significantly enhanced learning among some…

  10. The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly publication designed expressly for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. Highlights of this issue include: (1) Spellings Convenes National Summit on Higher Education; (2) Noble Street: Chicago Charter High School Creates a Culture of …

  11. Addressing Achievement Gaps with Psychological Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, David; Walton, Gregory; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Student psychology--how the classroom looks and feels from the perspective of the student--can powerfully affect motivation and learning, and experiments are increasingly showing that even brief interventions to change psychology can boost achievement over months or years. When paired with other structural reforms, social-psychological…

  12. Leadership, Self-Efficacy, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the "Leadership Behavior Description Question" (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969),…

  13. Student Perceptions of High-Achieving Classmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…

  14. Goal Orientations and Adolescent Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Tran Dang

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is a fundamental educational challenge for adolescents in the United States, and particularly for immigrant youth. The motivation to achieve, especially in mathematics, declines during adolescence. Most of what is known about motivation is based on studies of predominately middle-class White students; yet the influx of immigrants over…

  15. Higher Education Is Key To Achieving MDGs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Imagine trying to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) without higher education. As key institutions of civil society, universities are uniquely positioned between the communities they serve and the governments they advise. Through the CIDA-funded University Partnerships in Cooperation and Development program, Canadian universities have…

  16. The Protestant Work Ethic and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Stephen L.

    The factor make-up of the Protestant Work Ethic, first presented by M. Weber, was explored, and the relationship between endorsement of the Protestant Work Ethic and academic achievement was studied in a sample of 257 high school seniors. The independent variable was level of endorsement of the Protestant Work Ethic. The dependent variable was…

  17. Friend Influence on Achievement during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLay, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate friend influence on academic achievement and task avoidance during middle childhood in a sample of 794 participants in 397 stable same-sex friendship dyads (205 girl dyads and 192 boy dyads) from four municipalities in Finland: two in Central Finland, one in Western Finland, and one in Eastern Finland.…

  18. Positive Functions of Emotions in Achievement Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig, Nuria; Vilanova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of two research projects on the emotions of men engaged in achievement outdoor sports. The conditions were analyzed under which emotions carry out positive functions. The question strikes us as a fundamental one, because it is of crucial importance when it comes to increasing sportspeople's success. The…

  19. Feedback on Learning Achievement: Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrell, Janice

    2006-01-01

    Assessment theorists and academics alike espouse the importance of feedback on performance assessment tasks for supporting improvement and progress in student learning achievement. Despite these espoused ideals, students claim a lack of adequate, timely feedback and their teachers claim that students fail to heed the advice given. This paper…

  20. The Blackout of Native American Cultural Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    1987-01-01

    Notes that American Indian achievements are overlooked and even specifically denied in the face of overwhelming evidence of their reality. Examines the denials of Indian originality in three specific matters that have been controversial in recent decades: medicine, the manufacture of maple syrup, and the use of fertilizer. (JHZ)