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Sample records for achieve bp control

  1. Left ventricular hypertrophy by electrocardiogram as a predictor of success in home blood pressure control: HOMED-BP study.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Ayumi; Asayama, Kei; Hanazawa, Tomohiro; Watabe, Daisuke; Nomura, Kyoko; Okamura, Tomonori; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Imai, Yutaka

    2017-01-12

    Few studies have focused on the effect of organ damage on achievement of long-term home blood pressure (BP) control. Based on the nationwide home BP-based trial data, we aimed to investigate the factors associated with home BP control, in particular, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) using the electrocardiogram in patients who started antihypertensive drug treatment. According to the trial protocol, we defined BP as controlled when systolic home BP reached specified targets (125-134 mm Hg in usual control (UC), n=1261; <125 mm Hg in tight control (TC), n=1288). At baseline, before drug treatment started, the mean Sokolow-Lyon voltage was 2.57±0.87 mV, and the mean Cornell product was 1573±705 mm·ms. The numbers of patients who achieved the target BP level in the UC and TC groups were 892 (70.7%) and 576 (44.7%), respectively. In both the UC and TC groups, systolic home BP at baseline was significantly lower in patients who achieved target levels than in those who did not achieve target levels (P<0.0001). Sokolow-Lyon voltage was significantly lower in patients who achieved target levels than in those who did not (P⩽0.0055). The Cornell product levels in each group were similar (P⩾0.12), although significantly different between patients who did or did not achieve the target level when the UC and TC groups were combined for analysis (P=0.031). Sokolow-Lyon voltage was significantly associated with achievement of home BP control in the multivariable-adjusted model (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence intervals, 1.02-1.26; P=0.015), but Cornell product was not (P=0.13). These results indicate the difficulty of sufficient antihypertensive treatment when untreated patients had target organ damage, that is, LVH diagnosed by Sokolow-Lyon voltage.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 12 January 2017; doi:10.1038/hr.2016.176.

  2. Can aerobic exercise complement antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure control in individuals with essential hypertension?

    PubMed

    Maruf, Fatai A; Salako, Babatunde L; Akinpelu, Aderonke O

    2014-06-01

    Achieving adequate blood pressure (BP) control with antihypertensive medication remains an elusive goal for many patients. The advances in knowledge of hypertension and the increasingly improved upon therapeutic strategies seem not to guarantee even sustainable control rates at the population level. In addition, patients who either discontinue their medications or are non-adherent to drug therapy run the risk of developing uncontrolled BP. Number of daily tablets more than two and number of daily drug administration at least three have been associated with poor adherence with drug therapy. However, BP control seems to go beyond adherence with drug therapy as there are other associated factors. Studies have demonstrated beneficial effect of aerobic exercise in the prevention and management of hypertension. It appears, however, that the majority of these studies failed to explore the possible additive or synergistic effect of aerobic exercise on antihypertensive drugs such that fewer drugs would be required to achieve BP control or that the BP control rate would be increased with the same number of drugs. This review presents the evidence for poor BP control in the general population, and the possible means and process of aerobic exercise complementing antihypertensive drug therapy in order to achieve higher BP control rates.

  3. The effects of telmisartan alone or with hydrochlorothiazide on morning and 24-h ambulatory BP control: results from a practice-based study (SURGE 2).

    PubMed

    Parati, Gianfranco; Bilo, Grzegorz; Redon, Josep

    2013-04-01

    Observational studies have shown that 24-h and morning ambulatory blood pressure (BP) control is low. This large-scale, practice-based study evaluated the effects of telmisartan 40 or 80 mg alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg on these BP parameters over 8 weeks; treatment was adjusted if clinic BP remained ≥140/90 mm Hg. A total of 863 patients were evaluated (baseline mean clinic BP, morning and 24-h ambulatory BP: 155±15/93±10 mm Hg, 137±15/83±11 mm Hg, 133±14/79±10 mm Hg, respectively; 68% were previously treated at baseline). Telmisartan with/without HCTZ significantly reduced the mean morning ambulatory BP (-8.2/-4.9 mm Hg), daytime ambulatory BP (-8.0/-4.7 mm Hg), 24-h ambulatory BP (-7.9/-4.7 mm Hg) and clinic BP (-22.3/-13.2 mm Hg) (all P<0.001) in previously untreated and in treated patients who switched to telmisartan and telmisartan/HCTZ. After treatment with telmisartan with/without HCTZ, the morning ambulatory BP control increased from 36.5 to 64.4%; daytime ambulatory BP control increased from 40.8 to 67.6%; 53.0% of patients achieved 24-h ambulatory BP <125/80 mm Hg and 62% achieved <130/80 mm Hg targets. Only 0.8% (7/863) reported an adverse event. In summary, telmisartan and telmisartan/HCTZ increased smooth 24-h BP control in daily management of hypertension.

  4. Smoking control: challenges and achievements

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa; de Araújo, Alberto José; de Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases. PMID:27832238

  5. Smoking control: challenges and achievements.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa da; Araújo, Alberto José de; Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias de; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases. RESUMO O tabagismo é o fator de risco mais prevenível e controlável em saúde e, por isso, precisa ter a máxima atenção e ser muito mais enfocado por todos os profissionais da saúde. O tabaco é um produto de alta rentabilidade pela sua grande produção e pelo elevado número de consumidores. As políticas de controle e os recursos terapêuticos para o tabagismo avançaram muito nos últimos anos e têm mostrado resultados altamente satisfatórios, particularmente no Brasil. Entretanto, ainda resta um longo caminho a ser percorrido para que se possa considerar o tabagismo como uma doença controlada sob o ponto de vista da saúde pública. Já se observam modificações do comportamento da sociedade com relação ao tabagismo, mas ainda em escala muito lenta, de modo que os pneumologistas têm nesse setor um campo

  6. Mutation particle swarm optimization of the BP-PID controller for piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huaqing; Jiang, Minlan

    2016-01-01

    PID control is the most common used method in industrial control because its structure is simple and it is easy to implement. PID controller has good control effect, now it has been widely used. However, PID method has a few limitations. The overshoot of the PID controller is very big. The adjustment time is long. When the parameters of controlled plant are changing over time, the parameters of controller could hardly change automatically to adjust to changing environment. Thus, it can't meet the demand of control quality in the process of controlling piezoelectric ceramic. In order to effectively control the piezoelectric ceramic and improve the control accuracy, this paper replaced the learning algorithm of the BP with the mutation particle swarm optimization algorithm(MPSO) on the process of the parameters setting of BP-PID. That designed a better self-adaptive controller which is combing the BP neural network based on mutation particle swarm optimization with the conventional PID control theory. This combination is called the MPSO-BP-PID. In the mechanism of the MPSO, the mutation operation is carried out with the fitness variance and the global best fitness value as the standard. That can overcome the precocious of the PSO and strengthen its global search ability. As a result, the MPSO-BP-PID can complete controlling the controlled plant with higher speed and accuracy. Therefore, the MPSO-BP-PID is applied to the piezoelectric ceramic. It can effectively overcome the hysteresis, nonlinearity of the piezoelectric ceramic. In the experiment, compared with BP-PID and PSO-BP-PID, it proved that MPSO is effective and the MPSO-BP-PID has stronger adaptability and robustness.

  7. JS ISH-ISN-3 OPTIMAL TARGETS FOR BP CONTROL IN CKD.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is the most prevalent complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Lowering high blood pressure slows progressive loss of kidney function and may also reduce the associated risk of cardiovascular complications, a common cause of premature death in CKD patients.Current International Guidelines produced by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) acknowledges that no single BP target is optimal for all CKD patients, and encourages individualization of treatment depending on age, the severity of albuminuria and comorbidities. When published in 2012, the available evidence indicated that in CKD patients without albuminuria, the target BP should be ≤140 mmHg systolic and ≤90 mmHg diastolic. However, in most patients with an albumin excretion rate of ≥30 mg/24 h (i.e., those with both micro- and macroalbuminuria), a lower target of ≤130 mmHg systolic and ≤80 mmHg diastolic was suggested. In achieving BP control, the value of lifestyle changes and the need for multiple pharmacological agents was acknowledged. Use of agents that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was recommended or suggested in all patients with an albumin excretion rate of ≥30 mg/24 h. Recommendations are almost identical in CKD patients with and without diabetes.Recent data from SPRINT (which included CKD patients) and other clinical trials has led nephrologists to ask whether targets lower than those recommend by KDIGO are appropriate and the guidelines are currently undergoing an update. Controversies remain around discontinuation of ACE/ARB in patients with stage 4-5 CKD and dual renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade.

  8. 53BP1 regulates DSB repair using Rif1 to control 5' end resection.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michal; Lottersberger, Francisca; Buonomo, Sara B; Sfeir, Agnel; de Lange, Titia

    2013-02-08

    The choice between double-strand break (DSB) repair by either homology-directed repair (HDR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is tightly regulated. Defects in this regulation can induce genome instability and cancer. 53BP1 is critical for the control of DSB repair, promoting NHEJ, and inhibiting the 5' end resection needed for HDR. Using dysfunctional telomeres and genome-wide DSBs, we identify Rif1 as the main factor used by 53BP1 to impair 5' end resection. Rif1 inhibits resection involving CtIP, BLM, and Exo1; limits accumulation of BRCA1/BARD1 complexes at sites of DNA damage; and defines one of the mechanisms by which 53BP1 causes chromosomal abnormalities in Brca1-deficient cells. These data establish Rif1 as an important contributor to the control of DSB repair by 53BP1.

  9. Achievements and tasks for active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichy, Jiri

    This short survey attempted to highlight some achievements of the latest active control applications. Except for the active control of a one-dimensional sound field in ducts and active headphones, the applications for active control technology are still being developed. Although the principles of active control are simple, their applications still require substantial research and modeling of the sound fields to find optimal solutions. There is no doubt that active control of sound field triggered extensive research of the fundamental properties of the sound field which goes beyond the textbook simplifications. Also, new hardware, particularly actuators, are under development. As more realism is brought into assessment of applicability of active control, we will see in the future increasing confidence of industry to adopt this new technology.

  10. Translation control during prolonged mTORC1 inhibition mediated by 4E-BP3

    PubMed Central

    Tsukumo, Yoshinori; Alain, Tommy; Fonseca, Bruno D.; Nadon, Robert; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2016-01-01

    Targeting mTORC1 is a highly promising strategy in cancer therapy. Suppression of mTORC1 activity leads to rapid dephosphorylation of eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BP1–3) and subsequent inhibition of mRNA translation. However, how the different 4E-BPs affect translation during prolonged use of mTOR inhibitors is not known. Here we show that the expression of 4E-BP3, but not that of 4E-BP1 or 4E-BP2, is transcriptionally induced during prolonged mTORC1 inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, our data reveal that 4E-BP3 expression is controlled by the transcription factor TFE3 through a cis-regulatory element in the EIF4EBP3 gene promoter. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated EIF4EBP3 gene disruption in human cancer cells mitigated the inhibition of translation and proliferation caused by prolonged treatment with mTOR inhibitors. Our findings show that 4E-BP3 is an important effector of mTORC1 and a robust predictive biomarker of therapeutic response to prolonged treatment with mTOR-targeting drugs in cancer. PMID:27319316

  11. RanBP3 Regulates Melanoma Cell Proliferation via Selective Control of Nuclear Export.

    PubMed

    Pathria, Gaurav; Garg, Bhavuk; Wagner, Christine; Garg, Kanika; Gschaider, Melanie; Jalili, Ahmad; Wagner, Stephan N

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome region maintenance 1-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport has been shown as a potential anticancer target in various malignancies. However, the role of the most characterized chromosome region maintenance 1 cofactor ran binding protein 3 (RanBP3) in cancer cell biology has never been investigated. Utilizing a loss-of-function experimental setting in a vast collection of genetically varied melanoma cell lines, we observed the requirement of RanBP3 in melanoma cell proliferation and survival. Mechanistically, we suggest the reinstatement of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-Smad2/3-p21(Cip1) tumor-suppressor axis as part of the RanBP3 silencing-associated antiproliferative program. Employing extensive nuclear export sequence analyses and immunofluorescence-based protein localization studies, we further present evidence suggesting the requirement of RanBP3 function for the nuclear exit of the weak nuclear export sequence-harboring extracellular signal-regulated kinase protein, although it is dispensable for general CRM1-mediated nuclear export of strong nuclear export sequence-harboring cargoes. Rendering mechanistic support to RanBP3 silencing-mediated apoptosis, consequent to extracellular signal-regulated kinase nuclear entrapment, we observed increased levels of cytoplasmically restricted nonphosphorylated/active proapoptotic Bcl-2-antagonist of cell death (BAD) protein. Last, we present evidence suggesting the frequently activated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in melanoma as a potential founding basis for a deregulated post-translational control of RanBP3 activity. Collectively, the presented data suggest RanBP3 as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in human melanoma.

  12. Achieving modulated oscillations by feedback control.

    PubMed

    Ge, Tian; Tian, Xiaoying; Kurths, Jürgen; Feng, Jianfeng; Lin, Wei

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we develop an approach to achieve either frequency or amplitude modulation of an oscillator merely through feedback control. We present and implement a unified theory of our approach for any finite-dimensional continuous dynamical system that exhibits oscillatory behavior. The approach is illustrated not only for the normal forms of dynamical systems but also for representative biological models, such as the isolated and coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo model. We demonstrate the potential usefulness of our approach to uncover the mechanisms of frequency and amplitude modulations experimentally observed in a wide range of real systems.

  13. Achieving modulated oscillations by feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Tian; Tian, Xiaoying; Kurths, Jürgen; Feng, Jianfeng; Lin, Wei

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we develop an approach to achieve either frequency or amplitude modulation of an oscillator merely through feedback control. We present and implement a unified theory of our approach for any finite-dimensional continuous dynamical system that exhibits oscillatory behavior. The approach is illustrated not only for the normal forms of dynamical systems but also for representative biological models, such as the isolated and coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo model. We demonstrate the potential usefulness of our approach to uncover the mechanisms of frequency and amplitude modulations experimentally observed in a wide range of real systems.

  14. BP Control and Long-Term Risk of ESRD and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Ku, Elaine; Gassman, Jennifer; Appel, Lawrence J; Smogorzewski, Miroslaw; Sarnak, Mark J; Glidden, David V; Bakris, George; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Hebert, Lee A; Ix, Joachim H; Lea, Janice; Lipkowitz, Michael S; Norris, Keith; Ploth, David; Pogue, Velvie A; Rostand, Stephen G; Siew, Edward D; Sika, Mohammed; Tisher, C Craig; Toto, Robert; Wright, Jackson T; Wyatt, Christina; Hsu, Chi-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    We recently showed an association between strict BP control and lower mortality risk during two decades of follow-up of prior participants in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) trial. Here, we determined the risk of ESRD and mortality during extended follow-up of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial. We linked 1067 former AASK participants with CKD previously randomized to strict or usual BP control (mean arterial pressure ≤92 mmHg or 102-107 mmHg, respectively) to the US Renal Data System and Social Security Death Index; 397 patients had ESRD and 475 deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 14.4 years from 1995 to 2012. Compared with the usual BP arm, the strict BP arm had unadjusted and adjusted relative risks of ESRD of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 1.12) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.78 to 1.16; P=0.64), respectively, and unadjusted and adjusted relative risks of death of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.77 to 1.10) and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.98; P=0.03), respectively. In meta-analyses of individual-level data from the MDRD and the AASK trials, unadjusted relative risk of ESRD was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.78 to 1.00) and unadjusted relative risk of death was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.76 to 0.99) for strict versus usual BP arms. Our findings suggest that, during long-term follow-up, strict BP control does not delay the onset of ESRD but may reduce the relative risk of death in CKD.

  15. Malaria control: achievements, problems and strategies.

    PubMed

    Nájera, J A

    2001-06-01

    Even if history has not always been the Magistra vitae, Cicero expected it to be, it should provide, as Baas said, a mirror in which to observe and compare the past and present in order to draw therefrom well-grounded conclusions for the future. Based on this belief, this paper aims to provide an overview of the foundations and development of malaria control policies during the XX century. It presents an analysis of the conflicting tendencies which shaped the development of these policies and which appear to have oscillated between calls for frontal attack in an all-out campaign and calls for sustainable gains, even if slow. It discusses the various approaches to the control of malaria, their achievements and their limitations, not only to serve as a background to understand better the foundations of current policies, but also to prevent that simplistic generalisations may again lead to exaggerated expectations and disillusion. The first part of the paper is devoted to the development of malaria control during the first half of the century, characterised by the ups and downs in the reliance on mosquito control as the control measure applicable everywhere. The proliferation of "man-made-malaria", which accompanied the push for economic development in most of the endemic countries, spurred the need for control interventions and, while great successes were obtained in many specific projects, the general campaigns proposed by the enthusiasts of vector control faced increasing difficulties in their practical implementation in the field. Important events, which may be considered representative of this period are, on the campaign approach, the success of Gorgas in the Panama Canal, but also the failure of the Mian Mir project in India; while on the developmental approach, the Italian and Dutch schools of malariology, the Tennessee Valley and the development of malaria sanitation, included the so called species sanitation. The projection of these developments to a global

  16. Nonlinear model predictive control using parameter varying BP-ARX combination model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.-F.; Xiao, L.-F.; Qian, J.-X.; Li, H.

    2012-03-01

    A novel back-propagation AutoRegressive with eXternal input (BP-ARX) combination model is constructed for model predictive control (MPC) of MIMO nonlinear systems, whose steady-state relation between inputs and outputs can be obtained. The BP neural network represents the steady-state relation, and the ARX model represents the linear dynamic relation between inputs and outputs of the nonlinear systems. The BP-ARX model is a global model and is identified offline, while the parameters of the ARX model are rescaled online according to BP neural network and operating data. Sequential quadratic programming is employed to solve the quadratic objective function online, and a shift coefficient is defined to constrain the effect time of the recursive least-squares algorithm. Thus, a parameter varying nonlinear MPC (PVNMPC) algorithm that responds quickly to large changes in system set-points and shows good dynamic performance when system outputs approach set-points is proposed. Simulation results in a multivariable stirred tank and a multivariable pH neutralisation process illustrate the applicability of the proposed method and comparisons of the control effect between PVNMPC and multivariable recursive generalised predictive controller are also performed.

  17. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  18. Control Strategies to Achieve Air Pollution Reduction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Considerations in designing an effective control strategy related to air quality, controlling pollution sources, need for regional or national controls, steps to developing a control strategy, and additional EPA resources.

  19. Comprehensive Approach to Lower Blood Pressure (CALM-BP): a randomized controlled trial of a multifactorial lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Ziv, A; Vogel, O; Keret, D; Pintov, S; Bodenstein, E; Wolkomir, K; Doenyas, K; Mirovski, Y; Efrati, S

    2013-10-01

    Complementary medicine advocates the use of a multifactorial approach to address the varied aspects of hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the blood pressure (BP) effect and medication use of a novel Comprehensive Approach to Lowering Measured Blood Pressure (CALM-BP), based on complementary medicine principles, with the standard recommended Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH). A total of 113 patients treated with antihypertensive drugs were randomly assigned to either CALM-BP treatment (consisting of rice diet, walks, yoga, relaxation and stress management) or to a DASH+exercise control group (consisting of DASH and walks). Ambulatory 24-h and home BP were monitored over a 16-week programme, followed by 6 months of maintenance period. Medications were reduced if systolic BP dropped below 110 mm Hg accompanied by symptoms. In addition to BP reduction, medications were reduced because of symptomatic hypotension in 70.7% of the CALM-BP group compared with 32.7% in the DASH group, P<0.0001. After 6 months, medication status was not altered in the majority of individuals. Significant reductions in body mass index, cholesterol and improved quality-of-life scores were observed only in the CALM-BP group. Lifestyle and diet modifications based on complementary medicine principles are highly effective with respect to BP control, medication use and cardiovascular risk factors.

  20. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  1. Home and Online Management and Evaluation of Blood Pressure (HOME BP) digital intervention for self-management of uncontrolled, essential hypertension: a protocol for the randomised controlled HOME BP trial

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Katherine; Stuart, Beth; Raftery, James; Bradbury, Katherine; Yao, Guiqing Lily; Zhu, Shihua; Little, Paul; Yardley, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Self-management of hypertension, including self-monitoring and antihypertensive medication titration, lowers blood pressure (BP) at 1 year compared to usual care. The aim of the current trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Home and Online Management and Evaluation of Blood Pressure (HOME BP) intervention for the self-management of hypertension in primary care. Methods and analysis The HOME BP trial will be a randomised controlled trial comparing BP self-management—consisting of the HOME BP online digital intervention with self-monitoring, lifestyle advice and antihypertensive drug titration—with usual care for people with uncontrolled essential hypertension. Eligible patients will be recruited from primary care and randomised to usual care or to self-management using HOME BP. The primary outcome will be the difference in mean systolic BP (mm Hg) at 12-month follow-up between the intervention and control groups adjusting for baseline BP and covariates. Secondary outcomes (also adjusted for baseline and covariates where appropriate) will be differences in mean BP at 6 months and diastolic BP at 12 months; patient enablement; quality of life, and economic analyses including all key resources associated with the intervention and related services, adopting a broad societal perspective to include NHS, social care and patient costs, considered within trial and modelled with a lifetime horizon. Medication beliefs, adherence and changes; self-efficacy; perceived side effects and lifestyle changes will be measured for process analyses. Qualitative analyses will explore patient and healthcare professional experiences of HOME BP to gain insights into the factors affecting acceptability, feasibility and adherence. Ethics and dissemination This study has received NHS ethical approval (REC reference 15/SC/0082). The findings from HOME BP will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications, scientific conferences and workshops. If

  2. CtBP Levels Control Intergenic Transcripts, PHO/YY1 DNA Binding, and PcG Recruitment to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arindam; Atchison, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Carboxy-terminal binding protein (CtBP) is a well-known corepressor of several DNA binding transcription factors in Drosophila as well as in mammals. CtBP is implicated in Polycomb Group (PcG) complex-mediated transcriptional repression because it can bind to some PcG proteins, and mutation of the ctbp gene in flies results in lost PcG protein recruitment to Polycomb Response Elements (PREs) and lost PcG repression. However, the mechanism of reduced PcG DNA binding in CtBP mutant backgrounds is unknown. We show here that in a Drosophila CtBP mutant background, intergenic transcripts are induced across several PRE sequences and this corresponds to reduced DNA binding by PcG proteins Pleiohomeotic (PHO) and Polycomb (Pc), and reduced trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 27, a hallmark of PcG repression. Restoration of CtBP levels by expression of a CtBP transgene results in repression of intergenic transcripts, restored PcG binding, and elevated trimethylation of H3 on lysine 27. Our results support a model in which CtBP regulates expression of intergenic transcripts that controls DNA binding by PcG proteins and subsequent histone modifications and transcriptional activity. PMID:20082324

  3. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children…

  4. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children (49% female)…

  5. T4-like phage Bp7, a potential antimicrobial agent for controlling drug-resistant Escherichia coli in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Li, Wenli; Liu, Wenhua; Zou, Ling; Yan, Chen; Lu, Kai; Ren, Huiying

    2013-09-01

    Chicken-pathogenic Escherichia coli is severely endangering the poultry industry in China and worldwide, and antibiotic therapy is facing an increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. Bacteriophages can kill bacteria with no known activity in human or animal cells, making them an attractive alternative to antibiotics. In this study, we present the characteristics of a novel virulent bacteriophage, Bp7, specifically infecting pathogenic multidrug-resistant E. coli. Phage Bp7 was isolated from chicken feces. Bp7 belongs to the family Myoviridae, possessing an elongated icosahedral head and contractile sheathed tail. It has a 168-kb double-stranded DNA genome. For larger yields, its optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) to infect E. coli was about 0.001. The latent period was 10 to 15 min, and the burst size was 90 PFU/infected cell. It was stable both at pH 5.0 to 10.0 and at 40°C or 50°C for at least 1 h. Bp7 could infect 46% of pathogenic clinical E. coli strains. Bp7 harbored 791 open reading frames (ORFs) and 263 possible genes. Among the 263 genes, 199 possessed amino acid sequence identities with ORFs of phage T4, 62 had identities with other T4-like phages, and only one lacked any database match. The genome of Bp7 manifested obvious division and rearrangement compared to phages T4, JS98, and IME08. Bp7 is a new member of the "T4-like" genus, family Myoviridae. Its wide host range, strong cell-killing activity, and high stability to pH make it an alternative to antimicrobials for controlling drug-resistant E. coli in chickens.

  6. Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards in Region 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards (MACTs) are applicable requirements under the Title V operating permit program. This is a resource for permit writers and reviewers to learn about the rules and explore other helpful tools.

  7. Ethylene Production Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Compliance Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 2006 document is intended to help owners and operators of ethylene processes understand and comply with EPA's maximum achievable control technology standards promulgated on July 12, 2002, as amended on April 13, 2005 and April 20, 2006.

  8. Synaptic activity controls localization and function of CtBP1 via binding to Bassoon and Piccolo

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Daniela; Dirks, Anika; Montenegro-Venegas, Carolina; Schöne, Cornelia; Altrock, Wilko D; Marini, Claudia; Frischknecht, Renato; Schanze, Denny; Zenker, Martin; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Fejtova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Persistent experience-driven adaptation of brain function is associated with alterations in gene expression patterns, resulting in structural and functional neuronal remodeling. How synaptic activity—in particular presynaptic performance—is coupled to gene expression in nucleus remains incompletely understood. Here, we report on a role of CtBP1, a transcriptional co-repressor enriched in presynapses and nuclei, in the activity-driven reconfiguration of gene expression in neurons. We demonstrate that presynaptic and nuclear pools of CtBP1 are interconnected and that both synaptic retention and shuttling of CtBP1 between cytoplasm and nucleus are co-regulated by neuronal activity. Finally, we show that CtBP1 is targeted and/or anchored to presynapses by direct interaction with the active zone scaffolding proteins Bassoon and Piccolo. This association is regulated by neuronal activity via modulation of cellular NAD/NADH levels and restrains the size of the CtBP1 pool available for nuclear import, thus contributing to the control of activity-dependent gene expression. Our combined results reveal a mechanism for coupling activity-induced molecular rearrangements in the presynapse with reconfiguration of neuronal gene expression. PMID:25652077

  9. BP control and left ventricular hypertrophy regression in children with CKD.

    PubMed

    Kupferman, Juan C; Aronson Friedman, Lisa; Cox, Christopher; Flynn, Joseph; Furth, Susan; Warady, Bradley; Mitsnefes, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In adult patients with CKD, hypertension is linked to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy, but whether this association exists in children with CKD has not been determined conclusively. To assess the relationship between BP and left ventricular hypertrophy, we prospectively analyzed data from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort. In total, 478 subjects were enrolled, and 435, 321, and 142 subjects remained enrolled at years 1, 3, and 5, respectively. Echocardiograms were obtained 1 year after study entry and then every 2 years; BP was measured annually. A linear mixed model was used to assess the effect of BP on left ventricular mass index, which was measured at three different visits, and a mixed logistic model was used to assess left ventricular hypertrophy. These models were part of a joint longitudinal and survival model to adjust for informative dropout. Predictors of left ventricular mass index included systolic BP, anemia, and use of antihypertensive medications other than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Predictors of left ventricular hypertrophy included systolic BP, female sex, anemia, and use of other antihypertensive medications. Over 4 years, the adjusted prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy decreased from 15.3% to 12.6% in a systolic BP model and from 15.1% to 12.6% in a diastolic BP model. These results indicate that a decline in BP may predict a decline in left ventricular hypertrophy in children with CKD and suggest additional factors that warrant additional investigation as predictors of left ventricular hypertrophy in these patients.

  10. Interrelationships of Study Habits and Attitudes, Locus of Control, Motivation Achievement Tendencies and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    The study investigated (a) relationships between measures on study habits and attitudes, locus of control, achieving tendency, and semester grade-point averages (SGPA), (b) differences between the sexes on the above mentioned variables, and (c) best predictor of SGPA. The subjects were 39 males and 81 females. There were a number of significant…

  11. Laboratory Control System's Effects on Student Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicek, Fatma Gozalan; Taspinar, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The current study investigates whether the learning environment designed based on the laboratory control system affects the academic achievement, the attitude toward the learning-teaching process and the retention of the students in computer education. Purpose of Study: The study aims to identify the laboratory control system…

  12. The Impact of Locus of Control on Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2012-01-01

    This study hypothesized that students' loci of control affected their language achievement. 198 (N = 198) EFL students took the Rotter's (1966) locus of control test and were classified as locus-internal (ni = 78), and locus-external (ne = 120). They then took their ordinary courses and at the end of the semester, they were given their exams.…

  13. Purpose plus: supporting youth purpose, control, and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Kanny, Mary Allison

    2011-01-01

    Research in the past decade suggests that a persistent achievement gap between students from low-income minority backgrounds and higher-income white backgrounds may be rooted in theories of student motivation and youth purpose. Yet limited research exists regarding the role of purpose on positive youth development as it pertains to academic achievement. Using a sample of 209 high school students, this study examines the effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote purpose development and internal control over academic success in high school students from a low-socioeconomic-status community. Findings reveal that a short-term intervention was effective in significantly increasing internal control over academic success and purpose in life for students participating in the intervention group. In addition, analysis of academic achievement for students who experienced positive gains in internal control and purpose demonstrates significant gains in academic achievement as measured by grade point average. Implications are made for further study of internal control and life purpose as a means of academic intervention in the effort to address the achievement gap.

  14. Personal and Familial Correlates of Bipolar (BP)-I Disorder in Children with a Diagnosis of BP-I Disorder with a Positive Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)-Severe Dysregulation Profile: A Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Martelon, MaryKate; Faraone, Stephen V.; Woodworth, Yvonne; Spencer, Thomas J.; Wozniak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the DSM-IV provides explicit criteria for the diagnosis of BP-I disorder, this is a complex diagnosis that requires high levels of clinical expertise. Previous work shows children with a unique profile of the CBCL of high scores (2SD) on the Attention Problems (AP), Aggressive Behavior (AGG), and Anxious-Depressed (AD) (A-A-A) subscales are more likely than other children to meet criteria for BP-I disorder in both epidemiological and clinical samples. However, since not all BP-I disorder children have a positive profile questions remain as to its informativeness, particularly in the absence of an expert diagnostician. Methods Analyses were conducted comparing personal and familial correlates of BP-I disorder in 140 youth with a structured interview and an expert clinician based DSM-IV diagnosis of BP-I disorder with (N=80) and without (N=60) a positive CBCL- Severe Dysregulation profile, and 129 controls of similar age and sex without ADHD or a mood disorder. Subjects were comprehensively assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and wide range of functional measures. We defined the CBCL-Severe Dysregulation profile as an aggregate cut-off score of ≥210 on the A-A-A scales. Results BP-I probands with and without a positive CBCL-Severe Dysregulation profile significantly differed from Controls in patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial and psychoeducational dysfunction, and cognitive deficits, as well as in their risk for BP-I disorder in first degree relatives. Limitations Because the sample was referred and largely Caucasian, findings may not generalize to community samples and other ethnic groups. Conclusion A positive CBCL-Severe Dysregulation profile identifies a severe subgroup of BP-I disorder youth. PMID:23164462

  15. EFFECTS OF DOMINANCE AND CONTROL ON READING ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOOS, ROBERT W.; HILLERICH, ROBERT L.

    TWO DISPARATE STUDIES WERE REPLICATED WITH A PUBLIC SCHOOL POPULATION USED BY HILLERICH IN A 4-YEAR STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF HANDEDNESS AND EYEDNESS. SUBJECTS WERE 273 SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GRADERS WHO REMAINED FROM AN ORIGINAL POPULATION OF 400. TESTS WERE ADMINISTERED TO DETERMINE EYE DOMINANCE, HANDEDNESS, CONTROLLING EYE, READING ACHIEVEMENT,…

  16. Children's Effortful Control and Academic Achievement: Mediation through Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Haugen, Rg; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Liew, Jeffrey; Kupfer, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to test the premise that children's effortful control (EC) is prospectively related to their academic achievement and to specify mechanisms through which EC is related to academic success. We used data from 214 children (M age at Time 1 [T1] = 73 months) to test whether social functioning (e.g.,…

  17. The purposes, achievements, and priorities of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.S.

    1987-09-01

    Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be. (ACR)

  18. Strict Blood Pressure Control Achieved Using an ICT-Based Home Blood Pressure Monitoring System in a Catastrophically Damaged Area After a Disaster.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Masafumi; Hoshide, Satoshi; Okawara, Yukie; Matsuo, Takefumi; Kario, Kazuomi

    2017-01-01

    At the time of the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami (March 2011), the authors developed a web-based information and communications technology (ICT)-based blood pressure (BP) monitoring system (the Disaster CArdiovascular Prevention [DCAP] Network) and introduced it in an area that was catastrophically damaged (Minamisanriku town) to help control the survivors' BP. Using this system, home BP (HBP) was monitored and the data were automatically transmitted to a central computer database and to the survivors' attending physicians. The study participants, 341 hypertensive patients, continued to use this system for 4 years after the disaster and all of the obtained HBP readings were analyzed. This DCAP HBP-guided approach helped achieve a decrease in the participants' HBPs (initial average: 151.3±20.0/86.9±10.2 mm Hg to 120.2±12.1/70.8±10.2 mm Hg) over the 4 years. In addition, the amplitude of seasonal BP variation was suppressed and the duration from the summer lowest HBP values to the winter peak HBP values was gradually prolonged. This ICT-based approach was useful to achieve strict HBP control and minimize the seasonal BP variation even in a catastrophically damaged area during a 4-year period after the disaster, suggesting that this approach could be a routine way to monitor BP in the community.

  19. Does 24bp Duplication of Human CHIT1 Gene (Chitotriosidase1) Predispose to Filarial Chyluria? A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Shriya; Agarwal, Jyotsna; Gangwar, Pravin K; Waseem, Mohammad; Gupta, Prashant; Sankhwar, Satya N; Purkait, Bimalesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chyluria which is endemic in many parts of the world is mainly caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. CHIT1 (chitotriosidase) is produced by macrophages and plays an important role in the defense against chitin containing pathogen such as filarial parasite. Variation in the coding region with 24 bp duplication allele results in reduced CHIT1 activity that enhance the survival of parasite which may play a role in the occurrence of disease. Aim To examine the role of 24bp duplication of CHIT1 gene in patients of filarial chyluria (FC). Materials and Methods A case-control study was carried out where 155 confirmed FC patients and equal number of age-, sex- and residence-matched controls without any symptoms or signs of lymphatic filariasis, confirmed by negative immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and IgG/IgM combo rapid antibody test, from a hospital-based population were enrolled. Filarial aetiology was confirmed on the basis of DEC-provocative test (Giemsa staining), ICT and IgG/IgM- antifiarial antibody test. The patients positive by either of these tests were enrolled as FC cases. 24bp duplication in CHIT1 gene in FC was detected by the product size 99bp of amplified gene using polymerase chain reaction. Results The mean ages of patients and controls were 38.25±12.09 and 35.45±12.53 years, respectively while male: female ratio was 2.4:1. The mean duration of illness in chyluria patients was 62.81±60.83 months and mean number of episodes was 2.54±1.11. Homozygous wild type, heterozygous and homozygous mutant frequencies were 10.3%, 81.3% and 8.4% in FC patients and 18.7%, 75.5%, and 5.8% in controls, respectively. The 24bp duplication in CHIT1 gene showed a significant association in Heterozygous (HT) genotype with Odd Ratio (OR) of 1.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (1.01-3.77); p=0.04. However, the homozygous mutant genotype (TT) was found to be non-significant with OR of 2.61, 95% CI (0.91-7.45); p=0.07. The combination of both HT+TT was also found

  20. Phosphatase control of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation state is central for glycolytic regulation of retinal protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Thomas W; Abcouwer, Steven F; Losiewicz, Mandy K; Fort, Patrice E

    2015-09-15

    Control of protein synthesis in insulin-responsive tissues has been well characterized, but relatively little is known about how this process is regulated in nervous tissues. The retina exhibits a relatively high protein synthesis rate, coinciding with high basal Akt and metabolic activities, with the majority of retinal ATP being derived from aerobic glycolysis. We examined the dependency of retinal protein synthesis on the Akt-mTOR signaling and glycolysis using ex vivo rat retinas. Akt inhibitors significantly reduced retinal protein synthesis but did not affect glycolytic lactate production. Surprisingly, the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) markedly inhibited Akt1 and Akt3 activities, as well as protein synthesis. The effects of 2-DG, and 2-fluorodeoxyglucose (2-FDG) on retinal protein synthesis correlated with inhibition of lactate production and diminished ATP content, with all these effects reversed by provision of d-mannose. 2-DG treatment was not associated with increased AMPK, eEF2, or eIF2α phosphorylation; instead, it caused rapid dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1. 2-DG reduced total mTOR activity by 25%, but surprisingly, it did not reduce mTORC1 activity, as indicated by unaltered raptor-associated mTOR autophosphorylation and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation. Dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1 was largely prevented by inhibition of PP1/PP2A phosphatases with okadaic acid and calyculin A, and inhibition of PPM1 phosphatases with cadmium. Thus, inhibition of retinal glycolysis diminished Akt and protein synthesis coinciding with accelerated dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1 independently of mTORC1. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism regulating protein synthesis in the retina involving an mTORC1-independent and phosphatase-dependent regulation of 4E-BP1.

  1. Insulin signaling controls neurotransmission via the 4eBP-dependent modification of the exocytotic machinery

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Rebekah Elizabeth; Azpurua, Jorge; Eaton, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Altered insulin signaling has been linked to widespread nervous system dysfunction including cognitive dysfunction, neuropathy and susceptibility to neurodegenerative disease. However, knowledge of the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of insulin on neuronal function is incomplete. Here, we show that cell autonomous insulin signaling within the Drosophila CM9 motor neuron regulates the release of neurotransmitter via alteration of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. This effect of insulin utilizes the FOXO-dependent regulation of the thor gene, which encodes the Drosophila homologue of the eif-4e binding protein (4eBP). A critical target of this regulatory mechanism is Complexin, a synaptic protein known to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We find that the amounts of Complexin protein observed at the synapse is regulated by insulin and genetic manipulations of Complexin levels support the model that increased synaptic Complexin reduces neurotransmission in response to insulin signaling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16807.001 PMID:27525480

  2. Parental Behavioural Control and Academic Achievement: Striking the Balance between Control and Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Karen Z.

    2012-01-01

    Using a longitudinal US dataset (N = 6,134) we examine the relationship between parental behavioural control and academic achievement and explore the moderating role of parental involvement and parental warmth. Analyses using multiple hierarchical regression with clustering controls shows that parental behavioural control is negatively associated…

  3. Method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.

    1986-01-01

    A method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy by illuminating a minute, solid density, hollow shell of a mixture of material such as deuterium and tritium with a high intensity, uniformly converging laser wave to effect an extremely rapid build-up of energy in inwardly traveling shock waves to implode the shell creating thermonuclear conditions causing a reaction of deuterons and tritons and a resultant high energy thermonuclear burn. Utilizing the resulting energy as a thermal source and to breed tritium or plutonium. The invention also contemplates a laser source wherein the flux level is increased with time to reduce the initial shock heating of fuel and provide maximum compression after implosion; and, in addition, computations and an equation are provided to enable the selection of a design having a high degree of stability and a dependable fusion performance by establishing a proper relationship between the laser energy input and the size and character of the selected material for the fusion capsule.

  4. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterbin, Allan; Rakow, Ernest

    The direct effects of locus of control and self-esteem on standardized test scores were studied. The relationships among the standardized test scores and measures of locus of control and self-esteem for 12,260 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1994 database were examined, using the same definition of locus of control and…

  5. Purpose Plus: Supporting Youth Purpose, Control, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Kanny, Mary Allison

    2011-01-01

    Research in the past decade suggests that a persistent achievement gap between students from low-income minority backgrounds and higher-income white backgrounds may be rooted in theories of student motivation and youth purpose. Yet limited research exists regarding the role of purpose on positive youth development as it pertains to academic…

  6. Academic Performance Related to Achievement Motive and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuensch, Karl L.; Lao, Rosina C.

    Nine groups of undergraduate students were formed on the basis of one-third splits of the distributions of their scores on an internality-externality measure and on an achievement motive measure. Academic performance was measured by obtaining grade point averages for all subjects. Analysis of variance showed that internal students made higher…

  7. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  8. Controlling open quantum systems: tools, achievements, and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Christiane P.

    2016-06-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge of preserving relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence, which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence of decoherence. Here we review recent advances in optimal control methodology that allow typical tasks in device operation for open quantum systems to be tackled and discuss examples of relaxation-optimized dynamics. Optimal control theory is also a useful tool to exploit the environment for control. We discuss examples and point out possible future extensions.

  9. Debris control design achievements of the booster separation motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The stringent debris control requirements imposed on the design of the Space Shuttle booster separation motor are described along with the verification program implemented to ensure compliance with debris control objectives. The principal areas emphasized in the design and development of the Booster Separation Motor (BSM) relative to debris control were the propellant formulation and nozzle closures which protect the motors from aerodynamic heating and moisture. A description of the motor design requirements, the propellant formulation and verification program, and the nozzle closures design and verification are presented.

  10. ED 03-2 HOME BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING IS BETTER THAN OFFICE BP AND AMBULATORY BP: UPDATE.

    PubMed

    Kario, Kazuomi

    2016-09-01

    cardiovascular events was revealed to be 144 mmHg, and approx. 125 mmHg was shown to be the minimum risk. There was no J-curve of morning systolic BP until around 100 mmHg. In a sub-analysis of the HONEST patient series with data separated for stroke and coronary events, the morning home BP values were a strong predictor of coronary events similarly to stroke events, but the predictive power of office systolic BP was weaker for coronary events than for stroke event (Kario, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016;67:1519-1527). In addition, a J-curve was not observed in the relationship between morning home BP for coronary events or for stroke events.Nocturnal BP has traditionally been measured only by ABPM, and the clinical evidence of nocturnal hypertension is established based on the ABPM data. However, nocturnal BP can now be measured by HBPM as an alternative to ABPM. In our nationwide Japanese cohort, the Japan Morning Surge Home Blood Pressure (J-HOP) Study, we measured nocturnal BP by HBPM (Kario. J Clin Hypertens 2015;17:340-348). Morning home BP was the predictor of stroke event (Hoshide, Kario, et al. Hypertension 2016;68:54-61), while uncontrolled nocturnal hypertension was significantly associated with cardiovascular events. Since Asians show greater morning BP surges (Hoshide, Kario, Parati et al. Hypertension 2016;68:54-61), it is particularly important for Asians to achieve 'perfect 24-hr BP control,' i.e., the 24-hr BP level, nocturnal BP dipping, and BP variability including morning surge (Kario. Ann Glob Health 2016;82:254-273). We are developing the new ICT-based BP monitoring such as "IT-based home nocturnal BP monitoring" (Kario. Hypertens Res 2013;36:478-484) and "hypoxia-triggered home nocturnal BP monitoring (TNP)" (Kuwabara, Kario, et al. J Clin Hypertens 2016, in press) to clarify the clinical relevance of 24-hour BP control.A morning home BP-guided staged approach is the first step toward perfect 24-hr BP control, followed by the control of nocturnal

  11. Immunological control of ectoparasites: past achievements and future research priorities.

    PubMed

    Willadsen, P

    1999-11-01

    Recombinant vaccines are available for the control of the tick Boophilus microplus, while progress has been made in the development of vaccines against Lucilia cuprina and Chrysomya bezziana. Literature suggests that the control of other ectoparasites is feasible, either through the duplication in a vaccine of naturally acquired immunity or through 'concealed' antigen vaccines. Major deficiencies in our current knowledge however point to possible research opportunities for the future. The identification of protective antigens from all species is proceeding slowly, particularly for the antigens of naturally acquired immunity. Our capacity to produce effective recombinant antigens has progressed greatly, though there remains a major difficulty where some or all of the protective effect is due to immunogenic oligosaccharide. Our understanding of protective mechanisms is limited. The delivery of the appropriate immunological response remains difficult. Nevertheless, some of the most critical areas of ignorance are in basic biological issues: factors which affect the susceptibility of particular pest species to immunological attack and the implications of vaccine-induced effects for pest and disease control under field conditions. Increasingly too, effective pest control is likely to demand the integration of a variety of control technologies. The study of this integration is in its infancy.

  12. Achieving Symptom Control in Patients with Moderate Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Nargues A.; Levine, Stewart J.

    2012-01-01

    Disease severity in asthma can be classified as mild, moderate or severe based upon the frequency of symptoms or the severity of airflow obstruction. This review will focus on the treatment of youths greater than 12 years of age and adults with moderate persistent asthma. Moderate asthmatics may have daily symptoms that cause some limitation with normal daily activities and require use of a rescue inhaled short-acting beta2-agonist inhaler or experience nocturnal awakenings secondary to asthma that occur more than once per week. Furthermore, spirometry may reveal airflow obstruction with a reduction in FEV1 to between 60% and 80% of predicted. Although inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the primary controller medication used to modify symptoms in moderate asthmatics, additional controller medications, such as inhaled long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA), leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) or theophylline, are often needed to obtain optimal disease control. While the addition of an inhaled LABA to an ICS is very effective at improving disease control in moderate asthma, concerns have arisen over the safety of LABAs, in particular the risk of asthma-related death. Therefore, consideration may be given to initially adding a LTRA, rather than a LABA, to ICS when asthma symptoms are not adequately controlled by ICS alone. Furthermore, individualization of medication regimens, treatment of co-morbid conditions, and patient education are crucial to optimizing compliance with therapy, improving disease control, and reducing the risk of exacerbations. Lastly, the development of new asthma treatments, perhaps based upon personalized medicine, may revolutionize the future treatment of moderate asthma. PMID:22259262

  13. Cell type-specific control of protein synthesis and proliferation by FGF-dependent signaling to the translation repressor 4E-BP.

    PubMed

    Ruoff, Rachel; Katsara, Olga; Kolupaeva, Victoria

    2016-07-05

    Regulation of protein synthesis plays a vital role in posttranscriptional modulation of gene expression. Translational control most commonly targets the initiation of protein synthesis: loading 40S ribosome complexes onto mRNA and AUG start codon recognition. This step is initiated by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) (the m7GTP cap-binding protein), whose binding to eIF4G (a scaffolding subunit) and eIF4A (an ATP-dependent RNA helicase) leads to assembly of active eIF4F complex. The ability of eIF4E to recognize the cap is prevented by its binding to eIF4E binding protein (4E-BP), which thereby inhibits cap-dependent translation by sequestering eIF4E. The 4E-BP activity is, in turn, inhibited by mTORC1 [mTOR (the mechanistic target of rapamycin) complex 1] mediated phosphorylation. Here, we define a previously unidentified mechanism of mTOR-independent 4E-BP1 regulation that is used by chondrocytes upon FGF signaling. Chondrocytes are responsible for the formation of the skeleton long bones. Unlike the majority of cell types where FGF signaling triggers proliferation, chondrocytes respond to FGF with inhibition. We establish that FGF specifically suppresses protein synthesis in chondrocytes, but not in any other cells of mesenchymal origin. Furthermore, 4E-BP1 repressor activity is necessary not only for suppression of protein synthesis, but also for FGF-induced cell-cycle arrest. Importantly, FGF-induced changes in the 4E-BP1 activity observed in cell culture are likewise detected in vivo and reflect the action of FGF signaling on downstream targets during bone development. Thus, our findings demonstrate that FGF signaling differentially impacts protein synthesis through either stimulation or repression, in a cell-type-dependent manner, with 4E-BP1 being a key player.

  14. Translational control of entrainment and synchrony of the suprachiasmatic circadian clock by mTOR/4E-BP1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ruifeng; Robinson, Barry; Xu, Haiyan; Gkogkas, Christos; Khoutorsky, Arkady; Alain, Tommy; Yanagiya, Akiko; Nevarko, Tatiana; Liu, Andrew C; Amir, Shimon; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2013-08-21

    Protein synthesis is critical for circadian clock function, but little is known of how translational regulation controls the master pacemaker in mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Here we demonstrate that the pivotal translational repressor, the eukaryotic translational initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), is rhythmically regulated via the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the SCN and preferentially represses vasoactive intestinal peptide (Vip) mRNA translation. Knockout (KO) of Eif4ebp1 (gene encoding 4E-BP1) leads to upregulation of VIP and higher amplitude of molecular rhythms in the SCN. Consequently, the 4E-BP1 null mice exhibit accelerated re-entrainment to a shifted light/dark cycle and are more resistant to the rhythm-disruptive effects of constant light. Conversely, in Mtor(+/-) mice VIP expression is decreased and susceptibility to the effects of constant light is increased. These results reveal a key role for mTOR/4E-BP1-mediated translational control in regulating entrainment and synchrony of the master clock.

  15. Perceived Classroom Control, Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshel, Yohanan; Kohavi, Revital

    2003-01-01

    Investigates classroom control, self-regulation strategies, and academic achievement of sixth-grade students (n=302). Hypothesizes that a combination of teacher and student control affects student mathematics achievement. Finds that achievement and self-regulation depended upon classroom processes. Includes references. (CMK)

  16. Achievement Goals and Emotions: The Mediational Roles of Perceived Progress, Control, and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Nathan C.; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Muis, Krista R.; Ranellucci, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: The link between achievement goals and achievement emotions is well established; however, research exploring potential mediators of this relationship is lacking. The control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006, "Educational Psychology Review," 18, 315) posits that perceptions of control and value mediate the…

  17. Cognitive Control Predicts Academic Achievement in Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldren, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Children's ability to shift behavior in response to changing environmental demands is critical for successful intellectual functioning. While the processes underlying the development of cognitive control have been thoroughly investigated, its functioning in an ecologically relevant setting such as school is less well understood. Given the alarming…

  18. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world.

  19. Achieving cost control in the hospital outpatient department.

    PubMed

    Sulvetta, M B

    1991-01-01

    The rapid growth in outpatient expenditures and the congressional mandate for development of a prospective payment system (PPS) for these expenditures are discussed. Extension of diagnosis-related groups to outpatient care is shown to be infeasible. Alternative patient classification schemes and options for defining the unit of payment and establishing weights and rates are discussed. A PPS primarily controls price and can only address volume by defining a broad unit of payment, such as an episode of care. Therefore, adoption of a volume performance standard approach could be effective. Outpatient payment policies must be integrated with those of other ambulatory care providers.

  20. Can Chemical Mouthwash Agents Achieve Plaque/Gingivitis Control?

    PubMed

    Van der Weijden, Fridus A; Van der Sluijs, Eveline; Ciancio, Sebastian G; Slot, Dagmar E

    2015-10-01

    Also note that structured abstracts are not allowed per journal style: What is the effect of a mouthwash containing various active chemical ingredients on plaque control and managing gingivitis in adults based on evidence gathered from existing systematic reviews? The summarized evidence suggests that mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine(CHX) and essential oils (EO) had a large effect supported by a strong body of evidence. Also there was strong evidence for a moderate effect of cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC). Evidence suggests that a CHX mouthwash is the first choice, the most reliable alternative is EO. No difference between CHX and EO with respect to gingivitis was observed.

  1. Achieving HIV-1 Control through RNA-Directed Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Klemm, Vera; Mitchell, Jye; Cortez-Jugo, Christina; Cavalieri, Francesca; Symonds, Geoff; Caruso, Frank; Kelleher, Anthony Dominic; Ahlenstiel, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 infection has been transformed by combined anti-retroviral therapy (ART), changing a universally fatal infection into a controllable infection. However, major obstacles for an HIV-1 cure exist. The HIV latent reservoir, which exists in resting CD4+ T cells, is not impacted by ART, and can reactivate when ART is interrupted or ceased. Additionally, multi-drug resistance can arise. One alternate approach to conventional HIV-1 drug treatment that is being explored involves gene therapies utilizing RNA-directed gene regulation. Commonly known as RNA interference (RNAi), short interfering RNA (siRNA) induce gene silencing in conserved biological pathways, which require a high degree of sequence specificity. This review will provide an overview of the silencing pathways, the current RNAi technologies being developed for HIV-1 gene therapy, current clinical trials, and the challenges faced in progressing these treatments into clinical trials. PMID:27941595

  2. Muscle function in avian flight: achieving power and control

    PubMed Central

    Biewener, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Flapping flight places strenuous requirements on the physiological performance of an animal. Bird flight muscles, particularly at smaller body sizes, generally contract at high frequencies and do substantial work in order to produce the aerodynamic power needed to support the animal's weight in the air and to overcome drag. This is in contrast to terrestrial locomotion, which offers mechanisms for minimizing energy losses associated with body movement combined with elastic energy savings to reduce the skeletal muscles' work requirements. Muscles also produce substantial power during swimming, but this is mainly to overcome body drag rather than to support the animal's weight. Here, I review the function and architecture of key flight muscles related to how these muscles contribute to producing the power required for flapping flight, how the muscles are recruited to control wing motion and how they are used in manoeuvring. An emergent property of the primary flight muscles, consistent with their need to produce considerable work by moving the wings through large excursions during each wing stroke, is that the pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscles shorten over a large fraction of their resting fibre length (33–42%). Both muscles are activated while being lengthened or undergoing nearly isometric force development, enhancing the work they perform during subsequent shortening. Two smaller muscles, the triceps and biceps, operate over a smaller range of contractile strains (12–23%), reflecting their role in controlling wing shape through elbow flexion and extension. Remarkably, pigeons adjust their wing stroke plane mainly via changes in whole-body pitch during take-off and landing, relative to level flight, allowing their wing muscles to operate with little change in activation timing, strain magnitude and pattern. PMID:21502121

  3. Dynamic manipulation of asymmetric forebody vortices to achieve linear control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Richard

    A wind tunnel experiment was performed to further investigate the potential of the dynamic manipulation of forebody vortices as a means of supplementing directional control of fighter aircraft at high angles of attack. Tests were conducted on a 65-deg delta-wing model fitted with a slender, pointed tangent-ogive forebody of circular cross-section and 12.8 deg semi-apex angle. Forward-blowing nozzles located near the apex of the forebody served as the means of manipulating the forebody vortices. As expected, forward blowing was very effective, i.e., little blowing effort was required to cause the forebody vortex on the blown side to assume the 'high' position. However, the magnitudes of yawing moment and side force developed by the slender forebody with blowing do not differ significantly from that of the no-blowing, baseline case. Moreover, blowing above a certain threshold value produced an unexpected reversal, with blowing causing the vortex on the blown side to assume the 'low' position instead and the yawing moment and side force to change sense. The results have shown that the dynamic manipulation scheme is very successful in producing a linear variation of time-average yawing moment with a duty-cycle parameter, even with sideslip, for the aircraft-like model. The results also show that, by switching the vortex pattern rapidly, the linearity can be maintained up to a reduced frequency of at least 0.32, which is expected to be very satisfactory for practical applications. A subsequent water tunnel experiment with the forebody alone was undertaken to conduct off-surface flow visualizations that confirmed the vortex reversal phenomenon. Based on the flow visualization studies, a hypothesis was formed regarding the cause of the reversal phenomenon; it postulates that at the reversal threshold the nozzle flux interrupts the formation of the high forebody vortex on the blowing side and encourages the shear layer to form a replacement vortex that lies close to the

  4. Children's effortful control and academic achievement: do relational peer victimization and classroom participation operate as mediators?

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H

    2014-08-01

    Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children.

  5. Why achievement motivation predicts success in business but failure in politics: the importance of personal control.

    PubMed

    Winter, David G

    2010-12-01

    Several decades of research have established that implicit achievement motivation (n Achievement) is associated with success in business, particularly in entrepreneurial or sales roles. However, several political psychology studies have shown that achievement motivation is not associated with success in politics; rather, implicit power motivation often predicts political success. Having versus lacking control may be a key difference between business and politics. Case studies suggest that achievement-motivated U.S. presidents and other world leaders often become frustrated and thereby fail because of lack of control, whereas power-motivated presidents develop ways to work with this inherent feature of politics. A reevaluation of previous research suggests that, in fact, relationships between achievement motivation and business success only occur when control is high. The theme of control is also prominent in the development of achievement motivation. Cross-national data are also consistent with this analysis: In democratic industrialized countries, national levels of achievement motivation are associated with strong executive control. In countries with low opportunity for education (thus fewer opportunities to develop a sense of personal control), achievement motivation is associated with internal violence. Many of these manifestations of frustrated achievement motivation in politics resemble authoritarianism. This conclusion is tested by data from a longitudinal study of 113 male college students, showing that high initial achievement motivation combined with frustrated desires for control is related to increases in authoritarianism (F-scale scores) during the college years. Implications for the psychology of leadership and practical politics are discussed.

  6. Achieving asthma control in practice: understanding the reasons for poor control.

    PubMed

    Haughney, John; Price, David; Kaplan, Alan; Chrystyn, Henry; Horne, Rob; May, Nick; Moffat, Mandy; Versnel, Jennifer; Shanahan, Eamonn R; Hillyer, Elizabeth V; Tunsäter, Alf; Bjermer, Leif

    2008-12-01

    Achieving asthma control remains an elusive goal for the majority of patients worldwide. Ensuring a correct diagnosis of asthma is the first step in assessing poor symptom control; this requires returning to the basics of history taking and physical examination, in conjunction with lung function measurement when appropriate. A number of factors may contribute to sub-optimal asthma control. Concomitant rhinitis, a common co-pathology and contributor to poor control, can often be identified by asking a simple question. Smoking too has been identified as a cause of poor asthma control. Practical barriers such as poor inhaler technique must be addressed. An appreciation of patients' views and concerns about maintenance asthma therapy can help guide discussion to address perceptual barriers to taking maintenance therapy (doubts about personal necessity and concerns about potential adverse effects). Further study into, and a greater consideration of, factors and patient characteristics that could predict individual responses to asthma therapies are needed. Finally, more clinical trials that enrol patient populations reflecting the real world diversity of patients seen in clinical practice, including wide age ranges, presence of comorbidities, current smoking, and differing ethnic origins, will contribute to better individual patient management.

  7. Moving the Achievement Goal Approach One Step Forward: Toward a Systematic Examination of the Autonomous and Controlled Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Elliot, Andrew J.; Soenens, Bart; Mouratidis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    An important recent development in the achievement goal literature is to define achievement goals strictly as aims. In this overview, we argue that this restrictive definition of achievement goals paves the way for a systematic consideration of the autonomous and controlled reasons underlying individuals' achievement goals, a distinction…

  8. [Implementation of precision control to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2016-02-01

    The integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, which has been implemented since 2004, accelerated the progress towards schistosomiasis control in China, and achieved transmission control of the disease across the country by the end of 2015, which achieved the overall objective of the Mid- and Long-term National Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis (2004-2015) on schedule. Then, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination by 2025 was proposed in China in 2014. To achieve this new goal on schedule, we have to address the key issues, and implement precision control measures with more precise identification of control targets, so that we are able to completely eradicate the potential factors leading to resurgence of schistosomiasis transmission and enable the achievement of schistosomiasis elimination on schedule. Precision schistosomiasis control, a theoretical innovation of precision medicine in schistosomiasis control, will provide new insights into schistosomiasis control based on the conception of precision medicine. This paper describes the definition, interventions and the role of precision schistosomiasis control in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China, and demonstrates that sustainable improvement of professionals and integrated control capability at grass-root level is a prerequisite to the implementation of schistosomiasis control, precision schistosomiasis control is a key to the further implementation of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, and precision schistosomiasis control is a guarantee of curing schistosomiasis patients and implementing schistosomiasis control program and interventions.

  9. IGF2BP2 rs11705701 polymorphisms are associated with prediabetes in a Chinese population: A population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Liyuan; Li, Yuanyuan; Tang, Linlin; Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Sihan; Liu, Shengyuan; Peng, Xiaolin; Mai, Yifeng; Zhuo, Renjie; Wang, Changyi; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Associations between insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) rs11705701, insulin receptor substrate 1 rs7578326, gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor rs10423928 and transcription factor 7-like 2 rs12255372 gene polymorphisms with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have not been evaluated in the Han Chinese population. These four genetic variants were investigated for their associations with prediabetes and T2D among 490 unrelated patients with T2D, 471 patients with prediabetes and 575 healthy controls. Sequenom MassARRAY software was used to genotype the patients for these variants. The Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction method was used to analyze the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. A breakdown analysis by gender revealed a significant association of IGF2BP2 rs11705701 with prediabetes under the dominant genetic model in females following application of the Bonferroni correction (odds ratio = 0.26; 95% confidence interval = 0.10–0.67; P=0.005). However, no significant associations were reported between any of the other three polymorphisms and T2D under any genetic models. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant gene-gene or gene-environment interactions when evaluated with the above association tests. The present case-control study reveals a significant association between IGF2BP2 rs11705701 and prediabetes in female patients. PMID:27588103

  10. Criterion-Related Validity of the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale with Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Gary D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the relationships between student locus of control and academic achievement in grades five through eight. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale (NSLOCS) was used to measure motivation, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) to assess academic achievement. Results indicated moderate inverse relationships between level of…

  11. The cell morphogenesis gene ANGUSTIFOLIA encodes a CtBP/BARS-like protein and is involved in the control of the microtubule cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Folkers, U; Kirik, V; Schöbinger, U; Falk, S; Krishnakumar, S; Pollock, M A; Oppenheimer, D G; Day, I; Reddy, A S M; Jürgens, G; Hülskamp, M; Reddy, A R

    2002-03-15

    The ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN) gene is required for leaf hair (trichome) branching and is also involved in polarized expansion underlying organ shape. Here we show that the AN gene encodes a C-terminal binding proteins/brefeldin A ADP-ribosylated substrates (CtBP/BARS) related protein. AN is expressed at low levels in all organs and the AN protein is localized in the cytoplasm. In an mutant trichomes, the organization of the actin cytoskeleton is normal but the distribution of microtubules is aberrant. A role of AN in the control of the microtubule cytoskeleton is further supported by the finding that AN genetically and physically interacts with ZWICHEL, a kinesin motor molecule involved in trichome branching. Our data suggest that CtBP/BARS-like protein function in plants is directly associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton.

  12. Cell type-specific control of protein synthesis and proliferation by FGF-dependent signaling to the translation repressor 4E-BP

    PubMed Central

    Ruoff, Rachel; Katsara, Olga; Kolupaeva, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of protein synthesis plays a vital role in posttranscriptional modulation of gene expression. Translational control most commonly targets the initiation of protein synthesis: loading 40S ribosome complexes onto mRNA and AUG start codon recognition. This step is initiated by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) (the m7GTP cap-binding protein), whose binding to eIF4G (a scaffolding subunit) and eIF4A (an ATP-dependent RNA helicase) leads to assembly of active eIF4F complex. The ability of eIF4E to recognize the cap is prevented by its binding to eIF4E binding protein (4E-BP), which thereby inhibits cap-dependent translation by sequestering eIF4E. The 4E-BP activity is, in turn, inhibited by mTORC1 [mTOR (the mechanistic target of rapamycin) complex 1] mediated phosphorylation. Here, we define a previously unidentified mechanism of mTOR-independent 4E-BP1 regulation that is used by chondrocytes upon FGF signaling. Chondrocytes are responsible for the formation of the skeleton long bones. Unlike the majority of cell types where FGF signaling triggers proliferation, chondrocytes respond to FGF with inhibition. We establish that FGF specifically suppresses protein synthesis in chondrocytes, but not in any other cells of mesenchymal origin. Furthermore, 4E-BP1 repressor activity is necessary not only for suppression of protein synthesis, but also for FGF-induced cell-cycle arrest. Importantly, FGF-induced changes in the 4E-BP1 activity observed in cell culture are likewise detected in vivo and reflect the action of FGF signaling on downstream targets during bone development. Thus, our findings demonstrate that FGF signaling differentially impacts protein synthesis through either stimulation or repression, in a cell-type–dependent manner, with 4E-BP1 being a key player. PMID:27313212

  13. Analysis of achievable disturbance attenuation in a precision magnetically-suspended motion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzin, Alexander V.; Holmes, Michael L.; Behrouzjou, Roxana; Trumper, David L.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the analysis of the achievable disturbance attenuation to get an Angstrom motion control resolution and macroscopic travel in a precision magnetically-suspended motion control system are presented in this paper. Noise sources in the transducers, electronics, and mechanical vibrations are used to develop the control design.

  14. Development of Independence: Locus of Control, Achievement Motivation and Self vs. Adult Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickie, Jane R.; Mast, Vicki A.

    The development and interrelationship of various measures of independence in children ages 3-12 are examined. Subjects were scored on measures of locus of control and achievement motivation and were rated by teachers on independence and achievement. Subjects were also scored on reliance on adult evaluation and self-evaluation. The results showed…

  15. A Model of Parental Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control in Academically Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated achievement-oriented parent socialization as it pertains to school avoidance in a sample of gifted students. A serial mediation model examining relationships among parental achievement-oriented psychological control (APC), fear of academic failure, academic amotivation, and school avoidance was tested. The sample included…

  16. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  17. Achieving nitritation in a continuous moving bed biofilm reactor at different temperatures through ratio control.

    PubMed

    Bian, Wei; Zhang, Shuyan; Zhang, Yanzhuo; Li, Wenjing; Kan, Ruizhe; Wang, Wenxiao; Zheng, Zhaoming; Li, Jun

    2017-02-01

    A ratio control strategy was implemented in a continuous moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) to investigate the response to different temperatures. The control strategy was designed to maintain a constant ratio between dissolved oxygen (DO) and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. The results revealed that a stable nitritation in a biofilm reactor could be achieved via ratio control, which compensated the negative influence of low temperatures by stronger oxygen-limiting conditions. Even with a temperature as low as 6°C, stable nitritation could be achieved when the controlling ratio did not exceed 0.17. Oxygen-limiting conditions in the biofilm reactor were determined by the DO/TAN concentrations ratio, instead of the mere DO concentration. This ratio control strategy allowed the achievement of stable nitritation without complete wash-out of NOB from the reactor. Through the ratio control strategy full nitritation of sidestream wastewater was allowed; however, for mainstream wastewater, only partial nitritation was recommended.

  18. Children's Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318

  19. On the Relation of Locus of Control and L2 Reading and Writing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Shirvan, Majid Elahi

    2011-01-01

    Locus of control, a psychological construct, has been the focus of attention in recent decades. Psychologists have discussed the effect of locus of control on achieving life goals in social/psychological interactions. While learning a foreign language involves both social interactions and psychological processes, the role and relation of locus of…

  20. 29 CFR 779.219 - Unified operation may be achieved without common control or common ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unified operation may be achieved without common control or common ownership. 779.219 Section 779.219 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.219 Unified operation...

  1. Alternate method for achieving temperature control in the -160 to +90 Celcius range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A single-pass method for accurate and precise temperature control in the -160 to +90 C range is discussed. The method exhibited minimal set-point overshoot during temperature transitions. Control to +/-2 C with transitions between set-points of 7 C per minute were achieved. The method uses commercially available temperature controllers and a gaseous nitrogen/liquid nitrogen mixer to dampen the amplitude of cold temperature spikes caused by liquid nitrogen pulsing.

  2. Locus of control, test anxiety, academic procrastination, and achievement among college students.

    PubMed

    Carden, Randy; Bryant, Courtney; Moss, Rebekah

    2004-10-01

    114 undergraduates completed the Internal-External Locus of Control scale, the Procrastination Scale, and the Achievement Anxiety Test. They also provided a self-report of their cumulative GPA. Students were divided into two groups by a median-split of 10.5, yielding an internally oriented group of 57 and an externally oriented group of 57. The former students showed significantly lower academic procrastination, debilitating test anxiety, and reported higher academic achievement than the latter.

  3. CoCo trial: Color-coded blood pressure Control, a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Chmiel, Corinne; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Del Prete, Valerio; Steurer-Stey, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Background Inadequate blood pressure (BP) control is a frequent challenge in general practice. The objective of this study was to determine whether a color-coded BP booklet using a traffic light scheme (red, >180 mmHg systolic BP and/or >110 mmHg diastolic BP; yellow, >140–180 mmHg systolic BP or >90–110 mmHg diastolic BP; green, ≤140 mmHg systolic BP and ≤90 mmHg diastolic BP) improves BP control and adherence with home BP measurement. Methods In this two-group, randomized controlled trial, general practitioners recruited adult patients with a BP >140 mmHg systolic and/or >90 mmHg diastolic. Patients in the control group received a standard BP booklet and the intervention group used a color-coded booklet for daily home BP measurement. The main outcomes were changes in BP, BP control (treatment goal <140/90 mmHg), and adherence with home BP measurement after 6 months. Results One hundred and twenty-one of 137 included patients qualified for analysis. After 6 months, a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic BP was achieved in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups (16.1/7.9 mmHg in the intervention group versus 13.1/8.6 mmHg in the control group, P=0.3/0.7). BP control (treatment target <140/90 mmHg) was achieved significantly more often in the intervention group (43% versus 25%; P=0.037; number needed to treat of 5). Adherence with home BP measurement overall was high, with a trend in favor of the intervention group (98.6% versus 96.2%; P=0.1) Conclusion Color-coded BP self-monitoring significantly improved BP control (number needed to treat of 5, meaning that every fifth patient utilizing color-coded self-monitoring achieved better BP control after 6 months), but no significant between-group difference was observed in BP change. A markedly higher percentage of patients achieved BP values in the normal range. This simple, inexpensive approach of color-coded BP self-monitoring is user-friendly and applicable in primary care

  4. Maximizing MST's inductive capability with a Bp programmable power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, B. E.; Holly, D. J.; Jacobson, C. M.; McCollam, K. J.; Morin, J. C.; Sarff, J. S.; Squitieri, A.

    2016-10-01

    A major goal of the MST program is the advancement of inductive control for the development of both the RFP's fusion potential and, synergistically, the predictive capability of fusion science. This entails programmable power supplies (PPS's) for the Bt and Bp circuits. A Bt PPS is already in place, allowing advanced RFP operation and the production of tokamak plasmas, and a Bp PPS prototype is under construction. To explore some of the new capabilities to be provided by the Bp PPS, the existing Bt PPS has been temporarily connected to the Bp circuit. One key result is new-found access to very low Ip (20 kA) and very low Lundquist number, S (104). At this low S, simulation of RFP plasmas with the MHD code NIMROD is readily achievable, and work toward validation of extended MHD models using NIMROD is underway with direct comparisons to these MST plasmas. The full Bp PPS will also provide higher Ip and S than presently possible, allowing MST to produce plasmas with S spanning as much as five orders of magnitude, a dramatic extension of MST's capability. In these initial tests, the PPS has also increased five-fold MST's Ip flattop duration, to about 100 ms. This, coupled with the recently demonstrated PPS ability to drive large-amplitude sinusoidal oscillations in Ip, will allow tests of extended-duration oscillating field current drive, the goal of which is ac sustainment of a quasi-dc plasma current. Work supported by US DOE.

  5. Relationships between formal reasoning ability, locus of control, academic engagement and integrated process skill achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Kenneth G.; Capie, William

    Twelve pupils from each of thirteen middle school science classes participated in the study. Measures were obtained for each pupil on nine engagement modes. Two engagement measures, attending and generalizing, together with formal reasoning ability, were related to process skill achievement and retention. Formal reasoning ability was the strongest predictor of process skill achievement and retention, accounting for approximately 36% of the variance in each case. Formal reasoning ability and locus of control were each correlated with specific engagement modes. Formal reasoning ability was positively related with rates of generalizing and comprehending. Locus of control was significantly related with rates of attending and total engagement.

  6. A Definition of Achievement Level II in the Control of Spanish Syntax. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Clay Benjamin; Shawl, James Robert

    A third volume of a highly articulated set of language materials defines achievement level 2 in the control of Spanish syntax while providing descriptions and interrelationships of vital syntactic structures and expected student performance. The noun phrase, predicate phrase, verbal aspects, adverbials, relativization, noun modification,…

  7. Effortful Control and Impulsivity as Concurrent and Longitudinal Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Haugen, Rg; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Kupfer, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test if both effortful control (EC) and impulsivity, a reactive index of temperament, uniquely predict adolescents' academic achievement, concurrently and longitudinally (Time 1: "N" = 168, X-bar[subscript age] = 12 years). At Time 1, parents and teachers reported on students' EC and impulsivity.…

  8. Locus of Control in Achievement and Affiliation (MMCS) as Related to Pathologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, John; Lao, Rosina C.

    The Multidimensional-Multiattributional Causality Scale (MMCS) is a goal-specific scale developed to assess locus of control in the areas of achievement and affiliation. The relationship between the MMCS and feelings of depression, hopelessness, and perceived stress was examined to validate the MMCS and determine if specific expectancies take…

  9. The Effect of Inhibitory Control on General Mathematics Achievement and Fraction Comparison in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, David Maximiliano; Jiménez, Abelino; Bobadilla, Roberto; Reyes, Cristián; Dartnell, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in inhibitory control have been shown to relate to general mathematics achievement, but whether this relation varies for specific areas within mathematics is a question that remains open. Here, we evaluate if inhibitory processes play a specific role in the particular case of fraction comparison, where learners must ignore…

  10. Children's Sleep and Academic Achievement: The Moderating Role of Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Anjolii; Berger, Rebecca; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Tao, Chun; Spinrad, Tracy; Doane, Leah D.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Southworth, Jody

    2017-01-01

    Poor sleep is thought to interfere with children's learning and academic achievement (AA). However, existing research and theory indicate there are factors that may mitigate the academic risk associated with poor sleep. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of children's effortful control (EC) on the relation between sleep…

  11. Training Theory of Mind and Executive Control: A Tool for Improving School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2008-01-01

    In the preschool years, there are marked improvements in theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions. And, children's competence in these two core cognitive domains is associated with their academic achievement. Therefore, training ToM and executive control could be a valuable tool for improving children's success in school. This article reviews…

  12. Maladaptive Achievement Patterns in Students: The Role of Teachers' Controlling Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggiano, Ann K.; Katz, Phyllis

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes research concerning the long-range effects of teachers' controlling strategies and children's motivational orientations on achievement-related behaviors. Evidence suggests that children with an extrinsic motivation toward schoolwork suffer from important deficits that are influenced by teaching strategy. Research findings are discussed…

  13. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from three…

  14. Elevated BP after AKI.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-yuan; Hsu, Raymond K; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP--defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit--during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization.

  15. Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jade Eloise; Castronovo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots), whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials) when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays. PMID:27195749

  16. JS ISH-ISN-2 ROLE OF THE KIDNEY IN RESISTANT HYPERTENSION: WHY SO RESISTANT TO BP CONTROL IN CKD PATIENTS?

    PubMed

    Bakris, George

    2016-09-01

    Resistant hypertension is defined as a blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg despite adherence to a combination of at least three optimally dosed antihypertensive medications, one of which is a diuretic. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the more common patient comorbidities associated with resistant hypertension. Recommended low-salt diet and triple antihypertensive drug regimens that include a diuretic, should be complemented by the sequential addition of other antihypertensive drugs. CKD is associated with premature vascular ageing, characterized by accelerated arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction. Vascular changes appear in the early stages of CKD, although they are most pronounced in advanced stages. Systolic hypertension is the most common form of hypertension in patients with CKD, and raised systolic BP is independently associated with risk of progression to chronic kidney disease. Rigid arterial walls attenuate baroreceptor control of efferent sympathetic activity and vagal activation. Reduced baroreflex sensitivity maintains high sympathetic activity directed to the heart, blood vessels, and kidney, which contributes to high BP. Patients with CKD also have an inadequate vasoconstrictor response to baroreceptor unloading, this contributes to frequent orthostatic hypotension and circulatory instability. Moreover, hypoxemia of renal tissue due to kidney damage activates the CNS via afferent nerves, which also contributes to high sympathetic activity. New therapeutic innovations for resistant hypertension, such as renal denervation and carotid barostimulation are under investigation especially in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. One of the most common reasons for blood pressure resistance in CKD is volume overload with increased sympathetic activity also being a major contributor. We will focus on the epidemiology as well as pathophysiology and therapeutic approaches to managing resistant hypertension in CKD stages 3

  17. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  18. An alternate method for achieving temperature control in the -130 C to 75 C range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth R.; Anderson, Mark R.; Lane, Robert W.; Cortez, Maximo G.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal vacuum testing often requires temperature control of chamber shrouds and heat exchangers within the -130 C to 75 C range. There are two conventional methods which are normally employed to achieve control through this intermediate temperature range: (1) single-pass flow where control is achieved by alternately pulsing hot gaseous nitrogen (GN2) and cold LN2 into the feed line to yield the setpoint temperature; and (2) closed-loop circulation where control is achieved by either electrically heating or LN2 cooling the circulating GN2 to yield the setpoint temperature. A third method, using a mass flow ratio controller along with modulating control valves on GN2 and LN2 lines, provides excellent control but equipment for this method is expensive and cost-prohibitive for all but long-term continuous processes. The single-pass method provides marginal control and can result in unexpected overcooling of the test article from even a short pulse of LN2. The closed-loop circulation method provides excellent control but requires an expensive blower capable of operating at elevated pressures and cryogenic temperatures. Where precise control is needed (plus or minus 2 C), single-pass flow systems typically have not provided the precision required, primarily because of overcooling temperature excursions. Where several individual circuits are to be controlled at different temperatures, the use of expensive cryogenic blowers for each circuit is also cost-prohibitive, especially for short duration of one-of-a-kind tests. At JPL, a variant of the single-pass method was developed that was shown to provide precise temperature control in the -130 C to 75 C range while exhibiting minimal setpoint overshoot during temperature transitions. This alternate method uses a commercially available temperature controller along with a GN2/LN2 mixer to dampen the amplitude of cold temperature spikes caused by LN2 pulsing. The design of the GN2/LN2 mixer, the overall control system

  19. High school students' perceptions of EFL teacher control orientations and their English academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between strong, shared, or loose teacher control during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. AIM. The present study aimed at (a) investigating students' perceptions of control behaviours exhibited by their English teachers; and (b) exploring the contribution of different types of teacher control behaviours to students' cognitive outcomes (English Achievement). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 732 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students studying in three major fields of high school (Mathematics, Natural Science, and Humanities). The participants (16-17 years of age) were selected from third-grade classes of 27 EFL teachers working in 25 high schools of 6 main different geographical regions in the Isfahan province, Iran. METHOD. To obtain a comprehensive picture of different control types exhibited by Iranian EFL teachers, the control subscales of the two existing questionnaires, i.e., the Questionnaire on Instructional Behaviours (QIB), adapted by Den Brok et al. (2004) and the Questionnaire on Lesson Activities (QLA) used by Den Brok (2001) were merged to form the Questionnaire of Teacher Control (QTC). The development of this Persian instrument involved several steps: translation and back translation by the researchers, one expert translator, and two EFL teachers; piloting; and a final administration of the questionnaire to the student sample. With respect to the second aim of the study, data regarding students' performances on the Standardized National English Achievement Tests were gathered from local educational offices and schools. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. Statistical analyses supported acceptable reliability and validity of the instrument. A main factor structure with three types of teacher control (strong/high, shared/mid, and loose/low) was found to underlie students

  20. Elevated BP after AKI

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Raymond K.; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D.; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP—defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit—during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization. PMID:26134154

  1. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen S.; Skov, Julia; Sun, Yi; Duong Bang, Dang; Pedersen, Michael E.; Hansen, Mikkel F.; Wolff, Anders

    2013-07-01

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence signal from Rhodamine B. The method was validated with the PCR amplification of mecA gene (162 bp) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterium (MRSA), where the time for 30 cycles was reduced from 50 min (without over- and undershooting) to 20 min.

  2. Robust adaptive feedforward control and achievable tracking for systems with time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehner, Michael R.; Young, Peter M.

    2015-04-01

    A feedback/feedforward controller architecture is developed that characterises the achievable reference tracking of real time inputs for both minimum phase and non-minimum phase systems with time delays, when there are no modelling errors or external disturbances. This characterisation is obtained by factoring the plant into its minimum phase, non-minimum phase, and time delay components, which are used to design two feedforward controllers that inject signals into two points of the feedback loop. Design constraints are provided that determine both the types of signals that may be achieved, and the feedforward controllers that will generate that output. Of course, in practice, both modelling errors and external disturbances will be present. In this case, we develop robust analysis tools that both guide the feedback controller design process, and provide rigorous robust tracking performance that guarantees for the overall resulting closed-loop system. Robust methods for designing the feedforward controllers are presented, and numerical examples are provided. The performance of this architecture depends strongly on the choice of design parameters, and the accuracy of the plant model used. Hence, the use of adaptation methods is also considered, and it is shown that they can readily be employed to improve the performance of this control methodology.

  3. Professional training in the workplace: the role of achievement motivation and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Campillo-Álvarez, Angela; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Muñiz, José

    2013-01-01

    The core objective of the present work is to explore the reasons why workers from different employment sectors join training courses to improve their job. To this end we assessed achievement motivation, locus of control and professional qualifications according to the participants' employment sector. The final sample consisted of 1460 active Spanish workers from four different employment sectors: services, catering, metal construction, and others. Of the sample, 40.1% were male and 59.9% female, with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD = 9.7). The results show that the new scale developed to assess achievement motivation, locus of control and workers' qualifications presents adequate psychometric characteristics. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to employment sector. The areas studied showed satisfactory levels of workers' effort and achievement motivation to perform their jobs, though their attitudes toward the training courses as a basis for improving their employability are varied. Workers in the catering sector had higher levels of external attribution and the lowest interest in training. Those in the service sector had higher levels of achievement motivation and effort at work. Future research should develop a joint program covering the public and private sectors for the modification of these beliefs, attitudes and attributions.

  4. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children’s mathematics achievement?

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J.; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A.; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children’s mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9–12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent’s report); math achievement was measured via teacher’s report and through the standard Woodcock–Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children’s mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children’s self-regulation abilities in the context of school. PMID:26441758

  5. Achieving 3-D Nanoparticle Assembly in Nanocomposite Thin Films via Kinetic Control

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Jingyu; Xiao, Yihan; Xu, Ting

    2017-02-20

    Nanocomposite thin films containing well-ordered nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are ideal candidates for the fabrication of metamaterials. Achieving 3-D assembly of NPs in nanocomposite thin films is thermodynamically challenging as the particle size gets similar to that of a single polymer chain. The entropic penalties of polymeric matrix upon NP incorporation leads to NP aggregation on the film surface or within the defects in the film. Controlling the kinetic pathways of assembly process provides an alternative path forward by arresting the system in nonequilibrium states. Here, we report the thin film 3-D hierarchical assembly of 20 nm NPs in supramolecules withmore » a 30 nm periodicity. By mediating the NP diffusion kinetics in the supramolecular matrix, surface aggregation of NPs was suppressed and NPs coassemble with supramolecules to form new 3-D morphologies in thin films. Lastly, the present studies opened a viable route to achieve designer functional composite thin films via kinetic control.« less

  6. Perceived Control Mediates the Relations between Depressive Symptoms and Academic Achievement in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Moè, Angelica

    2015-09-17

    The present research examined the protective role played by perceived control in the relation between depressive symptoms and academic achievement in adolescence. A sample of 218 adolescents aged 11 to 16 filled in questionnaires to assess self-reported depressive symptoms and three factors tied with Perceived Control (PC): self-regulated learning strategies use, effort attribution, and perceived competence. Grade Point Average (GPA) was considered as a measure of academic achievement. A path model showed that the relation between GPA and depressive symptoms is mediated by PC (p<.05), and became non-significant when PC is considered. The discussion stresses the need to take into account the strategic and motivational factors favouring learning in planning programmes to prevent and treat depressive symptoms in adolescence.

  7. Connecting scales: achieving in-field pest control from areawide and landscape ecology studies.

    PubMed

    Schellhorn, Nancy A; Parry, Hazel R; Macfadyen, Sarina; Wang, Yongmo; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-02-01

    Areawide management has a long history of achieving solutions that target pests, however, there has been little focus on the areawide management of arthropod natural enemies. Landscape ecology studies that show a positive relationship between natural enemy abundance and habitat diversity demonstrate landscape-dependent pest suppression, but have not yet clearly linked their findings to pest management or to the suite of pests associated with crops that require control. Instead the focus has often been on model systems of single pest species and their natural enemies. We suggest that management actions to capture pest control from natural enemies may be forth coming if: (i) the suite of response and predictor variables focus on pest complexes and specific management actions; (ii) the contribution of "the landscape" is identified by assessing the timing and numbers of natural enemies immigrating and emigrating to and from the target crop, as well as pests; and (iii) pest control thresholds aligned with crop development stages are the benchmark to measure impact of natural enemies on pests, in turn allowing for comparison between study regions, and generalizations. To achieve pest control we will need to incorporate what has been learned from an ecological understanding of model pest and natural enemy systems and integrate areawide landscape management with in-field pest management.

  8. Glycaemic control is harder to achieve than blood pressure or lipid control in Irish adults with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cotter, T G; Dinneen, S F; Healy, D A; Bell, M J; Cunningham, A; O'Shea, P M; Dunne, F; O'Brien, T; Finucane, F M

    2014-12-01

    We sought to determine the attainment of targets for glycaemic control and vascular risk reduction in an Irish cohort of T1DM adults. Of 797 patients (53% male, mean age 40.3 ± 14.8 years, HbA1c 8.5 ± 1.6% (69.6 ± 17.8 mmol mol(-1))), 15%, 68% and 62% achieved targets for HbA1c, blood pressure and LDL cholesterol, respectively.

  9. A signal regulating mouse histone H4 mRNA levels in a mammalian cell cycle mutant and sequences controlling RNA 3' processing are both contained within the same 80-bp fragment.

    PubMed Central

    Stauber, C; Lüscher, B; Eckner, R; Lötscher, E; Schümperli, D

    1986-01-01

    Fragments from the 3' end of a mouse histone H4 gene, when introduced into transcription units controlled by the SV40 early promoter, yield correctly processed RNA with histone-specific 3' ends, both in monkey and mouse cell lines. The processed RNA is regulated in parallel with endogenous H4 mRNAs in 21-Tb cells, a temperature-sensitive mouse mastocytoma cell cycle mutant that is specifically blocked in G1 phase at the non-permissive temperature. Mutational analyses of the H4 gene fragment indicate that the minimal sequences for this regulation and for RNA 3' processing are both contained within the same 80 bp. This fragment contains two histone-specific, highly conserved sequence elements that are located at the 3' end of histone mRNA and in the adjacent spacer region, respectively. Our data suggest that the observed cell cycle regulation is achieved either at RNA 3' processing or at some later step involving the conserved 3'-terminal sequence element of mature histone mRNA. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:3816761

  10. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  11. Individual differences in inhibitory control, not non-verbal number acuity, correlate with mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Camilla; Attridge, Nina; Clayton, Sarah; Cragg, Lucy; Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Simms, Victoria; Inglis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Given the well-documented failings in mathematics education in many Western societies, there has been an increased interest in understanding the cognitive underpinnings of mathematical achievement. Recent research has proposed the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) which allows individuals to represent and manipulate non-verbal numerical information. Evidence has shown that performance on a measure of the ANS (a dot comparison task) is related to mathematics achievement, which has led researchers to suggest that the ANS plays a critical role in mathematics learning. Here we show that, rather than being driven by the nature of underlying numerical representations, this relationship may in fact be an artefact of the inhibitory control demands of some trials of the dot comparison task. This suggests that recent work basing mathematics assessments and interventions around dot comparison tasks may be inappropriate.

  12. Source to sink element geochemistry and clay mineralogy in Lake Towuti, Indonesia: understanding climate-induced controls on sediment composition during the past 60 kyr BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morlock, Marina; Vogel, Hendrik; Nigg, Valentin; Hasberg, Ascelina; Melles, Martin; Russell, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria

    2016-04-01

    Al and high Mg concentrations and exerts a dominant control on the present-day sediment composition of Towuti's northern basin. This indicates that the Mahalona River and its tributaries cut deep into the laterite soils, transporting relatively unweathered material to the lake. In the past 60,000 years, the Al/Mg ratio is lowest between 35,000 and 15,000 years BP, and kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral during this period. During most of the Holocene and >35,000 years BP, Al/Mg is comparable to today and smectites (Holocene) and illites (MIS 3) are the most abundant clay minerals. The clay mineralogy suggests deeper soil erosion during wet interglacials and more surficial erosion during dry glacial climate conditions. These findings imply that erosion and element cycling are mainly driven by changes in precipitation amount and terrestrial runoff in Towuti's catchment. The Al/Mg ratio on the other hand points to a stronger (lesser) contribution of relatively unweathered sediments sourced from the Mahalona River catchment during dry (wet) phases, likely as a result of lake-level changes and associated changes in shoreline proximity to our coring sites.

  13. Study of a Simulation Tool to Determine Achievable Control Dynamics and Control Power Requirements with Perfect Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a study of two methods for use in a generic nonlinear simulation tool that could be used to determine achievable control dynamics and control power requirements while performing perfect tracking maneuvers over the entire flight envelope. The two methods are NDI (nonlinear dynamic inversion) and the SOFFT(Stochastic Optimal Feedforward and Feedback Technology) feedforward control structure. Equivalent discrete and continuous SOFFT feedforward controllers have been developed. These equivalent forms clearly show that the closed-loop plant model loop is a plant inversion and is the same as the NDI formulation. The main difference is that the NDI formulation has a closed-loop controller structure whereas SOFFT uses an open-loop command model. Continuous, discrete, and hybrid controller structures have been developed and integrated into the formulation. Linear simulation results show that seven different configurations all give essentially the same response, with the NDI hybrid being slightly different. The SOFFT controller gave better tracking performance compared to the NDI controller when a nonlinear saturation element was added. Future plans include evaluation using a nonlinear simulation.

  14. Office and ambulatory blood pressure control in hypertensive patients treated with different two-drug and three-drug combinations.

    PubMed

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Banegas, José R; Vinyoles, Ernest; Gorostidi, Manuel; Segura, Julián; de la Cruz, Juan J; Ruilope, Luis M

    There is scarce information regarding ambulatory blood pressure (BP) achieved in daily practice with a wide range of antihypertensive drug combinations. We looked for differences in office and ambulatory BP among major drug combinations of two and three antihypertensive agents from a different drugs class. A total of 17187 patients treated with six types of two-drug combinations and 9724 treated with six types of three-drug combinations from the Spanish ABPM Registry were analyzed. We compared achieved office and ambulatory BP, as well as office (< 140/90 mmHg) and ambulatory (24-hour BP < 130/80; day BP < 135/85, and night BP < 120/70 mmHg) BP control among groups. The combination of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers with diuretics and the triple combination of RAS blockers with diuretics and calcium channel blockers (CCB) were associated with lower values of 24-hour, daytime and nighttime BP, as well as more pronounced nocturnal BP dip. Compared with such combinations (reference), other double combinations had lower rates of ambulatory BP control. Moreover, triple combinations containing alpha blockers also had lower rates of ambulatory BP control. We conclude that even with similar office BP control, differences exist among antihypertensive two-drug and three-drug combinations with respect to ambulatory BP control achieved during treatment, with RAS blockers/diuretics and RAS blockers/CCBs/diuretics obtaining better control rates. This can help physicians choose among drug combinations in order to obtain further ambulatory BP reductions.

  15. Interoperability of wearable cuffless BP measuring devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2014-01-01

    While a traditional cuff-based Blood Pressure (BP) measuring device can only take a snap shot of BP, real-time and continuous measurement of BP without an occluding cuff is preferred which usually use the pulse transit time (PTT) in combination with other physiological parameters to estimate or track BP over a certain period of time after an initial calibration. This article discusses some perspectives of interoperability of wearable medical devices, based on IEEE P1708 draft standard that focuses on the objective performance evaluation of wearable cuffless BP measuring devices. The ISO/IEEE 11073 family of standards, supporting the plug-and play feature, is intended to enable medical devices to interconnect and interoperate with other medical devices and with computerized healthcare information systems in a manner suitable for the clinical environment. In this paper, the possible adoption of ISO/IEEE 11073 for the interoperability of wearable cuffless BP devices is proposed. In the consideration of the difference of the continuous and cuffless BP measuring methods from the conventional ones, the existing device specialization standards of ISO/IEEE 11073 cannot be directly followed when designing the cuffless BP device. Specifically, this paper discusses how the domain information model (DIM), in which vital sign information is abstracted as objects, is used to structure the information about the device and that generated from the device. Though attention should also be paid to adopt the communication standards for other parts for the communication system, applying communication standards that enable plug-and-play feature allows achieving the interoperability of different cuffless BP measuring devices with possible different configurations.

  16. Achieving glycemic control in special populations in hospital: perspectives in practice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Alice Y Y

    2014-04-01

    Achieving and maintaining glycemic control in patients with diabetes admitted to hospital is challenging because of the many competing factors of nutrition, pharmacotherapy and other patient-related and systemic factors. For patients receiving enteral or parenteral feeding, eating irregularly or receiving glucocorticoid therapy, the challenges are even greater. The basic principles to follow when managing glycemia in these populations are as follows: 1) Recognition of those at risk for hyperglycemia; 2) frequent bedside glucose monitoring; 3) a proactive approach with routine insulin administration based on the predicted glucose patterns; 4) constant reassessment of the glycemic status and titration of the routine insulin accordingly.

  17. The Impact of Achieve3000 on Elementary Literacy Outcomes: Evidence from a Two-Year Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Darryl V.; Lenard, Matthew A.; Page, Lindsay Coleman

    2016-01-01

    School districts are increasingly adopting technology-based resources in an attempt to improve student achievement. This paper reports the two-year results from randomized control trial of Achieve3000 in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) in Raleigh, North Carolina. Achieve3000 is an early literacy program that differentiates non-fiction…

  18. 78 FR 60270 - BP America Inc., BP Corporation North America Inc., BP America Production Company, and BP Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission BP America Inc., BP Corporation North America Inc., BP America Production Company, and BP Energy Company; Notice of Designation of Commission Staff as Non-Decisional With respect to an order issued by the Commission...

  19. The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Hillman, C H; Pontifex, M B; Raine, L B; Castelli, D M; Hall, E E; Kramer, A F

    2009-03-31

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indexes of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included 20 preadolescent participants (age=9.5+/-0.5 years; eight female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 min of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e. walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further support the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan.

  20. Operational scale entomological intervention for malaria control: strategies, achievements and challenges in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia. Case description All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS), data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies. Discussion and evaluation Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM) strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes. Conclusions The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system. PMID:23298401

  1. The Control-Value Theory of Achievement Emotions: Assumptions, Corollaries, and Implications for Educational Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the control-value theory of achievement emotions and its implications for educational research and practice. The theory provides an integrative framework for analyzing the antecedents and effects of emotions experienced in achievement and academic settings. It is based on the premise that appraisals of control and values are…

  2. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P. Craig; Buyon, Lucas E.; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the “big three” diseases—namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria—has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda

  3. Moving towards universal coverage with malaria control interventions: achievements and challenges in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    De Allegri, Manuela; Louis, Valérie R; Tiendrébeogo, Justin; Souares, Aurelia; Yé, Maurice; Tozan, Yesim; Jahn, Albrecht; Mueller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study, which assessed coverage with malaria control interventions in rural Burkina Faso, namely insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN) ownership, intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for pregnant women and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for under-five children. The study also addressed the distributional impact of such interventions, with specific reference to equity. The study used data from a representative household survey conducted on 1106 households in the Nouna Health District in 2010. Findings indicated that 59% of all households owned at least one ITN, 66% of all pregnant women received IPT at least once and 34% of under-five children reporting a malaria case were treated with ACT. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that higher socio-economic status, ownership of at least one radio and living in a village within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were significantly positively associated with ITN, IPTp and ACT coverage. ITN coverage was higher among households in villages, which had previously hosted an ITN trial and/or the most favourable arm of a trial. Comparing current findings with previous estimates suggests that the country has made substantial progress towards scaling up malaria control interventions but that current coverage rates are still far from achieving the universal coverage targets set by the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. In addition, current coverage patterns reveal the existence of multiple inequities across groups, suggesting that current policies are inadequate to achieve equitable scaling up. Future planning of malaria control interventions ought to take into consideration current inadequacies and lead to programmes better designed to overcome them.

  4. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P Craig; Buyon, Lucas E; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the "big three" diseases--namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria--has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda.

  5. Longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's negative emotions, effortful control, and math achievement in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement.

  6. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  7. A novel approach to achieving significant reverberation control in performance halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conant, David A.; Chu, William

    2005-09-01

    Conventional methods for achieving broadband, variable sound absorption in large halls normally include heavy application of sound-absorptive drapery and/or thick fibrous panels, applied near available surfaces below, at, and in volumes above the catwalk plane. Occasionally, direct adjustments to room air volume are also provided to effect double-sloped decays. The novel method described here combines carefully located, broad scattering and absorption in singular architectural elements and was applied to a new, 1200-seat concert hall. A change of 0.70 s RT60 in midfrequency is achieved in a visually dramatic manner while neither materially changing room volume nor introducing often-maligned drapery. The aggregate of reverberation control methodologies employed reduces the unoccupied RT60 at midfrequencies from about 3.2 to 1.7 s in this space programed principally for music, including pipe organ. Results of MLS measurements including binaural measurements and binaural recordings of anechoic material and CATT-acoustic modeling and auralizations are discussed.

  8. Children's Sleep and Academic Achievement: The Moderating Role of Effortful Control.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Anjolii; Berger, Rebecca; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah; Tao, Chun; Spinrad, Tracy L; Doane, Leah D; Thompson, Marilyn S; Silva, Kassondra M; Southworth, Jody

    2017-03-01

    Poor sleep is thought to interfere with children's learning and academic achievement (AA). However, existing research and theory indicate there are factors that may mitigate the academic risk associated with poor sleep. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of children's effortful control (EC) on the relation between sleep and AA in young children. One hundred and three 4.5- to 7-year-olds (M = 5.98 years, SD = 0.61) wore a wrist-based actigraph for five continuous weekday nights. Teachers and coders reported on children's EC. EC was also assessed with a computer-based task at school. Additionally, we obtained a standardized measure of children's AA. There was a positive main effect of sleep efficiency to AA. Several relations between sleep and AA were moderated by EC and examination of the simple slopes indicated that the negative relation between sleep and AA was only significant at low levels of EC.

  9. Blood pressure (BP) assessment-from BP level to BP variability.

    PubMed

    Feber, Janusz; Litwin, Mieczyslaw

    2016-07-01

    The assessment of blood pressure (BP) can be challenging in children, especially in very young individuals, due to their variable body size and lack of cooperation. In the absence of data relating BP with cardiovascular outcomes in children, there is a need to convert absolute BP values (in mmHg) into age-, gender- and height appropriate BP percentiles or Z-scores in order to compare a patient's BP with the BP of healthy children of the same age, but also of children of different ages. Traditionally, the interpretation of BP has been based mainly on the assessment of the BP level obtained by office, home or 24-h BP monitoring. Recent studies suggest that it is not only BP level (i.e. average BP) but also BP variability that is clinically important for the development of target organ damage, including the progression of chronic kidney disease. In this review we describe current methods to evaluate of BP level, outline available methods for BP variability assessment and discuss the clinical consequences of BP variability, including its potential role in the management of hypertension.

  10. 4E-BP2/SH2B1/IRS2 Are Part of a Novel Feedback Loop That Controls β-Cell Mass.

    PubMed

    Blandino-Rosano, Manuel; Scheys, Joshua O; Jimenez-Palomares, Margarita; Barbaresso, Rebecca; Bender, Aaron S; Yanagiya, Akiko; Liu, Ming; Rui, Liangyou; Sonenberg, Nahum; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2016-08-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) regulates several biological processes, although the key downstream mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly defined. Using mice with deletion of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 2 (4E-BP2), we determine that this downstream target is a major regulator of glucose homeostasis and β-cell mass, proliferation, and survival by increasing insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) levels and identify a novel feedback mechanism by which mTORC1 signaling increases IRS2 levels. In this feedback loop, we show that 4E-BP2 deletion induces translation of the adaptor protein SH2B1 and promotes the formation of a complex with IRS2 and Janus kinase 2, preventing IRS2 ubiquitination. The changes in IRS2 levels result in increases in cell cycle progression, cell survival, and β-cell mass by increasing Akt signaling and reducing p27 levels. Importantly, 4E-BP2 deletion confers resistance to cytokine treatment in vitro. Our data identify SH2B1 as a major regulator of IRS2 stability, demonstrate a novel feedback mechanism linking mTORC1 signaling with IRS2, and identify 4E-BP2 as a major regulator of proliferation and survival of β-cells.

  11. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1 through 3 Graders.

    PubMed

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1(st) grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1(st) grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child's age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and economic adversity on achievement, results indicate that adaptive/effortful control at 1(st) grade contributed to both academic self-efficacy beliefs at 2(nd) grade, and reading (but not math) achievement at 3(rd) grade. Although academic self-efficacy did not partially mediate the linkage between adaptive/effortful control and achievement, academic self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with reading and math. Results support the notion that early efforts to promote children's self-regulatory skills would enhance future academic self-beliefs and achievement, particularly in literacy.

  12. Target Achievement Control Test: evaluating real-time myoelectric pattern-recognition control of multifunctional upper-limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J; Lock, Blair A; Kuiken, Todd A

    2011-01-01

    Despite high classification accuracies (~95%) of myoelectric control systems based on pattern recognition, how well offline measures translate to real-time closed-loop control is unclear. Recently, a real-time virtual test analyzed how well subjects completed arm motions using a multiple-degree of freedom (DOF) classifier. Although this test provided real-time performance metrics, the required task was oversimplified: motion speeds were normalized and unintended movements were ignored. We included these considerations in a new, more challenging virtual test called the Target Achievement Control Test (TAC Test). Five subjects with transradial amputation attempted to move a virtual arm into a target posture using myoelectric pattern recognition, performing the test with various classifier (1- vs 3-DOF) and task complexities (one vs three required motions per posture). We found no significant difference in classification accuracy between the 1- and 3-DOF classifiers (97.2% +/- 2.0% and 94.1% +/- 3.1%, respectively; p = 0.14). Subjects completed 31% fewer trials in significantly more time using the 3-DOF classifier and took 3.6 +/- 0.8 times longer to reach a three-motion posture compared with a one-motion posture. These results highlight the need for closed-loop performance measures and demonstrate that the TAC Test is a useful and more challenging tool to test real-time pattern-recognition performance.

  13. Deficiency in Either 4E-BP1 or 4E-BP2 Augments Innate Antiviral Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Nehdi, Atef; Sean, Polen; Linares, Izzar; Colina, Rodney; Jaramillo, Maritza; Alain, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    Genetic deletion of both 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 was found to protect cells against viral infections. Here we demonstrate that the individual loss of either 4E-BP1 or 4E-BP2 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) is sufficient to confer viral resistance. shRNA-mediated silencing of 4E-BP1 or 4E-BP2 renders MEFs resistant to viruses, and compared to wild type cells, MEFs knockout for either 4E-BP1 or 4E-BP2 exhibit enhanced translation of Irf-7 and consequently increased innate immune response to viruses. Accordingly, the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, influenza virus and Sindbis virus is markedly suppressed in these cells. Importantly, expression of either 4E-BP1 or 4E-BP2 in double knockout or respective single knockout cells diminishes their resistance to viral infection. Our data show that loss of 4E-BP1 or 4E-BP2 potentiates innate antiviral immunity. These results provide further evidence for translational control of innate immunity and support targeting translational effectors as an antiviral strategy. PMID:25531441

  14. Academic Buoyancy, Student's Achievement, and the Linking Role of Control: A Cross-Lagged Analysis of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Martin, Andrew J.; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Hall, James; Ginns, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated that although academic buoyancy and student's achievement are associated, the relationship is relatively modest. Aims: We sought to determine whether another construct might link academic buoyancy and student's achievement. Based on prior theoretical and empirical work, we examined a sense of control as…

  15. Infant flow biphasic nasal continuous positive airway pressure (BP- NCPAP) vs. infant flow NCPAP for the facilitation of extubation in infants' ≤ 1,250 grams: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of mechanical ventilation is associated with lung injury in preterm infants and therefore the goal is to avoid or minimize its use. To date there is very little consensus on what is considered the "best non-invasive ventilation mode" to be used post-extubation. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of biphasic nasal continuous positive airway pressure (BP-NCPAP) vs. NCPAP in facilitating sustained extubation in infants ≤ 1,250 grams. Methods We performed a randomized controlled trial of BP-NCPAP vs. NCPAP in infants ≤ 1,250 grams extubated for the first time following mechanical ventilation since birth. Infants were extubated using preset criteria or at the discretion of the attending neonatologist. The primary outcome was the incidence of sustained extubation for 7 days. Secondary outcomes included incidence of adverse events and short-term neonatal outcomes. Results Sixty-seven infants received BP-NCPAP and 69 NCPAP. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. The trial was stopped early due to increased use of non-invasive ventilation from birth, falling short of our calculated sample size of 141 infants per group. The incidence of sustained extubation was not statistically different between the BP-NCPAP vs. NCPAP group (67% vs. 58%, P = 0.27). The incidence of adverse events and short-term neonatal outcomes were similar between the two groups (P > 0.05) except for retinopathy of prematurity which was noted to be higher (P = 0.02) in the BP-NCPAP group. Conclusions Biphasic NCPAP may be used to assist in weaning from mechanical ventilation. The effectiveness and safety of BP-NCPAP compared to NCPAP needs to be confirmed in a large multi-center trial as our study conclusions are limited by inadequate sample size. Clinical Trials Registration # NCT00308789 Source of support Grant # 06-06, Physicians Services Incorporated Foundation, Toronto, Canada. Summit technologies Inc. provided additional NCPAP

  16. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  17. Effects of an Emotion Control Treatment on Academic Emotions, Motivation and Achievement in an Online Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChanMin; Hodges, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    We designed and developed an emotion control treatment and investigated its effects on college students' academic emotions, motivation, and achievement in an online remedial mathematics course. The treatment group showed more positive emotions of enjoyment and pride than the control group. The treatment group also showed a higher level of…

  18. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-Student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-Risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to…

  19. Preservation of Anticancer and Immunosuppressive Properties of Rapamycin Achieved Through Controlled Releasing Particles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yan Liang; Hou, Han Wei; Tay, Hui Min; Guo, Wei Mei; Berggren, Per-Olof; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2017-03-01

    Rapamycin is commonly used in chemotherapy and posttransplantation rejection suppression, where sustained release is preferred. Conventionally, rapamycin has to be administered in excess due to its poor solubility, and this often leads to cytotoxicity and undesirable side effects. In addition, rapamycin has been shown to be hydrolytically unstable, losing its bioactivity within a few hours. The use of drug delivery systems is hypothesized to preserve the bioactivity of rapamycin, while providing controlled release of this otherwise potent drug. This paper reports on the use of microparticles (MP) as a means to tune and sustain the delivery of bioactive rapamycin for up to 30 days. Rapamycin was encapsulated (100% efficiency) in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polycaprolactone (PCL), or a mixture of both via an emulsion method. The use of different polymer types and mixture was shown to achieve a variety of release kinetics and profile. Released rapamycin was subsequently evaluated against breast cancer cell (MCF-7) and human lymphocyte cell (Jurkat). Inhibition of cell proliferation was in good agreement with in vitro release profiles, which confirmed the intact bioactivity of rapamycin. For Jurkat cells, the suppression of cell growth was proven to be effective up to 20 days, a duration significantly longer than free rapamycin. Taken together, these results demonstrate the ability to tune, sustain, and preserve the bioactivity of rapamycin using MP formulations. The sustained delivery of rapamycin could lead to better therapeutic effects than bolus dosage, at the same time improving patient compliance due to its long-acting duration.

  20. The importance of CELF control: molecular and biological roles of the CUG-BP, Elav-like family of RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Twishasri; Ladd, Andrea N

    2012-01-01

    RNA processing is important for generating protein diversity and modulating levels of protein expression. The CUG-BP, Elav-like family (CELF) of RNA-binding proteins regulate several steps of RNA processing in the nucleus and cytoplasm, including pre-mRNA alternative splicing, C to U RNA editing, deadenylation, mRNA decay, and translation. In vivo, CELF proteins have been shown to play roles in gametogenesis and early embryonic development, heart and skeletal muscle function, and neurosynaptic transmission. Dysregulation of CELF-mediated programs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human diseases affecting the heart, skeletal muscles, and nervous system.

  1. Locus of Control or Self-Esteem; Which One is the Best Predictor of Academic Achievement in Iranian College Students

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Karami Matin, Behzad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Ashtarian, Hossein; Jalilian, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demographic, Rotter internal-external locus of control scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 21. Results Results showed that 29.8% and 76.2% of the participants had internal locus of control, and high self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant correlation between self-esteem, locus of control and academic achievement of the students. Self-esteem accounted for 39.5% of the variation in academic achievement. Conclusions It seems that interventions to increase self-esteem among student can help improve academic achievement among them. PMID:27284277

  2. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects.

    PubMed

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children.

  3. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2009-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children. PMID:20161421

  4. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  5. Using confirmatory factor analysis to understand executive control in preschool children: sources of variation in emergent mathematic achievement.

    PubMed

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A; Sheffield, Tiffany D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize

    2011-07-01

    Latent variable modeling methods have demonstrated utility for understanding the structure of executive control (EC) across development. These methods are utilized to better characterize the relation between EC and mathematics achievement in the preschool period, and to understand contributing sources of individual variation. Using the sample and battery of laboratory tasks described in Wiebe, Espy and Charak (2008), latent EC was related strongly to emergent mathematics achievement in preschool, and was robust after controlling for crystallized intellectual skills. The relation between crystallized skills and emergent mathematics differed between girls and boys, although the predictive association between EC and mathematics did not. Two dimensions of the child 's social environment contributed to mathematics achievement: social network support through its relation to EC and environmental stressors through its relation with crystallized skills. These findings underscore the need to examine the dimensions, mechanisms, and individual pathways that influence the development of early competence in basic cognitive processes that underpin early academic achievement.

  6. Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals during Task Engagement: Their Relation to Intrinsic Motivation and Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir Oz, Ayse; Lane, Jennie F.; Michou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying an endorsed achievement goal to intrinsic motivation and cheating. The endorsement of the achievement goal was ensured by involving 212 (M(subscript age) = 19.24, SD = 0.97) freshman students in a spatial task and asking them to report their most…

  7. An observer based approach for achieving fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control of systems modeled as hybrid Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Renganathan, K; Bhaskar, VidhyaCharan

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach for achieving detection and identification of faults, and provide fault tolerant control for systems that are modeled using timed hybrid Petri nets. For this purpose, an observer based technique is adopted which is useful in detection of faults, such as sensor faults, actuator faults, signal conditioning faults, etc. The concepts of estimation, reachability and diagnosability have been considered for analyzing faulty behaviors, and based on the detected faults, different schemes are proposed for achieving fault tolerant control using optimization techniques. These concepts are applied to a typical three tank system and numerical results are obtained.

  8. Power and Control in Kathmandu: A Comparison of Attempted Power, Actual Power, and Achieved Power.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Thapa, Sirjana; Wu, Shali

    2016-05-05

    We argue that the concept of power has been inadvertently sidelined in recent theory and research on husband violence. Three types of relationship power may matter with respect to husband violence: attempted power, actual power, and achieved power. Analyses of a randomly selected representative sample of 270 married or partnered women in Kathmandu showed that actual power was related to husband violence prevalence, severity, and injury. Achieved power was related to husband violence prevalence and severity, and attempted power was related to husband violence injury. Implications are discussed.

  9. Effects of Autonomy Supportive vs. Controlling Teachers' Behavior on Students' Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferber, Natalia; Eckes, Alexander; Wilde, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Grolnick and Ryan (1987) assume that an autonomy supportive environment leads to higher learner engagement and thus to greater achievements and deeper understanding of content. In school, knowledge acquisition (rote learning as well as conceptual learning) are regarded as most important. In this study, we examined the effects of teachers' autonomy…

  10. Certifying achievement in the control of Chagas disease native vectors: what is a viable scenario?

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Ken; Yoshioka, Kota

    2014-01-01

    As an evaluation scheme, we propose certifying for “control”, as alternative to “interruption”, of Chagas disease transmission by native vectors, to project a more achievable and measurable goal and sharing good practices through an “open online platform” rather than “formal certification” to make the key knowledge more accumulable and accessible. PMID:25317713

  11. Control Method for Achieving High Power Factor in Single-Phase to Three-Phase Converters without Electrolytic Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Takahiro; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Haga, Hitoshi; Shibata, Junji

    In this paper, we propose a method for the digital control of IPM motors in order to achieve a high power factor in single-phase to three-phase power converters without reactors or electrolytic capacitors. For achieving the unity power factor under any load condition and any speed condition, we propose a new digital control method that involves the use of a new feedback technique and a new feedforward technique on the source-current regulator side. The proposed digital control system is constructed by using DSP devices. In this paper, we also propose a new method for the compensation of one sampling delay time. The superior performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by experimental results. The experimental results were obtained using 1.5[kW] inverter system, which consists of a vector control system with a 14[μF] dc-link capacitor. The maximum power factor obtained in the experiments was 96.8[%].

  12. Tobacco control efforts in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hassounah, S; Rawaf, D; Khoja, T; Rawaf, S; Hussein, M S; Qidwai, W; Majeed, A

    2014-08-19

    This paper reports a review into the current state of tobacco use, governance and national commitment for control, and current intervention frameworks in place to reduce the use of tobacco among the populations of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member states and Yemen. It further reviews structured policy-oriented interventions (in line with the MPOWER package of 6 evidence-based tobacco control measures) that represent government actions to strengthen, implement and manage tobacco control programmes and to address the growing epidemic of tobacco use. Our findings show that tobacco control in the GCC countries has witnessed real progress over the past decades. These are still early days but they indicate steps in the right direction. Future investment in implementation and enforcement of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, production of robust tobacco control legislation and the establishment of universally available tobacco cessation services are essential to sustain and strengthen tobacco control in the GCC region.

  13. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  14. Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Understand Executive Control in Preschool Children: Sources of Variation in Emergent Mathematic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Sheffield, Tiffany D.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize

    2011-01-01

    Latent variable modeling methods have demonstrated utility for understanding the structure of executive control (EC) across development. These methods are utilized to better characterize the relation between EC and mathematics achievement in the preschool period, and to understand contributing sources of individual variation. Using the sample and…

  15. A Randomized Controlled Design Investigating the Effects of Classroom-Based Physical Activity on Children's Fluid Intelligence and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedewa, Alicia L.; Ahn, Soyeon; Erwin, Heather; Davis, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature shows promising effects of physical activity on children's cognitive outcomes. This study assessed via a randomized, controlled design whether additional curricular physical activity during the school day resulted in gains for children's fluid intelligence and standardized achievement outcomes. Participants were children…

  16. High-School Students' Need for Cognition, Self-Control Capacity, and School Achievement: Testing a Mediation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrams, Alex; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control…

  17. Perceived Academic Control and Academic Emotions Predict Undergraduate University Student Success: Examining Effects on Dropout Intention and Achievement.

    PubMed

    Respondek, Lisa; Seufert, Tina; Stupnisky, Robert; Nett, Ulrike E

    2017-01-01

    The present study addressed concerns over the high risk of university students' academic failure. It examined how perceived academic control and academic emotions predict undergraduate students' academic success, conceptualized as both low dropout intention and high achievement (indicated by GPA). A cross-sectional survey was administered to 883 undergraduate students across all disciplines of a German STEM orientated university. The study additionally compared freshman students (N = 597) vs. second-year students (N = 286). Using structural equation modeling, for the overall sample of undergraduate students we found that perceived academic control positively predicted enjoyment and achievement, as well as negatively predicted boredom and anxiety. The prediction of dropout intention by perceived academic control was fully mediated via anxiety. When taking perceived academic control into account, we found no specific impact of enjoyment or boredom on the intention to dropout and no specific impact of all three academic emotions on achievement. The multi-group analysis showed, however, that perceived academic control, enjoyment, and boredom among second-year students had a direct relationship with dropout intention. A major contribution of the present study was demonstrating the important roles of perceived academic control and anxiety in undergraduate students' academic success. Concerning corresponding institutional support and future research, the results suggested distinguishing incoming from advanced undergraduate students.

  18. Perceived Academic Control and Academic Emotions Predict Undergraduate University Student Success: Examining Effects on Dropout Intention and Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Respondek, Lisa; Seufert, Tina; Stupnisky, Robert; Nett, Ulrike E.

    2017-01-01

    The present study addressed concerns over the high risk of university students' academic failure. It examined how perceived academic control and academic emotions predict undergraduate students' academic success, conceptualized as both low dropout intention and high achievement (indicated by GPA). A cross-sectional survey was administered to 883 undergraduate students across all disciplines of a German STEM orientated university. The study additionally compared freshman students (N = 597) vs. second-year students (N = 286). Using structural equation modeling, for the overall sample of undergraduate students we found that perceived academic control positively predicted enjoyment and achievement, as well as negatively predicted boredom and anxiety. The prediction of dropout intention by perceived academic control was fully mediated via anxiety. When taking perceived academic control into account, we found no specific impact of enjoyment or boredom on the intention to dropout and no specific impact of all three academic emotions on achievement. The multi-group analysis showed, however, that perceived academic control, enjoyment, and boredom among second-year students had a direct relationship with dropout intention. A major contribution of the present study was demonstrating the important roles of perceived academic control and anxiety in undergraduate students' academic success. Concerning corresponding institutional support and future research, the results suggested distinguishing incoming from advanced undergraduate students. PMID:28326043

  19. Achievement of a low-outgassing white paint system for spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidenberg, B.; Park, J. J.; Clatterbuck, C.

    1972-01-01

    Test results and data for achieving a low-outgassing polymer resin suitable for potting or a paint pigment are presented. The resin, prepared in 0.5-kg (1-lb) batches, is acceptable for spacecraft use; its weight loss is less than 0.5 percent, and the volatile condensable materials are less than 0.05 percent. The paint adheres to a primed fiber glass or aluminum substrate. Results of UV irradiation, electron and proton radiation, and thermal cycling are presented.

  20. Unconventional Warfare and Operational Art: Can We Achieve Continuity in Command and Control?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    THREE: UW AND SENGE’S LEARNING DISABILITIES , AN ANALYSIS....... 27 CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..........Error! Bookmark not defined...legitimacy and relevancy of unconventional warfare in achieving the nation’s goals. The Seven Learning Disabilities from Peter Senge’s The Fifth Discipline...the Seven Learning Disabilities . The book describes seven deficiencies that might identify whether or not an organization is a learning

  1. High Self-Control Predicts More Positive Emotions, Better Engagement, and Higher Achievement in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.; Gaerlan, Marianne Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    The control-value theory of academic emotions has emerged as a useful framework for studying the antecedents and consequences of different emotions in school. This framework focuses on the role of control-related and value-related appraisals as proximal antecedents of emotions. In this study, we take an individual differences approach to examine…

  2. Magmatic controls on eruption dynamics of the 1950 yr B.P. eruption of San Antonio Volcano, Tacaná Volcanic Complex, Mexico-Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Juan Carlos; Gardner, James Edward; Macías, José Luis; Meriggi, Lorenzo; Santo, Alba Patrizia

    2013-07-01

    San Antonio Volcano, in the Tacaná Volcanic Complex, erupted ~ 1950 yr. B.P., with a Pelean type eruption that produced andesitic pyroclastic surges and block-and-ash flows destroying part of the volcano summit and producing a horse-shoe shaped crater open to the SW. Between 1950 and 800 yr B.P. the eruption continued with effusive andesites followed by a dacite lava flow and a summit dome, all from a single magma batch. All products consist of phenocrysts and microphenocrysts of zoned plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxene, magnetite ± ilmenite, set in partially crystallized groundmass of glass and microlites of the same mineral phases, except for the lack of amphibole. Included in the andesitic blocks of the block-and-ash flow deposit are basaltic andesite enclaves with elongated and ellipsoidal forms and chilled margins. The enclaves have intersertal textures with brown glass between microphenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene, and olivine, and minor proportions of phenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende, and pyroxene. A compositional range obtained of blocks and enclaves resulted from mixing between andesite (866 °C ± 22) and basaltic andesite (enclaves, 932 °C ± 22), which may have triggered the explosive Pelean eruption. Vestiges of that mixing are preserved as complex compositional zones in plagioclase and clinopyroxene-rich reaction rims in amphibole in the andesite. Whole-rock chemistry, geothermometry, experimental petrology and modeling results suggest that after the mixing event the eruption tapped hybrid andesitic magma (≤ 900 °C) and ended with effusive dacitic magma (~ 825 °C), all of which were stored at ~ 200 MPa water pressure. A complex open-system evolution that involved crustal end-members best explains the generation of effusive dacite from the hybrid andesite. Amphibole in the dacite is rimmed by reaction products of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxides produced by decompression during ascent. Amphibole in the andesite

  3. Toward a domain-specific approach to the study of parental psychological control: distinguishing between dependency-oriented and achievement-oriented psychological control.

    PubMed

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Luyten, Patrick

    2010-02-01

    Theory and research suggest that psychologically controlling parenting can be driven by parental concerns in two different domains, that is, interpersonal closeness and achievement. Three studies addressing this hypothesis are presented. Study 1 provides evidence for the validity of the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS), a new measure assessing psychological control in these two domains. Study 2 showed that dependency-oriented and achievement-oriented psychological control were related in expected ways to parental separation anxiety and perfectionism in a sample of mothers and fathers. Finally, Study 3 showed that dependency-oriented and achievement-oriented psychological control were differentially related to middle adolescent dependency and self-criticism and that these personality features act as specific intervening variables between the domain-specific expressions of psychological control and depressive symptoms. It is argued that the distinction between two domain-specific expressions of psychological control may allow for a more intricate analysis of the processes involved in intrusive parenting.

  4. Applying real-time control for achieving nitrogen removal via nitrite in a lab-scale CAST system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaopo; Yu, Jingjie; Wei, Tianlan; Chi, Yongzhi; Sun, Liping; Peng, Yongzhen

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a bench-scale Cyclic Activated Sludge Technology (CAST) reactor (72?L), fed with domestic sewage, was operated in alternating anoxi-aerobic operation mode to investigate the feasibility of achieving short-cut nitrification and denitrification with a real-time control strategy. An online system for controlling the length of the aeration and stirring phases was implemented, based on pH and oxidation-reduction potential signals, to switch between aerobic and anoxic sequences. Results show that the real-time control strategy was successful in achieving a stable nitrogen removal performance. Furthermore, short-cut nitrification can be achieved by controlling aeration length under the modified real-time control strategy. Gradually reducing the energy supply for nitrite-oxidizing bacteria caused the limitation of their growth and, finally, their elimination. When short-cut nitrification was obtained, the nitrite pathway became the primary way for nitrogen removal, and aeration duration was reduced by 28.4%.

  5. Simulation and testing of new control methods for achieving low emissions in gas turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, P.M.

    1995-09-01

    In the past few years, development of clean burning land-based industrial gas turbines have been the focus for many manufacturers. This effort lead to the development of the LM6000 dry low emission engine. As a part of the control system, a real time mathematical model of the engine was included. This model is used to control the air and fuel low paths to the engine`s new combustor. A real time simulator was needed to simulate the control system hardware and engine. A brief discussion and some basic concepts of the combustor, along with a full discussion on the development of the real time simulator, follows in this paper.

  6. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) §...

  7. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) §...

  8. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) §...

  9. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) §...

  10. Robust, integrated computational control of NMR experiments to achieve optimal assignment by ADAPT-NMR.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Arash; Tonelli, Marco; Sahu, Sarata C; Singarapu, Kiran K; Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Markley, John L

    2012-01-01

    ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) represents a groundbreaking prototype for automated protein structure determination by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. With a [(13)C,(15)N]-labeled protein sample loaded into the NMR spectrometer, ADAPT-NMR delivers complete backbone resonance assignments and secondary structure in an optimal fashion without human intervention. ADAPT-NMR achieves this by implementing a strategy in which the goal of optimal assignment in each step determines the subsequent step by analyzing the current sum of available data. ADAPT-NMR is the first iterative and fully automated approach designed specifically for the optimal assignment of proteins with fast data collection as a byproduct of this goal. ADAPT-NMR evaluates the current spectral information, and uses a goal-directed objective function to select the optimal next data collection step(s) and then directs the NMR spectrometer to collect the selected data set. ADAPT-NMR extracts peak positions from the newly collected data and uses this information in updating the analysis resonance assignments and secondary structure. The goal-directed objective function then defines the next data collection step. The procedure continues until the collected data support comprehensive peak identification, resonance assignments at the desired level of completeness, and protein secondary structure. We present test cases in which ADAPT-NMR achieved results in two days or less that would have taken two months or more by manual approaches.

  11. Examining correlates of game-to-game variation in volleyball players' achievement goal pursuit and underlying autonomous and controlling reasons.

    PubMed

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Van Riet, Thomas; Lens, Willy

    2014-04-01

    In the current study we aimed to examine the antecedents and outcomes associated with the variability in competitive volleyball players' (N = 67; Mage = 19.45; SD = 5.13) situational achievement goal pursuit and its underlying autonomous and controlling reasons. Players were followed during six consecutive games and data were analyzed through multilevel modeling. Players' dominant contextual goal pursuit reported at the onset of the study related to their situational (i.e., game-specific) goal pursuit. Further, variation in game-to-game mastery-approach goal pursuit, as compared with the pursuit of other achievement goals, related to variation in prosocial behavior. Finally, autonomous reasons underlying situational mastery-approach goal pursuit related positively to games-specific prosocial behavior, enjoyment, and performance satisfaction. The discussion emphasizes the necessity to study players' game-to-game motivational dynamics and the reasons underlying players' achievement goal pursuit.

  12. Achieving behavioral control with millisecond resolution in a high-level programming environment.

    PubMed

    Asaad, Wael F; Eskandar, Emad N

    2008-08-30

    The creation of psychophysical tasks for the behavioral neurosciences has generally relied upon low-level software running on a limited range of hardware. Despite the availability of software that allows the coding of behavioral tasks in high-level programming environments, many researchers are still reluctant to trust the temporal accuracy and resolution of programs running in such environments, especially when they run atop non-real-time operating systems. Thus, the creation of behavioral paradigms has been slowed by the intricacy of the coding required and their dissemination across labs has been hampered by the various types of hardware needed. However, we demonstrate here that, when proper measures are taken to handle the various sources of temporal error, accuracy can be achieved at the 1 ms time-scale that is relevant for the alignment of behavioral and neural events.

  13. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed major sources. 63.43 Section 63.43 Protection of... FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) §...

  14. High School Students' Perceptions of EFL Teacher Control Orientations and Their English Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between "strong, shared, or loose teacher control" during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. Aim: The present study aimed at (a) investigating…

  15. Beyond Control of Variables: What Needs to Develop to Achieve Skilled Scientific Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Deanna; Iordanou, Kalypso; Pease, Maria; Wirkala, Clarice

    2008-01-01

    We identify three aspects of scientific thinking beyond the control-of-variables strategy that we claim are essential for students to master as a foundation for skilled scientific thinking. The first is strategic and involves the ability to coordinate effects of multiple causal influences on an outcome. The second is a mature understanding of the…

  16. A Study to Investigate the Relationship between Locus of Control and Academic Achievement of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Aijaz, Rukhma

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is regarded as the alpha and omega of learning. It is the heart of teaching learning process. Motivation is defined as an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains the behavior over time. Thus motivation is the pivotal component of learning and locus of control which is one of the important factors it stems from. Locus of…

  17. Relationships among Reading Performance, Locus of Control and Achievement for Marginal Admission Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Roger S.; Drexler, John A., Jr.

    The first phase of the study was a 2 x 2 factorial design, with locus of control and instructional method (lecture and demonstration) as independent variables and honor point average (HPA) as the dependent variable. The second phase used correlational techniques to test the extent to which reading performance and traditional predictors of…

  18. Barriers to achieving optimal glycemic control in a multi-ethnic society: a US focus.

    PubMed

    Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Funnell, Martha M; Davidson, Jaime

    2006-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes is particularly apparent in certain ethnic groups, such as African and Hispanic Americans. These groups generally also have poorer glycemic control and outcomes. To better understand the issues surrounding these problems and possible methods to overcome them we performed a literature review from the past 15 years on barriers to glycemic control with a focus on US data. The literature reveals that barriers may be inherent (eg, genetic, cultural, and language/communication) or acquired (eg, those associated with changes in lifestyle and socioeconomic factors). Healthcare interventions that take into consideration cultural and population-specific characteristics can reduce the prevalence and severity of diabetes and its resulting complications. Implementing such strategies will require suitable education for patients and providers, the availability of culturally-sensitive, patient-centered healthcare teams, the creation of collaborative relationships between providers and patients, better use of community resources, and assistance for patients to make informed decisions about available treatment options. There is also evidence suggesting that at the same level of glucose control Hispanics and African Americans have the same degree of complications as whites; therefore, good control is essential for the future well-being of all patients. Addressing these issues may help to decrease the ethnic disparities that currently exist in diabetes care.

  19. Achieving control and interoperability through unified model-based systems and software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Robert; Ingham, Michel; Dvorak, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Control and interoperation of complex systems is one of the most difficult challenges facing NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. An integrated but diverse array of vehicles, habitats, and supporting facilities, evolving over the long course of the enterprise, must perform ever more complex tasks while moving steadily away from the sphere of ground support and intervention.

  20. Achieving asthma control with ICS/LABA: A review of strategies for asthma management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Aalbers, René; Vogelmeier, Claus; Kuna, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    Maintenance treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) is recommended for patients whose asthma is not controlled with a low-to-moderate dose of ICS alone; a separate reliever medication is used on an as-needed basis. The Gaining Optimal Asthma ControL (GOAL) study demonstrated that salmeterol/fluticasone maintenance treatment can improve asthma control and reduce future risk compared with fluticasone alone, although the dose escalation design of this study meant that most patients treated with salmeterol/fluticasone were receiving the highest dose of ICS at the end of the study. Similarly, budesonide/formoterol maintenance therapy improved asthma control and reduced future risk compared with budesonide alone in the Formoterol and Corticosteroids Establishing Therapy (FACET) study. An alternative approach to asthma management is to use an ICS/LABA for both maintenance and reliever therapy. A large body of clinical evidence has shown that the use of budesonide/formoterol in this way improves both current control and reduces future risk compared with ICS/LABA plus as-needed short-acting β2-agonist (SABA), even when patients receive lower maintenance doses of ICS as part of the maintenance and reliever therapy regimen. In addition, one study has shown that beclometasone/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy reduces exacerbations more effectively than beclometasone/formoterol plus as-needed SABA. The use of ICS/LABA as both maintenance and reliever therapy ensures that an increase in reliever use in response to worsening symptoms is automatically matched by an increase in ICS.

  1. Ebola: A holistic approach is required to achieve effective management and control

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Anna; Afolabi, Muhammed O.; Saidu, Yauba; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-01-01

    The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa has already caused substantial mortality and dire human and economic consequences. It continues to represent an alarming public health threat in the region and beyond and jeopardizes the provision of health care and other services in the affected countries. The scale of the epidemic has accelerated research efforts for diagnostics, treatment, and prevention galvanized through increased availability of funding. Our knowledge relating to the virus, disease pathogenesis, risk factors, dynamics of transmission, and epidemic control is increasing, and sociocultural factors have emerged as critical determinants for the success and failure of control efforts. However, there is a long way to go. In this review we summarize the current knowledge, examine the sociocultural context in West Africa, and outline priority areas for future research. PMID:25843598

  2. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cognition, Academic Achievement, and Psychosocial Function in Children: A Systematic Review of Randomized Control Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although the effects of aerobic physical activity (APA) on children’s physical health is well characterized, the effect of aerobic physical activity on cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function has not yet been established. This systematic review provides an overview of research elucidating the relationship between aerobic physical activity and children’s cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function. Methods A systematic review of English articles was performed in April 2013 using MEDLINE, Cochrane, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and EMBASE. Additional studies were identified through back-searching bibliographies. Only randomized control trials with an intervention of aerobic physical activity in children younger than 19 years that measured psychological, behavioral, cognitive, or academic outcomes were included. Results We found 8 relevant randomized control trials that met our inclusion criteria and extracted relevant data and evaluated the methodologic quality of the studies. Of the 8 studies identified, 2 studies were crossover randomized control trials studying the effects of acute aerobic physical activity on cognitive performance. Six studies were parallel-group randomized control studies, of which only 2 had a follow-up period of longer than 6 months. All studies showed that APA had a generally positive impact on children’s cognition and psychosocial function. However, this relationship was found to be minimal in many studies and in some measures, no significant improvement was seen at all. There was no documentation of APA having any negative impact on children’s cognition and psychosocial health, even in cases where school curriculum time was reassigned from classroom teaching to aerobic physical activity. Conclusion APA is positively associated with cognition, academic achievement, behavior, and psychosocial functioning outcomes. More rigorous trials with adequate sample sizes assessing the impact of APA on

  3. Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities through Building Data Analysis and Achieving Energy Savings through Improved Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, Bill

    2014-09-04

    This chapter will highlight analysis techniques to identify energy efficiency opportunities to improve operations and controls. A free tool, Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM), will be used to assist in the analysis of whole-building, sub-metered, and/or data from the building automation system (BAS). Appendix A describes the features of ECAM in more depth, and also provide instructions for downloading ECAM and all resources pertaining to using ECAM.

  4. Old ideas to innovate tuberculosis control: preventive treatment to achieve elimination.

    PubMed

    Diel, Roland; Loddenkemper, Robert; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Sotgiu, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Centis, Rosella; van der Werf, Marieke J; Dara, Masoud; Detjen, Anne; Gondrie, Peter; Reichman, Lee; Blasi, Francesco; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2013-09-01

    The introduction of new rapid diagnostic tools for tuberculosis (TB) and the promising TB drugs pipeline together with the development of a new World Health Organization Strategy post 2015 allows new discussions on how to direct TB control. The European Respiratory Society's European Forum for TB Innovation was created to stimulate discussion on how to best take advantage of old and new opportunities, and advances, to improve TB control and eventually progress towards the elimination of TB. While TB control is aimed at reducing the incidence of TB by early diagnosis and treatment of infectious cases of TB, TB elimination requires focus on sterilising the pool of latently infected individuals, from which future TB cases would be generated. This manuscript describes the three core components that are necessary to implement the elimination strategy fully. 1) Improve diagnosis of latent TB infected individuals. 2) Improve regimens to treat latent TB infection. 3) ensure public health commitment to make both 1) and 2) possible. Old and new evidence is critically described, focusing on the European commitment to reach elimination and on the innovative experiences and best practices available.

  5. A procedure to achieve fine control in MW processing of foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccurullo, G.; Cinquanta, L.; Sorrentino, G.

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional analytical model for predicting the unsteady temperature field in a cylindrical shaped body affected by spatially varying heat generation is presented. The dimensionless problem is solved analytically by using both partial solutions and the variation of parameters techniques. Having in mind industrial microwave heating for food pasteurization, the easy-to-handle solution is used to confirm the intrinsic lack of spatial uniformity of such a treatment in comparison to the traditional one. From an experimental point of view, a batch pasteurization treatment was realized to compare the effect of two different control techniques both based on IR thermography readout: the former assured a classical PID control, while the latter was based on a "shadowing" technique, consisting in covering portions of the sample which are hot enough with a mobile metallic screen. A measure of the effectiveness of the two control techniques was obtained by evaluating the thermal death curves of a strain Lactobacillus plantarum submitted to pasteurization temperatures. Preliminary results showed meaningful increases in the microwave thermal inactivation of the L. plantarum and similar significant decreases in thermal inactivation time with respect to the traditional pasteurization thermal treatment.

  6. Analysis of alternatives for insulinizing patients to achieve glycemic control and avoid accompanying risks of hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jialin; Xiong, Qianyin; Miao, Jun; Zhang, Yao; Xia, Libing; Lu, Meiqin; Zhang, Binhua; Chen, Yueping; Zhang, Ansu; Yu, Cui; Wang, Li-Zhuo

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to explore the efficacy of glycemic control and the risks of hypoglycemia with different methods of insulin therapy, and to provide reference data for the clinical treatment of diabetes. In this retrospective study, hospitalized patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between March and December 2014, in the Department of Endocrinology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College, were divided into three groups, including an intensive insulin analogue therapy group, a premixed insulin analogue treatment group and a premixed human insulin therapy group. The efficacy of glycemic control and the incidence of hypoglycemia were determined in each of the insulin treatment groups. Compared with the other treatment groups, the intensive insulin analogue therapy group was associated with superior blood glucose control, shorter time to reach standard insulin regimen, shorter hospitalization time, fewer fluctuations in blood glucose levels and lower insulin dosage on discharge from hospital. However, this treatment was also associated with a high risk of hypoglycemia. In conclusion, when combined with the effective prevention of hypoglycemia and appropriate nursing care (especially in hospital care), intensive insulin analogue therapy may provide the greatest benefit to patients.

  7. Randomized trial of guiding hypertension management using central aortic blood pressure compared with best-practice care: principal findings of the BP GUIDE study.

    PubMed

    Sharman, James E; Marwick, Thomas H; Gilroy, Deborah; Otahal, Petr; Abhayaratna, Walter P; Stowasser, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Arm cuff blood pressure (BP) may overestimate cardiovascular risk. Central aortic BP predicts mortality and could be a better method for patient management. We sought to determine the usefulness of central BP to guide hypertension management. This was a prospective, open-label, blinded-end point study in 286 patients with hypertension randomized to treatment decisions guided by best-practice usual care (n=142; using office, home, and 24-hour ambulatory BP) or, in addition, by central BP intervention (n=144; using SphygmoCor). Therapy was reviewed every 3 months for 12 months, and recommendations were provided to each patient and his/her doctor on antihypertensive medication titration. Outcome measures were as follows: medication quantity (daily defined dose), quality of life, and left ventricular mass (3-dimensional echocardiography). There was 92% compliance with recommendations on medication titration, and quality of life improved in both groups (post hoc P<0.05). For usual care, there was no change in daily defined dose (all P>0.10), but with intervention there was a significant stepwise decrease in daily defined dose from baseline to 3 months (P=0.008) and each subsequent visit (all P<0.001). Intervention was associated with cessation of medication in 23 (16%) patients versus 3 (2%) in usual care (P<0.001). Despite this, there were no differences between groups in left ventricular mass index, 24-hour ambulatory BP, home systolic BP, or aortic stiffness (all P>0.05). We conclude that guidance of hypertension management with central BP results in a significantly different therapeutic pathway than conventional cuff BP, with less use of medication to achieve BP control and no adverse effects on left ventricular mass, aortic stiffness, or quality of life.

  8. Low (Sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape

    PubMed

    Shi; Zhang; Zhang; Bechtel; Dalton; Robinson; Steier

    2000-04-07

    Electro-optic (EO) modulators encode electrical signals onto fiber optic transmissions. High drive voltages limit gain and noise levels. Typical polymeric and lithium niobate modulators operate with halfwave voltages of 5 volts. Sterically modified organic chromophores have been used to reduce the attenuation of electric field poling-induced electro-optic activity caused by strong intermolecular electrostatic interactions. Such modified chromophores, incorporated into polymer hosts, were used to fabricate EO modulators with halfwave voltages of 0.8 volts (at a telecommunications wavelength of 1318 nanometers) and to achieve a halfwave voltage-interaction length product of 2.2 volt-centimeters. Optical push-pull poling and driving were also used to reduce halfwave voltage. This study, together with recent demonstrations of exceptional bandwidths (more than 110 gigahertz) and ease of integration (with very large scale integration semiconductor circuitry and ultra-low-loss passive optical circuitry) demonstrates the potential of polymeric materials for next generation telecommunications, information processing, and radio frequency distribution.

  9. Gap Analysis for Chinese Drug Control Institutes to Achieve the Standards of World Health Organization Medicine Prequalification.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xin; Yang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    The study aims to explore the challenges and the gaps faced by Chinese Drug Control Institutes in achieving the standards of World Health Organization (WHO) Medicine Prequalification. The study was undertaken with 6 Provincial Drug Control Institutes in China from November 2012 to November 2013. The study assessed key elements required to comply with WHO Good Practices for Pharmaceutical Quality Control Laboratories (GPPQCL). For GPPQCL, the study found gaps in quality management system, control of documentation, data-processing equipment, premises and equipment, contracts, reagents (water), reference substances and reference materials, calibration, verification of performance and qualification of equipment, instruments and other devices, analytical worksheet, evaluation of test results, personnel, and validation of analytical procedures. The study indicates that gaps are attributed to differences between the standards of Chinese Accreditation Standards and WHO-GPPQCL.

  10. Using Autonomously-Controlled Aerocapture to Achieve High-Priority Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Hall, J. L.

    2006-05-01

    Aerocapture is a means of inserting a spacecraft into orbit at a planetary body with a substantial atmosphere, from a hyperbolic approach, via atmospheric drag in that atmosphere. Compared to current-practice propulsive insertion systems, it offers large reductions in the mass spent on orbit insertion, making available significantly more mass for science instruments and direct instrument support systems such as telecommunications. This yields much greater science return for a given launch mass. In some cases the gain in science return is so significant it enables the missions. The aerocapture maneuver itself, which involves hypersonic, guided flight through an imperfectly known and variable planetary atmosphere, critically depends on autonomous systems to guide the craft's flight path to a controlled exit at a pre-determined, much-reduced target speed and target direction. For the past five years NASA funded its Aerocapture Systems Analysis Team to conduct high-fidelity studies of aerocapture applications to destinations of high priority for planetary and solar system science. These studies aimed at deriving various aerocapture system parameters and performance figures for each destination, and to highlight technology developments needed to provide the requisite system parameters and performance. Significant progress has been made, to the point that aerocapture is fully ready for a flight demonstration, and soon after that implementation at some of the less-demanding destinations. Autonomous control algorithms of sufficient accuracy and speed are now available for a flight test, as is the hardware needed for computation, navigation, control, and thermal protection. Candidate destinations for which relatively low-performance systems are sufficient include Saturn's moon Titan, Venus, and Mars, while trips to more demanding destinations, such as Uranus, Neptune, Saturn, and possibly even and Pluto and Neptune's moon Triton, would require higher-performance systems

  11. Achievement of controlled resistive response of nanogapped palladium film to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, M.; Wong, M. H.; Ong, C. W.

    2015-07-20

    Palladium (Pd) film containing nanogaps of well controlled dimension was fabricated on a Si wafer having a high-aspect-ratio micropillar. The Pd film was arranged to experience hydrogen (H{sub 2})-induced volume expansion. (i) If the nanogap is kept open, its width is narrowed down. A discharge current was generated to give a strong, fast, and repeatable on-off type resistive switching response. (ii) If the nanogap is closed, the cross section of the conduction path varies to give continuous H{sub 2}-concentration dependent resistive response. The influence of stresses and related physical mechanisms are discussed.

  12. A quantitative integrated assessment of pollution prevention achieved by integrated pollution prevention control licensing.

    PubMed

    Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and

  13. Terrestrial rabies control in the European Union: historical achievements and challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Wysocki, Patrick; Roumiantzeff, Micha; Freney, Jean; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Vos, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the implementation of oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programmes, the European Union (EU) is becoming progressively free of red fox (Vulpes vulpes)-mediated rabies. Over the past three decades, the incidence of rabies had decreased substantially and vast areas of Western and Central Europe have been freed from rabies using this method of controlling an infectious disease in wildlife. Since rabies control is a top priority in the EU, the disease is expected to be eliminated from the animal source in the near future. While responsible authorities may consider the mission of eliminating fox rabies from the EU almost accomplished, there are still issues to be dealt with and challenges to be met that have not yet been in the focus of attention, but could jeopardise the ultimate goal. Among them are increasing illegal movements of animals, maintaining funding support for vaccination campaigns, devising alternative vaccine strategies in neighbouring Eastern European countries and the expanding distribution range of several potential rabies reservoir species in Europe.

  14. Cooperative actions to achieve malaria control without the use of DDT.

    PubMed

    Chanon, Keith E; Méndez-Galván, Jorge F; Galindo-Jaramillo, Jose Manuel; Olguín-Bernal, Hector; Borja-Aburto, Victor H

    2003-08-01

    The success of regional networks to provide incentives and mechanisms for sharing information is illustrated through the North American Regional Action Plan on DDT (NARAP). This NARAP was designed to reduce human and environmental exposure to DDT and its metabolites in North America through cooperative efforts. The increasing role of environmental concerns in the planning and design of Mexico's DDT phase-out program motivated the Mexican Ministry of Health to undertake an alternative program for malaria control maximizing community participation without negatively affecting human and ecosystem health. This program relies on: 1) elimination of parasites in people, 2) improvement of personal and household hygiene, and 3) use of environmental management practices to eliminate mosquito breeding sites. This new strategy resulted in the elimination of DDT for malaria control in Mexico in the year 2000. While malaria and its corresponding vectors show considerable variability within a single country and certainly around the globe, the case example of Mexico provides a methodology for developing alternatives to DDT.

  15. Using the accreditation journey to achieve global impact: UHN's experience at the Kuwait Cancer Control Center.

    PubMed

    Ladha-Waljee, Nafeesa; McAteer, Stephen; Nickerson, Veronica; Khalfan, Adil

    2014-01-01

    On January 1, 2011, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (PM) - University Health Network (UHN) began a five-year partnership agreement with the Kuwait Ministry of Health's Kuwait Cancer Control Center (KCCC) to enhance cancer care services. Over the course of the partnership, opportunities for improvement were identified by UHN experts in order to accelerate KCCC's development toward subspecialty cancer care. Many of these opportunities involved building a robust infrastructure to support foundational hospital operation processes and procedures. Harnessing UHN's own successes in accreditation, the partnership took advantage of the national accreditation mandate in Kuwait to initiate a quality program and drive clinical improvement at KCCC. This resulted in improved staff engagement, better awareness and alignment of administration with clinical management and a stronger patient safety culture. This article discusses the successes and lessons learned at KCCC that may provide insight to healthcare providers implementing Accreditation Canada International's accreditation framework in other countries and cultures.

  16. The prefrontal cortex achieves inhibitory control by facilitating subcortical motor pathway connectivity.

    PubMed

    Rae, Charlotte L; Hughes, Laura E; Anderson, Michael C; Rowe, James B

    2015-01-14

    Communication between the prefrontal cortex and subcortical nuclei underpins the control and inhibition of behavior. However, the interactions in such pathways remain controversial. Using a stop-signal response inhibition task and functional imaging with analysis of effective connectivity, we show that the lateral prefrontal cortex influences the strength of communication between regions in the frontostriatal motor system. We compared 20 generative models that represented alternative interactions between the inferior frontal gyrus, presupplementary motor area (preSMA), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and primary motor cortex during response inhibition. Bayesian model selection revealed that during successful response inhibition, the inferior frontal gyrus modulates an excitatory influence of the preSMA on the STN, thereby amplifying the downstream polysynaptic inhibition from the STN to the motor cortex. Critically, the strength of the interaction between preSMA and STN, and the degree of modulation by the inferior frontal gyrus, predicted individual differences in participants' stopping performance (stop-signal reaction time). We then used diffusion-weighted imaging with tractography to assess white matter structure in the pathways connecting these three regions. The mean diffusivity in tracts between preSMA and the STN, and between the inferior frontal gyrus and STN, also predicted individual differences in stopping efficiency. Finally, we found that white matter structure in the tract between preSMA and STN correlated with effective connectivity of the same pathway, providing important cross-modal validation of the effective connectivity measures. Together, the results demonstrate the network dynamics and modulatory role of the prefrontal cortex that underpin individual differences in inhibitory control.

  17. Checking rounds for isolation precautions in the control of multidrug-resistant organisms: reduction achieved.

    PubMed

    Barbadoro, P; Martini, E; Gioia, M G; Stoico, R; Savini, S; Manso, E; Serafini, G; Prospero, E; D'Errico, M M

    2017-02-07

    The objective of this investigation was to analyze the effectiveness of a quality improvement initiative in limiting the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the hospital setting. During the period 2011-2013, a multimodal intervention was activated at a tertiary care center in Italy. The intervention included: laboratory-based surveillance, interdisciplinary training sessions, monitoring the adoption of isolation precautions and daily supervision provided by infection control nurses, and a monthly feedback. Time series analysis was used to evaluate the trends and correlations between the MDROs rate, intensity of checking rounds, and hospital-wide data (i.e., transfer of patients, patients' days, site of isolation, etc.). A total of 149,251 patients were included in the study. The proportion of patients undergoing transmission-based isolation precautions within 24 h from a positive laboratory finding increased from 83% in 2011 to 99% in 2013 (p < 0.05). The wards appropriately adopting the correct isolation precaution increased from 83% in 2011 to 97.6% in 2013 (p < 0.05). The frequency of controls was significantly reduced after the observation of compliance in the appropriate wards (p < 0.05). After three years, the incidence rate changed from 5.8/1000 days of stay [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.6-6.1] in 2011 to 4.7 (95% CI 4.4-4.9) in 2013 (p < 0.0001). Moreover, microorganisms isolated from different types of specimens showed variable potential for transmission (i.e., skin as the most potential and urine the least). The results demonstrate the efficacy of the multimodal intervention, with sustained reduction of MDROs rate, besides check reduction, and highlight the long-term efficacy of checking rounds in changing professionals' behaviors.

  18. Herbicides as Weed Control Agents: State of the Art: II. Recent Achievements[C

    PubMed Central

    Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; van Almsick, Andreas; Beffa, Roland; Dietrich, Hansjoerg; Eckes, Peter; Hacker, Erwin; Hain, Ruediger; Strek, Harry John; Stuebler, Hermann; Willms, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    In response to changing market dynamics, the discovery of new herbicides has declined significantly over the past few decades and has only seen a modest upsurge in recent years. Nevertheless, the few introductions have proven to be interesting and have brought useful innovation to the market. In addition, herbicide-tolerant or herbicide-resistant crop technologies have allowed the use of existing nonselective herbicides to be extended into crops. An increasing and now major challenge is being posed by the inexorable increase in biotypes of weeds that are resistant to herbicides. This problem is now at a level that threatens future agricultural productivity and needs to be better understood. If herbicides are to remain sustainable, then it is a must that we adopt diversity in crop rotation and herbicide use as well as increase the use of nonchemical measures to control weeds. Nevertheless, despite the difficulties posed by resistant weeds and increased regulatory hurdles, new screening tools promise to provide an upsurge of potential herbicide leads. Our industry urgently needs to supply agriculture with new, effective resistance-breaking herbicides along with strategies to sustain their utility. PMID:25104721

  19. Herbicides as weed control agents: state of the art: II. Recent achievements.

    PubMed

    Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; van Almsick, Andreas; Beffa, Roland; Dietrich, Hansjoerg; Eckes, Peter; Hacker, Erwin; Hain, Ruediger; Strek, Harry John; Stuebler, Hermann; Willms, Lothar

    2014-11-01

    In response to changing market dynamics, the discovery of new herbicides has declined significantly over the past few decades and has only seen a modest upsurge in recent years. Nevertheless, the few introductions have proven to be interesting and have brought useful innovation to the market. In addition, herbicide-tolerant or herbicide-resistant crop technologies have allowed the use of existing nonselective herbicides to be extended into crops. An increasing and now major challenge is being posed by the inexorable increase in biotypes of weeds that are resistant to herbicides. This problem is now at a level that threatens future agricultural productivity and needs to be better understood. If herbicides are to remain sustainable, then it is a must that we adopt diversity in crop rotation and herbicide use as well as increase the use of nonchemical measures to control weeds. Nevertheless, despite the difficulties posed by resistant weeds and increased regulatory hurdles, new screening tools promise to provide an upsurge of potential herbicide leads. Our industry urgently needs to supply agriculture with new, effective resistance-breaking herbicides along with strategies to sustain their utility.

  20. Achieving enhanced ionic mobility in nanoporous silica by controlled surface interactions.

    PubMed

    Garaga, Mounesha Nagendrachar; Aguilera, Luis; Yaghini, Negin; Matic, Aleksandar; Persson, Michael; Martinelli, Anna

    2017-02-22

    We report a strategy to enhance the ionic mobility in an emerging class of gels, based on robust nanoporous silica micro-particles, by chemical functionalization of the silica surface. Two very different ionic liquids are used to fill the nano-pores of silica at varying pore filling factors, namely one aprotic imidazolium based (1-methyl-3-hexylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, C6C1ImTFSI), and one protic ammonium based (diethylmethylammonium methanesulfonate, DEMAOMs) ionic liquid. Both these ionic liquids display higher ionic mobility when confined in functionalized silica as compared to untreated silica nano-pores, an improvement that is more pronounced at low pore filling factors (i.e. in the nano-sized pore domains) and observed in the whole temperature window investigated (i.e. from -10 to 140 °C). Solid-state NMR, diffusion NMR and dielectric spectroscopy concomitantly demonstrate this effect. The origin of this enhancement is explained in terms of weaker intermolecular interactions and a consequent flipped-ion effect at the silica interface strongly supported by 2D solid-state NMR experiments. The possibility to significantly enhance the ionic mobility by controlling the nature of surface interactions is extremely important in the field of materials science and highlights these structurally tunable gels as promising solid-like electrolytes for use in energy relevant devices. These include, but are not limited to, Li-ion batteries and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

  1. Tools and Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination: What Do We Need to Achieve a Grand Convergence in Malaria?

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Janet; Shretta, Rima; Wells, Timothy N C; Bell, David; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Achee, Nicole; Qi, Gao

    2016-03-01

    Progress made in malaria control during the past decade has prompted increasing global dialogue on malaria elimination and eradication. The product development pipeline for malaria has never been stronger, with promising new tools to detect, treat, and prevent malaria, including innovative diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, vector control products, and improved mechanisms for surveillance and response. There are at least 25 projects in the global malaria vaccine pipeline, as well as 47 medicines and 13 vector control products. In addition, there are several next-generation diagnostic tools and reference methods currently in development, with many expected to be introduced in the next decade. The development and adoption of these tools, bolstered by strategies that ensure rapid uptake in target populations, intensified mechanisms for information management, surveillance, and response, and continued financial and political commitment are all essential to achieving global eradication.

  2. Tools and Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination: What Do We Need to Achieve a Grand Convergence in Malaria?

    PubMed Central

    Hemingway, Janet; Shretta, Rima; Wells, Timothy N. C.; Bell, David; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Achee, Nicole; Qi, Gao

    2016-01-01

    Progress made in malaria control during the past decade has prompted increasing global dialogue on malaria elimination and eradication. The product development pipeline for malaria has never been stronger, with promising new tools to detect, treat, and prevent malaria, including innovative diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, vector control products, and improved mechanisms for surveillance and response. There are at least 25 projects in the global malaria vaccine pipeline, as well as 47 medicines and 13 vector control products. In addition, there are several next-generation diagnostic tools and reference methods currently in development, with many expected to be introduced in the next decade. The development and adoption of these tools, bolstered by strategies that ensure rapid uptake in target populations, intensified mechanisms for information management, surveillance, and response, and continued financial and political commitment are all essential to achieving global eradication. PMID:26934361

  3. A Pilot Study on the Congruency of Locus of Control and Field Dependence as Related to Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, C. William; Cole, Ernest G.

    A pilot study was conducted at two middle schools to investigate the relationship among student locus of control, field dependency, self-esteem, and achievement. A relationship between self-esteem and achievement has already been identified by research; another variable considered as a possible effect on a person's predisposition to achieve was…

  4. Exercise Improves Executive Function and Achievement and Alters Brain Activation in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; McDowell, Jennifer E.; Austin, Benjamin P.; Miller, Patricia H.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Allison, Jerry D.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This experiment tested the hypothesis that exercise would improve executive function. Design Sedentary, overweight 7- to 11-year-old children (N = 171, 56% female, 61% Black, M ± SD age 9.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass index (BMI) 26 ± 4.6 kg/m2, BMI z-score 2.1 ± 0.4) were randomized to 13 ± 1.6 weeks of an exercise program (20 or 40 minutes/day), or a control condition. Main outcome measures Blinded, standardized psychological evaluations (Cognitive Assessment System and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III) assessed cognition and academic achievement. Functional magnetic resonance imaging measured brain activity during executive function tasks. Results Intent to treat analysis revealed dose response benefits of exercise on executive function and mathematics achievement. Preliminary evidence of increased bilateral prefrontal cortex activity and reduced bilateral posterior parietal cortex activity due to exercise was also observed. Conclusion Consistent with results obtained in older adults, a specific improvement on executive function and brain activation changes due to exercise were observed. The cognitive and achievement results add evidence of dose response, and extend experimental evidence into childhood. This study provides information on an educational outcome. Besides its importance for maintaining weight and reducing health risks during a childhood obesity epidemic, physical activity may prove to be a simple, important method of enhancing aspects of children’s mental functioning that are central to cognitive development. This information may persuade educators to implement vigorous physical activity. PMID:21299297

  5. Different systolic blood pressure targets for people with history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack: PAST-BP (Prevention After Stroke—Blood Pressure) randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Richard J; Roalfe, Andrea; Fletcher, Kate; Taylor, Clare J; Martin, Una; Virdee, Satnam; Greenfield, Sheila; Hobbs, F D Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether using intensive blood pressure targets leads to lower blood pressure in a community population of people with prevalent cerebrovascular disease. Design Open label randomised controlled trial. Setting 99 general practices in England, with participants recruited in 2009-11. Participants People with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack whose systolic blood pressure was 125 mm Hg or above. Interventions Intensive systolic blood pressure target (<130 mm Hg or 10 mm Hg reduction from baseline if this was <140 mm Hg) or standard target (<140 mm Hg). Apart from the different target, patients in both arms were actively managed in the same way with regular reviews by the primary care team. Main outcome measure Change in systolic blood pressure between baseline and 12 months. Results 529 patients (mean age 72) were enrolled, 266 to the intensive target arm and 263 to the standard target arm, of whom 379 were included in the primary analysis (182 (68%) intensive arm; 197 (75%) standard arm). 84 patients withdrew from the study during the follow-up period (52 intensive arm; 32 standard arm). Mean systolic blood pressure dropped by 16.1 mm Hg to 127.4 mm Hg in the intensive target arm and by 12.8 mm Hg to 129.4 mm Hg in the standard arm (difference between groups 2.9 (95% confidence interval 0.2 to 5.7) mm Hg; P=0.03). Conclusions Aiming for target below 130 mm Hg rather than 140 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure in people with cerebrovascular disease in primary care led to a small additional reduction in blood pressure. Active management of systolic blood pressure in this population using a <140 mm Hg target led to a clinically important reduction in blood pressure. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29062286. PMID:26919870

  6. A Further Examination of the Distinction between Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Parental Psychological Control: Psychometric Properties of the DAPCS with French-Speaking Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantzouranis, Gregory; Zimmermann, Gregoire; Mahaim, Elodie Biermann; Favez, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Psychological control refers to parental behaviors that intrude on the psychological and emotional development of the child. In 2010, Soenens et al. proposed a distinction between two domain-specific expressions of psychological control, that is, Dependency-oriented Psychological Control (DPC) and Achievement-oriented Psychological Control (APC).…

  7. Statistical monitoring and dynamic simulation of a wastewater treatment plant: A combined approach to achieve model predictive control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Ratnaweera, Harsha; Holm, Johan Abdullah; Olsbu, Vibeke

    2017-02-07

    The on-line monitoring of Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) restrains wastewater treatment plants to achieve better control of aeration and chemical dosing. In this study, we applied principal components analysis (PCA) to find out significant variables for COD and TP prediction. Multiple regression method applied the variables suggested by PCA to predict influent COD and TP. Moreover, a model of full-scale wastewater treatment plant with moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) and ballasted separation process was developed to simulate the performance of wastewater treatment. The predicted COD and TP data by multiple regression served as model input for dynamic simulation. Besides, the wastewater characteristic of the wastewater treatment plant and MBBR model parameters were given for model calibration. As a result, R(2) of predicted COD and TP versus measured data are 81.6% and 77.2%, respectively. The model output in terms of sludge production and effluent COD based on predicted input data fitted measured data well, which provides possibility to enabled model predictive control of aeration and coagulant dosing in practice. This study provide a feasible and economical approach to overcome monitoring and modelling restrictions that limits model predictive control of wastewater treatment plant.

  8. High effective coverage of vector control interventions in children after achieving low malaria transmission in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    interventions and recognized the value of sustaining their use. Thus, sustaining high effective coverage of vector control interventions, which is crucial for reaching malaria elimination in Zanzibar, can be achieved by maintaining effective delivery of these interventions. PMID:23360479

  9. Spatial and temporal organization of multi-protein assemblies: achieving sensitive control in information-rich cell-regulatory systems.

    PubMed

    Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M; Wu, Qian; Ochi, Takashi; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y; Sibanda, Bancinyane Lynn; Blundell, Tom L

    2012-06-28

    The regulation of cellular processes in living organisms requires signalling systems that have a high signal-to-noise ratio. This is usually achieved by transient, multi-protein complexes that assemble cooperatively. Even in the crowded environment of the cell, such assemblies are unlikely to form by chance, thereby providing a sensitive regulation of cellular processes. Furthermore, selectivity and sensitivity may be achieved by the requirement for concerted folding and binding of previously unfolded components. We illustrate these features by focusing on two essential signalling pathways of eukaryotic cells: first, the monitoring and repair of DNA damage by non-homologous end joining, and second, the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint, which detects and corrects defective attachments of chromosomes to the kinetochore. We show that multi-protein assemblies moderate the full range of functional complexity and diversity in the two signalling systems. Deciphering the nature of the interactions is central to understanding the mechanisms that control the flow of information in cell signalling and regulation.

  10. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1st through 3rd Graders

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child’s age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and economic adversity on achievement, results indicate that adaptive/effortful control at 1st grade contributed to both academic self-efficacy beliefs at 2nd grade, and reading (but not math) achievement at 3rd grade. Although academic self-efficacy did not partially mediate the linkage between adaptive/effortful control and achievement, academic self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with reading and math. Results support the notion that early efforts to promote children’s self-regulatory skills would enhance future academic self-beliefs and achievement, particularly in literacy. PMID:19169387

  11. Adaptive control of input field to achieve desired output intensity profile in multimode fiber with random mode coupling.

    PubMed

    Mahalati, Reza Nasiri; Askarov, Daulet; Wilde, Jeffrey P; Kahn, Joseph M

    2012-06-18

    We develop a method for synthesis of a desired intensity profile at the output of a multimode fiber (MMF) with random mode coupling by controlling the input field distribution using a spatial light modulator (SLM) whose complex reflectance is piecewise constant over a set of disjoint blocks. Depending on the application, the desired intensity profile may be known or unknown a priori. We pose the problem as optimization of an objective function quantifying, and derive a theoretical lower bound on the achievable objective function. We present an adaptive sequential coordinate ascent (SCA) algorithm for controlling the SLM, which does not require characterizing the full transfer characteristic of the MMF, and which converges to near the lower bound after one pass over the SLM blocks. This algorithm is faster than optimizations based on genetic algorithms or random assignment of SLM phases. We present simulated and experimental results applying the algorithm to forming spots of light at a MMF output, and describe how the algorithm can be applied to imaging.

  12. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (p<0.05), language (p<0.05), and attention (p<0.01) compared with their controls. In random effects models, epilepsy status had a significant effect on memory (coefficient=-0.14, CI: -0.23, -0.05), language (coefficient=-0.13, CI: -0.23, -0.04), and mathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment.

  13. Lives saved by tuberculosis control and prospects for achieving the 2015 global target for reducing tuberculosis mortality

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Katherine; Korenromp, Eline L; Sismanidis, Charalambos; Bierrenbach, Ana L; Williams, Brian G; Atun, Rifat; Raviglione, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess whether the global target of halving tuberculosis (TB) mortality between 1990 and 2015 can be achieved and to conduct the first global assessment of the lives saved by the DOTS/Stop TB Strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods Mortality from TB since 1990 was estimated for 213 countries using established methods endorsed by WHO. Mortality trends were estimated separately for people with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in accordance with the International classification of diseases. Lives saved by the DOTS/Stop TB Strategy were estimated with respect to the performance of TB control in 1995, the year that DOTS was introduced. Findings TB mortality among HIV-negative (HIV−) people fell from 30 to 20 per 100 000 population (36%) between 1990 and 2009 and could be halved by 2015. The overall decline (when including HIV-positive [HIV+] people, who comprise 12% of all TB cases) was 19%. Between 1995 and 2009, 49 million TB patients were treated under the DOTS/Stop TB Strategy. This saved 4.6–6.3 million lives, including those of 0.23–0.28 million children and 1.4–1.7 million women of childbearing age. A further 1 million lives could be saved annually by 2015. Conclusion Improvements in TB care and control since 1995 have greatly reduced TB mortality, saved millions of lives and brought within reach the global target of halving TB deaths by 2015 relative to 1990. Intensified efforts to reduce deaths among HIV+ TB cases are needed, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21836756

  14. A 5-year prospective case-control study of the influence of early otitis media with effusion on reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Lous, J; Fiellau-Nikolajsen, M

    1984-10-01

    In a still ongoing prospective longitudinal study, more than 500 children--a total birth-cohort in a Danish municipality--were followed from their 3rd to their 9th year of life by multiple impedance tests in order to investigate a number of factors concerning epidemiology and long-term impacts of otitis media with effusion. This is a report on the influence of otitis media with effusion early in life on reading achievement. The study revealed no difference in school-class level between the 9% of the children (n = 46) who constantly had abnormal tympanometry during a 6-month period at the age of 3, and the other pupils in the municipality. At the Silent Reading Test (OS-400), done on 40 of the 46 case-pupils the results did not differ from (1) the other pupils in the municipality, (2) from other pupils of the same sex in the same classroom, or (3) from individual control-pupils matched by sex, social group and classroom.

  15. Achievements and challenges of the World Bank Loan/Department for International Development grant-assisted Tuberculosis Control Project in China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peng; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Ben; Jiang, Shi-wen; Liu, Bo

    2011-07-01

    In March 2002, the government of China launched the World Bank Loan/ Department for International Development-supported Tuberculosis (TB) Control Project to reduce the prevalence and mortality of TB. The project generated promising results in policy development, strengthening of TB control systems, patient treatment success, funds management, and the introduction of legislation. In light of the global TB epidemic and control environment, it is useful to review the TB control priorities of the project, summarize the achievements and experiences around its implementation.

  16. Prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients without and with blood pressure control: data from the PAMELA population. Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate E Loro Associazioni.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Giuseppe; Carugo, Stefano; Grassi, Guido; Lanzarotti, Arturo; Schiavina, Riccardo; Cesana, Giancarlo; Sega, Roberto

    2002-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that in the population, only a minority of treated hypertensive patients achieve blood pressure (BP) control. Whether and to what extent this inadequate control has reflection on hypertension-related organ damage has never been systematically examined. In 2051 subjects belonging to the PAMELA (Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate E Loro Associazioni) Study population, we measured office, home, and 24-hour ambulatory BP values, together with echocardiographic left ventricular mass and wall thickness. Based on the fraction on antihypertensive treatment and on measurements of increased or normal office, home, or 24-hour ambulatory BP values, subjects were classified as normotensives, untreated hypertensives, treated hypertensives with inadequate BP control, and treated hypertensives with effective BP control. Compared with values in the normotensive group, left ventricular mass index, left ventricular wall thickness, and prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy were markedly increased not only in untreated hypertensive patients but also in treated hypertensives with inadequate BP control. Echocardiographic abnormalities were less in treated hypertensives with BP control than in patients with inadequate BP control, but values were still clearly greater than in normotensive subjects. This was the case regardless whether BP control was assessed by office, home, and/or ambulatory values. Our data provide evidence that in the hypertensive fraction of the population, cardiac structural alterations can be frequently found in both the presence and absence of antihypertensive treatment. They also imply that even effective treatment of hypertension does not allow complete reversal of the cardiac organ damage characterizing high BP states.

  17. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei; Purdie, Thomas G.; Rahman, Mohammad; Marshall, Andrea; Liu Feifei; Fyles, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm{sup 3} of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 50}) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose-volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V{sub 50} (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm{sup 3}), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm{sup 3} of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p <.001). Of the 17 patients who had a breath-hold threshold of {>=}0.8 L, 14 achieved a {>=}90% reduction in the heart V{sub 50} using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold <0.8 L achieved a lower, but still significant, reduction in the heart V{sub 50}. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  18. Language Skills, Mathematical Thinking, and Achievement Motivation in Children with ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…

  19. Motivation and Achievement of Children with Learning and Behavior Problems as a Function of Locus of Control. Monograph No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hisama, Toshiaki; Hotchkiss, James

    The study investigated achievement motivation of children with learning and behavior problems and examined effects of various types of verbal instruction on performance tasks and the resulting relationships of these verbal instructions to achievement motivation. The subjects were 48 third and fourth grade children diagnosed as having learning…

  20. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... permitting authority, taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction and any non-air...) that the permitting authority, taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction... conveyance would be inconsistent with any Federal, State, or local law, or the application of...

  1. What "No Child Left Behind" Leaves behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In…

  2. The Use of "Ability" Measures as Controls for Concurrent or Subsequent Achievement (Comment on Alexander et al., ASR, October 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James S.

    1982-01-01

    Comments upon a 1981 article by Alexander, Pallas, and Cook. Discusses whether particular standardized tests measure achievement or ability and the implications of this issue for school effects research. (GC)

  3. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994) and a recent 200 NPL Agreement Change Control Form (Appendix A). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-BP-5 Operable Unit Interim Remedial Measure (IRM) Proposed Plan be developed for use in preparing an Interim Action Record of Decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-BP-5 Operable Unit activities (e.g., development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the Interim Action ROD will specify the interim action(s) for groundwater contamination at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. The treatability test approach is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for each of the two contaminant plumes associated with the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are {sup 99}Tc and {sup 60}Co for underwater affected by past discharges to the 216-BY Cribs, and {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239/240}Pu, and Cs for groundwater affected by past discharges to the 216-B-5 Reverse Well. The purpose of the pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this testplan is to provide the data basis for preparing an IRM Proposed Plan. To achieve this objective, treatability testing must: Assess the performance of groundwater pumping with respect to the ability to extract a significant amount of the primary contaminant mass present in the two contaminant plumes.

  4. The Translational Repressor 4E-BP1 Contributes to Diabetes-Induced Visual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Miller, William P.; Mihailescu, Maria L.; Yang, Chen; Barber, Alistair J.; Kimball, Scot R.; Jefferson, Leonard S.; Dennis, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The translational repressor 4E-BP1 interacts with the mRNA cap-binding protein eIF4E and thereby promotes cap-independent translation of mRNAs encoding proteins that contribute to diabetic retinopathy. Interaction of 4E-BP1 with eIF4E is enhanced in the retina of diabetic rodents, at least in part, as a result of elevated 4E-BP1 protein expression. In the present study, we examined the role of 4E-BP1 in diabetes-induced visual dysfunction, as well as the mechanism whereby hyperglycemia promotes 4E-BP1 expression. Methods Nondiabetic and diabetic wild-type and 4E-BP1/2 knockout mice were evaluated for visual function using a virtual optomotor test (Optomotry). Retinas were harvested from nondiabetic and type 1 diabetic mice and analyzed for protein abundance and posttranslational modifications. Similar analyses were performed on cells in culture exposed to hyperglycemic conditions or an O-GlcNAcase inhibitor (Thiamet G [TMG]). Results Diabetes-induced visual dysfunction was delayed in mice deficient of 4E-BP1/2 as compared to controls. 4E-BP1 protein expression was enhanced by hyperglycemia in the retina of diabetic rodents and by hyperglycemic conditions in retinal cells in culture. A similar elevation in 4E-BP1 expression was observed with TMG. The rate of 4E-BP1 degradation was significantly prolonged by either hyperglycemic conditions or TMG. A PEST motif in the C-terminus of 4E-BP1 regulated polyubiquitination, turnover, and binding of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex containing CUL3. Conclusions The findings support a model whereby elevated 4E-BP1 expression observed in the retina of diabetic rodents is the result of O-GlcNAcylation of 4E-BP1 within its PEST motif. PMID:26998719

  5. Control-value theory: using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64.

    PubMed

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the emergent theoretical and empirical work on human emotion and how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. In the Guide, we define emotion, in general, and achievement emotions, more specifically. We describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), and we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal antecedents, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance. Next, we review the empirical support for control-value theory from non-medical fields and suggest several important implications for educational practice. In this section, we highlight the importance of designing learning environments that foster a high degree of control and value for students. Finally, we end with a discussion of the need for more research on achievement emotions in medical education, and we propose several key research questions we believe will facilitate our understanding of achievement emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  6. Blood pressure control and physicians' therapeutic behavior in a very elderly Spanish hypertensive population.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Roca, Gustavo C; Pallarés-Carratalá, Vicente; Alonso-Moreno, Francisco J; Escobar-Cervantes, Carlos; Barrios, Vivencio; Llisterri, José L; Valls-Roca, Francisco; Carrasco-Martín, José L; Fernández-Toro, José M; Banegas, José R

    2009-09-01

    This study sought to assess blood pressure (BP) control rates by determining the factors associated with poor BP control, therapeutic management and physicians' therapeutic behavior among elderly Spanish hypertensive patients in a primary care setting. This cross-sectional multicenter study included hypertensive patients at least 80 years of age in primary care settings throughout Spain who were on pharmacologic treatment. BP was considered well controlled at <140/90 mm Hg (<130/80 in patients with diabetes, chronic renal disease or cardiovascular disease). A total of 923 patients were included (83.3+/-3.5 years; 62.9% women). Almost two-thirds (64.0%) of the patients were taking a combined therapy (68.7%; 2 drugs) and approximately one-third (35.6%; 95% CI 32.6-38.7) of the patients attained BP goals. Physicians modified the antihypertensive treatment in 26.1% (95% CI 22.3-29.9) of patients with uncontrolled BP, which most frequently involved the addition of another drug (47.6%). Predictive factors for no BP control and no therapeutic modification in patients with uncontrolled BP included diabetes (OR 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-3.9); P<0.0001) and mistaken physician perceptions about BP control (OR 108.1 (95% CI 40.5-288.6); P<0.0001), respectively. Only three out of 10 hypertensive patients 80 years or older in Spain achieved the BP goals. Physicians only modified the treatment in one out of four patients with uncontrolled BP. Diabetes was associated with a threefold increase in the likelihood of uncontrolled BP, and the mistaken physician perceptions about BP control were associated with a 100-fold rise in the probability of not modifying antihypertensive therapy.

  7. LGALS3BP — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    LGALS3BP is a secreted protein that binds to a human macrophage-associated lectin known as Mac-2 and also binds galectin 1. Elevated levels of LGALS3BP have been found in the serum of patients with cancer and in those infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

  8. Relationship Between Locus of Control Scores and Reading Achievement of Black and White Second Grade Children from Two Socio-Economic Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ralph L.; Uhl, Norman P.

    This study investigates the effect of socio-economic level (lower and upper-middle), race (black and white), and sex on locus of control of reinforcement scores, and the relationship between the latter scores and reading achievement in a sample of 211 second grade children. A stratified random sampling technique insured adequate levels of each…

  9. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Quinn, Patrick D; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-05-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed.

  10. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  11. The relationship between prenatal exposure to BP-3 and Hirschsprung's disease.

    PubMed

    Huo, Weiwei; Cai, Peng; Chen, Minjian; Li, Hongxing; Tang, Junwei; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Dongmei; Tang, Weibing; Xia, Yankai

    2016-02-01

    Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is neonatal intestinal abnormality which derived from the faliure of enteric neural crest cells migration to hindgut during embryogenesis from 5 to 12 weeks. Currenly, the knowledge of environmental factors contributing to HSCR is still scarce. Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is one of the most widely used UV filters, and has weak estrogen and strong anti-androgenic effects. In order to examine the effect of maternal BP-3 exposure on development of offspring and explore the potential mechanism, we conducted case and control study and in vitro study. In this work, BP-3 concertrations in maternal urine was detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Besides, we investigated the cytotoxicity and receptor tyrosine kinase (RET) expression in cells exposed to BP-3. The results showed that maternal BP-3 exposure was associated with offspring's HSCR in the population as well as inhibited migration of 293T and SH-SY5Y cells. What's more, we discovered dose-response relationship between RET expression and BP-3 exposure dose, and miR-218 and some other genes involved in SLIT2/ROBO1-miR-218-RET/PLAG1 pathway were also related to BP-3 exposure. Therefore, we deduced that BP-3 influenced cell migration via SLIT2/ROBO1-miR-218-RET/PLAG1 pathway. Our study firstly revealed the relationship between maternal BP-3 exposure and HSCR as well as its potential mechanism.

  12. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cr-doped Si achieved by controlling atomic structure, Cr concentration, and carrier densities: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xin-Yuan; Yang, Zhong-Qin; Zhu, Yan; Li, Yun

    2015-04-28

    By using first-principles calculations, we investigated how to achieve a strong ferromagnetism in Cr-doped Si by controlling the atomic structure and Cr concentration as well as carrier densities. We found that the configuration in which the Cr atom occupies the tetrahedral interstitial site can exist stably and the Cr atom has a large magnetic moment. Using this doping configuration, room-temperature ferromagnetism can be achieved in both n-type and p-type Si by tuning Cr concentration and carrier densities. The results indicate that the carrier density plays a crucial role in realizing strong ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  13. [MBL quality control survey of autoantibodies--25 years of activity and its achievement--mainly antinuclear antibodies].

    PubMed

    Tsunekawa, Shinji; Arai, Jiro; Ishihara, Yasushi; Fujii, Yoshihisa

    2010-02-01

    Annual MBL Quality Control Survey of Autoantibodies has continued to this day since it started in 1983 as the only quality control survey of autoantibodies in Japan. The survey has aimed at unification and standardization of measurement value, as well as finding out between-laboratory differences in results through reporting the results of tabulation to the participating laboratories. For carrying out the survey, we intend to make our efforts to promote assurance and standardization of the quality control of the autoantibodies. The number of participant on this survey has been increasing every year and more than 500 laboratories participate not only in Japan but also from Asia and European countries. The laboratories that participated in this survey are the ones that usually perform ANA test, anti-DNA antibodies test, anti-ENA antibodies test, AMA test, ASMA test, anti-cardiolipin antibodies test and anti-CCP antibodies test. The purpose of the survey is to standardize antinuclear antibodies testing value in semi quantitative assay using ANA control serum or our titer control HEPASERA-1. We got 12% increase from 79% to 91% in 1986 using ANA control serum. Additionally, we reached 97% (86% to 97%) of convergence in 2001 by using HEPASERA-1, which contains 4 major pattern titer controls from 1993. In 2007, coefficient of variation (CV) for anti-dsDNA antibodies was 13%, showing better result than 25% of the first survey in 1993. We started secondary survey for laboratories which reported a result far apart. In the secondary survey, we made investigation for cause and improvement action. We conclude quality control survey is useful for autoantibodies testing for its result convergence.

  14. Analysis of the immune system of multiple myeloma patients achieving long-term disease control by multidimensional flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pessoa de Magalhães, Roberto J; Vidriales, María-Belén; Paiva, Bruno; Fernandez-Gimenez, Carlos; García-Sanz, Ramón; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Gutierrez, Norma C; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Blanco, Juan F; Hernández, Jose; de las Heras, Natalia; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Roig, Monica; Costa, Elaine Sobral; Ocio, Enrique M; Perez-Andres, Martin; Maiolino, Angelo; Nucci, Marcio; De La Rubia, Javier; Lahuerta, Juan-Jose; San-Miguel, Jesús F; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma remains largely incurable. However, a few patients experience more than 10 years of relapse-free survival and can be considered as operationally cured. Interestingly, long-term disease control in multiple myeloma is not restricted to patients with a complete response, since some patients revert to having a profile of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We compared the distribution of multiple compartments of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control (n=28), patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (n=23), patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (n=23), and age-matched healthy adults (n=10). Similarly to the patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and symptomatic multiple myeloma, patients with long-term disease control showed an expansion of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells and natural killer cells. However, the numbers of bone marrow T-regulatory cells were lower in patients with long-term disease control than in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma. It is noteworthy that B cells were depleted in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, but recovered in both the bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with long-term disease control, due to an increase in normal bone marrow B-cell precursors and plasma cells, as well as pre-germinal center peripheral blood B cells. The number of bone marrow dendritic cells and tissue macrophages differed significantly between patients with long-term disease control and those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, with a trend to cell count recovering in the former group of patients towards levels similar to those found in healthy adults. In summary, our results indicate that multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control have a constellation of unique immune changes

  15. 53BP1 contributes to regulation of autophagic clearance of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Youn, Cha Kyung; Kim, Hong Beum; Wu, Ting Ting; Park, Sanggon; Cho, Sung Il; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2017-03-27

    Autophagy, the primary recycling pathway within cells, plays a critical role in mitochondrial quality control under normal growth conditions and in the cellular response to stress. Here we provide evidence that 53BP1, a DNA damage response protein, is involved in regulating mitochondrial clearance from the cell via a type of autophagy termed mitophagy. We found that when either human or mouse cells were 53BP1-deficient, there was an increase in mitochondrial abnormalities, as observed through staining intensity, aggregation, and increased mass. Moreover, a 53BP1-depleted cell population included an increased number of cells with a high mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) relative to controls, suggesting that the loss of 53BP1 prevents initiation of mitophagy thereby leading to the accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Indeed, both 53BP1 and the mitophagy-associated protein LC3 translocated to mitochondria in response to damage induced by the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). The recruitment of parkin, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, to mitochondria in response to CCCP treatment was significantly decreased in 53BP1-deficient cells. And lastly, using p53-deficient H1299 cells, we confirmed that the role of 53BP1 in mitophagy is independent of p53. These data support a model in which 53BP1 plays an important role in modulating mitochondrial homeostasis and in the clearance of damaged mitochondria.

  16. 53BP1 contributes to regulation of autophagic clearance of mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Cha Kyung; Kim, Hong Beum; Wu, Ting Ting; Park, Sanggon; Cho, Sung Il; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy, the primary recycling pathway within cells, plays a critical role in mitochondrial quality control under normal growth conditions and in the cellular response to stress. Here we provide evidence that 53BP1, a DNA damage response protein, is involved in regulating mitochondrial clearance from the cell via a type of autophagy termed mitophagy. We found that when either human or mouse cells were 53BP1-deficient, there was an increase in mitochondrial abnormalities, as observed through staining intensity, aggregation, and increased mass. Moreover, a 53BP1-depleted cell population included an increased number of cells with a high mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) relative to controls, suggesting that the loss of 53BP1 prevents initiation of mitophagy thereby leading to the accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Indeed, both 53BP1 and the mitophagy-associated protein LC3 translocated to mitochondria in response to damage induced by the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). The recruitment of parkin, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, to mitochondria in response to CCCP treatment was significantly decreased in 53BP1-deficient cells. And lastly, using p53-deficient H1299 cells, we confirmed that the role of 53BP1 in mitophagy is independent of p53. These data support a model in which 53BP1 plays an important role in modulating mitochondrial homeostasis and in the clearance of damaged mitochondria. PMID:28345606

  17. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limitations. 63.55 Section 63.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act...

  18. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limitations. 63.55 Section 63.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act...

  19. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limitations. 63.55 Section 63.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act...

  20. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... limitations. 63.55 Section 63.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act...

  1. Students' Emotions for Achievement and Technology Use in Synchronous Hybrid Graduate Programmes: A Control-Value Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Nikolaus T.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous hybrid delivery (simultaneously teaching on-campus and online students using web conferencing) is becoming more common; however, little is known about how students experience emotions in this learning environment. Based on Pekrun's (2006) control-value theory of emotions, the dual purpose of this study was first to compare synchronous…

  2. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM2.5) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

  3. The millimetre spectrum of BP Cru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestalozzi, Michele; Hobbs, George; Torkelsson, Ulf

    2010-04-01

    In this experiment we attempt to detect the millimetre emission from the high-mass X-ray binary BP Cru. This object is composed of a hypergiant (Wray 977) and a slow spinning X-ray pulsar (GX301-2). The recent ATCA observations of centimeter emission (Pestalozzi et al. 2009, this was the first detection of radio emission towards BP Cru) suggested that radio emission consists of two components, a transient non-thermal one and a persistent thermal one, probably arising from the large stellar wind of Wray 977. As stellar winds often show a positive spectral index, we ask to observe BP Cru at 13 and 7 mm, where we expect fluxes of around 1 mJy. Any detection will allow us to probe the inner parts of the wind and characterise the structure of the stellar wind of BP Cru. For this detection experiment we require 11 hours of observations with ATCA.

  4. BP: synthesis and properties of boron phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Katherine; Lee, Kathleen; Kovnir, Kirill

    2016-07-01

    Cubic boron phosphide, BP, is notorious for its difficult synthesis, thus preventing it from being a widely used material in spite of having numerous favorable technological properties. In the current work, three different methods of synthesis are developed and compared: from the high temperature reaction of elements, Sn flux assisted synthesis, and a solid state metathesis reaction. Structural and optical properties of the products synthesized from the three methods were thoroughly characterized. Solid state metathesis is shown to be the cleanest and most efficient method in terms of reaction temperature and time. Synthesis by Sn flux resulted in a novel Sn-doped BP compound. Undoped BP samples exhibit an optical bandgap of ∼2.2 eV while Sn-doped BP exhibits a significantly smaller bandgap of 1.74 eV. All synthesized samples show high stability in concentrated hydrochloric acid, saturated sodium hydroxide solutions, and fresh aqua regia.

  5. An achievement of professional, public, and patient education: the design and evaluation of a comprehensive cancer control plan for Alabama.

    PubMed

    Litton, Allison; Waterbor, John W; Chapman, Kathryn; Abdullah, Farhan; Thomas, Scott; Desmond, Renee A

    2012-06-01

    This Alabama statewide cancer control plan for 2011-2015 seeks to build on the successes of two previous 5-year plans while developing new objectives that address cancer disparities and cancer prevention over the entire lifespan. The approach to defining objectives for this Plan was systematic and sought input from all members of the Alabama Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalition (ACCCC). The Plan that was fashioned is based on input from academic medical centers, private physicians, government agencies, regulatory agencies, health societies, private citizens, and cancer survivors, all of whom are active Coalition members who exchange information, opinions, and knowledge from their respective points of view. The Plan could not have taken shape without the full input of health professionals, statisticians, graduate students, former patients, and concerned citizens; it is truly an example of the synergy of professional, public, and patient education.

  6. On the electrostatic control achieved in transistors based on multilayered MoS2: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Anh Khoa Augustin; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Luisier, Mathieu; Radu, Iuliana P.; Houssa, Michel

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the electrostatic control in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors based on MoS2 is studied, with respect to the number of MoS2 layers in the channel and to the equivalent oxide thickness of the gate dielectric, using first-principles calculations combined with a quantum transport formalism. Our simulations show that a compromise exists between the drive current and the electrostatic control on the channel. When increasing the number of MoS2 layers, a degradation of the device performances in terms of subthreshold swing and OFF currents arises due to the screening of the MoS2 layers constituting the transistor channel.

  7. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on children's attendance, academic achievement and short-term hunger: results from a stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, Delvina; Turley, Maria; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Free school breakfast programmes (SBPs) exist in a number of high-income countries, but their effects on educational outcomes have rarely been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Methods A 1-year stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 New Zealand schools in low socioeconomic resource areas. Participants were 424 children, mean age 9±2 years, 53% female. The intervention was a free daily SBP. The primary outcome was children's school attendance. Secondary outcomes were academic achievement, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, behaviour, short-term hunger, breakfast habits and food security. Results There was no statistically significant effect of the breakfast programme on children's school attendance. The odds of children achieving an attendance rate <95% was 0.76 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.02) during the intervention phase and 0.93 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.31) during the control phase, giving an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.11), p=0.19. There was a significant decrease in children's self-reported short-term hunger during the intervention phase compared with the control phase, demonstrated by an increase of 8.6 units on the Freddy satiety scale (95% CI 3.4 to 13.7, p=0.001). There were no effects of the intervention on any other outcome. Conclusions A free SBP did not have a significant effect on children's school attendance or academic achievement but had significant positive effects on children's short-term satiety ratings. More frequent programme attendance may be required to influence school attendance and academic achievement. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR)—ACTRN12609000854235. PMID:23043203

  8. Longitudinal Relations among Parents' Reactions to Children's Negative Emotions, Effortful Control, and Math Achievement in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H.; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = 0.39 year) across kindergarten through…

  9. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in the Republic of Moldova: achievements and remaining challenges in prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Guriev, Vladimir; Spinu, Constantin; Sajen, Octavian; Isac, Maria; Spinu, Igor; Cebotari, Svetlana; Donos, Ala

    2016-11-24

    Viral hepatitis, especially those with parenteral and sexual transmission, still remain a major problem of public health, both globally and for the Republic of Moldova, due to wide spreading, endemicity, increased morbidity and mortality and high rate of invalidity following the chronization of infection, but usually neglected by population and public health authorities. This paper describes the epidemiology and preventive and control measures of hepatitis C in Moldova. Epidemiological analysis of the surveillance data on hepatitis C incidence in the Republic of Moldova was conducted. The data were obtained from the national reporting system of infectious diseases and serosurvey studies. Epidemiological particularities of acute and chronic hepatitis C in general Moldovan population and specific risk groups were evaluated. National hepatitis policies for prevention and control were analyzed. Only consolidation of all the actions stipulated in the national and international normative documents on the prevention and control of hepatitis, will help to reduce the morbidity of viral hepatitis C and probably to eliminate the new cases of disease in some regions.

  10. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a "dream" display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays.

  11. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a “dream” display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  12. eIF4E/4E-BP dissociation and 4E-BP degradation in the first mitotic division of the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Salaün, Patrick; Pyronnet, Stéphane; Morales, Julia; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Bellé, Robert; Sonenberg, Nahum; Cormier, Patrick

    2003-03-15

    The mRNA's cap-binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF)4E is a major target for the regulation of translation initiation. eIF4E activity is controlled by a family of translation inhibitors, the eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs). We have previously shown that a rapid dissociation of 4E-BP from eIF4E is related with the dramatic rise in protein synthesis that occurs following sea urchin fertilization. Here, we demonstrate that 4E-BP is destroyed shortly following fertilization and that 4E-BP degradation is sensitive to rapamycin, suggesting that proteolysis could be a novel means of regulating 4E-BP function. We also show that eIF4E/4E-BP dissociation following fertilization is sensitive to rapamycin. Furthermore, while rapamycin modestly affects global translation rates, the drug strongly inhibits cyclin B de novo synthesis and, consequently, precludes the completion of the first mitotic cleavage. These results demonstrate that, following sea urchin fertilization, cyclin B translation, and thus the onset of mitosis, are regulated by a rapamycin-sensitive pathway. These processes are effected at least in part through eIF4E/4E-BP complex dissociation and 4E-BP degradation.

  13. Study on application of adaptive fuzzy control and neural network in the automatic leveling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiping; Zhao, Zizhao; Lan, Weiyong; Sha, Lei; Qian, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses the adaptive fuzzy control and neural network BP algorithm in large flat automatic leveling control system application. The purpose is to develop a measurement system with a flat quick leveling, Make the installation on the leveling system of measurement with tablet, to be able to achieve a level in precision measurement work quickly, improve the efficiency of the precision measurement. This paper focuses on the automatic leveling system analysis based on fuzzy controller, Use of the method of combining fuzzy controller and BP neural network, using BP algorithm improve the experience rules .Construct an adaptive fuzzy control system. Meanwhile the learning rate of the BP algorithm has also been run-rate adjusted to accelerate convergence. The simulation results show that the proposed control method can effectively improve the leveling precision of automatic leveling system and shorten the time of leveling.

  14. Back propagation neural network based control for the heating system of a polysilicon reduction furnace.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuhua; Chen, Kai; Bai, Libing; Dai, Meizhi

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the Back Propagation (BP) neural network based control strategy is proposed for the heating system of a polysilicon reduction furnace. It is applied to obtain the control signal I(d), which is used to adjust the heating power through operations of the silicon core temperature, furnace temperature, silicon core voltage, and resistance of the current control cycle. With the control signal I(d) the polycrystalline silicon can be heated from room temperature to the required temperature smoothly and steadily. The proposed BP network applied in this paper can obtain the accurate control signal I(d) and achieve the precise control purpose. This paper presents the principle of the BP network and demonstrates the effectiveness of the BP network in the heating system of a polysilicon reduction furnace by combining the simulation analysis with experimental results.

  15. Preparation of PLLA/bpV(pic) microspheres and their effect on nerve cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiang; Chen, Hai-yun; Li, Hao-shen; Cai, Yang-ting

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we prepared PLLA/bpV(pic) microspheres, a bpV(pic) controlled release system and examined their ability to protect nerve cells and promote axonal growth. PLLA microspheres were prepared by employing the o/w single emulsification-evaporation technique. Neural stem cells and dorsal root ganglia were divided into 3 groups in terms of the treatment they received: a routine medium group (cultured in DMEM), a PLLA microsphere group (DMEM containing PLLA microspheres alone) and a PLLA/bpV(pic) group [DMEM containing PLLA/bpV(pic) microspheres]. The effects of PLLA/bpV(pic) microspheres were evaluated by the live-dead test and measurement of axonal length. Our results showed that PLLA/bpV(pic) granulation rate was (88.2±5.6)%; particle size was (16.8±3.1)%, drug loading was (4.05±0.3)%; encapsulation efficiency was (48.5±1.8)%. The release time lasted for 30 days. In PLLA/bpV(pic) microsphere group, the cell survival rate was (95.2 ±4.77)%, and the length of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was 718±95 μm, which were all significantly greater than those in ordinary routine medium group and PLLA microsphere group. This preliminary test results showed the PLLA/bpV(pic) microspheres were successfully prepared and they could promote the survival and growth of neural cells in DRG.

  16. MAP kinase p38 is a novel target of CacyBP/SIP phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Topolska-Woś, Agnieszka M; Rosińska, Sara; Filipek, Anna

    2017-03-10

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are important players in cellular signaling pathways. Recently, it has been shown that CacyBP/SIP serves as a phosphatase for one of the MAP kinases, ERK1/2. Through dephosphorylation of this kinase CacyBP/SIP modulates the transcriptional activity of Elk-1 and the activity of the CREB-BDNF pathway. In this work, using NB2a cell lysate and recombinant proteins, we show that CacyBP/SIP binds and dephosphorylates another member of the MAP kinase family, p38. Analysis of recombinant full-length CacyBP/SIP and its three major domains, N-terminal, middle CS and C-terminal SGS, indicates that the middle CS domain is responsible for p38 dephosphorylation. Moreover, we show that CacyBP/SIP might be implicated in response to oxidative stress. Dephosphorylation of phospho-p38 by CacyBP/SIP in NB2a cells treated with hydrogen peroxide is much more effective than in control ones. In conclusion, involvement of CacyBP/SIP in the regulation of p38 kinase activity, in addition to that of ERK1/2, might point to the function of CacyBP/SIP in pro-survival and pro-apoptotic pathways.

  17. Achieving pH control in microalgal cultures through fed-batch addition of stoichiometrically-balanced growth media

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of accounting for proton uptake and secretion has confounded interpretation of the stoichiometry of photosynthetic growth of algae. This is also problematic for achieving growth of microalgae to high cell concentrations which is necessary to improve productivity and the economic feasibility of commercial-scale chemical production systems. Since microalgae are capable of consuming both nitrate and ammonium, this represents an opportunity to balance culture pH based on a nitrogen feeding strategy that does not utilize gas-phase CO2 buffering. Stoichiometry suggests that approximately 36 weight%N-NH4+ (balance nitrogen as NO3-) would minimize the proton imbalance and permit high-density photoautotrophic growth as it does in higher plant tissue culture. However, algal media almost exclusively utilize nitrate, and ammonium is often viewed as ‘toxic’ to algae. Results The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exclusively utilize ammonium when both ammonium and nitrate are provided during growth on excess CO2. The resulting proton imbalance from preferential ammonium utilization causes the pH to drop too low to sustain further growth when ammonium was only 9% of the total nitrogen (0.027 gN-NH4+/L). However, providing smaller amounts of ammonium sequentially in the presence of nitrate maintained the pH of a Chlorella vulgaris culture for improved growth on 0.3 gN/L to 5 gDW/L under 5% CO2 gas-phase supplementation. Bioreactor pH dynamics are shown to be predictable based on simple nitrogen assimilation as long as there is sufficient CO2 availability. Conclusions This work provides both a media formulation and a feeding strategy with a focus on nitrogen metabolism and regulation to support high-density algal culture without buffering. The instability in culture pH that is observed in microalgal cultures in the absence of buffers can be overcome through alternating utilization of ammonium and nitrate. Despite the highly regulated

  18. Control of malaria and other vector-borne protozoan diseases in the tropics: enduring challenges despite considerable progress and achievements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne protozoan diseases represent a serious public health challenge, especially in the tropics where poverty together with vector-favorable climates are the aggravating factors. Each of the various strategies currently employed to face these scourges is seriously inadequate. Despite enormous efforts, vaccines—which represent the ideal weapon against these parasitic diseases—are yet to be sufficiently developed and implemented. Chemotherapy and vector control are therefore the sole effective attempts to minimize the disease burden. Nowadays, both strategies are also highly challenged by the phenomenon of drug and insecticide resistance, which affects virtually all interventions currently used. The recently growing support from international organizations and governments of some endemic countries is warmly welcome, and should be optimally exploited in the various approaches to drug and insecticide research and development to overcome the burden of these prevalent diseases, especially malaria, leishmaniasis, Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), and Chagas disease. PMID:24401663

  19. Achieving the Health Care Financing Administration limits by quality improvement and quality control. A real-world example.

    PubMed

    Engebretson, M J; Cembrowski, G S

    1992-07-01

    With the enactment of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA 88), the federal government is now using proficiency testing as the primary indicator of laboratory quality. Laboratories with proficiency test failures are now at risk of a variety of harsh penalties including large monetary fines and suspension of operations. To minimize the risk of failed proficiency testing, we initiated a continuous quality improvement program in our general chemistry laboratory in conjunction with the use of a new survey-validated quality control product. This article describes the quality improvement program and our success in reducing the long-term random error in general chemistry. Despite our improvement program, significant analytical errors (greater than 30% of the CLIA limits) still exist in analytes measured by our chemistry analyzer. These errors are present in nearly the same analytes measured by other common chemistry analyzers indicating the need for improvement in their design and manufacture.

  20. Predialysis systolic BP variability and outcomes in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Tariq; Sozio, Stephen M; Bandeen-Roche, Karen J; Ephraim, Patti L; Luly, Jason R; St Peter, Wendy L; McDermott, Aidan; Scialla, Julia J; Crews, Deidra C; Tangri, Navdeep; Miskulin, Dana C; Michels, Wieneke M; Jaar, Bernard G; Herzog, Charles A; Zager, Philip G; Meyer, Klemens B; Wu, Albert W; Boulware, L Ebony

    2014-04-01

    BP variability (BPV) is an important predictor of outcomes in the general population, but its association with clinical outcomes in hemodialysis patients is not clear. We identified 11,291 patients starting dialysis in 2003-2008 and followed them through December 31, 2008 (median=22 months). Predialysis systolic BPV was assessed over monthly intervals. Outcomes included factors associated with BPV, mortality (all-cause and cardiovascular), and first cardiovascular event (cardiovascular death or hospitalization). Patients' mean age was 62 years, 55% of patients were men, and 58% of patients were white. Modifiable factors associated with higher BPV included obesity, higher calcium-phosphate product levels, and lower hemoglobin concentration; factors associated with lower BPV included greater fluid removal, achievement of prescribed dry weight during dialysis, higher hemoglobin concentration, and antihypertensive regimens without β-blockers or renin-angiotensin system blocking agents. In total, 3200 deaths occurred, including 1592 cardiovascular deaths. After adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, and clinical factors, higher predialysis BPV was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] per 1 SD increase in BPV, 1.13 to 1.22), cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.24), and first cardiovascular event (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.15). Results were similar when BPV was categorized in tertiles and patients were stratified by baseline systolic BP. In summary, predialysis systolic BPV is an important, potentially modifiable risk factor for death and cardiovascular outcomes in incident hemodialysis patients. Studies of BP management in dialysis patients should focus on both absolute BP and BPV.

  1. Sensitivity improvement of an electrical sensor achieved by control of biomolecules based on the negative dielectrophoretic force.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Jinsik; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jung Ho; Hwang, Kyo Seon

    2016-11-15

    Effective control of nano-scale biomolecules can enhance the sensitivity and limit of detection of an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) sensor. Manipulation of the biomolecules by dielectrophoresis (DEP), especially the negative DEP (nDEP) force, so that they are trapped between electrodes (sensing regions) was predicted to increase the binding efficiency of the antibody and target molecules, leading to a more effective reaction. To prove this concept, amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein were respectively trapped between the sensing region owing to the nDEP force under 5V and 0.05V, which was verified with COMSOL simulation. Using the simulation value, the resistance change (ΔR/Rb) of the IME sensor from the specific antibody-antigen reaction of the two biomolecules and the change in fluorescence intensity were compared in the reference (pDEP) and nDEP conditions. The ΔR/Rb value improved by about 2-fold and 1.66-fold with nDEP compared to the reference condition with various protein concentrations, and these increases were confirmed with fluorescence imaging. Overall, nDEP enhanced the detection sensitivity for Aβ42 and PSA by 128% and 258%, respectively, and the limit of detection improved by up to 2-orders of magnitude. These results prove that DEP can improve the biosensor's performance.

  2. The adaptor 3BP2 is required for KIT receptor expression and human mast cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Ainsua-Enrich, Erola; Serrano-Candelas, Eva; Álvarez-Errico, Damiana; Picado, César; Sayós, Joan; Rivera, Juan; Martín, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    3BP2 is a cytoplasmic adaptor protein that acts as a positive regulator in mast cell FcεRI-dependent signaling. The KIT receptor whose ligand is the stem cell factor (SCF) is necessary for mast cell development, proliferation and survival as well as for optimal IgE-dependent signal. Activating mutations in KIT have been associated with several diseases including mastocytosis. In the present work, we found that 3BP2 silencing impairs KIT signaling pathways, thus affecting PI3K and MAP kinase pathways in human mast cells from HMC-1, LAD2 (human mast cell lines) and CD34+-derived mast cells. Unexpectedly, silencing of 3BP2 reduces KIT expression in normal human mast cells as well as in HMC-1 cells where KIT is mutated, thus increasing cellular apoptosis and caspase 3/7 activity. 3BP2 silencing reduces KIT transcription expression levels. Interestingly, 3BP2 silencing decreased MITF expression, a transcription factor involved in KIT expression. Reconstitution of 3BP2 in knockdown cells leads to reversal of KIT expression as well as survival phenotype. Accordingly MITF reconstitution enhances KIT expression levels in 3BP2 silenced cells. Moreover, downregulation of KIT expression by miRNA221 overexpression or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib also reduced 3BP2 and MITF expression. Furthermore, KIT tyrosine activity inhibition reduced 3BP2 and MITF expression, demonstrating again a tight and reciprocal relationship between these molecules. Taken together, our results show that 3BP2 regulates human mast cell survival and participates in KIT-mediated signal transduction by directly controlling KIT receptor expression, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic target in mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases and deregulated KIT disorders. PMID:25810396

  3. Counselee participation in follow-up breast cancer genetic counselling visits and associations with achievement of the preferred role, cognitive outcomes, risk perception alignment and perceived personal control.

    PubMed

    Albada, Akke; Ausems, Margreet G E M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the counselee participation in the follow-up visits, compared to the first visits, for breast cancer genetic counselling and to explore associations with counselees' achievement of their preferred role in decision making, information recall, knowledge, risk perception alignment and perceived personal control. First and follow-up visits for breast cancer genetic counselling of 96 counselees of a Dutch genetics center were videotaped (2008-2010). Counselees completed questionnaires before counselling (T1), after the follow-up visit (T2) and one year after the follow-up visit (T3). Consultations were rated with the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Counselee participation was measured as the percentage of counselee utterances, the percentage of counselee questions and the interactivity (number of turns per minute). Follow-up visits had higher levels of counselee participation than first visits as assessed by the percentage of counselee talk, the interactivity and counselee questions. More counselee talk in the follow-up visit was related to higher achievement of the preferred role (T2) and higher perceived personal control (T3). Higher interactivity in the follow-up visit was related to lower achievement of the preferred role in decision making and lower information recall (T2). There were no significant associations with the percentage of questions asked and none of the participation measures was related to knowledge, risk perception alignment and perceived personal control (T2). In line with the interviewing admonishment 'talk less and listen more', the only assessment of counselee participation associated to better outcomes is the percentage of counselee talk. High interactivity might be associated with lower recall in breast cancer genetic counselees who are generally highly educated. However, this study was limited by a small sample size and a heterogeneous group of counselees. Research is needed on the interactions

  4. Activity on the classical T Tauri star BP Tauri.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullbring, E.; Barwig, H.; Chen, P. S.; Gahm, G. F.; Bao, M. X.

    1996-03-01

    We have made a detailed investigation of the short-term variability in optical light (UBVRI) of the classical T Tauri star BP Tauri. Photometric data (in UBVRI) were collected from Wendelstein Observatory, Germany in 1991, 1992 and 1993 with time-resolutions down to 1sec and, from binning, fluctuations with total amplitudes down to a few milli-magnitudes could be resolved. Additional observations (in UBV) were collected in China. The total time of monitoring amounts to 135 hours. The normal state of BP Tau is that it stays completely constant in brightness in all bands, or shows only very slow and smooth changes during a night, to the limit of detection. Brightenings, events, occurred on time-scales from 0.6hours to a few hours but none of these reached a total amplitude >0.3mag in U. As a rule these events do not have the characteristic flare profile as in the lightcurves of stellar surface flares. The total optical energies of the events are a few times 10^35^erg, with a relatively small spread. The energy distributions at peak flux can be represented by black-body radiation. However, the inferred temperature is very low, 7000-8000K, and not significantly different from that derived for the background veiling. Hence, the events on BP Tau are very different from normal stellar flares. From power analysis of the time series, we conclude that there is no power indicating frequent and short lasting phenomena, like surface flares. In particular there is no signal in the U band. Such flares would have been expected to be numerous in this high-sensitivity survey, however, if BP Tau had a magnetic surface activity comparable to that of ordinary flare stars. Also, there is no tail in the distribution of events towards smaller amplitudes and shorter durations. We show that the events of BP Tau are consistent with inhomogeneous mass infall from magnetically controlled accretion between a circumstellar disk and a hot spot at the star. To account for the constancy in

  5. Improvement in blood pressure control with impedance cardiography-guided pharmacologic decision making.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Donald L; Gomes, Cathy P; Rutherford, Jillian P

    2004-01-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated improvement in blood pressure (BP) control utilizing noninvasive hemodynamic measurements with impedance cardiography (ICG). The purpose of this article is to report the effect of utilizing ICG-guided decision making to treat uncontrolled hypertension in a community generalist setting. Patient medical records were retrospectively reviewed for subjects on two antihypertensive agents with systolic blood pressure > or =140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mm Hg. All subjects were treated utilizing a previously published ICG-guided treatment algorithm. Twenty-one subjects met the BP and medication criteria. BP at entry was 157.2+/-13.9/78.7+/-9.9 mm Hg. Subjects were treated for 215+/-85 days (5.0+/-2.0 visits). After ICG-guided treatment, 12/21 (57.1%) achieved sustained BP control (p<0.001). BP was lowered to 141.6+/-22.0 (p<0.001)/77.1+/-10.7 (p>0.05) mm Hg. Antihypertensive agents increased from 2.0+/-0.0 to 2.5+/-0.7 (p<0.05). In this series of subjects with uncontrolled BP taking two antihypertensive agents, ICG-guided pharmacologic decision making resulted in significant reduction in BP and improvement in BP control.

  6. High-dimensional immunomonitoring models of HIV-1–specific CD8 T-cell responses accurately identify subjects achieving spontaneous viral control

    PubMed Central

    Ndhlovu, Zaza M.; Chibnik, Lori B.; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Vine, Seanna; McMullen, Ashley; Cesa, Kevin; Porichis, Filippos; Jones, R. Brad; Alvino, Donna Marie; Hart, Meghan G.; Stampouloglou, Eleni; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Kadie, Carl; Pereyra, Florencia; Heckerman, David; De Jager, Philip L.; Walker, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    The development of immunomonitoring models to determine HIV-1 vaccine efficacy is a major challenge. Studies suggest that HIV-1–specific CD8 T cells play a critical role in subjects achieving spontaneous viral control (HIV-1 controllers) and that they will be important in immune interventions. However, no single CD8 T-cell function is uniquely associated with controller status and the heterogeneity of responses targeting different epitopes further complicates the discovery of determinants of protective immunity. In the present study, we describe immunomonitoring models integrating multiple functions of epitope-specific CD8 T cells that distinguish controllers from subjects with treated or untreated progressive infection. Models integrating higher numbers of variables and trained with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) variant of logistic regression and 10-fold cross-validation produce “diagnostic tests” that display an excellent capacity to delineate subject categories. The test accuracy reaches 75% area under the receiving operating characteristic curve in cohorts matched for prevalence of protective alleles. Linear mixed-effects model analyses show that the proliferative capacity, cytokine production, and kinetics of cytokine secretion are associated with HIV-1 control. Although proliferative capacity is the strongest single discriminant, integrated modeling of different dimensions of data leverages individual associations. This strategy may have important applications in predictive model development and immune monitoring of HIV-1 vaccine trials. PMID:23233659

  7. Achievement of disease control with donor-derived EB virus-specific cytotoxic T cells after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for aggressive NK-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Haji, Shojiro; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Matsushima, Takamitsu; Takamatsu, Akiko; Tsuda, Mariko; Tsukamoto, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Emi; Ohno, Hirofumi; Fujioka, Eriko; Ishikawa, Yuriko; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2017-04-01

    Aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKL) is characterized by systemic infiltration of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated natural killer cells and poor prognosis. We report a case of ANKL in which EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were induced. A 41-year-old male suffered from fever, pancytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The number of abnormal large granular lymphocytes in the bone marrow was increased and the cells were positive for CD56 and EBV-encoded small nuclear RNAs. The patient was diagnosed with ANKL and achieved a complete response following intensive chemotherapy. He then underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from his sister. Conditioning therapy consisted of total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine and methotrexate. On day 31, complete donor chimerism was achieved and no acute graft-versus-host disease developed. The ANKL relapsed on day 80, and cyclosporine was rapidly tapered and chemotherapy was started. During hematopoietic recovery, the number of atypical lymphocytes increased, but they were donor-derived EBV-specific CTLs. The patient achieved a partial response and EBV viral load decreased to normal range. Unfortunately, ANKL worsen again when the CTLs disappeared from his blood. This is the first case report of ANKL in which induced EBV-specific CTLs may have contributed to disease control.

  8. Ethiopia and its steps to mobilize resources to achieve 2020 elimination and control goals for neglected tropical diseases webs joined can tie a lion.

    PubMed

    Mengitsu, Belete; Shafi, Oumer; Kebede, Biruck; Kebede, Fikreab; Worku, Dagemlidet T; Herero, Merce; French, Michael; Kebede, Biruk; Mackenzie, Charles; Martindale, Sarah; Kebede, Zeyede; Hirpa, Tigist; Frawley, Hannah; Crowley, Kathryn; O'Neil, Maggie; McPherson, Scott

    2016-03-01

    In June 2013, at the launch of its National Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Master Plan, the Ethiopian government pledged to achieve WHO NTD elimination and control targets by 2020. With an estimated 80 million people living in areas where one or more NTDs are endemic, this goal presented an enormous challenge for the Federal Ministry of Health. However, as of September 2015, the Federal Ministry of Health has managed to mobilize support to implement mass drug administration in 84% of the trachoma endemic districts and 100% of the endemic districts for onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis. The national program still is facing large gaps in its podoconiosis and leishmaniasis programs, and it faces significant other challenges to stay on track for 2020 targets. However, this unprecedented scale-up in support was achieved through significant government investment in NTD interventions and creative coordination between donors and implementing partners, which may provide valuable lessons for other national NTD programs trying to achieve nationwide coverage.

  9. Achieving the nitrite pathway using aeration phase length control and step-feed in an SBR removing nutrients from abattoir wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Romain; Marcelino, Marcos; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2008-08-15

    Aeration phase length control and step-feed of wastewater are used to achieve nitrogen removal from wastewater via nitrite in sequencing batch reactors (SBR). Aeration is switched off as soon as ammonia oxidation is completed, which is followed by the addition of a fraction of the wastewater that the SBR receives over a cycle to facilitate denitrification. The end-point of ammonia oxidation is detected from the on-line measured pH and oxygen uptake rate (OUR). The method was implemented in an SBR achieving biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal from anaerobically pre-treated abattoir wastewater. The degree of nitrite accumulation during the aeration period was monitored along with the variation in the nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) population using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. It is demonstrated that the nitrite pathway could be repeatedly and reliably achieved, which significantly reduced the carbon requirement for nutrient removal. Model-based studies show that the establishment of the nitrite pathway was primarily the result of a gradual reduction of the amount of nitrite that is available to provide energy for the growth of NOB, eventually leading to the elimination of NOB from the system.

  10. Regulation of PMP22 mRNA by G3BP1 affects cell proliferation in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Regulation of mRNAs is one way to control protein levels and thereby important cellular processes such as growth, invasion and apoptosis. G3BPs constitute a family of mRNA-binding proteins, shown to be overexpressed in several cancer types, including breast, colon and pancreas cancer. G3BP has been reported to both stabilize and induce degradation of specific mRNAs. Results Here, we show that G3BP1, but not G3BP2, supports proliferation of several breast cancer cell lines. Global gene expression analyses of G3BP1- and G3BP2-depleted cells indicate that primarily G3BP1, and much less G3BP2, influences mRNA expression levels. Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) was one gene that was significantly influenced by G3BP1 depletion which led to a 2–3 fold increased expression. Depletion of PMP22 resulted in increased proliferation and the G3BP1-mediated effect on proliferation was not seen upon PMP22-depletion. Conclusions This indicates a novel role for G3BP1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in breast cancer cells, perhaps via a regulatory effect on PMP22 expression. PMID:24321297

  11. nArgBP2 as a hub molecule in the etiology of various neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Chang, Sunghoe

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have strongly implicated postsynaptic scaffolding proteins such as SAPAP3 or Shank3 in the pathogenesis of various mood disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder (BD), and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Neural Abelson-related gene-binding protein 2 (nArgBP2) was originally identified as a protein that interacts with SAPAP3 and Shank3. Recent study shows that the genetic deletion of nArgBP2 in mice leads to manic/bipolar-like behavior resembling symptoms of BD. However, the function of nArgBP2 at synapse, or its connection with the synaptic dysfunctions, is completely unknown. This study provides compelling evidence that nArgBP2 regulates the spine morphogenesis through the activation of Rac1/WAVE/PAK/cofilin pathway, and that its ablation causes a robust and selective inhibition of excitatory synapse formation, by controlling actin dynamics. Our results revealed the underlying mechanism for the synaptic dysfunction caused by nArgBP2 downregulation that associates with analogous human BD. Moreover, since nArgBP2 interacts with key proteins involved in various neuropsychiatric disorders, our finding implies that nArgBP2 could function as a hub linking various etiological factors of different mood disorders. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 457-458] PMID:27530683

  12. Licensing: BP, Lurgi unveil new butanediol process

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1995-07-26

    BP Chemicals and Lurgi (Frankfurt) say they have jointly developed a direct butane-to-1,4-butanediol process and are ready to license the technology. The companies-which began cooperating on the technology in early 1994-say the process, which is being marketed under the name Geminox, promises to be about 40% cheaper to operate than existing butandiol technologies.

  13. A thermolysis approach to simultaneously achieve crystal phase- and shape-control of ternary M-Fe-O metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chich-Neng; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2011-10-05

    Significant studies have achieved beautiful control in particle size, while the shape- and phase-control synthesis of nanoparticles remains an open challenge. In this study, we have developed a generalized methodology to selectively prepare either NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) M-Fe-O (M = Mn, Co) crystallites with high reproducibility. A two-step heating process was able to control formation of two types of crystal phase, either a thermodynamic spinel-type under air or a kinetic-control of NaCl-type (rock salt structure) under Ar in a cubic morphology. On the other hand, the three-step heating procedure in air obtained the spinel-type with a thermodynamic equilibrium octahedral shape exclusively. Either using metal acetates (M(ac)(2)) or metal acetylacetonates (M(acac)(2)) as the starting precursors (M = Mn, Co) can be introduced to prepare NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) crystallites with identical experimental parameters, including precursor concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, and heating rate. The oleic acid molecule, reaction temperature, and heating rate employed in the synthesis were carefully examined and found acting as determined roles behind the reaction processes. Apart from the previous literature reports as shape-directed and/or stabilizing agents, the oleic acid molecule played an additional phase-tuning role.

  14. Educational intervention together with an on-line quality control program achieve recommended analytical goals for bedside blood glucose monitoring in a 1200-bed university hospital.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor; Rodriguez-Oliva, Manuel; Sánchez-Pozo, Cristina; Fernández-Gallardo, María Francisca; Goberna, Raimundo

    2005-01-01

    Portable meters for blood glucose concentrations are used at the patients bedside, as well as by patients for self-monitoring of blood glucose. Even though most devices have important technological advances that decrease operator error, the analytical goals proposed for the performance of glucose meters have been recently changed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) to reach <5% analytical error and <7.9% total error. We studied 80 meters throughout the Virgen Macarena Hospital and we found most devices with performance error higher than 10%. The aim of the present study was to establish a new system to control portable glucose meters together with an educational program for nurses in a 1200-bed University Hospital to achieve recommended analytical goals, so that we could improve the quality of diabetes care. We used portable glucose meters connected on-line to the laboratory after an educational program for nurses with responsibilities in point-of-care testing. We evaluated the system by assessing total error of the glucometers using high- and low-level glucose control solutions. In a period of 6 months, we collected data from 5642 control samples obtained by 14 devices (Precision PCx) directly from the control program (QC manager). The average total error for the low-level glucose control (2.77 mmol/l) was 6.3% (range 5.5-7.6%), and even lower for the high-level glucose control (16.66 mmol/l), at 4.8% (range 4.1-6.5%). In conclusion, the performance of glucose meters used in our University Hospital with more than 1000 beds not only improved after the intervention, but the meters achieved the analytical goals of the suggested ADA/National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry criteria for total error (<7.9% in the range 2.77-16.66 mmol/l glucose) and optimal total error for high glucose concentrations of <5%, which will improve the quality of care of our patients.

  15. R7BP modulates opiate analgesia and tolerance but not withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Dimitra; Cao, Yan; Agrimaki, Ioanna; Martemyanov, Kirill A; Zachariou, Venetia

    2012-03-01

    The adaptor protein R7 family binding protein (R7BP) modulates G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling and desensitization by controlling the function of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins. R7BP is expressed throughout the brain and appears to modulate the membrane localization and stability of three proteins that belong to R7 RGS family: RGS6, RGS7, and RGS9-2. RGS9-2 is a potent negative modulator of opiate and psychostimulant addiction and promotes the development of analgesic tolerance to morphine, whereas the role of RGS6 and RGS7 in addiction remains unknown. Recent studies revealed that functional deletion of R7BP reduces R7 protein activity by preventing their anchoring to the cell membrane and enhances GPCR responsiveness in the basal ganglia. Here, we take advantage of R7BP knockout mice in order to examine the way interventions in R7 proteins function throughout the brain affect opiate actions. Our results suggest that R7BP is a negative modulator of the analgesic and locomotor activating actions of morphine. We also report that R7BP contributes to the development of morphine tolerance. Finally, our data suggest that although prevention of R7BP actions enhances the analgesic responses to morphine, it does not affect the severity of somatic withdrawal signs. Our data suggest that interventions in R7BP actions enhance the analgesic effect of morphine and prevent tolerance, without affecting withdrawal, pointing to R7BP complexes as potential new targets for analgesic drugs.

  16. Biomechanical parameters of the BP-enriched bone cement.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Łukasz; Olchowik, Grażyna; Mazurkiewicz, Tomasz; Kowalczyk, Bartłomiej; Zdrojewska, Agata; Matuszewska, Anna; Ciszewski, Andrzej; Gospodarek, Małgorzata; Morawik, Iwona

    2014-05-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are well-known substances with very efficient antiresorptive properties. Their beneficial actions are useful not only in achieving better bone mineral density but also in improving bone microarchitecture, strength and, consequently, its quality. Surgical cement, being a polymer composite, is required to be highly biocompatible and biotolerant. The goal of the presented study was to assess whether the enrichment of cement with pamidronate has changed its biomechanical properties. We compared the biomechanical parameters of clean bone cement and BP-enriched bone cement, which were both used formerly in our rat models. Biomechanical properties of BP-enriched bone cement are defined by two basic terms: stress and strain, which are caused by the influence of external force. In the investigatory process of the bone's biomechanical parameters, the compressive test and the three-point flexural tests were used. During the three-point flexural investigation, the sample was supported at both ends and loaded in the middle, resulting in a flexure. After a specific range of flexure, the sample was fractured. In obtained results, there were no significant differences in the values of the stress determined at the point of maximal load and the energy stored in the samples for proportional stress-strain limit (elastic region). There were also no significant differences in the density of the samples. The study shows that the enrichment of bisphosphonates causes yielding of the bone cement material. In the presented data, we conclude that use of pamidronate implanted in bone cement did not have a detrimental effect on its biomechanical properties. Therefore, the obtained results encouraged us to perform further in vivo experiments which assess the biomechanical properties of bones implanted with BP-enriched bone cement.

  17. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  18. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  19. Asian-specific mitochondrial genome polymorphism (9-bp deletion) in Hungarian patients with mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Pentelenyi, Klara; Remenyi, Viktoria; Gal, Aniko; Milley, Gyorgy Mate; Csosz, Aranka; Mende, Balazs Gusztav; Molnar, Maria Judit

    2016-05-01

    A 9-bp deletion of the mtDNA is known as an anthropological marker of people with East-Asian origin. This 9-bp mtDNA deletion was analyzed in 1073 Hungarians with suspected mitochondrial disease and in 468 healthy control individuals. Fourteen cases with the 9-bp deletion were found in the cohort of mitochondrial patients, and one individual from 468 controls. In six cases the 9-bp deletion was present together with pathogenic major deletions in the mitochondrial genome. In one patient we found a frame shift mutation in the D-loop region, and in another family a pathogenic m.8322 A > G mutation in the tRNA(Lys) gene. Although the 9-bp deletion is common in the populations of the Pacific region and Asia, it is present in the Hungarian population as well. This 9-bp deletion may induce instability of the mtDNA and may provoke the introduction of other pathogenic mutations.

  20. Generation of squeezed light with a monolithic optical parametric oscillator: simultaneous achievement of phase matching and cavity resonance by temperature control.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Nagashima, Koyo; Furusawa, Akira

    2010-09-13

    We generate squeezed state of light at 860 nm with a monolithic optical parametric oscillator. The optical parametric oscillator consists of a periodically poled KTiOPO(4) crystal, both ends of which are spherically polished and mirror-coated. We achieve both phase matching and cavity resonance by controlling only the temperature of the crystal. We observe up to -8.0±0.2 dB of squeezing with the bandwidth of 142 MHz. Our technique makes it possible to drive many monolithic cavities simultaneously by a single laser. Hence our monolithic optical parametric oscillator is quite suitable to continuous-variable quantum information experiments where we need a large number of highly squeezed light beams.

  1. Effectiveness of Music Education for the Improvement of Reading Skills and Academic Achievement in Young Poor Readers: A Pragmatic Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; de Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão; Ploubidis, George B.; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading difficulties. Method 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT) in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114), and five served as controls (n = 121). Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT), and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) estimation method, which took compliance status into account. Results The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]). As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children), more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year). Conclusion The results may be seen as promising, but they are not, in themselves

  2. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Genome integrity is critically dependent on timely DNA replication and accurate chromosome segregation. Replication stress delays replication into G2/M, which in turn impairs proper chromosome segregation and inflicts DNA damage on the daughter cells. Here we show that TopBP1 forms foci upon mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin recruitment of SLX4 and by facilitating unscheduled DNA synthesis. PMID:26283799

  3. Tubulin binding protein, CacyBP/SIP, induces actin polymerization and may link actin and tubulin cytoskeletons.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gabriela; Nieznanski, Krzysztof; Jozwiak, Jolanta; Slomnicki, Lukasz P; Redowicz, Maria J; Filipek, Anna

    2010-11-01

    CacyBP/SIP, originally identified as a S100A6 target, was shown to interact with some other S100 proteins as well as with Siah-1, Skp1, tubulin and ERK1/2 kinases (reviewed in Schneider and Filipek, Amino Acids, 2010). Here, we show that CacyBP/SIP interacts and co-localizes with actin in NB2a cells. Using a zero-length cross-linker we found that both proteins bound directly to each other. Co-sedimentation assays revealed that CacyBP/SIP induced G-actin polymerization and formation of unique circular actin filament bundles. The N-terminal fragment of CacyBP/SIP (residues 1-179) had similar effect on actin polymerization as the entire CacyBP/SIP protein, while the C-terminal one (residues 178-229) had not. To check the influence of CacyBP/SIP on cell morphology as well as on cell adhesion and migration, a stable NIH 3T3 cell line with an increased level of CacyBP/SIP was generated. We found that the adhesion and migration rates of the modified cells were changed in comparison with the control ones. Interestingly, the co-sedimentation and proximity ligation assays indicated that CacyBP/SIP could simultaneously interact with tubulin and actin, suggesting that CacyBP/SIP might link actin and tubulin cytoskeletons.

  4. Characterization of periplasmic protein BP26 epitopes of Brucella melitensis reacting with murine monoclonal and sheep antibodies.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jinlang; Wang, Wenjing; Wu, Jingbo; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yuanzhi; Qiao, Jun; Chen, Chuangfu; Gao, Goege F; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

    2012-01-01

    More than 35,000 new cases of human brucellosis were reported in 2010 by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. An attenuated B. melitensis vaccine M5-90 is currently used for vaccination of sheep and goats in China. In the study, a periplasmic protein BP26 from M5-90 was characterized for its epitope reactivity with mouse monoclonal and sheep antibodies. A total of 29 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against recombinant BP26 (rBP26) were produced, which were tested for reactivity with a panel of BP26 peptides, three truncated rBP26 and native BP26 containing membrane protein extracts (NMP) of B. melitensis M5-90 in ELISA and Western-Blot. The linear, semi-conformational and conformational epitopes from native BP26 were identified. Two linear epitopes recognized by mAbs were revealed by 28 of 16mer overlapping peptides, which were accurately mapped as the core motif of amino acid residues ⁹³DRDLQTGGI¹⁰¹ (position 93 to 101) or residues ¹⁰⁴QPIYVYPD¹¹¹, respectively. The reactivity of linear epitope peptides, rBP26 and NMP was tested with 137 sheep sera by ELISAs, of which the two linear epitopes had 65-70% reactivity and NMP 90% consistent with the results of a combination of two standard serological tests. The results were helpful for evaluating the reactivity of BP26 antigen in M5-90.

  5. SCYL1-BP1 affects cell cycle arrest in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via Cyclin F and RRM2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhi, Qiaoming; Ye, Qin; Zhou, Chengyuan; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Wei; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Di; Li, Pu; Huo, Keke

    2016-01-01

    The cell cycle is regulated via important biological mechanisms. Controlled expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins is crucial to maintain cell cycle progression. However, unbalanced protein expression leads to many diseases, such as cancer. Previous research suggests that SCYL1-BP1 function might be related to cell cycle progression and SCYL1-BP1 dysfunction to diseases through undefined mechanisms. In this research, an unbiased yeast two-hybrid screen was used to find protein(s) with potential biological relevance to SCYL1-BP1 function, and a novel interaction was recognized between SCYL1-BP1 and Cyclin F. This interaction was chosen as a paradigm to study SCYL1-BP1 function in cell cycle progression and its possible role in tumorigenesis. We found that SCYL1-BP1 binds to Cyclin F both in vivo and in vitro. SCYL1-BP1 overexpression promoted expression of the CCNF gene and simultaneously delayed Cyclin F protein degradation. SCYL1-BP1 knockdown reduced the expression of endogenous Cyclin F. It was also demonstrated in functional assays that SCYL1-BP1 overexpression induces G2/M arrest in cultured liver cells. Furthermore, SCYL1-BP1 sustained RRM2 protein expression by reducing its ubiquitination. Thus, we propose that SCYL1- BP1 affects the cell cycle through increasing steady state levels of Cyclin F and RRM2 proteins, thus constituting a dual regulatory circuit. This study provides a possible mechanism for SCYL1-BP1-mediated cell cycle regulation and related diseases.

  6. Asiago spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-16bp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasella, L.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-16bp ( = AT 2016adq), discovered by All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae ASAS-SN (see Shappee et al. 2014, ApJ, 788, 48 and http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~assassin/index.shtml ), in CGCG 336-041 (Atel #8666) The observation was performed with the Asiago 1.82 m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm). Name | Discovery UT | Obs. Date UT |z | Type | Phase |Notes ASASSN-16bp | 20160209.61 | 20160211.11 |0.034194 | Ia | ~10d | (1) (1) Also known as SN2016adq in CGCG 336-041 (z=0.034194, d=145 Mpc, via NED).

  7. Genetic and Morphological Features of Human iPSC-Derived Neurons with Chromosome 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) Deletions

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dhanjit K.; Tapias, Victor; D'Aiuto, Leonardo; Chowdari, Kodavali V.; Francis, Lily; Zhi, Yun; Ghosh, Ayantika; Surti, Urvashi; Tischfield, Jay; Sheldon, Michael; Moore, Jennifer C.; Fish, Ken; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Copy number variation on chromosome 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) causes a deletion of CYFIP1, NIPA1, NIPA2 and TUBGCP5. Furthermore, it also affects brain structure and elevates the risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders that are associated with dendritic spine abnormalities. In rodents, altered cyfip1 expression changes dendritic spine morphology, motivating analyses of human neuronal cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs; iPSC-neurons). Methods iPSCs were generated from a mother and her offspring, both carrying the 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) deletion, and a non-deletion control. Gene expression in the deletion region was estimated using quantitative real-time PCR assays. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and iPSC-neurons were characterized using immunocytochemistry. Results CYFIP1, NIPA1, NIPA2 and TUBGCP5 gene expression was lower in iPSCs, NPCs and iPSC-neurons from the mother and her offspring in relation to control cells. CYFIP1 and PSD-95 protein levels were lower in iPSC-neurons derived from the copy number variant-bearing individuals using Western blot analysis. Ten weeks after differentiation, iPSC-neurons appeared to show dendritic spines, and qualitative analysis suggested that dendritic morphology was altered in 15q11.2-deletion subjects compared with control cells. Conclusions The 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) deletion is associated with a reduced expression of four genes in iPSC-derived neuronal cells; it may also be associated with altered iPSC-neuron dendritic morphology. PMID:26528485

  8. Transgenic Expression of Ad4BP/SF-1 in Fetal Adrenal Progenitor Cells Leads to Ectopic Adrenal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Mohamad; Oka, Sanae; Parker, Keith L.; Morohashi, Ken-ichirou

    2009-01-01

    Deficiency of adrenal 4 binding protein/steroidogenic factor 1 (Ad4BP/SF-1; NR5A1) impairs adrenal development in a dose-dependent manner, whereas overexpression of Ad4BP/SF-1 is associated with adrenocortical tumorigenesis. Despite its essential roles in adrenal development, the mechanism(s) by which Ad4BP/SF-1 regulates this process remain incompletely understood. We previously identified a fetal adrenal enhancer (FAdE) that stimulates Ad4BP/SF-1 expression in the fetal adrenal gland by a two-step mechanism in which homeobox proteins initiate Ad4BP/SF-1 expression, which then maintains FAdE activity in an autoregulatory loop. In the present study, we examined the effect of transgenic expression of Ad4BP/SF-1 controlled by FAdE on adrenal development. When Ad4BP/SF-1 was overexpressed using a FAdE-Ad4BP/SF-1 transgene, FAdE activity expanded outside of its normal field, resulting in increased adrenal size and the formation of ectopic adrenal tissue in the thorax. The increased size of the adrenal gland did not result from a corresponding increase in cell proliferation, suggesting rather that the increased levels of Ad4BP/SF-1 may divert uncommitted precursors to the steroidogenic lineage. The effects of FAdE-controlled Ad4BP/SF-1 overexpression in mice provide a novel model of ectopic adrenal formation that further supports the critical role of Ad4BP/SF-1 in the determination of steroidogenic cell fate in vivo. PMID:19628584

  9. CtBP3/BARS drives membrane fission in dynamin-independent transport pathways.

    PubMed

    Bonazzi, Matteo; Spanò, Stefania; Turacchio, Gabriele; Cericola, Claudia; Valente, Carmen; Colanzi, Antonino; Kweon, Hee Seok; Hsu, Victor W; Polishchuck, Elena V; Polishchuck, Roman S; Sallese, Michele; Pulvirenti, Teodoro; Corda, Daniela; Luini, Alberto

    2005-06-01

    Membrane fission is a fundamental step in membrane transport. So far, the only fission protein machinery that has been implicated in in vivo transport involves dynamin, and functions in several, but not all, transport pathways. Thus, other fission machineries may exist. Here, we report that carboxy-terminal binding protein 3/brefeldin A-ribosylated substrate (CtBP3/BARS) controls fission in basolateral transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane and in fluid-phase endocytosis, whereas dynamin is not involved in these steps. Conversely, CtBP3/BARS protein is inactive in apical transport to the plasma membrane and in receptor-mediated endocytosis, both steps being controlled by dynamin. This indicates that CtBP3/BARS controls membrane fission in endocytic and exocytic transport pathways, distinct from those that require dynamin.

  10. Relationship between Ambulatory BP and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Hypertensive CKD

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahboob; Hu, Bo; Appel, Lawrence J.; Charleston, Jeanne; Contreras, Gabriel; Faulkner, Marquetta L.; Hiremath, Leena; Jamerson, Kenneth A.; Lea, Janice P.; Lipkowitz, Michael S.; Pogue, Velvie A.; Rostand, Stephen G.; Smogorzewski, Miroslaw J.; Wright, Jackson T.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer; Wang, Xuelei; Phillips, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Abnormal ambulatory BP (ABP) profiles are commonplace in CKD, yet the prognostic value of ABP for renal and cardiovascular outcomes is uncertain. This study assessed the relationship of baseline ABP profiles with CKD progression and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes to determine the prognostic value of ABP beyond that of clinic BP measurements. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Between 2002 and 2003, 617 African Americans with hypertensive CKD treated to a clinic BP goal of <130/80 mmHg were enrolled in this prospective, observational study. Participants were followed for a median of 5 years. Primary renal outcome was a composite of doubling of serum creatinine, ESRD, or death. The primary cardiovascular outcome was a composite of myocardial infarction, hospitalized congestive heart failure, stroke, revascularization procedures, cardiovascular death, and ESRD. Results Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that higher 24-hour systolic BP (SBP), daytime, night-time, and clinic SBP were each associated with subsequent renal (hazard ratio, 1.17–1.28; P<0.001) and cardiovascular outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.22–1.32; P<0.001). After controlling for clinic SBP, ABP measures were predictive of renal outcomes in participants with clinic SBP <130 mmHg (P<0.05 for interaction). ABP predicted cardiovascular outcomes with no interaction based on clinic BP control. Conclusions ABP provides additional information beyond that of multiple clinic BP measures in predicting renal and cardiovascular outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive CKD. The primary utility of ABP in these CKD patients was to identify high-risk individuals among those patients with controlled clinic BP. PMID:22935847

  11. RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 targeting of oncogenic transcripts promotes hematopoietic progenitor proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Palanichamy, Jayanth Kumar; Tran, Tiffany M.; Howard, Jonathan M.; Contreras, Jorge R.; Fernando, Thilini R.; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Katzman, Sol; Toloue, Masoud; Yan, Weihong; Sanford, Jeremy R.; Rao, Dinesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranscriptional control of gene expression is important for defining both normal and pathological cellular phenotypes. In vitro, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have recently been shown to play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation; however, the contribution of RBPs to cell specification is not well understood. Here, we determined that the RBP insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) is specifically overexpressed in mixed lineage leukemia–rearranged (MLL-rearranged) B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), which constitutes a subtype of this malignancy associated with poor prognosis and high risk of relapse. IGF2BP3 was required for the survival of B-ALL cell lines, as knockdown led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Enforced expression of IGF2BP3 provided murine BM cells with a strong survival advantage, led to proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and skewed hematopoietic development to the B cell/myeloid lineage. Cross-link immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing uncovered the IGF2BP3-regulated transcriptome, which includes oncogenes MYC and CDK6 as direct targets. IGF2BP3 regulated transcripts via targeting elements within 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTR), and enforced IGF2BP3 expression in mice resulted in enhanced expression of Myc and Cdk6 in BM. Together, our data suggest that IGF2BP3-mediated targeting of oncogenic transcripts may represent a critical pathogenetic mechanism in MLL-rearranged B-ALL and support IGF2BP3 and its cognate RNA-binding partners as potential therapeutic targets in this disease. PMID:26974154

  12. RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 targeting of oncogenic transcripts promotes hematopoietic progenitor proliferation.

    PubMed

    Palanichamy, Jayanth Kumar; Tran, Tiffany M; Howard, Jonathan M; Contreras, Jorge R; Fernando, Thilini R; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Katzman, Sol; Toloue, Masoud; Yan, Weihong; Basso, Giuseppe; Pigazzi, Martina; Sanford, Jeremy R; Rao, Dinesh S

    2016-04-01

    Posttranscriptional control of gene expression is important for defining both normal and pathological cellular phenotypes. In vitro, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have recently been shown to play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation; however, the contribution of RBPs to cell specification is not well understood. Here, we determined that the RBP insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) is specifically overexpressed in mixed lineage leukemia-rearranged (MLL-rearranged) B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), which constitutes a subtype of this malignancy associated with poor prognosis and high risk of relapse. IGF2BP3 was required for the survival of B-ALL cell lines, as knockdown led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Enforced expression of IGF2BP3 provided murine BM cells with a strong survival advantage, led to proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and skewed hematopoietic development to the B cell/myeloid lineage. Cross-link immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing uncovered the IGF2BP3-regulated transcriptome, which includes oncogenes MYC and CDK6 as direct targets. IGF2BP3 regulated transcripts via targeting elements within 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR), and enforced IGF2BP3 expression in mice resulted in enhanced expression of Myc and Cdk6 in BM. Together, our data suggest that IGF2BP3-mediated targeting of oncogenic transcripts may represent a critical pathogenetic mechanism in MLL-rearranged B-ALL and support IGF2BP3 and its cognate RNA-binding partners as potential therapeutic targets in this disease.

  13. Ambulatory BP monitoring and clinic BP in predicting small-for-gestational-age infants during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, K; Ohmaru, T; Ohkuchi, A; Hirashima, C; Takahashi, K; Suzuki, H; Kario, K; Matsubara, S; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2016-01-01

    The significance of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring during pregnancy has not been established. We performed a prospective study to elucidate whether ABP measures are associated with small-for-gestational-age birth weight (SGA). We studied 146 pregnant women who were seen for maternal medical checkups or suspected hypertension. ABP monitoring was performed for further assessment of hypertension. The outcome measure was SGA. The subjects were classified by their medical history and ABP as having preeclampsia or gestational hypertension (n=68 cases), chronic hypertension (n=48) or white-coat hypertension (n=30). There were 50 (34.2%) cases of SGA by the fetal growth reference standard. In multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for age, body mass index, the presence of prior pregnancy, current smoking habit and the use of antihypertensive medications, 24-h SBP (per 10 mm Hg (odds ratio (OR): 1.74; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-2.38; P<0.001)) was more closely associated with SGA than clinic BP (OR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.92-2.13; P=0.11). The results were essentially the same if 24-h BP was replaced by awake or sleep SBP. Ambulatory diastolic BP showed the same tendency. However, abnormal circadian rhythm was not associated with the outcome. In conclusion, ambulatory BP monitoring measures performed during pregnancy were more closely associated with SGA than clinic BP.

  14. Innovative Hypofractionated Stereotactic Regimen Achieves Excellent Local Control with No Radiation Necrosis: Promising Results in the Management of Patients with Small Recurrent Inoperable GBM

    PubMed Central

    Pannullo, Susan C.; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Taube, Shoshana; Chang, Jenghwa; Parashar, Bhupesh; Christos, Paul; Wernicke, A.Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge. Several institutions reported that a single fraction of ≥ 20 Gy for small tumor burden results in excellent local control; however, this is at the expense of a high incidence of radiation necrosis (RN). Therefore, we developed a hypofractionation pattern of 33 Gy/3 fractions, which is a radiobiological equivalent of 20 Gy, with the aim to lower the incidence of RN. We reviewed records of 21 patients with recurrent GBM treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) to their 22 respective lesions. Sixty Gy fractioned external beam radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. Median time from primary irradiation to HFSRT was 9.6 months (range: 3.1 – 68.1 months). In HFSRT, a median dose of 33 Gy in 11 Gy fractions was delivered to the 80% isodose line that encompassed the target volume. The median tumor volume was 1.07 cm3 (range: 0.11 – 16.64 cm3). The median follow-up time after HFSRT was 9.3 months (range: 1.7 – 33.6 months). Twenty-one of 23 lesions treated (91.3%) achieved local control while 2/23 (8.7%) progressed. Median time to progression outside of the treated site was 5.2 months (range: 2.2 – 9.6 months). Progression was treated with salvage chemotherapy. Five of 21 patients (23.8%) were alive at the end of this follow-up; two patients remain disease-free. The remaining 16/21 patients (76.2%) died of disease. Treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no acute CTC/RTOG > Grade 2. There was 0% incidence of RN. A prospective trial will be underway to validate these promising results. PMID:27096136

  15. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of substrate-competitive inhibitors of C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP).

    PubMed

    Korwar, Sudha; Morris, Benjamin L; Parikh, Hardik I; Coover, Robert A; Doughty, Tyler W; Love, Ian M; Hilbert, Brendan J; Royer, William E; Kellogg, Glen E; Grossman, Steven R; Ellis, Keith C

    2016-06-15

    C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) is a transcriptional co-regulator that downregulates the expression of many tumor-suppressor genes. Utilizing a crystal structure of CtBP with its substrate 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB) and NAD(+) as a guide, we have designed, synthesized, and tested a series of small molecule inhibitors of CtBP. From our first round of compounds, we identified 2-(hydroxyimino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid as a potent CtBP inhibitor (IC50=0.24μM). A structure-activity relationship study of this compound further identified the 4-chloro- (IC50=0.18μM) and 3-chloro- (IC50=0.17μM) analogues as additional potent CtBP inhibitors. Evaluation of the hydroxyimine analogues in a short-term cell growth/viability assay showed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-analogues are 2-fold and 4-fold more potent, respectively, than the MTOB control. A functional cellular assay using a CtBP-specific transcriptional readout revealed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-hydroxyimine analogues were able to block CtBP transcriptional repression activity. This data suggests that substrate-competitive inhibition of CtBP dehydrogenase activity is a potential mechanism to reactivate tumor-suppressor gene expression as a therapeutic strategy for cancer.

  16. Differential activation of NF kappa B/RelA-p50 and NF kappa B/p50-p50 in control and alcohol-drinking rats subjected to carrageenin-induced pleurisy.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ashok K; Jiang, Yin

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carrageenin (CAR) injection into the pleural cavity causes local inflammation called carrageenin-induced pleurisy (CAR-IP). Inflammation onset is characterized by an activation of pro-inflammatory NFkappaB, RelA-p50, while inflammation resolution is characterized by an activation of an anti-inflammatory NFkappaB, p50-p50, that re-establishes homeostasis, an essential process for an organism's survival. Although chronic alcohol intake disrupts inflammation, the mechanism behind the development of inflammatory disorder in alcoholics is not yet known. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to study the effects of ethanol intake on CAR-IP and NFkappaB activation in pleural fluid neutrophils in P rats. METHODS: Alcohol-preferring, P rats were given free choice of alcohol (15% ethanol) and water or water alone (for control) for 15 days. Then, each rat was injected with 0.2 ml of 2% CAR into the pleural cavity under light ether anesthesia. At different time intervals after the CAR injection, rats were anesthetized and their blood and pleural fluid samples were collected. Pleural fluid inflammatory cells were identified with Turk's or Wright-Giemsa staining. Different cell types were sorted using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Pleural fluid neutrophils were examined for apoptosis and activation of the two NFkappaB subspecies. RESULTS: In control rats, fluid began to accumulate in the pleural cavity 0.5 h after, which peaked 24 h after, CAR injection. Then, the values declined gradually. The increase in pleural fluid correlated with RelA-p50 activation, while the decline in pleural fluid correlated with p50-p50 activation and apoptosis in neutrophils. In alcohol-drinking rats, pleural fluid remained elevated for up to 6 days after CAR injection. Neutrophils from alcohol-drinking rats exhibited suppressed apoptosis, augmented RelA-p50 activation, and suppressed p50-p50 activation. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol intake prolonged inflammation in P rats. An

  17. [Impaired exercise-induced blood pressure control in patients with Parkinson's disease and related disorders].

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Kazushi

    2013-01-01

    An almost directly proportional increase in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate with exercise intensity has been reported in healthy subjects. In contrast, patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and pure autonomic failure (PAF) characterized by autonomic failure exhibit exercise-induced hypotension (EIH), prolonged hypotension following the cessation of exercise and exaggerated orthostatic hypotension after exercise. EIH, which can be the earliest symptom of PAF, provides a clue to the diagnosis of autonomic failure. Exercise-induced hypertension, which may be due to adrenergic receptor supersensitivity, may also be observed. BP during and after exercise was significantly lower in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) than in healthy subjects. Some PD patients exhibited symptoms related to EIH. PD patients who did not achieve 85% of target HR with treadmill testing lacked BP elevations during sub-maximal and peak exercise. On the other hand, no significant difference was observed in exercise-induced BP elevations between PD patients with and without cardiac sympathetic denervation. Since BP control during exercise in PD was not affected by dosing with levodopa, exercise-related BP abnormalities in PD appear to manifest with the disease. These findings suggest that PD has impaired exercise-induced BP control, but not to the extent of MSA and PAF.

  18. Revisiting G3BP1 as a RasGAP Binding Protein: Sensitization of Tumor Cells to Chemotherapy by the RasGAP 317–326 Sequence Does Not Involve G3BP1

    PubMed Central

    Annibaldi, Alessandro; Dousse, Aline; Martin, Sophie; Tazi, Jamal; Widmann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    RasGAP is a multifunctional protein that controls Ras activity and that is found in chromosomal passenger complexes. It also negatively or positively regulates apoptosis depending on the extent of its cleavage by caspase-3. RasGAP has been reported to bind to G3BP1 (RasGAP SH3-domain-binding protein 1), a protein regulating mRNA stability and stress granule formation. The region of RasGAP (amino acids 317–326) thought to bind to G3BP1 corresponds exactly to the sequence within fragment N2, a caspase-3-generated fragment of RasGAP, that mediates sensitization of tumor cells to genotoxins. While assessing the contribution of G3BP1 in the anti-cancer function of a cell-permeable peptide containing the 317–326 sequence of RasGAP (TAT-RasGAP317–326), we found that, in conditions where G3BP1 and RasGAP bind to known partners, no interaction between G3BP1 and RasGAP could be detected. TAT-RasGAP317–326 did not modulate binding of G3BP1 to USP10, stress granule formation or c-myc mRNA levels. Finally, TAT-RasGAP317–326 was able to sensitize G3BP1 knock-out cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Collectively these results indicate that G3BP1 and its putative RasGAP binding region have no functional influence on each other. Importantly, our data provide arguments against G3BP1 being a genuine RasGAP-binding partner. Hence, G3BP1-mediated signaling may not involve RasGAP. PMID:22205990

  19. Controlled Sculpture of Black Phosphorus Nanoribbons

    DOE PAGES

    Masih Das, Paul; Danda, Gopinath; Cupo, Andrew; ...

    2016-05-18

    Black phosphorus (BP) is a highly anisotropic allotrope of phosphorus with high promise for fast functional electronics and optoelectronics. We demonstrate that high-resolution and controlled structural modification of few-layer BP along arbitrary crystal direction can be achieved with nanometer-scale precision on a few-minute timescales leading to the formation of sub-nm wide armchair and zigzag BP nanoribbons. The nanoribbons are assembled, along with nanopores and nanogaps, using a combination of mechanical-liquid exfoliation and in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning TEM nanosculpting. Here we report time-dependent structural properties of the one-dimensional systems under electron irradiation and probe their oxidation propertiesmore » with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Finally, we demonstrate the use of STEM to controllably narrow and thin the nanoribbons until they break into nanogaps. The observations are rationalized using density functional theory for transition state calculations and electronic band-structure evolution for the various stages of the narrowing procedure. In particular, we predict that the sub- and few-nm wide BP nanoribbons realized experimentally possess clear one-dimensional quantum confinement, even when the systems are made up of a few layers. We find the demonstration of this procedure is key for the development of BP-based electronic, optoelectronic, thermoelectric, and other applications in reduced dimensions.« less

  20. Controlled Sculpture of Black Phosphorus Nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Masih Das, Paul; Danda, Gopinath; Cupo, Andrew; Parkin, William M.; Liang, Liangbo; Kharche, Neerav; Ling, Xi; Huang, Shengxi; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Meunier, Vincent; Drndić, Marija

    2016-05-18

    Black phosphorus (BP) is a highly anisotropic allotrope of phosphorus with high promise for fast functional electronics and optoelectronics. We demonstrate that high-resolution and controlled structural modification of few-layer BP along arbitrary crystal direction can be achieved with nanometer-scale precision on a few-minute timescales leading to the formation of sub-nm wide armchair and zigzag BP nanoribbons. The nanoribbons are assembled, along with nanopores and nanogaps, using a combination of mechanical-liquid exfoliation and in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning TEM nanosculpting. Here we report time-dependent structural properties of the one-dimensional systems under electron irradiation and probe their oxidation properties with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Finally, we demonstrate the use of STEM to controllably narrow and thin the nanoribbons until they break into nanogaps. The observations are rationalized using density functional theory for transition state calculations and electronic band-structure evolution for the various stages of the narrowing procedure. In particular, we predict that the sub- and few-nm wide BP nanoribbons realized experimentally possess clear one-dimensional quantum confinement, even when the systems are made up of a few layers. We find the demonstration of this procedure is key for the development of BP-based electronic, optoelectronic, thermoelectric, and other applications in reduced dimensions.

  1. BpMADS4 has a central role in inflorescence initiation in silver birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Elo, Annakaisa; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Novak, Anu; Keinonen, Kaija; Porali, Ilkka; Hassinen, Minna; Sopanen, Tuomas

    2007-09-01

    Acceleration of flowering would be beneficial for breeding trees with a long juvenile phase; conversely, inhibition of flowering would prevent the spread of transgenes from the genetically modified trees. We have previously isolated and characterized several MADS genes from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). In this study, we investigated the more detailed function of one of them, BpMADS4, a member of the APETALA1/FRUITFULL group of MADS genes. The expression of BpMADS4 starts at very early stage of the male and female inflorescence development and the activity is high in the apex of the developing inflorescence. Later, some expression is detected in the bracts and in the flower initials. Ectopic expression of BpMADS4 accelerates flowering dramatically in normally flowering clones and also in the early-flowering birch clone, in which the earliest line flowered about 11 days after rooting, when the saplings were only 3 cm high. The birches transformed with the BpMADS4 antisense construct showed remarkable delay in flowering and the number of flowering individuals was reduced. Two of the transformed lines did not show any signs of flower development during our 2-year study, whereas all the control plants formed inflorescences within 107 days. Our results show that BpMADS4 has a critical role in the initiation of birch inflorescence development and that BpMADS4 seems to be involved in the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Therefore, BpMADS4 provides a promising tool for the genetic enhancement of forest trees.

  2. Blood Pressure Control in Hypertensive Patients, Cardiovascular Risk Profile and the Prevalence of Masked Uncontrolled Hypertension (MUCH)

    PubMed Central

    Naser, Nabil; Dzubur, Alen; Durak, Azra; Kulic, Mehmed; Naser, Nura

    2016-01-01

    blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed in all recruited patients for at least 24h. Despite the combined medical treatment (78% of the patients), clinic control (<140/90 mmHg) was achieved in only 26.2% of patients, the corresponding control rate for ambulatory BP (<130/80 mmHg) being 32.7%. From 2514 patients with treated BP, we identified 803 with treated and controlled office BP control (<140/90 mmHg), of whom 258 patients (32.1%) had MUCH according to 24-h ABPM criteria (mean age 57.2 years, 54.7% men). The prevalence of MUCH was slightly higher in males, patients with borderline clinic and office BP (130–139/80–89 mmHg), and patients at high cardiovascular risk (smokers, diabetes, obesity). Masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) was most often due to poor control of nocturnal BP, with the proportion of patients in whom MUCH was solely attributable to an elevated nocturnal BP almost double that solely attributable to daytime BP elevation (22.3 vs. 10.1%, P 0.001). Conclusion: The prevalence of masked suboptimal BP control in patients with treated and well-controlled clinic BP is high. The characteristics of patients with MUCH (male, longer duration of hypertension, obesity, smoking history, and diabetes) indicate that this is a higher-risk group with most to gain from improved BP. PMID:27703288

  3. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  4. BP Spill Sampling and Monitoring Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset analyzes waste from the the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Rig Explosion Emergency Response, providing opportunity to query data sets by metadata criteria and find resulting raw datasets in CSV format.The data query tool allows users to download EPA's air, water and sediment sampling and monitoring data that has been collected in response to the BP oil spill. All sampling and monitoring data that has been collected to date is available for download as raw structured data.The query tools enables CSV file creation to be refined based on the following search criteria: date range (between April 28, 2010 and 9/29/2010); location by zip, city, or county; media (solid waste, weathered oil, air, surface water, liquid waste, tar, sediment, water); substance categories (based on media selection) and substances (based on substance category selection).

  5. Chlorophyllin significantly reduces benzo[a]pyrene [BP]-DNA adduct formation and alters Cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1 expression and EROD activity in normal human mammary epithelial cells (NHMECs)

    PubMed Central

    Keshava, Channa; Divi, Rao L.; Einem, Tracey L.; Richardson, Diana L.; Leonard, Sarah L.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Poirier, Miriam C.; Weston, Ainsley

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that chlorophyllin (CHLN) would reduce BP-DNA adduct levels. Using NHMECs exposed to 4 μM BP for 24 hr in the presence or absence of 5 μM CHLN, we measured BP-DNA adducts by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). The protocol included the following experimental groups: BP alone, BP given simultaneously with CHLN (BP+CHLN) for 24 hr, CHLN given for 24 hr followed by BP for 24 hr (preCHLN, postBP), and CHLN given for 48 hr with BP added for the last 24 hr (preCHLN, postBP+CHLN). Incubation with CHLN decreased BPdG levels in all groups, with 87 % inhibition in the preCHLN, postBP+CHLN group. To examine metabolic mechanisms, we monitored expression by Affymetrix microarray (U133A), and found BP-induced up-regulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, as well as up-regulation of groups of interferon-inducible, inflammation and signal transduction genes. Incubation of cells with CHLN and BP in any combination decreased expression of many of these genes. Using real time PCR (RT-PCR) the maximal inhibition of BP-induced gene expression, >85% for CYP1A1 and >70% for CYP1B1, was observed in the preCHLN, postBP+CHLN group. To explore the relationship between transcription and enzyme activity, the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was used to measure the combined CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 activities. BP exposure caused the EROD levels to double, compared to the unexposed controls. The CHLN-exposed groups all showed EROD levels similar to the unexposed controls. Therefore, the addition of CHLN to BP-exposed cells reduced BPdG formation and CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, but EROD activity was not significantly reduced. PMID:19152381

  6. [LDL cholesterol control in patients with very high cardiovascular risk. A simplified algorithm for achieving LDL cholesterol goals "in two steps"].

    PubMed

    Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Galve, Enrique; Cordero-Fort, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Reducing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) is the main lipid goal of treatment for patients with very high cardiovascular risk. In these patients the therapeutic goal is to achieve a LDL-c lower than 70 mg/dL, as recommended by the guidelines for cardiovascular prevention commonly used in Spain and Europe. However, the degree of achieving these objectives in this group of patients is very low. This article describes the prevalence of the problem and the causes that motivate it. Recommendations and tools that can facilitate the design of an optimal treatment strategy for achieving the goals are also given. In addition, a new tool with a simple algorithm that can allow these very high risk patients to achieve the goals "in two-steps", i.e., with only two doctor check-ups, is presented.

  7. Components of the CtBP1/BARS-dependent fission machinery.

    PubMed

    Valente, Carmen; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    The brefeldin A ADP-ribosylated substrate, a member of the C-terminal-binding protein family that is referred to as CtBP1/BARS, is a dual-function protein that acts as a transcriptional co-repressor in the nucleus and as an inducer of membrane fission in the cytoplasm. In this review, we first discuss the mechanisms that enable CtBP1/BARS to shift between the nuclear transcriptional co-repressor and the cytosolic fission-inducing activities. Then, we focus on the role of CtBP1/BARS in membrane fission. CtBP1/BARS controls several fission events including macropinocytosis, fluid-phase endocytosis, COPI-coated vesicle formation, basolaterally directed post-Golgi carrier formation, and Golgi partitioning in mitosis. We report on recent advances in our understanding of the CtBP1/BARS membrane fission machineries that operate at the trans-side and at the cis-side of the Golgi complex. Specifically, we discuss how these machineries are assembled and regulated, and how they operate in the formation of the basolaterally directed post-Golgi carriers.

  8. Waste Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  9. Air Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  10. Air Monitoring Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  11. Surface Water Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  12. Sediment Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  13. Water Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  14. PAK1 and CtBP1 Regulate the Coupling of Neuronal Activity to Muscle Chromatin and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jean-Luc; Ravel-Chapuis, Aymeric; Valente, Carmen; Corda, Daniela; Méjat, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) expression in innervated muscle is limited to the synaptic region. Neuron-induced electrical activity participates in this compartmentalization by promoting the repression of AChR expression in the extrasynaptic regions. Here, we show that the corepressor CtBP1 (C-terminal binding protein 1) is present on the myogenin promoter together with repressive histone marks. shRNA-mediated downregulation of CtBP1 expression is sufficient to derepress myogenin and AChR expression in innervated muscle. Upon denervation, CtBP1 is displaced from the myogenin promoter and relocates to the cytoplasm, while repressive histone marks are replaced by activating ones concomitantly to the activation of myogenin expression. We also observed that upon denervation the p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) expression is upregulated, suggesting that phosphorylation by PAK1 may be involved in the relocation of CtBP1. Indeed, preventing CtBP1 Ser158 phosphorylation induces CtBP1 accumulation in the nuclei and abrogates the activation of myogenin and AChR expression. Altogether, these findings reveal a molecular mechanism to account for the coordinated control of chromatin modifications and muscle gene expression by presynaptic neurons via a PAK1/CtBP1 pathway. PMID:26416879

  15. Palmitoylation regulates plasma membrane–nuclear shuttling of R7BP, a novel membrane anchor for the RGS7 family

    PubMed Central

    Drenan, Ryan M.; Doupnik, Craig A.; Boyle, Maureen P.; Muglia, Louis J.; Huettner, James E.; Linder, Maurine E.; Blumer, Kendall J.

    2005-01-01

    The RGS7 (R7) family of RGS proteins bound to the divergent Gβ subunit Gβ5 is a crucial regulator of G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling in the visual and nervous systems. Here, we identify R7BP, a novel neuronally expressed protein that binds R7–Gβ5 complexes and shuttles them between the plasma membrane and nucleus. Regional expression of R7BP, Gβ5, and R7 isoforms in brain is highly coincident. R7BP is palmitoylated near its COOH terminus, which targets the protein to the plasma membrane. Depalmitoylation of R7BP translocates R7BP–R7–Gβ5 complexes from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. Compared with nonpalmitoylated R7BP, palmitoylated R7BP greatly augments the ability of RGS7 to attenuate GPCR-mediated G protein–regulated inward rectifying potassium channel activation. Thus, by controlling plasma membrane nuclear–shuttling of R7BP–R7–Gβ5 complexes, reversible palmitoylation of R7BP provides a novel mechanism that regulates GPCR signaling and potentially transduces signals directly from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. PMID:15897264

  16. Evaluation of fungal- and photo-degradation as potential treatments for the removal of sunscreens BP3 and BP1.

    PubMed

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Olivares, Alba; Piña, Benjamin; Blánquez, Paqui; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Gloria; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2012-06-15

    Photodecomposition might be regarded as one of the most important abiotic factors affecting the fate of UV absorbing compounds in the environment and photocatalysis has been suggested as an effective method to degrade organic pollutants. However, UV filters transformation appears to be a complex process, barely addressed to date. The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor is considered as a promising alternative to conventional aerobic bacterial degradation, as it is able to metabolise a wide range of xenobiotics. This study focused on both degradation processes of two widely used UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and benzophenone-1 (BP1). Fungal treatment resulted in the degradation of more than 99% for both sunscreens in less than 24 h, whereas photodegradation was very inefficient, especially for BP3, which remained unaltered upon 24 h of simulated sunlight irradiation. Analysis of metabolic compounds generated showed BP1 as a minor by-product of BP3 degradation by T. versicolor while the main intermediate metabolites were glycoconjugate derivatives. BP1 and BP3 showed a weak, but significant estrogenic activity (EC50 values of 0.058 mg/L and 12.5 mg/L, respectively) when tested by recombinant yeast assay (RYA), being BP1 200-folds more estrogenic than BP3. Estrogenic activity was eliminated during T. versicolor degradation of both compounds, showing that none of the resulting metabolites possessed significant estrogenic activity at the concentrations produced. These results demonstrate the suitability of this method to degrade both sunscreen agents and to eliminate estrogenic activity.

  17. Trailer siting issues: BP Texas City.

    PubMed

    Kaszniak, Mark; Holmstrom, Donald

    2008-11-15

    On 23 March, 2005, a series of explosions and fires occurred at the BP Texas City refinery during the startup of an isomerization (ISOM) process unit. Fifteen workers were killed and about 180 others were injured. All of the fatalities were contract workers; the deaths and most of the serious injuries occurred in and around temporary office trailers that had been sited near a blowdown drum and stack open to the atmosphere as part of ongoing turnaround activities in an adjacent unit. Due to problems that developed during the ISOM startup, flammable hydrocarbon liquid overfilled the blowdown drum and stack which resulted in a geyser-like release out the top into the atmosphere. The flammable hydrocarbons fell to the ground releasing vapors that were likely ignited from a nearby idling diesel pickup truck. A total of 44 trailers were damaged by the blast pressure wave that propagated through the refinery when the vapor cloud exploded. Thirteen trailers were totally destroyed and workers were injured in trailers as far as 479ft away from the release. The focus of this paper will be on trailer siting issues, including: need for work/office trailers within process units, adequacy of risk analysis methods in API RP 752, and minimum safe distance requirements

  18. Gender Differences of Neighborhood and Social Control Processes: A Study of the Timing of First Intercourse among Low- Achieving, Urban, African American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Juarez, Lucia

    2002-01-01

    Investigated gender-specific contextual and individual socioeconomic predictors of the timing of first intercourse among low-achieving African American high school students, following financial deprivation and collective socialization theories. Data from 3 years of surveys indicated that males and females were affected differently by social…

  19. Impulse Control and Anxiety Related to School Adjustment and Academic Achievement among High School Males. Final Report: Office of Education Project S-484.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt, Ernest S.

    The author attempts to determine the value of psychometric measures of impulsiveness and anxiety for predicting potential disciplinary problems among high school males. A secondary purpose is to relate these personality factors to academic achievement. Approximately 320 sophomores were administered a psychometric battery which included: (1) an…

  20. Using Learner Controlled Progress-Based Rewards to Promote Motivation and Achievement of At-Risk Students in Managed Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Carlton A.

    2011-01-01

    Technology enhancements of the past two decades have not successfully overcome the problem of low motivation in Kindergarten through Grade 12 (K-12). Motivation and math achievement have been identified as major factors contributing to the high school dropout problem (30-50% in traditional/online programs). The impact of extrinsic rewards on…

  1. Challenges facing the elimination of sleeping sickness in west and central Africa: sustainable control of animal trypanosomiasis as an indispensable approach to achieve the goal.

    PubMed

    Simo, Gustave; Rayaisse, Jean Baptiste

    2015-12-16

    African trypanosomiases are infectious diseases caused by trypanosomes. African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) remains an important threat for livestock production in some affected areas whereas human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is targeted for elimination in 2020. In West and Central Africa, it has been shown that the parasites causing these diseases can coexist in the same tsetse fly or the same animal. In such complex settings, the control of these diseases must be put in the general context of trypanosomiasis control or "one health" concept where the coordination of control operations will be beneficial for both diseases. In this context, implementing control activities on AAT will help to sustain HAT control. It will also have a positive impact on animal health and economic development of the regions. The training of inhabitants on how to implement and sustain vector control tools will enable a long-term sustainability of control operations that will lead to the elimination of HAT and AAT.

  2. IRF2BP2 transcriptional repressor restrains naive CD4 T cell activation and clonal expansion induced by TCR triggering.

    PubMed

    Sécca, Cristiane; Faget, Douglas V; Hanschke, Steffi C; Carneiro, Mayra S; Bonamino, Martin H; de-Araujo-Souza, Patricia S; Viola, João P B

    2016-11-01

    CD4 T cell activation and differentiation mechanisms constitute a complex and intricate signaling network involving several regulatory proteins. IRF2BP2 is a transcriptional repressor that is involved in gene-expression regulation in very diverse biologic contexts. Information regarding the IRF2BP2 regulatory function in CD4 T lymphocytes is very limited and suggests a role for this protein in repressing the expression of different cytokine genes. Here, we showed that Irf2bp2 gene expression was decreased in CD4 T cells upon activation. To investigate the possible regulatory roles for IRF2BP2 in CD4 T cell functions, this protein was ectopically expressed in murine primary-activated CD4 T lymphocytes through retroviral transduction. Interestingly, ectopic expression of IRF2BP2 led to a reduction in CD25 expression and STAT5 phosphorylation, along with an impaired proliferative capacity. The CD69 expression was also diminished in IRF2BP2-overexpressing cells, whereas CD44 and CD62L levels were not altered. In vivo, transferred, IRF2BP2-overexpressing, transduced cells displayed an impaired expansion capacity compared with controls. Furthermore, overexpression of IRF2BP2 in differentiated Th cells resulted in slightly reduced IL-4 and pro-TGF-β production in Th2 and iTregs but had no effect on IFN-γ or IL-17 expression in Th1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Taken together, our data suggest a role for IRF2BP2 in regulating CD4 T cell activation by repressing proliferation and the expression of CD25 and CD69 induced by TCR stimuli.

  3. Characterization of the binding of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to a 4S cytosolic protein

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, W.H.; Zielinski, R.; Bresnick, E.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have recently reported on the partial purification of a 4S binding protein that interacts in a specific and saturable manner with (/sup 3/H)BP and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). They also reported that the 4S binding protein was able to interact in a specific and saturable manner with plasmids collectively containing the rat cytochrome P450c gene. The authors have examined further the (/sup 3/H)BP binding properties of the 4S protein. The specific (/sup 3/H)BP binding activity appears to be highest in 4 week old male rats and declines with age. In some animals the specific (/sup 3/H)BP binding activity is induced after pretreatment with either phenobarbital (BP) or isosafrole (IS) as evidenced by a 75% and 52% increase, respectively, over untreated controls. No apparent increase was observed after pretreatment of animals with 3-methylcholanthracene (3MC). The addition of a 200 fold excess of tetra-chlordibenzofuran (TCDBF) to the incubations did not displace (/sup 3/H)BP from the 4S protein. The addition of molybdate (10 mM) to isolation buffers, known to stabilize certain hormone receptors, did not alter the sedimentation coefficient or the specific binding activity of the 4S protein. The authors conclude that: (1) in the rat, the 4S protein appears to be distinct from the 8S protein reported in the mouse and that: (2) the 4S species regulates the PAH induced expression of AHH activity in the rat.

  4. A global study of the unmet need for glycemic control and predictor factors among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who have achieved optimal fasting plasma glucose control on basal insulin

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Engels; Colagiuri, Stephen; Gaàl, Zsolt; Lavalle, Fernando; Mkrtumyan, Ashot; Nikonova, Elena; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Vidal, Josep; Davies, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This study used data from different sources to identify the extent of the unmet need for postprandial glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after the initiation of basal insulin therapy in Europe, Asia Pacific, the United States, and Latin America. Methods Different levels of evidence were used as available for each country/region, with data extracted from seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), three clinical trial registries (CTRs), and three electronic medical record (EMR) databases. Glycemic status was categorized as “well controlled” (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] at target [<7%]), “residual hyperglycemia” (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] but not HbA1c at target [FPG <7.2/7.8 mmol/L, <130/140 mg/dL, depending on country‐specific recommendations]), or “uncontrolled” (both FPG and HbA1c above target). Predictor factors were identified from the RCT data set using logistic regression analysis. Results RCT data showed that 16.9% to 28.0%, 42.7% to 54.4%, and 16.9% to 38.1% of patients with T2DM had well‐controlled glycemia, residual hyperglycemia, and uncontrolled hyperglycemia, respectively. In CTRs, respective ranges were 21.8% to 33.6%, 31.5% to 35.6%, and 30.7% to 46.8%, and in EMR databases were 4.4% to 21.0%, 23.9% to 31.8%, and 53.6% to 63.8%. Significant predictor factors of residual hyperglycemia identified from RCT data included high baseline HbA1c (all countries/regions except Brazil), high baseline FPG (United Kingdom/Japan), longer duration of diabetes (Brazil), and female sex (Europe/Latin America). Conclusions Irrespective of intrinsic differences between data sources, 24% to 54% of patients with T2DM globally had residual hyperglycemia with HbA1c not at target, despite achieving FPG control, indicating a significant unmet need for postprandial glycemic control. PMID:27606888

  5. Large Scale 7436-bp Deletions in Human Sperm Mitochondrial DNA with Spermatozoa Dysfunction and Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Ambulkar, Prafulla S.; Waghmare, Jwalant E.; Chaudhari, Ajay R.; Wankhede, Vandana R.; Tarnekar, Aaditya M.; Shende, Moreshwar R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA are essential to sperm motility and fertility. It controls growth, development and differentiation through oxidation energy supply. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) deletions or mutation are frequently attributed to defects of sperm motility and finally these deletions lead to sperm dysfunction and causes infertility in male. Aim To investigate the correlation between large scale 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and non-motility of sperm in asthenozoospermia and Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) infertile men. Materials and Methods The present prospective study was carried out in Human Genetic Division, Department of Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram from June 2014 to July 2016. We have studied 110 asthenozoospermia and OAT infertile men whose semen profile indicated abnormal motility and 50 normal fertile controls. Of 110 infertile men, 70 had asthenozoospermia and 40 had OAT. Fractionations of spermatozoa were done in each semen sample on the basis of their motility by percoll gradients discontinuous technique. Long-range PCR was used for detection of 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and was confirmed by primer shift technique. Results Overall eight subjects (8/110; 7.2%) of which six (6/70; 8.57%) asthenozoospermia and two (2/40; 5%) OAT had shown deletions of 7436-bp. In 40% percoll fraction had more non-motile spermatozoa than 80% percoll fraction. The non-motile spermatozoa in 40% percoll fractions showed more mtDNA deletions (7.2%) than the motile spermatozoa in 80% percoll fraction (2.7%). The sequencing of flanking regions of deleted mtDNA confirmed 7436-bp deletions. Interestingly, no deletions were found in control subjects. Conclusion Though, the frequency of 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA was low in infertile cases but meaningful indications were there when results were compared with controls. It is indicated that large scale deletions 7436-bp of mtDNA is associated with abnormal

  6. GCM simulations of the climate of 6 kyr BP: Mean changes and interdecadal variability

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, C.D.; Mitchell, J.F.B.

    1996-12-01

    A simulation of the climate for 6 kyr BP, using the Hadley Centre`s atmospheric GCM with prescribed SSTs is described. The control simulation successfully reproduces the large-scale features of the present-day climate and has realistic atmospheric interannual variability. The anomaly simulation for 6 kyr BP produces a climate with an enhanced Northern Hemisphere seasonal cycle, and, in particular, a strengthened African-Asian summer monsoon. Integrated over the full annual cycle, the land surface of the southern Tropics dries while the northern Tropics get wetter, and the high northern latitudes also dry. The model simulates large regional interdecadal differences in the response at 6 kyr BP highlighting the need to allow for and account for variability on long, that is, at least decadal, timescales. The authors describe the consequences of part of the experimental design employed, whereby the SSTs for the 6 kyr BP simulation are the same as in the control as recommended by the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project, in particular, the potential importance of ocean and sea ice feedbacks. 49 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. EM changes and other toxic effects of firemaster BP-6 (polybrominated biphenyls) in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Corbett, T H; Simmons, J L; Kawanishi, H; Endres, J L

    1978-04-01

    Groups of Swiss ICR mice were fed 1000 ppm polybrominated biphenyls (FireMaster BP-6) in rodent chow for 4, 8, 11, and 14 days. Control groups were fed standard rodent chow without FireMaster BP-6. Animals were killed at the end of each feeding period and the livers examined by electron microscopy. EM changes noted were progressive increase in size of hepatocytes, a decrease in rough endoplasmic reticulum, a marked increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial degeneration, increased lysosomes, and a decrease in glycogen. In addition, there was increasing proliferation of microvilli in bile canaliculi with increasing feeding times. A group of mice fed 1000 ppm FireMaster BP-6 in rodent chow for 11 days had livers with a mean of 13.93% of total body weight as compared with 6.49% for the control group (P=0.02). Tissue distribution following ingestion of 100 ppm FireMaster BP-6 for 14 days was studied. Twelve weeks post-feeding, the tissue concentrations of hexabromobiphenyl in order of highest concentration to lowest were as follows: perithymic fat, perirenal fat, adrenal glands, thymus gland, liver and stomach.

  8. The Influence of Science Process Skills, Logical Thinking Abilities, Attitudes towards Science, and Locus of Control on Science Achievement among Form 4 Students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fah, Lay Yoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of science process skills, logical thinking abilities, attitudes towards science, and locus of control on science achievement among Form 4 students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia. Research findings showed that there were low to moderate, positive but significant…

  9. Impact of a Social-Emotional and Character Development Program on School-Level Indicators of Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, and Disciplinary Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled design. The "Positive Action" Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse…

  10. PVMaT Improvements in the BP Solar Photovoltaic Module Manufacturing Technology: Final Subcontract Report, 4 May 1998 - 30 November 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Shea, S.

    2002-04-01

    This report describes the advancement of BP Solar PV manufacturing technologies in order to design and implement a process that produces polycrystalline silicon PV modules that can be sold profitably for $2.00 per peak watt or less and that increases the production capacity of the Frederick plant to at least 25 megawatts per year. Achieving these major objectives was based on meeting the following specific task goals: (1) Develop a process to produce silicon feedstock from Na2SiF6 that can be sold profitably for less than $15/kilogram in large quantities. Demonstrate the process in a pilot facility. (2) Optimize and improve control of the casting process to increase the process yield by 7% and to improve material quality such that average cell efficiency increases by 4%. (3) Reduce the center-to-center cut distance on the wire saw to less than 450?mm in production, and develop a wire saw process that reduces the consumable costs by at least $0.05/wafer, that does not require organic cleaners, nor result in generation of hazardous waste material. (4) Develop, demonstrate, and implement a cost-effective cell process that produces a minimum average cell efficiency of 15% and improves the cell line electrical yield by 5% when applied to BP Solar cast polycrystalline silicon wafers. (5) Develop and qualify an encapsulation system that meets all technical and reliability requirements and can be laminated and cured in less than 6 minutes. (6) Improve BP Solar's product and materials handling to increase line yield by 3% and reduce handling labor to save $0.05/watt. (6) Improve process measurement and control in the production line to improve yield by 3% and reduce rework by 50%.

  11. Medication Adherence and Blood Pressure Control Among Hypertensive Patients With Coexisting Long-Term Conditions in Primary Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu Ting; Wang, Harry H.X.; Liu, Kirin Q.L.; Lee, Gabrielle K.Y.; Chan, Wai Man; Griffiths, Sian M.; Chen, Ruo Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension is a typical example of long-term disease posing formidable challenges to health care. One goal of antihypertensive therapy is to achieve optimal blood pressure (BP) control and reduce co-occurring chronic conditions (multimorbidity). This study aimed to assess the influence of multimorbidity on medication adherence, and to explore the association between poor BP control and multimorbidity, with implications for hypertension management. A cross-sectional design with multistage sampling was adopted to recruit Chinese hypertensive patients attending general out-patient clinics from 3 geographic regions in Hong Kong. A modified systemic sampling methodology with 1 patient as a sampling unit was used to recruit consecutive samples in each general out-patient clinic. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a standardized protocol. Poor BP control was defined as having systolic BP/diastolic BP ≥130/80 mm Hg for those with diabetes or chronic kidney disease; and ≥140/90 mm Hg for others. Medication adherence was assessed by a validated Chinese version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. A simple unweighted enumeration was adopted to measure the combinations of coexisting long-term conditions. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted with medication adherence and multimorbidity as outcome variables, respectively, after controlling for effects of patient-level covariates. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 47.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 45.4%–49.4%) among a total of 2445 hypertensive patients. The proportion of subjects having 0, 1, and ≥2 additional long-term conditions was 52.6%, 29.1%, and 18.3%, respectively. The overall rate of poor adherence to medication was 46.6%, whereas the rate of suboptimal BP control was 48.7%. Albeit the influence of multimorbidity on medication adherence was not found to be statistically significant, patients with poorly controlled BP were more likely to have multimorbidity

  12. The Effects of Concept Relatedness of Instruction and Locus of Control Orientation on the Meaningful Learning Achievement of High School Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherris, Jacqueline

    Reported is a study of the relationship between degree of concept relatedness of an instructional sequence and a person's locus of control orientation. Locus of control orientation for the 541 high school biology students involved in the study was evaluated as measured by the adult Nowicki-Strickland scale. The experimental instructional treatment…

  13. Expanding the BP1-BP2 15q11.2 Microdeletion Phenotype: Tracheoesophageal Fistula and Congenital Cataracts.

    PubMed

    Wong, D; Johnson, S M; Young, D; Iwamoto, L; Sood, S; Slavin, T P

    2013-01-01

    The proximal q arm of chromosome 15 contains breakpoint regions BP1-BP5 with the classic deletion of BP1-BP3 best known to be associated with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. The region is approximately 500 kb and microdeletions within the BP1-BP2 region have been reported in patients with developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and motor apraxia as well as dysmorphic features including hypertelorism, cleft or narrow palate, ear abnormalities, and recurrent upper airway infections. We report two patients with unique, never-before-reported 15q11.2 BP1-2 microdeletion syndrome findings, one with proximal esophageal atresia and distal tracheoesophageal fistula (type C) and one with congenital cataracts. Cataracts have been described in Prader-Willi syndrome but we could not find any description of cataracts in Angelman syndrome. Esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula have not been reported to our knowledge in either syndrome. A chance exists that both cases are sporadic birth defects; however, the findings of the concomitant microdeletion cannot be overlooked as a possible cause. Based on our review of the literature and the presentation of our patients, we recommend that esophageal atresia and distal tracheoesophageal fistula as well as congenital cataracts be included in the phenotypic spectrum of 15q11.2 BP1-2 microdeletion syndrome.

  14. Dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle: associations with blood pressure in a sample of Australian adults (the Food BP study).

    PubMed

    Khalesi, S; Sharma, S; Irwin, C; Sun, J

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle with blood pressure (BP) in a sample of Australian adults. Adults with normal and high BP were included in a cross-sectional study. Dietary intake data was collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutrition knowledge and lifestyle surveys were included in the questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis followed by cluster analysis. Associations were analysed using logistic regression. Four hundred and seven participants were included. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western; Snack and alcohol; and Balanced. Participants with high BP had a higher intake of Western and a lower intake of Balanced dietary pattern. A significant and higher frequency of discretionary foods and oils consumption, as well as lower nutrition knowledge score and activity frequency, were observed in the high BP group. Regression analysis indicated that the intake of Western and Snack and alcohol dietary patterns increases the likelihood of having high BP by 2.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-4.49) and 2.76 (95% CI: 1.52-5.00), respectively, when nutrition knowledge and lifestyle were controlled for as moderator variables. The likelihood of high BP was not associated with nutrition knowledge, but increased with physical inactivity. This study indicates that poor dietary patterns and inactivity are associated with increases in the likelihood of high BP, and the association is not influenced by nutrition knowledge. These findings indicate the importance of developing public health strategies with an emphasis on improving the dietary patterns of individuals to prevent and control high BP in Australian adults.

  15. The structural basis of modified nucleosome recognition by 53BP1.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Marcus D; Benlekbir, Samir; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Sherker, Alana; Julien, Jean-Philippe; McEwan, Andrea; Noordermeer, Sylvie M; Sicheri, Frank; Rubinstein, John L; Durocher, Daniel

    2016-08-04

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) elicit a histone modification cascade that controls DNA repair. This pathway involves the sequential ubiquitination of histones H1 and H2A by the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168, respectively. RNF168 ubiquitinates H2A on lysine 13 and lysine 15 (refs 7, 8) (yielding H2AK13ub and H2AK15ub, respectively), an event that triggers the recruitment of 53BP1 (also known as TP53BP1) to chromatin flanking DSBs. 53BP1 binds specifically to H2AK15ub-containing nucleosomes through a peptide segment termed the ubiquitination-dependent recruitment motif (UDR), which requires the simultaneous engagement of histone H4 lysine 20 dimethylation (H4K20me2) by its tandem Tudor domain. How 53BP1 interacts with these two histone marks in the nucleosomal context, how it recognizes ubiquitin, and how it discriminates between H2AK13ub and H2AK15ub is unknown. Here we present the electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a dimerized human 53BP1 fragment bound to a H4K20me2-containing and H2AK15ub-containing nucleosome core particle (NCP-ubme) at 4.5 Å resolution. The structure reveals that H4K20me2 and H2AK15ub recognition involves intimate contacts with multiple nucleosomal elements including the acidic patch. Ubiquitin recognition by 53BP1 is unusual and involves the sandwiching of the UDR segment between ubiquitin and the NCP surface. The selectivity for H2AK15ub is imparted by two arginine fingers in the H2A amino-terminal tail, which straddle the nucleosomal DNA and serve to position ubiquitin over the NCP-bound UDR segment. The structure of the complex between NCP-ubme and 53BP1 reveals the basis of 53BP1 recruitment to DSB sites and illuminates how combinations of histone marks and nucleosomal elements cooperate to produce highly specific chromatin responses, such as those elicited following chromosome breaks.

  16. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  17. Tailoring mass drug administration to context: implementation research is critical in achieving equitable progress in the control and elimination of helminth neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Dean, Laura; Page, Samantha; Hawkins, Kate; Stothard, Russell; Thomson, Rachael; Wanji, Samuel; Gyapong, Margaret; Anagbogu, Ifeoma; Molyneux, David; Theobald, Sally

    2016-07-01

    The concept of a technological quick fix or 'magic-bullet' for control and elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) is flawed. NTDs are embedded within complex biological and social systems that are shaped by ecological and political contexts. This commentary emphasises the need for implementation research to address implementation gaps in the control of NTDs. With a specific focus on sub-Saharan Africa and helminth diseases amenable to preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration, we explore the important role of context, programme partnerships and community in achieving equitable and effective NTD control.

  18. Lack of CaBP1/Caldendrin or CaBP2 Leads to Altered Ganglion Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Raunak; Lee, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) form a subfamily of calmodulin-like proteins that were cloned from the retina. CaBP4 and CaBP5 have been shown to be important for normal visual function. Although CaBP1/caldendrin and CaBP2 have been shown to modulate various targets in vitro, it is not known whether they contribute to the transmission of light responses through the retina. Therefore, we generated mice that lack CaBP2 or CaBP1/caldendrin (Cabp2–/– and Cabp1–/–) to test whether these CaBPs are essential for normal retinal function. By immunohistochemistry, the overall morphology of Cabp1–/– and Cabp2–/– retinas and the number of synaptic ribbons appear normal; transmission electron microscopy shows normal tethered ribbon synapses and synaptic vesicles as in wild-type retinas. However, whole-cell patch clamp recordings showed that light responses of retinal ganglion cells of Cabp2–/– and Cabp1–/– mice differ in amplitude and kinetics from those of wild-type mice. We conclude that CaBP1/caldendrin and CaBP2 are not required for normal gross retinal and synapse morphology but are necessary for the proper transmission of light responses through the retina; like other CaBPs, CaBP1/caldendrin and CaBP2 likely act by modulating presynaptic Ca2+-dependent signaling mechanisms. PMID:27822497

  19. Possible enhancement of BP180 autoantibody production by herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Koji; Aoyama, Yumi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Niwa, Haruo; Horio, Ai; Nishio, Eiichi; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-02-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease caused by autoantibodies against type XVII collagen/BP180 (BP180). Although the mechanisms of autoantibody production remain to be elucidated, herpes virus infections have been identified as a possible triggering factor for pemphigus. We report a case of herpes zoster (HZ) having anti-BP180 serum antibodies. The patient developed sudden-onset, tense blisters and edematous erythema on the right anterior chest, shoulder and upper back. Histopathology showed remarkable degeneration of keratinocytes, acantholysis and blister formation with ballooning cells, indicating herpes virus infection. A polymerase chain reaction analysis of varicella zoster virus (VZV) was positive in crusts and effusions from the skin lesions, confirming the definitive diagnosis of HZ. Notably, we found that the patient had anti-BP180 serum antibodies in association with the occurrence of HZ. After successful treatment with valacyclovir hydrochloride for 7 days, the serum levels of anti-BP180 antibodies decreased in accordance with the improvement of skin lesions. These findings suggest that the production of anti-BP180 antibodies could be triggered by the reactivation of VZV.

  20. Epithelial junction formation requires confinement of Cdc42 activity by a novel SH3BP1 complex

    PubMed Central

    Elbediwy, Ahmed; Zihni, Ceniz; Terry, Stephen J.; Clark, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial cell–cell adhesion and morphogenesis require dynamic control of actin-driven membrane remodeling. The Rho guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Cdc42 regulates sequential molecular processes during cell–cell junction formation; hence, mechanisms must exist that inactivate Cdc42 in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. In this paper, we identify SH3BP1, a GTPase-activating protein for Cdc42 and Rac, as a regulator of junction assembly and epithelial morphogenesis using a functional small interfering ribonucleic acid screen. Depletion of SH3BP1 resulted in loss of spatial control of Cdc42 activity, stalled membrane remodeling, and enhanced growth of filopodia. SH3BP1 formed a complex with JACOP/paracingulin, a junctional adaptor, and CD2AP, a scaffolding protein; both were required for normal Cdc42 signaling and junction formation. The filamentous actin–capping protein CapZ also associated with the SH3BP1 complex and was required for control of actin remodeling. Epithelial junction formation and morphogenesis thus require a dual activity complex, containing SH3BP1 and CapZ, that is recruited to sites of active membrane remodeling to guide Cdc42 signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics. PMID:22891260

  1. The effects of chronic achievement motivation and achievement primes on the activation of achievement and fun goals.

    PubMed

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2009-12-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation.

  2. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  3. Research and Development Work Carried out by the Chair of Engineering Geodesy and Measurement and Control Systems, Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography WUT - Thematic Scope and Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Edward; Malarski, Ryszard; Prószyński, Witold; Sadowska, Alicja; Woźniak, Marek; Zaczek-Peplinska, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Geodetic engineering surveys are an important part of the works carried out by the Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw University of Technology. These works concern measurement techniques as well as advanced result analysis methods applied in precise industrial surveys and in processes controlling object's behaviour over time. The thematic scope of research realised by Chair of Engineering Geodesy and Control-Measuring Systems shows that article related to geodetic engineering measurements and geodetic monitoring is carried out with high intensity, resulting in technological advancement and implementation of new or improved measurement solutions and methods of measurement result development.

  4. Blood pressure control and management of very elderly patients with hypertension in primary care settings in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Roca, Gustavo C; Llisterri, Jose L; Prieto-Diaz, Miguel A; Alonso-Moreno, Francisco J; Escobar-Cervantes, Carlos; Pallares-Carratala, Vicente; Valls-Roca, Francisco; Barrios, Vivencio; Banegas, Jose R; Alsina, Diegogonzalez-Segura

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical profile, blood pressure (BP) control rates, therapeutic management and physicians' therapeutic behavior regarding very elderly hypertensive patients. A total of 1540 hypertensive patients 80 years old on antihypertensive therapy and receiving care in primary care settings in Spain were included in this cross-sectional study. The mean patient age was 83.4±3.1 years, 61.9% of patients were women and 49.3% of patients had cardiovascular disease. Of the patients, 27.7% were on monotherapy and 72.3% were on combined therapy (47.4% on two antihypertensive agents and 24.9% on three or more antihypertensive agents). A total of 40.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 38.4-43.3%) of patients achieved BP goals (<140/90 mm Hg; <130/80 in patients with diabetes, chronic renal disease or cardiovascular disease). Patients with uncontrolled BP were more likely to have metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, a history of cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, renal disease and stroke and were more frequently smokers. Physicians modified the antihypertensive regimens for 27.4% (95% CI: 23.9-30.8%) of the patients with uncontrolled BP, and the addition of another antihypertensive agent was the most frequent modification. With regard to the physicians' perception of patients' BP control, the BPs of 44.1% of the patients with uncontrolled BP were considered well controlled by the physicians.

  5. Rapid Copper Metallization of Textile Materials: a Controlled Two-Step Route to Achieve User-Defined Patterns under Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Guan, Guijian; Jiang, Shan; Guo, Hongchen; Xia, Jing; Regulacio, Michelle D; Wu, Mingda; Shah, Kwok Wei; Dong, Zhili; Zhang, Jie; Han, Ming-Yong

    2015-09-30

    Throughout history earth-abundant copper has been incorporated into textiles and it still caters to various needs in modern society. In this paper, we present a two-step copper metallization strategy to realize sequentially nondiffusive copper(II) patterning and rapid copper deposition on various textile materials, including cotton, polyester, nylon, and their mixtures. A new, cost-effective formulation is designed to minimize the copper pattern migration on textiles and to achieve user-defined copper patterns. The metallized copper is found to be very adhesive and stable against washing and oxidation. Furthermore, the copper-metallized textile exhibits excellent electrical conductivity that is ~3 times better than that of stainless steel and also inhibits the growth of bacteria effectively. This new copper metallization approach holds great promise as a commercially viable method to metallize an insulating textile, opening up research avenues for wearable electronics and functional garments.

  6. Association of an HLA-G 14-bp Insertion/Deletion polymorphism with high HBV replication in chronic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Laaribi, A B; Zidi, I; Hannachi, N; Ben Yahia, H; Chaouch, H; Bortolotti, D; Zidi, N; Letaief, A; Yacoub, S; Boudabous, A; Rizzo, R; Boukadida, J

    2015-10-01

    Identification of an HLA-G 14-bp Insertion/Deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphism at the 3' untranslated region of HLA-G revealed its importance in HLA-G mRNA stability and HLA-G protein level variation. We evaluated the association between the HLA-G 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism in patients with chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a case-control study. Genomic DNA was extracted from 263 patients with chronic HBV hepatitis and 246 control subjects and was examined for the HLA-G 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism by PCR. The polymorphic variants were genotyped in chronic HBV seropositive cases stratified according to HBV DNA levels, fibrosis stages and in a control population. There was no statistical significant association between the 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism and increased susceptibility to HBV infection neither for alleles (P = 0.09) nor for genotypes (P = 0.18). The stratification of HBV patients based on HBV DNA levels revealed an association between the 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism and an enhanced HBV activity with high HBV DNA levels. In particular, the Ins allele was significantly associated with high HBV DNA levels (P = 0.0024, OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.2-2.4). The genotype Ins/Ins was associated with a 2.5-fold (95% CI, 1.29-4.88) increased risk of susceptibility to high HBV replication compared with the Del/Del and Ins/Del genotypes. This susceptibility is linked to the presence of two Ins alleles. No association was observed between the 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism and fibrosis stage of HBV infection. We observed an association between the 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism and high HBV replication characterized by high HBV DNA levels in chronic HBV patients. These results suggest a potential prognostic value for disease outcome evaluation.

  7. How many clinic BP readings are needed to predict cardiovascular events as accurately as ambulatory BP monitoring?

    PubMed

    Eguchi, K; Hoshide, S; Shimada, K; Kario, K

    2014-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that multiple clinic blood pressure (BP) readings over an extended baseline period would be as predictive as ambulatory BP (ABP) for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clinic and ABP monitoring were performed in 457 hypertensive patients at baseline. Clinic BP was measured monthly and the means of the first 3, 5 and 10 clinic BP readings were taken as the multiple clinic BP readings. The subjects were followed up, and stroke, HARD CVD, and ALL CVD events were determined as outcomes. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, ambulatory systolic BP (SBP) best predicted three outcomes independently of baseline and multiple clinic SBP readings. The mean of 10 clinic SBP readings predicted stroke (hazards ratio (HR)=1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02-1.90, P=0.04) and ALL CVD (HR=1.41, 95% CI=1.13-1.74, P=0.002) independently of baseline clinic SBP. Clinic SBPs by three and five readings were not associated with any CVD events, except that clinic SBP by three readings was associated with ALL CVD (P=0.015). Besides ABP values, the mean of the first 10 clinic SBP values was a significant predictor of stroke and ALL CVD events. It is important to take more than several clinic BP readings early after the baseline period for the risk stratification of future CVD events.

  8. Inhibition of 4E-BP1 Sensitizes U87 Glioblastoma Xenograft Tumors to Irradiation by Decreasing Hypoxia Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, Ludwig; Magagnin, Michael G.; Cleven, Arjen H.G.; Weppler, Sherry A.; Grenacher, Beat; Landuyt, Willy; Lieuwes, Natasja; Lambin, Philippe; Gorr, Thomas A.; Koritzinsky, Marianne

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is an essential rate-limiting factor for cap-dependent translation in eukaryotic cells. Elevated eIF4E activity is common in many human tumors and is associated with disease progression. The growth-promoting effects of eIF4E are in turn negatively regulated by 4E-BP1. However, although 4E-BP1 harbors anti-growth activity, its expression is paradoxically elevated in some tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional role of 4E-BP1 in the context of solid tumors. Methods and Materials: In vitro and in vivo growth properties, hypoxia tolerance, and response to radiation were assessed for HeLa and U87 cells, after stable expression of shRNA specific for 4E-BP1. Results: We found that loss of 4E-BP1 expression did not significantly alter in vitro growth but did accelerate the growth of U87 tumor xenografts, consistent with the growth-promoting function of deregulated eIF4E. However, cells lacking 4E-BP1 were significantly more sensitive to hypoxia-induced cell death in vitro. Furthermore, 4E-BP1 knockdown cells produced tumors more sensitive to radiation because of a reduction in the viable fraction of radioresistant hypoxic cells. Decreased hypoxia tolerance in the 4E-BP1 knockdown tumors was evident by increased cleaved caspase-3 levels and was associated with a reduction in adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Conclusions: Our results suggest that although tumors often demonstrate increases in cap-dependent translation, regulation of this activity is required to facilitate energy conservation, hypoxia tolerance, and tumor radioresistance. Furthermore, we suggest that targeting translational control may be an effective way to target hypoxic cells and radioresistance in metabolically hyperactive tumors.

  9. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  10. Examining the Motivational Impact of Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Framing and Autonomy-Supportive Versus Internally Controlling Communication Style on Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Matos, Lennia

    2005-01-01

    The present experimental research examined whether framing early adolescents' (11- to 12-year-olds) learning activity in terms of the attainment of an extrinsic (i.e., physical attractiveness) versus intrinsic (i.e., health) goal and communicating these different goal contents in an internally controlling versus autonomy-supportive way affect…

  11. Effects of Learning Approaches, Locus of Control, Socio-Economic Status and Self-Efficacy on Academic Achievement: A Turkish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suphi, Nilgun; Yaratan, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…

  12. Controlled Drawing Observation for Assessing a Child's Readiness for School and Predicting Academic Achievement at the End of the First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidkind, Pille; Kikas, Eve; Henno, Helen; Peets, Terje

    2011-01-01

    Controlled Drawing Observation (CDO) was developed by Tove Krogh and it has been used in Denmark, Finland and Estonia for assessing a child's readiness for school. CDO is a group test, it gives information about a child's functioning in an educational setting and it serves as a starting point for later individual assessment. The goal of the study…

  13. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  14. Protein phosphatase PPM1G regulates protein translation and cell growth by dephosphorylating 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianyu; Stevens, Payton D; Eshleman, Nichole E; Gao, Tianyan

    2013-08-09

    Protein translation initiation is a tightly controlled process responding to nutrient availability and mitogen stimulation. Serving as one of the most important negative regulators of protein translation, 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) binds to translation initiation factor 4E and inhibits cap-dependent translation in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Although it has been demonstrated previously that the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 is controlled by mammalian target of rapamycin in the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, the mechanism underlying the dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1 remains elusive. Here, we report the identification of PPM1G as the phosphatase of 4E-BP1. A coimmunoprecipitation experiment reveals that PPM1G binds to 4E-BP1 in cells and that purified PPM1G dephosphorylates 4E-BP1 in vitro. Knockdown of PPM1G in 293E and colon cancer HCT116 cells results in an increase in the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 at both the Thr-37/46 and Ser-65 sites. Furthermore, the time course of 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation induced by amino acid starvation or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition is slowed down significantly in PPM1G knockdown cells. Functionally, the amount of 4E-BP1 bound to the cap-dependent translation initiation complex is decreased when the expression of PPM1G is depleted. As a result, the rate of cap-dependent translation, cell size, and protein content are increased in PPM1G knockdown cells. Taken together, our study has identified protein phosphatase PPM1G as a novel regulator of cap-dependent protein translation by negatively controlling the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1.

  15. Evaluation of the Specificity of BP3385 for Bordetella pertussis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BP3385 has been proposed as a diagnostic PCR target for discriminating between Bordetella pertussis and other Bordetella species that also infect humans. Our results demonstrate this gene is also present in some strains of Bordetella hinzii and Bordetella bronchiseptica....

  16. The potential role of CacyBP/SIP in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Yang; Wang, Xiaosu; Li, Qiaoneng; Sun, Shiren

    2016-08-01

    Calcyclin-binding protein/Siah-1-interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP) was initially described as a binding partner of S100A6 in the Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and later as a Siah-1-interacting protein. This 30 kDa protein includes three domains and is involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and transcriptional regulation via binding to various proteins. Studies have also shown that the CacyBP/SIP is a critical protein in tumorigenesis. But, its promotion or suppression of cancer progression may depend on the cell type. In this review, the biological characteristics and target proteins of CacyBP/SIP have been described. Moreover, the exact role of CacyBP/SIP in various cancers is discussed.

  17. The effects of the L/N-type calcium channel blocker (cilnidipine) on sympathetic hyperactive morning hypertension: results from ACHIEVE-ONE.

    PubMed

    Kario, Kazuomi; Ando, Shin-ichi; Kido, Hidenori; Nariyama, Jin; Takiuchi, Shin; Yagi, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Toshiki; Eguchi, Kazuo; Ohno, Minoru; Kinoshita, Osamu; Yamada, Takahisa

    2013-02-01

    The Ambulatory Blood Pressure Control and Home Blood Pressure (Morning and Evening) Lowering By N-Channel Blocker Cilnidipine (ACHIEVE-ONE) trial is a large-scale clinical study on blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate (PR) in the real world with use of cilnidipine, a unique L/N-type Ca channel blocker, possessing a suppressive action on increased sympathetic activity in patients with essential hypertension. The effects of cilnidipine on morning hypertension were examined. The authors examined 2319 patients treated with cilnidipine for 12 weeks. Clinic systolic BP (SBP) decreased by 19.6 mm Hg from 155.0 mm Hg, whereas morning SBP decreased by 17.0 mm Hg from 152.9 mm Hg after 12-week cilnidipine treatment. Cilnidipine reduced both morning SBP and PR more markedly in patients with higher baseline morning SBP (-3.2 mm Hg and -1.3 beats per minute in the first quartile of morning SBP, -30.9 mm Hg and -3.2 beats per minute in the fourth quartile), and also reduced both morning PR and SBP more markedly in patients with higher baseline morning PR (0.6 beats per minute and -15.6 mm Hg in <70 beats per minute, and -9.7 beats per minute and -20.2 mm Hg in ≥85 beats per minute). Cilnidipine significantly reduced BP and PR in hypertensive patients at the clinic and at home, especially with higher BP and PR in the morning.

  18. RMB Exchange Rate Forecast Approach Based on BP Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Sun

    RMB exchange rate system has reformed since July, 2005. This article chose RMB exchange rate data during a period from July, 2005 to September 2010 to establish BP neural network model to forecast RMB exchange rate in the future by using MATLAB software. The result showed that BP neural network is effective to forecast RMB exchange rate and also indicated that RMB exchange rate will continue to appreciate in the future.

  19. Achievements and Challenges upon the Implementation of a Program for National Control of Congenital Chagas in Bolivia: Results 2004–2009

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Vega, Cristina; Billot, Claire; Torrico, Faustino

    2013-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the most endemic countries for Chagas disease. Data of 2005 shows that incidence is around 1.09‰ inhabitants and seroprevalence in children under 15 ranged from 10% in urban areas to 40% in rural areas. In this article, we report results obtained during the implementation of the congenital Chagas program, one of the biggest casuistry in congenital Chagas disease, led by National Program of Chagas and Belgian cooperation from 2004 to 2009. The program strategy was based on serological results during pregnancy and on the follow up of children born from positive mothers until one year old; if positive, treatment was done with Benznidazole, 10 mg/Kg/day/30 days with one post treatment control 6 months later. Throughout the length of the program, a total of 318,479 pregnant women were screened and 23.31% were detected positive. 42,538 children born from positive mothers were analyzed at birth by micromethod, of which 1.43% read positive. 10,120 children returned for their second micromethod control of which 2.29% read positive, 7,650 children returned for the serological control, of which 3.32% turned out positive. From the 1,093 positive children, 70% completed the 30 day-treatment and 122 returned for post treatment control with 96% showing a negative result. It has been seen that maternal-fetal transmission rates vary between 2% and 4%, with an average of 2.6% (about half of previously reported studies that reached 5%). In this work, we show that it is possible to implement, with limited resources, a National Congenital Chagas Program and to integrate it into the Bolivian health system. Keys of success are population awareness, health personnel motivation, and political commitment at all levels. PMID:23875039

  20. Rasputin, more promiscuous than ever: a review of G3BP.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Katharine; Stirling, Renee; Hume, David; Kennedy, Derek

    2004-12-01

    In this review, we highlight what G3BP's domain structure initially suggested; that G3BPs are "scaffolding" proteins linking signal transduction to RNA metabolism. Whilst it is most attractive to hypothesise about G3BP's role in signalling to mRNA metabolism, it is not known whether all G3BP functions impinge on their RNA-binding activities, so any theories are naturally subject to this qualification. It is hypothesised that, in coordination with an array of other proteins, G3BP, in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, is involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of a subset of mRNAs, at least some of which are in common with those regulated by Hu proteins. These transcripts, partially controlled at the post-transcriptional level by G3BPs, code for proteins important in transcription (e.g. c-Myc) and cytoskeletal arrangement (e.g. Tau), amongst other as yet undetermined pathways. The subtle differences between G3BP family members could dictate binding to a variety of signalling proteins, so each of the G3BPs may participate in different, though possibly related mRNPs, which are assembled in response to different stimuli. The combinatorial nature of the mRNP complex offers a powerful means of regulating gene expression, beyond that provided by a simple mRNA sequence. The ways in which mRNP flexibility and specificity may be harnessed to coordinate gene expression of functionally or structurally related mRNAs are not yet fully appreciated. Characterising mRNP composition and the function/s of mRNP components, such as the G3BPs, will aid in the understanding of how post-transcriptional mechanisms contribute to the global regulation of gene expression.

  1. Two-dimensional cartography of equine beta-casein variants achieved by isolation of phosphorylation isoforms and control of the deamidation phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Matéos, A; Girardet, J-M; Mollé, D; Dary, A; Miclo, L; Gaillard, J-L

    2009-06-01

    Because of variable degrees of phosphorylation, alternative splicing, and probable instability resulting from nonenzymatic deamidation, equine beta-casein presents a complex pattern by 2-dimensional electrophoresis that needs clarification. beta-Casein prepared from Haflinger mare's milk by hydrophobic interaction chromatography was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography according to the degree of phosphorylation. Isoforms were identified by mass spectrometry; they corresponded to the full-length protein having 3 to 7 phosphate groups and to the splicing variant involving exon 5 and containing 4 to 7 phosphate groups. Investigations of nonenzymatic deamidation showed that beta-casein did not deamidate spontaneously in stored milk and during the different steps of chromatography, but deamidation could occur when 2-dimensional electrophoresis was performed, increasing the beta-casein pattern complexity. This phenomenon was strongly minimized when the first dimension step was carried out at 10 degrees C instead of at room temperature. Finally, spot attribution on 2-dimensional pattern of beta-casein was achieved by mixing each phosphorylation isoform in its native state with the whole beta-casein fraction.

  2. Black Phosphorus (BP) Nanodots for Potential Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Uk; Park, So Young; Lee, Soon Chang; Choi, Saehae; Seo, Soonjoo; Kim, Hyeran; Won, Jonghan; Choi, Kyuseok; Kang, Kyoung Suk; Park, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Hee-Sik; An, Ha Rim; Jeong, Kwang-Hun; Lee, Young-Chul; Lee, Jouhahn

    2016-01-13

    Recently, the appeal of 2D black phosphorus (BP) has been rising due to its unique optical and electronic properties with a tunable band gap (≈0.3-1.5 eV). While numerous research efforts have recently been devoted to nano- and optoelectronic applications of BP, no attention has been paid to promising medical applications. In this article, the preparation of BP-nanodots of a few nm to <20 nm with an average diameter of ≈10 nm and height of ≈8.7 nm is reported by a modified ultrasonication-assisted solution method. Stable formation of nontoxic phosphates and phosphonates from BP crystals with exposure in water or air is observed. As for the BP-nanodot crystals' stability (ionization and persistence of fluorescent intensity) in aqueous solution, after 10 d, ≈80% at 1.5 mg mL(-1) are degraded (i.e., ionized) in phosphate buffered saline. They showed no or little cytotoxic cell-viability effects in vitro involving blue- and green-fluorescence cell imaging. Thus, BP-nanodots can be considered a promising agent for drug delivery or cellular tracking systems.

  3. Speech recognition method based on genetic vector quantization and BP neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li'ai; Li, Lihua; Zhou, Jian; Zhao, Qiuxia

    2009-07-01

    Vector Quantization is one of popular codebook design methods for speech recognition at present. In the process of codebook design, traditional LBG algorithm owns the advantage of fast convergence, but it is easy to get the local optimal result and be influenced by initial codebook. According to the understanding that Genetic Algorithm has the capability of getting the global optimal result, this paper proposes a hybrid clustering method GA-L based on Genetic Algorithm and LBG algorithm to improve the codebook.. Then using genetic neural networks for speech recognition. consequently search a global optimization codebook of the training vector space. The experiments show that neural network identification method based on genetic algorithm can extricate from its local maximum value and the initial restrictions, it can show superior to the standard genetic algorithm and BP neural network algorithm from various sources, and the genetic BP neural networks has a higher recognition rate and the unique application advantages than the general BP neural network in the same GA-VQ codebook, it can achieve a win-win situation in the time and efficiency.

  4. Association between sHLA-G and HLA-G 14-bp deletion/insertion polymorphism in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Zidi, Inès; Ben Yahia, Hamza; Bortolotti, Daria; Mouelhi, Leila; Laaribi, Ahmed Baligh; Ayadi, Shema; Zidi, Nour; Houissa, Fatma; Debbech, Radhouane; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Najjar, Taoufik; Di Luca, Dario; Rizzo, Roberta

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the HLA-G 14-bp deletion/insertion (Del/Ins) polymorphism and soluble (s) HLA-G production in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). We analyzed also the sHLA-G molecules by ELISA and western blot in plasma samples. Among unselected patients, the 14-bp Del/Ins polymorphism was not significantly associated with increased CD risk neither for alleles (P = 0.371) nor for genotypes (P = 0.625). However, a significant association was reported between the 14-bp Del/Ins polymorphism and CD, in particular in young-onset CD patients for alleles [P = 0.020, odds ratio (OR) = 2.438, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-5.25] but not with adult-onset CD patients. A significant association was reported concerning the genotype Ins/Ins for young-onset CD patients (P = 0.029, OR = 3.257, 95% CI: 1.08-9.77). We observed also a significant increase in sHLA-G measured by ELISA in CD patients compared to controls (P = 0.002). The 14-bp Del/Del and 14-bp Del/Ins genotypes are the high HLA-G producers. Among sHLA-G(positive) patients, 43% of subjects present dimers of HLA-G. The presence of dimers seems to be related to the advanced stages of the disease. The 14-bp Del/Ins polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of CD particularly in young-onset CD patients and controls sHLA-G plasma levels. Dimers of sHLA-G are frequent in advanced disease stages. The above findings indicate that the genetic 14-bp Del/Ins polymorphism in exon 8 of the HLA-G gene is associated with the risk of CD and suggest a role for sHLA-G as a prognostic marker for progressive disease.

  5. RNAi of the translation inhibition gene 4E-BP identified from the hard tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, affects lipid storage during the off-host starvation period of ticks.

    PubMed

    Kume, Aiko; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Takazawa, Yuko; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2012-08-01

    4E-BP, an eIF4E-binding protein, is well known as a cap-dependent translation inhibitor. Here, the 4E-BP homolog, Hl4E-BP, was isolated and identified from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. Hl4E-BP transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in the active stages, including the larvae, nymphs, and female adults, and the transcription levels were found to be higher in unfed than engorged ticks. In contrast, the expression levels of non-phosphorylated Hl4E-BP, which is a 13.4-kDa protein detected by the anti-recombinant Hl4E-BP antibody, were the highest in engorged ticks and significantly decreased progressively during the unfed starvation period of ticks. The functional role of Hl4E-BP as a metabolic brake was verified by histochemical observations on the lipid storage in midguts and fat bodies during the starvation period using ticks injected with dsHl4E-BP. The results indicate that Hl4E-BP is highly relevant to the lipid storage of ticks during the non-feeding starvation period. Our results suggest, for the first time, that Hl4E-BP may have a crucial role in the starvation resistance of ticks in an off-host condition via lipid metabolism control, although it was unclear whether Hl4E-BP might be involved in lipid synthesis regulation and/or lipid consumption inhibition.

  6. Telemonitoring and Protocolized Case Management for Hypertensive Community-Dwelling Seniors With Diabetes: Protocol of the TECHNOMED Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, Finlay Aleck; Wood, Peter William; Boulanger, Pierre; Fradette, Miriam; Klarenbach, Scott; Edwards, Alun L; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna M; Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram; Rabi, Doreen; Majumdar, Sumit Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes and hypertension are devastating, deadly, and costly conditions that are very common in seniors. Controlling hypertension in seniors with diabetes dramatically reduces hypertension-related complications. However, blood pressure (BP) must be lowered carefully because seniors are also susceptible to low BP and attendant harms. Achieving “optimal BP control” (ie, avoiding both undertreatment and overtreatment) is the ultimate therapeutic goal in such patients. Regular BP monitoring is required to achieve this goal. BP monitoring at home is cheap, convenient, widely used, and guideline endorsed. However, major barriers prevent proper use. These may be overcome through use of BP telemonitoring—the secure teletransmission of BP readings to a health portal, where BP data are summarized for provider and patient use, with or without protocolized case management. Objective To examine the incremental effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness, usability, and acceptability of home BP telemonitoring, used with or without protocolized case management, compared with “enhanced usual care” in community-dwelling seniors with diabetes and hypertension. Methods A 300-patient, 3-arm, pragmatic randomized controlled trial with blinded outcome ascertainment will be performed in seniors with diabetes and hypertension living independently in seniors’ residences in greater Edmonton. Consenting patients will be randomized to usual care, home BP telemonitoring alone, or home BP telemonitoring plus protocolized pharmacist case management. Usual care subjects will receive a home BP monitor but neither they nor their providers will have access to teletransmitted data. In both telemonitored arms, providers will receive telemonitored BP data summaries. In the case management arm, pharmacist case managers will be responsible for reviewing teletransmitted data and initiating guideline-concordant and protocolized changes in BP management. Results Outcomes will be

  7. Polyphenolic drug composition based on benzenepolycarboxylic acids (BP-C3) increases life span and inhibits spontaneous tumorigenesis in female SHR mice

    PubMed Central

    Anisimov, Vladimir N.; Popovich, Irina G.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Yurova, Maria N.; Tyndyk, Margarita L.; Anikin, Ivan V.; Egormin, Peter A.; Baldueva, Irina A.; Fedoros, Elena I.; Pigarev, Sergey E.; Panchenko, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of long-term application of novel polyphenolic composition BP-C3, containing polyphenolic benzenepolycarboxylic acids, vitamins and minerals on some biomarkers of aging, life span and spontaneous tumorigenesis has been studied in female SHR mice. Administration of BP-C3 with drinking water (0.005%) did not exert any toxic effect (did not have effect on general condition of animals, weight dynamics and consumption of food), postponed age-related switch-off of estrous function, caused slight reduction of body temperature. An increased survival was observed in mice treated with BP-C3 (p=0.00164, log rank test). BP-C3 increased mean lifespan – by 8.4%, lifespan of the last 10% of animals – by 12.4%, and life span of tumor-free mice – by 11.6%. A tendency in ability of BP-C3 to inhibit development of spontaneous tumors in mice was detected, though it did not reach the level of statistical significance (p=0.166, log rank test). The number of malignant mammary tumors was 1.5 times less and total number of tumors of various localizations was 1.6 times less in BP-C3 treated animals. Multiple tumors were registered in 8% of mice in the control group and no cases – in BP-C3 treated group. Thus, BP-C3 demonstrated some anti-carcinogenic and a pronounced geroprotective activity. PMID:27574962

  8. Design and fabrication of a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction based nonvolatile programmable switch achieving 40% less area using shared-control transistor structure

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, D.; Natsui, M.; Mochizuki, A.; Miura, S.; Honjo, H.; Kinoshita, K.; Fukami, S.; Sato, H.; Ikeda, S.; Endoh, T.; Ohno, H.; Hanyu, T.

    2014-01-01

    A compact nonvolatile programmable switch (NVPS) using 90 nm CMOS technology together with perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (p-MTJ) devices is fabricated for zero-standby-power field-programmable gate array. Because routing information does not change once it is programmed into an NVPS, high-speed read and write accesses are not required and a write-control transistor can be shared among all the NVPSs, which greatly simplifies structure of the NVPS. In fact, the effective area of the proposed NVPS is reduced by 40% compared to that of a conventional MTJ-based NVPS. The instant on/off behavior without external nonvolatile memory access is also demonstrated using the fabricated test chip. PMID:24753634

  9. Two syringe spinal anesthesia technique for cesarean section: A controlled randomized study of a simple way to achieve more satisfactory block and less hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Keera, Amr Aly Ismail; Elnabtity, Ali Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple trials have been tried to prevent hypotension during spinal anesthesia. However, the drug choice and mode of administration is still a matter of debate. Objectives: To compare the outcome of spinal injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine and fentanyl separately to standard injection of mixed fentanyl with hyperbaric bupivacaine. Settings and Design: A randomized, controlled clinical trial. Patients and Methods: One hundred twenty-four parturient scheduled for elective cesarean section were randomly allocated into two groups, each 62 parturient: Group M received spinal anesthesia using 10 mg bupivacaine 0.5% premixed with 25 μg fentanyl in the same syringe and Group S received 25 μg fentanyl in one syringe and 10 mg bupivacaine 0.5% without barbotage in a second syringe. Results: Patients with intraoperative pain that was controllable without the need for a shift to general anesthesia was significantly lower in Group S (3.2%) than in Group M (16.1%). The frequency of hypotension was significantly lower in Group S compared to Group M (P < 0.05). Time till the onset of sensory block was nonsignificantly shorter with nonsignificantly higher mean level of maximal sensory block in Group S compared to Group M (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the time till occurrence of hypotension, duration of hypotension, mean dose of ephedrine used for the treatment of hypotension and frequency of patients developed itching between the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Separate intrathecal injection of fentanyl and hyperbaric bupivacaine provided a significant improvement in the quality of sensory block and significant reduction of the frequency of hypotension compared to injection of mixed medications. PMID:27212767

  10. Achieving high coverage of larval-stage mosquito surveillance: challenges for a community-based mosquito control programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Preventing malaria by controlling mosquitoes in their larval stages requires regular sensitive monitoring of vector populations and intervention coverage. The study assessed the effectiveness of operational, community-based larval habitat surveillance systems within the Urban Malaria Control Programme (UMCP) in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out to assess the ability of community-owned resource persons (CORPs) to detect mosquito breeding sites and larvae in areas with and without larviciding. Potential environmental and programmatic determinants of habitat detection coverage and detection sensitivity of mosquito larvae were recorded during guided walks with 64 different CORPs to assess the accuracy of data each had collected the previous day. Results CORPs reported the presence of 66.2% of all aquatic habitats (1,963/2,965), but only detected Anopheles larvae in 12.6% (29/230) of habitats that contained them. Detection sensitivity was particularly low for late-stage Anopheles (2.7%, 3/111), the most direct programmatic indicator of malaria vector productivity. Whether a CORP found a wet habitat or not was associated with his/her unfamiliarity with the area (Odds Ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 0.16 [0.130, 0.203], P < 0.001), the habitat type (P < 0.001) or a fence around the compound (OR [95%CI] = 0.50 [0.386, 0.646], P < 0.001). The majority of mosquito larvae (Anophelines 57.8% (133/230) and Culicines 55.9% (461/825) were not reported because their habitats were not found. The only factor affecting detection of Anopheline larvae in habitats that were reported by CORPs was larviciding, which reduced sensitivity (OR [95%CI] = 0.37 [0.142, 0.965], P = 0.042). Conclusions Accessibility of habitats in urban settings presents a major challenge because the majority of compounds are fenced for security reasons. Furthermore, CORPs under-reported larvae especially where larvicides were applied. This UMCP

  11. Cellular and Subcellular Localization of the RGS7/Gβ5/R7BP Complex in the Cerebellar Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Carolina; Orlandi, Cesare; Fajardo-Serrano, Ana; Gil-Minguez, Mercedes; Martemyanov, Kirill A.; Luján, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    A member of regulator of G-protein signaling family, RGS7, is an essential modulator of signaling through GABAB receptors. RGS7 functions as a macromolecular complex with type 5 G protein β (Gβ5) and R7 binding protein (R7BP) to control the localization and function of the resultant heterotrimeric complexes. Here, we used co-immunoprecipitation, in situ hybridization, histoblot and immunohistochemical techniques at the light and electron microscopic level to advance understanding of RGS7-Gβ5-R7BP complexes in the central nervous system, focusing on distinct neuronal populations in the cerebellar cortex. Histoblot analysis showed that RGS7, Gβ5 and R7BP proteins were widely expressed in the brain, with mostly an overlapping pattern and showing a high expression level in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments established that the RGS7/Gβ5 forms complexes with R7BP in the cerebellum. At the cellular level, RGS7 and R7BP mRNAs were expressed at the highest level in Purkinje cells (PCs) and Golgi cells, and at low levels in granule cells. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that labeling for RGS7, Gβ5 and R7BP were present in the three neuronal populations and concentrated in dendrites and spines. At the electron microscopic level, immunolabeling for RGS7, Gβ5 and R7BP proteins was found both at postsynaptic and presynaptic sites and showed similar distribution patterns. Immunoreactivity for the three proteins was mostly localized along the extrasynaptic plasma membrane of dendritic shafts and spines of PCs and to a lesser extent, in axon terminals (AT) establishing excitatory synapses. Quantitative analysis of immunogold particles for RGS7, Gβ5 and R7BP revealed that they are non-uniformly distributed along the surface of PCs, and show enrichment around excitatory synapses on dendritic spines. We further report that deletion of R7BP in mice reduced the targeting of both RGS7 and Gβ5 to the plasma membrane. Altogether, these

  12. Hydrogen generation in CSP plants and maintenance of DPO/BP heat transfer fluids - A simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckelkorn, Thomas; Jung, Christian; Gnädig, Tim; Lang, Christoph; Schall, Christina

    2016-05-01

    The ageing of diphenyl oxide/ biphenyl (DPO/BP) Heat Transfer Fluids (HTFs) implies challenging tasks for operators of parabolic trough power plants in order to find the economic optimum between plant performance and O&M costs. Focusing on the generation of hydrogen, which is effecting from the HTF ageing process, the balance of hydrogen pressure in the HTF is simulated for different operation scenarios. Accelerated build-up of hydrogen pressure in the HTF is causing increased permeation into the annular vacuum space of the installed receivers and must be avoided in order to maintain the performance of these components. Therefore, the effective hydrogen partial pressure in the HTF has to be controlled and limited according to the specified values so that the vacuum lifetime of the receivers and the overall plant performance can be ensured. In order to simulate and visualize the hydrogen balance of a typical parabolic trough plant, initially a simple model is used to calculate the balance of hydrogen in the system and this is described. As input data for the simulation, extrapolated hydrogen generation rates have been used, which were calculated from results of lab tests performed by DLR in Cologne, Germany. Hourly weather data, surface temperatures of the tubing system calculated by using the simulation tool from NREL, and hydrogen permeation rates for stainless steel and carbon steel grades taken from literature have been added to the model. In a first step the effect of HTF ageing, build-up of hydrogen pressure in the HTF and hydrogen loss rates through piping and receiver components have been modeled. In a second step a selective hydrogen removal process has been added to the model. The simulation results are confirming the need of active monitoring and controlling the effective hydrogen partial pressure in parabolic trough solar thermal power plants with DPO/BP HTF. Following the results of the simulation, the expected plant performance can only be achieved

  13. Metabolic regulation of SIRT1 transcription via a HIC1:CtBP corepressor complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Su-Yan; Fleuriel, Capucine; Leprince, Dominique; Rocheleau, Jonathan V.; Piston, David W.; Goodman, Richard H.

    2007-01-01

    The Sir2 histone deacetylases are important for gene regulation, metabolism, and longevity. A unique feature of these enzymes is their utilization of NAD+ as a cosubstrate, which has led to the suggestion that Sir2 activity reflects the cellular energy state. We show that SIRT1, a mammalian Sir2 homologue, is also controlled at the transcriptional level through a mechanism that is specific for this isoform. Treatment with the glycolytic blocker 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) decreases association of the redox sensor CtBP with HIC1, an inhibitor of SIRT1 transcription. We propose that the reduction in transcriptional repression mediated by HIC1, due to the decrease of CtBP binding, increases SIRT1 expression. This mechanism allows the specific regulation of SIRT1 in response to nutrient deprivation. PMID:17213307

  14. Transforming the Patient Role to Achieve Better Outcomes Through a Patient Empowerment Program: A Randomized Wait-List Control Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Plaksin, Joseph; Zabar, Sondra; Wallach, Andrew; Sawicki, Chester; Kundrod, Sarita; Kalet, Adina

    2016-01-01

    Background In the patient-centered medical home model of health care, both health care providers (HCPs) and patients must understand their respective roles and responsibilities, view the other as a partner, and use communication skills that promote shared decision making. This is particularly necessary in chronic conditions where outcomes depend on behavior change and in underserved populations where the burden of chronic disease is high. Objective The objectives of this study are to determine if a Patient Empowerment Program (PEP) (1) is acceptable to patients and feasible across multiple clinical sites; (2) will increase patient preference for control in medical decision making, improve patient perceptions of patient-HCP communication, and increase patient activation; (3) is associated with an increase in diabetes self-management behaviors; and (4) has an effect on hemoglobin A 1c(HbA 1c) level. Methods This study recruited English-speaking adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from three urban clinical sites in New York City and randomized them to an immediate intervention group that completed the PEP intervention or a deferred intervention group that served as a wait-list control and completed the PEP intervention after 3-4 months. The PEP intervention consists of two facilitated small group sessions. Session 1 focuses on defining HCP and patient roles in the medical encounter by introducing ideal communication behaviors in each role and by providing both positive and negative examples of patient-HCP encounters. Session 2 focuses on practicing communication skills by role-playing with actors who serve as standardized health care providers. After the role play, participants set goals for their own health care and for future interactions with their HCPs. Outcome measures include the Patient Activation Measure; Ask, Understand, Remember Assessment; Krantz Health Opinion Survey; SF-12v2 Health Survey; Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire; and HbA 1c. These

  15. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  16. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  17. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  18. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  19. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  20. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  1. BP and Vascular Function Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Chapman, Justin; Xue, Hong; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Roullet, Jean-Baptiste; Phanouvong, Thongchanh; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Otsuka, Keiichi; McCarron, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Blood pressure and mesenteric resistance artery function were assessed in 9-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats following an 18 day shuttle flight on STS-80. Blood pressure was measured twice, first in conscious animals using a tail-cuff method and then while the animals were anesthetized with 2% halothane in O2. Isolated mesenteric resistance artery responses to cumulative additions of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and calcium were measured within 17 hours of landing using wire myography. Blood pressure was slightly reduced in conscious animals following flight (p=0.056) but was significantly elevated (p less than.001) above vivarium control group values in anesthetized animals. Maximal contraction of mesenteric arteries to norepinephrine was attenuated in the flight animals (p less than.001)aswasrelaxationtoacetylcholine(p less than .001)andcalcium(p less than .05). There was no difference between flight and control animals in the vessel response to sodium nitroprusside (p greater than .05). The results suggest that there may have been an increase in synthesis and release of nitric oxide in the flight animals.

  2. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  3. The temporally controlled expression of Drongo, the fruit fly homolog of AGFG1, is achieved in female germline cells via P-bodies and its localization requires functional Rab11.

    PubMed

    Catrina, Irina E; Bayer, Livia V; Yanez, Giussepe; McLaughlin, John M; Malaczek, Kornelia; Bagaeva, Ekaterina; Marras, Salvatore A E; Bratu, Diana P

    2016-11-01

    To achieve proper RNA transport and localization, RNA viruses exploit cellular vesicular trafficking pathways. AGFG1, a host protein essential for HIV-1 and Influenza A replication, has been shown to mediate release of intron-containing viral RNAs from the perinuclear region. It is still unknown what its precise role in this release is, or whether AGFG1 also participates in cytoplasmic transport. We report for the first time the expression patterns during oogenesis for Drongo, the fruit fly homolog of AGFG1. We find that temporally controlled Drongo expression is achieved by translational repression of drongo mRNA within P-bodies. Here we show a first link between the recycling endosome pathway and Drongo, and find that proper Drongo localization at the oocyte's cortex during mid-oogenesis requires functional Rab11.

  4. Blood pressure control in hypertension. Pros and cons of available treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Giuseppe; Rea, Federico; Cuspidi, Cesare; Grassi, Guido; Corrao, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    The low rate of blood pressure (BP) control that characterizes the hypertensive population in real life is traditionally associated to factors such as low adherence of patients to the prescribed treatment regimen, physicians' therapeutic inertia, and deficiencies of the healthcare systems. This study will focus on a fourth factor that may also be importantly involved, i.e. reluctance to adopt drug treatment strategies that more effectively reduce an elevated BP. The point will be made that, vis-à-vis strategies based on patients' persistence in monotherapy, drug combinations are accompanied by a much more frequent BP control. In particular, it will be argued that compared with the administration of additional drugs after initial monotherapy, use of combination treatment from the beginning may carry important advantages, such as a faster BP control, and thus an earlier protection in patients at a high cardiovascular risk and a better adherence to the prescribed drugs and thus a more frequent long-term achievement of target BP values, possibly also with a more effective cardiovascular protection. This may justify a more clear support of this treatment strategy by future guidelines, in the attempt to lessen the contribution of hypertension to cardiovascular disease and death.

  5. Synthetic control to achieve lanthanide(III)/pyrimidine-4,6-dicarboxylate compounds by preventing oxalate formation: structural, magnetic, and luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Javier; Balda, Rolindes; Beobide, Garikoitz; Castillo, Oscar; Fernández, Joaquín; Luque, Antonio; Pérez-Yáñez, Sonia; Román, Pascual

    2012-07-16

    Control over the synthetic conditions in many metal/diazinedicarboxylato systems is crucial to prevent oxalate formation, since dicarboxylato ligands easily undergo degradation in the presence of metal salts. We report here an efficient route to obtain oxalato-free compounds for the lanthanide/pyrimidine-4,6-dicarboxylato (pmdc) system on the basis of the reaction temperature and nonacidic pH or oxygen free atmosphere. Two different crystal architectures have been obtained: {[Ln(μ-pmdc)(1.5)(H(2)O)(3)]·xH(2)O}(n) (1-Ln) and {[Ln(2)(μ(4)-pmdc)(2)(μ-pmdc)(H(2)O)(2)]·H(2)O}(n) (2-Ln) with Ln(III) = La-Yb, except Pm. Both crystal structures are built from distorted two-dimensional honeycomb networks based on the recurrent double chelating mode established by the pmdc. In compounds 1-Ln, the tricapped trigonal prismatic coordination environment of the lanthanides is completed by three water molecules, precluding a further increase in the dimensionality. Crystallization water molecules are arranged in the interlamellar space, giving rise to highly flexible supramolecular clusters that are responsible for the modulation found in compound 1-Gd. Two of the coordinated water molecules are replaced by nonchelating carboxylate oxygen atoms of pmdc ligands in compounds 2-Ln, joining the metal-organic layers together and thus providing a compact three-dimensional network. The crystal structure of the compounds is governed by the competition between two opposing factors: the ionic size and the reaction temperature. The lanthanide contraction rejects the sterically hindered coordination geometries whereas high-temperature entropy driven desolvation pathway favors the release of solvent molecules leading to more compact frameworks. The characteristic luminescence of the Nd, Eu, and Tb centers is improved when moving from 1-Ln to 2-Ln compounds as a consequence of the decrease of the O-H oscillators. The magnetic properties of the compounds are dominated by the spin

  6. Examining Incentives to Promote Physical Activity Maintenance Among Hospital Employees Not Achieving 10,000 Daily Steps: A Web-Based Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    White, Lauren; Oh, Paul; Kwan, Matthew; Gove, Peter; Leahey, Tricia; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background The economic burden of physical inactivity in Canada is estimated at Can $6.8 billion (US $5 billion) per year. Employers bear a substantial proportion of the economic costs, as they pay more for inactive workers in health care and other organizational costs. In response, many Canadian employers offer wellness programs, though these are often underutilized. While financial health incentives have been proposed as one way of increasing participation, their longer term effects (ie postintervention effects) are not clear. Objective The objective of this paper is to outline the methodology for a randomized control trial (RCT) examining the longer term impact of an existing physical activity promotion program that is enhanced by adding guaranteed rewards (Can $1 [US $0.74] per day step goal met) in a lower active hospital employee population (less than 10,000 steps per day). Methods A 12-week, parallel-arm RCT (with a 12-week postintervention follow-up) will be employed. Employees using Change4Life (a fully automated, incentive-based wellness program) and accumulating fewer than 10,000 steps per day at baseline (weeks 1 to 2) will be randomly allocated (1:1) to standard care (wellness program, accelerometer) or an intervention group (standard care plus guaranteed incentives). All study participants will be asked to wear the accelerometer and synchronize it to Change4Life daily, although only intervention group participants will receive guaranteed incentives for reaching tailored daily step count goals (Can $1 [US $0.74] per day; weeks 3 to 12). The primary study outcome will be mean proportion of participant-days step goal reached during the postintervention follow-up period (week 24). Mean proportion of participant-days step goal reached during the intervention period (week 12) will be a secondary outcome. Results Enrollment for the study will be completed in February 2017. Data analysis will commence in September 2017. Study results are to be published in

  7. Fatty acid as structure directing agent for controlled secondary growth of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles to achieve mesoscale assemblies: A facile approach for developing hierarchical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, K.; Kaushik, S. D.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Deb, P.

    2016-08-01

    Mesoscale hierarchical assemblies have emerged out as a new class of structures between fine dimension nanoparticles and bulk structures, having distinctly different physical properties from either side. Controlling the self-assembly process of primary nanoparticles and subsequent secondary growth mechanism is the key aspect for achieving such ordered structures. In this work, we introduce a new insight on achieving hierarchical assemblies of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles based on the temporal stability of the primary nanoparticles, where, the growth and stability of the primary particles are controlled by using oleic acid. It is found that the developed particles, at a critical concentration of oleic acid, prefer a secondary growth process, rather than promoting their individual growth. Domination of the attractive hydrophobic interaction over steric repulsion among the primary particles at this critical concentration of oleic acid is found to be the key factor for the initial aggregation of the primary particles, which eventually leads to the formation of spherical hierarchical assemblies via oriented attachment. It is also realized that the extremely well or poor stability conditions of the primary particles do not allow this secondary growth process. Estimated values of Co2+ distribution factor show that the cation distribution factor of CoFe2O4 system is not affected by the nature of dominant growth processes, when these are controlled. Interestingly, magnetic measurements reflect the stronger interparticle interaction in the hierarchical system and high magnetic moment values at low magnetic field.

  8. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  9. Preliminary Geological Findings on the BP-1 Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeser, D. B.; Rickman, D. L.; Wilson, S.

    2010-01-01

    A waste material from an aggregate producing quarry has been used to make an inexpensive lunar simulant called BP-1. The feedstock is the Black Point lava flow in northern Arizona. Although this is part of the San Francisco volcanic field, which is also the source of the JSC-1 series feedstock, BP-1 and JSC-1 are distinct. Chemically, the Black Point flow is an amygdaloidal nepheline-bearing basalt. The amygdules are filled with secondary minerals containing opaline silica, calcium carbonate, and ferric iron minerals. X-ray diffraction (XRD) detected approximately 3% quartz, which is in line with tests done by the Kennedy Space Center Industrial Hygiene Office. Users of this material should use appropriate protective equipment. XRD also showed the presence of significant halite and some bassanite. Both are interpreted to be evaporative residues due to recycling of wash water at the quarry. The size distribution of BP-1 may be superior to some other simulants for some applications.

  10. Preliminary Geological Findings on the BP-1 Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    The following is a summation of information and discussion between Doug Stoeser of the USGS and Doug Rickman of NASA in February and March, 2010 pertaining to the BP-1 simulant. The analytical results and the bulk of the text are from communications from Dr. Stoeser. The BP-1 simulant is made from Black Point Basalt Flow, San Francisco Volcanic Field, northern Arizona. There is an aggregate (road metal) quarry on the northern margin of the flow towards the west end that was used as a Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) analog test site. Silty material from this site was also used in laboratory tests and found to have geotechnical properties similar to the LHT-2M and Chenobi regolith simulants and is being proposed as a possible simulant for geotechnical use. It currently has the designation of BP-1 (Black Point 1). Figure

  11. Association between DBH 19 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and cognition in first-episode schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Hui, Li; Zhang, Xuan; Yu, Ya Qin; Han, Mei; Huang, Xu Feng; Chen, Da Chun; Wang, Zhi Ren; Du, Wei Li; Kou, Chang Gui; Yu, Qiong; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2013-07-01

    Many genes associated with dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) systems influence cognitive deficits of schizophrenia patients, but one key enzyme is dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), which converts DA to NE and whose activity and levels are under strong genetic control. This study examines the association of the 19 bp insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphism in the 5' flank of the DBH gene with cognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenic patients (FEP). We assessed the cognitive function in 195 FEP and 304 healthy controls using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). The 19 bp Ins/Del polymorphism of DBH gene was genotyped. Our results showed that the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the 19 bp Ins/Del polymorphism significantly differed between FEP and healthy controls (both p < 0.05). Cognitive test scores were significantly lower in FEP than healthy controls on all scales (all p < 0.001) except for the visuospatial/constructional index (p > 0.05). Immediate memory abilities significantly differed by genotype (p<0.05) but not genotype×diagnosis. Immediate memory score was lower in FEP with DBH5'-Del/Del genotype (61.3 ± 17.2) than those with DBH5'-Ins/Ins genotype (68.6 ± 16.2; p < 0.05). The 19 bp Del allele was associated with poorer immediate memory performance than the Ins allele in FEP (p < 0.05). However, healthy controls did not show any differences in cognitive function indices between the Ins and Del for either the allele or genotype of the 19 bp Ins/Del polymorphism. Our findings suggest that the DBH5'-Ins/Del polymorphism may play a role in susceptibility to FEP. The DBH5'-Ins/Del polymorphism may also influence immediate memory in FEP. Moreover, FEP had poorer cognitive function than healthy controls in all examined cognitive domains except for the visuospatial/constructional index.

  12. Association of 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism of HLA-G gene with idiopathic recurrent miscarriages in infertility center patients in Yazd, Iran.

    PubMed

    Arjmand, Fateme; Samadi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    HLA-G is supposed to play a pivotal role in tolerance of the semi-allogeneic graft in pregnancy by inhibiting the cytotoxic functions of T and NK cells. A 14-bp insertion and/or deletion polymorphism in exon-8 has a possible role in HLA-G expression. The present study analyzed the 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in normal pregnancy and recurrent miscarriage patients in order to discover a possible correlation between the 14-bp polymorphism and recurrent miscarriage (RM). In this study, genomic DNA from 200 RM patients and 200 normal fertile control individuals using the routine salting out method were isolated. Exon-8 of HLA-G gene of the two groups were amplified using polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by electrophoresis on 10% non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis containing ethidium bromide and visualized under ultraviolet light. HLA-G allele frequencies and genotypes in RM women and the fertile control group were compared using a Chi-square test. The results showed that there was a difference in allelic frequencies of 14-bp insertion polymorphism between fertile controls and RM patients; the frequency of +14 bp/-14 bp heterozygotes was significantly higher in RM patients as compared with fertile controls. Furthermore, the frequency of +14-bp insertion allele was significantly higher in those with RM as compared with normal fertile controls. From the findings here, it was concluded that a 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in exon 8 could play a possible role in recurrent miscarriages. These results might ultimately be of significance for clinicians and those involved in understanding infertility and RM.

  13. Multi-Functional Regulation of 4E-BP Gene Expression by the Ccr4-Not Complex

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Hirokazu; Schittenhelm, Ralf B.; Straessle, Anna; Hafen, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is highly conserved from yeast to humans. It senses various environmental cues to regulate cellular growth and homeostasis. Deregulation of the pathway has been implicated in many pathological conditions including cancer. Phosphorylation cascades through the pathway have been extensively studied but not much is known about the regulation of gene expression of the pathway components. Here, we report that the mRNA level of eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) subunit 4E-binding protein (4E-BP) gene, one of the key mTOR signaling components, is regulated by the highly conserved Ccr4-Not complex. RNAi knockdown of Not1, a putative scaffold protein of this protein complex, increases the mRNA level of 4E-BP in Drosophila Kc cells. Examination of the gene expression mechanism using reporter swap constructs reveals that Not1 depletion increases reporter mRNAs with the 3’UTR of 4E-BP gene, but decreases the ones with the 4E-BP promoter region, suggesting that Ccr4-Not complex regulates both degradation and transcription of 4E-BP mRNA. These results indicate that the Ccr4-Not complex controls expression of a single gene at multiple levels and adjusts the magnitude of the total effect. Thus, our study reveals a novel regulatory mechanism of a key component of the mTOR signaling pathway at the level of gene expression. PMID:25793896

  14. CtBP1/BARS is an activator of phospholipase D1 necessary for agonist-induced macropinocytosis.

    PubMed

    Haga, Yuki; Miwa, Noriko; Jahangeer, Saleem; Okada, Taro; Nakamura, Shun-ichi

    2009-05-06

    Vesicular trafficking such as macropinocytosis is a dynamic process that requires coordinated interactions between specialized proteins and lipids. A recent report suggests the involvement of CtBP1/BARS in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced macropinocytosis. Detailed mechanisms as to how lipid remodelling is regulated during macropinocytosis are still undefined. Here, we show that CtBP1/BARS is a physiological activator of PLD1 required in agonist-induced macropinocytosis. EGF-induced macropinocytosis was specifically blocked by 1-butanol but not by 2-butanol. In addition, stimulation of cells by serum or EGF resulted in the association of CtBP1/BARS with PLD1. Finally, CtBP1/BARS activated PLD1 in a synergistic manner with other PLD activators, including ADP-ribosylation factors as demonstrated by in vitro and intact cell systems. The present results shed light on the molecular basis of how the 'fission protein' CtBP1/BARS controls vesicular trafficking events including macropinocytosis.

  15. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.

  16. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  17. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  18. Relative role of genes and environment on BP: twin studies in Madras, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, R M; Reddy, G P; Grim, C E

    1993-10-01

    This study was conducted to test the feasibility of the twin research model in a developing country with diverse cultures and to understand the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on BP variation among South Indians. This was a cross-sectional twin study of volunteers using a two-by-two factorial design for the analysis of quantitative traits. The factors were twin type (monozygotic and dizygotic) and sex (male and female). The study was conducted in Madras. Twenty-four pairs of twins were contacted for participation in the project. Of the 24 pairs we contacted, 91% (20) actually participated in our study. Among 20 sets we studied, 10 (50%) are males and 10 (50%) are females with an average age of 23 years. The mean SBP of this volunteer twin population was 115.18 +/- 1.27 mmHg and DBP was 68.53 +/- 1.41 mmHg. Analysis of dietary habits (vegetarian/nonvegetarian) showed that BP was greater (118.26 +/- 2.29/71.88 +/- 2.34 mmHg) in vegetarian twins than nonvegetarians (112.28 +/- 1.42/66.2 +/- 1.90 mmHg). Also a positive correlation between urinary excretion of calcium and BP was observed. The present study demonstrates that epidemiological research in a developing country like India is feasible and economical, using the twin research methodology. As observed in other populations, the major source of BP variation in the population appears to be predominantly under genetic control.

  19. Elevated levels of circulating IL-18BP and perturbed regulation of IL-18 in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin (IL)-18 has been proposed to play a role in schizophrenia, since elevated circulating levels of its protein and altered frequencies of genetic variants in its molecular system are reported in schizophrenic patients. Methods We analyzed 77 patients with schizophrenia diagnosis (SCZ) and 77 healthy control subjects (HC) for serum concentration of both IL-18 and its natural inhibitor, the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). Results We confirmed that serum levels of total IL-18 are significantly increased in SCZ, as compared to HC. However, due to a highly significant increase in levels of circulating IL-18BP in SCZ, as compared to HC, the levels of free, bioactive IL-18 are not significantly different between the two groups. In addition, the relationships between the levels of IL-18 and its inhibitor, as well as between the two molecules and age appear dissimilar for SCZ and HC. In particular, the elevated levels of IL-18BP, likely a consequence of the body’s attempt to counteract the early prominent inflammation which characterizes schizophrenia, are maintained in earlier and later stages of the disease. However, the IL-18BP elevation appears ineffective to balance the IL-18 system in younger SCZ patients, while in older patients the levels of circulating bioactive IL-18 are comparable to those of HC, if not lower. Conclusions In conclusion, these findings indicate that the IL-18 system is perturbed in schizophrenia, supporting the idea that this pro-inflammatory cytokine might be part of a pathway of genetic and environmental components for vulnerability to the disease. PMID:22913567

  20. Effect of hydrodynamics-based delivery of IL-18BP fusion gene on rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Chang, He; Wang, Yan; Li, Gang; Zhang, Le; Zhang, Guang Wei; Liao, Yan Chun; Hanawa, Haruo; Zou, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a powerful and important cytokine in myocarditis. IL-18-binding protein (IL-18BP), a naturally occurring antagonist of IL-18, is presumed to play a vital regulatory function in IL-18-mediated immune responses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the alterations of IL-18 and its related protein expressions and the effect of hydrodynamics-based delivery of the IL-18BP gene for treatment of rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM).Rats were immunized on Day 0 and killed on 2, 3 and 4 weeks to determine IL-18 and its related protein expression and target cells in EAM hearts. On Day 6, rats were injected with a recombinant plasmid encoding IL-18BP-Ig or SP-Ig. On Day 17, rats were detected with echocardiography and then be killed. IL-18BP gene therapy was effective in controlling EAM, as monitored by a decreased ratio of heart weight to body weight, reduced myocarditis areas, reduced expression of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10. Furthermore, the effect of serum containing IL-18BP on the expression of immune-relevant genes in IL-1α-stimulated NC cells and splenocytes cultured from EAM rats was examined. The results showed that IL-18BP significantly suppressed the expression of IL-17 as well as other proinflammatory genes such as transforming growth factor-β, prostaglandin E2 synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 in IL-1α-stimulated NC cells, and IL-18BP also significantly suppressed the expression of IL-17, IL-17R, IL-21 and IL-17-related transcriptional factor retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear receptor, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and Foxp3 in IL-1α-stimulated splenocytes cultured from EAM rats. IL-18 and its related protein played an important role on the development of EAM. IL-18BP effectively prevented progression of EAM by blocking IL-17 and related inflammatory genes expression. This might be a possible mechanism of the amelioration of EAM by IL-18BP

  1. Closing the achievement gap through modification of neurocognitive and neuroendocrine function: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial of an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children's engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap.

  2. Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children’s engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap. PMID:25389751

  3. Effects of calcium channel blocker benidipine-based combination therapy on target blood pressure control and cardiovascular outcome: a sub-analysis of the COPE trial.

    PubMed

    Umemoto, Seiji; Ogihara, Toshio; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Rakugi, Hiromi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Saruta, Takao

    2017-04-01

    We compared three benidipine-based regimens-that is, benidipine plus angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), β-blocker (BB) or thiazide-and found that the benidipine-BB combination was less beneficial in reducing the risk of stroke than the benidipine-thiazide combination. This sub-analysis sought to compare the effects of reaching a target blood pressure (BP) (<140/90 mm Hg) on the cardiovascular outcomes among the three benidipine-based treatment groups in the Combination Therapy of Hypertension to Prevent Cardiovascular Events trial. This sub-analysis included 3001 subjects to evaluate the achievement of target BP at a minimum of three points at 6-month intervals of clinical BP measurements during the study period. After randomization, the patients were categorized into two groups on the basis of achieved on-treatment target BP: a good control (GC) group achieving a BP⩾66.7% of the target and a poor control (PC) group with a BP <66.6% of the target. For each of the two control groups, outcomes were compared among the three treatment groups. The event rates for cardiovascular composite endpoints, stroke and hard cardiovascular events were higher in the PC group than the GC group (P=0.041, P=0.042 and P=0.038, respectively). Within the PC group, hazard ratios for the incidence of cardiovascular events were lower in the benidipine-thiazide group than in the benidipine-BB group (composite cardiovascular events: 2.04, P=0.033; stroke: 4.14, P=0.005; and hard cardiovascular events: 3.52, P=0.009). Within the GC group, the incidence of cardiovascular events was not different among the three treatment regimens. The benidipine-thiazide combination may provide better cardiovascular outcomes than the benidipine-BB combination even in patients with poor BP control.

  4. Quasiparticle energies for cubic BN, BP, and BAs

    SciTech Connect

    Surh, M.P.; Louie, S.G.; Cohen, M.L. Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720)

    1991-04-15

    Electronic excitation energies at the high-symmetry points {Gamma}, {ital X}, and {ital L} are obtained for zinc-blende-structure BN, BP, and BAs in the {ital GW} approximation using a model dielectric function. A model for the static screening matrix makes use of the {ital ab} {ital initio} ground-state charge density and either experimental values or empirical estimates for {epsilon}{sub {infinity}}, the electronic contribution to the macroscopic dielectric constant. Wave functions from an {ital ab} {ital initio} local-density-approximation calculation with norm-conserving pseudopotentials are employed along with the self-consistent quasiparticle spectrum to obtain the energy-dependent one-particle Green function {ital G}. The minimum band gaps are found to be 6.3, 1.9, and 1.6 eV for BN, BP, and BAs, respectively, in close agreement with existing measurements of 6.1 and 2.0 eV for BN and BP, respectively. The BN direct band gap is predicted to be 11.4 eV versus the experimental value of 14.5 eV, and the BP direct band gap is predicted to be 4.4 eV versus 5.0 eV from experiment.

  5. The binary Cepheid BP CIR - A test of evolutionary tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nancy R.; Arellano Ferro, A.; Udalska, Joanna

    1992-05-01

    IUE spectra of the system containing the Cepheid BP Cir are used to derive the magnitude difference between the two stars (Δ V = 1.88 ± 0.3 mag) and the spectral type of the companion (B6.OV). This is the first system yet encountered for which the standard Seaton reddening law is inappropriate. For BP Cir, a stronger 2200 Å bump than the standard law is required. However, this does not affect the determination of the temperature of the hot star or the magnitude difference between the two stars, because those use the wavelength regions shorter than 1600 Å and longer than 2500 Å. The stars are very similar in mass. Possible pulsation in the first overtone mode implies that BP Cir B is evolved beyond the ZAMS but is still in the main sequence band. The best match to BP Cir A and B is with isochrones by Stothers and Chin (1991) with Inglesias and Rogers (1991) opacities and no core convective overshoot and Cepheid pulsation in the first overtone.

  6. The binary Cepheid BP Cir - A test of evolutionary tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Nancy R.; Ferro, A. A.; Udalska, Joanna

    1992-01-01

    IUE spectra of the system containing the Cepheid BP Cir are used to derive the magnitude difference between the two stars (Delta V = 1.88 +/- 0.3 mag) and the spectral type of the companion (B6.0V). This is the first system yet encountered for which the standard Seaton reddening law is inappropriate. For BP Cir, a stronger 2200-A bump than the standard law is required. However, this does not affect the determination of the temperature of the hot star or the magnitude difference between the two stars, because those use the wavelength regions shorter than 1600 A and longer than 2500 A. The stars are very similar in mass. Possible pulsation in the first overtone mode implies that BP Cir B is evolved beyond the ZAMS but is still in the main sequence band. The best match to BP Cir A and B is with isochrones by Stothers and Chin (1991) with Inglesias and Rogers (1991) opacities and no core convective overshoot and Cepheid pulsation in the first overtone.

  7. BP Piscium: its flaring disc imaged with SPHERE/ZIMPOL★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, J.; Girard, J. H.; Canovas, H.; Min, M.; Sitko, M.; Ginski, C.; Jeffers, S. V.; Mawet, D.; Milli, J.; Rodenhuis, M.; Snik, F.; Keller, C. U.

    2017-03-01

    Whether BP Piscium (BP Psc) is either a pre-main sequence T Tauri star at d ≈ 80 pc, or a post-main sequence G giant at d ≈ 300 pc is still not clear. As a first-ascent giant, it is the first to be observed with a molecular and dust disc. Alternatively, BP Psc would be among the nearest T Tauri stars with a protoplanetary disc (PPD). We investigate whether the disc geometry resembles typical PPDs, by comparing polarimetric images with radiative transfer models. Our Very Large Telescope/Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE)/Zurich IMaging Polarimeter (ZIMPOL) observations allow us to perform polarimetric differential imaging, reference star differential imaging, and Richardson-Lucy deconvolution. We present the first visible light polarization and intensity images of the disc of BP Psc. Our deconvolution confirms the disc shape as detected before, mainly showing the southern side of the disc. In polarized intensity the disc is imaged at larger detail and also shows the northern side, giving it the typical shape of high-inclination flared discs. We explain the observed disc features by retrieving the large-scale geometry with MCMAX radiative transfer modelling, which yields a strongly flared model, atypical for discs of T Tauri stars.

  8. TopBP1-mediated DNA processing during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Gallina, Irene; Christiansen, Signe Korbo; Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Lisby, Michael; Oestergaard, Vibe H

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity is crucial to avoid cancer and other genetic diseases. Thus faced with DNA damage, cells mount a DNA damage response to avoid genome instability. The DNA damage response is partially inhibited during mitosis presumably to avoid erroneous processing of the segregating chromosomes. Yet our recent study shows that TopBP1-mediated DNA processing during mitosis is highly important to reduce transmission of DNA damage to daughter cells. (1) Here we provide an overview of the DNA damage response and DNA repair during mitosis. One role of TopBP1 during mitosis is to stimulate unscheduled DNA synthesis at underreplicated regions. We speculated that such genomic regions are likely to hold stalled replication forks or post-replicative gaps, which become the substrate for DNA synthesis upon entry into mitosis. Thus, we addressed whether the translesion pathways for fork restart or post-replicative gap filling are required for unscheduled DNA synthesis in mitosis. Using genetics in the avian DT40 cell line, we provide evidence that unscheduled DNA synthesis in mitosis does not require the translesion synthesis scaffold factor Rev1 or PCNA ubiquitylation at K164, which serve to recruit translesion polymerases to stalled forks. In line with this finding, translesion polymerase η foci do not colocalize with TopBP1 or FANCD2 in mitosis. Taken together, we conclude that TopBP1 promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis in mitosis independently of the examined translesion polymerases.

  9. BP chief scientist nominated for senior energy role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Obama administration has nominated BP's chief scientist Ellen Williams to be director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), which was created in 2007 to fund "high-risk, high-reward" research into novel energy technologies that are too early for investment by the private sector.

  10. Childhood vaccination: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ndumbe, P

    1996-09-01

    As the goal of eradicating smallpox was being met, the World Health Organization created its Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) in 1974 and reached its initial goal of achieving full vaccination of 80% of the world's children by 1990. This effort was aided by the creation of "cold chain" delivery systems and resulted in the annual saving of 3.5 million children in less-developed countries. Current EPI vaccination goals include 1) eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000, 2) elimination of neonatal tetanus by the year 1995, 3) control of measles and hepatitis B, and 4) immunization of 90% of the world's children 1 year or younger by the year 2000. Goals of the Children's Vaccine Initiative (formed in 1991) include 1) provision of an adequate supply of affordable, safe, and effective vaccines; 2) production of improved and new vaccines; and 3) simplification of the logistics of vaccine delivery. Future challenges are to sustain high vaccination coverage, reach the unreached, achieve proper storage of vaccines and reduce waste, integrate new vaccines into national programs, and achieve vaccine self-sufficiency. The fact that these challenges will be difficult to achieve is illustrated by the situation in Africa where the high immunization levels achieved in 1990 have dropped dramatically. Those who must act to implement immunization programs are health personnel, families, governments, and development partners. In order to achieve equity in health, every child must be reached, governments must be made accountable for programs, health workers must convince families of the importance of vaccination, delivery systems must be in place to take advantage of the new vaccines being delivered, and a multisectoral approach must be taken to assure sustainability.

  11. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  12. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  13. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  14. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  15. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  16. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  17. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  18. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  19. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  20. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  1. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  2. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  3. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  4. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  5. Mitotic Golgi partitioning is driven by the membrane-fissioning protein CtBP3/BARS.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo Carcedo, Cristina; Bonazzi, Matteo; Spanò, Stefania; Turacchio, Gabriele; Colanzi, Antonino; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela

    2004-07-02

    Organelle inheritance is an essential feature of all eukaryotic cells. As with other organelles, the Golgi complex partitions between daughter cells through the fission of its membranes into numerous tubulovesicular fragments. We found that the protein CtBP3/BARS (BARS) was responsible for driving the fission of Golgi membranes during mitosis in vivo. Moreover, by in vitro analysis, we identified two stages of this Golgi fragmentation process: disassembly of the Golgi stacks into a tubular network, and BARS-dependent fission of these tubules. Finally, this BARS-induced fission of Golgi membranes controlled the G2-to-prophase transition of the cell cycle, and hence cell division.

  6. BpTRU(tm) blood pressure monitor for use in a physician's office.

    PubMed

    Allison, C

    2006-08-01

    The BpTRU(tm) is an automated device that takes serial blood pressure (BP) measurements in a physician's office. (1) Preliminary data from non-randomized, uncontrolled trials suggest that the average of five BpTRU measurements, taken while the patient is alone, more reliably reflects "resting" BP compared to manual measurements taken with a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer. (2) BpTRU helps reduce the overestimation of BP due to improper measurement technique, or due to a patient's anxiety in a physician's presence ("white coat" effect). (3) The BpTRU device can improve hypertension management by replacing conventional manual BP measurements, which are often poorly performed and inaccurate. (4) BpTRU is more expensive than the manual manometers used in a physician's office. The serial measurement, taken in a private examining room, requires an average of six to 12 minutes, which could increase the duration of a patient's visit.

  7. Multiple-site mutations of phage Bp7 endolysin improves its activities against target bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Wang, Yuanchao; Sun, Huzhi; Ren, Huiying

    2015-10-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics has caused serious drug resistance. Bacteria that were once easily treatable are now extremely difficult to treat. Endolysin can be used as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of drug-resistant bacteria. To analyze the antibacterial activity of the endolysin of phage Bp7 (Bp7e), a 489-bp DNA fragment of endolysin Bp7e was PCR-amplified from a phage Bp7 genome and cloned, and then a pET28a-Bp7e prokaryotic expression vector was constructed. Two amino acids were mutated (L99A, M102E) to construct pET28a-Bp7Δe, with pET28a-Bp7e as a template. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that BP7e belongs to a T4-like phage endolysin group. Bp7e and its mutant Bp7Δe were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) as soluble proteins. They were purified by affinity chromatography, and then their antibacterial activities were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the recombinant proteins Bp7e and Bp7Δe showed obvious antibacterial activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus but no activity against Staphylococcus aureus. In the presence of malic acid, Bp7e and Bp7Δe exhibited an effect on most E. coli strains which could be lysed by phage Bp7, but no effect on Salmonella paratyphi or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, Bp7Δe with double-site mutations showed stronger antibacterial activity and a broader lysis range than Bp7e.

  8. Achievement and Its Correlates: Symposium III A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Maznah; And Others

    This symposium contains a report of a study which (1) examined the relationship between Malaysian children's perception of control and their academic achievement, by Maznah Ismail and Choo Piang Foong, and two abstracts of studies which (2) investigated achievement motivation and attribution of success in rural and urban Malaysian ethnic groups,…

  9. Impact of a social-emotional and character development program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled design. The Positive Action Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (mean enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from baseline (2002) to one-year post trial (2007) revealed that intervention schools scored 9.8% better on the TerraNova (2(nd) ed.) test for reading and 8.8% on math; 20.7% better in Hawai'i Content and Performance Standards scores for reading and 51.4% better in math; and that intervention schools reported 15.2% lower absenteeism and fewer suspensions (72.6%) and retentions (72.7%). Overall, effect sizes were moderate to large (range 0.5-1.1) for all of the examined outcomes. Sensitivity analyses using permutation models and random-intercept growth curve models substantiated results. The results provide evidence that a comprehensive school-based program, specifically developed to target student behavior and character, can positively influence school-level achievement, attendance, and disciplinary outcomes concurrently.

  10. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  11. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  12. Calibration of the radiocarbon time scale at 37ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Southon, J.R.; Deino, A.L.; Orsi, G.

    1995-12-01

    Results from radiocarbon and U-Th measurements on corals have provided a radiocarbon calibration beyond the range covered by tree ring series, but the uncertainties in the measurements beyond 20ka BP are very large. We have obtained new calibration data from radiocarbon dates on material associated with the catastrophic Campanian Ignimbrite eruption from the Phlegrean Fields near Naples. The eruption has been well dated by {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar to 37ka BP. Radiocarbon measurements were carried out on charcoal from a carbonized branch exposed within the ignimbrite tuff on the wall of an active quarry. The sample was split and analyzed at both the Naples and Lawrence Livermore AMS facilities. The offset between the Ar-Ar data and the radiocarbon results (recalculated using the true 5730-year half life for {sup 14}C) is consistent with predictions from paleomagnetic data and carbon cycle modeling.

  13. Diffusion and Settling in Ap/Bp Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, S

    2003-04-09

    Ap/Bp stars are magnetic chemically peculiar early A and late B type stars of the main sequence. They exhibit peculiar surface abundance anomalies that are thought to be the result of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. The physics of diffusion in these stars are reviewed briefly and some model predictions are discussed. While models reproduce some observations reasonably well, more work is needed before the behavior of diffusing elements in a complex magnetic field is fully understood.

  14. Compliance with the Prescription of Antihypertensive Medications and Blood Pressure Control in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Novello, Mayra Faria; Rosa, Maria Luiza Garcia; Ferreira, Ranier Tagarro; Nunes, Icaro Gusmão; Jorge, Antonio José Lagoeiro; Correia, Dayse Mary da Silva; Martins, Wolney de Andrade; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the most prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and its proper control can prevent the high morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Objective To assess the degree of compliance of antihypertensive prescriptions with the VI Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension and the blood pressure control rate in primary care. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted between August 2011 and November 2012, including 332 adults ≥ 45 years registered in the Family Doctor Program in Niteroi and selected randomly. The analysis included the prescribed antihypertensive classes, doses, and frequencies, as well as the blood pressure (BP) of the individuals. Results The rate of prescription compliance was 80%. Diuretics were the most prescribed medications, and dual therapy was the most used treatment. The most common non-compliances were underdosing and underfrequencies. The BP goal in all cases was < 140/90 mmHg, except for diabetic patients, in whom the goal was set at < 130/80 mmHg. Control rates according to these goals were 44.9% and 38.6%, respectively. There was no correlation between prescription compliance and BP control. Conclusions The degree of compliance was considered satisfactory. The achievement of the targets was consistent with national and international studies, suggesting that the family health model is effective in BP management, although it still needs improvement. PMID:28327875

  15. Identification of novel mutations in CD2BP1 gene in clinically proven rheumatoid arthritis patients of south India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhattaram Siddhartha; Kumar, Pasupuleti Santhosh; Sowgandhi, Nannepaga; Prajwal, Bhattaram Manoj; Mohan, Alladi; Sarma, Kadainti Venkata Subbaraya; Sarma, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna

    2016-08-01

    Pyogenic Arthritis, Pyoderma gangrenosum, and Acne (PAPA syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant, auto-inflammatory disease that affects joints and skin. The disease results due to mutations in the cluster of differentiation 2 binding protein 1 (CD2BP1) gene on chromosome 15q24.3. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common, genetically complex disease that affects the joints with occasional skin manifestations. Studies related to the pathophysiology of inflammation in these two disorders show a certain degree of overlap at genetic level. The present study was done to confirm the existence of such a genetic overlap between PAPA syndrome and RA in south Indian population. In the present study 100 patients who were clinically diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis and 100 apparently healthy controls were chosen and the 15 exons of CD2BP1 gene were PCR-amplified and sequenced. The sequence analysis showed that in exon 3 thirty eight patients revealed presence of novel heterozygous missense mutations p.Glu51Asp, p.Leu57Arg and p.Ala64Thr. In exons 6, 10 and 14 eight patients showed 44 novel missense mutations and two patients showed novel frame shift mutations p.(Met123_Leu416delinsThr) and p.(Thr337Profs*52) leading to truncated protein formation. Such mutations were not seen in controls. Further, the in silico analysis revealed the mutant CD2BP1 structure showed deletion of Cdc15 and SH3 domains when superimposed with the wild type CD2BP1 structure with variable RMSD values. Therefore, these structural variations in CD2BP1 gene due to the mutations could be one of the strongest reasons to demonstrate the involvement of these gene variations in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. A servomechanical system to control high blood pressure using sodium nitroprusside.

    PubMed

    Sideris, D A; Katritsis, D G; Nanas, J N; Toumanidis, S T; Moulopoulos, S D

    1983-01-01

    A servomechanical device was used to control the intravenous administration of a sodium nitroprusside solution, without using electrical energy or a pump, the aim being the fast and smooth reduction of high arterial pressure (BP). The device senses BP via an intra-arterial catheter which leads to two containers, to one through a narrow tube (slow system) and to the other through a wide tube (fast system). The two systems integrate the BP with time constants that are the product of the tube resistance to flow and the compliance of the containers. The two systems lead to small bellows that interfere with the legs of a clamp regulating an intravenous nitroprusside drip. The distension of the bellows releases the clamp in proportion to the pressure in the slow system and to the difference in pressure between the fast and the slow systems. A screw-spring could determine the desired slow system pressure below which the flow of the nitroprusside solution was stopped. The whole device was applied 11 times in five anaesthetized dogs under a continuous intravenous metaraminol infusion. The BP was always reduced smoothly within 2 to 24 min to a value near that predetermined by the screw-spring. It is concluded that a purely mechanical system involving integral, proportional and derivative components may achieve fast and smooth reduction of elevated BP to a predetermined level, when using fast-acting hypotensive agents.

  17. [Is blood pressure control different in women than in men?].

    PubMed

    Oliveras, A; Sans-Atxer, L; Vázquez, S

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) evolves with age; until the 50's it is higher in men than in women, equaling and even then increasing in women. The prevalence of controlled BP appears to be similar between the sexes, but the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is higher in women than in men. The possibility that BP influences the cardiovascular risk differently according to sex must therefore be considered. While some studies suggest no difference exists, others have shown evidence of an increased risk in women with respect to men despite equal BP. In this way, it seems that the measurement of ambulatory BP, but not office BP, would mark the differences in the association between BP-gender and cardiovascular risk. It should therefore be investigated the possibility of a different BP goal for women and men, especially by evaluating ambulatory BP.

  18. GIS-modeling of an ice-dammed lake in the Lake Onega depression ca 14500-12500 Yrs BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subetto, Dmitry; Zobkov, Mikhail; Potakhin, Maksim; Tarasov, Aleksey

    2016-04-01

    Palaeogeographical reconstructions of the Onego ice-dammed lake development ca 14500-125000 yrs BP were based on the GIS approach. The palaeo-water-level surfaces were interpolated using a point-kriging approach. 14500-14000 Yrs BP: An ice-dammed lake occupied the southern part of the Lake Onega depression. The level of this lake was at 130-120 m a.s.l. and was controlled by a threshold of the water divide between the River Oshta and River Oyat', with discharge southwestward into the Oyat' basin. The surface area of the ice-dammed lake was 3500 sq.km. 14000-13300 Yrs BP: When the ice melted away from the mouth of the River Svir, the lake level dropped to 85-80 m a.s.l. and runoff was directed into the Lake Ladoga - easternmost part of The Baltic Ice Lake at that time. 13300-12500 Yrs BP: As the glacier retreated from the Lake Onega depression, the ice-dammed lake was occupied it and reached the maximum sizes (the surface area was 33000 sq.km). The new threshold in the northern part was opened and runoff was directed into the White Sea basin. During the conference new digital paleogeographical maps of the Onego ice-dammed lake will be presented. The study has been financially supported by the Russian Science Foundation (#14-17-00766).

  19. An investigation into the association between HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and multiple sclerosis susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Nabiallah; Adib, Minoo; Alsahebfosoul, Fereshteh; Kazemi, Mohammad; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2016-01-15

    Human Leukocyte Antigen G (HLA-G) gene polymorphism and expression rate have recently been suggested to have a potential role in susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the frequency of HLA-G gene 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and its plasma level with MS susceptibility. In this study, the HLA-G gene from 212 patients and 210 healthy individuals was amplified using real time PCR and screened for the 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism. In addition, HLA-G plasma levels of the patients were measured and compared to normal controls by ELISA method. Our results revealed that 14 bp insertion in HLA-G could result in lower plasma HLA-G level of the subjects, regardless of their health status and vice versa. Additionally, significant correlation of HLA-G genotype and its plasma level with MS susceptibility was observed. In conclusion, not only HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism could be associated with expression rate of the HLA-G gene and its plasma level, but also could be considered as a risk factor for susceptibility to MS in our study population.

  20. Human-FES Cooperative Control for Wrist Movement: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Kai; Yokoi, Hiroshi; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) sometimes applies to patients with partial paralysis, so human voluntary control and FES control both exist. Our study aims to build a cooperative controller to achieve human-FES cooperation. This cooperative controller is formed by a classical FES controller and an impedance controller. The FES controller consists of a back propagation (BP) neural network-based feedforward controller and a PID-based feedback controller. The function of impedance controller is to convert volitional force/torque, which is estimated from a three-stage filter based on EMG, into additional angle. The additional angle can reduce the FES intensity in our cooperative controller, comparing to that in classical FES controller. Some assessment experiments are designed to test the performance of the cooperative controller. PMID:27990243

  1. Human-FES Cooperative Control for Wrist Movement: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Gui, Kai; Yokoi, Hiroshi; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-06-13

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) sometimes applies to patients with partial paralysis, so human voluntary control and FES control both exist. Our study aims to build a cooperative controller to achieve human-FES cooperation. This cooperative controller is formed by a classical FES controller and an impedance controller. The FES controller consists of a back propagation (BP) neural network-based feedforward controller and a PID-based feedback controller. The function of impedance controller is to convert volitional force/torque, which is estimated from a three-stage filter based on EMG, into additional angle. The additional angle can reduce the FES intensity in our cooperative controller, comparing to that in classical FES controller. Some assessment experiments are designed to test the performance of the cooperative controller.

  2. Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Caprara, G V; Barbaranelli, C; Pastorelli, C; Bandura, A; Zimbardo, P G

    2000-07-01

    The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later. Prosocialness included cooperating, helping, sharing, and consoling, and the measure of antisocial aspects included proneness to verbal and physical aggression. Prosocialness had a strong positive impact on later academic achievement and social preferences, but early aggression had no significant effect on either outcome. The conceptual model accounted for 35% of variance in later academic achievement, and 37% of variance in social preferences. Additional analysis revealed that early academic achievement did not contribute to later academic achievement after controlling for effects of early prosocialness. Possible mediating processes by which prosocialness may affect academic achievement and other socially desirable developmental outcomes are proposed.

  3. The effect of post-discharge educational intervention on patients in achieving objectives in modifiable risk factors six months after discharge following an episode of acute coronary syndrome, (CAM-2 Project): a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether an intervention mainly consisting of a signed agreement between patient and physician on the objectives to be reached, improves reaching these secondary prevention objectives in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors six-months after discharge following an acute coronary syndrome. Background There is room to improve mid-term adherence to clinical guidelines' recommendations in coronary heart disease secondary prevention, specially non-pharmacological ones, often neglected. Methods In CAM-2, patients discharged after an acute coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to the intervention or the usual care group. The primary outcome was reaching therapeutic objectives in various secondary prevention variables: smoking, obesity, blood lipids, blood pressure control, exercise and taking of medication. Results 1757 patients were recruited in 64 hospitals and 1510 (762 in the intervention and 748 in the control group) attended the six-months follow-up visit. After adjustment for potentially important variables, there were, between the intervention and control group, differences in the mean reduction of body mass index (0.5 vs. 0.2; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (1.6 cm vs. 0.6 cm; p = 0.05), proportion of patients who exercise regularly and those with total cholesterol below 175 mg/dl (64.7% vs. 56.5%; p = 0.001). The reported intake of medications was high in both groups for all the drugs considered with no differences except for statins (98.1% vs. 95.9%; p = 0.029). Conclusions At least in the short term, lifestyle changes among coronary heart disease patients are achievable by intensifying the responsibility of the patient himself by means of a simple and feasible intervention. PMID:21092191

  4. Achieving Cannabis Cessation - Evaluating N-acetylcysteine Treatment (ACCENT): Design and implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled study in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Sonne, Susan C.; Winhusen, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Ghitza, Udi E.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Matthews, Abigail G.; Sharma, Gaurav; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Vandrey, Ryan G.; Levin, Frances R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Lindblad, Robert; Allen, Colleen; Mooney, Larissa J.; Haynes, Louise; Brigham, Gregory S.; Sparenborg, Steve; Hasson, Albert L.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorders, effect sizes remain modest, and few individuals achieve long-term abstinence. One strategy to enhance outcomes is the addition of pharmacotherapy to complement behavioral treatment, but to date no efficacious medications targeting cannabis use disorders in adults through large, randomized controlled trials have been identified. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) is currently conducting a study to test the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) versus placebo (PBO), added to contingency management, for cannabis cessation in adults (ages 18–50). This study was designed to replicate positive findings from a study in cannabis-dependent adolescents that found greater odds of abstinence with NAC compared to PBO. This paper describes the design and implementation of an ongoing 12-week, intent-to-treat, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with one follow-up visit four weeks post-treatment. Approximately 300 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults will be randomized to NAC or PBO across six study sites in the United States. The primary objective of this 12-week study is to evaluate the efficacy of twice-daily orally-administered NAC (1200 mg) versus matched PBO, added to contingency management, on cannabis abstinence. NAC is among the first medications to demonstrate increased odds of abstinence in a randomized controlled study among cannabis users in any age group. The current study will assess the cannabis cessation efficacy of NAC combined with a behavioral intervention in adults, providing a novel and timely contribution to the evidence base for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. PMID:25179587

  5. Structural Insights into Membrane Targeting by the Flagellar Calcium-binding Protein (FCaBP) a Myristoylated and Palmitoylated Calcium Sensor in Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    J Wingard; J Ladner; M Vanarotti; A Fisher; H Robinson; K Buchanan; D Engman; J Ames

    2011-12-31

    The flagellar calcium-binding protein (FCaBP) of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is targeted to the flagellar membrane where it regulates flagellar function and assembly. As a first step toward understanding the Ca{sup 2+}-induced conformational changes important for membrane-targeting, we report here the x-ray crystal structure of FCaBP in the Ca{sup 2+}-free state determined at 2.2{angstrom} resolution. The first 17 residues from the N terminus appear unstructured and solvent-exposed. Residues implicated in membrane targeting (Lys-19, Lys-22, and Lys-25) are flanked by an exposed N-terminal helix (residues 26-37), forming a patch of positive charge on the protein surface that may interact electrostatically with flagellar membrane targets. The four EF-hands in FCaBP each adopt a 'closed conformation' similar to that seen in Ca{sup 2+}-free calmodulin. The overall fold of FCaBP is closest to that of grancalcin and other members of the penta EF-hand superfamily. Unlike the dimeric penta EF-hand proteins, FCaBP lacks a fifth EF-hand and is monomeric. The unstructured N-terminal region of FCaBP suggests that its covalently attached myristoyl group at the N terminus may be solvent-exposed, in contrast to the highly sequestered myristoyl group seen in recoverin and GCAP1. NMR analysis demonstrates that the myristoyl group attached to FCaBP is indeed solvent-exposed in both the Ca{sup 2+}-free and Ca{sup 2+}-bound states, and myristoylation has no effect on protein structure and folding stability. We propose that exposed acyl groups at the N terminus may anchor FCaBP to the flagellar membrane and that Ca{sup 2+}-induced conformational changes may control its binding to membrane-bound protein targets..

  6. FireMaster BP-6: fractionation, metabolic and enzyme induction studies.

    PubMed

    Safe, S; Kohli, J; Crawford, A

    1978-04-01

    FireMaster BP-6 is a commercial polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) preparation containing a complex mixture of isomers with the major component being identified as 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl. Column chromatographic techniques have been developed in which the crude FireMaster is separated into three fractions, F1, F2, and F3, in increasing order of polarity. F1 consists of highly purified 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (94%) whereas F2-F3 contain less of this isomer and correspondingly more of the other bromobiphenyl components. Previously we have shown that crude FireMaster BP-6 is metabolized in mammals to give hydroxylated degradation products and the metabolism of F1, not unexpectedly, gives comparable results. It is well known that PBBs are effective inducers of diverse microsomal enzymes including including the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) system. The effects of FireMaster BP-6 and F1-F3 as AHH inducers have been investigated by using the following approach: the substrates used to monitor AHH activity are model halogenated aromatic compounds; the levels of metabolites and metabolite conjugates formed have been quantitated for control and induced enzymes; the levels of macromolecular adducts have also been quantitated for the inducers. This approach thus not only measures the rate of increase of detoxification products (metabolites and metabolite conjugates) but also monitors the macromolecule adduct formation which represents a toxification route. The effects of the PBBs as AHH inducers will be discussed in terms of the above approach.

  7. Dufulin Activates HrBP1 to Produce Antiviral Responses in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Zeng, Mengjiao; Song, Baoan; Hou, Chengrui; Hu, Deyu; Li, Xiangyang; Wang, Zhenchao; Fan, Huitao; Bi, Liang; Liu, Jiaju; Yu, Dandan; Jin, Linhong; Yang, Song

    2012-01-01

    Background Dufulin is a new antiviral agent that is highly effective against plant viruses and acts by activating systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants. In recent years, it has been used widely to prevent and control tobacco and rice viral diseases in China. However, its targets and mechanism of action are still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and classical two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) techniques were combined with mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the target of Dufulin. More than 40 proteins were found to be differentially expressed (≥1.5 fold or ≤1.5 fold) upon Dufulin treatment in Nicotiana tabacum K326. Based on annotations in the Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, these proteins were found to be related to disease resistance. Directed acyclic graph (DAG) analysis of the various pathways demonstrated harpin binding protein-1 (HrBP1) as the target of action of Dufulin. Additionally, western blotting, semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and real time PCR analyses were also conducted to identify the specific mechanism of action of Dufulin. Our results show that activation of HrBP1 triggers the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway and thereby produces antiviral responses in the plant host. A protective assay based on lesion counting further confirmed the antiviral activity of Dufulin. Conclusion This study identified HrBP1 as a target protein of Dufulin and that Dufulin can activate the SA signaling pathway to induce host plants to generate antiviral responses. PMID:22662252

  8. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  9. Levels of the E2 interacting protein TopBP1 modulate papillomavirus maintenance stage replication

    SciTech Connect

    Kanginakudru, Sriramana; DeSmet, Marsha; Thomas, Yanique; Morgan, Iain M.; Androphy, Elliot J.

    2015-04-15

    The evolutionarily conserved DNA topoisomerase II beta-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) functions in DNA replication, DNA damage response, and cell survival. We analyzed the role of TopBP1 in human and bovine papillomavirus genome replication. Consistent with prior reports, TopBP1 co-localized in discrete nuclear foci and was in complex with papillomavirus E2 protein. Similar to E2, TopBP1 is recruited to the region of the viral origin of replication during G1/S and early S phase. TopBP1 knockdown increased, while over-expression decreased transient virus replication, without affecting cell cycle. Similarly, using cell lines harboring HPV-16 or HPV-31 genome, TopBP1 knockdown increased while over-expression reduced viral copy number relative to genomic DNA. We propose a model in which TopBP1 serves dual roles in viral replication: it is essential for initiation of replication yet it restricts viral copy number. - Highlights: • Protein interaction study confirmed In-situ interaction between TopBP1 and E2. • TopBP1 present at papillomavirus ori in G1/S and early S phase of cell cycle. • TopBP1 knockdown increased, over-expression reduced virus replication. • TopBP1 protein level change did not influence cell survival or cell cycle. • TopBP1 displaced from papillomavirus ori after initiation of replication.

  10. Heritability of HR and BP Response To Exercise Training in the HERITAGE Family Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Treva; Gagnon, Jacques; Leon, Arthur S.; Skinner, James S.; Wilmore, Jack H.; Bouchard, Claude; Rao, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the heritability of response to exercise training in resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) among sedentary Caucasians comprising 98 families who completed an exercise training program. Results indicated that the trainability of systolic BP and HR in families with elevated BP was partially determined by genetic factors. Diastolic…

  11. Modification over time of pulse wave velocity parallel to changes in aortic BP, as well as in 24-h ambulatory brachial BP.

    PubMed

    Oliveras, A; Segura, J; Suarez, C; García-Ortiz, L; Abad-Cardiel, M; Vigil, L; Gómez-Marcos, M A; Sans Atxer, L; Martell-Claros, N; Ruilope, L M; de la Sierra, A

    2016-03-01

    Arterial stiffness as assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is a marker of preclinical organ damage and a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes, independently of blood pressure (BP). However, limited evidence exists on the association between long-term variation (Δ) on aortic BP (aoBP) and ΔcfPWV. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of ΔBP with ΔcfPWV over time, as assessed by office and 24-h ambulatory peripheral BP, and aoBP. AoBP and cfPWV were evaluated in 209 hypertensive patients with either diabetes or metabolic syndrome by applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor) at baseline(b) and at 12 months of follow-up(fu). Peripheral BP was also determined by using validated oscillometric devices (office(o)-BP) and on an outpatient basis by using a validated (Spacelabs-90207) device (24-h ambulatory BP). ΔcfPWV over time was calculated as follows: ΔcfPWV=[(cfPWVfu-cfPWVb)/cfPWVb] × 100. ΔBP over time resulted from the same formula applied to BP values obtained with the three different measurement techniques. Correlations (Spearman 'Rho') between ΔBP and ΔcfPWV were calculated. Mean age was 62 years, 39% were female and 80% had type 2 diabetes. Baseline office brachial BP (mm Hg) was 143±20/82±12. Follow-up (12 months later) office brachial BP (mm Hg) was 136±20/79±12. ΔcfPWV correlated with ΔoSBP (Rho=0.212; P=0.002), Δ24-h SBP (Rho=0.254; P<0.001), Δdaytime SBP (Rho=0.232; P=0.001), Δnighttime SBP (Rho=0.320; P<0.001) and ΔaoSBP (Rho=0.320; P<0.001). A multiple linear regression analysis included the following independent variables: ΔoSBP, Δ24-h SBP, Δdaytime SBP, Δnighttime SBP and ΔaoSBP. ΔcfPWV was independently associated with Δ24-h SBP (β-coefficient=0.195; P=0.012) and ΔaoSBP (β-coefficient= 0.185; P=0.018). We conclude that changes in both 24-h SBP and aoSBP more accurately reflect changes in arterial stiffness than do office BP measurements.

  12. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  13. Protease-sensitive prions with 144-bp insertion mutations

    PubMed Central

    Puoti, Gianfranco; Yuan, Jue; Qing, Liuting; Wang, Heming; Kong, Qingzhong; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Zou, Wen-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Insertion of 144-base pair (bp) containing six extra octapeptide repeats between residues 51 and 91 of prion protein (PrP) gene is associated with inherited prion diseases. Most cases linked to this insertion examined by Western blotting showed detectable proteinase K-resistant PrPSc (rPrPSc) resembling PrPSc type 1 and type 2 in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), or PrP7-8 in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease. However, cases lacking detectable rPrPSc also have been reported. Which PrP conformer is associated with neuropathological changes in the cases without detectable rPrPSc remains to be determined. Here we report that while all six but one subjects with the 144-bp insertion mutations examined display the pathognomonic PrP patches in the cerebellum, one of them exhibits no detectable typical rPrPSc even in PrPSc-enriched preparations. Instead, a large amount of abnormal PrP is captured from this case by gene 5 protein and sodium phosphotungstate, reagents that have been proved to specifically capture abnormal PrP. All captured abnormal PrP from the cerebellum and other brain regions is virtually sensitive to PK-digestion (termed sPrPSc). The presence of the predominant sPrPSc but absence of rPrPSc in this 144-bp insertion-linked inherited CJD case suggests that mutant sPrPSc is the main component of the PrP deposit patches and sPrPSc is sufficient to cause neurotoxicity and prion disease. PMID:23515139

  14. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9{times}10{sup {minus}5}.

  15. Evaluation of BP-ONJ in osteopenic and healthy sheep: comparing ZTE-MRI with µCT

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Pit; Ludwig, Ute; Poxleitner, Philipp; Bergmaier, Veronika; El-Shafi, Nora; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Stadelmann, Vincent; Hövener, Jan-Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (BP-ONJ) is a side effect of antiresorptive treatment that is increasingly prescribed for patients with osteoporosis or malignant diseases with bone metastases. Surgical treatment of BP-ONJ requires adequate pre-operative imaging. To date, CT is the imaging standard in clinical routine; however, defining the extent of the pathological area is difficult and soft tissues are poorly displayed. MRI with zero echo time (ZTE-MRI) to display hard tissues enables a precise display of calcified structures and soft tissues for the delineation of bone necrosis and soft-tissue reactions. Methods: BP-ONJ was induced in eight sheep by extraction of two premolars in the left mandible and zoledronate (ZOL) administration. Eight sheep without ZOL administration served as the control group. Four sheep of each main group underwent osteopenia induction via ovariectomy, glucocorticoid administration and a calcium-free diet. After sacrifice, the area of tooth extraction was harvested and scanned with micro-CT (µCT) and ZTE-MRI. Two trained dentists analyzed digital imaging and communications in medicine data sets using three-dimensional imaging software. The periosteal reaction and the remaining extraction sockets were measured. Results: BP-ONJ was evident, and the remaining extraction sockets were observed in all animals treated with ZOL. Periosteal reactions were more pronounced in animals treated with ZOL, and they appeared broader in ZTE-MRI. Conclusions: BP-ONJ lesions in the sheep mandible can be detected using µCT and ZTE-MRI. Although illustration of sequester was more consistent using the µCT, ZTE-MRI was advantageous in evaluation of periosteal reaction. PMID:26846710

  16. Risk assessment of logistics outsourcing based on BP neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Tian, Zi-you

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the risk of the enterprises logistics outsourcing. To get this goal, the paper first analysed he main risks existing in the logistics outsourcing, and then set up a risk evaluation index system of the logistics outsourcing; second applied BP neural network into the logistics outsourcing risk evaluation and used MATLAB to the simulation. It proved that the network error is small and has strong practicability. And this method can be used by enterprises to evaluate the risks of logistics outsourcing.

  17. CEBAF Accelerator Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Y. C.; Drury, M.; Hovater, C.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G. A.; Poelker, M.; Reece, C.; Tiefenback, M.

    2011-05-01

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  18. An Interaction between Human Papillomavirus 16 E2 and TopBP1 Is Required for Optimum Viral DNA Replication and Episomal Genome Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Mary M.; Mackintosh, Lorna J.; Bodily, Jason M.; Dornan, Edward S.; Laimins, Laimonis A.

    2012-01-01

    In human papillomavirus DNA replication, the viral protein E2 forms homodimers and binds to 12-bp palindromic DNA sequences surrounding the origin of DNA replication. Via a protein-protein interaction, it then recruits the viral helicase E1 to an A/T-rich origin of replication, whereupon a dihexamer forms, resulting in DNA replication initiation. In order to carry out DNA replication, the viral proteins must interact with host factors that are currently not all known. An attractive cellular candidate for regulating viral replication is TopBP1, a known interactor of the E2 protein. In mammalian DNA replication, TopBP1 loads DNA polymerases onto the replicative helicase after the G1-to-S transition, and this process is tightly cell cycle controlled. The direct interaction between E2 and TopBP1 would allow E2 to bypass this cell cycle control, resulting in DNA replication more than once per cell cycle, which is a requirement for the viral life cycle. We report here the generation of an HPV16 E2 mutant compromised in TopBP1 interaction in vivo and demonstrate that this mutant retains transcriptional activation and repression functions but has suboptimal DNA replication potential. Introduction of this mutant into a viral life cycle model results in the failure to establish viral episomes. The results present a potential new antiviral target, the E2-TopBP1 interaction, and increase our understanding of the viral life cycle, suggesting that the E2-TopBP1 interaction is essential. PMID:22973044

  19. Spontaneous 8bp Deletion in Nbeal2 Recapitulates the Gray Platelet Syndrome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tomberg, Kärt; Khoriaty, Rami; Westrick, Randal J.; Fairfield, Heather E.; Reinholdt, Laura G.; Brodsky, Gary L.; Davizon-Castillo, Pavel; Ginsburg, David; Di Paola, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    During the analysis of a whole genome ENU mutagenesis screen for thrombosis modifiers, a spontaneous 8 base pair (bp) deletion causing a frameshift in exon 27 of the Nbeal2 gene was identified. Though initially considered as a plausible thrombosis modifier, this Nbeal2 mutation failed to suppress the synthetic lethal thrombosis on which the original ENU screen was based. Mutations in NBEAL2 cause Gray Platelet Syndrome (GPS), an autosomal recessive bleeding disorder characterized by macrothrombocytopenia and gray-appearing platelets due to lack of platelet alpha granules. Mice homozygous for the Nbeal2 8 bp deletion (Nbeal2gps/gps) exhibit a phenotype similar to human GPS, with significantly reduced platelet counts compared to littermate controls (p = 1.63 x 10−7). Nbeal2gps/gps mice also have markedly reduced numbers of platelet alpha granules and an increased level of emperipolesis, consistent with previously characterized mice carrying targeted Nbeal2 null alleles. These findings confirm previous reports, provide an additional mouse model for GPS, and highlight the potentially confounding effect of background spontaneous mutation events in well-characterized mouse strains. PMID:26950939

  20. 53BP1 mediates productive and mutagenic DNA repair through distinct phosphoprotein interactions.

    PubMed

    Callen, Elsa; Di Virgilio, Michela; Kruhlak, Michael J; Nieto-Soler, Maria; Wong, Nancy; Chen, Hua-Tang; Faryabi, Robert B; Polato, Federica; Santos, Margarida; Starnes, Linda M; Wesemann, Duane R; Lee, Ji-Eun; Tubbs, Anthony; Sleckman, Barry P; Daniel, Jeremy A; Ge, Kai; Alt, Frederick W; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Nussenzweig, André

    2013-06-06

    The DNA damage response (DDR) protein 53BP1 protects DNA ends from excessive resection in G1, and thereby favors repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) as opposed to homologous recombination (HR). During S phase, BRCA1 antagonizes 53BP1 to promote HR. The pro-NHEJ and antirecombinase functions of 53BP1 are mediated in part by RIF1, the only known factor that requires 53BP1 phosphorylation for its recruitment to double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that a 53BP1 phosphomutant, 53BP18A, comprising alanine substitutions of the eight most N-terminal S/TQ phosphorylation sites, mimics 53BP1 deficiency by restoring genome stability in BRCA1-deficient cells yet behaves like wild-type 53BP1 with respect to immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR). 53BP18A recruits RIF1 but fails to recruit the DDR protein PTIP to DSBs, and disruption of PTIP phenocopies 53BP18A. We conclude that 53BP1 promotes productive CSR and suppresses mutagenic DNA repair through distinct phosphodependent interactions with RIF1 and PTIP.

  1. Development of and assay methodology for antibodies to benzo(a) pyrene (BP)

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, G.D.; Thomason, R.; Murchison, C.; St. Wecker, P.; Kurka, K.; Ambrose, K.R.

    1986-05-01

    Rabbits, rats and mice have been immunized with BP-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugates, administered subcutaneously in Freund's adjuvant. Activity and specificity of antisera preparations from immunized animals was determined by: Double immunodiffusion, passive hemagglutination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA). All techniques could be successfully used to demonstrate the presence of BP antibodies in immune sera. The fist three assays were used only with BP antigen coupled to a protein. If BSA was used, cross-reactivity against BSA was observed, but differences in extent of reactivity toward BP-BSA and BSA were readily apparent. Antisera from highly immune animals showed anti-BP reactivity at 1-10 x 10/sup 6/ dilutions in the ELISA assay, but did not produce positive reactions in the passive hemagglutination assay at >1:256 dilutions. The RIA assay was used with either /sup 14/C-or /sup 3/H-BP, and relied upon an activated charcoal separation step to effectively remove (>98% efficiency) free BP from antibody-bound BP. Using this RIA assay, estimates of amounts of BP antibodies in antisera (0.1-1% of the immunoglobulin fraction) and antibody specificity for BP structural determinants could be made. These antibodies may form the basis for a novel detection system for BP and/or other polycyclic compounds.

  2. A Structure-Adaptive Hybrid RBF-BP Classifier with an Optimized Learning Strategy.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hui; Xie, Weixin; Pei, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a structure-adaptive hybrid RBF-BP (SAHRBF-BP) classifier with an optimized learning strategy. SAHRBF-BP is composed of a structure-adaptive RBF network and a BP network of cascade, where the number of RBF hidden nodes is adjusted adaptively according to the distribution of sample space, the adaptive RBF network is used for nonlinear kernel mapping and the BP network is used for nonlinear classification. The optimized learning strategy is as follows: firstly, a potential function is introduced into training sample space to adaptively determine the number of initial RBF hidden nodes and node parameters, and a form of heterogeneous samples repulsive force is designed to further optimize each generated RBF hidden node parameters, the optimized structure-adaptive RBF network is used for adaptively nonlinear mapping the sample space; then, according to the number of adaptively generated RBF hidden nodes, the number of subsequent BP input nodes can be determined, and the overall SAHRBF-BP classifier is built up; finally, different training sample sets are used to train the BP network parameters in SAHRBF-BP. Compared with other algorithms applied to different data sets, experiments show the superiority of SAHRBF-BP. Especially on most low dimensional and large number of data sets, the classification performance of SAHRBF-BP outperforms other training SLFNs algorithms.

  3. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates CtBP1 and down-regulates its activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Youn; Kang, Byung-Hee; Lee, Soon-Min; Cho, Eun-Jung; Youn, Hong-Duk

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► AMPK phosphorylates CtBP1 on serine 158. ► AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CtBP1 causes the ubiquitination and nuclear export of CtBP1. ► AMPK downregulates the CtBP1-mediated repression of Bax transcription. -- Abstract: CtBP is a transcriptional repressor which plays a significant role in the regulation of cell proliferation and tumor progression. It was reported that glucose withdrawal causes induction of Bax due to the dissociation of CtBP from the Bax promoter. However, the precise mechanism involved in the regulation of CtBP still remains unclear. In this study, we found that an activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates CtBP1 on Ser-158 upon metabolic stresses. Moreover, AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CtBP1 (S158) attenuates the repressive function of CtBP1. We also confirmed that triggering activation of AMPK by various factors resulted in an increase of Bax gene expression. These findings provide connections of AMPK with CtBP1-mediated regulation of Bax expression for cell death under metabolic stresses.

  4. A Structure-Adaptive Hybrid RBF-BP Classifier with an Optimized Learning Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hui; Xie, Weixin; Pei, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a structure-adaptive hybrid RBF-BP (SAHRBF-BP) classifier with an optimized learning strategy. SAHRBF-BP is composed of a structure-adaptive RBF network and a BP network of cascade, where the number of RBF hidden nodes is adjusted adaptively according to the distribution of sample space, the adaptive RBF network is used for nonlinear kernel mapping and the BP network is used for nonlinear classification. The optimized learning strategy is as follows: firstly, a potential function is introduced into training sample space to adaptively determine the number of initial RBF hidden nodes and node parameters, and a form of heterogeneous samples repulsive force is designed to further optimize each generated RBF hidden node parameters, the optimized structure-adaptive RBF network is used for adaptively nonlinear mapping the sample space; then, according to the number of adaptively generated RBF hidden nodes, the number of subsequent BP input nodes can be determined, and the overall SAHRBF-BP classifier is built up; finally, different training sample sets are used to train the BP network parameters in SAHRBF-BP. Compared with other algorithms applied to different data sets, experiments show the superiority of SAHRBF-BP. Especially on most low dimensional and large number of data sets, the classification performance of SAHRBF-BP outperforms other training SLFNs algorithms. PMID:27792737

  5. Achieving Accountability in Cyberspace: Revolution or Evolution?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Achieving... types of controls and the rigid enforcement of compliance with those controls offer insights into the critical elements of a cyberspace accountability...result in a 100 mph collision. Why is it we do not drive in perpetual fear of collision with our hands clutching the wheel in a death grip and our

  6. Lack of association between HLA-G 14-bp polymorphism and systemic lupus erythematosus in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wu, F-X; Wu, L-J; Luo, X-Y; Tang, Z; Yang, M-H; Xie, C-M; Liu, N-T; Zhou, J-G; Guan, J-L; Yuan, G-H

    2009-12-01

    HLA-G is a non-classical HLA-class Ib molecule with multiple immunoregulatory properties. A 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the HLA-G gene has been suggested to influence the expression of HLA-G and to associate with certain pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases. We investigated the influence of the 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the HLA-G gene on disease susceptibility in systemic lupus erythematosus by genotyping this polymorphism in 231 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and 367 healthy controls and analyzing the levels of soluble HLA-G in a subset of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and healthy subjects from a Han Chinese population. No statistically significant differences were observed in the frequencies of the 14-bp insertion/deletion HLA-G alleles or genotypes between controls and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. However, a significant increased expression of soluble HLA-G was noted in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (mean value = 230.2 U/ml vs 118.3 U/ml in controls, p = 0.0001). Moreover, patients with high levels of soluble HLA-G presented with higher disease activity and had more neurological involvement. Our results do not support the HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism as a genetic factor influencing systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility. It is possible that the expression of soluble HLA-G in systemic lupus erythematosus is enhanced as part of a mechanism to try to restore the tolerance process towards auto-antigens and to counteract inflammation. However, the participation of this molecule in the pathological process of the disease also could not be excluded.

  7. SPECTROPOLARIMETRY OF THE CLASSICAL T TAURI STAR BP TAU

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Johns-Krull, Christopher M. E-mail: cmj@rice.edu

    2013-10-20

    We implement a least-squares deconvolution (LSD) code to study magnetic fields on cool stars. We first apply our code to high-resolution optical echelle spectra of 53 Cam (a magnetic Ap star) and three well-studied cool stars (Arcturus, 61 Cyg A, and ξ Boo A) as well as the Sun (by observing the asteroid Vesta) as tests of the code and the instrumentation. Our analysis is based on several hundred photospheric lines spanning the wavelength range 5000 Å to 9000 Å. We then apply our LSD code to six nights of data on the Classical T Tauri Star BP Tau. A maximum longitudinal field of 370 ± 80 G is detected from the photospheric lines on BP Tau. A 1.8 kG dipole tilted at 129° with respect to the rotation axis and a 1.4 kG octupole tilted at 104° with respect to the rotation axis, both with a filling factor of 0.25, best fit our LSD Stokes V profiles. Measurements of several emission lines (He I 5876 Å, Ca II 8498 Å, and 8542 Å) show the presence of strong magnetic fields in the line formation regions of these lines, which are believed to be the base of the accretion footpoints. The field strength measured from these lines shows night-to-night variability consistent with rotation of the star.

  8. Spectropolarimetry of the Classical T Tauri Star BP Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.

    2013-10-01

    We implement a least-squares deconvolution (LSD) code to study magnetic fields on cool stars. We first apply our code to high-resolution optical echelle spectra of 53 Cam (a magnetic Ap star) and three well-studied cool stars (Arcturus, 61 Cyg A, and ξ Boo A) as well as the Sun (by observing the asteroid Vesta) as tests of the code and the instrumentation. Our analysis is based on several hundred photospheric lines spanning the wavelength range 5000 Å to 9000 Å. We then apply our LSD code to six nights of data on the Classical T Tauri Star BP Tau. A maximum longitudinal field of 370 ± 80 G is detected from the photospheric lines on BP Tau. A 1.8 kG dipole tilted at 129° with respect to the rotation axis and a 1.4 kG octupole tilted at 104° with respect to the rotation axis, both with a filling factor of 0.25, best fit our LSD Stokes V profiles. Measurements of several emission lines (He I 5876 Å, Ca II 8498 Å, and 8542 Å) show the presence of strong magnetic fields in the line formation regions of these lines, which are believed to be the base of the accretion footpoints. The field strength measured from these lines shows night-to-night variability consistent with rotation of the star.

  9. Research on PGNAA adaptive analysis method with BP neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ke-Xin; Yang, Jian-Bo; Tuo, Xian-Guo; Du, Hua; Zhang, Rui-Xue

    2016-11-01

    A new approach method to dealing with the puzzle of spectral analysis in prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is developed and demonstrated. It consists of utilizing BP neural network to PGNAA energy spectrum analysis which is based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, the main tasks which we will accomplish as follows: (1) Completing the MC simulation of PGNAA spectrum library, we respectively set mass fractions of element Si, Ca, Fe from 0.00 to 0.45 with a step of 0.05 and each sample is simulated using MCNP. (2) Establishing the BP model of adaptive quantitative analysis of PGNAA energy spectrum, we calculate peak areas of eight characteristic gamma rays that respectively correspond to eight elements in each individual of 1000 samples and that of the standard sample. (3) Verifying the viability of quantitative analysis of the adaptive algorithm where 68 samples were used successively. Results show that the precision when using neural network to calculate the content of each element is significantly higher than the MCLLS.

  10. Effect of Dietary Protein Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiang; Wofford, Marion R.; Reynolds, Kristi; Chen, Jing; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Myers, Leann; Minor, Deborah L.; Elmer, Patricia J.; Jones, Daniel W.; Whelton, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Observational studies have reported an inverse association between dietary protein intake and blood pressure (BP). We compared the effect of soy protein, milk protein, and carbohydrate supplementation on BP among healthy adults. Methods and Results We conducted a randomized double-blind crossover trial with 3-intervention phases among 352 adults with prehypertension or stage-1 hypertension in New Orleans, Louisiana and Jackson, Mississippi from September 2003 to April 2008. The trial participants were assigned to take 40 grams/day of soy protein, milk protein, or carbohydrate supplementation each for 8 weeks in a random order. A 3-week washout period was implemented between the interventions. Three BPs were measured at 2 baseline and 2 termination visits during each of 3 intervention phases using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Compared to carbohydrate controls, soy protein and milk protein supplementations were significantly associated with −2.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval −3.2 to −0.7, p=0.002) and −2.3 mmHg (−3.7 to −1.0, p=0.0007) net change in systolic BP, respectively. Diastolic BP was also reduced but this change did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the BP reductions achieved between soy or milk protein supplementation. Conclusions The results from this randomized controlled trial indicate that both soy and milk protein intake reduce systolic BP compared to a high glycemic index refined carbohydrate among patients with prehypertension and stage-1 hypertension. Furthermore, these findings suggest that partially replacing carbohydrate with soy or milk protein might be an important component of nutrition intervention strategies for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. PMID:21768541

  11. Impact of GNB3-C825T, ADRB3-Trp64Arg, UCP2-3′UTR 45 bp del/ins, and PPARγ-Pro12Ala Polymorphisms on Bofutsushosan Response in Obese Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Park, Junghyun; Bose, Shambhunath; Hong, Sun-Woo; Lee, Dong-Ki; Yoo, Jae-Wook; Lim, Chi-Yeon; Lee, Myeongjong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is known to be influenced by a number of genes, including the β3 subunit of G protein (GNB3), β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the above genes, such as GNB3-C825T, ADRB3-Trp64Arg, UCP2-3′UTR 45 bp del/ins, and PPARγ-Pro12Ala, are associated with obesity and body mass index. The present study evaluates the impact of Bofutsushosan, a traditional Eastern Asian herbal medicine with known anti-obesity properties, on obese subjects according to the presence of the above-mentioned SNPs. Upon randomization, the volunteers were allocated to receive Bofutsushosan (n=55) or placebo (n=56) treatments for 8 weeks. Following the treatment schedule, significant reductions in total cholesterol and significant improvement in the Korean version of obesity-related quality of life scale were seen in the Bofutsushosan-treated group, but not in placebo. Bofutsushosan exerted significant anti-obesity effects on a number of parameters in the carriers of the GNB3-825T allele, but only on waist circumference in the GNB3-C/C homozygote. Significant anti-obesity impact of Bofutsushosan was also seen on a number of obesity-indices in both ADRB3-Arg64 carriers and ADRB3-Trp64 homozygotes, as well as in UCP2-D/D carriers, but not in UCP2-D/I+I/I variants. The effect of Bofutsushosan was more pronounced in PPARγ-Pro/Pro genotype compared to PPARγ-Pro/Ala variants. Thus, the results revealed differential responses of the subjects to the anti-obesity effects of Bofutsushosan treatment according to the polymorphism of the vital obesity-related genes. Our study provides new insight into individualized clinical applications of Bofutsushosan for obesity. PMID:24827746

  12. Achieving TASAR Operational Readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept for aircraft operations featuring a NASA-developed cockpit automation tool, the Traffic Aware Planner (TAP), which computes traffic/hazard-compatible route changes to improve flight efficiency. The TAP technology is anticipated to save fuel and flight time and thereby provide immediate and pervasive benefits to the aircraft operator, as well as improving flight schedule compliance, passenger comfort, and pilot and controller workload. Previous work has indicated the potential for significant benefits for TASAR-equipped aircraft, and a flight trial of the TAP software application in the National Airspace System has demonstrated its technical viability. This paper reviews previous and ongoing activities to prepare TASAR for operational use.

  13. The Effects of Learning Strategy Instruction on Achievement, Attitude, and Achievement Motivation in a Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin; Sahin, Mehmet; Acikgoz, Kamile Un

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the influence of learning strategy instruction on student teachers' physics achievement, attitude towards physics, and achievement motivation. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design with matching control group was used in the study. Two groups of student teachers (n = 75) who were enrolled in an introductory physics…

  14. Constructing and testing a self-help intervention program for high blood pressure control in Korean American seniors--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miyong T; Han, Hae-Ra; Park, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Hwayun; Kim, Kim B

    2006-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made in the reduction of overall cardiovascular risk factors in the United States during the last decade, controlling high blood pressure (HBP) remains a difficult task for many individuals. In particular, socially disadvantaged groups, such as new immigrants, and ethnic minority groups, such as Korean Americans, continue to struggle with this chronic disease and suffer unnecessary complications. We conducted a quasi-experimental study to test the efficacy of a self-help intervention program for HBP control in first-generation Korean American seniors with HBP. The intervention consisted of 3 concurrently administered components: (1) structured behavioral education on HBP management, (2) home blood pressure (BP) monitoring, and (3) monthly support groups facilitated by a bilingual nurse. Of the 49 Korean American seniors (> or =60 years old) who agreed to participate, 31 received the intervention and completed the follow-up interviews at 6 months. Final analysis of BP outcomes using repeated measures and postintervention data suggested that the self-help intervention was effective in significantly improving the proportion of individuals who achieved BP control (<140/90 mm Hg) and in lowering both systolic and diastolic BP in the sample. Specifically, the BP control rate, which was 29% at baseline, increased at 6 months to 69%. Likewise, the mean systolic and diastolic BP values of 142.7 and 87.1 mm Hg at baseline decreased to 129.3 and 75.3 mm Hg, respectively, after 6 months of follow-up. This improvement of the HBP control rate in the sample highlights the clinical efficacy of the self-help intervention for this traditionally underserved immigrant group.

  15. Pistachio Nut Consumption Modifies Systemic Hemodynamics, Increases Heart Rate Variability, and Reduces Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Well‐Controlled Type 2 Diabetes: a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sauder, Katherine A.; McCrea, Cindy E.; Ulbrecht, Jan S.; Kris‐Etherton, Penny M.; West, Sheila G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Managing cardiovascular risk factors is important for reducing vascular complications in type 2 diabetes, even in individuals who have achieved glycemic control. Nut consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk; however, there is mixed evidence about the effect of nuts on blood pressure (BP), and limited research on the underlying hemodynamics. This study assessed the effect of pistachio consumption on BP, systemic hemodynamics, and heart rate variability in adults with well‐controlled type 2 diabetes. Methods and Results We enrolled 30 adults (40 to 74 years) with type 2 diabetes in a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study. After a 2‐week run‐in period, participants consumed a low‐fat control diet (27% fat) containing low‐fat/high‐carbohydrate snacks and a moderate‐fat diet (33% fat) containing pistachios (20% of total energy) for 4 weeks each, separated by a 2‐week washout. Following each diet period, we assessed BP, systemic hemodynamics, and heart rate variability at rest and during acute mental stress, and, in a subset of participants (n=21), 24‐hour ambulatory BP. BP at rest and during stress did not differ between treatments. The pistachio diet significantly reduced total peripheral resistance (−3.7±2.9%, P=0.004), increased cardiac output (3.1±2.3%, P=0.002), and improved some measures of heart rate variability (all P<0.05). Systolic ambulatory BP was significantly reduced by 3.5±2.2 mm Hg (P=0.046) following the pistachio diet, with the greatest reduction observed during sleep (−5.7±2.6 mm Hg, P=0.052). Conclusions A moderate‐fat diet containing pistachios modestly improves some cardiovascular risk factors in adults with well‐controlled type 2 diabetes. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00956735. PMID:24980134

  16. Reaching Grid Parity Using BP Solar Crystalline Silicon Technology: A Systems Class Application

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Daniel W; Wohlgemuth, John; Carlson, David E; Clark, Roger F; Gleaton, Mark; Posbic, John P; Zahler, James

    2010-12-06

    The primary target market for this program was the residential and commercial PV markets, drawing on BP Solar's premium product and service offerings, brand and marketing strength, and unique routes to market. These two markets were chosen because: (1) in 2005 they represented more than 50% of the overall US PV market; (2) they are the two markets that will likely meet grid parity first; and (3) they are the two market segments in which product development can lead to the added value necessary to generate market growth before reaching grid parity. Federal investment in this program resulted in substantial progress toward the DOE TPP target, providing significant advancements in the following areas: (1) Lower component costs particularly the modules and inverters. (2) Increased availability and lower cost of silicon feedstock. (3) Product specifically developed for residential and commercial applications. (4) Reducing the cost of installation through optimization of the products. (5) Increased value of electricity in mid-term to drive volume increases, via the green grid technology. (6) Large scale manufacture of PV products in the US, generating increased US employment in manufacturing and installation. To achieve these goals BP Solar assembled a team that included suppliers of critical materials, automated equipment developers/manufacturers, inverter and other BOS manufacturers, a utility company, and University research groups. The program addressed all aspects of the crystalline silicon PV business from raw materials (particularly silicon feedstock) through installation of the system on the customers site. By involving the material and equipment vendors, we ensured that supplies of silicon feedstock and other PV specific materials like encapsulation materials (EVA and cover glass) will be available in the quantities required to meet the DOE goals of 5 to 10 GW of installed US PV by 2015 and at the prices necessary for PV systems to reach grid parity in 2015

  17. Recurrent 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 microdeletions and microduplications in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Picinelli, Chiara; Lintas, Carla; Piras, Ignazio Stefano; Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Brogna, Claudia; Persico, Antonio Maria

    2016-12-01

    Rare and common CNVs can contribute to the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. One of the recurrent genomic aberrations associated with these phenotypes and proposed as a susceptibility locus is the 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 CNV encompassing TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA2, and NIPA1. Characterizing by array-CGH a cohort of 243 families with various neurodevelopmental disorders, we identified five patients carrying the 15q11.2 duplication and one carrying the deletion. All CNVs were confirmed by qPCR and were inherited, except for one duplication where parents were not available. The phenotypic spectrum of CNV carriers was broad but mainly neurodevelopmental, in line with all four genes being implicated in axonal growth and neural connectivity. Phenotypically normal and mildly affected carriers complicate the interpretation of this aberration. This variability may be due to reduced penetrance or altered gene dosage on a particular genetic background. We evaluated the expression levels of the four genes in peripheral blood RNA and found the expected reduction in the deleted case, while duplicated carriers displayed high interindividual variability. These data suggest that differential expression of these genes could partially account for differences in clinical phenotypes, especially among duplication carriers. Furthermore, urinary Mg(2+) levels appear negatively correlated with NIPA2 gene copy number, suggesting they could potentially represent a useful biomarker, whose reliability will need replication in larger samples. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. An Analysis of the Rapidly Rotating Bp star HD 133880

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. D.; Grunhut, J.; Shultz, M.; Wade, G.; Landstreet, J. D.; Bohlender, D.; Lim, J.; Wong, K.; Drake, S.; Linsky, J.

    2012-01-01

    HD 133880 is a rapidly rotating chemically peculiar B-type (Bp) star (nu sin i approx = 103km/s) and is host to one of the strongest magnetic fields of any Ap/Bp star. A member of the Upper Centaurus Lupus association, it is a star with a well-determined age of 16 Myr. 12 new spectra, four of which are polarimetric, obtained from the FEROS, ESPaDOnS and HARPS instruments, provide sufficient material from which to re-evaluate the magnetic field and obtain a first approximation to the atmospheric abundance distributions of He, O, Mg, Si, Ti. Cr, Fe, Ni, Pr and Nd. An abundance analysis was carried out using ZEEMAN, a program which synthesizes spectral line profiles for stars with permeating magnetic fields. The magnetic field structure was characterized by a colinear multipole expansion from the observed variations of the longitudinal and surface fields with rotational phase. Both magnetic hemispheres are clearly visible during the stellar rotation, and thus a three-ring abundance distribution model encompassing both magnetic poles and magnetic equator with equal spans in colatitude was adopted. Using the new magnetic field measurements and optical photometry together with previously published data, we refine the period of HD 133880 to P = 0.877 476 +/- 0.000009 d. Our simple axisymmetric magnetic field model is based on a predominantly quadrupolar component that roughly describes the field variations. Using spectrum synthesis, we derived mean abundances for O, Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe and Pr. All elements; except Mg, are overabundant compared to the Son. Mg appears to be approximately uniform over the stellar surface, while all other elements are more abundant in the negative magnetic hemisphere than in the positive magnetic hemisphere. In contrast to most Ap/Bp stars which show an underabundance in 0, in HD 133880 this element is clearly overabundant compared to the solar abundance ratio. In studying the Ha and Paschen lines in the optical spectra, we could not

  19. Lifting Minority Achievement: Complex Answers. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This fourth in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist describes the Minority Achievement Committee scholars program at Shaker Heights High School in Cleveland, Ohio, a powerful antidote to the achievement gap between minority and white and Asian American students. It explains the need to break down stereotypes about academic…

  20. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  1. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  2. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  3. The rs11705701 G>A Polymorphism of IGF2BP2 is Associated With IGF2BP2 mRNA and Protein Levels in the Visceral Adipose Tissue - A Link to Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A.; Nikitin, Alexey G.; Smetanina, Svetlana A.; Bel'chikova, Larisa N.; Suplotova, Lyudmila A.; Shestakova, Marina V.; Nosikov, Valery V.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) regulates translation of IGF2, a growth factor that plays a key role in controlling fetal growth and organogenesis including adipogenesis and pancreatic development. In Caucasians, the rs4402960 G>T polymorphism of IGF2BP2 has been shown to predispose to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in multiple populations. In this study, we tested whether rs4402960 G>T and rs11705701 G>A contribute to the development of T2D in a Russian population. METHODS: Both markers were genotyped in Russian diabetic (n = 1,470) and non-diabetic patients (n = 1,447) using a Taqman allele discrimination assay. The odds ratio (OR) for the risk of developing T2D was calculated using logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model adjusted for age, sex, HbA1c, hypertension, obesity, and body mass index (BMI). Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to test genotype-phenotype correlations, and adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, obesity, and BMI. Expression of IGF2BP2 in the visceral adipose tissue was quantified using real-time PCR. The content of IGF2BP2 protein and both its isoforms (p58 and p66) in the adipose tissue was measured using Western blot analysis. RESULTS: There was no significant association between rs4402960 and T2D. Whereas, allele A of rs11705701 was associated with higher T2D risk (OR = 1.19, p < 0.001). Diabetic and non-diabetic carriers of genotype TT (rs4402960) had significantly increased HOMA-IR (p = 0.033 and p = 0.031, respectively). Non-diabetic patients homozygous for AA (rs11705701) had higher HOMA-IR (p = 0.04), lower HOMA-β (p = 0.012), and reduced 2-h insulin levels (p = 0.016). Non-obese individuals (diabetic and non-diabetic) homozygous for either AA (rs11705701) or TT (rs4402960) had higher levels of IGF2BP2 mRNA in the adipose tissue than other IGF2BP2 variants. Also, allele A of rs11705701 was associated with reduced amounts of the short isoform (p58) and increased levels of

  4. A Long-Term Experimental Case Study of the Ecological Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Invasive Plant Management in Achieving Conservation Goals: Bitou Bush Control in Booderee National Park in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmayer, David B.; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J.; Catford, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  5. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  6. Analysis of G3BP1 and VEZT Expression in Gastric Cancer and Their Possible Correlation with Tumor Clinicopathological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Beheshtizadeh, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to analyze G3BP1 and VEZT expression profiles in patients with gastric cancer, and examine the possible relationship between the expressions of each gene and clinicopathological factors. Materials and Methods Expression of these genes in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues, collected from 40 patients with gastric cancer and 40 healthy controls, was analyzed. Differences in gene expression among patient and normal samples were identified using the GraphPad Prism 5 software. For the analysis of real-time polymerase chain reaction products, GelQuantNET software was used. Results Our findings demonstrated that both VEZT and G3BP1 mRNA expression levels were downregulated in gastric cancer samples compared with those in the normal controls. No significant relationship was found between the expression of these genes and gender (P-value, 0.4835 vs. 0.6350), but there were significant changes associated with age (P-value, 0.0004 vs. 0.0001) and stage of disease (P-value, 0.0019 vs. 0.0001). In addition, there was a direct relationship between VEZT gene expression and metastasis (P-value, 0.0462), in contrast to G3BP1 that did not demonstrate any significant correlation (P-value, 0.1833). Conclusions The results suggest that expression profiling of VEZT and G3BP1 can be used for diagnosis of gastric cancer, and specifically, VEZT gene could be considered as a biomarker for the detection of gastric cancer progression. PMID:28337362

  7. Sustainable weight loss among overweight and obese lactating women is achieved with an energy-reduced diet in line with dietary recommendations: results from the LEVA randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bertz, Fredrik; Winkvist, Anna; Brekke, Hilde K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary changes during and after a dietary treatment shown to result in significant and sustained weight loss among lactating overweight and obese women. This is crucial before clinical implementation. Data were collected from the LEVA (in Swedish: Livsstil för Effektiv Viktminskning under Amning [Lifestyle for Effective Weight Loss During Lactation]) randomized controlled factorial trial with a 12-week intervention and a 1-year follow up. At 10 to 14 weeks postpartum, 68 lactating Swedish women with a prepregnancy body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) of 25 to 35 were randomized to structured dietary treatment, physical exercise treatment, combined treatment, or usual care (controls) for a 12-week intervention, with a 1-year follow-up. Dietary intake was assessed with 4-day weighed dietary records. Recruitment took place between 2007 and 2010. The main outcome measures were changes in macro- and micronutrient intake from baseline to 12 weeks and 1 year. Main and interaction effects of the treatments were analyzed by a 2×2 factorial approach using a General Linear Model adjusted for relevant covariates (baseline intake and estimated underreporting). It was found that at baseline, the women had an intake of fat and sucrose above, and an intake of total carbohydrates and fiber below, recommended levels. At 12 weeks and 1 year, the dietary treatment led to reduced intake of energy (P<0.001 and P=0.005, respectively), fat (both P values <0.001), and sucrose (P<0.001 and P=0.050). At 12 weeks, total carbohydrates were reduced (P<0.001). A majority of women in all groups reported low intakes of vitamin D, folate, and/or iron. In conclusion, a novel dietary treatment led to reduced intake of fat and carbohydrates. Diet composition changed to decreased proportions of fat and sucrose, and increased proportions of complex carbohydrates, protein and fiber. Weight loss through dietary treatment was achieved with a diet in line with

  8. BRCA1 Directs the Repair Pathway to Homologous Recombination by Promoting 53BP1 Dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Isono, Mayu; Niimi, Atsuko; Oike, Takahiro; Hagiwara, Yoshihiko; Sato, Hiro; Sekine, Ryota; Yoshida, Yukari; Isobe, Shin-Ya; Obuse, Chikashi; Nishi, Ryotaro; Petricci, Elena; Nakada, Shinichiro; Nakano, Takashi; Shibata, Atsushi

    2017-01-10

    BRCA1 promotes homologous recombination (HR) by activating DNA-end resection. By contrast, 53BP1 forms a barrier that inhibits DNA-end resection. Here, we show that BRCA1 promotes DNA-end resection by relieving the 53BP1-dependent barrier. We show that 53BP1 is phosphorylated by ATM in S/G2 phase, promoting RIF1 recruitment, which inhibits resection. 53BP1 is promptly dephosphorylated and RIF1 released, despite remaining unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). When resection is impaired by CtIP/MRE11 endonuclease inhibition, 53BP1 phosphorylation and RIF1 are sustained due to ongoing ATM signaling. BRCA1 depletion also sustains 53BP1 phosphorylation and RIF1 recruitment. We identify the phosphatase PP4C as having a major role in 53BP1 dephosphorylation and RIF1 release. BRCA1 or PP4C depletion impairs 53BP1 repositioning, EXO1 recruitment, and HR progression. 53BP1 or RIF1 depletion restores resection, RAD51 loading, and HR in PP4C-depleted cells. Our findings suggest that BRCA1 promotes PP4C-dependent 53BP1 dephosphorylation and RIF1 release, directing repair toward HR.

  9. Role of the Bp35 cell surface polypeptide in human B-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, E A; Shu, G; Ledbetter, J A

    1985-01-01

    A 35-kDa polypeptide, Bp35, expressed on the surface of all B cells, plays a role in B-cell activation. Monoclonal antibodies to Bp35 stimulate human tonsillar B cells to proliferate. The activation induced by anti-Bp35 is similar to anti-Ig-mediated in several ways: the activation does not require T cells but is augmented by T-cell-derived allogeneic factors; monovalent Fab fragments to Bp35 do not trigger proliferation but instead block activation by whole antibody, indicating that cross-linking is required; and induction by anti-Bp35, like the induction by anti-Ig, is inhibited by monoclonal anti-IgM via an Fc domain-dependent mechanism. However, several features of anti-Bp35-mediated proliferation are clearly different from activation by anti-Ig: anti-Bp35 monoclonal antibodies do not require attachment to beads to function, the proliferation induced by anti-Bp35 and anti-Ig is additive, and Fab fragments of anti-Bp35 augment proliferation induced by anti-Ig. Models for the possible function of the Bp35 polypeptide as either a "bridge" or a "second signal" with surface Ig in B-cell activation are discussed. PMID:3872456

  10. Identify Melatonin as a Novel Therapeutic Reagent in the Treatment of 1-Bromopropane(1-BP) Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongpeng; Wang, Shuo; Jiang, Lulu; Wang, Hui; Yang, Yilin; Li, Ming; Wang, Xujing; Zhao, Xiulan; Xie, Keqin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract 1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been used as an alternative for fluoride compounds and 1-BP intoxication may involve lung, liver, and central neural system (CNS). Our previous studies showed that 1-BP impaired memory ability by compromising antioxidant cellular defenses. Melatonin is a powerful endogenous antioxidant, and the objective of this study was to explore the therapeutic role of melatonin in the treatment of 1-BP intoxication. Rats were intragastrically treated with 1-BP with or without melatonin, and then sacrificed on 27th day after 1-BP administration. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate the spatial learning and memory ability of the experimental animals, and NeuN staining was performed to assess neuron loss in hippocampus. We found that rats treated with 1-BP spent more time and swam longer distance before landing on the hidden platform with a comparable swimming speed, which was markedly mitigated by the pretreatment with melatonin in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, 1-BP-induced notable decrease in neuron population in hippocampus by promoting apoptosis, and melatonin pretreatment attenuated those changes in brain. The GSH/GSSG ratio was proportionately decreased and heme oxygenase 1 was increased in the rats exposed to 1-BP (Figure 6), and administration of melatonin restored them. Meanwhile, MDA, the level of lipid peroxidation product, was significantly increased upon exposed to 1-BP, which was significantly attenuated by melatonin pretreatment, indicating that administration of 1-BP could interfere with redox homeostasis of brain in rat, and such 1-BP-induced biomedical changes were reversed by treatment with melatonin. We conclude that treatment with melatonin attenuates 1-BP-induced CNS toxicity through its ROS scavenging effect. PMID:26817862

  11. Identify Melatonin as a Novel Therapeutic Reagent in the Treatment of 1-Bromopropane(1-BP) Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongpeng; Wang, Shuo; Jiang, Lulu; Wang, Hui; Yang, Yilin; Li, Ming; Wang, Xujing; Zhao, Xiulan; Xie, Keqin

    2016-01-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been used as an alternative for fluoride compounds and 1-BP intoxication may involve lung, liver, and central neural system (CNS). Our previous studies showed that 1-BP impaired memory ability by compromising antioxidant cellular defenses. Melatonin is a powerful endogenousantioxidant, and the objective of this study was to explore the therapeutic role of melatonin in the treatment of 1-BP intoxication. Rats were intragastrically treated with 1-BP with or without melatonin, and then sacrificed on 27th day after 1-BP administration. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate the spatial learning and memory ability of the experimental animals, and NeuN staining was performed to assess neuron loss in hippocampus. We found that rats treated with 1-BP spent more time and swam longer distance before landing on the hidden platform with a comparable swimming speed, which was markedly mitigated by the pretreatment with melatonin in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, 1-BP-induced notable decrease in neuron population in hippocampus by promoting apoptosis, and melatonin pretreatment attenuated those changes in brain. The GSH/GSSG ratio was proportionately decreased and heme oxygenase 1 was increased in the rats exposed to 1-BP (Figure 6), and administration of melatonin restored them. Meanwhile, MDA, the level of lipid peroxidation product, was significantly increased upon exposed to 1-BP, which was significantly attenuated by melatonin pretreatment, indicating that administration of 1-BP could interfere with redox homeostasis of brain in rat, and such 1-BP-induced biomedical changes were reversed by treatment with melatonin.We conclude that treatment with melatonin attenuates 1-BP-induced CNS toxicity through its ROS scavenging effect.

  12. Blood pressure goal achievement with olmesartan medoxomil-based treatment: additional analysis of the OLMEBEST study

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Calderon, Alberto; Böhm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aims Guidelines recommend blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients should be <140 systolic BP (SBP) and <90 diastolic BP (DBP) mmHg. This analysis assessed goal rate achievement in hypertensive patients receiving olmesartan-based treatment in the OLMEBEST study. Methods Patients with essential hypertension (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg and <110 mmHg) received open-label olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg/day (n = 2306). After 8 weeks, patients with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg (n = 627) were randomized to 4 weeks’ double-blind treatment with olmesartan 40 mg/day monotherapy or olmesartan 20 mg/day plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg/day. For this analysis, the numbers and proportions of patients who achieved SBP < 140 mmHg and/or DBP < 90 mmHg at the end of the 4 weeks were calculated. Results In patients who achieved DBP normalization (<90 mmHg) at week 8 (n = 1546) and continued open-label olmesartan 20 mg/day, 66.7% achieved SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. In patients who did not achieve DBP normalization at Week 8, 26.8% of those randomized to olmesartan 40 mg/day and 42.5% of those randomized to olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day achieved a SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. Conclusion Olmesartan 40 mg/day and olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day allow substantial proportions of patients to achieve BP goals. PMID:19756164

  13. Characterization of the Particulate Emissions from the BP ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Opportunistic particle samples were gathered from the sail of a tethered aerostat during at-sea plume sampling of the purposely-burned surface oil during the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Particles were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), metals, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Emission factors were calculated using previous sampling values of background-adjusted CO2 and particulate matter (PM)-bound C. The mean of five thermal-optical analyses indicated that the burned crude oil particulate matter was 93% carbon (w/w) with the predominance being refractory elemental carbon (82% w/w) on average. PAHs accounted for roughly 60 ug/g of the PM mass or 4.5 mg/kg oil burned, at least an order of magnitude less than earlier laboratory based studies. Microscopy indicates that the soot from the in situ oil burns is distinct from more common soot by its aggregate size, primary particle size, and nanostructure within the primary particles. The PCDD/PCDF concentration of the PM was 1.5 to 3.3 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/kg PM sampled, about 10-fold lower than from a previous dedicated gas/solid sample, indicating loss of small particle-bound and more volatile PCDD/PCDF congeners through the aerostat sail. This work presents an analysis of smoke particles opportunistically caught during the in situ surface oil burns during the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon di

  14. Multiple geographic sources of region V 9-bp deletion haplotypes in Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Alves-Silva, J; Santos, M S; Pena, S D; Prado, V F

    1999-04-01

    We investigated 245 white Brazilians for the presence of the 9-bp deletion in the intergenic COII/tRNALys region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and found the deletion in 21 individuals (8.6% of the sample). Because white Brazilians are believed to be predominantly of European descent and this marker is rare in Europe, we established the geographic origin of these 21 mtDNA sequences by sequencing the hypervariable segment I of the mtDNA control region and by performing an RFLP analysis. Only 1 European mtDNA lineage was identified. On the other hand, 16 of the individuals had matrilineages of Amerindian origin and 4 had African mtDNA haplotypes. These results demonstrate that in the formation of the present-day white Brazilian population there was a significant contribution of Amerindian and African matrilineages. Although these data initially appear surprising, they agree well with the historical records of Brazilian colonization.

  15. Achievements in Stratospheric Ozone Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes achievements in protecting the ozone layer, the benefits of these achievements, and strategies involved (e.g., using alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, phasing out harmful substances, and creating partnerships).

  16. Porcine SOX9 Gene Expression Is Influenced by an 18 bp Indel in the 5'-Untranslated Region.

    PubMed

    Brenig, Bertram; Duan, Yanyu; Xing, Yuyun; Ding, Nengshui; Huang, Lusheng; Schütz, Ekkehard

    2015-01-01

    Sex determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) is an important regulator of sex and skeletal development and is expressed in a variety of embryonal and adult tissues. Loss or gain of function resulting from mutations within the coding region or chromosomal aberrations of the SOX9 locus lead to a plethora of detrimental phenotypes in humans and animals. One of these phenotypes is the so-called male-to-female or female-to-male sex-reversal which has been observed in several mammals including pig, dog, cat, goat, horse, and deer. In 38,XX sex-reversal French Large White pigs, a genome-wide association study suggested SOX9 as the causal gene, although no functional mutations were identified in affected animals. However, besides others an 18 bp indel had been detected in the 5'-untranslated region of the SOX9 gene by comparing affected animals and controls. We have identified the same indel (Δ18) between position +247 bp and +266 bp downstream the transcription start site of the porcine SOX9 gene in four other pig breeds; i.e., German Large White, Laiwu Black, Bamei, and Erhualian. These animals have been genotyped in an attempt to identify candidate genes for porcine inguinal and/or scrotal hernia. Because the 18 bp segment in the wild type 5'-UTR harbours a highly conserved cAMP-response element (CRE) half-site, we analysed its role in SOX9 expression in vitro. Competition and immunodepletion electromobility shift assays demonstrate that the CRE half-site is specifically recognized by CREB. Both binding of CREB to the wild type as well as the absence of the CRE half-site in Δ18 reduced expression efficiency in HEK293T, PK-15, and ATDC5 cells significantly. Transfection experiments of wild type and Δ18 SOX9 promoter luciferase constructs show a significant reduction of RNA and protein levels depending on the presence or absence of the 18 bp segment. Hence, the data presented here demonstrate that the 18 bp indel in the porcine SOX9 5'-UTR is of functional importance and may

  17. Regulation of pairing between broken DNA-containing chromatin regions by Ku80, DNA-PKcs, ATM, and 53BP1

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Shibata, Atsushi; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Niimi, Atsuko; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Miwa; Hirakawa, Miyako; Tsujita, Keiko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Matsuda, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Chromosome rearrangement is clinically and physiologically important because it can produce oncogenic fusion genes. Chromosome rearrangement requires DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at two genomic locations and misrejoining between the DSBs. Before DSB misrejoining, two DSB-containing chromatin regions move and pair with each other; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is largely unknown. We performed a spatiotemporal analysis of ionizing radiation-induced foci of p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1), a marker for DSB-containing chromatin. We found that some 53BP1 foci were paired, indicating that the two damaged chromatin regions neighboured one another. We searched for factors regulating the foci pairing and found that the number of paired foci increased when Ku80, DNA-PKcs, or ATM was absent. In contrast, 53BP1 depletion reduced the number of paired foci and dicentric chromosomes—an interchromosomal rearrangement. Foci were paired more frequently in heterochromatin than in euchromatin in control cells. Additionally, the reduced foci pairing in 53BP1-depleted cells was rescued by concomitant depletion of a heterochromatin building factor such as Krüppel-associated box-associated protein 1 or chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 3. These findings indicate that pairing between DSB-containing chromatin regions was suppressed by Ku80, DNA-PKcs, and ATM, and this pairing was promoted by 53BP1 through chromatin relaxation. PMID:28155885

  18. Lamin A/C-dependent interaction with 53BP1 promotes cellular responses to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Markiewicz, Ewa; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels; Hutchison, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Lamins A/C have been implicated in DNA damage response pathways. We show that the DNA repair protein 53BP1 is a lamin A/C binding protein. In undamaged human dermal fibroblasts (HDF), 53BP1 is a nucleoskeleton protein. 53BP1 binds to lamins A/C via its Tudor domain, and this is abrogated by DNA damage. Lamins A/C regulate 53BP1 levels and consequently lamin A/C-null HDF display a 53BP1 null-like phenotype. Our data favour a model in which lamins A/C maintain a nucleoplasmic pool of 53BP1 in order to facilitate its rapid recruitment to sites of DNA damage and could explain why an absence of lamin A/C accelerates aging. PMID:25645366

  19. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  20. Multi-ethnic differences in HbA1c, blood pressure, and low-density-lipid cholesterol control among South Africans living with type 2 diabetes, after a 4-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Pinchevsky, Yacob; Shukla, Varada J; Butkow, Neil; Chirwa, Tobias; Raal, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our study set out to examine if disparities in control of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) existed among an urban multi-ethnic cohort of South Africans, living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients and methods This longitudinal, retrospective study consisted of 261 men and women with previously diagnosed T2DM who attended Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, South Africa across two time periods 2009 and 2013. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from consecutive medical records. The primary outcome was to determine achievements in HbA1c, BP, and LDL-C among ethnic groups using evidence-based goals. Results The mean age of the cohort was 64 (±10.6) years, females represented 55%, and the self-reported diabetes duration was 16 (±10.6) years as at 2013. Black Africans (42.9%, n=112 of 261) were more likely to reach the HbA1c target (<7%) and less likely to have had retinopathy, nephropathy, or cardiovascular disease. Over two-thirds of mixed-ancestry patients attained the BP target (<140/80 mmHg), while 90.2% of Caucasians achieved LDL-C goals (<2.5 mmol/L). Overall, across the ethnic groups studied, we found that HbA1c control deteriorated over time, although BP levels remained the same and LDL-C levels drastically improved. Conclusion There was poor control of HbA1c, BP, and LDL-C across all ethnic groups. Although a minority achieved recommended targets, some ethnic groups appeared to have worse control than others. Timely aggressive actions in particularly high-risk ethnic groups will prevent/delay the complications commonly associated with T2DM. PMID:27895508