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Sample records for achieve bp control

  1. Mutation particle swarm optimization of the BP-PID controller for piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huaqing; Jiang, Minlan

    2016-01-01

    PID control is the most common used method in industrial control because its structure is simple and it is easy to implement. PID controller has good control effect, now it has been widely used. However, PID method has a few limitations. The overshoot of the PID controller is very big. The adjustment time is long. When the parameters of controlled plant are changing over time, the parameters of controller could hardly change automatically to adjust to changing environment. Thus, it can't meet the demand of control quality in the process of controlling piezoelectric ceramic. In order to effectively control the piezoelectric ceramic and improve the control accuracy, this paper replaced the learning algorithm of the BP with the mutation particle swarm optimization algorithm(MPSO) on the process of the parameters setting of BP-PID. That designed a better self-adaptive controller which is combing the BP neural network based on mutation particle swarm optimization with the conventional PID control theory. This combination is called the MPSO-BP-PID. In the mechanism of the MPSO, the mutation operation is carried out with the fitness variance and the global best fitness value as the standard. That can overcome the precocious of the PSO and strengthen its global search ability. As a result, the MPSO-BP-PID can complete controlling the controlled plant with higher speed and accuracy. Therefore, the MPSO-BP-PID is applied to the piezoelectric ceramic. It can effectively overcome the hysteresis, nonlinearity of the piezoelectric ceramic. In the experiment, compared with BP-PID and PSO-BP-PID, it proved that MPSO is effective and the MPSO-BP-PID has stronger adaptability and robustness.

  2. Sodium nitroprusside: low price and safe drug to control BP during thrombolysis in AIS.

    PubMed

    Koslyk, Jessyca L; Ducci, Renata D; Nóvak, Edison M; Zétola, Viviane F; Lange, Marcos C

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzes the use of sodium nitroprusside (SN) as an option to reduce blood pressure (BP) below 180/105 mmHg during the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in patients submitted to intravenous thrombolysis.Method The sample was composed by 60 patients who had AIS and were submitted to intravenous rtPA, split in two groups: half in the control group (CG) with BP < 180/105 mmHg and half in SN group with BP > 180/105 mmHg. Outcome variables were any hemorrhagic transformation (HT); the presence of symptomatic HT, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) after 24 hours of treatment; the independence on discharge and death until three months after stroke onset.Results There were no statistical differences between both groups to any of the outcome variables analyzed.Conclusion The SN might be safe for BP control during thrombolysis to AIS. PMID:26352493

  3. BIOMONITORING TO ACHIEVE CONTROL OF TOXIC EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This 48 - page Technology Transfer Report provides a case study of how water quality-based toxicity control procedures can be combined with chemical analyses and biological stream surveys to achieve more effective water pollution control. t describes how regulatory agencies used ...

  4. Translation control during prolonged mTORC1 inhibition mediated by 4E-BP3.

    PubMed

    Tsukumo, Yoshinori; Alain, Tommy; Fonseca, Bruno D; Nadon, Robert; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2016-01-01

    Targeting mTORC1 is a highly promising strategy in cancer therapy. Suppression of mTORC1 activity leads to rapid dephosphorylation of eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BP1-3) and subsequent inhibition of mRNA translation. However, how the different 4E-BPs affect translation during prolonged use of mTOR inhibitors is not known. Here we show that the expression of 4E-BP3, but not that of 4E-BP1 or 4E-BP2, is transcriptionally induced during prolonged mTORC1 inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, our data reveal that 4E-BP3 expression is controlled by the transcription factor TFE3 through a cis-regulatory element in the EIF4EBP3 gene promoter. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated EIF4EBP3 gene disruption in human cancer cells mitigated the inhibition of translation and proliferation caused by prolonged treatment with mTOR inhibitors. Our findings show that 4E-BP3 is an important effector of mTORC1 and a robust predictive biomarker of therapeutic response to prolonged treatment with mTOR-targeting drugs in cancer. PMID:27319316

  5. Translation control during prolonged mTORC1 inhibition mediated by 4E-BP3

    PubMed Central

    Tsukumo, Yoshinori; Alain, Tommy; Fonseca, Bruno D.; Nadon, Robert; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2016-01-01

    Targeting mTORC1 is a highly promising strategy in cancer therapy. Suppression of mTORC1 activity leads to rapid dephosphorylation of eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BP1–3) and subsequent inhibition of mRNA translation. However, how the different 4E-BPs affect translation during prolonged use of mTOR inhibitors is not known. Here we show that the expression of 4E-BP3, but not that of 4E-BP1 or 4E-BP2, is transcriptionally induced during prolonged mTORC1 inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, our data reveal that 4E-BP3 expression is controlled by the transcription factor TFE3 through a cis-regulatory element in the EIF4EBP3 gene promoter. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated EIF4EBP3 gene disruption in human cancer cells mitigated the inhibition of translation and proliferation caused by prolonged treatment with mTOR inhibitors. Our findings show that 4E-BP3 is an important effector of mTORC1 and a robust predictive biomarker of therapeutic response to prolonged treatment with mTOR-targeting drugs in cancer. PMID:27319316

  6. Achievements of schistosomiasis control in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongchang; Jiang, Qingwu; Zhao, Genming; He, Na

    2002-01-01

    The control of schistosomiasis has been spectacularly successful in terms of controlling endemicity and severity of the disease during the last 50 years. It can be categorized into two stages. From 1955 through 1980, the transmission-control strategy had been widely and successfully carried out. By the end of 1980, the epidemic of schistosomiasis was successfully circumscribed in certain core regions including areas at the middle and low reaches of the Yangtze River and some mountainous areas in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, where control of schistosomiasis had been demonstrated to be very difficult to be sustained. Therefore, since 1980, schistosomiasis control in China has been modified to employ a stepwise strategy, based on which morbidity control has been given priorities and if possible transmission control has been pursued. However, since snail-ridden areas remain unchanged so far, reinfections occur frequently. This necessitates a maintenance phase to consolidate the achievements in the control of schistosomiasis. In the mean time, we are challenged with some environmental, social and economical changes in terms of controlling schistosomiasis. Successfully controlling schistosomiasis in China is still a long-term task but will be achieved without doubt along with the economic development and the promotion of living and cultural standard of people. PMID:12426618

  7. Malaria control: achievements, problems and strategies.

    PubMed

    Nájera, J A

    2001-06-01

    Even if history has not always been the Magistra vitae, Cicero expected it to be, it should provide, as Baas said, a mirror in which to observe and compare the past and present in order to draw therefrom well-grounded conclusions for the future. Based on this belief, this paper aims to provide an overview of the foundations and development of malaria control policies during the XX century. It presents an analysis of the conflicting tendencies which shaped the development of these policies and which appear to have oscillated between calls for frontal attack in an all-out campaign and calls for sustainable gains, even if slow. It discusses the various approaches to the control of malaria, their achievements and their limitations, not only to serve as a background to understand better the foundations of current policies, but also to prevent that simplistic generalisations may again lead to exaggerated expectations and disillusion. The first part of the paper is devoted to the development of malaria control during the first half of the century, characterised by the ups and downs in the reliance on mosquito control as the control measure applicable everywhere. The proliferation of "man-made-malaria", which accompanied the push for economic development in most of the endemic countries, spurred the need for control interventions and, while great successes were obtained in many specific projects, the general campaigns proposed by the enthusiasts of vector control faced increasing difficulties in their practical implementation in the field. Important events, which may be considered representative of this period are, on the campaign approach, the success of Gorgas in the Panama Canal, but also the failure of the Mian Mir project in India; while on the developmental approach, the Italian and Dutch schools of malariology, the Tennessee Valley and the development of malaria sanitation, included the so called species sanitation. The projection of these developments to a global

  8. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  9. The Longitudinal Effects of Achievement Goals and Perceived Control on University Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Stewart, Tara L.; Newall, Nancy E. G.; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2014-01-01

    In the area of achievement motivation, students' beliefs pertaining to achievement goals and perceived control have separately guided a large amount theoretical and empirical research. However, limited research has considered the simultaneous effects of goals and control on achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine primary and…

  10. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  11. T4-like phage Bp7, a potential antimicrobial agent for controlling drug-resistant Escherichia coli in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Li, Wenli; Liu, Wenhua; Zou, Ling; Yan, Chen; Lu, Kai; Ren, Huiying

    2013-09-01

    Chicken-pathogenic Escherichia coli is severely endangering the poultry industry in China and worldwide, and antibiotic therapy is facing an increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. Bacteriophages can kill bacteria with no known activity in human or animal cells, making them an attractive alternative to antibiotics. In this study, we present the characteristics of a novel virulent bacteriophage, Bp7, specifically infecting pathogenic multidrug-resistant E. coli. Phage Bp7 was isolated from chicken feces. Bp7 belongs to the family Myoviridae, possessing an elongated icosahedral head and contractile sheathed tail. It has a 168-kb double-stranded DNA genome. For larger yields, its optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) to infect E. coli was about 0.001. The latent period was 10 to 15 min, and the burst size was 90 PFU/infected cell. It was stable both at pH 5.0 to 10.0 and at 40°C or 50°C for at least 1 h. Bp7 could infect 46% of pathogenic clinical E. coli strains. Bp7 harbored 791 open reading frames (ORFs) and 263 possible genes. Among the 263 genes, 199 possessed amino acid sequence identities with ORFs of phage T4, 62 had identities with other T4-like phages, and only one lacked any database match. The genome of Bp7 manifested obvious division and rearrangement compared to phages T4, JS98, and IME08. Bp7 is a new member of the "T4-like" genus, family Myoviridae. Its wide host range, strong cell-killing activity, and high stability to pH make it an alternative to antimicrobials for controlling drug-resistant E. coli in chickens. PMID:23835183

  12. NFIL3/E4BP4 controls type 2 T helper cell cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Kashiwada, Masaki; Cassel, Suzanne L; Colgan, John D; Rothman, Paul B

    2011-05-18

    Type 2 T helper (T(H)2) cells are critical for the development of allergic immune responses; however, the molecular mechanism controlling their effector function is still largely unclear. Here, we report that the transcription factor NFIL3/E4BP4 regulates cytokine production and effector function by T(H)2 cells. NFIL3 is highly expressed in T(H)2 cells but much less in T(H)1 cells. Production of interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-5 is significantly increased in Nfil3(-/-) T(H)2 cells and is decreased by expression of NFIL3 in wild-type T(H)2 cells. NFIL3 directly binds to and negatively regulates the Il13 gene. In contrast, IL-4 production is decreased in Nfil3(-/-) T(H)2 cells. Increased IL-13 and IL-5 together with decreased IL-4 production by antigen-stimulated splenocytes from the immunized Nfil3(-/-) mice was also observed. The ability of NFIL3 to alter T(H)2 cytokine production is a T-cell intrinsic effect. Taken together, these data indicate that NFIL3 is a key regulator of T(H)2 responses. PMID:21499227

  13. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool…

  14. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children (49% female)…

  15. Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Control on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Sukkyung; Hong, Sehee; Ho, Hsiu-Zu

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that perceived control plays an important role in student academic achievement, but little is known about its longitudinal stability, ethnic variation, and developmental effects on subsequent achievement during adolescence. Findings from this study indicated (a) perceived control remains stable during adolescence for each of…

  16. Vascular Type 1A Angiotensin II Receptors Control BP by Regulating Renal Blood Flow and Urinary Sodium Excretion.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Matthew A; Stegbauer, Johannes; Chen, Daian; Gomez, Jose A; Griffiths, Robert C; Azad, Hooman A; Herrera, Marcela; Gurley, Susan B; Coffman, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    Inappropriate activation of the type 1A angiotensin (AT1A) receptor contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and its associated complications. To define the role for actions of vascular AT1A receptors in BP regulation and hypertension pathogenesis, we generated mice with cell-specific deletion of AT1A receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMKO mice) using Loxp technology and Cre transgenes with robust expression in both conductance and resistance arteries. We found that elimination of AT1A receptors from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) caused a modest (approximately 7 mmHg) yet significant reduction in baseline BP and exaggerated sodium sensitivity in mice. Additionally, the severity of angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension was dramatically attenuated in SMKO mice, and this protection against hypertension was associated with enhanced urinary excretion of sodium. Despite the lower BP, acute vasoconstrictor responses to Ang II in the systemic vasculature were largely preserved (approximately 80% of control levels) in SMKO mice because of exaggerated activity of the sympathetic nervous system rather than residual actions of AT1B receptors. In contrast, Ang II-dependent responses in the renal circulation were almost completely eliminated in SMKO mice (approximately 5%-10% of control levels). These findings suggest that direct actions of AT1A receptors in VSMCs are essential for regulation of renal blood flow by Ang II and highlight the capacity of Ang II-dependent vascular responses in the kidney to effect natriuresis and BP control. PMID:25855778

  17. Interrelationships of Study Habits and Attitudes, Locus of Control, Motivation Achievement Tendencies and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    The study investigated (a) relationships between measures on study habits and attitudes, locus of control, achieving tendency, and semester grade-point averages (SGPA), (b) differences between the sexes on the above mentioned variables, and (c) best predictor of SGPA. The subjects were 39 males and 81 females. There were a number of significant…

  18. Blood pressure telemonitoring is useful to achieve blood pressure control in inadequately treated patients with arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Neumann, C L; Menne, J; Rieken, E M; Fischer, N; Weber, M H; Haller, H; Schulz, E G

    2011-12-01

    Failing to reach blood pressure (BP) goals is one of the main problems in hypertension management. Especially in high-risk patients, intensive monitoring including frequently office visits or new techniques to monitor home BP is required. A total of 60 patients with uncontrolled hypertension were included and randomized into a group with telemetric BP monitoring (TBPM) (n=30) and a control group receiving standard care (n=30). During the 3-month study period, patients received in addition to their antihypertensive pre-treatment up to 2 × 300 mg irbesartan to achieve the required target BP. All patients were instructed to measure their BP once daily in the morning. In the TBPM group automatic alerts were generated by the central database server using pre-defined algorithms and patients were subsequently contacted by the physician. At baseline mean 24-h ambulant BP monitoring (ABPM) was 143.3±11.1/82.6±9.9 mm Hg in the TBPM group and 141.4±12.6/82.1±6.5 mm Hg in the standard care group. During treatment mean systolic BP showed a more intensive decrease in the TBPM vs control group (-17.0±11.1 mm Hg vs -9.8±13.7 mm Hg; P=0.032). Patients in the TBPM group had a more pronounced night dipping and a higher reduction of mean pulse pressure than controls (-8.1±5.9 mm Hg vs -2.8±7.4 mm Hg, P=0.004). After 3 months, TBPM-treated patients were given a higher mean daily dose of irbesartan (375±187 mg vs 222±147 mg in controls; P=<0.001). We demonstrated that with TBPM a more effective and faster titration of the antihypertensive agent is possible. The alarm criteria chosen were useful to improve BP control. PMID:21228822

  19. The Impact of Locus of Control on Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2012-01-01

    This study hypothesized that students' loci of control affected their language achievement. 198 (N = 198) EFL students took the Rotter's (1966) locus of control test and were classified as locus-internal (ni = 78), and locus-external (ne = 120). They then took their ordinary courses and at the end of the semester, they were given their exams.…

  20. Purpose plus: supporting youth purpose, control, and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Kanny, Mary Allison

    2011-01-01

    Research in the past decade suggests that a persistent achievement gap between students from low-income minority backgrounds and higher-income white backgrounds may be rooted in theories of student motivation and youth purpose. Yet limited research exists regarding the role of purpose on positive youth development as it pertains to academic achievement. Using a sample of 209 high school students, this study examines the effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote purpose development and internal control over academic success in high school students from a low-socioeconomic-status community. Findings reveal that a short-term intervention was effective in significantly increasing internal control over academic success and purpose in life for students participating in the intervention group. In addition, analysis of academic achievement for students who experienced positive gains in internal control and purpose demonstrates significant gains in academic achievement as measured by grade point average. Implications are made for further study of internal control and life purpose as a means of academic intervention in the effort to address the achievement gap. PMID:22275280

  1. Children's Effortful Control and Academic Achievement: Mediation through Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Haugen, Rg; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Liew, Jeffrey; Kupfer, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to test the premise that children's effortful control (EC) is prospectively related to their academic achievement and to specify mechanisms through which EC is related to academic success. We used data from 214 children (M age at Time 1 [T1] = 73 months) to test whether social functioning (e.g.,…

  2. The purposes, achievements, and priorities of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.S.

    1987-09-01

    Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be. (ACR)

  3. Insulin signaling controls neurotransmission via the 4eBP-dependent modification of the exocytotic machinery.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Rebekah Elizabeth; Azpurua, Jorge; Eaton, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Altered insulin signaling has been linked to widespread nervous system dysfunction including cognitive dysfunction, neuropathy and susceptibility to neurodegenerative disease. However, knowledge of the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of insulin on neuronal function is incomplete. Here, we show that cell autonomous insulin signaling within the Drosophila CM9 motor neuron regulates the release of neurotransmitter via alteration of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. This effect of insulin utilizes the FOXO-dependent regulation of the thor gene, which encodes the Drosophila homologue of the eif-4e binding protein (4eBP). A critical target of this regulatory mechanism is Complexin, a synaptic protein known to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We find that the amounts of Complexin protein observed at the synapse is regulated by insulin and genetic manipulations of Complexin levels support the model that increased synaptic Complexin reduces neurotransmission in response to insulin signaling. PMID:27525480

  4. A 750 bp sensory integration region directs global control of the Escherichia coli GadE acid resistance regulator.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Atef K; Foster, John W

    2009-03-01

    Escherichia coli survives pH 2 environments through an acid resistance (AR) system regulated by the transcriptional activator GadE. Numerous proteins control gadE at an upstream, conserved, 798 bp intergenic region. We show this region produces three transcripts starting at -124 (T1), -324/-317 (T2) and -566 (T3) bp from the gadE start codon. Transcriptional lacZ fusions to gadE promoter regions revealed P1 and P3 were active while P2 alone was not. However, pairing P3 with P2 activated P2 and increased expression 20-fold above P3 alone. The fusions were transferred to Salmonella, which lacks this AR system, and plasmid-borne E. coli-specific regulators EvgA, YdeO, GadE and GadX were introduced. Data revealed that YdeO and GadX activate P3, P2 and P3P2, while GadE autoactivates P1 and represses P3 and P3P2. The developing model indicates that different signals activate YdeO, GadX, or an MnmE-dependent regulator, which stimulate gadE transcription from the P3 and P2 promoters. Once made, GadE activates P1 and represses P3 and P2. The P1 region also enables efficient downstream transcription and translation of the P3 or P2 transcripts. Evidence indicates the entire 750 bp sensory integration locus is necessary for a versatile response. PMID:19220752

  5. Insulin signaling controls neurotransmission via the 4eBP-dependent modification of the exocytotic machinery

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Rebekah Elizabeth; Azpurua, Jorge; Eaton, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Altered insulin signaling has been linked to widespread nervous system dysfunction including cognitive dysfunction, neuropathy and susceptibility to neurodegenerative disease. However, knowledge of the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of insulin on neuronal function is incomplete. Here, we show that cell autonomous insulin signaling within the Drosophila CM9 motor neuron regulates the release of neurotransmitter via alteration of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. This effect of insulin utilizes the FOXO-dependent regulation of the thor gene, which encodes the Drosophila homologue of the eif-4e binding protein (4eBP). A critical target of this regulatory mechanism is Complexin, a synaptic protein known to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We find that the amounts of Complexin protein observed at the synapse is regulated by insulin and genetic manipulations of Complexin levels support the model that increased synaptic Complexin reduces neurotransmission in response to insulin signaling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16807.001 PMID:27525480

  6. R7BP Complexes With RGS9-2 and RGS7 in the Striatum Differentially Control Motor Learning and Locomotor Responses to Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Garret R; Cao, Yan; Davidson, Steve; Truong, Hai V; Pravetoni, Marco; Thomas, Mark J; Wickman, Kevin; Giesler, Glenn J; Martemyanov, Kirill A

    2010-01-01

    In the striatum, signaling through G protein-coupled dopamine receptors mediates motor and reward behavior, and underlies the effects of addictive drugs. The extent of receptor responses is determined by RGS9-2/Gβ5 complexes, a striatally enriched regulator that limits the lifetime of activated G proteins. Recent studies suggest that the function of RGS9-2/Gβ5 is controlled by the association with an additional subunit, R7BP, making elucidation of its contribution to striatal signaling essential for understanding molecular mechanisms of behaviors mediated by the striatum. In this study, we report that elimination of R7BP in mice results in motor coordination deficits and greater locomotor response to morphine administration, consistent with the essential role of R7BP in maintaining RGS9-2 expression in the striatum. However, in contrast to previously reported observations with RGS9-2 knockouts, mice lacking R7BP do not show higher sensitivity to locomotor-stimulating effects of cocaine. Using a striatum-specific knockdown approach, we show that the sensitivity of motor stimulation to cocaine is instead dependent on RGS7, whose complex formation with R7BP is dictated by RGS9-2 expression. These results indicate that dopamine signaling in the striatum is controlled by concerted interplay between two RGS proteins, RGS7 and RGS9-2, which are balanced by a common subunit, R7BP. PMID:20043004

  7. Negative control of circadian clock regulator E4BP4 by casein kinase Iepsilon-mediated phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Doi, Masao; Okano, Toshiyuki; Yujnovsky, Irene; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2004-06-01

    Light-dependent transcriptional regulation of clock genes is a crucial step in the entrainment of the circadian clock. E4bp4 is a light-inducible gene in the chick pineal gland, and it encodes a bZIP protein that represses transcription of cPer2, a chick pineal clock gene. Here, we demonstrate that prolonged light period-dependent accumulation of E4BP4 protein is temporally coordinated with a delay of the rising phase of cPer2 in the morning. E4BP4 was phosphorylated progressively and then disappeared in parallel with induced cPer2 expression. Characterization of E4BP4 revealed Ser182, a phosphoacceptor site located at the amino-terminal border of the Ser/Thr cluster, which forms the phosphorylation motifs for casein kinase 1epsilon (CK1epsilon). CK1epsilon physically associated with E4BP4 and phosphorylated it. CK1epsilon-catalyzed phosphorylation of E4BP4 resulted in proteasomal proteolysis-dependent decrease of E4BP4 levels, while E4BP4 nuclear accumulation was attenuated by CK1epsilon in a kinase activity-independent manner. CK1epsilon-mediated posttranslational regulation was accompanied by reduction of the transcriptional repression executed by E4BP4. These results not only demonstrate a phosphorylation-dependent regulatory mechanism for E4BP4 function but also highlight the role of CK1epsilon as a negative regulator for E4BP4-mediated repression of cPer2. PMID:15182670

  8. Parental Behavioural Control and Academic Achievement: Striking the Balance between Control and Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Karen Z.

    2012-01-01

    Using a longitudinal US dataset (N = 6,134) we examine the relationship between parental behavioural control and academic achievement and explore the moderating role of parental involvement and parental warmth. Analyses using multiple hierarchical regression with clustering controls shows that parental behavioural control is negatively associated…

  9. Method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.

    1986-01-01

    A method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy by illuminating a minute, solid density, hollow shell of a mixture of material such as deuterium and tritium with a high intensity, uniformly converging laser wave to effect an extremely rapid build-up of energy in inwardly traveling shock waves to implode the shell creating thermonuclear conditions causing a reaction of deuterons and tritons and a resultant high energy thermonuclear burn. Utilizing the resulting energy as a thermal source and to breed tritium or plutonium. The invention also contemplates a laser source wherein the flux level is increased with time to reduce the initial shock heating of fuel and provide maximum compression after implosion; and, in addition, computations and an equation are provided to enable the selection of a design having a high degree of stability and a dependable fusion performance by establishing a proper relationship between the laser energy input and the size and character of the selected material for the fusion capsule.

  10. Analysis of Lymphocytic DNA Damage in Early Multiple Sclerosis by Automated Gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 Foci Detection: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Rasche, Ludwig; Heiserich, Lisa; Behrens, Janina Ruth; Lenz, Klaus; Pfuhl, Catherina; Wakonig, Katharina; Gieß, René Markus; Freitag, Erik; Eberle, Caroline; Wuerfel, Jens; Dörr, Jan; Bauer, Peter; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Paul, Friedemann; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Ruprecht, Klemens

    2016-01-01

    Background In response to DNA double-strand breaks, the histone protein H2AX becomes phosphorylated at its C-terminal serine 139 residue, referred to as γ-H2AX. Formation of γ-H2AX foci is associated with recruitment of p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1), a regulator of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks. γ-H2AX expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was recently proposed as a diagnostic and disease activity marker for multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective To evaluate the significance of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in PBMCs as diagnostic and disease activity markers in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) using automated γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci detection. Methods Immunocytochemistry was performed on freshly isolated PBMCs of patients with CIS/early RRMS (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 27) with γ-H2AX and 53BP1 specific antibodies. Nuclear γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci were determined using a fully automated reading system, assessing the numbers of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci per total number of cells and the percentage of cells with foci. Patients underwent contrast enhanced 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical examination including expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score. γ-H2AX and 53BP1 were also compared in previously frozen PBMCs of each 10 CIS/early RRMS patients with and without contrast enhancing lesions (CEL) and 10 healthy controls. Results The median (range) number of γ-H2AX (0.04 [0–0.5]) and 53BP1 (0.005 [0–0.2]) foci per cell in freshly isolated PBMCs across all study participants was low and similar to previously reported values of healthy individuals. For both, γ-H2AX and 53BP1, the cellular focus number as well as the percentage of positive cells did not differ between patients with CIS/RRMS and healthy controls. γ-H2AX and 53BP1 levels neither correlated with number nor volume of T2-weighted lesions on MRI, nor with the EDSS. Although γ-H2AX, but not

  11. Malaria in Turkey: successful control and strategies for achieving elimination.

    PubMed

    Özbilgina, Ahmet; Topluoglu, Seher; Es, Saffet; Islek, Elif; Mollahaliloglu, Salih; Erkoc, Yasin

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in the middle of Asia, Africa and Europe, close to Caucasia, Balkans and Middle East in subtropical climate zone. Malaria has been known since the early ages of human history and it was one of the leading diseases in Anatolian history, as well. Today, chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium vivax is the only agent of autochthonous malaria cases in Turkey. The other Plasmodium species identified are isolated from imported cases of malaria. The most common vector of malaria in Turkey is Anopheles sacharovi followed by An. superpictus, An. maculipennis and An. subalpinus. In 2009, pre-elimination stage of Malaria Program was started due to dramatic decline in the number of malaria cases in Turkey (Total, 84; 38 autochthonous cases only in 26 foci in south-eastern Anatolia, and 46 imported cases; incidence: 0.1/100,000). As there were no detected cases of new autochthonous malaria in the first 8 months of 2010, elimination stage was started. The role of the persistent policies and successful applications of the Ministry of Health, such as the strict control of the patients using anti-malarial drugs especially chloroquine, avoidance of resistant insecticides, facilitation of access to patients via Health Transformation Program (HTP), establishment of close contact with the patients' families, and improvement of reporting and surveillance system, was essential. In addition, improvement maintained in the motivations and professional rights of malaria workers, as well in the coordination of field studies and maintenance of a decline or termination in vector-to-person transmission were all achieved with the insistent policies of the Ministry of Health. Other factors that probably contributed to elimination studies include lessening of military operations in south-eastern Anatolia and the lowering of malaria cases in neighbouring countries in recent years. Free access to health services concerning malaria is still successfully conducted throughout the country

  12. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterbin, Allan; Rakow, Ernest

    The direct effects of locus of control and self-esteem on standardized test scores were studied. The relationships among the standardized test scores and measures of locus of control and self-esteem for 12,260 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1994 database were examined, using the same definition of locus of control and…

  13. mtDNA control-region sequence variation suggests multiple independent origins of an "Asian-specific" 9-bp deletion in sub-Saharan Africans.

    PubMed Central

    Soodyall, H.; Vigilant, L.; Hill, A. V.; Stoneking, M.; Jenkins, T.

    1996-01-01

    The intergenic COII/tRNA(Lys) 9-bp deletion in human mtDNA, which is found at varying frequencies in Asia, Southeast Asia, Polynesia, and the New World, was also found in 81 of 919 sub-Saharan Africans. Using mtDNA control-region sequence data from a subset of 41 individuals with the deletion, we identified 22 unique mtDNA types associated with the deletion in Africa. A comparison of the unique mtDNA types from sub-Saharan Africans and Asians with the 9-bp deletion revealed that sub-Saharan Africans and Asians have sequence profiles that differ in the locations and frequencies of variant sites. Both phylogenetic and mismatch-distribution analysis suggest that 9-bp deletion arose independently in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia and that the deletion has arisen more than once in Africa. Within Africa, the deletion was not found among Khoisan peoples and was rare to absent in western and southwestern African populations, but it did occur in Pygmy and Negroid populations from central Africa and in Malawi and southern African Bantu-speakers. The distribution of the 9-bp deletion in Africa suggests that the deletion could have arisen in central Africa and was then introduced to southern Africa via the recent "Bantu expansion." PMID:8644719

  14. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  15. Purpose Plus: Supporting Youth Purpose, Control, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Kanny, Mary Allison

    2011-01-01

    Research in the past decade suggests that a persistent achievement gap between students from low-income minority backgrounds and higher-income white backgrounds may be rooted in theories of student motivation and youth purpose. Yet limited research exists regarding the role of purpose on positive youth development as it pertains to academic…

  16. Controlling open quantum systems: tools, achievements, and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Christiane P.

    2016-06-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge of preserving relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence, which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence of decoherence. Here we review recent advances in optimal control methodology that allow typical tasks in device operation for open quantum systems to be tackled and discuss examples of relaxation-optimized dynamics. Optimal control theory is also a useful tool to exploit the environment for control. We discuss examples and point out possible future extensions.

  17. Controlling open quantum systems: tools, achievements, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Koch, Christiane P

    2016-06-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge of preserving relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence, which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence of decoherence. Here we review recent advances in optimal control methodology that allow typical tasks in device operation for open quantum systems to be tackled and discuss examples of relaxation-optimized dynamics. Optimal control theory is also a useful tool to exploit the environment for control. We discuss examples and point out possible future extensions. PMID:27143501

  18. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequence variation suggests an independent origin of an {open_quotes}Asian-specific{close_quotes} 9-bp deletion in Africans

    SciTech Connect

    Soodyall, H.; Redd, A.; Vigilant

    1994-09-01

    The intergenic noncoding region between the cytochrome oxidase II and lysyl tRNA genes of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is associated with two tandemly arranged copies of a 9-bp sequence. A deletion of one of these repeats has been found at varying frequencies in populations of Asian descent, and is commonly referred to as an {open_quotes}Asian-specific{close_quotes} marker. We report here that the 9-bp deletion is also found at a frequency of 10.2% (66/649) in some indigenous African populations, with frequencies of 28.6% (20/70) in Pygmies, 26.6% (12/45) in Malawians and 15.4% (31/199) in southeastern Bantu-speaking populations. The deletion was not found in 123 Khoisan individuals nor in 209 western Bantu-speaking individuals, with the exception of 3 individuals from one group that was admixed with Pygmies. Sequence analysis of the two hypervariable segments of the mtDNA control region reveals that the types associated with the African 9-bp deletion are different from those found in Asian-derived populations with the deletion. Phylogenetic analysis separates the {open_quotes}African{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Asian{close_quotes} 9-bp deletion types into two different clusters which are statistically supported. Mismatch distributions based on the number of differences between pairs of mtDNA types are consistent with this separation. These findings strongly support the view that the 9-bp deletion originated independently in Africa and in Asia.

  19. Achieving process control through improved grinding techniques for ferrite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, J.

    1995-09-01

    In manufacturing soft ferrite materials the particle size of the raw material has a significant impact on the reactivity of calcination. The control of particle size distribution and final formulation at wet milling after calcining impacts the reactivity during sintering and the magnetic properties of the final product. This paper will deal with steps taken to improve process control during the grinding operations of raw material and calcine in soft ferrite production. Equipment modifications as well as changes to the grinding and material handling techniques will be included. All examples of process control and improvements will be supported by data.

  20. Debris control design achievements of the booster separation motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The stringent debris control requirements imposed on the design of the Space Shuttle booster separation motor are described along with the verification program implemented to ensure compliance with debris control objectives. The principal areas emphasized in the design and development of the Booster Separation Motor (BSM) relative to debris control were the propellant formulation and nozzle closures which protect the motors from aerodynamic heating and moisture. A description of the motor design requirements, the propellant formulation and verification program, and the nozzle closures design and verification are presented.

  1. Apo-states of calmodulin and CaBP1 control CaV1 voltage-gated calcium channel function through direct competition for the IQ domain

    PubMed Central

    Findeisen, Felix; Rumpf, Christine; Minor, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    In neurons, binding of calmodulin (CaM) or calcium-binding protein 1 (CaBP1) to the CaV1 (L-type) voltage-gated calcium channel IQ domain endows the channel with diametrically opposed properties. CaM causes calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and limits calcium entry, whereas CaBP1 blocks CDI and allows sustained calcium influx. Here, we combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with cell-based functional measurements and mathematical modeling to show that these calcium sensors behave in a competitive manner that is explained quantitatively by their apo-state binding affinities for the IQ domain. This competition can be completely blocked by covalent tethering of CaM to the channel. Further, we show that Ca2+/CaM has a sub-picomolar affinity for the IQ domain that is achieved without drastic alteration of calcium binding properties. The observation that the apo-forms of CaM and CaBP1 compete with each other demonstrates a simple mechanism for direct modulation of CaV1 function and suggests a means by which excitable cells may dynamically tune CaV activity. PMID:23811053

  2. An active control strategy for achieving weak radiator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naghshineh, K. . Acoustics and Radar Technology Lab.); Koopmann, G.H. . Center for Acoustics and Vibration)

    1994-01-01

    A general control strategy is presented for active suppression of total radiated sound power from harmonically excited structures based on the measurement of their response. Using the measured response of the structure together with knowledge of its structural mobility, and equivalent primary excitation force is found at discrete points along the structure. Using this equivalent primary force and performing a quadratic optimization of the power radiated form the structure, a set of control forces is found at selected points on the structure that results in minimum radiated sound power. A numerical example of this strategy is presented for a simply supported beam in a rigid baffle excited by a harmonic plane wave incident at an oblique angle. A comparison of the response of the beam with and without control forces shows a large reduction in the controlled response displacement magnitude. In addition, as the result of the action of the control forces, the magnitude of the wave number spectrum of the beam's response in the supersonic region is decreased substantially. The effect of the number and location of the actuators on reductions in sound power level is also studied. The actuators located at the anti-nodes of structural modes within the supersonic region together with those located near boundaries are found to be the most effective in controlling the radiation of sound from a structure.

  3. Achievement Goals and Emotions: The Mediational Roles of Perceived Progress, Control, and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Nathan C.; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Muis, Krista R.; Ranellucci, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: The link between achievement goals and achievement emotions is well established; however, research exploring potential mediators of this relationship is lacking. The control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006, "Educational Psychology Review," 18, 315) posits that perceptions of control and value mediate the…

  4. Achieving Acceptable Air Quality: Some Reflections on Controlling Vehicle Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, J. G.; Heywood, J. B.; Sawyer, R. F.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    1993-07-01

    Motor vehicle emissions have been and are being controlled in an effort to abate urban air pollution. This article addresses the question: Will the vehicle exhaust emission control and fuel requirements in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the California Air Resources Board regulations on vehicles and fuels have a significant impact? The effective control of in-use vehicle emissions is the key to a solution to the motor vehicle part of the urban air pollution problem for the next decade or so. It is not necessary, except perhaps in Southern California, to implement extremely low new car emission standards before the end of the 20th century. Some of the proposed gasoline volatility and composition changes in reformulated gasoline will produce significant reductions in vehicle emissions (for example, reduced vapor pressure, sulfur, and light olefin and improved high end volatility), whereas others (such as substantial oxygenate addition and aromatics reduction) will not.

  5. IGF2BP2 rs11705701 polymorphisms are associated with prediabetes in a Chinese population: A population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Liyuan; Li, Yuanyuan; Tang, Linlin; Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Sihan; Liu, Shengyuan; Peng, Xiaolin; Mai, Yifeng; Zhuo, Renjie; Wang, Changyi; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Associations between insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) rs11705701, insulin receptor substrate 1 rs7578326, gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor rs10423928 and transcription factor 7-like 2 rs12255372 gene polymorphisms with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have not been evaluated in the Han Chinese population. These four genetic variants were investigated for their associations with prediabetes and T2D among 490 unrelated patients with T2D, 471 patients with prediabetes and 575 healthy controls. Sequenom MassARRAY software was used to genotype the patients for these variants. The Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction method was used to analyze the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. A breakdown analysis by gender revealed a significant association of IGF2BP2 rs11705701 with prediabetes under the dominant genetic model in females following application of the Bonferroni correction (odds ratio = 0.26; 95% confidence interval = 0.10–0.67; P=0.005). However, no significant associations were reported between any of the other three polymorphisms and T2D under any genetic models. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant gene-gene or gene-environment interactions when evaluated with the above association tests. The present case-control study reveals a significant association between IGF2BP2 rs11705701 and prediabetes in female patients. PMID:27588103

  6. Cognitive Control Predicts Academic Achievement in Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldren, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Children's ability to shift behavior in response to changing environmental demands is critical for successful intellectual functioning. While the processes underlying the development of cognitive control have been thoroughly investigated, its functioning in an ecologically relevant setting such as school is less well understood. Given the alarming…

  7. ACHIEVING IRRIGATION RETURN FLOW QUALITY CONTROL THROUGH IMPROVED LEGAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The key to irrigated agricultural return flow quality control is proper utilization and management of the resource itself, and an accepted tool in out society is the law. This project is designed to develop legal alternatives that will facilitate the implementation of improved wa...

  8. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world. PMID:26485188

  9. Cell type-specific control of protein synthesis and proliferation by FGF-dependent signaling to the translation repressor 4E-BP.

    PubMed

    Ruoff, Rachel; Katsara, Olga; Kolupaeva, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of protein synthesis plays a vital role in posttranscriptional modulation of gene expression. Translational control most commonly targets the initiation of protein synthesis: loading 40S ribosome complexes onto mRNA and AUG start codon recognition. This step is initiated by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) (the m7GTP cap-binding protein), whose binding to eIF4G (a scaffolding subunit) and eIF4A (an ATP-dependent RNA helicase) leads to assembly of active eIF4F complex. The ability of eIF4E to recognize the cap is prevented by its binding to eIF4E binding protein (4E-BP), which thereby inhibits cap-dependent translation by sequestering eIF4E. The 4E-BP activity is, in turn, inhibited by mTORC1 [mTOR (the mechanistic target of rapamycin) complex 1] mediated phosphorylation. Here, we define a previously unidentified mechanism of mTOR-independent 4E-BP1 regulation that is used by chondrocytes upon FGF signaling. Chondrocytes are responsible for the formation of the skeleton long bones. Unlike the majority of cell types where FGF signaling triggers proliferation, chondrocytes respond to FGF with inhibition. We establish that FGF specifically suppresses protein synthesis in chondrocytes, but not in any other cells of mesenchymal origin. Furthermore, 4E-BP1 repressor activity is necessary not only for suppression of protein synthesis, but also for FGF-induced cell-cycle arrest. Importantly, FGF-induced changes in the 4E-BP1 activity observed in cell culture are likewise detected in vivo and reflect the action of FGF signaling on downstream targets during bone development. Thus, our findings demonstrate that FGF signaling differentially impacts protein synthesis through either stimulation or repression, in a cell-type-dependent manner, with 4E-BP1 being a key player. PMID:27313212

  10. Can Chemical Mouthwash Agents Achieve Plaque/Gingivitis Control?

    PubMed

    Van der Weijden, Fridus A; Van der Sluijs, Eveline; Ciancio, Sebastian G; Slot, Dagmar E

    2015-10-01

    Also note that structured abstracts are not allowed per journal style: What is the effect of a mouthwash containing various active chemical ingredients on plaque control and managing gingivitis in adults based on evidence gathered from existing systematic reviews? The summarized evidence suggests that mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine(CHX) and essential oils (EO) had a large effect supported by a strong body of evidence. Also there was strong evidence for a moderate effect of cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC). Evidence suggests that a CHX mouthwash is the first choice, the most reliable alternative is EO. No difference between CHX and EO with respect to gingivitis was observed. PMID:26427569

  11. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Han

    2015-01-01

    After the Korean War (1950–1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea’s population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world. PMID:26485188

  12. Climate controls on savanna C3 and C4 expansion in Southern Africa during the last 36 kyr BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. V.; Larsen, T.; Andersen, N.; Blanz, T.; Schneider, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Savannahs contain a mixture of C3 and C4 vegetation, accounting for more than a quarter of global primary production and are the second most important biome on the continents. However, our understanding on how savannahs will respond to rising CO2 concentration and temperatures or the IPCC estimated decrease in rainfall is not yet clear in spite of potential far reaching socio-economic consequences. In this study, we used the δD and δ13C of sedimentary long-chain n-alkanes (n-C27,29,31,33 ) in concert with reconstructions for sea surface temperatures and fluvial discharge from a marine sediment core (GIK16160-3, 18°14.47’S, 37°52.27’W, 1334m water depth), collected near the Zambezi river mouth to examine savannah responses under different hydrological and climate conditions in Southern Africa during the last 36 kyr BP. Our data show large variability in both δD and δ13C records of the four n-alkanes, with isotopic differences between individual n-alkanes being far more pronounced during the Glacial than during the Deglacial and Holocene. These large differences may be explained by proportionally higher contributions of C4 grasses over C3 trees to the n-C33,31, which seems to be opposite for n-C29. A strong anticorrelation between δD and δ13C from 36 to 16 kyr BP for n-C31 (R2=0.55) and n-C33 (R2=0.70) suggests that δD of these n-alkanes is strongly influenced by changes in vegetation types as well as physiological effects, rather than being directly related to evaporation/ precipitation balance. In contrast, no apparent relationship (R2=0.32) exists between δD and δ13C of n-C29, suggesting that n-C29 is the most promising hydrological proxy due to less variable vegetation type contributions to n-C29 throughout the core. The C4 plant contribution, which was estimated by taking into account the four n-alkanes δ13C signals and their abundance, implies dominance of C4 grass between 36 and 20 kyr BP, and more evenly distributed C3 and C4 vegetation from

  13. Muscle function in avian flight: achieving power and control

    PubMed Central

    Biewener, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Flapping flight places strenuous requirements on the physiological performance of an animal. Bird flight muscles, particularly at smaller body sizes, generally contract at high frequencies and do substantial work in order to produce the aerodynamic power needed to support the animal's weight in the air and to overcome drag. This is in contrast to terrestrial locomotion, which offers mechanisms for minimizing energy losses associated with body movement combined with elastic energy savings to reduce the skeletal muscles' work requirements. Muscles also produce substantial power during swimming, but this is mainly to overcome body drag rather than to support the animal's weight. Here, I review the function and architecture of key flight muscles related to how these muscles contribute to producing the power required for flapping flight, how the muscles are recruited to control wing motion and how they are used in manoeuvring. An emergent property of the primary flight muscles, consistent with their need to produce considerable work by moving the wings through large excursions during each wing stroke, is that the pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscles shorten over a large fraction of their resting fibre length (33–42%). Both muscles are activated while being lengthened or undergoing nearly isometric force development, enhancing the work they perform during subsequent shortening. Two smaller muscles, the triceps and biceps, operate over a smaller range of contractile strains (12–23%), reflecting their role in controlling wing shape through elbow flexion and extension. Remarkably, pigeons adjust their wing stroke plane mainly via changes in whole-body pitch during take-off and landing, relative to level flight, allowing their wing muscles to operate with little change in activation timing, strain magnitude and pattern. PMID:21502121

  14. Children's effortful control and academic achievement: do relational peer victimization and classroom participation operate as mediators?

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H

    2014-08-01

    Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children. PMID:25107413

  15. Why achievement motivation predicts success in business but failure in politics: the importance of personal control.

    PubMed

    Winter, David G

    2010-12-01

    Several decades of research have established that implicit achievement motivation (n Achievement) is associated with success in business, particularly in entrepreneurial or sales roles. However, several political psychology studies have shown that achievement motivation is not associated with success in politics; rather, implicit power motivation often predicts political success. Having versus lacking control may be a key difference between business and politics. Case studies suggest that achievement-motivated U.S. presidents and other world leaders often become frustrated and thereby fail because of lack of control, whereas power-motivated presidents develop ways to work with this inherent feature of politics. A reevaluation of previous research suggests that, in fact, relationships between achievement motivation and business success only occur when control is high. The theme of control is also prominent in the development of achievement motivation. Cross-national data are also consistent with this analysis: In democratic industrialized countries, national levels of achievement motivation are associated with strong executive control. In countries with low opportunity for education (thus fewer opportunities to develop a sense of personal control), achievement motivation is associated with internal violence. Many of these manifestations of frustrated achievement motivation in politics resemble authoritarianism. This conclusion is tested by data from a longitudinal study of 113 male college students, showing that high initial achievement motivation combined with frustrated desires for control is related to increases in authoritarianism (F-scale scores) during the college years. Implications for the psychology of leadership and practical politics are discussed. PMID:21039527

  16. Association between IGF2BP2 Polymorphisms and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case–Control Study and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ping; Wang, Hao; Fang, Honghong; Gao, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Song, Manshu; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Youxin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) found that IGF2BP2 rs4402960 and rs1470579 polymorphisms were associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. Many studies have replicated this association, but yielded inconsistent results. Materials and Methods: A case-control study consisting of 461 T2DM patients and 434 health controls was conducted to detect the genetic susceptibility of IGF2BP2 in a northern Han Chinese population. A meta-analysis was to evaluate the association more precisely in Asians. Results: In the case-control study, the carriers of TT genotype at rs4402960 had a higher T2DM risk than the G carriers (TG + GG) (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 1.962, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.065–3.612, p = 0.031]; CC carriers at rs1470579 were more susceptible to T2DM than A carriers (CA + AA) (AOR = 2.014, 95% CI = 1.114–3.642, p = 0.021). The meta-analysis containing 36 studies demonstrated that the two polymorphisms were associated with T2DM under the allele comparison, genetic models of dominant and recessive in Asians (p < 0.05). The rs4402960 polymorphisms were significantly associated with the T2DM risk after stratification by diagnostic criterion, size of sample and average age and BMI of cases, while there’re no consistent results for rs1470579. Conclusions: Our data suggests that IGF2BP2 polymorphisms are associated with T2DM in Asian populations. PMID:27294943

  17. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  18. Relations among Peer Acceptance, Inhibitory Control, and Math Achievement in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relations among peer acceptance, inhibitory control, and math achievement in ninety-nine 4th and 5th grade early adolescents. Teachers rated students on peer acceptance and students completed a computerized executive function task assessing inhibitory control. Math achievement was assessed via end of year math grades. Results…

  19. Criterion-Related Validity of the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale with Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Gary D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the relationships between student locus of control and academic achievement in grades five through eight. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale (NSLOCS) was used to measure motivation, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) to assess academic achievement. Results indicated moderate inverse relationships between level of…

  20. Moving the Achievement Goal Approach One Step Forward: Toward a Systematic Examination of the Autonomous and Controlled Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Elliot, Andrew J.; Soenens, Bart; Mouratidis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    An important recent development in the achievement goal literature is to define achievement goals strictly as aims. In this overview, we argue that this restrictive definition of achievement goals paves the way for a systematic consideration of the autonomous and controlled reasons underlying individuals' achievement goals, a distinction…

  1. CoCo trial: Color-coded blood pressure Control, a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Chmiel, Corinne; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Del Prete, Valerio; Steurer-Stey, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Background Inadequate blood pressure (BP) control is a frequent challenge in general practice. The objective of this study was to determine whether a color-coded BP booklet using a traffic light scheme (red, >180 mmHg systolic BP and/or >110 mmHg diastolic BP; yellow, >140–180 mmHg systolic BP or >90–110 mmHg diastolic BP; green, ≤140 mmHg systolic BP and ≤90 mmHg diastolic BP) improves BP control and adherence with home BP measurement. Methods In this two-group, randomized controlled trial, general practitioners recruited adult patients with a BP >140 mmHg systolic and/or >90 mmHg diastolic. Patients in the control group received a standard BP booklet and the intervention group used a color-coded booklet for daily home BP measurement. The main outcomes were changes in BP, BP control (treatment goal <140/90 mmHg), and adherence with home BP measurement after 6 months. Results One hundred and twenty-one of 137 included patients qualified for analysis. After 6 months, a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic BP was achieved in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups (16.1/7.9 mmHg in the intervention group versus 13.1/8.6 mmHg in the control group, P=0.3/0.7). BP control (treatment target <140/90 mmHg) was achieved significantly more often in the intervention group (43% versus 25%; P=0.037; number needed to treat of 5). Adherence with home BP measurement overall was high, with a trend in favor of the intervention group (98.6% versus 96.2%; P=0.1) Conclusion Color-coded BP self-monitoring significantly improved BP control (number needed to treat of 5, meaning that every fifth patient utilizing color-coded self-monitoring achieved better BP control after 6 months), but no significant between-group difference was observed in BP change. A markedly higher percentage of patients achieved BP values in the normal range. This simple, inexpensive approach of color-coded BP self-monitoring is user-friendly and applicable in primary care

  2. Analysis of achievable disturbance attenuation in a precision magnetically-suspended motion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzin, Alexander V.; Holmes, Michael L.; Behrouzjou, Roxana; Trumper, David L.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the analysis of the achievable disturbance attenuation to get an Angstrom motion control resolution and macroscopic travel in a precision magnetically-suspended motion control system are presented in this paper. Noise sources in the transducers, electronics, and mechanical vibrations are used to develop the control design.

  3. Social Axioms and Achievement across Cultures: The Influence of Reward for Application and Fate Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Fan; Leung, Kwok; Bond, Michael Harris

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the relationships between two social axiom dimensions, reward for application and fate control, with various achievement-related indexes across a wide range of cultures. Results showed that there was no relationship between reward for application and academic achievement or economic competitiveness, but reward for…

  4. A Model of Parental Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control in Academically Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated achievement-oriented parent socialization as it pertains to school avoidance in a sample of gifted students. A serial mediation model examining relationships among parental achievement-oriented psychological control (APC), fear of academic failure, academic amotivation, and school avoidance was tested. The sample included…

  5. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  6. Interactions between Student Achievement, Locus of Control, and Two Methods of College Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Jon R.; Gall, Meredith Damien

    1981-01-01

    Fifty-nine undergraduate students, divided into two groups to compare the instructional motivational effects of auto-tutorial and conventional instruction, were tested for achievement via performance (Ac), achievement via independence (Ai), and internal-external locus of control. Significant interaction was found between Ac and the two methods of…

  7. Children's Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control.

    PubMed

    Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318

  8. Children's Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318

  9. Goal Orientations, Locus of Control and Academic Achievement in Prospective Teachers: An Individual Differences Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulus, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the prospective teachers' locus of control in goal orientations and of both orientations in academic achievement. The participants were 270 undergraduate students studying in different majors at the Faculty of Education in Pamukkale University. Goal Orientations and Locus of Control Scales were…

  10. On the Relation of Locus of Control and L2 Reading and Writing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Shirvan, Majid Elahi

    2011-01-01

    Locus of control, a psychological construct, has been the focus of attention in recent decades. Psychologists have discussed the effect of locus of control on achieving life goals in social/psychological interactions. While learning a foreign language involves both social interactions and psychological processes, the role and relation of locus of…

  11. The transcription factor E4bp4/Nfil3 controls commitment to the NK lineage and directly regulates Eomes and Id2 expression.

    PubMed

    Male, Victoria; Nisoli, Ilaria; Kostrzewski, Tomasz; Allan, David S J; Carlyle, James R; Lord, Graham M; Wack, Andreas; Brady, Hugh J M

    2014-04-01

    The transcription factor E4bp4 (Nfil3) is essential for natural killer (NK) cell production. Here, we show that E4bp4 is required at the NK lineage commitment point when NK progenitors develop from common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and that E4bp4 must be expressed at the CLP stage for differentiation toward the NK lineage to occur. To elucidate the mechanism by which E4bp4 promotes NK development, we identified a central core of transcription factors that can rescue NK production from E4bp4(-/-) progenitors, suggesting that they act downstream of E4bp4. Among these were Eomes and Id2, which are expressed later in development than E4bp4. E4bp4 binds directly to the regulatory regions of both Eomes and Id2, promoting their transcription. We propose that E4bp4 is required for commitment to the NK lineage and promotes NK development by directly regulating the expression of the downstream transcription factors Eomes and Id2. PMID:24663216

  12. Elevated BP after AKI.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Hsu, Raymond K; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP-defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit-during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization. PMID:26134154

  13. Alternate method for achieving temperature control in the -160 to +90 Celcius range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A single-pass method for accurate and precise temperature control in the -160 to +90 C range is discussed. The method exhibited minimal set-point overshoot during temperature transitions. Control to +/-2 C with transitions between set-points of 7 C per minute were achieved. The method uses commercially available temperature controllers and a gaseous nitrogen/liquid nitrogen mixer to dampen the amplitude of cold temperature spikes caused by liquid nitrogen pulsing.

  14. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children's mathematics achievement?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children's mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9-12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent's report); math achievement was measured via teacher's report and through the standard Woodcock-Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children's mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children's self-regulation abilities in the context of school. PMID:26441758

  15. Locus of control, test anxiety, academic procrastination, and achievement among college students.

    PubMed

    Carden, Randy; Bryant, Courtney; Moss, Rebekah

    2004-10-01

    114 undergraduates completed the Internal-External Locus of Control scale, the Procrastination Scale, and the Achievement Anxiety Test. They also provided a self-report of their cumulative GPA. Students were divided into two groups by a median-split of 10.5, yielding an internally oriented group of 57 and an externally oriented group of 57. The former students showed significantly lower academic procrastination, debilitating test anxiety, and reported higher academic achievement than the latter. PMID:15587223

  16. Control of large space structures: Status report on achievements and current problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, M. G.; Aubrun, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives, state-of-the-art, and problems of large space structures control are outlined. The general objectives range from basic deployment and maneuvering, where some vibration modes may be suppressed, to disturbance rejection for very high performance imaging applications. The controls selected generally must produce some combination of eigenvalue/eigenvector and loads modification in order to achieve the mission objectives. An experiment illustrating the dynamic control of a suspended circular plate is described. Analysis methods used in system modelling, signal processing, and process control and monitoring are discussed. Sensor and actuator performance are assessed.

  17. Optimal achieved blood pressure in acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Arima, Hisatomi; Heeley, Emma; Delcourt, Candice; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Wang, Xia; Woodward, Mark; Robinson, Thompson; Stapf, Christian; Parsons, Mark; Lavados, Pablo M.; Huang, Yining; Wang, Jiguang; Chalmers, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering according to baseline BP levels and optimal achieved BP levels in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: INTERACT2 was an open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trial in 2,839 patients with ICH within 6 hours of onset and elevated systolic BP (SBP) (150–220 mm Hg) who were allocated to receive intensive (target SBP <140 mm Hg within 1 hour, with lower limit of 130 mm Hg for treatment cessation) or guideline-recommended (target SBP <180 mm Hg) BP-lowering treatment. Outcome was physical function across all 7 levels of the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days. Results: Analysis of the randomized comparisons showed that intensive BP lowering produced comparable benefits on physical function at 90 days in 5 subgroups defined by baseline SBP of <160, 160–169, 170–179, 180–189, and ≥190 mm Hg (p homogeneity = 0.790). Analyses of achieved BP showed linear increases in the risk of physical dysfunction for achieved SBP above 130 mm Hg for both hyperacute (1–24 hours) and acute (2–7 days) phases while modest increases were also observed for achieved SBP below 130 mm Hg. Conclusions: Intensive BP lowering appears beneficial across a wide range of baseline SBP levels, and target SBP level of 130–139 mm Hg is likely to provide maximum benefit in acute ICH. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that the effect of intensive BP lowering on physical function is not influenced by baseline BP. PMID:25552575

  18. Effortful Control and Impulsivity as Concurrent and Longitudinal Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Haugen, Rg; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Kupfer, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test if both effortful control (EC) and impulsivity, a reactive index of temperament, uniquely predict adolescents' academic achievement, concurrently and longitudinally (Time 1: "N" = 168, X-bar[subscript age] = 12 years). At Time 1, parents and teachers reported on students' EC and impulsivity.…

  19. Examining Perceived Control Level and Instability as Predictors of First-Year College Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Hall, Nathan C.; Guay, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the intraindividual level and instability of perceived academic control (PC) among first-year college students, and their predictive effects on academic achievement. Two studies were conducted measuring situational (state) PC on different schedules: Study 1 (N = 242) five times over a 6-month period and…

  20. Locus of Control in Achievement and Affiliation (MMCS) as Related to Pathologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, John; Lao, Rosina C.

    The Multidimensional-Multiattributional Causality Scale (MMCS) is a goal-specific scale developed to assess locus of control in the areas of achievement and affiliation. The relationship between the MMCS and feelings of depression, hopelessness, and perceived stress was examined to validate the MMCS and determine if specific expectancies take…

  1. On-Line Tutoring for Math Achievement Testing: A Controlled Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Walles, Rena; Arroyo, Ivon; Woolf, Beverly P.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a controlled evaluation of an interactive on-line tutoring system for high school math achievement test problem solving. High school students (N = 202) completed a math pre-test and were then assigned by teachers to receive interactive on-line multimedia tutoring or their regular classroom instruction. The on-line tutored…

  2. Autonomy Support versus Psychological Control, Perfectionism, and Taiwanese Adolescents' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2013-01-01

    The author attempted to explore potential antecedents of achievement goals and relations of teacher and parental autonomy support versus psychological control to Taiwanese adolescents' perfectionistic tendencies. A total of 512 eighth-grade students completed self-reported questionnaires assessing variables of interest. Results indicated that…

  3. Training Theory of Mind and Executive Control: A Tool for Improving School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2008-01-01

    In the preschool years, there are marked improvements in theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions. And, children's competence in these two core cognitive domains is associated with their academic achievement. Therefore, training ToM and executive control could be a valuable tool for improving children's success in school. This article reviews…

  4. The Effect of Inhibitory Control on General Mathematics Achievement and Fraction Comparison in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, David Maximiliano; Jiménez, Abelino; Bobadilla, Roberto; Reyes, Cristián; Dartnell, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in inhibitory control have been shown to relate to general mathematics achievement, but whether this relation varies for specific areas within mathematics is a question that remains open. Here, we evaluate if inhibitory processes play a specific role in the particular case of fraction comparison, where learners must ignore…

  5. Diagnosis, Remediation, and Locus of Control: Effects on Immediate and Retained Achievement and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders-Harris, Ramona; Yeany, Russell H.

    1981-01-01

    Subjects were assessed for locus of control and experienced either: no diagnosis; diagnosis; or, diagnosis and remediation. Immediate achievement was measured twice during the experiment; retention was measured 30 days later. Findings suggest that diagnostic or diagnostic/remedial instruction is effective in increasing middle school science…

  6. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen S.; Skov, Julia; Sun, Yi; Duong Bang, Dang; Pedersen, Michael E.; Hansen, Mikkel F.; Wolff, Anders

    2013-07-01

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence signal from Rhodamine B. The method was validated with the PCR amplification of mecA gene (162 bp) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterium (MRSA), where the time for 30 cycles was reduced from 50 min (without over- and undershooting) to 20 min.

  7. Role of Parenting Style in Achieving Metabolic Control in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shorer, Maayan; David, Ravit; Schoenberg-Taz, Michal; Levavi-Lavi, Ifat; Phillip, Moshe; Meyerovitch, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control and treatment adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Parents of 100 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed assessments of their parenting style and sense of helplessness. Parents and patients rated patient adherence to the treatment regimen. Glycemic control was evaluated by HbA1c values. RESULTS An authoritative paternal parenting style predicted better glycemic control and adherence in the child; a permissive maternal parenting style predicted poor adherence. A higher sense of helplessness in both parents predicted worse glycemic control and lesser adherence to treatment. Parental sense of helplessness was a significant predictor of diabetes control after correcting for other confounders (patient age, sex, and treatment method). CONCLUSIONS An authoritative nonhelpless parenting style is associated with better diabetes control in adolescents. Paternal involvement is important in adolescent diabetes management. These results have implications for psychological interventions. PMID:21788643

  8. Source to sink element geochemistry and clay mineralogy in Lake Towuti, Indonesia: understanding climate-induced controls on sediment composition during the past 60 kyr BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morlock, Marina; Vogel, Hendrik; Nigg, Valentin; Hasberg, Ascelina; Melles, Martin; Russell, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria

    2016-04-01

    Al and high Mg concentrations and exerts a dominant control on the present-day sediment composition of Towuti's northern basin. This indicates that the Mahalona River and its tributaries cut deep into the laterite soils, transporting relatively unweathered material to the lake. In the past 60,000 years, the Al/Mg ratio is lowest between 35,000 and 15,000 years BP, and kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral during this period. During most of the Holocene and >35,000 years BP, Al/Mg is comparable to today and smectites (Holocene) and illites (MIS 3) are the most abundant clay minerals. The clay mineralogy suggests deeper soil erosion during wet interglacials and more surficial erosion during dry glacial climate conditions. These findings imply that erosion and element cycling are mainly driven by changes in precipitation amount and terrestrial runoff in Towuti's catchment. The Al/Mg ratio on the other hand points to a stronger (lesser) contribution of relatively unweathered sediments sourced from the Mahalona River catchment during dry (wet) phases, likely as a result of lake-level changes and associated changes in shoreline proximity to our coring sites.

  9. Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jade Eloise; Castronovo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots), whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials) when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays. PMID:27195749

  10. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  11. Association analysis of IGF2BP2, KCNJ11, and CDKAL1 polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Moroccan population: a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Benrahma, Houda; Charoute, Hicham; Lasram, Khaled; Boulouiz, Redouane; Atig, Rym Kefi-Ben; Fakiri, Malika; Rouba, Hassan; Abdelhak, Sonia; Barakat, Abdelhamid

    2014-10-01

    Associations with type 2 diabetes mellitus have been identified for variants CDKAL1 rs7756992, KCNJ11 rs5219, and IGF2BP2 rs4402960 in different populations. In a case-control study of 250 unrelated Moroccan diabetic patients and 250 healthy controls, we used TaqMan allelic discrimination assays to genotype the three SNPs and meta-analysis to investigate the association between the polymorphisms and diabetes in Arab populations. The results showed a significant diabetes association only with the variant rs4402960 of the IGF2BP2 gene under additive 2 (GG vs. TT; p = 0.009) and recessive (TT vs. GG+GT; p = 0.003) models. Meta-analysis indicated significant association between the IGF2BP2 rs4402960 and CDKAL1 rs7756992 polymorphisms and increased risk of diabetes in Arab populations. According to our results, the case-control study and meta-analysis revealed a significant association between the IGF2BP2 rs4402960 variant and type 2 diabetes in Moroccan and Arab populations. PMID:24898818

  12. High school students' perceptions of EFL teacher control orientations and their English academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between strong, shared, or loose teacher control during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. AIM. The present study aimed at (a) investigating students' perceptions of control behaviours exhibited by their English teachers; and (b) exploring the contribution of different types of teacher control behaviours to students' cognitive outcomes (English Achievement). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 732 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students studying in three major fields of high school (Mathematics, Natural Science, and Humanities). The participants (16-17 years of age) were selected from third-grade classes of 27 EFL teachers working in 25 high schools of 6 main different geographical regions in the Isfahan province, Iran. METHOD. To obtain a comprehensive picture of different control types exhibited by Iranian EFL teachers, the control subscales of the two existing questionnaires, i.e., the Questionnaire on Instructional Behaviours (QIB), adapted by Den Brok et al. (2004) and the Questionnaire on Lesson Activities (QLA) used by Den Brok (2001) were merged to form the Questionnaire of Teacher Control (QTC). The development of this Persian instrument involved several steps: translation and back translation by the researchers, one expert translator, and two EFL teachers; piloting; and a final administration of the questionnaire to the student sample. With respect to the second aim of the study, data regarding students' performances on the Standardized National English Achievement Tests were gathered from local educational offices and schools. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. Statistical analyses supported acceptable reliability and validity of the instrument. A main factor structure with three types of teacher control (strong/high, shared/mid, and loose/low) was found to underlie students

  13. 78 FR 60270 - BP America Inc., BP Corporation North America Inc., BP America Production Company, and BP Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission BP America Inc., BP Corporation North America Inc., BP America Production Company, and BP Energy Company; Notice of Designation of Commission Staff as Non-Decisional With...

  14. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children’s mathematics achievement?

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J.; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A.; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children’s mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9–12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent’s report); math achievement was measured via teacher’s report and through the standard Woodcock–Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children’s mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children’s self-regulation abilities in the context of school. PMID:26441758

  15. Professional training in the workplace: the role of achievement motivation and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Campillo-Álvarez, Angela; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Muñiz, José

    2013-01-01

    The core objective of the present work is to explore the reasons why workers from different employment sectors join training courses to improve their job. To this end we assessed achievement motivation, locus of control and professional qualifications according to the participants' employment sector. The final sample consisted of 1460 active Spanish workers from four different employment sectors: services, catering, metal construction, and others. Of the sample, 40.1% were male and 59.9% female, with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD = 9.7). The results show that the new scale developed to assess achievement motivation, locus of control and workers' qualifications presents adequate psychometric characteristics. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to employment sector. The areas studied showed satisfactory levels of workers' effort and achievement motivation to perform their jobs, though their attitudes toward the training courses as a basis for improving their employability are varied. Workers in the catering sector had higher levels of external attribution and the lowest interest in training. Those in the service sector had higher levels of achievement motivation and effort at work. Future research should develop a joint program covering the public and private sectors for the modification of these beliefs, attitudes and attributions. PMID:23866230

  16. Perceived Control Mediates the Relations between Depressive Symptoms and Academic Achievement in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Moè, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the protective role played by perceived control in the relation between depressive symptoms and academic achievement in adolescence. A sample of 218 adolescents aged 11 to 16 filled in questionnaires to assess self-reported depressive symptoms and three factors tied with Perceived Control (PC): self-regulated learning strategies use, effort attribution, and perceived competence. Grade Point Average (GPA) was considered as a measure of academic achievement. A path model showed that the relation between GPA and depressive symptoms is mediated by PC (p<.05), and became non-significant when PC is considered. The discussion stresses the need to take into account the strategic and motivational factors favouring learning in planning programmes to prevent and treat depressive symptoms in adolescence. PMID:26377348

  17. An Active Suspension Controller Achieving the Best Ride Comfort at Any Specified Location on A Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Masahiro; Harada, Hiroshi; Araki, Yoshiaki

    In this paper, a new active suspension control scheme is developed so that ride comfort becomes best at any specified location on vehicle body. To achieve this end, two ideal vehicles are designed in which ride comfort becomes best at each different location. Then, linearly combining the two ideal vehicles, a combined ideal vehicle is constructed. It should be noted that we can easily force ride comfort at a specified location become best in the proposed combined ideal vehicle by setting only one design parameter. To achieve the good property stated above in actual vehicles, a robust tracking controller is proposed. It is shown by carrying out numerical simulations that ride comfort at a specified location can be easily improved in the closed loop system using the proposed combined ideal vehicle.

  18. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  19. Use a linear model to achieve stable composition control in a naphtha splitter

    SciTech Connect

    Karpe, P.

    1997-01-01

    The following two points using dual composition control in a naphtha splitter are emphasized: while literature provides general guidelines for design of control systems for distillation columns, each column is unique in terms of dynamic and steady state behavior. Multivariable control analytical tools, such as RGA and SVD, coupled with rigorous steady state simulations, can be effectively employed to achieve stable control in columns beset with severe loop interactions, and often in the absence of on-line analyzers, linear models representing the first order approximations of distillation columns can yield significant benefits. Such models are simple to understand, readily acceptable to operators, do not require special expertise to maintain, and therefore, offer high degree of reliability.

  20. Blood pressure (BP) assessment-from BP level to BP variability.

    PubMed

    Feber, Janusz; Litwin, Mieczyslaw

    2016-07-01

    The assessment of blood pressure (BP) can be challenging in children, especially in very young individuals, due to their variable body size and lack of cooperation. In the absence of data relating BP with cardiovascular outcomes in children, there is a need to convert absolute BP values (in mmHg) into age-, gender- and height appropriate BP percentiles or Z-scores in order to compare a patient's BP with the BP of healthy children of the same age, but also of children of different ages. Traditionally, the interpretation of BP has been based mainly on the assessment of the BP level obtained by office, home or 24-h BP monitoring. Recent studies suggest that it is not only BP level (i.e. average BP) but also BP variability that is clinically important for the development of target organ damage, including the progression of chronic kidney disease. In this review we describe current methods to evaluate of BP level, outline available methods for BP variability assessment and discuss the clinical consequences of BP variability, including its potential role in the management of hypertension. PMID:26201477

  1. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  2. Study of a Simulation Tool to Determine Achievable Control Dynamics and Control Power Requirements with Perfect Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a study of two methods for use in a generic nonlinear simulation tool that could be used to determine achievable control dynamics and control power requirements while performing perfect tracking maneuvers over the entire flight envelope. The two methods are NDI (nonlinear dynamic inversion) and the SOFFT(Stochastic Optimal Feedforward and Feedback Technology) feedforward control structure. Equivalent discrete and continuous SOFFT feedforward controllers have been developed. These equivalent forms clearly show that the closed-loop plant model loop is a plant inversion and is the same as the NDI formulation. The main difference is that the NDI formulation has a closed-loop controller structure whereas SOFFT uses an open-loop command model. Continuous, discrete, and hybrid controller structures have been developed and integrated into the formulation. Linear simulation results show that seven different configurations all give essentially the same response, with the NDI hybrid being slightly different. The SOFFT controller gave better tracking performance compared to the NDI controller when a nonlinear saturation element was added. Future plans include evaluation using a nonlinear simulation.

  3. Achieving glycemic control in special populations in hospital: perspectives in practice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Alice Y Y

    2014-04-01

    Achieving and maintaining glycemic control in patients with diabetes admitted to hospital is challenging because of the many competing factors of nutrition, pharmacotherapy and other patient-related and systemic factors. For patients receiving enteral or parenteral feeding, eating irregularly or receiving glucocorticoid therapy, the challenges are even greater. The basic principles to follow when managing glycemia in these populations are as follows: 1) Recognition of those at risk for hyperglycemia; 2) frequent bedside glucose monitoring; 3) a proactive approach with routine insulin administration based on the predicted glucose patterns; 4) constant reassessment of the glycemic status and titration of the routine insulin accordingly. PMID:24690508

  4. Esmolol in a case of severe tetanus. Adequate haemodynamic control achieved despite markedly elevated catecholamine levels.

    PubMed

    Beards, S C; Lipman, J; Bothma, P A; Joynt, G M

    1994-03-01

    A patient with severe tetanus, who had a sympathetic crisis while sedated with 30 mg/h diazepam and 30 mg/h morphine, is described. Satisfactory control of the haemodynamic crisis was achieved with bolus doses of esmolol to a total of 180 mg. A disturbing finding was that although there was adequate control of the tachycardia and hypertension, arterial catecholamine levels remained markedly elevated. Adrenaline levels of 531 pg/ml (normal 10-110 pg/ml) and noradrenaline levels of 1,036 pg/ml (normal 100-500 pg/ml) were recorded when the patient had a systolic arterial pressure of 110 mmHg and a heart rate of 97/min. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:11218441

  5. Promotive effect of comprehensive management on achieving blood glucose control in senile type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Yan, S-T; Li, C-X; Li, C-L; Li, J; Shao, Y-H; Liu, Y; Zhong, W-W; Fang, F-S; Sun, B-R; Tian, H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the control of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and its influencing factors, in elderly type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) patients undergoing comprehensive management. After years of comprehensive prevention of and control measures for diabetes, elderly T2DM patients who were receiving long-term health care were comprehensively evaluated through an annual physical examination. In addition to routine health examination, the patients were required to undergo HbA1c measurement. Among 688 patients, 652 were men and 36 were women, with a mean age of 78.2 ± 9.1 years. The average HbA1c was 6.6 ± 0.9%. A total of 50.6% of the patients had HbA1c <6.5%, whereas 76.3% had HbA1c <7.0%. Among all patients, 77.1, 46.4, 66.1, 67.8, 36.3, and 57.4% achieved the target total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI) levels, respectively. The duration of disease and type of treatment, as well as the LDL, HDL, TG, BMI, and blood pressure levels, were significantly associated with HbA1c control. No patient was admitted because of ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar nonketotic diabetic coma in 10 years. Approximately half of the T2DM patients achieved the target HbA1c level. The more effective blood glucose control observed in our study compared with previous studies can be attributed to the effective monitoring of medical conditions and comprehensive management of patients. PMID:25966070

  6. The Control-Value Theory of Achievement Emotions: Assumptions, Corollaries, and Implications for Educational Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the control-value theory of achievement emotions and its implications for educational research and practice. The theory provides an integrative framework for analyzing the antecedents and effects of emotions experienced in achievement and academic settings. It is based on the premise that appraisals of control and values are…

  7. The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Hillman, C H; Pontifex, M B; Raine, L B; Castelli, D M; Hall, E E; Kramer, A F

    2009-03-31

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indexes of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included 20 preadolescent participants (age=9.5+/-0.5 years; eight female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 min of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e. walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further support the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:19356688

  8. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE TREADMILL WALKING ON COGNITIVE CONTROL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Charles H.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hall, Eric E.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included twenty preadolescent participants (Age = 9.5 ± 0.5 years; 8 female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 minutes of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e., walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further supports the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:19356688

  9. Establishing Causality Using Longitudinal Hierarchical Linear Modeling: An Illustration Predicting Achievement From Self-Control

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Tsukayama, Eli; May, Henry

    2010-01-01

    The predictive validity of personality for important life outcomes is well established, but conventional longitudinal analyses cannot rule out the possibility that unmeasured third-variable confounds fully account for the observed relationships. Longitudinal hierarchical linear models (HLM) with time-varying covariates allow each subject to serve as his or her own control, thus eliminating between-individual confounds. HLM also allows the directionality of the causal relationship to be tested by reversing time-lagged predictor and outcome variables. We illustrate these techniques through a series of models that demonstrate that within-individual changes in self-control over time predict subsequent changes in GPA but not vice-versa. The evidence supporting a causal role for self-control was not moderated by IQ, gender, ethnicity, or income. Further analyses rule out one time-varying confound: self-esteem. The analytic approach taken in this study provides the strongest evidence to date for the causal role of self-control in determining achievement. PMID:20976121

  10. Nephrotic-range proteinuria is strongly associated with poor blood pressure control in pediatric chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kogon, Amy J; Pierce, Christopher B; Cox, Christopher; Brady, Tammy M; Mitsnefes, Mark M; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan L; Flynn, Joseph T

    2014-04-01

    Despite the importance of blood pressure (BP) control in chronic kidney disease (CKD), few longitudinal studies on its trends exist for pediatric patients with CKD. Here we longitudinally analyzed casual data in 578 children with CKD and annual BP measurements standardized for age, gender, and height. At baseline, 124 children were normotensive, 211 had elevated BP, and 243 had controlled hypertension. Linear mixed-effects models accounting for informative dropout determined factors associated with BP changes over time and relative sub-hazards (RSH) identified factors associated with the achievement of controlled BP in children with baseline elevated BP. Younger age, black children, higher body mass index, and higher proteinuria at baseline were associated with higher standardized BP levels. Overall average BP decreased during follow-up, but nephrotic-range proteinuria and increased proteinuria and body mass index were risk factors for increasing BP over time. Only 46% of hypertensive patients achieved controlled BP during follow-up; least likely were those with nephrotic-range proteinuria (RSH 0.19), black children (RSH 0.42), and children with baseline glomerular filtration rate under 40 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (RSH 0.58). Thus, of many coexisting factors, nephrotic-range proteinuria was most strongly associated with poor BP control and worsening BP over time. Future research should focus on strategies to reduce proteinuria, as this may improve BP control and slow the progression of CKD. PMID:24048375

  11. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P. Craig; Buyon, Lucas E.; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the “big three” diseases—namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria—has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda

  12. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P Craig; Buyon, Lucas E; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the "big three" diseases--namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria--has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda. PMID

  13. Longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's negative emotions, effortful control, and math achievement in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement. PMID:24916765

  14. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  15. Pollution control system design for achieving stringent emissions standards on waste incineration facilities -- a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, E.H.; Bourgoin, S.

    1998-12-31

    In Germany, environmental standards for non-municipal waste incineration are set to not only achieve very low emissions to the atmosphere, but to also ensure that the solid residues generated are of acceptable quality for final disposal and that no liquid effluent is discharged from the system. In order to control pollution from these facilities, an integrated system is required to address the air, liquid and solid regulatory issues. This paper examines one recent facility installed in Germany which incorporates all of the design features required to comply with those standards. The facility examined is an industrial waste incineration facility located at an oil refinery in northeastern Germany. Equipped with a spray dryer absorber, fabric filter, and wet scrubber, the system is designed to achieve HCl emissions of less than 10 mg/Nm{sup 3} and SO{sub 2} emissions of less than 50 mg/Nm{sup 3}. Particulate emissions must be below 10 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The limit for mercury emissions is 50 ug/Nm{sup 3}, while dioxin emissions must be below 0.10 ng/Nm{sup 3}. Purge water from the wet scrubbing system containing salts is dried in the spray dryer absorber and collected as a dry waste in the fabric filter following the spray dryer absorber. The detailed design of the pollution control system is discussed, along with considerations to ensure continuous compliance with allowable emission levels. Operation of the facility is discussed, along with special operating issues that have been encountered since startup. Finally, performance tests and emissions data are presented to illustrate the actual performance level of the facility.

  16. The Target Achievement Control Test: Evaluating real-time myoelectric pattern recognition control of a multifunctional upper-limb prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ann M.; Hargrove, Levi J.; Lock, Blair A.; Kuiken, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite high classification accuracies (~95%) of myoelectric control systems based on pattern recognition, it is unclear how well offline measures translate to real-time closed-loop control. Recently, a real-time virtual test analyzed how well subjects completed motions using a multiple–degree of freedom (DOF) classifier. Although this test provided real-time performance metrics, the required task was oversimplified: motion speeds were normalized and unintended movements were ignored. We included these considerations in a new, more challenging virtual test, the Target Achievement Control (TAC) Test. Users attempted to move a virtual arm into a target posture using myoelectric pattern recognition. Five transradial amputees performed the test with various classifier (one vs. three DOF) and task complexities (one vs. three required motions per posture). No significant difference was found in classification accuracy between the one- and three- DOF classifiers (97.2%±2.0% and 94.1%±3.1%, respectively) (p=0.14). Subjects completed 31% fewer trials in significantly more time using the three-DOF classifier. Subjects took 3.6±0.8 times longer to reach a three-motion posture compared to a one-motion posture. The results highlight the need for closed-loop performance measures and demonstrate that the TAC Test provides a useful and more challenging tool to test real-time pattern recognition performance. PMID:21938650

  17. The Relationship of Locus of Control and Self-Efficacy to Academic Achievement of First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Kathleen Geiger

    2003-01-01

    This correlation study assessed whether the psychological variables of college students' locus of control, self-efficacy, and achievement expectations strengthen the prediction of academic achievement beyond that of traditional cognitive measures of high school grade point average and scores on the ACT or SAT examination. The study used earned…

  18. Boredom in Achievement Settings: Exploring Control-Value Antecedents and Performance Outcomes of a Neglected Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Daniels, Lia M.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2010-01-01

    The linkages of achievement-related boredom with students' appraisals and performance outcomes were examined in a series of 5 exploratory, cross-sectional, and predictive investigations. Studies 1 and 2 assessed students' boredom in a single achievement episode (i.e., state achievement boredom); Studies 3, 4, and 5 focused on their habitual…

  19. Achieving blood pressure goals: why aren't we?

    PubMed

    Cushman, William C; Basile, Jan

    2006-12-01

    The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) recommends a blood pressure (BP) goal of <140/90 mm Hg in patients with hypertension and <130/80 mm Hg in those with diabetes or chronic kidney disease. Achievement of BP goals is associated with significant benefits in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although evidence suggests these goals are attainable, only about one third of patients are meeting them. There is a significant gap between treatment guideline recommendations and their implementation in clinical practice. Many clinicians appear satisfied with modest BP reductions and do not make the necessary treatment adjustments to achieve BP goals. Patient nonadherence is another important reason for lack of BP control. For the success of clinical trials to be reproduced in clinical practice, clinicians must recognize the importance of treating BP to goal, emphasize to patients the need to adhere to treatments, and provide persistent, goal-targeted therapy. PMID:17170612

  20. Achieving a new controllable male contraception by the photothermal effect of gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-qing; Sun, Chun-yang; Wang, Feng; Wang, Yu-cai; Zhai, Yi-wen; Liang, Meng; Liu, Wen-jing; Liu, Zhi-min; Wang, Jun; Sun, Fei

    2013-06-12

    During the process of human civilization, owning household pets has become increasingly popular. However, dogs and cats may be reservoirs or vectors of transmissible diseases to humans. Confronted with the overpopulation of pets, traditional contraception methods, surgical methods of sterilization, for animals are used, namely, ovariohysterectomy and orchidectomy. Therefore, a simple, nonsurgical, controllable, more effective and less expensive contraception method is highly desirable. In this study, we show that in situ testicular injection of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-modified gold nanorods with near-infrared irradiation in male mice can achieve short-lived or permanent male infertility. In a lower hyperthermia treatment, the morphology of testes and seminiferous tubules is only partly injured, and fertility indices are decreased to 10% at day 7, then recovered to 50% at day 60. In a higher hyperthermia treatment, the morphology of testes and seminiferous tubules are totally destroyed, and fertility indices are decreased to 0 at day 7. Overall, our results indicate a potential application of plasmonic nanomaterials for male contraception. PMID:23688274

  1. Achieving glycemic control in young children with type 1 diabetes: approaches, pitfalls and new technologies.

    PubMed

    Gruppuso, Philip A

    2003-04-01

    Advances in technologies for insulin administrations, glucose monitoring, development of an artificial pancreas and cell-based therapy will ultimately have a profound effect on the lives of people wit diabetes. There is both current success and substantial promise, indicating that these approches may offer, for the first time, real potential for achieving euglycemia without hypoglycemia. Given the physiological and psychosocial impact of type 1 diabetes in young children, this group of patients and their parents stand to gain especially great benefit from these developments. However, the potential for improvements in the mangement of diabetes in young children based on available technologies should not be overlooked and should be effectively utilized as the standard for patient care. Only twenty years ago blood glucose reagent strips were first coming into routine use. Current meters have greatly reduced the amount of blood required ( now less than 1 microliter for many meters) and greatly imporved precision. The advent modified, recombinant insulins, which became available only in the last several years, allows for an insulin regimen to better match the absorption of dietary carbohydrate. All technologies have improved our ability to attain glycemic control, thereby reducing the risk of long-term complication in even our youngest patients. PMID:12751364

  2. The 15q11.2 BP1–BP2 Microdeletion Syndrome: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Devin M.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the 15q11.2 BP1–BP2 microdeletion can present with developmental and language delay, neurobehavioral disturbances and psychiatric problems. Autism, seizures, schizophrenia and mild dysmorphic features are less commonly seen. The 15q11.2 BP1–BP2 microdeletion involving four genes (i.e., TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA1, NIPA2) is emerging as a recognized syndrome with a prevalence ranging from 0.57%–1.27% of patients presenting for microarray analysis which is a two to four fold increase compared with controls. Review of clinical features from about 200 individuals were grouped into five categories and included developmental (73%) and speech (67%) delays; dysmorphic ears (46%) and palatal anomalies (46%); writing (60%) and reading (57%) difficulties, memory problems (60%) and verbal IQ scores ≤75 (50%); general behavioral problems, unspecified (55%) and abnormal brain imaging (43%). Other clinical features noted but not considered as common were seizures/epilepsy (26%), autism spectrum disorder (27%), attention deficit disorder (ADD)/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (35%), schizophrenia/paranoid psychosis (20%) and motor delay (42%). Not all individuals with the deletion are clinically affected, yet the collection of findings appear to share biological pathways and presumed genetic mechanisms. Neuropsychiatric and behavior disturbances and mild dysmorphic features are associated with genomic imbalances of the 15q11.2 BP1–BP2 region, including microdeletions, but with an apparent incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. PMID:25689425

  3. Prediction of Kindergartners' Academic Achievement from Their Effortful Control and Emotionality: Evidence for Direct and Moderated Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Swanson, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    The relations between effortful control, emotionality (anger, sadness, and shyness), and academic achievement were examined in a short-term longitudinal study of 291 kindergartners. Teachers and parents reported on students' effortful control and emotionality. Students completed the Continuous Performance Task and the Letter-Word, Passage…

  4. Effects of an Emotion Control Treatment on Academic Emotions, Motivation and Achievement in an Online Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChanMin; Hodges, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    We designed and developed an emotion control treatment and investigated its effects on college students' academic emotions, motivation, and achievement in an online remedial mathematics course. The treatment group showed more positive emotions of enjoyment and pride than the control group. The treatment group also showed a higher level of…

  5. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-Student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-Risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to…

  6. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  7. The Effects of Formal Reasoning Ability, Locus of Control and Student Engagement on Science Process Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kenneth G.; Capie, William

    This study investigated student variables likely to influence process skill learning. Specifically, relationships were explored concerning the following variables: (1) student engagement and science process achievement, (2) formal reasoning ability and student engagement, (3) formal reasoning ability and science process achievement, (4) student…

  8. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  9. Locus of Control or Self-Esteem; Which One is the Best Predictor of Academic Achievement in Iranian College Students

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Karami Matin, Behzad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Ashtarian, Hossein; Jalilian, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demographic, Rotter internal-external locus of control scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 21. Results Results showed that 29.8% and 76.2% of the participants had internal locus of control, and high self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant correlation between self-esteem, locus of control and academic achievement of the students. Self-esteem accounted for 39.5% of the variation in academic achievement. Conclusions It seems that interventions to increase self-esteem among student can help improve academic achievement among them. PMID:27284277

  10. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2009-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children. PMID:20161421

  11. Magmatic controls on eruption dynamics of the 1950 yr B.P. eruption of San Antonio Volcano, Tacaná Volcanic Complex, Mexico-Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Juan Carlos; Gardner, James Edward; Macías, José Luis; Meriggi, Lorenzo; Santo, Alba Patrizia

    2013-07-01

    San Antonio Volcano, in the Tacaná Volcanic Complex, erupted ~ 1950 yr. B.P., with a Pelean type eruption that produced andesitic pyroclastic surges and block-and-ash flows destroying part of the volcano summit and producing a horse-shoe shaped crater open to the SW. Between 1950 and 800 yr B.P. the eruption continued with effusive andesites followed by a dacite lava flow and a summit dome, all from a single magma batch. All products consist of phenocrysts and microphenocrysts of zoned plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxene, magnetite ± ilmenite, set in partially crystallized groundmass of glass and microlites of the same mineral phases, except for the lack of amphibole. Included in the andesitic blocks of the block-and-ash flow deposit are basaltic andesite enclaves with elongated and ellipsoidal forms and chilled margins. The enclaves have intersertal textures with brown glass between microphenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene, and olivine, and minor proportions of phenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende, and pyroxene. A compositional range obtained of blocks and enclaves resulted from mixing between andesite (866 °C ± 22) and basaltic andesite (enclaves, 932 °C ± 22), which may have triggered the explosive Pelean eruption. Vestiges of that mixing are preserved as complex compositional zones in plagioclase and clinopyroxene-rich reaction rims in amphibole in the andesite. Whole-rock chemistry, geothermometry, experimental petrology and modeling results suggest that after the mixing event the eruption tapped hybrid andesitic magma (≤ 900 °C) and ended with effusive dacitic magma (~ 825 °C), all of which were stored at ~ 200 MPa water pressure. A complex open-system evolution that involved crustal end-members best explains the generation of effusive dacite from the hybrid andesite. Amphibole in the dacite is rimmed by reaction products of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxides produced by decompression during ascent. Amphibole in the andesite

  12. Transcriptional Regulation of CRD-BP by c-myc

    PubMed Central

    Noubissi, Felicite K.; Nikiforov, Mikhail A.; Colburn, Nancy; Spiegelman, Vladimir S.

    2010-01-01

    The coding region determinant binding protein, CRD-BP, is a multifunctional RNA binding protein involved in different processes such as mRNA turnover, translation control, and localization. It is mostly expressed in fetal and neonatal tissues, where it regulates many transcripts essential for normal embryonic development. CRD-BP is scarce or absent in normal adult tissues but reactivated and/or overexpressed in various neoplastic and preneoplastic tumors and in most cell lines. Its expression has been associated with the most aggressive form of some cancers. CRD-BP is an important regulator of different genes including a variety of oncogenes or proto-oncogenes (c-myc, β-TrCP1, GLI1, etc.). Regulation of CRD-BP expression is critical for proper control of its targets as its overexpression may play an important role in abnormal cell proliferation, suppression of apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis. Molecular bases of the regulatory mechanisms governing CRD-BP expression are still not completely elucidated. In this article, we have identified c-myc as a novel transcriptional regulator of CRD-BP. We show that c-myc binds to CRD-BP promoter and induces its transcription. This induction of CRD-BP expression contributes to the role of c-myc in the regulation of translation, increase in cell size, and acceleration of cell cycle progression via a mechanism involving upregulation of β-TrCP1 levels and activities and accelerated degradation of PDCD4. PMID:21779431

  13. Bandwidth efficient coding: Theoretical limits and real achievements. Error control techniques for satellite and space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Courturier, Servanne; Levy, Yannick; Mills, Diane G.; Perez, Lance C.; Wang, Fu-Quan

    1993-01-01

    In his seminal 1948 paper 'The Mathematical Theory of Communication,' Claude E. Shannon derived the 'channel coding theorem' which has an explicit upper bound, called the channel capacity, on the rate at which 'information' could be transmitted reliably on a given communication channel. Shannon's result was an existence theorem and did not give specific codes to achieve the bound. Some skeptics have claimed that the dramatic performance improvements predicted by Shannon are not achievable in practice. The advances made in the area of coded modulation in the past decade have made communications engineers optimistic about the possibility of achieving or at least coming close to channel capacity. Here we consider the possibility in the light of current research results.

  14. Tobacco control efforts in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hassounah, S; Rawaf, D; Khoja, T; Rawaf, S; Hussein, M S; Qidwai, W; Majeed, A

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports a review into the current state of tobacco use, governance and national commitment for control, and current intervention frameworks in place to reduce the use of tobacco among the populations of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member states and Yemen. It further reviews structured policy-oriented interventions (in line with the MPOWER package of 6 evidence-based tobacco control measures) that represent government actions to strengthen, implement and manage tobacco control programmes and to address the growing epidemic of tobacco use. Our findings show that tobacco control in the GCC countries has witnessed real progress over the past decades. These are still early days but they indicate steps in the right direction. Future investment in implementation and enforcement of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, production of robust tobacco control legislation and the establishment of universally available tobacco cessation services are essential to sustain and strengthen tobacco control in the GCC region. PMID:25150358

  15. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  16. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  17. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  18. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  19. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  20. Effects of Autonomy Supportive vs. Controlling Teachers' Behavior on Students' Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferber, Natalia; Eckes, Alexander; Wilde, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Grolnick and Ryan (1987) assume that an autonomy supportive environment leads to higher learner engagement and thus to greater achievements and deeper understanding of content. In school, knowledge acquisition (rote learning as well as conceptual learning) are regarded as most important. In this study, we examined the effects of teachers' autonomy…

  1. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  2. Effects of Achievement, Evaluative Feedback, and Locus of Control on Children's Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midlarsky, Elizabeth; McKnight, Lynda Bidlake

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated that expectations concerning success were determined by past achievement and by evaluative feedback. Immediate past performance had a stronger relative influence on expectations and performance than evaluative feedback. Feedback had a relatively greater effect on self-evaluation. (Author/DB)

  3. Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Understand Executive Control in Preschool Children: Sources of Variation in Emergent Mathematic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Sheffield, Tiffany D.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize

    2011-01-01

    Latent variable modeling methods have demonstrated utility for understanding the structure of executive control (EC) across development. These methods are utilized to better characterize the relation between EC and mathematics achievement in the preschool period, and to understand contributing sources of individual variation. Using the sample and…

  4. High-School Students' Need for Cognition, Self-Control Capacity, and School Achievement: Testing a Mediation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrams, Alex; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control…

  5. Using Valid and Invalid Experimental Designs to Teach the Control of Variables Strategy in Higher and Lower Achieving Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Freer, Benjamin Dunham; Dunlap, Emily E.; Hodell, Emily C.; Calderhead, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Students (n = 1,069) from 60 4th-grade classrooms were taught the control of variables strategy (CVS) for designing experiments. Half of the classrooms were in schools that performed well on a state-mandated test of science achievement, and half were in schools that performed relatively poorly. Three teaching interventions were compared: an…

  6. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  7. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  8. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  9. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  10. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from…

  11. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  12. A Randomized Controlled Design Investigating the Effects of Classroom-Based Physical Activity on Children's Fluid Intelligence and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedewa, Alicia L.; Ahn, Soyeon; Erwin, Heather; Davis, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature shows promising effects of physical activity on children's cognitive outcomes. This study assessed via a randomized, controlled design whether additional curricular physical activity during the school day resulted in gains for children's fluid intelligence and standardized achievement outcomes. Participants were children…

  13. The Effects of Diagnosis, Remediation and Locus of Control on Achievement, Retention, and Attitudes of Middle School Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Ramona L.; Yeany, Russell H.

    Reported is a study designed to determine the effects of diagnostic testing followed by prescribed remediation on the immediate and retained science achievement of middle school students, and to determine if effects of treatment were consistent across students' race and locus of control (LOC) levels. Three intact seventh-grade science classes were…

  14. High Self-Control Predicts More Positive Emotions, Better Engagement, and Higher Achievement in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.; Gaerlan, Marianne Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    The control-value theory of academic emotions has emerged as a useful framework for studying the antecedents and consequences of different emotions in school. This framework focuses on the role of control-related and value-related appraisals as proximal antecedents of emotions. In this study, we take an individual differences approach to examine…

  15. Achievement of a low-outgassing white paint system for spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidenberg, B.; Park, J. J.; Clatterbuck, C.

    1972-01-01

    Test results and data for achieving a low-outgassing polymer resin suitable for potting or a paint pigment are presented. The resin, prepared in 0.5-kg (1-lb) batches, is acceptable for spacecraft use; its weight loss is less than 0.5 percent, and the volatile condensable materials are less than 0.05 percent. The paint adheres to a primed fiber glass or aluminum substrate. Results of UV irradiation, electron and proton radiation, and thermal cycling are presented.

  16. A randomized controlled trial of an automated telephone intervention to improve blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Teresa N; Ho, Timothy S; Handler, Joel; Kanter, Michael H; Goldberg, Ruthie A; Reynolds, Kristi

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a telephonic outreach program to improve blood pressure (BP) control among patients with hypertension. The authors identified adults 18 years and older with uncontrolled BP within the previous 12 months. Patients received either an automated telephone call advising them to have a walk-in BP check (n=31,619) or usual care (n=33,154). The primary outcome was BP control at 4 weeks. Significantly more patients who received the intervention achieved BP control compared with the usual care group (32.5% vs 23.7%; P<.0001). Patients in the intervention arm with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, or diabetes mellitus achieved better BP control. Older age, female sex, and having a household income above the median were associated with BP control. When designing quality-improvement interventions to increase BP control rates, health care organizations should consider utilizing an automated telephone outreach campaign. PMID:24034658

  17. Robust, integrated computational control of NMR experiments to achieve optimal assignment by ADAPT-NMR.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Arash; Tonelli, Marco; Sahu, Sarata C; Singarapu, Kiran K; Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Markley, John L

    2012-01-01

    ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) represents a groundbreaking prototype for automated protein structure determination by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. With a [(13)C,(15)N]-labeled protein sample loaded into the NMR spectrometer, ADAPT-NMR delivers complete backbone resonance assignments and secondary structure in an optimal fashion without human intervention. ADAPT-NMR achieves this by implementing a strategy in which the goal of optimal assignment in each step determines the subsequent step by analyzing the current sum of available data. ADAPT-NMR is the first iterative and fully automated approach designed specifically for the optimal assignment of proteins with fast data collection as a byproduct of this goal. ADAPT-NMR evaluates the current spectral information, and uses a goal-directed objective function to select the optimal next data collection step(s) and then directs the NMR spectrometer to collect the selected data set. ADAPT-NMR extracts peak positions from the newly collected data and uses this information in updating the analysis resonance assignments and secondary structure. The goal-directed objective function then defines the next data collection step. The procedure continues until the collected data support comprehensive peak identification, resonance assignments at the desired level of completeness, and protein secondary structure. We present test cases in which ADAPT-NMR achieved results in two days or less that would have taken two months or more by manual approaches. PMID:22427982

  18. High School Students' Perceptions of EFL Teacher Control Orientations and Their English Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between "strong, shared, or loose teacher control" during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. Aim: The present study aimed at (a) investigating students'…

  19. Beyond Control of Variables: What Needs to Develop to Achieve Skilled Scientific Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Deanna; Iordanou, Kalypso; Pease, Maria; Wirkala, Clarice

    2008-01-01

    We identify three aspects of scientific thinking beyond the control-of-variables strategy that we claim are essential for students to master as a foundation for skilled scientific thinking. The first is strategic and involves the ability to coordinate effects of multiple causal influences on an outcome. The second is a mature understanding of the…

  20. Achieving control and interoperability through unified model-based systems and software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Robert; Ingham, Michel; Dvorak, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Control and interoperation of complex systems is one of the most difficult challenges facing NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. An integrated but diverse array of vehicles, habitats, and supporting facilities, evolving over the long course of the enterprise, must perform ever more complex tasks while moving steadily away from the sphere of ground support and intervention.

  1. A Study to Investigate the Relationship between Locus of Control and Academic Achievement of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Aijaz, Rukhma

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is regarded as the alpha and omega of learning. It is the heart of teaching learning process. Motivation is defined as an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains the behavior over time. Thus motivation is the pivotal component of learning and locus of control which is one of the important factors it stems from. Locus of…

  2. BP details new recycling process

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1992-04-22

    BP Chemicals (London) is developing a preprocessing thermal cracker for recycling mixed plastics waste as an add-on to existing petrochemicals or refinery complexes. The company is currently discussing the technology with other plastic producers to {open_quotes}move forward together,{close_quotes} say Serge Huybrechts, branch R&D manager at BP Chemicals at Grangemouth. He says the unit would be able to deliver an intermediate feed of similar composition to chemical naphtha for chemical or refinery processes including steam cracking, catalytic cracking, coking, gasification, and hydrocracking. In comparison, pyrolysis gives a range of products, from light gas to heavy aromatics, that are difficult to integrate into existing equipment.

  3. Achieving asthma control with ICS/LABA: A review of strategies for asthma management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Aalbers, René; Vogelmeier, Claus; Kuna, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    Maintenance treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) is recommended for patients whose asthma is not controlled with a low-to-moderate dose of ICS alone; a separate reliever medication is used on an as-needed basis. The Gaining Optimal Asthma ControL (GOAL) study demonstrated that salmeterol/fluticasone maintenance treatment can improve asthma control and reduce future risk compared with fluticasone alone, although the dose escalation design of this study meant that most patients treated with salmeterol/fluticasone were receiving the highest dose of ICS at the end of the study. Similarly, budesonide/formoterol maintenance therapy improved asthma control and reduced future risk compared with budesonide alone in the Formoterol and Corticosteroids Establishing Therapy (FACET) study. An alternative approach to asthma management is to use an ICS/LABA for both maintenance and reliever therapy. A large body of clinical evidence has shown that the use of budesonide/formoterol in this way improves both current control and reduces future risk compared with ICS/LABA plus as-needed short-acting β2-agonist (SABA), even when patients receive lower maintenance doses of ICS as part of the maintenance and reliever therapy regimen. In addition, one study has shown that beclometasone/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy reduces exacerbations more effectively than beclometasone/formoterol plus as-needed SABA. The use of ICS/LABA as both maintenance and reliever therapy ensures that an increase in reliever use in response to worsening symptoms is automatically matched by an increase in ICS. PMID:26614594

  4. Nanomechanical control of properties of biological membranes achieved by rodlike magnetic nanoparticles in a superlow-frequency magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, Yu. I.; Klyachko, N. L.; Gribanovskii, S. L.; Golovin, D. Yu.; Samodurov, A. A.; Majouga, A. G.; Sokolsky-Papkov, M.; Kabanov, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    It is proposed to use single-domain rodlike magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as mediators for nanomechanical control of properties of biological membranes and cells on the molecular or cellular level by exposing them to a homogeneous nonheating low-frequency magnetic field (AC MF). The trigger effect is achieved due to rotatory-oscillatory motion of MNPs in the AC MF, which causes the needed deformations in macromolecules of the membrane interacting with these MNPs.

  5. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cognition, Academic Achievement, and Psychosocial Function in Children: A Systematic Review of Randomized Control Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although the effects of aerobic physical activity (APA) on children’s physical health is well characterized, the effect of aerobic physical activity on cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function has not yet been established. This systematic review provides an overview of research elucidating the relationship between aerobic physical activity and children’s cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function. Methods A systematic review of English articles was performed in April 2013 using MEDLINE, Cochrane, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and EMBASE. Additional studies were identified through back-searching bibliographies. Only randomized control trials with an intervention of aerobic physical activity in children younger than 19 years that measured psychological, behavioral, cognitive, or academic outcomes were included. Results We found 8 relevant randomized control trials that met our inclusion criteria and extracted relevant data and evaluated the methodologic quality of the studies. Of the 8 studies identified, 2 studies were crossover randomized control trials studying the effects of acute aerobic physical activity on cognitive performance. Six studies were parallel-group randomized control studies, of which only 2 had a follow-up period of longer than 6 months. All studies showed that APA had a generally positive impact on children’s cognition and psychosocial function. However, this relationship was found to be minimal in many studies and in some measures, no significant improvement was seen at all. There was no documentation of APA having any negative impact on children’s cognition and psychosocial health, even in cases where school curriculum time was reassigned from classroom teaching to aerobic physical activity. Conclusion APA is positively associated with cognition, academic achievement, behavior, and psychosocial functioning outcomes. More rigorous trials with adequate sample sizes assessing the impact of APA on

  6. Ebola: A holistic approach is required to achieve effective management and control

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Anna; Afolabi, Muhammed O.; Saidu, Yauba; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-01-01

    The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa has already caused substantial mortality and dire human and economic consequences. It continues to represent an alarming public health threat in the region and beyond and jeopardizes the provision of health care and other services in the affected countries. The scale of the epidemic has accelerated research efforts for diagnostics, treatment, and prevention galvanized through increased availability of funding. Our knowledge relating to the virus, disease pathogenesis, risk factors, dynamics of transmission, and epidemic control is increasing, and sociocultural factors have emerged as critical determinants for the success and failure of control efforts. However, there is a long way to go. In this review we summarize the current knowledge, examine the sociocultural context in West Africa, and outline priority areas for future research. PMID:25843598

  7. Achieving reliable operation of a steam turbine's automatic control and protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, S. A.; Naumov, A. S.; Shvetsov, D. P.; Krymskii, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The algorithms, procedures, and modules for making expert estimates of the technical state of automatic control and protection systems for different types of turbines by means of the SPIDER mobile computerized automation system are presented. It is shown that owing to high trustworthiness with which the kind and location of hidden defects of units are determined without disassembling them, repair works can be scheduled in the optimal way and the costs for carrying them out can be reduced.

  8. Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities through Building Data Analysis and Achieving Energy Savings through Improved Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, Bill

    2014-09-04

    This chapter will highlight analysis techniques to identify energy efficiency opportunities to improve operations and controls. A free tool, Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM), will be used to assist in the analysis of whole-building, sub-metered, and/or data from the building automation system (BAS). Appendix A describes the features of ECAM in more depth, and also provide instructions for downloading ECAM and all resources pertaining to using ECAM.

  9. A procedure to achieve fine control in MW processing of foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccurullo, G.; Cinquanta, L.; Sorrentino, G.

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional analytical model for predicting the unsteady temperature field in a cylindrical shaped body affected by spatially varying heat generation is presented. The dimensionless problem is solved analytically by using both partial solutions and the variation of parameters techniques. Having in mind industrial microwave heating for food pasteurization, the easy-to-handle solution is used to confirm the intrinsic lack of spatial uniformity of such a treatment in comparison to the traditional one. From an experimental point of view, a batch pasteurization treatment was realized to compare the effect of two different control techniques both based on IR thermography readout: the former assured a classical PID control, while the latter was based on a "shadowing" technique, consisting in covering portions of the sample which are hot enough with a mobile metallic screen. A measure of the effectiveness of the two control techniques was obtained by evaluating the thermal death curves of a strain Lactobacillus plantarum submitted to pasteurization temperatures. Preliminary results showed meaningful increases in the microwave thermal inactivation of the L. plantarum and similar significant decreases in thermal inactivation time with respect to the traditional pasteurization thermal treatment.

  10. Analysis of alternatives for insulinizing patients to achieve glycemic control and avoid accompanying risks of hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    GAO, JIALIN; XIONG, QIANYIN; MIAO, JUN; ZHANG, YAO; XIA, LIBING; LU, MEIQIN; ZHANG, BINHUA; CHEN, YUEPING; ZHANG, ANSU; YU, CUI; WANG, LI-ZHUO

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to explore the efficacy of glycemic control and the risks of hypoglycemia with different methods of insulin therapy, and to provide reference data for the clinical treatment of diabetes. In this retrospective study, hospitalized patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between March and December 2014, in the Department of Endocrinology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College, were divided into three groups, including an intensive insulin analogue therapy group, a premixed insulin analogue treatment group and a premixed human insulin therapy group. The efficacy of glycemic control and the incidence of hypoglycemia were determined in each of the insulin treatment groups. Compared with the other treatment groups, the intensive insulin analogue therapy group was associated with superior blood glucose control, shorter time to reach standard insulin regimen, shorter hospitalization time, fewer fluctuations in blood glucose levels and lower insulin dosage on discharge from hospital. However, this treatment was also associated with a high risk of hypoglycemia. In conclusion, when combined with the effective prevention of hypoglycemia and appropriate nursing care (especially in hospital care), intensive insulin analogue therapy may provide the greatest benefit to patients. PMID:26137223

  11. Achieving high dependability and safety in sluice automation by using a fuzzy-logic-based control system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes how sluice automation was realized, achieving the customer requirements of dependability and safety. The analysis of both the managerial and technical problems has lead ENEL-PIN to develop an innovative sluice barrage control system, whose control algorithm is fuzzy-logic-based, that can be easily configured for each plant belonging to the identified sluice barrage class. APOS 1 achieves the automation requirements of dependability and safety by using a strong and continuous H/W and S/W self-testing and plant diagnosis, implementing particular techniques in order to realize a valid protection against electromagnetic interferences and climatic influences, and implementing suited command strategies to apply safety measures in case of hazardous situations. Its main tasks are to operate up to seven sluice-gates, suited for regulation, for controlling the river level near the sluices, and to perform a broadly diagnostic activity over the whole plant and on itself, to be used both on-line and for plant maintenance. APOS application software was designed in a general way for a class of plants, so that it may be configured by the plant expert personnel by means of a simple setting of some numeric parameters, during the plant installation. The core of the control system is a fuzzy-logic-based algorithm, that proved to be fast, reliable, and easily configurable to operate on different plants, because of the natural way in which the operation personnel's knowledge can be expressed. 1 APOS - Programmable Sluice Control System.

  12. Achievement of controlled resistive response of nanogapped palladium film to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, M.; Wong, M. H.; Ong, C. W.

    2015-07-20

    Palladium (Pd) film containing nanogaps of well controlled dimension was fabricated on a Si wafer having a high-aspect-ratio micropillar. The Pd film was arranged to experience hydrogen (H{sub 2})-induced volume expansion. (i) If the nanogap is kept open, its width is narrowed down. A discharge current was generated to give a strong, fast, and repeatable on-off type resistive switching response. (ii) If the nanogap is closed, the cross section of the conduction path varies to give continuous H{sub 2}-concentration dependent resistive response. The influence of stresses and related physical mechanisms are discussed.

  13. Terrestrial rabies control in the European Union: historical achievements and challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Wysocki, Patrick; Roumiantzeff, Micha; Freney, Jean; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Vos, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the implementation of oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programmes, the European Union (EU) is becoming progressively free of red fox (Vulpes vulpes)-mediated rabies. Over the past three decades, the incidence of rabies had decreased substantially and vast areas of Western and Central Europe have been freed from rabies using this method of controlling an infectious disease in wildlife. Since rabies control is a top priority in the EU, the disease is expected to be eliminated from the animal source in the near future. While responsible authorities may consider the mission of eliminating fox rabies from the EU almost accomplished, there are still issues to be dealt with and challenges to be met that have not yet been in the focus of attention, but could jeopardise the ultimate goal. Among them are increasing illegal movements of animals, maintaining funding support for vaccination campaigns, devising alternative vaccine strategies in neighbouring Eastern European countries and the expanding distribution range of several potential rabies reservoir species in Europe. PMID:25466578

  14. A quantitative integrated assessment of pollution prevention achieved by integrated pollution prevention control licensing.

    PubMed

    Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and

  15. Different systolic blood pressure targets for people with history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack: PAST-BP (Prevention After Stroke—Blood Pressure) randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Richard J; Roalfe, Andrea; Fletcher, Kate; Taylor, Clare J; Martin, Una; Virdee, Satnam; Greenfield, Sheila; Hobbs, F D Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether using intensive blood pressure targets leads to lower blood pressure in a community population of people with prevalent cerebrovascular disease. Design Open label randomised controlled trial. Setting 99 general practices in England, with participants recruited in 2009-11. Participants People with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack whose systolic blood pressure was 125 mm Hg or above. Interventions Intensive systolic blood pressure target (<130 mm Hg or 10 mm Hg reduction from baseline if this was <140 mm Hg) or standard target (<140 mm Hg). Apart from the different target, patients in both arms were actively managed in the same way with regular reviews by the primary care team. Main outcome measure Change in systolic blood pressure between baseline and 12 months. Results 529 patients (mean age 72) were enrolled, 266 to the intensive target arm and 263 to the standard target arm, of whom 379 were included in the primary analysis (182 (68%) intensive arm; 197 (75%) standard arm). 84 patients withdrew from the study during the follow-up period (52 intensive arm; 32 standard arm). Mean systolic blood pressure dropped by 16.1 mm Hg to 127.4 mm Hg in the intensive target arm and by 12.8 mm Hg to 129.4 mm Hg in the standard arm (difference between groups 2.9 (95% confidence interval 0.2 to 5.7) mm Hg; P=0.03). Conclusions Aiming for target below 130 mm Hg rather than 140 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure in people with cerebrovascular disease in primary care led to a small additional reduction in blood pressure. Active management of systolic blood pressure in this population using a <140 mm Hg target led to a clinically important reduction in blood pressure. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29062286. PMID:26919870

  16. The Prefrontal Cortex Achieves Inhibitory Control by Facilitating Subcortical Motor Pathway Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Laura E.; Anderson, Michael C.; Rowe, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Communication between the prefrontal cortex and subcortical nuclei underpins the control and inhibition of behavior. However, the interactions in such pathways remain controversial. Using a stop-signal response inhibition task and functional imaging with analysis of effective connectivity, we show that the lateral prefrontal cortex influences the strength of communication between regions in the frontostriatal motor system. We compared 20 generative models that represented alternative interactions between the inferior frontal gyrus, presupplementary motor area (preSMA), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and primary motor cortex during response inhibition. Bayesian model selection revealed that during successful response inhibition, the inferior frontal gyrus modulates an excitatory influence of the preSMA on the STN, thereby amplifying the downstream polysynaptic inhibition from the STN to the motor cortex. Critically, the strength of the interaction between preSMA and STN, and the degree of modulation by the inferior frontal gyrus, predicted individual differences in participants' stopping performance (stop-signal reaction time). We then used diffusion-weighted imaging with tractography to assess white matter structure in the pathways connecting these three regions. The mean diffusivity in tracts between preSMA and the STN, and between the inferior frontal gyrus and STN, also predicted individual differences in stopping efficiency. Finally, we found that white matter structure in the tract between preSMA and STN correlated with effective connectivity of the same pathway, providing important cross-modal validation of the effective connectivity measures. Together, the results demonstrate the network dynamics and modulatory role of the prefrontal cortex that underpin individual differences in inhibitory control. PMID:25589771

  17. Photocurrent enhancement of n-type Cu2O electrodes achieved by controlling dendritic branching growth.

    PubMed

    McShane, Colleen M; Choi, Kyoung-Shin

    2009-02-25

    Cu(2)O electrodes composed of dendritic crystals were produced electrochemically using a slightly acidic medium (pH 4.9) containing acetate buffer. The buffer played a key role for stabilizing dendritic branching growth as a pH drop during the synthesis prevents formation of morphologically unstable branches and promotes faceted growth. Dendritic branching growth enabled facile coverage of the substrate with Cu(2)O while avoiding growth of a thicker Cu(2)O layer and increasing surface areas. The resulting electrodes showed n-type behavior by generating anodic photocurrent without applying an external bias (zero-bias photocurrent under short-circuit condition) in an Ar-purged 0.02 M K(2)SO(4) solution. The zero-bias photocurrent of crystalline dendritic electrodes was significantly higher than that of the electrodes containing micrometer-size faceted crystals deposited without buffer. In order to enhance photocurrent further a strategy of improving charge-transport properties by increasing dendritic crystal domain size was investigated. Systematic changes in nucleation density and size of the dendritic Cu(2)O crystals were achieved by altering the deposition potential, Cu(2+) concentration, and acetate concentration. Increasing dendritic crystal size consistently resulted in the improvement of photocurrent regardless of the method used to regulate crystal size. The electrode composed of dendritic crystals with the lateral dimension of ca. 12000 microm(2) showed more than 20 times higher zero-bias photocurrent than that composed of dendritic crystals with the lateral dimension of ca. 100 microm(2). The n-type nature of the Cu(2)O electrodes prepared by this study were confirmed by linear sweep voltammetry with chopped light and capacitance measurements (i.e., Mott-Schottky plots). The flatband potential in a 0.2 M K(2)SO(4) solution (pH 6) was estimated to be -0.78 vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The IPCE measured without applying an external bias was approximately 1

  18. [What glycemic control can be achieved in diabetic children and adolescents to avoid complications? Personal experience].

    PubMed

    Dorchy, H

    2006-01-01

    The principal aims of therapeutic management of the child, adolescent and adult with type 1 diabetes are to allow good quality of life and to avoid long-term complications by maintaining blood glucose concentrations close to the normal range and an HbA1c level under 7%. The number of daily insulin injections, 2 or > or =4 or pumps, by itself does not necessarily give better results, but the 4-injection regimen allows greater freedom, taking into account that the proper insulin adjustment is difficult before adolescence. Successful glycaemic control in young patients depends mainly on the quality and intensity of diabetes education. Any dogmatism must be avoided. Dietary recommendations issued over the last few years are the same for diabetic and nondiabetic individuals in order to avoid degenerative diseases. In the twice-daily injection regimen, the allocation of carbohydrates throughout the day is essential. Due to their pharmakokinetic characteristics, fast-acting and long-acting insulin analogues have specific indications in both the twice-daily injection regimen and the basal-bolus insulin therapy. They improve quality of life, without necessarily reducing HbA1c. In the two daily insulin injection regimen, fast-acting analogues are very useful to rapidly correct hyperglycaemia, to allow sleeping in and eating something sweet. In the basal-bolus regimen, long-acting analogues reduce nocturnal hypoglycaemias and improve fasting blood glucose. Clinical studies, conducted since the 1970s by our team, have demonstrated that screening for subclinical retinopathy (fluorescein angiography), neuropathy (conduction velocities), nephropathy (microalbuminuria), should be started at puberty and at least 3 years after the diagnosis of diabetes. The goal is to detect early abnormalities responsible for subclinical disorders that can be reversed by improved metabolic control, thus preventing the occurrence of irreversible potentially incapacitating lesions. This motivates

  19. Tools and Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination: What Do We Need to Achieve a Grand Convergence in Malaria?

    PubMed Central

    Hemingway, Janet; Shretta, Rima; Wells, Timothy N. C.; Bell, David; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Achee, Nicole; Qi, Gao

    2016-01-01

    Progress made in malaria control during the past decade has prompted increasing global dialogue on malaria elimination and eradication. The product development pipeline for malaria has never been stronger, with promising new tools to detect, treat, and prevent malaria, including innovative diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, vector control products, and improved mechanisms for surveillance and response. There are at least 25 projects in the global malaria vaccine pipeline, as well as 47 medicines and 13 vector control products. In addition, there are several next-generation diagnostic tools and reference methods currently in development, with many expected to be introduced in the next decade. The development and adoption of these tools, bolstered by strategies that ensure rapid uptake in target populations, intensified mechanisms for information management, surveillance, and response, and continued financial and political commitment are all essential to achieving global eradication. PMID:26934361

  20. Tools and Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination: What Do We Need to Achieve a Grand Convergence in Malaria?

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Janet; Shretta, Rima; Wells, Timothy N C; Bell, David; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Achee, Nicole; Qi, Gao

    2016-03-01

    Progress made in malaria control during the past decade has prompted increasing global dialogue on malaria elimination and eradication. The product development pipeline for malaria has never been stronger, with promising new tools to detect, treat, and prevent malaria, including innovative diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, vector control products, and improved mechanisms for surveillance and response. There are at least 25 projects in the global malaria vaccine pipeline, as well as 47 medicines and 13 vector control products. In addition, there are several next-generation diagnostic tools and reference methods currently in development, with many expected to be introduced in the next decade. The development and adoption of these tools, bolstered by strategies that ensure rapid uptake in target populations, intensified mechanisms for information management, surveillance, and response, and continued financial and political commitment are all essential to achieving global eradication. PMID:26934361

  1. Strategies To Achieve Control over the Surface Ratio of Two Different Components on Modified Electrodes Using Aryldiazonium Salts.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng; Alam, Muhammad Tanzirul; Parker, Stephen G; Darwish, Nadim; Gooding, J Justin

    2016-03-15

    Controlling the composition of an interface is very important in tuning the chemical and physical properties of a surface in many applications including biosensors, biomaterials, and chemical catalysis. Frequently, this requires one molecular component to a minor component in a mixed layer. Such subtle control of composition has been difficult to achieve using aryldiazonium salts. Herein, aryldiazonium salts of carboxyphenyl (CP) and phenylphosphorylcholine (PPC), generated in situ from their corresponding anilines, are electrografted to form molecular platform that are available for further functionalization. These two components are chosen because CP provides a convenient functionality for further coupling of biorecognition species while PPC offers resistance to nonspecific adsorption of proteins to the surface. Mixed layers of CP and PPC were prepared by grafting them either simultaneously or consecutively. The latter strategy allows an interface to be developed in a controlled way where one component is at levels of less than 1% of the total layer. PMID:26901641

  2. Herbicides as Weed Control Agents: State of the Art: II. Recent Achievements[C

    PubMed Central

    Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; van Almsick, Andreas; Beffa, Roland; Dietrich, Hansjoerg; Eckes, Peter; Hacker, Erwin; Hain, Ruediger; Strek, Harry John; Stuebler, Hermann; Willms, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    In response to changing market dynamics, the discovery of new herbicides has declined significantly over the past few decades and has only seen a modest upsurge in recent years. Nevertheless, the few introductions have proven to be interesting and have brought useful innovation to the market. In addition, herbicide-tolerant or herbicide-resistant crop technologies have allowed the use of existing nonselective herbicides to be extended into crops. An increasing and now major challenge is being posed by the inexorable increase in biotypes of weeds that are resistant to herbicides. This problem is now at a level that threatens future agricultural productivity and needs to be better understood. If herbicides are to remain sustainable, then it is a must that we adopt diversity in crop rotation and herbicide use as well as increase the use of nonchemical measures to control weeds. Nevertheless, despite the difficulties posed by resistant weeds and increased regulatory hurdles, new screening tools promise to provide an upsurge of potential herbicide leads. Our industry urgently needs to supply agriculture with new, effective resistance-breaking herbicides along with strategies to sustain their utility. PMID:25104721

  3. Herbicides as weed control agents: state of the art: II. Recent achievements.

    PubMed

    Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; van Almsick, Andreas; Beffa, Roland; Dietrich, Hansjoerg; Eckes, Peter; Hacker, Erwin; Hain, Ruediger; Strek, Harry John; Stuebler, Hermann; Willms, Lothar

    2014-11-01

    In response to changing market dynamics, the discovery of new herbicides has declined significantly over the past few decades and has only seen a modest upsurge in recent years. Nevertheless, the few introductions have proven to be interesting and have brought useful innovation to the market. In addition, herbicide-tolerant or herbicide-resistant crop technologies have allowed the use of existing nonselective herbicides to be extended into crops. An increasing and now major challenge is being posed by the inexorable increase in biotypes of weeds that are resistant to herbicides. This problem is now at a level that threatens future agricultural productivity and needs to be better understood. If herbicides are to remain sustainable, then it is a must that we adopt diversity in crop rotation and herbicide use as well as increase the use of nonchemical measures to control weeds. Nevertheless, despite the difficulties posed by resistant weeds and increased regulatory hurdles, new screening tools promise to provide an upsurge of potential herbicide leads. Our industry urgently needs to supply agriculture with new, effective resistance-breaking herbicides along with strategies to sustain their utility. PMID:25104721

  4. Population control of an overabundant species achieved through consecutive anthropogenic perturbations.

    PubMed

    Payo-Payo, Ana; Oro, Daniel; Igual, José Manuel; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carolina; Tavecchia, Giacomo

    2015-12-01

    The control of overabundant vertebrates is often problematic. Much work has focused on population-level responses and overabundance due to anthropogenic subsidies. However, far less work has been directed at investigating responses following the removal of subsidies. We investigate the consequences of two consecutive perturbations, the closure of a landfill and an inadvertent poisoning event, on the trophic ecology (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S), survival, and population size of an overabundant generalist seabird species, the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis). We expected that the landfill closure would cause a strong dietary shift and the inadvertent poisoning a decrease in gull population size. As a long-lived species, we also anticipated adult survival to be buffered against the decrease in food availability but not against the inadvertent poisoning event. Stable isotope analysis confirmed the dietary shift towards marine resources after the disappearance of the landfill. Although the survival model was inconclusive, it did suggest that the perturbations had a negative effect on survival, which was followed by a recovery back to average values. Food limitation likely triggered dispersal to other populations, while poisoning may have increased mortality; these two processes were likely responsible for the large fall in population size that occurred after the two consecutive perturbations. Life-history theory suggests that perturbations may encourage species to halt existing breeding investment in order to ensure future survival. However, under strong perturbation pulses the resilience threshold might be surpassed and changes in population density can arise. Consecutive perturbations may effectively manage overabundant species. PMID:26910951

  5. Prevalence of the 4977-bp and 4408-bp mitochondrial DNA deletions in mesenteric arteries from patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Chen, Gui-Lan; Lan, Huan; Mao, Liang; Zeng, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions are found in many diseased tissues and lead to impairment of mitochondrial functions. In this study, we found wide presence of the common 4977-bp and a novel 4408-bp deletion in the mtDNA of mesenteric arteries from patients with colorectal cancer. These two deletions were also detected in samples from healthy individuals. The content of mtDNA with the 4977-bp deletion was significantly lower in healthy controls than cancer-associated samples, and there was no significant difference for the 4408-bp deletion between the two groups. These results suggest that mtDNA in blood vessels around cancer cells may be strongly affected by oxidative stress and tend to accumulate more large-scale variations. PMID:26332461

  6. Gaining control: changing relations between executive control and processing speed and their relevance for mathematics achievement over course of the preschool period

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Caron A. C.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Garza, John; Sheffield, Tiffany D.; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Early executive control (EC) predicts a range of academic outcomes and shows particularly strong associations with children's mathematics achievement. Nonetheless, a major challenge for EC research lies in distinguishing EC from related cognitive constructs that also are linked to achievement outcomes. Developmental cascade models suggest that children's information processing speed is a driving mechanism in cognitive development that supports gains in working memory, inhibitory control and associated cognitive abilities. Accordingly, individual differences in early executive task performance and their relation to mathematics may reflect, at least in part, underlying variation in children's processing speed. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the degree of overlap between EC and processing speed at different preschool age points; and (2) determine whether EC uniquely predicts children's mathematics achievement after accounting for individual differences in processing speed. As part of a longitudinal, cohort-sequential study, 388 children (50% boys; 44% from low income households) completed the same battery of EC tasks at ages 3, 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 years. Several of the tasks incorporated baseline speeded naming conditions with minimal EC demands. Multidimensional latent models were used to isolate the variance in executive task performance that did not overlap with baseline processing speed, covarying for child language proficiency. Models for separate age points showed that, while EC did not form a coherent latent factor independent of processing speed at age 3 years, it did emerge as a distinct factor by age 5.25. Although EC at age 3 showed no distinct relation with mathematics achievement independent of processing speed, EC at ages 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 showed independent, prospective links with mathematics achievement. Findings suggest that EC and processing speed are tightly intertwined in early childhood. As EC becomes progressively decoupled from

  7. A Pilot Study on the Congruency of Locus of Control and Field Dependence as Related to Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, C. William; Cole, Ernest G.

    A pilot study was conducted at two middle schools to investigate the relationship among student locus of control, field dependency, self-esteem, and achievement. A relationship between self-esteem and achievement has already been identified by research; another variable considered as a possible effect on a person's predisposition to achieve was…

  8. Physician/Pharmacist Collaboration to Improve Blood Pressure Control

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Barry L.; Ardery, Gail; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; James, Paul A.; Bergus, George R.; Doucette, William R.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Franciscus, Carrie L.; Xu, Yinghui

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated that blood pressure (BP) control can be improved when clinical pharmacists assist with patient management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a physician/pharmacist intervention to improve BP control. Methods This was a prospective, cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial with clinics randomized to control (n=3) or intervention (n=3) groups. The study enrolled 402 patients with uncontrolled hypertension (mean age 58.3 years). Clinical pharmacists made drug-therapy recommendations to physicians based on national guidelines. Research nurses performed BP measurements and 24-hour BP monitoring. Results Guideline adherence scores increased from 49.4 ± 19.3 at baseline to 53.4 ± 18.1 at 6 months (9% increase) in the control group and from 40.4 ± 22.6 to 62.8 ± 13.5 (57% increase) in the intervention group (p=0.089 adjusted comparison between groups). Mean BP decreased 6.8/4.5 and 20.7/9.7 mm Hg in the control and intervention groups, respectively, (p<0.05 for between-group systolic BP (SBP) comparison). The adjusted difference in SBP was −12.0 (95% CI: −24.0, 0.0) mm Hg, while the difference in diastolic BP (DBP) was −1.8 (CI: −11.9, 8.3). The 24-hour BP levels showed similar effect sizes. BP was controlled in 29.9% of patients in the control group and 63.9% in the intervention group (adjusted odds ratio 3.2; CI: 2.0, 5.1; p<0.001). Conclusions A physician/pharmacist collaborative intervention achieved significantly better mean BP and overall BP control rates when compared to a control group. Additional research should be conducted to evaluate efficient strategies to implement team-based chronic disease management. PMID:19933962

  9. Why in 2016 are patients with hypertension not 100% controlled? A call to action.

    PubMed

    Redon, Josep; Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Schmieder, Roland E; Volpe, Massimo; Weiss, Thomas W

    2016-08-01

    The objective is to consider the problem of high blood pressure (BP), a leading global risk factor, associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of treatment guidelines and a wide range of therapies, BP control is suboptimal in many countries. Recent data indicate that only around 40% of patients manage to achieve an adequate level of BP control. A group of international experts in the field of hypertension met in 2008 to consider this problem. The resulting white paper delivered an urgent call to action and identified six key issues for improving BP control. In 2015, a working group of investigators spontaneously undertook an action with the primary aim of considering the current hypertension management situation in Europe, to discuss whether the situation had changed since 2008 and to determine what can be learnt from the projects in other continents, such as the Canadian Hypertension Education Program, which has shown that higher levels of BP control can be achieved across a general population. The working group identified the main challenges affecting the improvement of BP control today and suggests five key actions: identify the BP treatment target of less than 140/90 mmHg for the majority of patients, simplify treatment strategies and encourage pill reduction, decrease therapeutic inertia, improve patient empowerment, and involve healthcare systems and reduce the prevailing focus on drug costs in many healthcare systems. Implementing key actions identified by the working group may help to improve achievement of better BP control across Europe. PMID:27270186

  10. Exercise Improves Executive Function and Achievement and Alters Brain Activation in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; McDowell, Jennifer E.; Austin, Benjamin P.; Miller, Patricia H.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Allison, Jerry D.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This experiment tested the hypothesis that exercise would improve executive function. Design Sedentary, overweight 7- to 11-year-old children (N = 171, 56% female, 61% Black, M ± SD age 9.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass index (BMI) 26 ± 4.6 kg/m2, BMI z-score 2.1 ± 0.4) were randomized to 13 ± 1.6 weeks of an exercise program (20 or 40 minutes/day), or a control condition. Main outcome measures Blinded, standardized psychological evaluations (Cognitive Assessment System and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III) assessed cognition and academic achievement. Functional magnetic resonance imaging measured brain activity during executive function tasks. Results Intent to treat analysis revealed dose response benefits of exercise on executive function and mathematics achievement. Preliminary evidence of increased bilateral prefrontal cortex activity and reduced bilateral posterior parietal cortex activity due to exercise was also observed. Conclusion Consistent with results obtained in older adults, a specific improvement on executive function and brain activation changes due to exercise were observed. The cognitive and achievement results add evidence of dose response, and extend experimental evidence into childhood. This study provides information on an educational outcome. Besides its importance for maintaining weight and reducing health risks during a childhood obesity epidemic, physical activity may prove to be a simple, important method of enhancing aspects of children’s mental functioning that are central to cognitive development. This information may persuade educators to implement vigorous physical activity. PMID:21299297

  11. A Simple Way to Achieve Legible and Local Controllable Patterning for Polymers Based on a Near-Infrared Pulsed Laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jihai; Zhou, Tao; Wen, Liang; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Aiming

    2016-01-27

    This study developed a simple way to achieve legible and local controllable patterning for polymers based on a near-infrared (NIR) pulsed laser. The polycarbonate-coated nano antimony-doped tin oxide (nano ATO) was designed as a core-shell structure that was tailored to be responsive to a 1064 nm NIR laser. The globular morphology of polycarbonate-coated nano ATO with a diameter of around 2-3 μm was observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This core-shell structure combined the excellent photothermal conversion efficiency of nano ATO and the high char (carbon) residue of polycarbonate. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results of a polymer-patterning plate after laser irradiation demonstrated that, through local controlled photochromism, the well-defined legible patterns can be fabricated on the polymer surfaces contribute to the synergistic effect consisting of polycarbonate carbonization and nano ATO photothermal conversion. Furthermore, polymers doped with a minimal content of polycarbonate-coated nano ATO can achieve a remarkable patterning effect. This novel laser-patterning approach will have wide promising applications in the field of polymer NIR pulsed-laser patterning. PMID:26717082

  12. A Further Examination of the Distinction between Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Parental Psychological Control: Psychometric Properties of the DAPCS with French-Speaking Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantzouranis, Gregory; Zimmermann, Gregoire; Mahaim, Elodie Biermann; Favez, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Psychological control refers to parental behaviors that intrude on the psychological and emotional development of the child. In 2010, Soenens et al. proposed a distinction between two domain-specific expressions of psychological control, that is, Dependency-oriented Psychological Control (DPC) and Achievement-oriented Psychological Control (APC).…

  13. Phosphorylation and Rapid Relocalization of 53BP1 to Nuclear Foci upon DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lindsay; Henderson, Catherine; Adachi, Yasuhisa

    2001-01-01

    53BP1 is a human BRCT protein that was originally identified as a p53-interacting protein by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae two-hybrid screen. Although the carboxyl-terminal BRCT domain shows similarity to Crb2, a DNA damage checkpoint protein in fission yeast, there is no evidence so far that implicates 53BP1 in the checkpoint. We have identified a Xenopus homologue of 53BP1 (XL53BP1). XL53BP1 is associated with chromatin and, in some cells, localized to a few large foci under normal conditions. Gamma-ray irradiation induces increased numbers of the nuclear foci in a dose-dependent manner. The damage-induced 53BP1 foci appear rapidly (in 30 min) after irradiation, and de novo protein synthesis is not required for this response. In human cells, 53BP1 foci colocalize with Mrel1 foci at later stages of the postirradiation period. XL53BP1 is hyperphosphorylated after X-ray irradiation, and inhibitors of ATM-related kinases delay the relocalization and reduce the phosphorylation of XL53BP1 in response to X-irradiation. In AT cells, which lack ATM kinase, the irradiation-induced responses of 53BP1 are similarly affected. These results suggest a role for 53BP1 in the DNA damage response and/or checkpoint control which may involve signaling of damage to p53. PMID:11238909

  14. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1st through 3rd Graders

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child’s age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and economic adversity on achievement, results indicate that adaptive/effortful control at 1st grade contributed to both academic self-efficacy beliefs at 2nd grade, and reading (but not math) achievement at 3rd grade. Although academic self-efficacy did not partially mediate the linkage between adaptive/effortful control and achievement, academic self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with reading and math. Results support the notion that early efforts to promote children’s self-regulatory skills would enhance future academic self-beliefs and achievement, particularly in literacy. PMID:19169387

  15. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (p<0.05), language (p<0.05), and attention (p<0.01) compared with their controls. In random effects models, epilepsy status had a significant effect on memory (coefficient=-0.14, CI: -0.23, -0.05), language (coefficient=-0.13, CI: -0.23, -0.04), and mathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment. PMID:24632351

  16. Interactive Instructional Video-Tapes, Scholastic Aptitude, Cognitive Development and Locus of Control as Variables Influencing Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeany, Russell H.; And Others

    Results are reported of a study that: (1) examined the relationships between university students' entry characteristics and achievement in biological science; and (2) assessed the effectiveness of interactive instructional video-tapes in improving science achievement. Among the variables examined as likely to predict achievement were scholastic…

  17. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994) and a recent 200 NPL Agreement Change Control Form (Appendix A). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-BP-5 Operable Unit Interim Remedial Measure (IRM) Proposed Plan be developed for use in preparing an Interim Action Record of Decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-BP-5 Operable Unit activities (e.g., development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the Interim Action ROD will specify the interim action(s) for groundwater contamination at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. The treatability test approach is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for each of the two contaminant plumes associated with the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are {sup 99}Tc and {sup 60}Co for underwater affected by past discharges to the 216-BY Cribs, and {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239/240}Pu, and Cs for groundwater affected by past discharges to the 216-B-5 Reverse Well. The purpose of the pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this testplan is to provide the data basis for preparing an IRM Proposed Plan. To achieve this objective, treatability testing must: Assess the performance of groundwater pumping with respect to the ability to extract a significant amount of the primary contaminant mass present in the two contaminant plumes.

  18. Artificial Pancreas Using a Personalized Rule-Based Controller Achieves Overnight Normoglycemia in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rigla, Mercedes; García-Sáez, Gema; Rodríguez-Herrero, Agustín; Pons, Belén; Subías, David; García-García, Fernando; Gallach, Maria; Aguilar, Montserrat; Pérez-Gandía, Carmen; Gómez, Enrique J.; Caixàs, Assumpta; Hernando, M. Elena

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study assessed the efficacy of a closed-loop (CL) system consisting of a predictive rule-based algorithm (pRBA) on achieving nocturnal and postprandial normoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The algorithm is personalized for each patient's data using two different strategies to control nocturnal and postprandial periods. Research Design and Methods: We performed a randomized crossover clinical study in which 10 T1DM patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) spent two nonconsecutive nights in the research facility: one with their usual CSII pattern (open-loop [OL]) and one controlled by the pRBA (CL). The CL period lasted from 10 p.m. to 10 a.m., including overnight control, and control of breakfast. Venous samples for blood glucose (BG) measurement were collected every 20 min. Results: Time spent in normoglycemia (BG, 3.9–8.0 mmol/L) during the nocturnal period (12 a.m.–8 a.m.), expressed as median (interquartile range), increased from 66.6% (8.3–75%) with OL to 95.8% (73–100%) using the CL algorithm (P<0.05). Median time in hypoglycemia (BG, <3.9 mmol/L) was reduced from 4.2% (0–21%) in the OL night to 0.0% (0.0–0.0%) in the CL night (P<0.05). Nine hypoglycemic events (<3.9 mmol/L) were recorded with OL compared with one using CL. The postprandial glycemic excursion was not lower when the CL system was used in comparison with conventional preprandial bolus: time in target (3.9–10.0 mmol/L) 58.3% (29.1–87.5%) versus 50.0% (50–100%). Conclusions: A highly precise personalized pRBA obtains nocturnal normoglycemia, without significant hypoglycemia, in T1DM patients. There appears to be no clear benefit of CL over prandial bolus on the postprandial glycemia. PMID:24152323

  19. Controlling the Integration of Polyvinylpyrrolidone onto Substrate by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation To Achieve Excellent Protein Resistance and Detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Wang, Lin; Zeng, Xiangze; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Sa; Shi, Xuetao; Wang, Yingjun; Huang, Xuhui; Ren, Li

    2016-07-27

    Blood purification systems, in which the adsorbent removes exogenous and endogenous toxins from the blood, are widely used in clinical practice. To improve the protein resistance of and detoxification by the adsorbent, researchers can modify the adsorbent with functional molecules, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). However, achieving precise control of the functional molecular density, which is crucial to the activity of the adsorbent, remains a significant challenge. In the present study, we prepared a model system for blood purification adsorbents in which we controlled the integration density of PVP molecules of different molecular weights on an Au substrate by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). We characterized the samples with atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and QCM-D and found that the molecular density and the chain length of the PVP molecules played important roles in determining the properties of the sample. At the optimal condition, the modified sample demonstrated strong resistance to plasma proteins, decreasing the adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) and fibrinogen (Fg) by 92.5% and 79.2%, respectively. In addition, the modified sample exhibited excellent detoxification, and the adsorption of bilirubin increased 2.6-fold. Interestingly, subsequent atomistic molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the favorable interactions between PVP and bilirubin were dominated by hydrophobic interactions. An in vitro platelet adhesion assay showed that the adhesion of platelets on the sample decreased and that the platelets were maintained in an inactivated state. The CCK-8 assay indicated that the modified sample exhibited negligible cytotoxicity to L929 cells. These results demonstrated that our method holds great potential for the modification of adsorbents in blood purification systems. PMID:27363467

  20. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei; Purdie, Thomas G.; Rahman, Mohammad; Marshall, Andrea; Liu Feifei; Fyles, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm{sup 3} of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 50}) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose-volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V{sub 50} (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm{sup 3}), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm{sup 3} of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p <.001). Of the 17 patients who had a breath-hold threshold of {>=}0.8 L, 14 achieved a {>=}90% reduction in the heart V{sub 50} using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold <0.8 L achieved a lower, but still significant, reduction in the heart V{sub 50}. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  1. Generic Medications and Blood Pressure Control in Diabetic Hypertensive Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Doyle M.; Letter, Abraham J.; Howard, George; Howard, Virginia J.; Safford, Monika M.; Prince, Valerie; Muntner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate temporal improvements in blood pressure (BP) control in subjects with diabetes and policy changes regarding generic antihypertensives. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a cross-sectional study we used logistic regression models to investigate the temporal relationship between access to generic antihypertensive medications and BP control (<130/80 mmHg) in 5,375 subjects (mean age, 66 ± 9 years; 61% African American) with diabetes and hypertension (HTN) enrolled in the national Results from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study between 2003 and 2007. At enrollment, BP was measured and medications in the home determined by medication label review by a trained professional. Generic antihypertensive medication status was ascertained from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. RESULTS The percentage of subjects accessing generically available antihypertensive medications increased significantly from 66% in 2003 to 81% in 2007 (P < 0.0001), and the odds of achieving a BP <130/80 mmHg in 2007 was 66% higher (odds ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.30–2.10]) than in 2003. Nevertheless, <50% of participants achieved this goal. African American race, male sex, limited income, and medication nonadherence were significant predictors of inadequate BP control. There was no significant relationship between access to generic antihypertensives and BP control when other demographic factors were included in the model (0.98 [0.96–1.00]). CONCLUSIONS Among African American and white subjects with HTN and diabetes, BP control remained inadequate relative to published guidelines, and racial disparities persisted. Although access to generic antihypertensives increased, this was not independently associated with improved BP control, suggesting that poor BP control is multifactorial. PMID:23150284

  2. What "No Child Left Behind" Leaves behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In…

  3. The Influences of Parental Acceptance and Parental Control on School Adjustment and Academic Achievement for South Korean Children: The Mediation Role of Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jungyoon; Yu, Heekeun; Choi, Sumi

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parental acceptance, psychological control, and behavioral control on children's school adjustment and academic achievement, as well as the possible mediation effect of children's self-regulation in those processes. To do so, we examined 388 upper-level elementary school students (mean age = 11.38 years) in South…

  4. Controlled Blood Pressure in Iranian Patients: A Multi-Center Report.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ezzatollah; Behnood-Rod, Azin; Aerab-Sheibani, Hossein; Shobeiri, Elham; Pourzargar, Pirouz; Ormoz, Ehsan; Sadigh, Nader; Moharamzad, Yashar

    2016-04-01

    We decided to determine the percentage of hypertensive patients whose blood pressure (BP) measurements were within recommended controlled range and to identify predictive factors for controlled BP. In this study carried out in 2014, 280 patients were included consecutively through sampling from both university and private medical centers/pharmacies in four Iranian cities. Demographic data as well as information about duration of HTN and prescribed medications, admission to emergency department (ED) because of HTN crisis, comorbidities, and control of HTN during the last 6 months by a healthcare provider were gathered. Adherence to anti-hypertensives was also determined using the validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Controlled BP was defined as systolic BP< 140 and diastolic BP< 90 mmHg in non-diabetics and < 130/80 mmHg in diabetics. Of 280 patients, 122 subjects (43.6%) had controlled BP. Among 55 diabetics, only two patients (3.6%) had controlled BP. Multiple logistic regression revealed the following variables as significant predictors of controlled BP: higher MMAS-8 score (adjusted odds ratio (OR)= 1.19, P= 0.03), fewer number of comorbid conditions (adjusted OR= 0.71, P = 0.03), having occupation as clerk/military personnel (adjusted OR= 1.03, P= 0.04), and not having history of ED admission during the last 6 months because of HTN crisis (adjusted OR= 2.11, P= 0.01). Considerable number of the studied patients had uncontrolled BP. Regarding the dramatic consequences of uncontrolled high BP in long term, it is advisable that careful attention by health care providers to the aforementioned factors could raise the likelihood of achieving controlled BP. PMID:26573037

  5. Controlled Blood Pressure in Iranian Patients: A Multi-Center Report

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Ezzatollah; Behnood-Rod, Azin; Aerab-Sheibani, Hossein; Shobeiri, Elham; Pourzargar, Pirouz; Ormoz, Ehsan; Sadigh, Nader; Moharamzad, Yashar

    2016-01-01

    We decided to determine the percentage of hypertensive patients whose blood pressure (BP) measurements were within recommended controlled range and to identify predictive factors for controlled BP. In this study carried out in 2014, 280 patients were included consecutively through sampling from both university and private medical centers/pharmacies in four Iranian cities. Demographic data as well as information about duration of HTN and prescribed medications, admission to emergency department (ED) because of HTN crisis, comorbidities, and control of HTN during the last 6 months by a healthcare provider were gathered. Adherence to anti-hypertensives was also determined using the validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Controlled BP was defined as systolic BP< 140 and diastolic BP< 90 mmHg in non-diabetics and < 130/80 mmHg in diabetics. Of 280 patients, 122 subjects (43.6%) had controlled BP. Among 55 diabetics, only two patients (3.6%) had controlled BP. Multiple logistic regression revealed the following variables as significant predictors of controlled BP: higher MMAS-8 score (adjusted odds ratio (OR)= 1.19, P= 0.03), fewer number of comorbid conditions (adjusted OR= 0.71, P = 0.03), having occupation as clerk/military personnel (adjusted OR= 1.03, P= 0.04), and not having history of ED admission during the last 6 months because of HTN crisis (adjusted OR= 2.11, P= 0.01). Considerable number of the studied patients had uncontrolled BP. Regarding the dramatic consequences of uncontrolled high BP in long term, it is advisable that careful attention by health care providers to the aforementioned factors could raise the likelihood of achieving controlled BP. PMID:26573037

  6. Language Skills, Mathematical Thinking, and Achievement Motivation in Children with ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…

  7. The Impact of Retrieval Processes, Age, General Achievement Level, and Test Scoring Scheme for Children's Metacognitive Monitoring and Controlling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Saskia Susanne; Roebers, Claudia Maria

    2012-01-01

    This multi-phase study examined the influence of retrieval processes on children's metacognitive processes in relation to and in interaction with achievement level and age. First, N = 150 9/10- and 11/12-year old high and low achievers watched an educational film and predicted their test performance. Children then solved a cloze test regarding the…

  8. The relationship between prenatal exposure to BP-3 and Hirschsprung's disease.

    PubMed

    Huo, Weiwei; Cai, Peng; Chen, Minjian; Li, Hongxing; Tang, Junwei; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Dongmei; Tang, Weibing; Xia, Yankai

    2016-02-01

    Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is neonatal intestinal abnormality which derived from the faliure of enteric neural crest cells migration to hindgut during embryogenesis from 5 to 12 weeks. Currenly, the knowledge of environmental factors contributing to HSCR is still scarce. Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is one of the most widely used UV filters, and has weak estrogen and strong anti-androgenic effects. In order to examine the effect of maternal BP-3 exposure on development of offspring and explore the potential mechanism, we conducted case and control study and in vitro study. In this work, BP-3 concertrations in maternal urine was detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Besides, we investigated the cytotoxicity and receptor tyrosine kinase (RET) expression in cells exposed to BP-3. The results showed that maternal BP-3 exposure was associated with offspring's HSCR in the population as well as inhibited migration of 293T and SH-SY5Y cells. What's more, we discovered dose-response relationship between RET expression and BP-3 exposure dose, and miR-218 and some other genes involved in SLIT2/ROBO1-miR-218-RET/PLAG1 pathway were also related to BP-3 exposure. Therefore, we deduced that BP-3 influenced cell migration via SLIT2/ROBO1-miR-218-RET/PLAG1 pathway. Our study firstly revealed the relationship between maternal BP-3 exposure and HSCR as well as its potential mechanism. PMID:26454118

  9. Electronic states of BP, BP +, BP -, B 2P 2, B2P2- and B2P2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linguerri, Roberto; Komiha, Najia; Oswald, Rainer; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander; Rosmus, Pavel

    2008-05-01

    Using augmented sextuple zeta basis sets and internally contracted multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) wavefunctions, potential energy, electric dipole and transition moments have been computed for the X 3Π, a 1Σ +, b 1Π and A 3Σ - states of BP, X 2Σ + and A 2Π states of BP - and X 4Σ - and A 4Π states of BP +. From these data spectroscopic constants, radiative transition probabilities and photoelectron spectra of BP - and BP have been evaluated. The non-vanishing spin-orbit coupling elements between the four low lying triplet and singlet states of the neutral BP have also been calculated from MRCI wavefunctions. The treatment of the corresponding perturbations in the manifold of dense rovibrational states in the three lowest states would require a precise knowledge of the electronic excitation energies. Our best singlet-triplet separations (X-a) are calculated to be 2412 cm -1 (MRCI) and 2482 cm -1 (restricted coupled cluster with perturbative triples (RCCSD(T))) with an estimated error bound of about ±200 cm -1. All three states have long radiative lifetimes with cascading among the rovibrational levels of different states. The ionization energy IE e of BP is calculated to be 9.22 eV (MRCI) and 9.48 eV (RCCSD(T)), the electron affinity EA e 2.51 eV (MRCI) and 2.74 eV (RCCSD(T)). The photoelectron spectra of BP and BP - have been obtained from the Franck-Condon factors of the MRCI potentials. For the UV spectroscopy the dipole allowed radiative transition probabilities are given for A 3Σ - ↔ X 3Π, b 1Π ↔ a 1Σ + of BP, A 2Π ↔ X 2Σ + of BP - and A 4Π ↔ X 4Σ - of BP +. The ionization energy IE e of B 2P 2 of 8.71 eV and the electron affinity EA e of 2.34 eV have been calculated by the RCCSD(T)/aVQZ approach. Also the harmonic vibrational wavenumbers for the electronic ground states of the ions B2P2+ and B2P2- are given.

  10. Impact of executive function deficits in youth with bipolar I disorder: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter R.; Wozniak, Janet; Wilens, Timothy E.; Fried, Ronna; Doyle, Alysa; Henin, Aude; Bateman, Clancey; Evans, Maggie; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Although psychometrically-defined executive function deficits (EFDs) and ecologically valid functional outcomes have been documented among youth with bipolar I (BP-I) disorder, little is known about their association. We hypothesized that EFDs would be associated with significant ecologically valid impairments beyond those predicted by having BP-I disorder. Youth with BP-I disorder were ascertained from psychiatric clinics and community sources. We defined EFDs as having at least two out of eight EF measures impaired from a battery of six tests. Significantly more youth with BP-I disorder had EFDs than controls (45% versus 17%). Comparisons were made between controls without EFDs (N=81), controls with EFDs (N=17), BP-I youth without EFDs (N=76), and BP-I youth with EFDs (N=62). EFDs were associated with an increased risk for placement in a special class and a decrease in academic achievement (WRAT-3 reading and arithmetic). EFDs in BP-I subjects were associated with an increased risk for speech/language disorder (as assessed in the K-SADS-E) relative to BP-I subjects without EFDs. Youth with BP-I disorder and EFDs are at high risk for significant impairments in academic functioning. PMID:20864180

  11. The Use of "Ability" Measures as Controls for Concurrent or Subsequent Achievement (Comment on Alexander et al., ASR, October 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James S.

    1982-01-01

    Comments upon a 1981 article by Alexander, Pallas, and Cook. Discusses whether particular standardized tests measure achievement or ability and the implications of this issue for school effects research. (GC)

  12. Achievements and challenges of the World Bank Loan/Department for International Development grant-assisted Tuberculosis Control Project in China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peng; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Ben; Jiang, Shi-wen; Liu, Bo

    2011-07-01

    In March 2002, the government of China launched the World Bank Loan/ Department for International Development-supported Tuberculosis (TB) Control Project to reduce the prevalence and mortality of TB. The project generated promising results in policy development, strengthening of TB control systems, patient treatment success, funds management, and the introduction of legislation. In light of the global TB epidemic and control environment, it is useful to review the TB control priorities of the project, summarize the achievements and experiences around its implementation. PMID:21933629

  13. BP: synthesis and properties of boron phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Katherine; Lee, Kathleen; Kovnir, Kirill

    2016-07-01

    Cubic boron phosphide, BP, is notorious for its difficult synthesis, thus preventing it from being a widely used material in spite of having numerous favorable technological properties. In the current work, three different methods of synthesis are developed and compared: from the high temperature reaction of elements, Sn flux assisted synthesis, and a solid state metathesis reaction. Structural and optical properties of the products synthesized from the three methods were thoroughly characterized. Solid state metathesis is shown to be the cleanest and most efficient method in terms of reaction temperature and time. Synthesis by Sn flux resulted in a novel Sn-doped BP compound. Undoped BP samples exhibit an optical bandgap of ∼2.2 eV while Sn-doped BP exhibits a significantly smaller bandgap of 1.74 eV. All synthesized samples show high stability in concentrated hydrochloric acid, saturated sodium hydroxide solutions, and fresh aqua regia.

  14. Back propagation neural network based control for the heating system of a polysilicon reduction furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuhua; Chen, Kai; Bai, Libing; Dai, Meizhi

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the Back Propagation (BP) neural network based control strategy is proposed for the heating system of a polysilicon reduction furnace. It is applied to obtain the control signal Id, which is used to adjust the heating power through operations of the silicon core temperature, furnace temperature, silicon core voltage, and resistance of the current control cycle. With the control signal Id the polycrystalline silicon can be heated from room temperature to the required temperature smoothly and steadily. The proposed BP network applied in this paper can obtain the accurate control signal Id and achieve the precise control purpose. This paper presents the principle of the BP network and demonstrates the effectiveness of the BP network in the heating system of a polysilicon reduction furnace by combining the simulation analysis with experimental results.

  15. Study on application of adaptive fuzzy control and neural network in the automatic leveling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiping; Zhao, Zizhao; Lan, Weiyong; Sha, Lei; Qian, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses the adaptive fuzzy control and neural network BP algorithm in large flat automatic leveling control system application. The purpose is to develop a measurement system with a flat quick leveling, Make the installation on the leveling system of measurement with tablet, to be able to achieve a level in precision measurement work quickly, improve the efficiency of the precision measurement. This paper focuses on the automatic leveling system analysis based on fuzzy controller, Use of the method of combining fuzzy controller and BP neural network, using BP algorithm improve the experience rules .Construct an adaptive fuzzy control system. Meanwhile the learning rate of the BP algorithm has also been run-rate adjusted to accelerate convergence. The simulation results show that the proposed control method can effectively improve the leveling precision of automatic leveling system and shorten the time of leveling.

  16. G3BP-Caprin1-USP10 complexes mediate stress granule condensation and associate with 40S subunits.

    PubMed

    Kedersha, Nancy; Panas, Marc D; Achorn, Christopher A; Lyons, Shawn; Tisdale, Sarah; Hickman, Tyler; Thomas, Marshall; Lieberman, Judy; McInerney, Gerald M; Ivanov, Pavel; Anderson, Paul

    2016-03-28

    Mammalian stress granules (SGs) contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes that are assembled into discrete granules by specific RNA-binding proteins such as G3BP. We now show that cells lacking both G3BP1 and G3BP2 cannot form SGs in response to eukaryotic initiation factor 2α phosphorylation or eIF4A inhibition, but are still SG-competent when challenged with severe heat or osmotic stress. Rescue experiments using G3BP1 mutants show that phosphomimetic G3BP1-S149E fails to rescue SG formation, whereas G3BP1-F33W, a mutant unable to bind G3BP partner proteins Caprin1 or USP10, rescues SG formation. Caprin1/USP10 binding to G3BP is mutually exclusive: Caprin binding promotes, but USP10 binding inhibits, SG formation. G3BP interacts with 40S ribosomal subunits through its RGG motif, which is also required for G3BP-mediated SG formation. We propose that G3BP mediates the condensation of SGs by shifting between two different states that are controlled by the phosphorylation of S149 and by binding to Caprin1 or USP10. PMID:27022092

  17. Predicting Academic Achievement from Cumulative Home Risk: The Mediating Roles of Effortful Control, Academic Relationships, and School Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Components of the home environment are associated with children's academic functioning. The accumulation of risks in the home are expected to prove more detrimental to achievement than any one risk alone, but the processes accounting for this relation are unclear. Using an index of cumulative home risk (CHR) inclusive of protective factors, as…

  18. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  19. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Quinn, Patrick D; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-05-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  20. Determinants for Achieving the LDL-C Target of Lipid Control for Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Li-Ting; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Wu, Yen-Wen; Hsieh, I-Chang; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Li, Yi-Heng; Huang, Lien-Chi; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Fang, Ching-Chang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yeh, Hung-I; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and clinical studies have clearly established the link between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular consequences. Although it has been a common practice for physicians to prescribe lipid-lowering therapy for patients with dyslipidemia, the achievement rate is still not satisfied in Taiwan. Therefore, the determinants for achieving the LDL-C target needed to be clarified for better healthcare of the patients with dyslipidemia. Method This registry-type prospective observational study enrolled the patients with cardiovascular diseases (coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD)) from 18 medical centers across Taiwan, and clinically followed them for five years. At every clinical visit, vital signs, clinical endpoints, adverse events, concurrent medications and laboratory specimens were obtained as thoroughly as possible. The lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride), liver enzymes, and creatinine phosphokinase were evaluated at baseline, and every year thereafter. The cross sectional observational data was analyzed for this report. Result Among the 3,486 registered patients, 54% had their LDL-C < 100 mg/dL. By univariate analysis, the patients achieving the LDL-C target were associated with older age, more male sex, taller height, lower blood pressure, more under lipid-lowering therapy, more smoking cessation, more history of CAD, DM, physical activity, but less history of CVD. The multivariate analysis showed statin therapy was the most significant independent determinant for achieving the treatment target, followed by age, history of CAD, diabetes, blood pressure, and sex. However, most patients were on regimens of very-low to low equipotent doses of statins. Conclusion Although the lipid treatment guideline adherence is improving in recent years, only 54% of the patients with cardiovascular diseases have achieved

  1. The Effects of Teaching Numerical Control Concepts Via Simulator Versus Non-Simulator Activities on the Achievement, Programming Proficiency and Attitude of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Douglas Taylor

    This study utilized 120 metalworking students and six teachers from Columbus, Ohio area high schools to ascertain the effects of teaching numerical control to industrial arts students by means of simulator-aided activities versus nonsimulator aided activities. Scores obtained from an achievement test, attitude inventory, and word address…

  2. An Examination of the Influence of Self Efficacy, Locus of Control, and Perceptions of Parent Involvement on Academic Achievement of Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myree, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Current research indicates that there is an on-going concern for the graduation rate of African American students in urban settings. This particular study sought to investigate the impact of students' self-efficacy, locus of control, and parental involvement on academic achievement via a targeted sample of urban African American high school…

  3. TopBP1 deficiency impairs V(D)J recombination during lymphocyte development

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jieun; Kyu Lee, Sung; Jeon, Yoon; Kim, Yehyun; Lee, Changjin; Ho Jeon, Sung; Shim, Jaegal; Kim, In-Hoo; Hong, Seokmann; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Ho; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2014-01-01

    TopBP1 was initially identified as a topoisomerase II-β-binding protein and it plays roles in DNA replication and repair. We found that TopBP1 is expressed at high levels in lymphoid tissues and is essential for early lymphocyte development. Specific abrogation of TopBP1 expression resulted in transitional blocks during early lymphocyte development. These defects were, in major part, due to aberrant V(D)J rearrangements in pro-B cells, double-negative and double-positive thymocytes. We also show that TopBP1 was located at sites of V(D)J rearrangement. In TopBP1-deficient cells, γ-H2AX foci were found to be increased. In addition, greater amount of γ-H2AX product was precipitated from the regions where TopBP1 was localized than from controls, indicating that TopBP1 deficiency results in inefficient DNA double-strand break repair. The developmental defects were rescued by introducing functional TCR αβ transgenes. Our data demonstrate a novel role for TopBP1 as a crucial factor in V(D)J rearrangement during the development of B, T and iNKT cells. PMID:24442639

  4. Influences of Children's and Adolescents' Action-Control Processes on School Achievement, Peer Relationships, and Coping with Challenging Life Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhof, G. John; Little, Todd D.

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation represents a core aspect of human functioning that influences positive development across the life span. This chapter focuses on the action-control model, a key facet of self-regulation during childhood and early adolescence. The authors discuss the development of action-control beliefs, paying particular attention to their…

  5. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cr-doped Si achieved by controlling atomic structure, Cr concentration, and carrier densities: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xin-Yuan; Yang, Zhong-Qin; Zhu, Yan; Li, Yun

    2015-04-28

    By using first-principles calculations, we investigated how to achieve a strong ferromagnetism in Cr-doped Si by controlling the atomic structure and Cr concentration as well as carrier densities. We found that the configuration in which the Cr atom occupies the tetrahedral interstitial site can exist stably and the Cr atom has a large magnetic moment. Using this doping configuration, room-temperature ferromagnetism can be achieved in both n-type and p-type Si by tuning Cr concentration and carrier densities. The results indicate that the carrier density plays a crucial role in realizing strong ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  6. The adaptor 3BP2 is required for KIT receptor expression and human mast cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Ainsua-Enrich, Erola; Serrano-Candelas, Eva; Álvarez-Errico, Damiana; Picado, César; Sayós, Joan; Rivera, Juan; Martín, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    3BP2 is a cytoplasmic adaptor protein that acts as a positive regulator in mast cell FcεRI-dependent signaling. The KIT receptor whose ligand is the stem cell factor (SCF) is necessary for mast cell development, proliferation and survival as well as for optimal IgE-dependent signal. Activating mutations in KIT have been associated with several diseases including mastocytosis. In the present work, we found that 3BP2 silencing impairs KIT signaling pathways, thus affecting PI3K and MAP kinase pathways in human mast cells from HMC-1, LAD2 (human mast cell lines) and CD34+-derived mast cells. Unexpectedly, silencing of 3BP2 reduces KIT expression in normal human mast cells as well as in HMC-1 cells where KIT is mutated, thus increasing cellular apoptosis and caspase 3/7 activity. 3BP2 silencing reduces KIT transcription expression levels. Interestingly, 3BP2 silencing decreased MITF expression, a transcription factor involved in KIT expression. Reconstitution of 3BP2 in knockdown cells leads to reversal of KIT expression as well as survival phenotype. Accordingly MITF reconstitution enhances KIT expression levels in 3BP2 silenced cells. Moreover, downregulation of KIT expression by miRNA221 overexpression or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib also reduced 3BP2 and MITF expression. Furthermore, KIT tyrosine activity inhibition reduced 3BP2 and MITF expression, demonstrating again a tight and reciprocal relationship between these molecules. Taken together, our results show that 3BP2 regulates human mast cell survival and participates in KIT-mediated signal transduction by directly controlling KIT receptor expression, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic target in mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases and deregulated KIT disorders. PMID:25810396

  7. Analysis of the immune system of multiple myeloma patients achieving long-term disease control by multidimensional flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pessoa de Magalhães, Roberto J; Vidriales, María-Belén; Paiva, Bruno; Fernandez-Gimenez, Carlos; García-Sanz, Ramón; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Gutierrez, Norma C; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Blanco, Juan F; Hernández, Jose; de las Heras, Natalia; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Roig, Monica; Costa, Elaine Sobral; Ocio, Enrique M; Perez-Andres, Martin; Maiolino, Angelo; Nucci, Marcio; De La Rubia, Javier; Lahuerta, Juan-Jose; San-Miguel, Jesús F; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma remains largely incurable. However, a few patients experience more than 10 years of relapse-free survival and can be considered as operationally cured. Interestingly, long-term disease control in multiple myeloma is not restricted to patients with a complete response, since some patients revert to having a profile of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We compared the distribution of multiple compartments of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control (n=28), patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (n=23), patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (n=23), and age-matched healthy adults (n=10). Similarly to the patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and symptomatic multiple myeloma, patients with long-term disease control showed an expansion of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells and natural killer cells. However, the numbers of bone marrow T-regulatory cells were lower in patients with long-term disease control than in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma. It is noteworthy that B cells were depleted in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, but recovered in both the bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with long-term disease control, due to an increase in normal bone marrow B-cell precursors and plasma cells, as well as pre-germinal center peripheral blood B cells. The number of bone marrow dendritic cells and tissue macrophages differed significantly between patients with long-term disease control and those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, with a trend to cell count recovering in the former group of patients towards levels similar to those found in healthy adults. In summary, our results indicate that multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control have a constellation of unique immune changes

  8. Analysis of the immune system of multiple myeloma patients achieving long-term disease control by multidimensional flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa de Magalhães, Roberto J.; Vidriales, María-Belén; Paiva, Bruno; Fernandez-Gimenez, Carlos; García-Sanz, Ramón; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Gutierrez, Norma C.; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Blanco, Juan F; Hernández, Jose; de las Heras, Natalia; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Roig, Monica; Costa, Elaine Sobral; Ocio, Enrique M.; Perez-Andres, Martin; Maiolino, Angelo; Nucci, Marcio; De La Rubia, Javier; Lahuerta, Juan-Jose; San-Miguel, Jesús F.; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma remains largely incurable. However, a few patients experience more than 10 years of relapse-free survival and can be considered as operationally cured. Interestingly, long-term disease control in multiple myeloma is not restricted to patients with a complete response, since some patients revert to having a profile of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We compared the distribution of multiple compartments of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control (n=28), patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (n=23), patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (n=23), and age-matched healthy adults (n=10). Similarly to the patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and symptomatic multiple myeloma, patients with long-term disease control showed an expansion of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells. However, the numbers of bone marrow T-regulatory cells were lower in patients with long-term disease control than in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma. It is noteworthy that B cells were depleted in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, but recovered in both the bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with long-term disease control, due to an increase in normal bone marrow B-cell precursors and plasma cells, as well as pre-germinal center peripheral blood B cells. The number of bone marrow dendritic cells and tissue macrophages differed significantly between patients with long-term disease control and those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, with a trend to cell count recovering in the former group of patients towards levels similar to those found in healthy adults. In summary, our results indicate that multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control have a constellation of unique immune changes

  9. Design and Rationale for Home Blood Pressure Telemonitoring and Case Management to Control Hypertension (HyperLink): A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Karen L.; Kerby, Tessa J.; Asche, Stephen E.; Bergdall, Anna R.; Maciosek, Michael V.; O’Connor, Patrick J.; Sperl-Hillen, Joann

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with high blood pressure (BP) visit a physician an average of 4 times or more per year in the U.S., yet BP is controlled in fewer than half. Practical, robust and sustainable models are needed to improve BP in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Objectives The Home Blood Pressure Telemonitoring and Case Management to Control Hypertension study (HyperLink) is a clinic-randomized trial designed to determine whether an intervention that combines home BP telemonitoring with pharmacist case management improves BP control compared to usual care at 6 and 12 months in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Secondary outcomes are maintenance of BP control at 18 months, patient satisfaction with their health care, and costs of care. Methods HyperLink enrolled 450 hypertensive patients with uncontrolled BP from 16 primary care clinics. Eight clinics were randomized to provide usual care (UC) to their patients (n = 222) and 8 were randomized to provide the telemonitoring intervention (TI) (n = 228). TI patients received home BP telemonitors that internally store and electronically transmit BP data to a secure database. Pharmacist case managers adjust antihypertensive therapy based on the home BP data under a collaborative practice agreement with the clinics’ primary care teams. The length of the intervention is 12 months, with follow-up to 18 months to determine the durability of the intervention. Conclusions We will test in a real primary care setting whether combining BP telemonitoring and pharmacist case management can achieve and maintain high rates of BP control compared to usual care. PMID:22498720

  10. How the impact of median neuropathy on sensorimotor control capability of hands for diabetes: an achievable assessment from functional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Haw-Yen; Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Su, Fong-Chin; Yu, Hui-I; Hua, Shih-Che; Lu, Chieh-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    To comprehend the sensorimotor control ability in diabetic hands, this study investigated the sensation, motor function and precision pinch performances derived from a pinch-holding-up activity (PHUA) test of the hands of diabetic patients and healthy subjects. The precision, sensitivity and specificity of the PHUA test in the measurements of diabetic patients were also analyzed. We hypothesized that the diabetic hands would have impacts on the sensorimotor functions of the hand performances under functionally quantitative measurements. One hundred and fifty-nine patients with clinically defined diabetes mellitus (DM) and 95 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM), static and moving two-point discrimination (S2PD and M2PD), maximal pinch strength and precision pinch performance tests were conducted to evaluate the sensation, motor and sensorimotor status of the recruited hands. The results showed that there were significant differences (all p<0.05) in SWM, S2PD, M2PD and maximum pinch strength between the DM and control groups. A higher force ratio in the DM patients than in the controls (p<0.001) revealed a poor ability of pinch force adjustment in the DM patients. The percentage of maximal pinch strength was also significantly different (p<0.001) between the DM and control groups. The sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.85, 0.51, and 0.724, respectively, for the PHUA test. Statistically significant degradations in sensory and motor functions and sensorimotor control ability were observed in the hands of the diabetic patients. The PHUA test could be feasibly used as a clinical tool to determine the sensorimotor function of the hands of diabetic patients from a functional perspective. PMID:24722361

  11. Current Control Method to Achieve Wide-Range Power Driving for Linear Synchronous Motor with Half-Wave-Rectified Self-Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Tadashi; Higuchi, Tsuyoshi

    In a previous paper, we proposed a novel linear synchronous motor with half-wave-rectified self-excitation. The long-stator-type linear synchronous motor was built, and its performance was verified by performing experiments. This paper presents a new current control method for the linear synchronous motor for achieving a wide range of speeds and high-power operations. First, we propose the current control method for high-thrust operation in the constant-thrust region. This operation is realized by using a reluctance thrust resulting from the saliency of the linear synchronous motor. Furthermore, we propose a control method that maximizes the ratio of the thrust to the voltage; this method can be used to expand the operating range. Wide-range-speed operation can be achieved by applying this new control method along with field-weakening control. The thrust and operation characteristics of the proposed control methods are estimated by performing experiments and an electric and magnetic coupled analysis.

  12. Regulation of PMP22 mRNA by G3BP1 affects cell proliferation in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Regulation of mRNAs is one way to control protein levels and thereby important cellular processes such as growth, invasion and apoptosis. G3BPs constitute a family of mRNA-binding proteins, shown to be overexpressed in several cancer types, including breast, colon and pancreas cancer. G3BP has been reported to both stabilize and induce degradation of specific mRNAs. Results Here, we show that G3BP1, but not G3BP2, supports proliferation of several breast cancer cell lines. Global gene expression analyses of G3BP1- and G3BP2-depleted cells indicate that primarily G3BP1, and much less G3BP2, influences mRNA expression levels. Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) was one gene that was significantly influenced by G3BP1 depletion which led to a 2–3 fold increased expression. Depletion of PMP22 resulted in increased proliferation and the G3BP1-mediated effect on proliferation was not seen upon PMP22-depletion. Conclusions This indicates a novel role for G3BP1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in breast cancer cells, perhaps via a regulatory effect on PMP22 expression. PMID:24321297

  13. Conformation-Controlled Diplatinum(II)-Ferrocene Dyads to Achieve Long-Lived Charge-Separated States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ge-Xia; Feng, Ke; Crossley, Maxwell J; Xing, Ling-Bao; Xiao, Hong-Yan; Li, Wen; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2016-08-16

    Square-planar polypyridyl platinum(II) complexes possess a rich range of structural and spectroscopic properties that are ideal for designing artificial photosynthetic centers. Taking advantage of the directionality in the charge-transfer excitation from the metal to the polypyridyl ligand, we describe here diplatinum(II)-ferrocene dyads, open-butterfly-like dyad 1 and closed-butterfly-like dyad 2, which were designed to understand the conformation and orientation effects to prolong the lifetime of charge-separated state. In contrast to the open-butterfly-like dyad 1, the closed-butterfly-like dyad 2 shows three-times long lifetime of charge separated state upon photoexcitation, demonstrating that the orientation in the rigid structure of dyad 2 is a very important issue to achieve long-lived charge separated state. PMID:27339465

  14. Students' Emotions for Achievement and Technology Use in Synchronous Hybrid Graduate Programmes: A Control-Value Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Nikolaus T.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous hybrid delivery (simultaneously teaching on-campus and online students using web conferencing) is becoming more common; however, little is known about how students experience emotions in this learning environment. Based on Pekrun's (2006) control-value theory of emotions, the dual purpose of this study was first to compare synchronous…

  15. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on children's attendance, academic achievement and short-term hunger: results from a stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, Delvina; Turley, Maria; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Free school breakfast programmes (SBPs) exist in a number of high-income countries, but their effects on educational outcomes have rarely been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Methods A 1-year stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 New Zealand schools in low socioeconomic resource areas. Participants were 424 children, mean age 9±2 years, 53% female. The intervention was a free daily SBP. The primary outcome was children's school attendance. Secondary outcomes were academic achievement, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, behaviour, short-term hunger, breakfast habits and food security. Results There was no statistically significant effect of the breakfast programme on children's school attendance. The odds of children achieving an attendance rate <95% was 0.76 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.02) during the intervention phase and 0.93 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.31) during the control phase, giving an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.11), p=0.19. There was a significant decrease in children's self-reported short-term hunger during the intervention phase compared with the control phase, demonstrated by an increase of 8.6 units on the Freddy satiety scale (95% CI 3.4 to 13.7, p=0.001). There were no effects of the intervention on any other outcome. Conclusions A free SBP did not have a significant effect on children's school attendance or academic achievement but had significant positive effects on children's short-term satiety ratings. More frequent programme attendance may be required to influence school attendance and academic achievement. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR)—ACTRN12609000854235. PMID:23043203

  16. Longitudinal Relations among Parents' Reactions to Children's Negative Emotions, Effortful Control, and Math Achievement in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H.; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = 0.39 year) across kindergarten through…

  17. YB-1 regulates stress granule formation and tumor progression by translationally activating G3BP1

    PubMed Central

    Somasekharan, Syam Prakash; El-Naggar, Amal; Leprivier, Gabriel; Cheng, Hongwei; Hajee, Shamil; Grunewald, Thomas G.P.; Zhang, Fan; Ng, Tony; Delattre, Olivier; Evdokimova, Valentina; Wang, Yuzhuo; Gleave, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Under cell stress, global protein synthesis is inhibited to preserve energy. One mechanism is to sequester and silence mRNAs in ribonucleoprotein complexes known as stress granules (SGs), which contain translationally silent mRNAs, preinitiation factors, and RNA-binding proteins. Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) localizes to SGs, but its role in SG biology is unknown. We now report that YB-1 directly binds to and translationally activates the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of G3BP1 mRNAs, thereby controlling the availability of the G3BP1 SG nucleator for SG assembly. YB-1 inactivation in human sarcoma cells dramatically reduces G3BP1 and SG formation in vitro. YB-1 and G3BP1 expression are highly correlated in human sarcomas, and elevated G3BP1 expression correlates with poor survival. Finally, G3BP1 down-regulation in sarcoma xenografts prevents in vivo SG formation and tumor invasion, and completely blocks lung metastasis in mouse models. Together, these findings demonstrate a critical role for YB-1 in SG formation through translational activation of G3BP1, and highlight novel functions for SGs in tumor progression. PMID:25800057

  18. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a “dream” display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  19. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a "dream" display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  20. General Strategy to Introduce pH-Induced Allostery in DNA-Based Receptors to Achieve Controlled Release of Ligands.

    PubMed

    Porchetta, Alessandro; Idili, Andrea; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis; Ricci, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    Inspired by naturally occurring pH-regulated receptors, here we propose a rational approach to introduce pH-induced allostery into a wide range of DNA-based receptors. To demonstrate this we re-engineered two model DNA-based probes, a molecular beacon and a cocaine-binding aptamer, by introducing in their sequence a pH-dependent domain. We demonstrate here that we can finely tune the affinity of these model receptors and control the load/release of their specific target molecule by a simple pH change. PMID:26053894

  1. To Achieve an Earlier IFN-γ Response Is Not Sufficient to Control Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marzo, Elena; Barril, Carles; Vegué, Marina; Diaz, Jorge; Valls, Joaquim; López, Daniel; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    The temporo-spatial relationship between the three organs (lung, spleen and lymph node) involved during the initial stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been poorly studied. As such, we performed an experimental study to evaluate the bacillary load in each organ after aerosol or intravenous infection and developed a mathematical approach using the data obtained in order to extract conclusions. The results showed that higher bacillary doses result in an earlier IFN-γ response, that a certain bacillary load (BL) needs to be reached to trigger the IFN-γ response, and that control of the BL is not immediate after onset of the IFN-γ response, which might be a consequence of the spatial dimension. This study may have an important impact when it comes to designing new vaccine candidates as it suggests that triggering an earlier IFN-γ response might not guarantee good infection control, and therefore that additional properties should be considered for these candidates. PMID:24959669

  2. A Role for Anti-BP180 Autoantibodies in Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeffe, Jill S.; Seshadri, Sudarshan; Hamill, Kevin J.; Huang, Julia He; Carter, Roderick; Suh, Lydia; Hulse, Kathryn; Norton, James; Conley, David B.; Chandra, Rakesh K.; Kern, Robert C.; Jones, Jonathan C.R.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Tan, Bruce K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives CRS is accompanied by evidence of a vigorous adaptive immune response, and emerging studies demonstrate that some nasal polyps manifest a polyclonal autoantibody response. We previously found that antibodies against BP180, a component of the hemidesmosome complex and the dominant epitope in autoimmune bullous pemphigoid, were found at elevated levels in nasal polyp tissue. Given the critical role of hemidesmosomes in maintaining epithelial integrity, we sought to investigate the distribution of BP180 in nasal tissue and evaluate for evidence of systemic autoimmunity against this antigen in CRS. Study Design Case-control experimental study Methods The expression and distribution of BP180 in cultured nasal epithelial cells and normal nasal tissue were confirmed using real-time PCR, Western immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Sera were collected from three groups: control, CRSsNP, and CRSwNP. A commercially available ELISA was utilized to compare anti-BP180 autoantibody levels in sera. Results BP180 is expressed in nasal epithelium, but is not confined to the basement membrane as it is in human skin. In cultured nasal epithelial cells, confocal immunofluoresence showed a punctate distribution of BP180 along the basal surface, consistent with its distribution in epithelial keratinocytes. There are significantly higher levels of circulating nonpathologic anti-BP180 autoantibodies in CRS patients compared with normal controls (p<0.05). Conclusions BP180 is more widely expressed in nasal epithelium versus skin, although it appears to play a similar role in formation of hemidesmosomes along the basement membrane. Further investigations are ongoing to characterize the pathogenicity of the anti-epithelial antibody response in CRS. PMID:24167818

  3. Control of malaria and other vector-borne protozoan diseases in the tropics: enduring challenges despite considerable progress and achievements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne protozoan diseases represent a serious public health challenge, especially in the tropics where poverty together with vector-favorable climates are the aggravating factors. Each of the various strategies currently employed to face these scourges is seriously inadequate. Despite enormous efforts, vaccines—which represent the ideal weapon against these parasitic diseases—are yet to be sufficiently developed and implemented. Chemotherapy and vector control are therefore the sole effective attempts to minimize the disease burden. Nowadays, both strategies are also highly challenged by the phenomenon of drug and insecticide resistance, which affects virtually all interventions currently used. The recently growing support from international organizations and governments of some endemic countries is warmly welcome, and should be optimally exploited in the various approaches to drug and insecticide research and development to overcome the burden of these prevalent diseases, especially malaria, leishmaniasis, Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), and Chagas disease. PMID:24401663

  4. E4BP4 overexpression: a protective mechanism in CD4+ T cells from SLE patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Liu, Qian; Liang, Gongping; Wang, Litao; Luo, Shuangyan; Tang, Qian; Zhao, Hongjun; Su, Yuwen; Yung, Susan; Chan, Tak Mao; Lu, Qianjin

    2013-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototype autoimmune disease characterized by various immunological abnormalities, including dysregulated activation of T and B lymphocytes, which trigger autoantibody production and immune-complex deposition. E4BP4, also known as NFIL3, has emerged as a major transcription factor that regulates the development and function of immune cells in a number of lineages. E4BP4 has been shown to regulate cytokines expression, and its synthesis is in turn controlled by various cytokines. To date, the roles of E4BP4 in immune dysregulation and autoimmune disorders are unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that E4BP4 expression is increased in CD4(+) T cells isolated from patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), especially in patients treated with glucocorticoid (GC). Increased expression of E4BP4 inhibited the activation and self-reactivity of T cells stimulated by anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies. In contrast, the self-reactivity was enhanced in CD4(+) T cells from SLE patients following E4BP4 gene silencing and the production of autoantibody was increased in autologous B cells. We further demonstrated that E4BP4 directly regulated CD40L expression by binding to the promoter region and altering histone acetylation and methylation of the CD40L loci. Taken together, our data provide evidence that E4BP4 can inhibit CD40L expression through epigenetic modifications in the promoter region of CD40L, thus negatively regulating self-reactivity of SLE CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that overexpression of E4BP4 initiates a protective mechanism in SLE CD4(+) T cells, which may be a promising target in the therapy for SLE. PMID:23340290

  5. Achieving pH control in microalgal cultures through fed-batch addition of stoichiometrically-balanced growth media

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of accounting for proton uptake and secretion has confounded interpretation of the stoichiometry of photosynthetic growth of algae. This is also problematic for achieving growth of microalgae to high cell concentrations which is necessary to improve productivity and the economic feasibility of commercial-scale chemical production systems. Since microalgae are capable of consuming both nitrate and ammonium, this represents an opportunity to balance culture pH based on a nitrogen feeding strategy that does not utilize gas-phase CO2 buffering. Stoichiometry suggests that approximately 36 weight%N-NH4+ (balance nitrogen as NO3-) would minimize the proton imbalance and permit high-density photoautotrophic growth as it does in higher plant tissue culture. However, algal media almost exclusively utilize nitrate, and ammonium is often viewed as ‘toxic’ to algae. Results The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exclusively utilize ammonium when both ammonium and nitrate are provided during growth on excess CO2. The resulting proton imbalance from preferential ammonium utilization causes the pH to drop too low to sustain further growth when ammonium was only 9% of the total nitrogen (0.027 gN-NH4+/L). However, providing smaller amounts of ammonium sequentially in the presence of nitrate maintained the pH of a Chlorella vulgaris culture for improved growth on 0.3 gN/L to 5 gDW/L under 5% CO2 gas-phase supplementation. Bioreactor pH dynamics are shown to be predictable based on simple nitrogen assimilation as long as there is sufficient CO2 availability. Conclusions This work provides both a media formulation and a feeding strategy with a focus on nitrogen metabolism and regulation to support high-density algal culture without buffering. The instability in culture pH that is observed in microalgal cultures in the absence of buffers can be overcome through alternating utilization of ammonium and nitrate. Despite the highly regulated

  6. Sensitivity improvement of an electrical sensor achieved by control of biomolecules based on the negative dielectrophoretic force.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Jinsik; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jung Ho; Hwang, Kyo Seon

    2016-11-15

    Effective control of nano-scale biomolecules can enhance the sensitivity and limit of detection of an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) sensor. Manipulation of the biomolecules by dielectrophoresis (DEP), especially the negative DEP (nDEP) force, so that they are trapped between electrodes (sensing regions) was predicted to increase the binding efficiency of the antibody and target molecules, leading to a more effective reaction. To prove this concept, amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein were respectively trapped between the sensing region owing to the nDEP force under 5V and 0.05V, which was verified with COMSOL simulation. Using the simulation value, the resistance change (ΔR/Rb) of the IME sensor from the specific antibody-antigen reaction of the two biomolecules and the change in fluorescence intensity were compared in the reference (pDEP) and nDEP conditions. The ΔR/Rb value improved by about 2-fold and 1.66-fold with nDEP compared to the reference condition with various protein concentrations, and these increases were confirmed with fluorescence imaging. Overall, nDEP enhanced the detection sensitivity for Aβ42 and PSA by 128% and 258%, respectively, and the limit of detection improved by up to 2-orders of magnitude. These results prove that DEP can improve the biosensor's performance. PMID:27449966

  7. Asian-specific mitochondrial genome polymorphism (9-bp deletion) in Hungarian patients with mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Pentelenyi, Klara; Remenyi, Viktoria; Gal, Aniko; Milley, Gyorgy Mate; Csosz, Aranka; Mende, Balazs Gusztav; Molnar, Maria Judit

    2016-05-01

    A 9-bp deletion of the mtDNA is known as an anthropological marker of people with East-Asian origin. This 9-bp mtDNA deletion was analyzed in 1073 Hungarians with suspected mitochondrial disease and in 468 healthy control individuals. Fourteen cases with the 9-bp deletion were found in the cohort of mitochondrial patients, and one individual from 468 controls. In six cases the 9-bp deletion was present together with pathogenic major deletions in the mitochondrial genome. In one patient we found a frame shift mutation in the D-loop region, and in another family a pathogenic m.8322 A > G mutation in the tRNA(Lys) gene. Although the 9-bp deletion is common in the populations of the Pacific region and Asia, it is present in the Hungarian population as well. This 9-bp deletion may induce instability of the mtDNA and may provoke the introduction of other pathogenic mutations. PMID:25242187

  8. The Team Education and Adherence Monitoring (TEAM) trial: pharmacy interventions to improve hypertension control in blacks.

    PubMed

    Svarstad, Bonnie L; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Shireman, Theresa I; Crawford, Stephanie Y; Palmer, Pamela A; Vivian, Eva M; Brown, Roger L

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that involving pharmacists is an effective strategy for improving patient adherence and blood pressure (BP) control. To date, few controlled studies have tested the cost-effectiveness of specific models for improving patient adherence and BP control in community pharmacies, where most Americans obtain prescriptions. We hypothesized that a team model of adherence monitoring and intervention in corporately owned community pharmacies can improve patient adherence, prescribing, and BP control among hypertensive black patients. The Team Education and Adherence Monitoring (TEAM) Trial is a randomized controlled trial testing a multistep intervention for improving adherence monitoring and intervention in 28 corporately owned community pharmacies. Patients in the 14 control pharmacies received "usual care," and patients in the 14 intervention pharmacies received TEAM Care by trained pharmacists and pharmacy technicians working with patients and physicians. Data collectors screened 1250 patients and enrolled 597 hypertensive black patients. The primary end points were the proportion of patients achieving BP control and reductions in systolic and diastolic BP measured after 6 and 12 months. Secondary end points were changes in adherence monitoring and intervention, patient adherence and barriers to adherence, prescribing, and cost-effectiveness. Researchers also will examine potential covariates and barriers to change. Involving pharmacists is a potentially powerful means of improving BP control in blacks. Pharmacists are in an excellent position to monitor patients between clinic visits and to provide useful information to patients and physicians. PMID:20031847

  9. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Genome integrity is critically dependent on timely DNA replication and accurate chromosome segregation. Replication stress delays replication into G2/M, which in turn impairs proper chromosome segregation and inflicts DNA damage on the daughter cells. Here we show that TopBP1 forms foci upon mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin recruitment of SLX4 and by facilitating unscheduled DNA synthesis. PMID:26283799

  10. RanBP9 at the intersection between cofilin and Aβ pathologies: rescue of neurodegenerative changes by RanBP9 reduction

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J A; Boggess, T; Uhlar, C; Wang, X; Khan, H; Cappos, G; Joly-Amado, A; De Narvaez, E; Majid, S; Minamide, L S; Bamburg, J R; Morgan, D; Weeber, E; Kang, D E

    2015-01-01

    Molecular pathways underlying the neurotoxicity and production of amyloid β protein (Aβ) represent potentially promising therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently found that overexpression of the scaffolding protein RanBP9 increases Aβ production in cell lines and in transgenic mice while promoting cofilin activation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Translocation of cofilin to mitochondria and induction of cofilin–actin pathology require the activation/dephosphorylation of cofilin by Slingshot homolog 1 (SSH1) and cysteine oxidation of cofilin. In this study, we found that endogenous RanBP9 positively regulates SSH1 levels and mediates Aβ-induced translocation of cofilin to mitochondria and induction of cofilin–actin pathology in cultured cells, primary neurons, and in vivo. Endogenous level of RanBP9 was also required for Aβ-induced collapse of growth cones in immature neurons (days in vitro 9 (DIV9)) and depletion of synaptic proteins in mature neurons (DIV21). In vivo, amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS1) mice exhibited 3.5-fold increased RanBP9 levels, and RanBP9 reduction protected against cofilin–actin pathology, synaptic damage, gliosis, and Aβ accumulation associated with APP/PS1 mice. Brains slices derived from APP/PS1 mice showed significantly impaired long-term potentiation (LTP), and RanBP9 reduction significantly enhanced paired pulse facilitation and LTP, as well as partially rescued contextual memory deficits associated with APP/PS1 mice. Therefore, these results underscore the critical importance of endogenous RanBP9 not only in Aβ accumulation but also in mediating the neurotoxic actions of Aβ at the level of synaptic plasticity, mitochondria, and cofilin–actin pathology via control of the SSH1-cofilin pathway in vivo. PMID:25741591

  11. Genetic and morphological features of human iPSC-derived neurons with chromosome 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) deletions

    PubMed Central

    Das, DK; Tapias, V; D’Aiuto, L; Chowdari, KV; Francis, L; Zhi, Y; Ghosh, Bhattacharjee A; Surti, U; Tischfield, J; Sheldon, M; Moore, JC; Fish, K; Nimgaonkar, V

    2015-01-01

    Background Copy number variation on chromosome 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) causes deletion of CYFIP1, NIPA1, NIPA2 and TUBGCP5; it also affects brain structure and elevates risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders that are associated with dendritic spine abnormalities. In rodents, altered cyfip1 expression changes dendritic spine morphology, motivating analyses of human neuronal cells derived from iPSCs (iPSC-neurons). Methods iPSCs were generated from a mother and her offspring, both carrying the 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) deletion, and a non-deletion control. Gene expression in the deletion region was estimated using quantitative real-time PCR assays. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and iPSC-neurons were characterized using immunocytochemistry. Results CYFIP1, NIPA1, NIPA2 and TUBGCP5 gene expression was lower in iPSCs, NPCs and iPSC-neurons from the mother and her offspring in relation to control cells. CYFIP1 and PSD95 protein levels were lower in iPSC-neurons derived from the CNV bearing individuals using Western blot analysis. At 10 weeks post-differentiation, iPSC-neurons appeared to show dendritic spines and qualitative analysis suggested that dendritic morphology was altered in 15q11.2 deletion subjects compared with control cells. Conclusions The 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) deletion is associated with reduced expression of four genes in iPSC-derived neuronal cells; it may also be associated altered iPSC-neuron dendritic morphology. PMID:26528485

  12. Asiago spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-16bp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasella, L.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-16bp ( = AT 2016adq), discovered by All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae ASAS-SN (see Shappee et al. 2014, ApJ, 788, 48 and http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~assassin/index.shtml ), in CGCG 336-041 (Atel #8666) The observation was performed with the Asiago 1.82 m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm). Name | Discovery UT | Obs. Date UT |z | Type | Phase |Notes ASASSN-16bp | 20160209.61 | 20160211.11 |0.034194 | Ia | ~10d | (1) (1) Also known as SN2016adq in CGCG 336-041 (z=0.034194, d=145 Mpc, via NED).

  13. Ethiopia and its steps to mobilize resources to achieve 2020 elimination and control goals for neglected tropical diseases webs joined can tie a lion.

    PubMed

    Mengitsu, Belete; Shafi, Oumer; Kebede, Biruck; Kebede, Fikreab; Worku, Dagemlidet T; Herero, Merce; French, Michael; Kebede, Biruk; Mackenzie, Charles; Martindale, Sarah; Kebede, Zeyede; Hirpa, Tigist; Frawley, Hannah; Crowley, Kathryn; O'Neil, Maggie; McPherson, Scott

    2016-03-01

    In June 2013, at the launch of its National Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Master Plan, the Ethiopian government pledged to achieve WHO NTD elimination and control targets by 2020. With an estimated 80 million people living in areas where one or more NTDs are endemic, this goal presented an enormous challenge for the Federal Ministry of Health. However, as of September 2015, the Federal Ministry of Health has managed to mobilize support to implement mass drug administration in 84% of the trachoma endemic districts and 100% of the endemic districts for onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis. The national program still is facing large gaps in its podoconiosis and leishmaniasis programs, and it faces significant other challenges to stay on track for 2020 targets. However, this unprecedented scale-up in support was achieved through significant government investment in NTD interventions and creative coordination between donors and implementing partners, which may provide valuable lessons for other national NTD programs trying to achieve nationwide coverage. PMID:26940308

  14. RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 targeting of oncogenic transcripts promotes hematopoietic progenitor proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Palanichamy, Jayanth Kumar; Tran, Tiffany M.; Howard, Jonathan M.; Contreras, Jorge R.; Fernando, Thilini R.; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Katzman, Sol; Toloue, Masoud; Yan, Weihong; Sanford, Jeremy R.; Rao, Dinesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranscriptional control of gene expression is important for defining both normal and pathological cellular phenotypes. In vitro, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have recently been shown to play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation; however, the contribution of RBPs to cell specification is not well understood. Here, we determined that the RBP insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) is specifically overexpressed in mixed lineage leukemia–rearranged (MLL-rearranged) B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), which constitutes a subtype of this malignancy associated with poor prognosis and high risk of relapse. IGF2BP3 was required for the survival of B-ALL cell lines, as knockdown led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Enforced expression of IGF2BP3 provided murine BM cells with a strong survival advantage, led to proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and skewed hematopoietic development to the B cell/myeloid lineage. Cross-link immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing uncovered the IGF2BP3-regulated transcriptome, which includes oncogenes MYC and CDK6 as direct targets. IGF2BP3 regulated transcripts via targeting elements within 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTR), and enforced IGF2BP3 expression in mice resulted in enhanced expression of Myc and Cdk6 in BM. Together, our data suggest that IGF2BP3-mediated targeting of oncogenic transcripts may represent a critical pathogenetic mechanism in MLL-rearranged B-ALL and support IGF2BP3 and its cognate RNA-binding partners as potential therapeutic targets in this disease. PMID:26974154

  15. Nephrotoxicity of selectively deuterated and methylated analogues of Tris-BP and Bis-BP in the rat.

    PubMed

    Søderlund, E J; Omichinski, J G; Dahl, J E; Nelson, S D; Dybing, E

    1988-03-01

    Selectively deuterated and methylated analogues of the flame retardant tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate (Tris-BP) and its nephrotoxic metabolite bis(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate (Bis-BP) were compared to Tris-BP and Bis-BP in inducing acute renal damage in rats. None of the deuterated Tris-BP or Bis-BP analogues significantly altered morphological evidence of nephrotoxicity compared to the protio compounds. On the other hand, some of the selectively methylated analogues were much less nephrotoxic. Although the C1-methyl analogues of both Tris-BP and Bis-BP were as potent nephrotoxicants as Tris-BP and Bis-BP, respectively, neither the C2-methyl nor the C3-methyl analogues were significantly nephrotoxic. Interestingly, whereas the 3,4-dibromobutyl homologue of Tris-BP was not nephrotoxic, the corresponding 3,4-dibromobutyl-Bis homologue was as nephrotoxic as Bis-BP. Additional investigations with treatments that are known to decrease nephrotoxicity caused by several halogenated alkenes, showed that L-(alpha S,5S)-alpha-amino-3-chloro-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazoleacetic acid (AT-125) and aminooxyacetic acid were without effects on Tris-BP induced renal damage. Probenecid pretreatment led to a reduction in Tris-BP and Bis-BP tubular necrosis, these effects may be related to inhibition of Bis-BP uptake in the kidney. It appears that the cysteine conjugate beta-lyase pathway is not involved in the generation of nephrotoxic metabolites of Tris-BP. PMID:3375186

  16. Placement of the GaBP ring system in the banded gastric bypass operation.

    PubMed

    Fobi, Mathias A L

    2005-09-01

    Currently, bariatric surgeons fashion the band or ring reinforcement prosthesis, to control the stoma in the vertical banded gastroplasty and gastric bypass operations for morbid obesity. To meet this need, the GaBP Ring system has been developed in various sizes, and consists of 4 main parts to provide a means for inserting a ring around the gastric pouch in the banded gastric bypass or the vertical banded gastroplasty. The pre-manufactured and sterilized device provides for better standardization and quality control than individually surgeon-fashioned devices. The GaBP Ring system is described, and the technique of placement and the pertinent initial clinical results are presented. PMID:16197796

  17. RanBP9 Overexpression Accelerates Loss of Dendritic Spines in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruizhi; Palavicini, Juan Pablo; Wang, Hongjie; Maiti, Panchanan; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Xu, Shaohua; Lloyd, BN; Dawson-Scully, Ken; Kang, David E; Lakshmana, Madepalli K.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that RanBP9 overexpression increased Aβ generation and amyloid plaque burden, subsequently leading to robust reductions in the levels of several synaptic proteins as well as deficits in the learning and memory skills in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we found striking reduction of spinophilin-immunoreactive puncta (52%, p<0.001) and spinophilin area (62.5%, p<0.001) in the primary cortical neurons derived from RanBP9 transgenic mice (RanBP9-Tg) compared to wild-type (WT) neurons. Similar results were confirmed in WT cortical neurons transfected with EGFP-RanBP9. At 6-months of age, the total spine density in the cortex of RanBP9 single transgenic, APΔE9 double transgenic and APΔE9/RanBP9 triple transgenic mice were similar to WT mice. However, in the hippocampus the spine density was significantly reduced (27%, p<0.05) in the triple transgenic mice compared to WT mice due to reduced number of thin spines (33%, p<0.05) and mushroom spines (22%, p<0.05). This suggests that RanBP9 overexpression in the APΔE9 mice accelerates loss of spines and that hippocampus is more vulnerable. At 12-months of age, cortex showed significant reductions in total spine density in the RanBP9 (22%, p<0.05), APΔE9 (19%, p<0.05) and APΔE9/RanBP9 (33%, p<0.01) mice compared to WT controls due to reductions in mushroom and thin spines. Similarly, in the hippocampus the total spine density was reduced in the RanBP9 (23%, p<0.05), APΔE9 (26%, p<0.05) and APΔE9/RanBP9 (39%, p<0.01) mice due to reductions in thin and mushroom spines. Most importantly, RanBP9 overexpression in the APΔE9 mice further exacerbated the reductions in spine density in both the cortex (14%, p<0.05) and the hippocampus (16%, p<0.05). Because dendritic spines are considered physical traces of memory, loss of spines due to RanBP9 provided the physical basis for the learning and memory deficits. Since RanBP9 protein levels are increased in AD brains, RanBP

  18. RanBP9 overexpression accelerates loss of dendritic spines in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruizhi; Palavicini, Juan Pablo; Wang, Hongjie; Maiti, Panchanan; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Xu, Shaohua; Lloyd, B N; Dawson-Scully, Ken; Kang, David E; Lakshmana, Madepalli K

    2014-09-01

    We previously demonstrated that RanBP9 overexpression increased Aβ generation and amyloid plaque burden, subsequently leading to robust reductions in the levels of several synaptic proteins as well as deficits in the learning and memory skills in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we found striking reduction of spinophilin-immunoreactive puncta (52%, p<0.001) and spinophilin area (62.5%, p<0.001) in the primary cortical neurons derived from RanBP9 transgenic mice (RanBP9-Tg) compared to wild-type (WT) neurons. Similar results were confirmed in WT cortical neurons transfected with EGFP-RanBP9. At 6-months of age, the total spine density in the cortex of RanBP9 single transgenic, APΔE9 double transgenic and APΔE9/RanBP9 triple transgenic mice was similar to WT mice. However, in the hippocampus the spine density was significantly reduced (27%, p<0.05) in the triple transgenic mice compared to WT mice due to reduced number of thin spines (33%, p<0.05) and mushroom spines (22%, p<0.05). This suggests that RanBP9 overexpression in the APΔE9 mice accelerates loss of spines and that the hippocampus is more vulnerable. At 12-months of age, the cortex showed significant reductions in total spine density in the RanBP9 (22%, p<0.05), APΔE9 (19%, p<0.05) and APΔE9/RanBP9 (33%, p<0.01) mice compared to WT controls due to reductions in mushroom and thin spines. Similarly, in the hippocampus the total spine density was reduced in the RanBP9 (23%, p<0.05), APΔE9 (26%, p<0.05) and APΔE9/RanBP9 (39%, p<0.01) mice due to reductions in thin and mushroom spines. Most importantly, RanBP9 overexpression in the APΔE9 mice further exacerbated the reductions in spine density in both the cortex (14%, p<0.05) and the hippocampus (16%, p<0.05). Because dendritic spines are considered physical traces of memory, loss of spines due to RanBP9 provided the physical basis for the learning and memory deficits. Since RanBP9 protein levels are increased in AD

  19. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of substrate-competitive inhibitors of C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP).

    PubMed

    Korwar, Sudha; Morris, Benjamin L; Parikh, Hardik I; Coover, Robert A; Doughty, Tyler W; Love, Ian M; Hilbert, Brendan J; Royer, William E; Kellogg, Glen E; Grossman, Steven R; Ellis, Keith C

    2016-06-15

    C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) is a transcriptional co-regulator that downregulates the expression of many tumor-suppressor genes. Utilizing a crystal structure of CtBP with its substrate 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB) and NAD(+) as a guide, we have designed, synthesized, and tested a series of small molecule inhibitors of CtBP. From our first round of compounds, we identified 2-(hydroxyimino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid as a potent CtBP inhibitor (IC50=0.24μM). A structure-activity relationship study of this compound further identified the 4-chloro- (IC50=0.18μM) and 3-chloro- (IC50=0.17μM) analogues as additional potent CtBP inhibitors. Evaluation of the hydroxyimine analogues in a short-term cell growth/viability assay showed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-analogues are 2-fold and 4-fold more potent, respectively, than the MTOB control. A functional cellular assay using a CtBP-specific transcriptional readout revealed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-hydroxyimine analogues were able to block CtBP transcriptional repression activity. This data suggests that substrate-competitive inhibition of CtBP dehydrogenase activity is a potential mechanism to reactivate tumor-suppressor gene expression as a therapeutic strategy for cancer. PMID:27156192

  20. The CES-2-related transcription factor E4BP4 is an intrinsic regulator of motoneuron growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Dirk; Chauvet, Sophie; Buhler, Emmanuelle; Dudley, Keith; Sykes, Toby; Henderson, Christopher E

    2004-09-01

    The regulation of neuronal growth and survival during development requires interplay between extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Among the latter, transcription factors play a key role. In the nematode, the transcription factor CES-2 predisposes neurosecretory motoneurons to death, whereas E4BP4 (NFIL3), one of its vertebrate homologs, regulates survival of pro-B lymphocytes. We show that E4BP4 is expressed by embryonic rat and chicken motoneurons in vivo, with levels being highest in neurons that survive the period of naturally occurring cell death. Overexpression of E4BP4 by electroporation of purified motoneurons in culture protected them almost completely against cell death triggered by removal of neurotrophic factors or activation of death receptors. Moreover, E4BP4 strongly enhanced neuronal cell size and axonal growth. Axons of motoneurons transfected with E4BP4 were 3.5-fold longer than control neurons grown on laminin; this effect required the activity of PI3 kinase. In vivo, overexpression of E4BP4 in chicken embryos reduced the number of dying motoneurons by 45%. Our results define E4BP4 as a novel intrinsic regulator of motoneuron growth and survival. Pathways regulated by E4BP4 are of potential interest both for understanding neuromuscular development and for promoting neuronal survival and regeneration in pathological situations. PMID:15306565

  1. The transcription factor E4BP4 is not required for extramedullary pathways of NK cell development.

    PubMed

    Crotta, Stefania; Gkioka, Annita; Male, Victoria; Duarte, João H; Davidson, Sophia; Nisoli, Ilaria; Brady, Hugh J M; Wack, Andreas

    2014-03-15

    NK cells contribute to antitumor and antiviral immunosurveillance. Their development in the bone marrow (BM) requires the transcription factor E4BP4/NFIL3, but requirements in other organs are less well defined. In this study, we show that CD3(-)NK1.1(+)NKp46(+)CD122(+) NK cells of immature phenotype and expressing low eomesodermin levels are found in thymus, spleen, and liver of E4BP4-deficient mice, whereas numbers of mature, eomesodermin(high) conventional NK cells are drastically reduced. E4BP4-deficient CD44(+)CD25(-) double-negative 1 thymocytes efficiently develop in vitro into NK cells with kinetics, phenotype, and functionality similar to wild-type controls, whereas no NK cells develop from E4BP4-deficient BM precursors. In E4BP4/Rag-1 double-deficient (DKO) mice, NK cells resembling those in Rag-1-deficient controls are found in similar numbers in the thymus and liver. However, NK precursors are reduced in DKO BM, and no NK cells develop from DKO BM progenitors in vitro. DKO thymocyte precursors readily develop into NK cells, but DKO BM transfers into nude recipients and NK cells in E4BP4/Rag-1/IL-7 triple-KO mice indicated thymus-independent NK cell development. In the presence of T cells or E4BP4-sufficient NK cells, DKO NK cells have a selective disadvantage, and thymic and hepatic DKO NK cells show reduced survival when adoptively transferred into lymphopenic hosts. This correlates with higher apoptosis rates and lower responsiveness to IL-15 in vitro. In conclusion, we demonstrate E4BP4-independent development of NK cells of immature phenotype, reduced fitness, short t1/2, and potential extramedullary origin. Our data identify E4BP4-independent NK cell developmental pathways and a role for E4BP4 in NK cell homeostasis. PMID:24534532

  2. Achieving nitritation at low temperatures using free ammonia inhibition on Nitrobacter and real-time control in an SBR treating landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongwei; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Shuying; Ma, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Free ammonia (FA) inhibition on nitrite-oxidized bacteria (NOB) and real-time control are used to achieve nitrogen removal from landfill leachate via nitrite pathway at low temperatures in sequencing batch reactor. The inhibition of FA on NOB activity during the aerobic period was prolonged using real-time control. The degree of nitrite accumulation was monitored along with variations of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and NOB population using fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques. It is demonstrated that the end-point of ammonia oxidization is detected from the on-line measured dissolved oxygen, oxidization-reduction potential, and pH signals, which could avoid the loss the FA inhibition on NOB caused by excess aeration. At low temperature (13.0-17.6°C), the level of nitrite pathway rapidly increased from 19.8% to 90%, suggesting that nitritation was successfully started up at low temperature by applying syntrophic association of the FA inhibition and real-time control, and then this high level of nitrite pathway was stably maintained for as long as 233 days. Mechanism analysis shows that the establishment of nitritation was primarily the result of predominant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria developed in the nitrifying bacteria population compared to NOB. This was mainly due to a gradual reduction of nitrite amount that is available to provide energy for the growth of NOB, eventually leading to the elimination of NOB from the bacterial clusters in sequencing batch reactor sludge system. PMID:25872722

  3. Impact of the Positive Action program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled design. The Positive Action Hawai‘i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (mean enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from baseline (2002) to one-year post trial (2007) revealed that intervention schools scored 9.8% better on the TerraNova (2nd ed.) test for reading and 8.8% on math; 20.7% better in Hawai‘i Content and Performance Standards scores for reading and 51.4% better in math; and that intervention schools reported 15.2% lower absenteeism and fewer suspensions (72.6%) and retentions (72.7%). Overall, effect sizes were moderate to large (range 0.5-1.1) for all of the examined outcomes. Sensitivity analyses using permutation models and random-intercept growth curve models substantiated results. The results provide evidence that a comprehensive school-based program, specifically developed to target student behavior and character, can positively influence school-level achievement, attendance, and disciplinary outcomes concurrently. PMID:20414477

  4. Power-gated 32 bit microprocessor with a power controller circuit activated by deep-sleep-mode instruction achieving ultra-low power operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Hiroki; Ohsawa, Takashi; Miura, Sadahiko; Honjo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Hanyu, Takahiro; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2015-04-01

    A spintronic-based power-gated micro-processing unit (MPU) is proposed. It includes a power control circuit activated by the newly supported power-off instruction for the deep-sleep mode. These means enable the power-off procedure for the MPU to be executed appropriately. A test chip was designed and fabricated using 90 nm CMOS and an additional 100 nm MTJ process; it was successfully operated. The guideline of the energy reduction effects for this MPU was presented, using the estimation based on the measurement results of the test chip. The result shows that a large operation energy reduction of 1/28 can be achieved when the operation duty is 10%, under the condition of a sufficient number of idle clock cycles.

  5. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  6. A thermolysis approach to simultaneously achieve crystal phase- and shape-control of ternary M-Fe-O metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chich-Neng; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Significant studies have achieved beautiful control in particle size, while the shape- and phase-control synthesis of nanoparticles remains an open challenge. In this study, we have developed a generalized methodology to selectively prepare either NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) M-Fe-O (M = Mn, Co) crystallites with high reproducibility. A two-step heating process was able to control formation of two types of crystal phase, either a thermodynamic spinel-type under air or a kinetic-control of NaCl-type (rock salt structure) under Ar in a cubic morphology. On the other hand, the three-step heating procedure in air obtained the spinel-type with a thermodynamic equilibrium octahedral shape exclusively. Either using metal acetates (M(ac)2) or metal acetylacetonates (M(acac)2) as the starting precursors (M = Mn, Co) can be introduced to prepare NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) crystallites with identical experimental parameters, including precursor concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, and heating rate. The oleic acid molecule, reaction temperature, and heating rate employed in the synthesis were carefully examined and found acting as determined roles behind the reaction processes. Apart from the previous literature reports as shape-directed and/or stabilizing agents, the oleic acid molecule played an additional phase-tuning role.Significant studies have achieved beautiful control in particle size, while the shape- and phase-control synthesis of nanoparticles remains an open challenge. In this study, we have developed a generalized methodology to selectively prepare either NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) M-Fe-O (M = Mn, Co) crystallites with high reproducibility. A two-step heating process was able to control formation of two types of crystal phase, either a thermodynamic spinel-type under air or a kinetic-control of NaCl-type (rock salt structure) under Ar in a

  7. Effectiveness of Music Education for the Improvement of Reading Skills and Academic Achievement in Young Poor Readers: A Pragmatic Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; de Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão; Ploubidis, George B.; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading difficulties. Method 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT) in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114), and five served as controls (n = 121). Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT), and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) estimation method, which took compliance status into account. Results The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]). As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children), more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year). Conclusion The results may be seen as promising, but they are not, in themselves

  8. Revisiting G3BP1 as a RasGAP Binding Protein: Sensitization of Tumor Cells to Chemotherapy by the RasGAP 317–326 Sequence Does Not Involve G3BP1

    PubMed Central

    Annibaldi, Alessandro; Dousse, Aline; Martin, Sophie; Tazi, Jamal; Widmann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    RasGAP is a multifunctional protein that controls Ras activity and that is found in chromosomal passenger complexes. It also negatively or positively regulates apoptosis depending on the extent of its cleavage by caspase-3. RasGAP has been reported to bind to G3BP1 (RasGAP SH3-domain-binding protein 1), a protein regulating mRNA stability and stress granule formation. The region of RasGAP (amino acids 317–326) thought to bind to G3BP1 corresponds exactly to the sequence within fragment N2, a caspase-3-generated fragment of RasGAP, that mediates sensitization of tumor cells to genotoxins. While assessing the contribution of G3BP1 in the anti-cancer function of a cell-permeable peptide containing the 317–326 sequence of RasGAP (TAT-RasGAP317–326), we found that, in conditions where G3BP1 and RasGAP bind to known partners, no interaction between G3BP1 and RasGAP could be detected. TAT-RasGAP317–326 did not modulate binding of G3BP1 to USP10, stress granule formation or c-myc mRNA levels. Finally, TAT-RasGAP317–326 was able to sensitize G3BP1 knock-out cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Collectively these results indicate that G3BP1 and its putative RasGAP binding region have no functional influence on each other. Importantly, our data provide arguments against G3BP1 being a genuine RasGAP-binding partner. Hence, G3BP1-mediated signaling may not involve RasGAP. PMID:22205990

  9. BpMADS4 has a central role in inflorescence initiation in silver birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Elo, Annakaisa; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Novak, Anu; Keinonen, Kaija; Porali, Ilkka; Hassinen, Minna; Sopanen, Tuomas

    2007-09-01

    Acceleration of flowering would be beneficial for breeding trees with a long juvenile phase; conversely, inhibition of flowering would prevent the spread of transgenes from the genetically modified trees. We have previously isolated and characterized several MADS genes from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). In this study, we investigated the more detailed function of one of them, BpMADS4, a member of the APETALA1/FRUITFULL group of MADS genes. The expression of BpMADS4 starts at very early stage of the male and female inflorescence development and the activity is high in the apex of the developing inflorescence. Later, some expression is detected in the bracts and in the flower initials. Ectopic expression of BpMADS4 accelerates flowering dramatically in normally flowering clones and also in the early-flowering birch clone, in which the earliest line flowered about 11 days after rooting, when the saplings were only 3 cm high. The birches transformed with the BpMADS4 antisense construct showed remarkable delay in flowering and the number of flowering individuals was reduced. Two of the transformed lines did not show any signs of flower development during our 2-year study, whereas all the control plants formed inflorescences within 107 days. Our results show that BpMADS4 has a critical role in the initiation of birch inflorescence development and that BpMADS4 seems to be involved in the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Therefore, BpMADS4 provides a promising tool for the genetic enhancement of forest trees. PMID:18251933

  10. A new surgical strategy for breast conservation in locally advanced breast cancer that achieves a good locoregional control rate: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Moneer, M; Ismael, S; Khaled, H; El-Gantery, M; Zaghloul, M S; El-Didi, M

    2001-06-01

    The scope of breast conserving surgery has recently expanded to include locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients who are downstaged following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). However, the efficacy of this approach in achieving adequate locoregional control of disease is in doubt. Some reports have attributed the failure to the association of NACT-induced tumour downstaging which can leave multifocal in situ and invasive lesions around the main tumour mass. In the present study, in order to eradicate all possible tumour satellites, a very wide local excision that included the whole original tumour-bearing area was performed regardless of the expected wide defect. This defect was then immediately reconstructed by an ipsilateral pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous (LDM) flap. The study included 26 patients with LABC without evidence of primary tumour-multicentricity. Tumours were downstaged following NACT. The early cosmetic outcome was good in the majority of cases. Early complications were minimal. Twenty-two patients had a mean follow up period of 30.2 (range 7-50) months. In those evaluable cases, locoregional control of the disease was excellent (100%) but distant metastases occurred in seven cases (31.8%). PMID:14965588

  11. Controlled Sculpture of Black Phosphorus Nanoribbons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Masih Das, Paul; Danda, Gopinath; Cupo, Andrew; Parkin, William M.; Liang, Liangbo; Kharche, Neerav; Ling, Xi; Huang, Shengxi; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Meunier, Vincent; et al

    2016-05-18

    Black phosphorus (BP) is a highly anisotropic allotrope of phosphorus with high promise for fast functional electronics and optoelectronics. We demonstrate that high-resolution and controlled structural modification of few-layer BP along arbitrary crystal direction can be achieved with nanometer-scale precision on a few-minute timescales leading to the formation of sub-nm wide armchair and zigzag BP nanoribbons. The nanoribbons are assembled, along with nanopores and nanogaps, using a combination of mechanical-liquid exfoliation and in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning TEM nanosculpting. Here we report time-dependent structural properties of the one-dimensional systems under electron irradiation and probe their oxidation propertiesmore » with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Finally, we demonstrate the use of STEM to controllably narrow and thin the nanoribbons until they break into nanogaps. The observations are rationalized using density functional theory for transition state calculations and electronic band-structure evolution for the various stages of the narrowing procedure. In particular, we predict that the sub- and few-nm wide BP nanoribbons realized experimentally possess clear one-dimensional quantum confinement, even when the systems are made up of a few layers. We find the demonstration of this procedure is key for the development of BP-based electronic, optoelectronic, thermoelectric, and other applications in reduced dimensions.« less

  12. Optical and mechanical behavior of GeC and BP antireflection coatings under rain erosion tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowski, Jean-Marie; Cimma, B.; Lacuve, J.; Laprat, Patrice

    1994-09-01

    Thick germanium carbide (GeC) and boron phosphide (BP) films are successfully grown on various zinc sulfide and germanium substrates at temperatures up to 450 degree(s)C by reactive radio-frequency sputtering (RRFS). The sputtering conditions are respectively a germanium target within a medium of methane-argon for GeC films and a high density boron target in a sputtering medium of phosphine-argon for BP films. The rain erosion resistance of GeC and BP films protected or not by diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on top are measured for water drop diameter of 1.2 mm or 2 mm with an impact velocity ranging from 210 m/s to 265 m/s on the Saab-Scania whirling-arm rig facilities (Linkoping, Sweden). Rain erosion resistance of BP films for a wavelength band in the 8 micrometers to 10 micrometers range shows no damage for a speed up to 250 m/s with an exposure time up to 10 min, whereas the GeC rain erosion resistance shows no damage up to 235 m/s for the same exposure time. The transmission of each film is well correlated to its optical absorption at 10.6 micrometers . The GeC absorption can be reduced down to 40 cm-1 whereas the BP absorption stays around 220 cm-1 for sputtered films. So the compromise between the optical performance and the rain erosion resistance can be achieved by the use of GeC or BP films.

  13. Mitochondrial intergenic COII/tRNA(Lys) 9-bp deletion, a biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Ren, Weihua; Li, Yawei; Li, Rui; Feng, Hongbo; Wu, Shuangting; Mao, Yuhui; Huang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The COII/tRNA(Lys) intergenic 9-bp deletion is one of the most commonly studied human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms. It consists of the loss of one of two tandemly repeated copies of the sequence CCCCCTCTA from a non-coding region located between cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and tRNA(Lys) gene. Most recently, case-control studies have shown a positive association between this deletion with hepatocellular cancer. In this study, we first performed a detailed analysis between this deletion and clinical diseases; moreover, we took the phylogenetic approach to examine the pathogenicity status of 9-bp deletion. PMID:26017042

  14. IGF2BP2 promotes colorectal cancer cell proliferation and survival through interfering with RAF-1 degradation by miR-195.

    PubMed

    Ye, Song; Song, Wei; Xu, Xiaogang; Zhao, Xinyi; Yang, Liu

    2016-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) is a post-transcriptional regulatory factor implicated in mRNA localization, stability, and translational control. However, the role of IGF2BP2 regulation in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its underlying mechanism remain elusive. In this study, we found that IGF2BP2 expression is markedly increased in CRC tissues. Notably, IGF2BP2 overexpression strikingly enhanced the proliferation and survival of CRC cells in vitro, whereas its shRNA-mediated silencing resulted in the opposite. Molecular function analyses revealed that IGF2BP2 regulates RAF1 expression through blocking its degradation by miR-195. These results identify IGF2BP2 as a post-transcriptional regulatory mRNA-binding factor that contributes to CRC carcinogenesis. PMID:27153315

  15. High temporal Resolution Fire History in Eastern Africa: the Last 16 kyr cal. BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanniere, B.; Carcaillet, C.; Garcin, Y.; Vullien, A.; Williamson, D.

    2004-12-01

    Charcoal series, based on a high temporal resolution analysis, at Lake Massoko (9°20' S, 33° 45' E, 770 a.s.l., SW Tanzania) reveals numerous changes of fire regime over the last 16 kyr cal BP. Data are based on the tallying of charcoal from 700 continuous 1 cm thick samples along a 7m long sequence. The structure of charcoal particles is well preserved with an length:width ratio superior to 5; this appears to testify to the local provenance of the material studied and to the rapid transport of particles to the lake. The majority of particles belongs to herbaceous cuticles produced by savanna or bush fires. Time control is supported by 14 radiocarbon dates. Mean time resolution per sample of 17 yr provides the first long detailed biomass burning record in Africa. This record evidences frequent fires events during the last 16 kyr, indicating that fire is a key component of east African ecosystems since, at least, the last glacial stage up to present. From 16 to 12 kyr cal BP, the charcoal influx into the lake is low except during two specific sequences, between 13.5-12.5 kyr cal BP and 14.5-14 kyr cal BP. These may correspond to more arid or more biomass-available phases. Around 10 kyr cal BP, at the early Holocene a greater influx of charcoal is recorded in the lake, probably as a result of a high fire regime likely triggered by severe droughts. Between 8.3 and 1.7 kyr cal BP, the charcoal influx displays a cyclic fire history of ca. 500 yr. Low fire regime, between 3.5-2.5, 5.5-5 and 7.5-7 kyr cal BP, correspond to wetter periods. About 12 sequences of fire increase and decrease are highlighted, which appears to support a high climatic variability during the middle-Holocene. After 1.7 kyr BP, there is a long lasting increase of charcoal influx into the lake, as observed by black carbon analysis (Thevenon et al., 2003). This particular period, without analog since 16 kyr cal BP, is consistent with the development of Iron Age settlements in the region, slash

  16. Innovative Hypofractionated Stereotactic Regimen Achieves Excellent Local Control with No Radiation Necrosis: Promising Results in the Management of Patients with Small Recurrent Inoperable GBM

    PubMed Central

    Pannullo, Susan C.; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Taube, Shoshana; Chang, Jenghwa; Parashar, Bhupesh; Christos, Paul; Wernicke, A.Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge. Several institutions reported that a single fraction of ≥ 20 Gy for small tumor burden results in excellent local control; however, this is at the expense of a high incidence of radiation necrosis (RN). Therefore, we developed a hypofractionation pattern of 33 Gy/3 fractions, which is a radiobiological equivalent of 20 Gy, with the aim to lower the incidence of RN. We reviewed records of 21 patients with recurrent GBM treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) to their 22 respective lesions. Sixty Gy fractioned external beam radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. Median time from primary irradiation to HFSRT was 9.6 months (range: 3.1 – 68.1 months). In HFSRT, a median dose of 33 Gy in 11 Gy fractions was delivered to the 80% isodose line that encompassed the target volume. The median tumor volume was 1.07 cm3 (range: 0.11 – 16.64 cm3). The median follow-up time after HFSRT was 9.3 months (range: 1.7 – 33.6 months). Twenty-one of 23 lesions treated (91.3%) achieved local control while 2/23 (8.7%) progressed. Median time to progression outside of the treated site was 5.2 months (range: 2.2 – 9.6 months). Progression was treated with salvage chemotherapy. Five of 21 patients (23.8%) were alive at the end of this follow-up; two patients remain disease-free. The remaining 16/21 patients (76.2%) died of disease. Treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no acute CTC/RTOG > Grade 2. There was 0% incidence of RN. A prospective trial will be underway to validate these promising results. PMID:27096136

  17. Innovative Hypofractionated Stereotactic Regimen Achieves Excellent Local Control with No Radiation Necrosis: Promising Results in the Management of Patients with Small Recurrent Inoperable GBM.

    PubMed

    Jia, Angela; Pannullo, Susan C; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Taube, Shoshana; Chang, Jenghwa; Parashar, Bhupesh; Christos, Paul; Wernicke, A Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge. Several institutions reported that a single fraction of ≥ 20 Gy for small tumor burden results in excellent local control; however, this is at the expense of a high incidence of radiation necrosis (RN). Therefore, we developed a hypofractionation pattern of 33 Gy/3 fractions, which is a radiobiological equivalent of 20 Gy, with the aim to lower the incidence of RN. We reviewed records of 21 patients with recurrent GBM treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) to their 22 respective lesions. Sixty Gy fractioned external beam radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. Median time from primary irradiation to HFSRT was 9.6 months (range: 3.1 - 68.1 months). In HFSRT, a median dose of 33 Gy in 11 Gy fractions was delivered to the 80% isodose line that encompassed the target volume. The median tumor volume was 1.07 cm3 (range: 0.11 - 16.64 cm3). The median follow-up time after HFSRT was 9.3 months (range: 1.7 - 33.6 months). Twenty-one of 23 lesions treated (91.3%) achieved local control while 2/23 (8.7%) progressed. Median time to progression outside of the treated site was 5.2 months (range: 2.2 - 9.6 months). Progression was treated with salvage chemotherapy. Five of 21 patients (23.8%) were alive at the end of this follow-up; two patients remain disease-free. The remaining 16/21 patients (76.2%) died of disease. Treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no acute CTC/RTOG > Grade 2. There was 0% incidence of RN. A prospective trial will be underway to validate these promising results. PMID:27096136

  18. PAK1 and CtBP1 Regulate the Coupling of Neuronal Activity to Muscle Chromatin and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jean-Luc; Ravel-Chapuis, Aymeric; Valente, Carmen; Corda, Daniela; Méjat, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) expression in innervated muscle is limited to the synaptic region. Neuron-induced electrical activity participates in this compartmentalization by promoting the repression of AChR expression in the extrasynaptic regions. Here, we show that the corepressor CtBP1 (C-terminal binding protein 1) is present on the myogenin promoter together with repressive histone marks. shRNA-mediated downregulation of CtBP1 expression is sufficient to derepress myogenin and AChR expression in innervated muscle. Upon denervation, CtBP1 is displaced from the myogenin promoter and relocates to the cytoplasm, while repressive histone marks are replaced by activating ones concomitantly to the activation of myogenin expression. We also observed that upon denervation the p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) expression is upregulated, suggesting that phosphorylation by PAK1 may be involved in the relocation of CtBP1. Indeed, preventing CtBP1 Ser158 phosphorylation induces CtBP1 accumulation in the nuclei and abrogates the activation of myogenin and AChR expression. Altogether, these findings reveal a molecular mechanism to account for the coordinated control of chromatin modifications and muscle gene expression by presynaptic neurons via a PAK1/CtBP1 pathway. PMID:26416879

  19. PAK1 and CtBP1 Regulate the Coupling of Neuronal Activity to Muscle Chromatin and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jean-Luc; Moncollin, Vincent; Ravel-Chapuis, Aymeric; Valente, Carmen; Corda, Daniela; Méjat, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) expression in innervated muscle is limited to the synaptic region. Neuron-induced electrical activity participates in this compartmentalization by promoting the repression of AChR expression in the extrasynaptic regions. Here, we show that the corepressor CtBP1 (C-terminal binding protein 1) is present on the myogenin promoter together with repressive histone marks. shRNA-mediated downregulation of CtBP1 expression is sufficient to derepress myogenin and AChR expression in innervated muscle. Upon denervation, CtBP1 is displaced from the myogenin promoter and relocates to the cytoplasm, while repressive histone marks are replaced by activating ones concomitantly to the activation of myogenin expression. We also observed that upon denervation the p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) expression is upregulated, suggesting that phosphorylation by PAK1 may be involved in the relocation of CtBP1. Indeed, preventing CtBP1 Ser158 phosphorylation induces CtBP1 accumulation in the nuclei and abrogates the activation of myogenin and AChR expression. Altogether, these findings reveal a molecular mechanism to account for the coordinated control of chromatin modifications and muscle gene expression by presynaptic neurons via a PAK1/CtBP1 pathway. PMID:26416879

  20. Palmitoylation regulates plasma membrane–nuclear shuttling of R7BP, a novel membrane anchor for the RGS7 family

    PubMed Central

    Drenan, Ryan M.; Doupnik, Craig A.; Boyle, Maureen P.; Muglia, Louis J.; Huettner, James E.; Linder, Maurine E.; Blumer, Kendall J.

    2005-01-01

    The RGS7 (R7) family of RGS proteins bound to the divergent Gβ subunit Gβ5 is a crucial regulator of G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling in the visual and nervous systems. Here, we identify R7BP, a novel neuronally expressed protein that binds R7–Gβ5 complexes and shuttles them between the plasma membrane and nucleus. Regional expression of R7BP, Gβ5, and R7 isoforms in brain is highly coincident. R7BP is palmitoylated near its COOH terminus, which targets the protein to the plasma membrane. Depalmitoylation of R7BP translocates R7BP–R7–Gβ5 complexes from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. Compared with nonpalmitoylated R7BP, palmitoylated R7BP greatly augments the ability of RGS7 to attenuate GPCR-mediated G protein–regulated inward rectifying potassium channel activation. Thus, by controlling plasma membrane nuclear–shuttling of R7BP–R7–Gβ5 complexes, reversible palmitoylation of R7BP provides a novel mechanism that regulates GPCR signaling and potentially transduces signals directly from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. PMID:15897264

  1. Tax1BP1 interacts with papillomavirus E2 and regulates E2-dependent transcription and stability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Naidu, Samisubbu R; Sverdrup, Francis; Androphy, Elliot J

    2009-03-01

    The papillomavirus E2 proteins regulate viral replication, gene transcription, and genome maintenance by interacting with other viral and host proteins. From a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the cellular protein Tax1BP1 as a novel binding partner of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) E2. Tax1BP1 also interacts with the HPV16 and bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) E2 proteins, with the C-terminal region of Tax1BP1 interacting with the N-terminal transactivation domain of BPV1 E2. Tax1BP1 complexes with p300 and acts synergistically as a coactivator with p300 to enhance E2-dependent transcription. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show that Tax1BP1 and E2 localize to the long control region on the BPV1 genome. Tax1BP1 was recently reported to bind ubiquitin and to function as an essential component of an A20 ubiquitin-editing complex. We demonstrate that Tax1BP1 plays a role in the regulation of the steady-state level of E2 by preventing its proteasomal degradation. These studies provide new insights into the regulation of E2 functions. PMID:19109394

  2. Working Together to Promote Diabetes Control: A Practical Guide for Diabetes Health Care Providers in Establishing a Working Alliance to Achieve Self-Management Support

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Allan; Vallis, Michael; Cooke, Debbie; Pouwer, François

    2016-01-01

    The quality of the “patient-carer” relationship is the foundation of self-management support and has been shown to influence treatment outcome in relation to psychological and somatic illness, including diabetes. It has long been accepted within applied psychology that the quality of the client-therapist relationship—termed the working alliance—is of central importance to treatment outcome and may account for a significant degree of the overall treatment effect. Diabetes healthcare providers have recently expressed a need for further training in communication techniques and in the psychological aspects of diabetes. Could we take a page from the psychological treatment manual on working alliance in therapy to guide the diabetes healthcare provider in their role of supporting the person with diabetes achieve and maintain better metabolic control? This paper examines the role of the working alliance in diabetes care and offers a practical guide to the diabetes healthcare provider in establishing a working alliance with the person with diabetes in managing diabetes. PMID:26682229

  3. Working Together to Promote Diabetes Control: A Practical Guide for Diabetes Health Care Providers in Establishing a Working Alliance to Achieve Self-Management Support.

    PubMed

    Jones, Allan; Vallis, Michael; Cooke, Debbie; Pouwer, François

    2016-01-01

    The quality of the "patient-carer" relationship is the foundation of self-management support and has been shown to influence treatment outcome in relation to psychological and somatic illness, including diabetes. It has long been accepted within applied psychology that the quality of the client-therapist relationship--termed the working alliance--is of central importance to treatment outcome and may account for a significant degree of the overall treatment effect. Diabetes healthcare providers have recently expressed a need for further training in communication techniques and in the psychological aspects of diabetes. Could we take a page from the psychological treatment manual on working alliance in therapy to guide the diabetes healthcare provider in their role of supporting the person with diabetes achieve and maintain better metabolic control? This paper examines the role of the working alliance in diabetes care and offers a practical guide to the diabetes healthcare provider in establishing a working alliance with the person with diabetes in managing diabetes. PMID:26682229

  4. Automatic exposure control in multichannel CT with tube current modulation to achieve a constant level of image noise: Experimental assessment on pediatric phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Brisse, Herve J.; Madec, Ludovic; Gaboriaud, Genevieve; Lemoine, Thomas; Savignoni, Alexia; Neuenschwander, Sylvia; Aubert, Bernard; Rosenwald, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-15

    Automatic exposure control (AEC) systems have been developed by computed tomography (CT) manufacturers to improve the consistency of image quality among patients and to control the absorbed dose. Since a multichannel helical CT scan may easily increase individual radiation doses, this technical improvement is of special interest in children who are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation, but little information is currently available regarding the precise performance of these systems on small patients. Our objective was to assess an AEC system on pediatric dose phantoms by studying the impact of phantom transmission and acquisition parameters on tube current modulation, on the resulting absorbed dose and on image quality. We used a four-channel CT scan working with a patient-size and z-axis-based AEC system designed to achieve a constant noise within the reconstructed images by automatically adjusting the tube current during acquisition. The study was performed with six cylindrical poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) phantoms of variable diameters (10-32 cm) and one 5 years of age equivalent pediatric anthropomorphic phantom. After a single scan projection radiograph (SPR), helical acquisitions were performed and images were reconstructed with a standard convolution kernel. Tube current modulation was studied with variable SPR settings (tube angle, mA, kVp) and helical parameters (6-20 HU noise indices, 80-140 kVp tube potential, 0.8-4 s. tube rotation time, 5-20 mm x-ray beam thickness, 0.75-1.5 pitch, 1.25-10 mm image thickness, variable acquisition, and reconstruction fields of view). CT dose indices (CTDIvol) were measured, and the image quality criterion used was the standard deviation of the CT number measured in reconstructed images of PMMA material. Observed tube current levels were compared to the expected values from Brooks and Di Chiro's [R.A. Brooks and G.D. Chiro, Med. Phys. 3, 237-240 (1976)] model and calculated values (product of a reference value

  5. Trailer siting issues: BP Texas City.

    PubMed

    Kaszniak, Mark; Holmstrom, Donald

    2008-11-15

    On 23 March, 2005, a series of explosions and fires occurred at the BP Texas City refinery during the startup of an isomerization (ISOM) process unit. Fifteen workers were killed and about 180 others were injured. All of the fatalities were contract workers; the deaths and most of the serious injuries occurred in and around temporary office trailers that had been sited near a blowdown drum and stack open to the atmosphere as part of ongoing turnaround activities in an adjacent unit. Due to problems that developed during the ISOM startup, flammable hydrocarbon liquid overfilled the blowdown drum and stack which resulted in a geyser-like release out the top into the atmosphere. The flammable hydrocarbons fell to the ground releasing vapors that were likely ignited from a nearby idling diesel pickup truck. A total of 44 trailers were damaged by the blast pressure wave that propagated through the refinery when the vapor cloud exploded. Thirteen trailers were totally destroyed and workers were injured in trailers as far as 479ft away from the release. The focus of this paper will be on trailer siting issues, including: need for work/office trailers within process units, adequacy of risk analysis methods in API RP 752, and minimum safe distance requirements PMID:18294765

  6. Medication Adherence and Blood Pressure Control Among Hypertensive Patients With Coexisting Long-Term Conditions in Primary Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu Ting; Wang, Harry H.X.; Liu, Kirin Q.L.; Lee, Gabrielle K.Y.; Chan, Wai Man; Griffiths, Sian M.; Chen, Ruo Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension is a typical example of long-term disease posing formidable challenges to health care. One goal of antihypertensive therapy is to achieve optimal blood pressure (BP) control and reduce co-occurring chronic conditions (multimorbidity). This study aimed to assess the influence of multimorbidity on medication adherence, and to explore the association between poor BP control and multimorbidity, with implications for hypertension management. A cross-sectional design with multistage sampling was adopted to recruit Chinese hypertensive patients attending general out-patient clinics from 3 geographic regions in Hong Kong. A modified systemic sampling methodology with 1 patient as a sampling unit was used to recruit consecutive samples in each general out-patient clinic. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a standardized protocol. Poor BP control was defined as having systolic BP/diastolic BP ≥130/80 mm Hg for those with diabetes or chronic kidney disease; and ≥140/90 mm Hg for others. Medication adherence was assessed by a validated Chinese version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. A simple unweighted enumeration was adopted to measure the combinations of coexisting long-term conditions. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted with medication adherence and multimorbidity as outcome variables, respectively, after controlling for effects of patient-level covariates. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 47.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 45.4%–49.4%) among a total of 2445 hypertensive patients. The proportion of subjects having 0, 1, and ≥2 additional long-term conditions was 52.6%, 29.1%, and 18.3%, respectively. The overall rate of poor adherence to medication was 46.6%, whereas the rate of suboptimal BP control was 48.7%. Albeit the influence of multimorbidity on medication adherence was not found to be statistically significant, patients with poorly controlled BP were more likely to have multimorbidity

  7. A Damage-Independent Role for 53BP1 that Impacts Break Order and Igh Architecture during Class Switch Recombination.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Pedro P; Raviram, Ramya; Fu, Yi; Kim, JungHyun; Luo, Vincent M; Aljoufi, Arafat; Swanzey, Emily; Pasquarella, Alessandra; Balestrini, Alessia; Miraldi, Emily R; Bonneau, Richard; Petrini, John; Schotta, Gunnar; Skok, Jane A

    2016-06-28

    During class switch recombination (CSR), B cells replace the Igh Cμ or δ exons with another downstream constant region exon (CH), altering the antibody isotype. CSR occurs through the introduction of AID-mediated double-strand breaks (DSBs) in switch regions and subsequent ligation of broken ends. Here, we developed an assay to investigate the dynamics of DSB formation in individual cells. We demonstrate that the upstream switch region Sμ is first targeted during recombination and that the mechanism underlying this control relies on 53BP1. Surprisingly, regulation of break order occurs through residual binding of 53BP1 to chromatin before the introduction of damage and independent of its established role in DNA repair. Using chromosome conformation capture, we show that 53BP1 mediates changes in chromatin architecture that affect break order. Finally, our results explain how changes in Igh architecture in the absence of 53BP1 could promote inversional rearrangements that compromise CSR. PMID:27320916

  8. Academic Buoyancy, Student's Achievement, and the Linking Role of Control: A Cross-Lagged Analysis of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Martin, Andrew J.; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Hall, James; Ginns, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated that although academic buoyancy and student's achievement are associated, the relationship is relatively modest. Aims: We sought to determine whether another construct might link academic buoyancy and student's achievement. Based on prior theoretical and empirical work, we examined a sense of…

  9. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-Efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1st through 3rd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin M.; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan N.

    2008-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across 3 years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, S.D. = 0.39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from 1 year prior) and for influences of child's age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and…

  10. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  11. Yarn Quality Prediction Based on Improved BP Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian-Guo; Xiong, Jing-Wei; Xun, Lan

    Aiming at the key quality indexes xbt in spinning processing is caused by many complex and interactions factors. A xbt prediction model is put forward based on the PSO-BP neural network, which adjusts weights of BP neural network using particle swarm optimization (PSO) rather than the traditional gradient descent method, is used to improve the convergence speed of neural network and the ability of getting the global optimal solution. As the object of a large number of field detection data in a spinning workshop, the results show that, compared with the traditional BP algorithm and GA-BP algorithm, the PSO-BP neural network can obvious improve yarn quality prediction model precision and stability.

  12. 53BP1 mediates the fusion of mammalian telomeres rendered dysfunctional by DNA-PKcs loss or inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rybanska-Spaeder, Ivana; Ghosh, Rajib; Franco, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Telomere dysfunction promotes genomic instability and carcinogenesis via inappropriate end-to-end chromosomal rearrangements, or telomere fusions. Previous work indicates that the DNA Damage Response (DDR) factor 53BP1 promotes the fusion of telomeres rendered dysfunctional by loss of TRF2, but is dispensable for the fusion of telomeres lacking Pot1 or critically shortened (in telomerase-deficient mice). Here, we examine a role for 53BP1 at telomeres rendered dysfunctional by loss or catalytic inhibition of DNA-PKcs. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking 53BP1 and/or DNA-PKcs, we show that 53BP1 deficiency suppresses G1-generated telomere fusions that normally accumulate in DNA-PKcs-deficient fibroblasts with passage. Likewise, we find that 53BP1 promotes telomere fusions during the replicative phases of the cell cycle in cells treated with the specific DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7026. However, telomere fusions are not fully abrogated in DNA-PKcs-inhibited 53BP1-deficient cells, but occur with a frequency approximately 10-fold lower than in control 53BP1-proficient cells. Treatment with PARP inhibitors or PARP1 depletion abrogates residual fusions, while Ligase IV depletion has no measurable effect, suggesting that PARP1-dependent alternative end-joining operates at low efficiency at 53BP1-deficient, DNA-PKcs-inhibited telomeres. Finally, we have also examined the requirement for DDR factors ATM, MDC1 or H2AX in this context. We find that ATM loss or inhibition has no measurable effect on the frequency of NU7026-induced fusions in wild-type MEFs. Moreover, analysis of MEFs lacking both ATM and 53BP1 indicates that ATM is also dispensable for telomere fusions via PARP-dependent end-joining. In contrast, loss of either MDC1 or H2AX abrogates telomere fusions in response to DNA-PKcs inhibition, suggesting that these factors operate upstream of both 53BP1-dependent and -independent telomere rejoining. Together, these experiments define a novel requirement for 53BP1 in

  13. Blood Pressure Control with a Single-Pill Combination of Indapamide Sustained-Release and Amlodipine in Patients with Hypertension: The EFFICIENT Study

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Uday; Hiremath, Jagdish; Namjoshi, Deepak J.; Gujral, Vinod K.; Tripathi, Kamlakar K.; Siraj, Mohammad; Shamanna, Paramesh; Safar, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite antihypertensive treatment, most hypertensive patients still have high blood pressure (BP), notably high systolic blood pressure (SBP). The EFFICIENT study examines the efficacy and acceptability of a single-pill combination of sustained-release (SR) indapamide, a thiazide-like diuretic, and amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker (CCB), in the management of hypertension. Methods Patients who were previously uncontrolled on CCB monotherapy (BP≥140/90 mm Hg) or were previously untreated with grade 2 or 3 essential hypertension (BP≥160/100 mm Hg) received a single-pill combination tablet containing indapamide SR 1.5 mg and amlodipine 5 mg daily for 45 days, in this multicenter prospective phase 4 study. The primary outcome was mean change in BP from baseline; percentage of patients achieving BP control (BP<140/90 mm Hg) was a secondary endpoint. SBP reduction (ΔSBP) versus diastolic BP reduction (ΔDBP) was evaluated (ΔSBP/ΔDBP) from baseline to day 45. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Results Mean baseline BP of 196 patients (mean age 52.3 years) was 160.2/97.9 mm Hg. After 45 days, mean SBP decreased by 28.5 mm Hg (95% CI, 26.4 to 30.6), while diastolic BP decreased by 15.6 mm Hg (95% CI, 14.5 to 16.7). BP control (<140/90 mm Hg) was achieved in 85% patients. ΔSBP/ΔDBP was 1.82 in the overall population. Few patients (n = 3 [2%]) reported side effects, and most (n = 194 [99%]) adhered to treatment. Conclusion In patients who were previously uncontrolled on CCB monotherapy or untreated with grade 2 or 3 hypertension, single-pill combination indapamide SR/amlodipine reduced BP effectively—especially SBP— over 45 days, and was safe and well tolerated. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registry – India CTRI/2010/091/000114 PMID:24714044

  14. The structural basis of modified nucleosome recognition by 53BP1.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Marcus D; Benlekbir, Samir; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Sherker, Alana; Julien, Jean-Philippe; McEwan, Andrea; Noordermeer, Sylvie M; Sicheri, Frank; Rubinstein, John L; Durocher, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) elicit a histone modification cascade that controls DNA repair. This pathway involves the sequential ubiquitination of histones H1 and H2A by the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168, respectively. RNF168 ubiquitinates H2A on lysine 13 and lysine 15 (refs 7, 8) (yielding H2AK13ub and H2AK15ub, respectively), an event that triggers the recruitment of 53BP1 (also known as TP53BP1) to chromatin flanking DSBs. 53BP1 binds specifically to H2AK15ub-containing nucleosomes through a peptide segment termed the ubiquitination-dependent recruitment motif (UDR), which requires the simultaneous engagement of histone H4 lysine 20 dimethylation (H4K20me2) by its tandem Tudor domain. How 53BP1 interacts with these two histone marks in the nucleosomal context, how it recognizes ubiquitin, and how it discriminates between H2AK13ub and H2AK15ub is unknown. Here we present the electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a dimerized human 53BP1 fragment bound to a H4K20me2-containing and H2AK15ub-containing nucleosome core particle (NCP-ubme) at 4.5 Å resolution. The structure reveals that H4K20me2 and H2AK15ub recognition involves intimate contacts with multiple nucleosomal elements including the acidic patch. Ubiquitin recognition by 53BP1 is unusual and involves the sandwiching of the UDR segment between ubiquitin and the NCP surface. The selectivity for H2AK15ub is imparted by two arginine fingers in the H2A amino-terminal tail, which straddle the nucleosomal DNA and serve to position ubiquitin over the NCP-bound UDR segment. The structure of the complex between NCP-ubme and 53BP1 reveals the basis of 53BP1 recruitment to DSB sites and illuminates how combinations of histone marks and nucleosomal elements cooperate to produce highly specific chromatin responses, such as those elicited following chromosome breaks. PMID:27462807

  15. Anti-BP180-type mucous membrane pemphigoid immunoglobulin G shows heterogeneity of internalization of BP180/collagen XVII into keratinocyte cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Akiko; Imanishi, Hisayoshi; Hiroyasu, Sho; Ozawa, Toshiyuki; Koga, Hiroshi; Ishii, Norito; Kitajima, Yasuo; Hashimoto, Takashi; Tsuruta, Daisuke

    2016-06-01

    Anti-BP180-type mucous membrane pemphigoid (BP180-MMP) is a rare autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease that targets the C terminus of BP180/collagen XVII. Currently, the pathomechanism of BP180-MMP is not well understood. We reported previously that immunoglobulin G (IgG) from patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP) can induce internalization of BP180 via a macropinocytic pathway, which depletes BP180 and weakens epidermal cell-matrix integrity. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the pathomechanism of BP180-MMP. Immunohistochemistry of biopsy specimens from two patients with BP180-MMP revealed that one patient had BP180 internalization, but the other did not. In live-cell imaging using IgG from patients with BP180-MMP on several keratinocyte cell lines, IgG from only three out of the seven patients was associated with BP180 internalization into the cytoplasm. Our results suggest that IgG from patients with BP180-MMP shows heterogeneity of internalization of BP180. This variability in BP180 internalization in patients with BP or BP180-MMP may lead to differences in clinical presentation. PMID:26658728

  16. [LDL cholesterol control in patients with very high cardiovascular risk. A simplified algorithm for achieving LDL cholesterol goals "in two steps"].

    PubMed

    Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Galve, Enrique; Cordero-Fort, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Reducing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) is the main lipid goal of treatment for patients with very high cardiovascular risk. In these patients the therapeutic goal is to achieve a LDL-c lower than 70 mg/dL, as recommended by the guidelines for cardiovascular prevention commonly used in Spain and Europe. However, the degree of achieving these objectives in this group of patients is very low. This article describes the prevalence of the problem and the causes that motivate it. Recommendations and tools that can facilitate the design of an optimal treatment strategy for achieving the goals are also given. In addition, a new tool with a simple algorithm that can allow these very high risk patients to achieve the goals "in two-steps", i.e., with only two doctor check-ups, is presented. PMID:25048471

  17. Epithelial junction formation requires confinement of Cdc42 activity by a novel SH3BP1 complex

    PubMed Central

    Elbediwy, Ahmed; Zihni, Ceniz; Terry, Stephen J.; Clark, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial cell–cell adhesion and morphogenesis require dynamic control of actin-driven membrane remodeling. The Rho guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Cdc42 regulates sequential molecular processes during cell–cell junction formation; hence, mechanisms must exist that inactivate Cdc42 in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. In this paper, we identify SH3BP1, a GTPase-activating protein for Cdc42 and Rac, as a regulator of junction assembly and epithelial morphogenesis using a functional small interfering ribonucleic acid screen. Depletion of SH3BP1 resulted in loss of spatial control of Cdc42 activity, stalled membrane remodeling, and enhanced growth of filopodia. SH3BP1 formed a complex with JACOP/paracingulin, a junctional adaptor, and CD2AP, a scaffolding protein; both were required for normal Cdc42 signaling and junction formation. The filamentous actin–capping protein CapZ also associated with the SH3BP1 complex and was required for control of actin remodeling. Epithelial junction formation and morphogenesis thus require a dual activity complex, containing SH3BP1 and CapZ, that is recruited to sites of active membrane remodeling to guide Cdc42 signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics. PMID:22891260

  18. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  19. Possible enhancement of BP180 autoantibody production by herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Koji; Aoyama, Yumi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Niwa, Haruo; Horio, Ai; Nishio, Eiichi; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-02-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease caused by autoantibodies against type XVII collagen/BP180 (BP180). Although the mechanisms of autoantibody production remain to be elucidated, herpes virus infections have been identified as a possible triggering factor for pemphigus. We report a case of herpes zoster (HZ) having anti-BP180 serum antibodies. The patient developed sudden-onset, tense blisters and edematous erythema on the right anterior chest, shoulder and upper back. Histopathology showed remarkable degeneration of keratinocytes, acantholysis and blister formation with ballooning cells, indicating herpes virus infection. A polymerase chain reaction analysis of varicella zoster virus (VZV) was positive in crusts and effusions from the skin lesions, confirming the definitive diagnosis of HZ. Notably, we found that the patient had anti-BP180 serum antibodies in association with the occurrence of HZ. After successful treatment with valacyclovir hydrochloride for 7 days, the serum levels of anti-BP180 antibodies decreased in accordance with the improvement of skin lesions. These findings suggest that the production of anti-BP180 antibodies could be triggered by the reactivation of VZV. PMID:26212492

  20. IGF2BP2 Alternative Variants Associated with Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Antibodies Negative Diabetes in Malaysian Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Sameer D.; Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Ismail, Ikram S.; Al-Hamodi, Zaid; Poh, Rozaida; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2012-01-01

    Background The association of Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) common variants (rs4402960 and rs1470579) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been performed in different populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of alternative variants of IGF2BP2; rs6777038, rs16860234 and rs7651090 with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) negative diabetes in Malaysian Subjects. Methods/Principal Findings IGF2BP2; rs6777038, rs16860234 and rs7651090 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1107 GADA negative diabetic patients and 620 control subjects of Asian from Malaysia. The additive genetic model adjusted for age, race, gender and BMI showed that alternative variants; rs6777038, rs16860234 and rs7651090 of IGF2BP2 associated with GADA negative diabetes (OR = 1.21; 1.36; 1.35, P = 0.03; 0.0004; 0.0002, respectively). In addition, the CCG haplotype and diplotype CCG-TCG increased the risk of diabetes (OR = 1.51, P = 0.01; OR = 2.36, P = 0.009, respectively). Conclusions/Significance IGF2BP2 alternative variants were associated with GADA negative diabetes. The IGF2BP2 haplotypes and diplotypes increased the risk of diabetes in Malaysian subject. PMID:23029108

  1. Association of an HLA-G 14-bp Insertion/Deletion polymorphism with high HBV replication in chronic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Laaribi, A B; Zidi, I; Hannachi, N; Ben Yahia, H; Chaouch, H; Bortolotti, D; Zidi, N; Letaief, A; Yacoub, S; Boudabous, A; Rizzo, R; Boukadida, J

    2015-10-01

    Identification of an HLA-G 14-bp Insertion/Deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphism at the 3' untranslated region of HLA-G revealed its importance in HLA-G mRNA stability and HLA-G protein level variation. We evaluated the association between the HLA-G 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism in patients with chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a case-control study. Genomic DNA was extracted from 263 patients with chronic HBV hepatitis and 246 control subjects and was examined for the HLA-G 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism by PCR. The polymorphic variants were genotyped in chronic HBV seropositive cases stratified according to HBV DNA levels, fibrosis stages and in a control population. There was no statistical significant association between the 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism and increased susceptibility to HBV infection neither for alleles (P = 0.09) nor for genotypes (P = 0.18). The stratification of HBV patients based on HBV DNA levels revealed an association between the 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism and an enhanced HBV activity with high HBV DNA levels. In particular, the Ins allele was significantly associated with high HBV DNA levels (P = 0.0024, OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.2-2.4). The genotype Ins/Ins was associated with a 2.5-fold (95% CI, 1.29-4.88) increased risk of susceptibility to high HBV replication compared with the Del/Del and Ins/Del genotypes. This susceptibility is linked to the presence of two Ins alleles. No association was observed between the 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism and fibrosis stage of HBV infection. We observed an association between the 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism and high HBV replication characterized by high HBV DNA levels in chronic HBV patients. These results suggest a potential prognostic value for disease outcome evaluation. PMID:25619305

  2. Quantitative analysis of the interplay between hsc70 and its co-chaperone HspBP1

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, Hicham

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chaperones and their co-factors are components of a cellular network; they collaborate to maintain proteostasis under normal and harmful conditions. In particular, hsp70 family members and their co-chaperones are essential to repair damaged proteins. Co-chaperones are present in different subcellular compartments, where they modulate chaperone activities. Methods and Results. Our studies assessed the relationship between hsc70 and its co-factor HspBP1 in human cancer cells. HspBP1 promotes nucleotide exchange on hsc70, but has also chaperone-independent functions. We characterized the interplay between hsc70 and HspBP1 by quantitative confocal microscopy combined with automated image analyses and statistical evaluation. Stress and the recovery from insult changed significantly the subcellular distribution of hsc70, but had little effect on HspBP1. Single-cell measurements and regression analysis revealed that the links between the chaperone and its co-factor relied on (i) the physiological state of the cell and (ii) the subcellular compartment. As such, we identified a linear relationship and strong correlation between hsc70 and HspBP1 distribution in control and heat-shocked cells; this correlation changed in a compartment-specific fashion during the recovery from stress. Furthermore, we uncovered significant stress-induced changes in the colocalization between hsc70 and HspBP1 in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Discussion. Our quantitative approach defined novel properties of the co-chaperone HspBP1 as they relate to its interplay with hsc70. We propose that changes in cell physiology promote chaperone redistribution and thereby stimulate chaperone-independent functions of HspBP1. PMID:26713263

  3. Structural basis for the sequence-specific RNA-recognition mechanism of human CUG-BP1 RRM3

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Kengo; Kuwasako, Kanako; Takahashi, Mari; Someya, Tatsuhiko; Inoue, Makoto; Terada, Takaho; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Shirouzu, Mikako; Kigawa, Takanori; Tanaka, Akiko; Sugano, Sumio; Güntert, Peter; Muto, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2009-01-01

    The CUG-binding protein 1 (CUG-BP1) is a member of the CUG-BP1 and ETR-like factors (CELF) family or the Bruno-like family and is involved in the control of splicing, translation and mRNA degradation. Several target RNA sequences of CUG-BP1 have been predicted, such as the CUG triplet repeat, the GU-rich sequences and the AU-rich element of nuclear pre-mRNAs and/or cytoplasmic mRNA. CUG-BP1 has three RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs), among which the third RRM (RRM3) can bind to the target RNAs on its own. In this study, we solved the solution structure of the CUG-BP1 RRM3 by hetero-nuclear NMR spectroscopy. The CUG-BP1 RRM3 exhibited a noncanonical RRM fold, with the four-stranded β-sheet surface tightly associated with the N-terminal extension. Furthermore, we determined the solution structure of the CUG-BP1 RRM3 in the complex with (UG)3 RNA, and discovered that the UGU trinucleotide is specifically recognized through extensive stacking interactions and hydrogen bonds within the pocket formed by the β-sheet surface and the N-terminal extension. This study revealed the unique mechanism that enables the CUG-BP1 RRM3 to discriminate the short RNA segment from other sequences, thus providing the molecular basis for the comprehension of the role of the RRM3s in the CELF/Bruno-like family. PMID:19553194

  4. Inhibition of 4E-BP1 Sensitizes U87 Glioblastoma Xenograft Tumors to Irradiation by Decreasing Hypoxia Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, Ludwig; Magagnin, Michael G.; Cleven, Arjen H.G.; Weppler, Sherry A.; Grenacher, Beat; Landuyt, Willy; Lieuwes, Natasja; Lambin, Philippe; Gorr, Thomas A.; Koritzinsky, Marianne

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is an essential rate-limiting factor for cap-dependent translation in eukaryotic cells. Elevated eIF4E activity is common in many human tumors and is associated with disease progression. The growth-promoting effects of eIF4E are in turn negatively regulated by 4E-BP1. However, although 4E-BP1 harbors anti-growth activity, its expression is paradoxically elevated in some tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional role of 4E-BP1 in the context of solid tumors. Methods and Materials: In vitro and in vivo growth properties, hypoxia tolerance, and response to radiation were assessed for HeLa and U87 cells, after stable expression of shRNA specific for 4E-BP1. Results: We found that loss of 4E-BP1 expression did not significantly alter in vitro growth but did accelerate the growth of U87 tumor xenografts, consistent with the growth-promoting function of deregulated eIF4E. However, cells lacking 4E-BP1 were significantly more sensitive to hypoxia-induced cell death in vitro. Furthermore, 4E-BP1 knockdown cells produced tumors more sensitive to radiation because of a reduction in the viable fraction of radioresistant hypoxic cells. Decreased hypoxia tolerance in the 4E-BP1 knockdown tumors was evident by increased cleaved caspase-3 levels and was associated with a reduction in adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Conclusions: Our results suggest that although tumors often demonstrate increases in cap-dependent translation, regulation of this activity is required to facilitate energy conservation, hypoxia tolerance, and tumor radioresistance. Furthermore, we suggest that targeting translational control may be an effective way to target hypoxic cells and radioresistance in metabolically hyperactive tumors.

  5. Emphasized warning reduces salt intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pinjuh Markota, Nina; Rumboldt, Mirjana; Rumboldt, Zvonko

    2015-03-01

    Excessive salt intake is a major cardiovascular risk factor. At variance to the developed countries, the main source of sodium in transitional and developing countries is salt added while cooking and/or at the table. The objective of this trial was to examine the impact of warning labels placed on home salt containers on daily salt intake.A sample of treated hypertensives (n = 150) was randomized in two subgroups, one receiving just a leaflet about the harmful effects of excessive salt intake (control; n = 74), and the other one receiving in addition warning stickers for household salt containers (intervention; n = 76). Arterial blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (Na24) were measured in all the subjects at the start of the trial, and 1 month and 2 months later. The average starting Na24 was 207 ± 71 mmol in the control group and 211 ± 85 mmol in the intervention group (P = .745). One month and 2 months later, a significant decrease was observed in the intervention group (to 183 ± 63 mmol and 176 ± 55 mmol; P < .0001), as opposed to the control group (203 ± 60 mmol and 200 ± 58 mmol; P = .1466). Initial BP was 143.7/84.1 mm Hg in the control, and 142.9/84.7 mm Hg in the intervention group (P = .667). One month and 2 months later, a significant drop in BP, by 5.3/2.9 mm Hg, was observed in the intervention group as opposed to the control group (0.4/0.9 mm Hg). Decrease in Na24 positively correlated to BP lowering (r(2) = 0.5989; P < .0001). A significant reduction in 24Na and BP is achieved with warning labels on harmful effects of excessive salt intake. Decreasing daily salt input by 35 mmol may result in an extra BP lowering by some 5-6/2-3 mm Hg. PMID:25659228

  6. WWC Review of the Report "Learning the Control of Variables Strategy in Higher and Lower Achieving Classrooms: Contributions of Explicit Instruction and Experimentation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper examined three separate methods for teaching the "control of variables strategy" ("CVS"), a procedure for conducting a science experiment so that only one variable is tested and all others are held constant, or "controlled." The study analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial of 848 fourth-grade students in…

  7. Medication Adherence and Blood Pressure Control Among Hypertensive Patients With Coexisting Long-Term Conditions in Primary Care Settings: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu Ting; Wang, Harry H X; Liu, Kirin Q L; Lee, Gabrielle K Y; Chan, Wai Man; Griffiths, Sian M; Chen, Ruo Ling

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension is a typical example of long-term disease posing formidable challenges to health care. One goal of antihypertensive therapy is to achieve optimal blood pressure (BP) control and reduce co-occurring chronic conditions (multimorbidity). This study aimed to assess the influence of multimorbidity on medication adherence, and to explore the association between poor BP control and multimorbidity, with implications for hypertension management.A cross-sectional design with multistage sampling was adopted to recruit Chinese hypertensive patients attending general out-patient clinics from 3 geographic regions in Hong Kong. A modified systemic sampling methodology with 1 patient as a sampling unit was used to recruit consecutive samples in each general out-patient clinic. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a standardized protocol. Poor BP control was defined as having systolic BP/diastolic BP ≥130/80 mm Hg for those with diabetes or chronic kidney disease; and ≥140/90 mm Hg for others. Medication adherence was assessed by a validated Chinese version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. A simple unweighted enumeration was adopted to measure the combinations of coexisting long-term conditions. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted with medication adherence and multimorbidity as outcome variables, respectively, after controlling for effects of patient-level covariates.The prevalence of multimorbidity was 47.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 45.4%-49.4%) among a total of 2445 hypertensive patients. The proportion of subjects having 0, 1, and ≥2 additional long-term conditions was 52.6%, 29.1%, and 18.3%, respectively. The overall rate of poor adherence to medication was 46.6%, whereas the rate of suboptimal BP control was 48.7%. Albeit the influence of multimorbidity on medication adherence was not found to be statistically significant, patients with poorly controlled BP were more likely to have multimorbidity (adjusted

  8. Methanococcus vannielii selenium-binding protein (SeBP): Chemical reactivity of recombinant SeBP produced in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Patteson, Kemberly G.; Trivedi, Neel; Stadtman, Thressa C.

    2005-01-01

    A selenium-binding protein (SeBP) from Methanococcus vannielii was recently identified, and its gene was isolated and overexpressed in Escherichia coli [Self, W. T., Pierce, R. & Stadtman, T. C. (2004) IUBMB Life 56, 501–507]. SeBP and recombinant SeBP (rSeBP) migrated as ≈42-kDa species on native gels and as ≈33-kDa species on SDS gels. rSeBP consists of identical 8.8-kDa subunits, each containing a single cysteine residue. rSeBP isolated in the absence of reducing agents contained oxidized cysteine (89%) and very little bound selenium (0.05 eq or less per subunit). Complete reduction of the oxidized cysteine residues in rSeBP with Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine required addition of a denaturant, such as 1 M guanidine-hydrochloride. With selenite as the selenium source and the isolated reduced protein as sole reductant, binding of one selenium per tetramer under anaerobic conditions required four cysteine thiol groups, one on each subunit. In the corresponding reaction, with reduced glutathione (GSH), equimolar amounts of selenodiglutathione (GSSeSG) and glutathione disulfide are formed from selenite and 4 GSH. At GSH-to-selenite ratios >4:1, conversion of GSSeSG to a perselenide derivative, GSSe–, occurs. However, with the reduced rSeBP as sole electron donor in the reaction with selenite, further conversion of the R-SSeS-R product apparently did not occur. Prior alkylation of the cysteine thiol groups in reduced rSeBP prevented selenite reduction and selenium binding under comparable conditions. PMID:16103372

  9. Challenges facing the elimination of sleeping sickness in west and central Africa: sustainable control of animal trypanosomiasis as an indispensable approach to achieve the goal.

    PubMed

    Simo, Gustave; Rayaisse, Jean Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    African trypanosomiases are infectious diseases caused by trypanosomes. African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) remains an important threat for livestock production in some affected areas whereas human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is targeted for elimination in 2020. In West and Central Africa, it has been shown that the parasites causing these diseases can coexist in the same tsetse fly or the same animal. In such complex settings, the control of these diseases must be put in the general context of trypanosomiasis control or "one health" concept where the coordination of control operations will be beneficial for both diseases. In this context, implementing control activities on AAT will help to sustain HAT control. It will also have a positive impact on animal health and economic development of the regions. The training of inhabitants on how to implement and sustain vector control tools will enable a long-term sustainability of control operations that will lead to the elimination of HAT and AAT. PMID:26671582

  10. Evaluation of the Specificity of BP3385 for Bordetella pertussis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BP3385 has been proposed as a diagnostic PCR target for discriminating between Bordetella pertussis and other Bordetella species that also infect humans. Our results demonstrate this gene is also present in some strains of Bordetella hinzii and Bordetella bronchiseptica....

  11. Using Learner Controlled Progress-Based Rewards to Promote Motivation and Achievement of At-Risk Students in Managed Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Carlton A.

    2011-01-01

    Technology enhancements of the past two decades have not successfully overcome the problem of low motivation in Kindergarten through Grade 12 (K-12). Motivation and math achievement have been identified as major factors contributing to the high school dropout problem (30-50% in traditional/online programs). The impact of extrinsic rewards on…

  12. The Relationship of Intelligence, Self-Concept and Locus of Control to School Achievement for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Marilyn M.; Parker, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    To examine variables related to the school achievement of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students, 35 indigenous students and 58 non-Aboriginals in grade 8 completed a Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Intellectual Responsibility Questionnaire. (Author/SBH)

  13. Rasputin, more promiscuous than ever: a review of G3BP.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Katharine; Stirling, Renee; Hume, David; Kennedy, Derek

    2004-12-01

    In this review, we highlight what G3BP's domain structure initially suggested; that G3BPs are "scaffolding" proteins linking signal transduction to RNA metabolism. Whilst it is most attractive to hypothesise about G3BP's role in signalling to mRNA metabolism, it is not known whether all G3BP functions impinge on their RNA-binding activities, so any theories are naturally subject to this qualification. It is hypothesised that, in coordination with an array of other proteins, G3BP, in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, is involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of a subset of mRNAs, at least some of which are in common with those regulated by Hu proteins. These transcripts, partially controlled at the post-transcriptional level by G3BPs, code for proteins important in transcription (e.g. c-Myc) and cytoskeletal arrangement (e.g. Tau), amongst other as yet undetermined pathways. The subtle differences between G3BP family members could dictate binding to a variety of signalling proteins, so each of the G3BPs may participate in different, though possibly related mRNPs, which are assembled in response to different stimuli. The combinatorial nature of the mRNP complex offers a powerful means of regulating gene expression, beyond that provided by a simple mRNA sequence. The ways in which mRNP flexibility and specificity may be harnessed to coordinate gene expression of functionally or structurally related mRNAs are not yet fully appreciated. Characterising mRNP composition and the function/s of mRNP components, such as the G3BPs, will aid in the understanding of how post-transcriptional mechanisms contribute to the global regulation of gene expression. PMID:15602692

  14. TBL1 and TBLR1 Phosphorylation on Regulated Gene Promoters Overcomes Dual CtBP and NCoR/SMRT Transcriptional Repression Checkpoints

    PubMed Central

    Perissi, Valentina; Scafoglio, Claudio; Zhang, Jie; Ohgi, Kenneth A.; Rose, David W.; Glass, Christopher K.; Rosenfeld, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    A key strategy to achieve regulated gene expression in higher eukaryotes is to prevent illegitimate signal-independent activation by imposing robust control on the dismissal of corepressors. Here, we report that many signaling pathways, including Notch, NFkB, and nuclear receptor ligands, are subjected to a dual repression “check point” based on distinct corepressor complexes. Gene activation requires the release of both CtBP1/2- and NCoR/SMRT-dependent repression, through the coordinate action of two highly related exchange factors, the transducer β-like proteins TBL1 and TBLR1, that license ubiquitylation and degradation of CtBP1/2 and NCoR/SMRT, respectively. Intriguingly, their function and differential specificity resides in only five specific Ser/Thr phosphorylation site differences, regulated by direct phosphorylation at the level of the promoter, as exemplified by the role of PKCδ in TBLR1-dependent dismissal of NCoR. Thus, our data reveal a strategy of dual- factors repression checkpoints, in which dedicated exchange factors serve as sensors for signal- specific dismissal of distinct corepressors, with specificity imposed by upstream signaling pathways. PMID:18374649

  15. Bp'S Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline: the new corporate colonialism.

    PubMed

    Marriott, James; Muttitt, Greg

    2006-01-01

    An international campaign was waged questioning the benefits of BP's Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in an effort to avoid a "zone of sacrifice" there. This article is an offshoot of that effort and explains the contemporary struggle over the pipeline project. The authors describe the project's background and evaluate the actual and potential impacts of the project in which they consider eight areas. They also assess BP's capacity to confront resistance to the pipeline. PMID:16867890

  16. The Influence of Science Process Skills, Logical Thinking Abilities, Attitudes towards Science, and Locus of Control on Science Achievement among Form 4 Students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fah, Lay Yoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of science process skills, logical thinking abilities, attitudes towards science, and locus of control on science achievement among Form 4 students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia. Research findings showed that there were low to moderate, positive but significant…

  17. Impact of a Social-Emotional and Character Development Program on School-Level Indicators of Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, and Disciplinary Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled design. The "Positive Action" Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (M…

  18. WWC Review of the Report "Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the 2014 report, "Closing the Achievement Gap Through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten," researchers examined the impacts of "Tools of the Mind" on cognitive and academic…

  19. Black Phosphorus (BP) Nanodots for Potential Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Uk; Park, So Young; Lee, Soon Chang; Choi, Saehae; Seo, Soonjoo; Kim, Hyeran; Won, Jonghan; Choi, Kyuseok; Kang, Kyoung Suk; Park, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Hee-Sik; An, Ha Rim; Jeong, Kwang-Hun; Lee, Young-Chul; Lee, Jouhahn

    2016-01-13

    Recently, the appeal of 2D black phosphorus (BP) has been rising due to its unique optical and electronic properties with a tunable band gap (≈0.3-1.5 eV). While numerous research efforts have recently been devoted to nano- and optoelectronic applications of BP, no attention has been paid to promising medical applications. In this article, the preparation of BP-nanodots of a few nm to <20 nm with an average diameter of ≈10 nm and height of ≈8.7 nm is reported by a modified ultrasonication-assisted solution method. Stable formation of nontoxic phosphates and phosphonates from BP crystals with exposure in water or air is observed. As for the BP-nanodot crystals' stability (ionization and persistence of fluorescent intensity) in aqueous solution, after 10 d, ≈80% at 1.5 mg mL(-1) are degraded (i.e., ionized) in phosphate buffered saline. They showed no or little cytotoxic cell-viability effects in vitro involving blue- and green-fluorescence cell imaging. Thus, BP-nanodots can be considered a promising agent for drug delivery or cellular tracking systems. PMID:26584654

  20. Telemonitoring and Protocolized Case Management for Hypertensive Community-Dwelling Seniors With Diabetes: Protocol of the TECHNOMED Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, Finlay Aleck; Wood, Peter William; Boulanger, Pierre; Fradette, Miriam; Klarenbach, Scott; Edwards, Alun L; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna M; Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram; Rabi, Doreen; Majumdar, Sumit Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes and hypertension are devastating, deadly, and costly conditions that are very common in seniors. Controlling hypertension in seniors with diabetes dramatically reduces hypertension-related complications. However, blood pressure (BP) must be lowered carefully because seniors are also susceptible to low BP and attendant harms. Achieving “optimal BP control” (ie, avoiding both undertreatment and overtreatment) is the ultimate therapeutic goal in such patients. Regular BP monitoring is required to achieve this goal. BP monitoring at home is cheap, convenient, widely used, and guideline endorsed. However, major barriers prevent proper use. These may be overcome through use of BP telemonitoring—the secure teletransmission of BP readings to a health portal, where BP data are summarized for provider and patient use, with or without protocolized case management. Objective To examine the incremental effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness, usability, and acceptability of home BP telemonitoring, used with or without protocolized case management, compared with “enhanced usual care” in community-dwelling seniors with diabetes and hypertension. Methods A 300-patient, 3-arm, pragmatic randomized controlled trial with blinded outcome ascertainment will be performed in seniors with diabetes and hypertension living independently in seniors’ residences in greater Edmonton. Consenting patients will be randomized to usual care, home BP telemonitoring alone, or home BP telemonitoring plus protocolized pharmacist case management. Usual care subjects will receive a home BP monitor but neither they nor their providers will have access to teletransmitted data. In both telemonitored arms, providers will receive telemonitored BP data summaries. In the case management arm, pharmacist case managers will be responsible for reviewing teletransmitted data and initiating guideline-concordant and protocolized changes in BP management. Results Outcomes will be

  1. Speech recognition method based on genetic vector quantization and BP neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li'ai; Li, Lihua; Zhou, Jian; Zhao, Qiuxia

    2009-07-01

    Vector Quantization is one of popular codebook design methods for speech recognition at present. In the process of codebook design, traditional LBG algorithm owns the advantage of fast convergence, but it is easy to get the local optimal result and be influenced by initial codebook. According to the understanding that Genetic Algorithm has the capability of getting the global optimal result, this paper proposes a hybrid clustering method GA-L based on Genetic Algorithm and LBG algorithm to improve the codebook.. Then using genetic neural networks for speech recognition. consequently search a global optimization codebook of the training vector space. The experiments show that neural network identification method based on genetic algorithm can extricate from its local maximum value and the initial restrictions, it can show superior to the standard genetic algorithm and BP neural network algorithm from various sources, and the genetic BP neural networks has a higher recognition rate and the unique application advantages than the general BP neural network in the same GA-VQ codebook, it can achieve a win-win situation in the time and efficiency.

  2. A Rapid, Cost-Effective Method of Assembly and Purification of Synthetic DNA Probes >100 bp

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Michael A.; Jauregui, Lauren; Davis, Ronald W.

    2012-01-01

    Here we introduce a rapid, cost-effective method of generating molecular DNA probes in just under 15 minutes without the need for expensive, time-consuming gel-extraction steps. As an example, we enzymatically concatenated six variable strands (50 bp) with a common strand sequence (51 bp) in a single pool using Fast-Link DNA ligase to produce 101 bp targets (10 min). Unincorporated species were then filtered out by passing the crude reaction through a size-exclusion column (<5 min). We then compared full-length product yield of crude and purified samples using HPLC analysis; the results of which clearly show our method yields three-quarters that of the crude sample (50% higher than by gel-extraction). And while we substantially reduced the amount of unligated product with our filtration process, higher purity and yield, with an increase in number of stands per reaction (>12) could be achieved with further optimization. Moreover, for large-scale assays, we envision this method to be fully automated with the use of robotics such as the Biomek FX; here, potentially thousands of samples could be pooled, ligated and purified in either a 96, 384 or 1536-well platform in just minutes. PMID:22493688

  3. Tailoring mass drug administration to context: implementation research is critical in achieving equitable progress in the control and elimination of helminth neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Dean, Laura; Page, Samantha; Hawkins, Kate; Stothard, Russell; Thomson, Rachael; Wanji, Samuel; Gyapong, Margaret; Anagbogu, Ifeoma; Molyneux, David; Theobald, Sally

    2016-07-01

    The concept of a technological quick fix or 'magic-bullet' for control and elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) is flawed. NTDs are embedded within complex biological and social systems that are shaped by ecological and political contexts. This commentary emphasises the need for implementation research to address implementation gaps in the control of NTDs. With a specific focus on sub-Saharan Africa and helminth diseases amenable to preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration, we explore the important role of context, programme partnerships and community in achieving equitable and effective NTD control. PMID:27481833

  4. Achieving fertility control through woman’s autonomy and access to maternal healthcare: Are we on track? In-depth analysis of PDHS-2012-13

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sehar-un-Nisa; Siddiqui, Salma; Mahmood, Ayeshah

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Fertility control preferences and maternal healthcare have recently become a major concern for developing nations with evidence suggesting that low fertility control rates and poor maternal healthcare are among major obstructions in ensuring health and social status for women. Our objective was toanalyze the factors that influence women’s autonomy, access to maternal healthcare, and fertility control preferences in Pakistan. Methods: Data consisted of 11,761 ever-married women of ages 15-49 years from PDHS, 2012-13. Variables included socio-demographics, women’s autonomy, fertility control preferences and access to maternal healthcare. Results: Findings from multivariate analysis showed that women’s younger age, having less than three number of children and independent or joint decision-making (indicators of high autonomy) remained the most significant predictors for access to better quality maternal healthcare and better fertility control preferences when other variables were controlled. Conclusion: Women’s access to good quality maternal health care and fertility control preferences are directly and indirectly influenced by their demographic characteristics and decision-making patterns in domestic affairs. PMID:26870096

  5. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Eu2+ and Eu3+ Doped SrBP Phosphors Prepared by Using a Co-precipitation Method for White Light-Emitting Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien Ha, Le; Kien, Nguyen Duc Trung; Hoang, Phan Huy; Duong, Thanh Tung; Huy, Pham Thanh

    2016-07-01

    The Eu3+ and Eu2+-doped SrBP phosphor powders were synthesized via the co-precipitation method and subsequent reduction of the dopants in N2/H2 gas for application in white light-emitting devices (WLED). The as-prepared powders were annealed at a temperature range of 600°C to 1300°C in air ambient to form Eu3+-doped phosphors with an average particle size in the range of 100 nm to 1 μm. The phosphors were then reduced in the forming gas (90%N2:10%H2) to achieve Eu2+-doped phosphors. It has been found that typical phases of Sr6P5BO20, Sr2P2O7, and Sr3(PO4)2 co-exist in the as-prepared powders. The strong and narrow orange-red emission from 570 nm to 700 nm in the photoluminescence spectra (PL) of the SrBP:Eu3+ phosphors are attributed to the 5D0 → 7Fj transitions of Eu3+ ion (where j gets the value of 1 to 6). In contrast, the broad luminescence band of the SrBP:Eu2+ phosphors in the range of 400 nm to 500 nm are attributed to the 5d- 4f transitions of Eu2+ ion in the same host crystal. The Eu3+/Eu2+-doped SrBP phosphors are considered to be promising phosphors for WLED. The co-precipitation method is simple and rapid, but allows for the controlling of particle size and composition with ease.

  6. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Eu2+ and Eu3+ Doped SrBP Phosphors Prepared by Using a Co-precipitation Method for White Light-Emitting Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien Ha, Le; Kien, Nguyen Duc Trung; Hoang, Phan Huy; Duong, Thanh Tung; Huy, Pham Thanh

    2016-04-01

    The Eu3+ and Eu2+-doped SrBP phosphor powders were synthesized via the co-precipitation method and subsequent reduction of the dopants in N2/H2 gas for application in white light-emitting devices (WLED). The as-prepared powders were annealed at a temperature range of 600°C to 1300°C in air ambient to form Eu3+-doped phosphors with an average particle size in the range of 100 nm to 1 μm. The phosphors were then reduced in the forming gas (90%N2:10%H2) to achieve Eu2+-doped phosphors. It has been found that typical phases of Sr6P5BO20, Sr2P2O7, and Sr3(PO4)2 co-exist in the as-prepared powders. The strong and narrow orange-red emission from 570 nm to 700 nm in the photoluminescence spectra (PL) of the SrBP:Eu3+ phosphors are attributed to the 5D0 → 7Fj transitions of Eu3+ ion (where j gets the value of 1 to 6). In contrast, the broad luminescence band of the SrBP:Eu2+ phosphors in the range of 400 nm to 500 nm are attributed to the 5d-4f transitions of Eu2+ ion in the same host crystal. The Eu3+/Eu2+-doped SrBP phosphors are considered to be promising phosphors for WLED. The co-precipitation method is simple and rapid, but allows for the controlling of particle size and composition with ease.

  7. Achievement of the World Bank loan project on schistosomiasis control (1992-2000) in Hubei province and the challenge in the future.

    PubMed

    Changsong, Sun; Binggui, Yu; Hongyi, Liao; Yuhai, Dai; Xu, Xingjian; Huiguo, Zhu; Yong, Jiang

    2002-05-01

    Since the World Bank provided a loan for control of schistosomiasis in China, started from 1992, with the objective of a reduction of prevalence and intensity of the infection both in humans and animals by 40%, through mass chemotherapy in areas of high prevalence, and selective chemotherapy in areas with medium and low endemicity together with focal mollusciciding, the objective of morbidity control of the project has been reached in Hubei Province. PMID:12020889

  8. Hydrogen generation in CSP plants and maintenance of DPO/BP heat transfer fluids - A simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckelkorn, Thomas; Jung, Christian; Gnädig, Tim; Lang, Christoph; Schall, Christina

    2016-05-01

    The ageing of diphenyl oxide/ biphenyl (DPO/BP) Heat Transfer Fluids (HTFs) implies challenging tasks for operators of parabolic trough power plants in order to find the economic optimum between plant performance and O&M costs. Focusing on the generation of hydrogen, which is effecting from the HTF ageing process, the balance of hydrogen pressure in the HTF is simulated for different operation scenarios. Accelerated build-up of hydrogen pressure in the HTF is causing increased permeation into the annular vacuum space of the installed receivers and must be avoided in order to maintain the performance of these components. Therefore, the effective hydrogen partial pressure in the HTF has to be controlled and limited according to the specified values so that the vacuum lifetime of the receivers and the overall plant performance can be ensured. In order to simulate and visualize the hydrogen balance of a typical parabolic trough plant, initially a simple model is used to calculate the balance of hydrogen in the system and this is described. As input data for the simulation, extrapolated hydrogen generation rates have been used, which were calculated from results of lab tests performed by DLR in Cologne, Germany. Hourly weather data, surface temperatures of the tubing system calculated by using the simulation tool from NREL, and hydrogen permeation rates for stainless steel and carbon steel grades taken from literature have been added to the model. In a first step the effect of HTF ageing, build-up of hydrogen pressure in the HTF and hydrogen loss rates through piping and receiver components have been modeled. In a second step a selective hydrogen removal process has been added to the model. The simulation results are confirming the need of active monitoring and controlling the effective hydrogen partial pressure in parabolic trough solar thermal power plants with DPO/BP HTF. Following the results of the simulation, the expected plant performance can only be achieved

  9. Mechanisms Directing the Nuclear Localization of the CtBP Family Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Verger, Alexis; Quinlan, Kate G. R.; Crofts, Linda A.; Spanò, Stefania; Corda, Daniela; Kable, Eleanor P. W.; Braet, Filip; Crossley, Merlin

    2006-01-01

    The C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) family includes four proteins (CtBP1 [CtBP1-L], CtBP3/BARS [CtBP1-S], CtBP2, and RIBEYE) which are implicated both in transcriptional repression and in intracellular trafficking. However, the precise mechanisms by which different CtBP proteins are targeted to different subcellular regions remains unknown. Here, we report that the nuclear import of the various CtBP proteins and splice isoforms is differentially regulated. We show that CtBP2 contains a unique nuclear localization signal (NLS) located within its N-terminal region, which contributes to its nuclear accumulation. Using heterokaryon assays, we show that CtBP2 is capable of shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell. Moreover, CtBP2 can heterodimerize with CtBP1-L and CtBP1-S and direct them to the nucleus. This effect strongly depends on the CtBP2 NLS. PXDLS motif-containing transcription factors, such as BKLF, that bind CtBP proteins can also direct them to the nucleus. We also report the identification of a splice isoform of CtBP2, CtBP2-S, that lacks the N-terminal NLS and localizes to the cytoplasm. Finally, we show that mutation of the CtBP NADH binding site impairs the ability of the proteins to dimerize and to associate with BKLF. This reduces the nuclear accumulation of CtBP1. Our results suggest a model in which the nuclear localization of CtBP proteins is influenced by the CtBP2 NLS, by binding to PXDLS motif partner proteins, and through the effect of NADH on CtBP dimerization. PMID:16782877

  10. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  11. Efficacy and safety of irbesartan/HCTZ combination therapy as initial treatment for rapid control of severe hypertension.

    PubMed

    Neutel, Joel M; Franklin, Stanley S; Oparil, Suzanne; Bhaumik, Amitabha; Ptaszynska, Agata; Lapuerta, Pablo

    2006-12-01

    Severe hypertension is difficult to control. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, multicenter trial compared efficacy and safety of once-daily irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination therapy with irbesartan monotherapy in severe hypertension. Patients who were untreated or uncontrolled on monotherapy (seated diastolic blood pressure [BP] > or =110 mm Hg) received fixed-dose irbesartan 150 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg combination therapy for 7 weeks, force-titrated to irbesartan 300 mg/HCTZ 25 mg at week 1 (n=468); or irbesartan 150 mg monotherapy, force-titrated to 300 mg at week 1 (n=269). Significantly more patients on combination therapy achieved seated diastolic BP <90 mm Hg at week 5 (primary end point) compared with monotherapy recipients (47.2% vs 33.2%; P=.0005). Likewise, significantly more patients attained goals per the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) (<140/90 mm Hg) at week 5 (34.6% vs 19.2%, respectively; P<.0001), while the mean difference between combination and monotherapy in seated diastolic BP and seated systolic BP was 4.7 mm Hg and 9.7 mm Hg (P<.0001). Greater and more rapid BP reduction with irbesartan/HCTZ was achieved without additional side effects. PMID:17170610

  12. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  13. Research and Development Work Carried out by the Chair of Engineering Geodesy and Measurement and Control Systems, Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography WUT - Thematic Scope and Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Edward; Malarski, Ryszard; Prószyński, Witold; Sadowska, Alicja; Woźniak, Marek; Zaczek-Peplinska, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Geodetic engineering surveys are an important part of the works carried out by the Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw University of Technology. These works concern measurement techniques as well as advanced result analysis methods applied in precise industrial surveys and in processes controlling object's behaviour over time. The thematic scope of research realised by Chair of Engineering Geodesy and Control-Measuring Systems shows that article related to geodetic engineering measurements and geodetic monitoring is carried out with high intensity, resulting in technological advancement and implementation of new or improved measurement solutions and methods of measurement result development.

  14. BP and Vascular Function Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Chapman, Justin; Xue, Hong; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Roullet, Jean-Baptiste; Phanouvong, Thongchanh; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Otsuka, Keiichi; McCarron, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Blood pressure and mesenteric resistance artery function were assessed in 9-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats following an 18 day shuttle flight on STS-80. Blood pressure was measured twice, first in conscious animals using a tail-cuff method and then while the animals were anesthetized with 2% halothane in O2. Isolated mesenteric resistance artery responses to cumulative additions of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and calcium were measured within 17 hours of landing using wire myography. Blood pressure was slightly reduced in conscious animals following flight (p=0.056) but was significantly elevated (p less than.001) above vivarium control group values in anesthetized animals. Maximal contraction of mesenteric arteries to norepinephrine was attenuated in the flight animals (p less than.001)aswasrelaxationtoacetylcholine(p less than .001)andcalcium(p less than .05). There was no difference between flight and control animals in the vessel response to sodium nitroprusside (p greater than .05). The results suggest that there may have been an increase in synthesis and release of nitric oxide in the flight animals.

  15. Overexpression of oxytocin receptors in the hypothalamic PVN increases baroreceptor reflex sensitivity and buffers BP variability in conscious rats

    PubMed Central

    Lozić, Maja; Greenwood, Michael; Šarenac, Olivera; Martin, Andrew; Hindmarch, Charles; Tasić, Tatjana; Paton, Julian; Murphy, David; Japundžić-Žigon, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is an important integrative site for neuroendocrine control of the circulation. We investigated the role of oxytocin receptors (OT receptors) in PVN in cardiovascular homeostasis. Experimental Approach Experiments were performed in conscious male Wistar rats equipped with a radiotelemetric device. The PVN was unilaterally co-transfected with an adenoviral vector (Ad), engineered to overexpress OT receptors, and an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) tag. Control groups: PVN was transfected with an Ad expressing eGFP alone or untransfected, sham rats (Wt). Recordings were obtained without and with selective blockade of OT receptors (OTX), during both baseline and stressful conditions. Baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) and cardiovascular short-term variability were evaluated using the sequence method and spectral methodology respectively. Key Results Under baseline conditions, rats overexpressing OT receptors (OTR) exhibited enhanced BRS and reduced BP variability compared to control groups. Exposure to stress increased BP, BP variability and HR in all rats. In control groups, but not in OTR rats, BRS decreased during stress. Pretreatment of OTR rats with OTX reduced BRS and enhanced BP and HR variability under baseline and stressful conditions. Pretreatment of Wt rats with OTX, reduced BRS and increased BP variability under baseline and stressful conditions, but only increased HR variability during stress. Conclusions and Implications OT receptors in PVN are involved in tonic neural control of BRS and cardiovascular short-term variability. The failure of this mechanism could critically contribute to the loss of autonomic control in cardiovascular disease. PMID:24834854

  16. Quasi-experimental nonequivalent (pretest and posttest) control-group study of the effects of microcomputer-based laboratory systems on academic achievement in high school chemistry students at two South Carolina high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venables, Jeffrey M.

    The literature on microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) lacks quantitative studies that measure the effect of MBL on student achievement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of MBL systems on the achievement of high school chemistry students. The first research question examined the effect of MBL systems on student achievement in high school chemistry laboratories. The second question analyzed the effect of MBL systems on the academic achievement of students of different genders, ethnicities, and socioeconomic backgrounds. This quasi-experimental quantitative research study evaluated the effects of MBL on student achievement in high school chemistry. The sample consisted of 124 college preparatory chemistry students at two high schools in a South Carolina school district. There were 42 participants in the experimental group and 82 participants in the control group. Both experimental and groups completed a pre- and post-test with MBL being the independent variable. The mean difference score for the experimental group was compared to that of the control group using an independent-measures t test and an analysis of variance. For the second research question, results were analyzed using a two-factor analysis of variance. Participant scores were broken down by gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status in order to identify potential differences. The results revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control groups, and no significant differences in effects of MBL on different segments of the population. Future studies should examine students using MBL for longer durations than one unit of study. As society continues to make technological advances, the effective assessment and implementation of technology resources for the classroom are becoming increasingly important.

  17. Rapid Copper Metallization of Textile Materials: a Controlled Two-Step Route to Achieve User-Defined Patterns under Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Guan, Guijian; Jiang, Shan; Guo, Hongchen; Xia, Jing; Regulacio, Michelle D; Wu, Mingda; Shah, Kwok Wei; Dong, Zhili; Zhang, Jie; Han, Ming-Yong

    2015-09-30

    Throughout history earth-abundant copper has been incorporated into textiles and it still caters to various needs in modern society. In this paper, we present a two-step copper metallization strategy to realize sequentially nondiffusive copper(II) patterning and rapid copper deposition on various textile materials, including cotton, polyester, nylon, and their mixtures. A new, cost-effective formulation is designed to minimize the copper pattern migration on textiles and to achieve user-defined copper patterns. The metallized copper is found to be very adhesive and stable against washing and oxidation. Furthermore, the copper-metallized textile exhibits excellent electrical conductivity that is ~3 times better than that of stainless steel and also inhibits the growth of bacteria effectively. This new copper metallization approach holds great promise as a commercially viable method to metallize an insulating textile, opening up research avenues for wearable electronics and functional garments. PMID:26361094

  18. Achievement of Low Emissions by Engine Modification to Utilize Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Advanced Emission Controls on a Class 8 Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, T. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Barton, G.; Rumminger, M.; Duggal, V.; Nelson, C.; Ray, M.; Cherrillo, R. A.

    2005-11-01

    A 2002 Cummins ISM engine was modified to be optimized for operation on gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and advanced emission control devices. The engine modifications included increased exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), decreased compression ratio, and reshaped piston and bowl configuration.

  19. Effects of Learning Approaches, Locus of Control, Socio-Economic Status and Self-Efficacy on Academic Achievement: A Turkish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suphi, Nilgun; Yaratan, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…

  20. Technical Problem Solving among 10-Year-Old Students as Related to Science Achievement, Out-of-School Experience, Domain-Specific Control Beliefs, and Attribution Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumert, Jurgen; Evans, Robert H.; Geiser, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    Ten-year-old students (n=531) from the U.S. and Germany were studied to determine the relationships between everyday experience, domain-specific control beliefs, acquisition of science knowledge, and solving of everyday technical problems. A causal model, developed and tested through structural equation modeling, showed that domain-specific…

  1. Scotopic sensitivity/Irlen syndrome and the use of coloured filters: a long-term placebo controlled and masked study of reading achievement and perception of ability.

    PubMed

    Robinson, G L; Foreman, P J

    1999-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of using coloured filters on reading speed, accuracy, and comprehension as well as on perception of academic ability. A double-masked, placebo-controlled crossover design was used, with subjects being assessed over a period of 20 mo. There were three treatment groups (Placebo filters, Blue filters, and Optimal filters) involving 113 subjects with "reading difficulties", ranging in age from 9.2 yr. to 13.1 yr. and with an average discrepancy between chronological age and reading age of 1.8 yr. The 35 controls (who did not use coloured filters) ranged in age from 9.4 yr. to 12.9 yr., with an average discrepancy between chronological age and reading age of 2.1 yr. The treatment groups increased at a significantly greater rate than the control group in reading accuracy and reading comprehension but not for speed of reading. For self-reported perception of academic ability, two of the three treatment groups showed significantly greater increases than the control group. The larger improvements for treatment groups in reading comprehension may be related to a reduction in print and background distortions allowing attention to be directed to the processing of continuous text rather than to the identification of individual words. A reduction in print distortion, however, may not be sufficient to generate improved word-identification skills without additional remedial support, and this may be indicated by the nonsignificant increase in rate of reading. PMID:10544403

  2. Examining the Motivational Impact of Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Framing and Autonomy-Supportive Versus Internally Controlling Communication Style on Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Matos, Lennia

    2005-01-01

    The present experimental research examined whether framing early adolescents' (11- to 12-year-olds) learning activity in terms of the attainment of an extrinsic (i.e., physical attractiveness) versus intrinsic (i.e., health) goal and communicating these different goal contents in an internally controlling versus autonomy-supportive way affect…

  3. Nuclear Export of Smads by RanBP3L Regulates Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fenfang; Lin, Xia; Xu, Pinglong; Zhang, Zhengmao; Chen, Yanzhen; Wang, Chao; Han, Jiahuai; Zhao, Bin; Xiao, Mu

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play vital roles in regulating stem cell maintenance and differentiation. BMPs can induce osteogenesis and inhibit myogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Canonical BMP signaling is stringently controlled through reversible phosphorylation and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 (Smad1/5/8). However, how the nuclear export of Smad1/5/8 is regulated remains unclear. Here we report that the Ran-binding protein RanBP3L acts as a nuclear export factor for Smad1/5/8. RanBP3L directly recognizes dephosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and mediates their nuclear export in a Ran-dependent manner. Increased expression of RanBP3L blocks BMP-induced osteogenesis of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and promotes myogenic induction of C2C12 mouse myoblasts, whereas depletion of RanBP3L expression enhances BMP-dependent stem cell differentiation activity and transcriptional responses. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that RanBP3L, as a nuclear exporter for BMP-specific Smads, plays a critical role in terminating BMP signaling and regulating mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. PMID:25755279

  4. Multi-Functional Regulation of 4E-BP Gene Expression by the Ccr4-Not Complex

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Hirokazu; Schittenhelm, Ralf B.; Straessle, Anna; Hafen, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is highly conserved from yeast to humans. It senses various environmental cues to regulate cellular growth and homeostasis. Deregulation of the pathway has been implicated in many pathological conditions including cancer. Phosphorylation cascades through the pathway have been extensively studied but not much is known about the regulation of gene expression of the pathway components. Here, we report that the mRNA level of eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) subunit 4E-binding protein (4E-BP) gene, one of the key mTOR signaling components, is regulated by the highly conserved Ccr4-Not complex. RNAi knockdown of Not1, a putative scaffold protein of this protein complex, increases the mRNA level of 4E-BP in Drosophila Kc cells. Examination of the gene expression mechanism using reporter swap constructs reveals that Not1 depletion increases reporter mRNAs with the 3’UTR of 4E-BP gene, but decreases the ones with the 4E-BP promoter region, suggesting that Ccr4-Not complex regulates both degradation and transcription of 4E-BP mRNA. These results indicate that the Ccr4-Not complex controls expression of a single gene at multiple levels and adjusts the magnitude of the total effect. Thus, our study reveals a novel regulatory mechanism of a key component of the mTOR signaling pathway at the level of gene expression. PMID:25793896

  5. Preliminary Geological Findings on the BP-1 Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    The following is a summation of information and discussion between Doug Stoeser of the USGS and Doug Rickman of NASA in February and March, 2010 pertaining to the BP-1 simulant. The analytical results and the bulk of the text are from communications from Dr. Stoeser. The BP-1 simulant is made from Black Point Basalt Flow, San Francisco Volcanic Field, northern Arizona. There is an aggregate (road metal) quarry on the northern margin of the flow towards the west end that was used as a Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) analog test site. Silty material from this site was also used in laboratory tests and found to have geotechnical properties similar to the LHT-2M and Chenobi regolith simulants and is being proposed as a possible simulant for geotechnical use. It currently has the designation of BP-1 (Black Point 1). Figure

  6. Endothelin-1 and the kidney – beyond BP

    PubMed Central

    Dhaun, Neeraj; Webb, David J; Kluth, David C

    2012-01-01

    Since its discovery over 20 years ago endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Its role in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well established and is an area of ongoing intense research. There are now available a number of ET receptor antagonists many of which have been used in trials with CKD patients and shown to reduce BP and proteinuria. However, ET-1 has a number of BP-independent effects. Importantly, and in relation to the kidney, ET-1 has clear roles to play in cell proliferation, podocyte dysfunction, inflammation and fibrosis, and arguably, these actions of ET-1 may be more significant in the progression of CKD than its prohypertensive actions. This review will focus on the potential role of ET-1 in renal disease with an emphasis on its BP-independent actions. PMID:22670597

  7. Preliminary Geological Findings on the BP-1 Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeser, D. B.; Rickman, D. L.; Wilson, S.

    2010-01-01

    A waste material from an aggregate producing quarry has been used to make an inexpensive lunar simulant called BP-1. The feedstock is the Black Point lava flow in northern Arizona. Although this is part of the San Francisco volcanic field, which is also the source of the JSC-1 series feedstock, BP-1 and JSC-1 are distinct. Chemically, the Black Point flow is an amygdaloidal nepheline-bearing basalt. The amygdules are filled with secondary minerals containing opaline silica, calcium carbonate, and ferric iron minerals. X-ray diffraction (XRD) detected approximately 3% quartz, which is in line with tests done by the Kennedy Space Center Industrial Hygiene Office. Users of this material should use appropriate protective equipment. XRD also showed the presence of significant halite and some bassanite. Both are interpreted to be evaporative residues due to recycling of wash water at the quarry. The size distribution of BP-1 may be superior to some other simulants for some applications.

  8. Levels of anti-BP180 NC16A IgE do not correlate with severity of disease in the early stages of bullous pemphigoid.

    PubMed

    Bing, Liu; Xiping, Zhou; Li, Li; Jun, Peng; Yi-Xia, Wang; Min, Yang; Qing, Liu; Qiu-Ning, Sun; Hong-Zhong, Jin; Ya-Gang, Zuo

    2015-11-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP), a common autoimmune skin disease, is associated with IgG autoantibodies against the hemidesmosomal proteins, BP180 and BP230. In addition to IgG, IgE has been shown to play a role in the disease. However, the association between disease activity and IgE specific to the NC16A domain of BP180 in blister fluid remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the correlation between BP disease activity and BP180 NC16A-specific IgE sera and blister fluid titers, and to analyze changes during treatment. We evaluated the levels of anti-BP180 IgE autoantibodies in the sera and blister fluids of 37 BP patients using an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also observed changes in the levels of these antibodies in 2 BP patients at 4 or 5 different time points (day 0 when the patient first visited our hospital, day 5, day 14, day 39 and day 62 for patient 1; day 0, day 4, day 8 and day 17 for patient 2). We also collected extra serum samples from the 2 patients when the disease was controlled (blister disappeared) (day 85, day 104 and day 146 for patient 1 and day 123, day 158 and day 189 for the other patient). IgE anti-BP180 antibodies were detected in the serum of 72.97 % of the patients. There was no correlation between disease activity scores and BP180 NC16A IgE titers in serum (r = -0.077, p > 0.05) or in blister fluid (r = 0.262, p > 0.05). The levels of the autoantibody in serum were positively correlated with that in blister fluid (r = 0.6651, p < 0.001); however, the levels continued to rise despite effective control of the disease in the initial two to 6 weeks of diagnosis. The level of this autoantibody reached a peak on day 39 for patient 1 and on day 17 for patient 2 although the systemic and topical medication of steroid had controlled the disease process effectively. We conclude that levels of anti-BP180 NC16A IgE are higher in the sera than blister fluids. These levels could generally reflect disease severity throughout the course of

  9. Achievements and Challenges upon the Implementation of a Program for National Control of Congenital Chagas in Bolivia: Results 2004–2009

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Vega, Cristina; Billot, Claire; Torrico, Faustino

    2013-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the most endemic countries for Chagas disease. Data of 2005 shows that incidence is around 1.09‰ inhabitants and seroprevalence in children under 15 ranged from 10% in urban areas to 40% in rural areas. In this article, we report results obtained during the implementation of the congenital Chagas program, one of the biggest casuistry in congenital Chagas disease, led by National Program of Chagas and Belgian cooperation from 2004 to 2009. The program strategy was based on serological results during pregnancy and on the follow up of children born from positive mothers until one year old; if positive, treatment was done with Benznidazole, 10 mg/Kg/day/30 days with one post treatment control 6 months later. Throughout the length of the program, a total of 318,479 pregnant women were screened and 23.31% were detected positive. 42,538 children born from positive mothers were analyzed at birth by micromethod, of which 1.43% read positive. 10,120 children returned for their second micromethod control of which 2.29% read positive, 7,650 children returned for the serological control, of which 3.32% turned out positive. From the 1,093 positive children, 70% completed the 30 day-treatment and 122 returned for post treatment control with 96% showing a negative result. It has been seen that maternal-fetal transmission rates vary between 2% and 4%, with an average of 2.6% (about half of previously reported studies that reached 5%). In this work, we show that it is possible to implement, with limited resources, a National Congenital Chagas Program and to integrate it into the Bolivian health system. Keys of success are population awareness, health personnel motivation, and political commitment at all levels. PMID:23875039

  10. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.

  11. Two-dimensional cartography of equine beta-casein variants achieved by isolation of phosphorylation isoforms and control of the deamidation phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Matéos, A; Girardet, J-M; Mollé, D; Dary, A; Miclo, L; Gaillard, J-L

    2009-06-01

    Because of variable degrees of phosphorylation, alternative splicing, and probable instability resulting from nonenzymatic deamidation, equine beta-casein presents a complex pattern by 2-dimensional electrophoresis that needs clarification. beta-Casein prepared from Haflinger mare's milk by hydrophobic interaction chromatography was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography according to the degree of phosphorylation. Isoforms were identified by mass spectrometry; they corresponded to the full-length protein having 3 to 7 phosphate groups and to the splicing variant involving exon 5 and containing 4 to 7 phosphate groups. Investigations of nonenzymatic deamidation showed that beta-casein did not deamidate spontaneously in stored milk and during the different steps of chromatography, but deamidation could occur when 2-dimensional electrophoresis was performed, increasing the beta-casein pattern complexity. This phenomenon was strongly minimized when the first dimension step was carried out at 10 degrees C instead of at room temperature. Finally, spot attribution on 2-dimensional pattern of beta-casein was achieved by mixing each phosphorylation isoform in its native state with the whole beta-casein fraction. PMID:19447971

  12. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  13. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  14. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  15. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  16. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  17. Diffusion barriers for achieving controlled concentrations of luminescent dopants via diffusion for mask-less RGB color patterning of organic light emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Kajiyama, Yoshitaka; Kajiyama, Koichi; Aziz, Hany

    2015-11-30

    Using molecular diffusion as an approach to introduce organic luminescent dopants for making organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) of different colors on one substrate has the potential to overcome the yield and resolution limitations of the current OLED display technology. In this work, diffusion barriers made of MoO3 and a hole transport material mixture are introduced. The barriers effectively confine the diffusion of the dopants to only the desired depths. With the use of these barriers, OLEDs with highly controlled doping concentrations and performance are fabricated. The barriers thus allow utilizing simple diffusion methods for RGB patterning in OLEDs. PMID:26698710

  18. Catalytic Scanning Probe Nanolithography (cSPL): Control of the AFM Parameters in Order to Achieve Sub-100-nm Spatially Resolved Epoxidation of Alkenes Grafted onto a Surface.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Vincent; Botton, Julien; Valyaev, Dmitry A; François, Cyril; Patrone, Lionel; Balaban, Teodor Silviu; Abel, Mathieu; Parrain, Jean-Luc; Chuzel, Olivier; Clair, Sylvain

    2016-04-26

    Scanning probe lithography (SPL) appears to be a reliable alternative to the use of masks in traditional lithography techniques as it offers the possibility of directly producing specific chemical functionalities with nanoscale spatial control. We have recently extend the range of applications of catalytic SPL (cSPL) by introducing a homogeneous catalyst immobilized on the apex of a scanning probe. Here we investigate the importance of atomic force microscopy (AFM) physical parameters (applied force, writing speed, and interline distance) on the resultant chemical activity in this cSPL methodology through the direct topographic observation of nanostructured surfaces. Indeed, an alkene-terminated self-assembled monolayer (alkene-SAM) on a silicon wafer was locally epoxidized using a scanning probe tip with a covalently grafted manganese complex bearing the 1,4,7-triazacyclononane macrocycle as the ligand. In a post-transformation process, N-octylpiperazine was covalently grafted to the surface via a selective nucleophilic ring-opening reaction. With this procedure, we could write various patterns on the surface with high spatial control. The catalytic AFM probe thus appears to be very robust because a total area close to 500 μm(2) was patterned without any noticeable loss of catalytic activity. Finally, this methodology allowed us to reach a lower lateral line resolution down to 40 nm, thus being competitive and complementary to the other nanolithographical techniques for the nanostructuration of surfaces. PMID:27027411

  19. School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C.; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S.; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista

    2007-01-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for…

  20. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  1. [Strategies for effective control of arterial hypertension in Spain. Consensus document].

    PubMed

    Coca, A; Aranda, P; Bertomeu, V; Bonet, A; Esmatjes, E; Guillén, F; Hernández-Moreno, J; Llisterri, J L; Marín-Iranzo, R; Megía, C; Rodríguez-Mañas, L; Suárez, C

    2006-11-01

    Blood pressure (BP) control is inadequate among treated hypertensive patients in Spain. Control rates are lower than 40% of all treated patients and the cause of this problem is multifactorial. Despite the fact that possible solutions to this problem have been repeatedly suggested by expert groups along the last 10 years, BP control rates are still low. This fact have a negative impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of patients with hypertension. The aim of the present document has been to achieve a consensus on effective specific measures in order to improve hypertension control rates in Spain. These measures involve health care professionals (physicians, nurses, pharmaceutics), health care authorities and patients. The document summarizes the consensus conference of several scientific societies involved in cardiovascular medicine in five group of measures: a) improvement of the methodology of office BP measurement; b) improvement of compliance to treatment by patients; c) clarification of pressure targets to be achieved in hypertensive patients; d) optimization of life style modifications and pharmacological treatment of hypertension; and e) continuous medical education. The document emphasize life style changes as a crucial aspect to be implemented in all patients. These changes have a beneficial impact on pressure reduction, contribute to a better control of associated cardiovascular risk factors, and increase the effectiveness of antihypertensive drugs. Health care professionals should base their clinical practice on the recommendations of guidelines in order to modify their therapeutic attitudes in patients whose targets have not been achieved. PMID:17129520

  2. BP chief scientist nominated for senior energy role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Obama administration has nominated BP's chief scientist Ellen Williams to be director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), which was created in 2007 to fund "high-risk, high-reward" research into novel energy technologies that are too early for investment by the private sector.

  3. Two syringe spinal anesthesia technique for cesarean section: A controlled randomized study of a simple way to achieve more satisfactory block and less hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Keera, Amr Aly Ismail; Elnabtity, Ali Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple trials have been tried to prevent hypotension during spinal anesthesia. However, the drug choice and mode of administration is still a matter of debate. Objectives: To compare the outcome of spinal injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine and fentanyl separately to standard injection of mixed fentanyl with hyperbaric bupivacaine. Settings and Design: A randomized, controlled clinical trial. Patients and Methods: One hundred twenty-four parturient scheduled for elective cesarean section were randomly allocated into two groups, each 62 parturient: Group M received spinal anesthesia using 10 mg bupivacaine 0.5% premixed with 25 μg fentanyl in the same syringe and Group S received 25 μg fentanyl in one syringe and 10 mg bupivacaine 0.5% without barbotage in a second syringe. Results: Patients with intraoperative pain that was controllable without the need for a shift to general anesthesia was significantly lower in Group S (3.2%) than in Group M (16.1%). The frequency of hypotension was significantly lower in Group S compared to Group M (P < 0.05). Time till the onset of sensory block was nonsignificantly shorter with nonsignificantly higher mean level of maximal sensory block in Group S compared to Group M (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the time till occurrence of hypotension, duration of hypotension, mean dose of ephedrine used for the treatment of hypotension and frequency of patients developed itching between the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Separate intrathecal injection of fentanyl and hyperbaric bupivacaine provided a significant improvement in the quality of sensory block and significant reduction of the frequency of hypotension compared to injection of mixed medications. PMID:27212767

  4. Binding of the wheat basic leucine zipper protein EmBP-1 to nucleosomal binding sites is modulated by nucleosome positioning.

    PubMed Central

    Niu, X; Adams, C C; Workman, J L; Guiltinan, M J

    1996-01-01

    To investigate interactions of the basic leucine zipper transcription factor EmBP-1 with its recognition sites in nucleosomal DNA, we reconstituted an abscisic acid response element and a high-affinity binding site for EmBP-1 into human and wheat nucleosome cores in vitro. DNA binding studies demonstrated that nucleosomal elements can be bound by EmBP-1 at reduced affinities relative to naked DNA. EmBP-1 affinity was lowest when the recognition sites were positioned near the center of the nucleosome. Binding was achieved with a truncated DNA binding domain; however, binding of full-length EmBP-1 caused additional strong DNase I hypersensitivity flanking the binding sites. Similar results were observed with nucleosomes reconstituted with either human or wheat histones, demonstrating a conserved mechanism of transcription factor-nucleosome interactions. We conclude that positioning of recognition sequences on a nucleosome may play an important role in regulating interactions of EmBP-1 with its target sites in plant cells. PMID:8837510

  5. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  6. The coarse pointing assembly for SILEX program or how to achieve outstanding pointing accuracy with simple hardware associated with consistent control laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buvat, Daniel; Muller, Gerard; Peyrot, Patrick

    1991-06-01

    Attention is given to the coarse pointing assembly (CPA) for the SILEX program, designed on the basis of 10 years of MATRA experience in very accurate drive mechanisms successfully conducted by the SPOT 1 and 2 flights as well as EURECA IOC. The basic key design feature of the mechanism is a 1200-step stepper motor driven in microstepping with harmonic defects compensation. This allows very low torque noise associated with a high accuracy (0.01 deg). The direct drive principle avoids backlash and permits a linear control of the output shaft of each drive. The only parts susceptible to possible wear are the ball bearings, which have a design margin of greater than 1000 for 10 yr of service life. In order to meet the dynamic performances required by SILEX, a closed loop active damping system is added to each drive unit. Two accelerometers used in a differential way sense the hinge microvibrations and an active damping loop reduces their Q factor down to a few dB. All CPA electrical parts (including motor, optical encoder, and accelerometer) are redundant to avoid single point of failure.

  7. Bp44mT: an orally active iron chelator of the thiosemicarbazone class with potent anti-tumour efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Y; Rahmanto, Y Suryo; Richardson, DR

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Our previous studies demonstrated that a thiosemicarbazone iron chelator (di-2-pyridylketone-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone; Dp44mT) possesses potent and selective anti-cancer activity but led to cardiotoxicity at non-optimal doses. In this study, we examined the in vivo anti-tumour efficacy and tolerability of a new-generation 2-benzoylpyridine thiosemicarbazone iron chelator (2-benzoylpyridine-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone; Bp44mT) administered via the oral or i.v. routes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH BpT chelators were tested in vitro against human lung cancer cells (DMS-53) and in vivo in DMS-53 tumour xenografts in mice. The toxicity of Bp44mT in vivo and its effects on the expression of iron-regulated molecules involved in growth and cell cycle control were investigated. KEY RESULTS Administration of Bp44mT by either route resulted in marked dose-dependent inhibition of tumour growth. When administered at 50 mg·kg−1 via oral gavage three times per week for 23 days, the net xenograft growth was inhibited by 75%, compared with vehicle-treated mice. Toxicological examination showed reversible alterations including slight reduction of RBC count, with a decrease of liver and splenic iron levels, which confirmed iron chelation in vivo. Importantly, in contrast to Dp44mT, the chelator-treated mice did not show cardiac histological abnormalities. There was also no significant weight loss in mice, suggesting oral administration of Bp44mT was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This is the first study to show that Bp44mT can be given orally with potent anti-tumour efficacy. Oral administration of a novel and effective chemotherapeutic agent provides the benefits of convenience for chronic dosing regimens. PMID:21658021

  8. Muscle-specific 4E-BP1 signaling activation improves metabolic parameters during aging and obesity.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shihyin; Sitzmann, Joanna M; Dastidar, Somasish G; Rodriguez, Ariana A; Vu, Stephanie L; McDonald, Circe E; Academia, Emmeline C; O'Leary, Monique N; Ashe, Travis D; La Spada, Albert R; Kennedy, Brian K

    2015-08-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) is a key downstream effector of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) that represses cap-dependent mRNA translation initiation by sequestering the translation initiation factor eIF4E. Reduced mTORC1 signaling is associated with life span extension and improved metabolic homeostasis, yet the downstream targets that mediate these benefits are unclear. Here, we demonstrated that enhanced 4E-BP1 activity in mouse skeletal muscle protects against age- and diet-induced insulin resistance and metabolic rate decline. Transgenic animals displayed increased energy expenditure; altered adipose tissue distribution, including reduced white adipose accumulation and preserved brown adipose mass; and were protected from hepatic steatosis. Skeletal muscle-specific 4E-BP1 mediated metabolic protection directly through increased translation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and enhanced respiratory function. Non-cell autonomous protection was through preservation of brown adipose tissue metabolism, which was increased in 4E-BP1 transgenic animals during normal aging and in a response to diet-induced type 2 diabetes. Adipose phenotypes may derive from enhanced skeletal muscle expression and secretion of the known myokine FGF21. Unlike skeletal muscle, enhanced adipose-specific 4E-BP1 activity was not protective but instead was deleterious in response to the same challenges. These findings indicate that regulation of 4E-BP1 in skeletal muscle may serve as an important conduit through which mTORC1 controls metabolism. PMID:26121750

  9. Muscle-specific 4E-BP1 signaling activation improves metabolic parameters during aging and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shihyin; Sitzmann, Joanna M.; Dastidar, Somasish G.; Rodriguez, Ariana A.; Vu, Stephanie L.; McDonald, Circe E.; Academia, Emmeline C.; O’Leary, Monique N.; Ashe, Travis D.; La Spada, Albert R.; Kennedy, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E–binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) is a key downstream effector of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) that represses cap-dependent mRNA translation initiation by sequestering the translation initiation factor eIF4E. Reduced mTORC1 signaling is associated with life span extension and improved metabolic homeostasis, yet the downstream targets that mediate these benefits are unclear. Here, we demonstrated that enhanced 4E-BP1 activity in mouse skeletal muscle protects against age- and diet-induced insulin resistance and metabolic rate decline. Transgenic animals displayed increased energy expenditure; altered adipose tissue distribution, including reduced white adipose accumulation and preserved brown adipose mass; and were protected from hepatic steatosis. Skeletal muscle–specific 4E-BP1 mediated metabolic protection directly through increased translation of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and enhanced respiratory function. Non–cell autonomous protection was through preservation of brown adipose tissue metabolism, which was increased in 4E-BP1 transgenic animals during normal aging and in a response to diet-induced type 2 diabetes. Adipose phenotypes may derive from enhanced skeletal muscle expression and secretion of the known myokine FGF21. Unlike skeletal muscle, enhanced adipose-specific 4E-BP1 activity was not protective but instead was deleterious in response to the same challenges. These findings indicate that regulation of 4E-BP1 in skeletal muscle may serve as an important conduit through which mTORC1 controls metabolism. PMID:26121750

  10. Transforming the Patient Role to Achieve Better Outcomes Through a Patient Empowerment Program: A Randomized Wait-List Control Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Plaksin, Joseph; Zabar, Sondra; Wallach, Andrew; Sawicki, Chester; Kundrod, Sarita; Kalet, Adina

    2016-01-01

    Background In the patient-centered medical home model of health care, both health care providers (HCPs) and patients must understand their respective roles and responsibilities, view the other as a partner, and use communication skills that promote shared decision making. This is particularly necessary in chronic conditions where outcomes depend on behavior change and in underserved populations where the burden of chronic disease is high. Objective The objectives of this study are to determine if a Patient Empowerment Program (PEP) (1) is acceptable to patients and feasible across multiple clinical sites; (2) will increase patient preference for control in medical decision making, improve patient perceptions of patient-HCP communication, and increase patient activation; (3) is associated with an increase in diabetes self-management behaviors; and (4) has an effect on hemoglobin A 1c(HbA 1c) level. Methods This study recruited English-speaking adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from three urban clinical sites in New York City and randomized them to an immediate intervention group that completed the PEP intervention or a deferred intervention group that served as a wait-list control and completed the PEP intervention after 3-4 months. The PEP intervention consists of two facilitated small group sessions. Session 1 focuses on defining HCP and patient roles in the medical encounter by introducing ideal communication behaviors in each role and by providing both positive and negative examples of patient-HCP encounters. Session 2 focuses on practicing communication skills by role-playing with actors who serve as standardized health care providers. After the role play, participants set goals for their own health care and for future interactions with their HCPs. Outcome measures include the Patient Activation Measure; Ask, Understand, Remember Assessment; Krantz Health Opinion Survey; SF-12v2 Health Survey; Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire; and HbA 1c. These

  11. Small Molecule, NSC95397, Inhibits the CtBP1-Protein Partner Interaction and CtBP1-Mediated Transcriptional Repression.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Melanie A; Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Krueger, Aaron B; King, Rebecca; Griner, Lesley Mathews; Hu, Xin; Southall, Noel; Marugan, Juan J; Zhang, Qinghong; Ferrer, Marc; Zhao, Rui

    2015-06-01

    Carboxyl-terminal binding protein (CtBP) is a transcriptional corepressor that suppresses multiple proapoptotic and epithelial genes. CtBP is overexpressed in many human cancers, and its overexpression increases stem cell-like features, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cancer cell survival. Knockdown of CtBP also increases apoptosis independent of p53 in cell culture. Therefore, targeting CtBP with small molecules that disrupt its interaction with transcription factor partners may be an effective cancer therapy. To elicit its corepressing effect, CtBP binds to a conserved peptide motif in each transcription factor partner. We developed an AlphaScreen high-throughput screening assay to monitor the interaction between CtBP and E1A (which mimics the interaction between CtBP and its transcriptional partners). We screened the LOPAC library of 1280 bioactive compounds and identified NSC95397, which inhibits the CtBP-E1A interaction (IC50 = 2.9 µM). The inhibitory activity of NSC95397 was confirmed using two secondary assays and a counterscreen. NSC95397 also behaved as a weak substrate of CtBP dehydrogenase activity and did not inhibit another dehydrogenase, lactase dehydrogenase. Finally, NSC95397 was able to disrupt CtBP-mediated transcriptional repression of a target gene. These studies present a new possibility for the development of a therapeutic agent targeting tumors through disrupting the CtBP transcriptional complex. PMID:25477201

  12. Evaluation of ELISA testing for BP180 and BP230 as a diagnostic modality for bullous pemphigoid: a clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jesse J; Kittridge, Ashley L; Debanne, Sara M; Korman, Neil J

    2016-05-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a common autoimmune blistering disorder of the elderly. Several diagnostic modalities are available, including clinical impression, histopathology, direct and indirect immunofluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection of pathogenic antibodies. In this study, we aim to examine the utility of the newest test, ELISA, in comparison to the constellation of other tests. We describe our clinical experience in which 170 patients diagnosed with bullous pemphigoid had multiple tests performed. BP180 alone showed a sensitivity of 54 % and specificity of 94 %. The positive predictive value (PPV) is 95 % while the negative predictive value (NPV) is 52 %. BP230 alone yielded a sensitivity of 48 % and specificity of 94 %. The PPV is 94 % and the NPV is 49 %. Using both tests in combination yielded a sensitivity of 66 % and specificity of 89 %. The PPV of at least one of two tests returning positive is 92 % while the NPV of dual negative tests is 58 %. Use of ELISAs for suspected cases of BP are an inadequate standalone test, and are only helpful in making the diagnosis should they return positive. However, they would appear to miss about one-third of cases. PMID:26895534

  13. Image-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy: preliminary outcomes and toxicity of a joint interventional radiology and radiation oncology technique for achieving local control in challenging cases

    PubMed Central

    Kishan, Amar U.; Lee, Edward W.; McWilliams, Justin; Lu, David; Genshaft, Scott; Motamedi, Kambiz; Demanes, D. Jeffrey; Park, Sang June; Hagio, Mary Ann; Wang, Pin-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the ability of image-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy (IG-HDR) to provide local control (LC) of lesions in non-traditional locations for patients with heavily pre-treated malignancies. Material and methods This retrospective series included 18 patients treated between 2012 and 2014 with IG-HDR, either in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT; n = 9) or as monotherapy (n = 9). Lesions were located in the pelvis (n = 5), extremity (n = 2), abdomen/retroperitoneum (n = 9), and head/neck (n = 2). All cases were performed in conjunction between interventional radiology and radiation oncology. Toxicity was graded based on CTCAE v4.0 and local failure was determined by RECIST criteria. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed for LC and overall survival. Results The median follow-up was 11.9 months. Two patients had localized disease at presentation; the remainder had recurrent and/or metastatic disease. Seven patients had prior EBRT, with a median equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) of 47.0 Gy. The median total EQD2s were 34 Gy and 60.9 Gy for patients treated with monotherapy or combination therapy, respectively. Image-guided high-dose rate brachytherapy was delivered in one to six fractions. Six patients had local failures at a median interval of 5.27 months with a one-year LC rate of 59.3% and a one-year overall survival of 40.7%. Six patients died from their disease at a median interval of 6.85 months from the end of treatment. There were no grade ≥ 3 acute toxicities but two patients had serious long term toxicities. Conclusions We demonstrate a good one year LC rate of nearly 60%, and a favorable toxicity profile when utilizing IG-HDR to deliver high doses of radiation with high precision into targets not readily accessible by other forms of local therapy. These preliminary results suggest that further studies utilizing this approach may be considered for patients with difficult to access lesions that require LC. PMID:26622237

  14. Fatty acid as structure directing agent for controlled secondary growth of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles to achieve mesoscale assemblies: A facile approach for developing hierarchical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, K.; Kaushik, S. D.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Deb, P.

    2016-08-01

    Mesoscale hierarchical assemblies have emerged out as a new class of structures between fine dimension nanoparticles and bulk structures, having distinctly different physical properties from either side. Controlling the self-assembly process of primary nanoparticles and subsequent secondary growth mechanism is the key aspect for achieving such ordered structures. In this work, we introduce a new insight on achieving hierarchical assemblies of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles based on the temporal stability of the primary nanoparticles, where, the growth and stability of the primary particles are controlled by using oleic acid. It is found that the developed particles, at a critical concentration of oleic acid, prefer a secondary growth process, rather than promoting their individual growth. Domination of the attractive hydrophobic interaction over steric repulsion among the primary particles at this critical concentration of oleic acid is found to be the key factor for the initial aggregation of the primary particles, which eventually leads to the formation of spherical hierarchical assemblies via oriented attachment. It is also realized that the extremely well or poor stability conditions of the primary particles do not allow this secondary growth process. Estimated values of Co2+ distribution factor show that the cation distribution factor of CoFe2O4 system is not affected by the nature of dominant growth processes, when these are controlled. Interestingly, magnetic measurements reflect the stronger interparticle interaction in the hierarchical system and high magnetic moment values at low magnetic field.

  15. Risk-adjusted comparison of blood pressure and Low-Density (LDL) non-control in primary care offices

    PubMed Central

    Hammermeister, Karl; Bronsert, Michael; Henderson, William G.; Coombs, Letoynia; Hosokawa, Patrick; Brandt, Elias; Bryan, Cathy; Valuck, Robert; West, David; Liaw, Winston; Ho, Michael; Pace, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Background Population-level control of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors is suboptimal. Objectives 1) To demonstrate the use of electronically downloaded electronic health record (EHR) data to assess guideline concordance in a large cohort of primary care patients, 2) To provide a contemporary assessment of BP and LDL non-control in primary care, and 3) To demonstrate the effect of risk adjustment of rates of non-control of BP and LDL for differences in patient mix on these clinic-level performance measures. Design Observational comparative effectiveness. Patients All 232,172 adult patients ≥age 18 with ≥1 visit within two years in 33 primary care clinics with electronic health records (EHR). Interventions None. Main Measures Rates of BP and LDL non-control, based on current guidelines, were calculated from electronically downloaded EHR data. Non-control rates were risk-adjusted using multi-variable models of patient-level variables. Key Results Overall, 16.0% of the 227,122 patients with known BP and 14.9% of the 136,771 patients with known LDL were uncontrolled. Clinic-level risk-adjusted BP non-control ranged from 7.7% to 26.5%, while that for LDL ranged from 5.8% to 23.6%. Non-control rates exceeded an achievable benchmark for 85% (28/33) and 79% (26/33) of clinics for BP and LDL, respectively. Risk-adjustment significantly influences clinic rank order for rate of non-control. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the use of electronic collection of data on a large number of patients from fee-for-services, primary care clinics required for the audit and feedback of BP and LDL non-control is feasible. Non-control rates for most clinics are substantially higher than that achievable. Risk-adjustment of non-control rates results in very different clinic rank-order of clinics from non-adjusted data. PMID:24204062

  16. Prevalence of Optimal Treatment Regimens in Patients with Apparent Treatment Resistant Hypertension Based on Office BP in a Community-Based Practice Network

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Brent M.; Zhao, Yumin; Li, Jiexiang; Brzezinski, W. Adam; Todoran, Thomas M.; Brook, Robert D.; Calhoun, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertensive patients with clinic blood pressure (BP) uncontrolled on ≥3 antihypertensive medications, i.e., apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) comprise ~28%–30% of all uncontrolled patients in the U.S. However, the proportion receiving these medications in optimal doses is unknown; aTRH is used, since treatment adherence, BP measurement artifacts, and optimal therapy were not available in electronic record data from our >200 community-based clinics Outpatient QUuality Improvement Network (OQUIN). This study sought to define the proportion of uncontrolled hypertensives with aTRH on optimal regimens and clinical factors associated with optimal therapy. During 2007–2010, 468,877 hypertensive patients met inclusion criteria. BP <140/<90 defined control. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess variables independently associated with ‘optimal therapy’ (prescription of diuretic and ≥2 other BP medications at ≥50% of maximum recommended hypertension doses). Among 468,877 hypertensives, 147,635 (31.5%) were uncontrolled; among uncontrolled hypertensives, 44,684 were prescribed ≥3 BP medications (30.3%) of which 22,189 (15.0%) were prescribed ‘optimal’ therapy. Clinical factors independently associated with optimal BP therapy included black race (OR 1.40 [95% CI 1.32–1.49]), chronic kidney disease (1.31 [1.25–1.38]) diabetes (1.30 [1.24–1.37]), and coronary heart disease risk equivalent status (1.29 [1.14–1.46]). Clinicians more often prescribe optimal therapy for aTRH when cardiovascular risk is greater and treatment goals lower. Approximately one in seven of all uncontrolled hypertensives and one in two with uncontrolled aTRH are prescribed ≥3 BP medications in optimal regimens. Prescribing more optimal pharmacotherapy, for uncontrolled hypertensives including aTRH, confirmed with out-of-office BP, could improve hypertension control. PMID:23918752

  17. Gate tunable WSe2-BP van der Waals heterojunction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Zhang, Ting Ting; Zhang, Jing; Xiang, Jianyong; Yu, Hua; Wu, Shuang; Lu, Xiaobo; Wang, Guole; Wen, Fusheng; Liu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Rong; Shi, Dongxia; Zhang, Guangyu

    2016-02-01

    Due to the weak screening effect, the concentration and type of charge carriers in 2D semiconductor heterostructures can be effectively tuned by electrostatic gating, enabling us to realize different types of heterojunctions in a single device. Such `type tunable' properties are useful for designing novel electrical or optoelectrical devices. Here, we demonstrate a `type tunable' heterojunction device construct with two pieces of ambipolar 2D semiconductors: WSe2 and black phosphorus (BP). This heterojunction could be tuned to either the p-p junction or n-n junction by gate modulation. The p-p junction shows a large current rectification ratio while the n-n junction shows a negligible current rectification ratio, indicating a large valence band offset and a small conduction band offset at the WSe2/BP interface. In the optoelectrical measurements, we found the amplitude and even the polarity of photocurrent could be modulated by electrostatic gating. Our study could further enhance the understanding of designing devices based on these `type tunable' van der Waals heterojunctions. Moreover, the properties of the WSe2/BP interface were also experimentally identified through the electrical and optoelectrical measurements in our study.Due to the weak screening effect, the concentration and type of charge carriers in 2D semiconductor heterostructures can be effectively tuned by electrostatic gating, enabling us to realize different types of heterojunctions in a single device. Such `type tunable' properties are useful for designing novel electrical or optoelectrical devices. Here, we demonstrate a `type tunable' heterojunction device construct with two pieces of ambipolar 2D semiconductors: WSe2 and black phosphorus (BP). This heterojunction could be tuned to either the p-p junction or n-n junction by gate modulation. The p-p junction shows a large current rectification ratio while the n-n junction shows a negligible current rectification ratio, indicating a large valence

  18. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  19. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  20. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  1. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  2. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  3. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  17. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  18. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  19. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  2. Calibration of the radiocarbon time scale at 37ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Southon, J.R.; Deino, A.L.; Orsi, G.

    1995-12-01

    Results from radiocarbon and U-Th measurements on corals have provided a radiocarbon calibration beyond the range covered by tree ring series, but the uncertainties in the measurements beyond 20ka BP are very large. We have obtained new calibration data from radiocarbon dates on material associated with the catastrophic Campanian Ignimbrite eruption from the Phlegrean Fields near Naples. The eruption has been well dated by {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar to 37ka BP. Radiocarbon measurements were carried out on charcoal from a carbonized branch exposed within the ignimbrite tuff on the wall of an active quarry. The sample was split and analyzed at both the Naples and Lawrence Livermore AMS facilities. The offset between the Ar-Ar data and the radiocarbon results (recalculated using the true 5730-year half life for {sup 14}C) is consistent with predictions from paleomagnetic data and carbon cycle modeling.

  3. Spectropolarimetry of the classical T Tauri star BP Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Johns-Krull, Christopher

    2012-05-01

    We implement a least-squares deconvolution (LSD) code to study magnetic fields on cool stars. We first apply our code to high resolution (R ~ 60,000) optical echelle spectra of several solar-like stars as tests of the code and to measure the mean longitudinal magnetic field on the surface of these stars. Null results or weak fields are detected on the solar-like stars as is expected, demonstrating the functionality of the LSD code. We then apply our LSD code to 6 nights of data on the Classical T Tauri Star BP Tau. A maximum field of 330 +/- 80 G is detected from the photospheric lines on BP Tau. Measurements of several emission lines (He I 5876 A˚, Ca II 8498 A˚ and 8542 A˚) show the presence of strong magnetic fields in the line formation regions, which are believed to be the base of the accretion footpoints.

  4. Variability of Balmer Profiles in Magnetic Ap/Bp Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyavin, G.; Lee, B.-C.; Shulyak, D.; Han, I.; Kochukhov, O.; Khang, D.-I.; Kim, K.-M.

    2007-06-01

    A set of high precision measurements of weak variations of hydrogen lines in spectra of seven magnetic Ap/Bp stars was carried out using the BOES echelle spectrograph of the Bohuynsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (South Korea). A weak (1-2 %) periodic variability of the Balmer line wings has been detected in the spectra of 2 program stars. Upper limits of possible variations are presented for the remaining 5 objects. We discuss the discovered variability in the framework of model atmospheres with magnetic force terms included. The periodic changes in the Balmer profiles are caused by perturbations in atmospheres of Ap/Bp stars due to their rotationally modulated non-force-free magnetic fields.

  5. Magnetospheric accretion on the T Tauri star BP Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, J.-F.; Jardine, M. M.; Gregory, S. G.; Petit, P.; Paletou, F.; Bouvier, J.; Dougados, C.; Ménard, F.; Collier Cameron, A.; Harries, T. J.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Unruh, Y.; Morin, J.; Marsden, S. C.; Manset, N.; Aurière, M.; Catala, C.; Alecian, E.

    2008-05-01

    From observations collected with the ESPaDOnS and NARVAL spectropolarimeters, we report the detection of Zeeman signatures on the classical T Tauri star (cTTS) BP Tau. Circular polarization signatures in photospheric lines and in narrow emission lines tracing magnetospheric accretion are monitored throughout most of the rotation cycle of BP Tau at two different epochs in 2006. We observe that rotational modulation dominates the temporal variations of both unpolarized and circularly polarized spectral proxies tracing the photosphere and the footpoints of accretion funnels. From the complete data sets at each epoch, we reconstruct the large-scale magnetic topology and the location of accretion spots at the surface of BP Tau using tomographic imaging. We find that the field of BP Tau involves a 1.2 kG dipole and 1.6 kG octupole, both slightly tilted with respect to the rotation axis. Accretion spots coincide with the two main magnetic poles at high latitudes and overlap with dark photospheric spots; they cover about 2 per cent of the stellar surface. The strong mainly axisymmetric poloidal field of BP Tau is very reminiscent of magnetic topologies of fully convective dwarfs. It suggests that magnetic fields of fully convective cTTSs such as BP Tau are likely not fossil remants, but rather result from vigorous dynamo action operating within the bulk of their convective zones. Preliminary modelling suggests that the magnetosphere of BP Tau extends to distances of at least 4R* to ensure that accretion spots are located at high latitudes, and is not blown open close to the surface by a putative stellar wind. It apparently succeeds in coupling to the accretion disc as far out as the corotation radius, and could possibly explain the slow rotation of BP Tau. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL). CFHT is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l

  6. [Is blood pressure control different in women than in men?].

    PubMed

    Oliveras, A; Sans-Atxer, L; Vázquez, S

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) evolves with age; until the 50's it is higher in men than in women, equaling and even then increasing in women. The prevalence of controlled BP appears to be similar between the sexes, but the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is higher in women than in men. The possibility that BP influences the cardiovascular risk differently according to sex must therefore be considered. While some studies suggest no difference exists, others have shown evidence of an increased risk in women with respect to men despite equal BP. In this way, it seems that the measurement of ambulatory BP, but not office BP, would mark the differences in the association between BP-gender and cardiovascular risk. It should therefore be investigated the possibility of a different BP goal for women and men, especially by evaluating ambulatory BP. PMID:26486463

  7. Diffusion and Settling in Ap/Bp Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, S

    2003-04-09

    Ap/Bp stars are magnetic chemically peculiar early A and late B type stars of the main sequence. They exhibit peculiar surface abundance anomalies that are thought to be the result of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. The physics of diffusion in these stars are reviewed briefly and some model predictions are discussed. While models reproduce some observations reasonably well, more work is needed before the behavior of diffusing elements in a complex magnetic field is fully understood.

  8. Identification of novel mutations in CD2BP1 gene in clinically proven rheumatoid arthritis patients of south India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhattaram Siddhartha; Kumar, Pasupuleti Santhosh; Sowgandhi, Nannepaga; Prajwal, Bhattaram Manoj; Mohan, Alladi; Sarma, Kadainti Venkata Subbaraya; Sarma, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna

    2016-08-01

    Pyogenic Arthritis, Pyoderma gangrenosum, and Acne (PAPA syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant, auto-inflammatory disease that affects joints and skin. The disease results due to mutations in the cluster of differentiation 2 binding protein 1 (CD2BP1) gene on chromosome 15q24.3. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common, genetically complex disease that affects the joints with occasional skin manifestations. Studies related to the pathophysiology of inflammation in these two disorders show a certain degree of overlap at genetic level. The present study was done to confirm the existence of such a genetic overlap between PAPA syndrome and RA in south Indian population. In the present study 100 patients who were clinically diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis and 100 apparently healthy controls were chosen and the 15 exons of CD2BP1 gene were PCR-amplified and sequenced. The sequence analysis showed that in exon 3 thirty eight patients revealed presence of novel heterozygous missense mutations p.Glu51Asp, p.Leu57Arg and p.Ala64Thr. In exons 6, 10 and 14 eight patients showed 44 novel missense mutations and two patients showed novel frame shift mutations p.(Met123_Leu416delinsThr) and p.(Thr337Profs*52) leading to truncated protein formation. Such mutations were not seen in controls. Further, the in silico analysis revealed the mutant CD2BP1 structure showed deletion of Cdc15 and SH3 domains when superimposed with the wild type CD2BP1 structure with variable RMSD values. Therefore, these structural variations in CD2BP1 gene due to the mutations could be one of the strongest reasons to demonstrate the involvement of these gene variations in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27184502

  9. Gate tunable WSe2-BP van der Waals heterojunction devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Zhang, Ting Ting; zhang, Jing; Xiang, Jianyong; Yu, Hua; Wu, Shuang; Lu, Xiaobo; Wang, Guole; Wen, Fusheng; Liu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Rong; Shi, Dongxia; Zhang, Guangyu

    2016-02-14

    Due to the weak screening effect, the concentration and type of charge carriers in 2D semiconductor heterostructures can be effectively tuned by electrostatic gating, enabling us to realize different types of heterojunctions in a single device. Such 'type tunable' properties are useful for designing novel electrical or optoelectrical devices. Here, we demonstrate a 'type tunable' heterojunction device construct with two pieces of ambipolar 2D semiconductors: WSe2 and black phosphorus (BP). This heterojunction could be tuned to either the p-p junction or n-n junction by gate modulation. The p-p junction shows a large current rectification ratio while the n-n junction shows a negligible current rectification ratio, indicating a large valence band offset and a small conduction band offset at the WSe2/BP interface. In the optoelectrical measurements, we found the amplitude and even the polarity of photocurrent could be modulated by electrostatic gating. Our study could further enhance the understanding of designing devices based on these 'type tunable' van der Waals heterojunctions. Moreover, the properties of the WSe2/BP interface were also experimentally identified through the electrical and optoelectrical measurements in our study. PMID:26810387

  10. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  11. GIS-modeling of an ice-dammed lake in the Lake Onega depression ca 14500-12500 Yrs BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subetto, Dmitry; Zobkov, Mikhail; Potakhin, Maksim; Tarasov, Aleksey

    2016-04-01

    Palaeogeographical reconstructions of the Onego ice-dammed lake development ca 14500-125000 yrs BP were based on the GIS approach. The palaeo-water-level surfaces were interpolated using a point-kriging approach. 14500-14000 Yrs BP: An ice-dammed lake occupied the southern part of the Lake Onega depression. The level of this lake was at 130-120 m a.s.l. and was controlled by a threshold of the water divide between the River Oshta and River Oyat', with discharge southwestward into the Oyat' basin. The surface area of the ice-dammed lake was 3500 sq.km. 14000-13300 Yrs BP: When the ice melted away from the mouth of the River Svir, the lake level dropped to 85-80 m a.s.l. and runoff was directed into the Lake Ladoga - easternmost part of The Baltic Ice Lake at that time. 13300-12500 Yrs BP: As the glacier retreated from the Lake Onega depression, the ice-dammed lake was occupied it and reached the maximum sizes (the surface area was 33000 sq.km). The new threshold in the northern part was opened and runoff was directed into the White Sea basin. During the conference new digital paleogeographical maps of the Onego ice-dammed lake will be presented. The study has been financially supported by the Russian Science Foundation (#14-17-00766).

  12. An investigation into the association between HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and multiple sclerosis susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Nabiallah; Adib, Minoo; Alsahebfosoul, Fereshteh; Kazemi, Mohammad; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2016-01-15

    Human Leukocyte Antigen G (HLA-G) gene polymorphism and expression rate have recently been suggested to have a potential role in susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the frequency of HLA-G gene 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and its plasma level with MS susceptibility. In this study, the HLA-G gene from 212 patients and 210 healthy individuals was amplified using real time PCR and screened for the 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism. In addition, HLA-G plasma levels of the patients were measured and compared to normal controls by ELISA method. Our results revealed that 14 bp insertion in HLA-G could result in lower plasma HLA-G level of the subjects, regardless of their health status and vice versa. Additionally, significant correlation of HLA-G genotype and its plasma level with MS susceptibility was observed. In conclusion, not only HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism could be associated with expression rate of the HLA-G gene and its plasma level, but also could be considered as a risk factor for susceptibility to MS in our study population. PMID:26711580

  13. Association between sHLA-G and HLA-G 14-bp deletion/insertion polymorphism in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Zidi, Inès; Ben Yahia, Hamza; Bortolotti, Daria; Mouelhi, Leila; Laaribi, Ahmed Baligh; Ayadi, Shema; Zidi, Nour; Houissa, Fatma; Debbech, Radhouane; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Najjar, Taoufik; Di Luca, Dario; Rizzo, Roberta

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the HLA-G 14-bp deletion/insertion (Del/Ins) polymorphism and soluble (s) HLA-G production in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). We analyzed also the sHLA-G molecules by ELISA and western blot in plasma samples. Among unselected patients, the 14-bp Del/Ins polymorphism was not significantly associated with increased CD risk neither for alleles (P = 0.371) nor for genotypes (P = 0.625). However, a significant association was reported between the 14-bp Del/Ins polymorphism and CD, in particular in young-onset CD patients for alleles [P = 0.020, odds ratio (OR) = 2.438, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-5.25] but not with adult-onset CD patients. A significant association was reported concerning the genotype Ins/Ins for young-onset CD patients (P = 0.029, OR = 3.257, 95% CI: 1.08-9.77). We observed also a significant increase in sHLA-G measured by ELISA in CD patients compared to controls (P = 0.002). The 14-bp Del/Del and 14-bp Del/Ins genotypes are the high HLA-G producers. Among sHLA-G(positive) patients, 43% of subjects present dimers of HLA-G. The presence of dimers seems to be related to the advanced stages of the disease. The 14-bp Del/Ins polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of CD particularly in young-onset CD patients and controls sHLA-G plasma levels. Dimers of sHLA-G are frequent in advanced disease stages. The above findings indicate that the genetic 14-bp Del/Ins polymorphism in exon 8 of the HLA-G gene is associated with the risk of CD and suggest a role for sHLA-G as a prognostic marker for progressive disease. PMID:25577194

  14. Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children’s engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap. PMID:25389751

  15. Achieving indoor air quality through contaminant control

    SciTech Connect

    Katzel, J.

    1995-07-10

    Federal laws outlining industry`s responsibilities in creating a healthy, hazard-free workspace are well known. OSHA`s laws on interior air pollution establish threshold limit values (TLVs) and permissible exposure limits (PELs) for more than 500 potentially hazardous substances found in manufacturing operations. Until now, OSHA has promulgated regulations only for the manufacturing environment. However, its recently-proposed indoor air quality (IAQ) ruling, if implemented, will apply to all workspaces. It regulates IAQ, including environmental tobacco smoke, and requires employers to write and implement IAQ compliance plans.

  16. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  17. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  18. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  19. The transcription factor E4BP4 regulates the production of IL-10 and IL-13 in CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Yasutaka; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Hijikata, Atsushi; Matsunaga, Yuko; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Inoue, Hiromasa; Atarashi, Koji; Hori, Shohei; Watarai, Hiroshi; Zhu, Jinfang; Taniguchi, Masaru; Kubo, Masato

    2011-05-01

    The immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) is expressed mainly by T helper type 2 (T(H)2) cells but also by T(H)1 cells during chronic infection. Here we observed plasticity in the expression of IL-10 and IL-13 after chronic T(H)1 stimulation; furthermore, the expression of Il10 and Il13 was regulated by the transcription factor E4BP4. Chronically stimulated E4BP4-deficient (Nfil3(-/-); called 'E4bp4(-/-)' here) T(H)1 cells, regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) and natural killer T cells (NKT cells) had attenuated expression of IL-10 and IL-13. Enforced expression of E4bp4 initiated the production of IL-10 and IL-13 by conventional T(H)1 cells. E4bp4(-/-) T(H)2 cells showed impairment of IL-10 production with no effect on IL-13. Our results indicate that E4BP4 has multiple functions in controlling the plasticity of IL-13 in T(H)1 cells and IL-10 in T(H)1 cells, T(H)2 cells, T(reg) cells and NKT cells. PMID:21460847

  20. Complement regulator C4BP binds to Staphylococcus aureus surface proteins SdrE and Bbp inhibiting bacterial opsonization and killing☆

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Pamela S.; Foley, Caitlin K.; Krishna, Neel K.; Nyalwidhe, Julius O.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Foster, Timothy J.; Cunnion, Kenji M.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a premier human pathogen and the most common cause of osteoarticular, wound, and implanted device infections. We recently demonstrated S. aureus efficiently binds the classical complement regulator C4b-binding protein (C4BP) inhibiting antibody-initiated complement-mediated opsonization. Here we identify S. aureus surface protein SdrE as a C4BP-binding protein. Recombinant SdrE and recombinant bone sialoprotein-binding protein (Bbp), an allelic variant of SdrE, both efficiently bound to C4BP in heat-inactivated human serum. We previously described SdrE as binding alternative pathway regulator factor H. Recombinant SdrE and Bbp efficiently bound C4BP and factor H in serum without apparent interference. Gain of function studies utilizing Lactococcus lactis clones expressing SdrE or Bbp increased serum C4BP and factor H binding, compared with empty-vector control (WT) approximately 2-fold. Correspondingly, classical pathway-mediated C3-fragment opsonization and bacterial killing by human neutrophils decreased by half for L. lactis clones expressing SdrE or Bbp compared with WT. In summary, we identify SdrE and allelic variant Bbp as S. aureus surface proteins that bind the complement regulator C4BP inhibiting classical pathway-mediated bacterial opsonization and killing. PMID:24600566

  1. Structural Insights into Membrane Targeting by the Flagellar Calcium-binding Protein (FCaBP) a Myristoylated and Palmitoylated Calcium Sensor in Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    J Wingard; J Ladner; M Vanarotti; A Fisher; H Robinson; K Buchanan; D Engman; J Ames

    2011-12-31

    The flagellar calcium-binding protein (FCaBP) of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is targeted to the flagellar membrane where it regulates flagellar function and assembly. As a first step toward understanding the Ca{sup 2+}-induced conformational changes important for membrane-targeting, we report here the x-ray crystal structure of FCaBP in the Ca{sup 2+}-free state determined at 2.2{angstrom} resolution. The first 17 residues from the N terminus appear unstructured and solvent-exposed. Residues implicated in membrane targeting (Lys-19, Lys-22, and Lys-25) are flanked by an exposed N-terminal helix (residues 26-37), forming a patch of positive charge on the protein surface that may interact electrostatically with flagellar membrane targets. The four EF-hands in FCaBP each adopt a 'closed conformation' similar to that seen in Ca{sup 2+}-free calmodulin. The overall fold of FCaBP is closest to that of grancalcin and other members of the penta EF-hand superfamily. Unlike the dimeric penta EF-hand proteins, FCaBP lacks a fifth EF-hand and is monomeric. The unstructured N-terminal region of FCaBP suggests that its covalently attached myristoyl group at the N terminus may be solvent-exposed, in contrast to the highly sequestered myristoyl group seen in recoverin and GCAP1. NMR analysis demonstrates that the myristoyl group attached to FCaBP is indeed solvent-exposed in both the Ca{sup 2+}-free and Ca{sup 2+}-bound states, and myristoylation has no effect on protein structure and folding stability. We propose that exposed acyl groups at the N terminus may anchor FCaBP to the flagellar membrane and that Ca{sup 2+}-induced conformational changes may control its binding to membrane-bound protein targets..

  2. Dufulin Activates HrBP1 to Produce Antiviral Responses in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Zeng, Mengjiao; Song, Baoan; Hou, Chengrui; Hu, Deyu; Li, Xiangyang; Wang, Zhenchao; Fan, Huitao; Bi, Liang; Liu, Jiaju; Yu, Dandan; Jin, Linhong; Yang, Song

    2012-01-01

    Background Dufulin is a new antiviral agent that is highly effective against plant viruses and acts by activating systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants. In recent years, it has been used widely to prevent and control tobacco and rice viral diseases in China. However, its targets and mechanism of action are still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and classical two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) techniques were combined with mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the target of Dufulin. More than 40 proteins were found to be differentially expressed (≥1.5 fold or ≤1.5 fold) upon Dufulin treatment in Nicotiana tabacum K326. Based on annotations in the Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, these proteins were found to be related to disease resistance. Directed acyclic graph (DAG) analysis of the various pathways demonstrated harpin binding protein-1 (HrBP1) as the target of action of Dufulin. Additionally, western blotting, semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and real time PCR analyses were also conducted to identify the specific mechanism of action of Dufulin. Our results show that activation of HrBP1 triggers the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway and thereby produces antiviral responses in the plant host. A protective assay based on lesion counting further confirmed the antiviral activity of Dufulin. Conclusion This study identified HrBP1 as a target protein of Dufulin and that Dufulin can activate the SA signaling pathway to induce host plants to generate antiviral responses. PMID:22662252

  3. Heritability of HR and BP Response To Exercise Training in the HERITAGE Family Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Treva; Gagnon, Jacques; Leon, Arthur S.; Skinner, James S.; Wilmore, Jack H.; Bouchard, Claude; Rao, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the heritability of response to exercise training in resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) among sedentary Caucasians comprising 98 families who completed an exercise training program. Results indicated that the trainability of systolic BP and HR in families with elevated BP was partially determined by genetic factors. Diastolic…

  4. Levels of the E2 interacting protein TopBP1 modulate papillomavirus maintenance stage replication

    SciTech Connect

    Kanginakudru, Sriramana; DeSmet, Marsha; Thomas, Yanique; Morgan, Iain M.; Androphy, Elliot J.

    2015-04-15

    The evolutionarily conserved DNA topoisomerase II beta-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) functions in DNA replication, DNA damage response, and cell survival. We analyzed the role of TopBP1 in human and bovine papillomavirus genome replication. Consistent with prior reports, TopBP1 co-localized in discrete nuclear foci and was in complex with papillomavirus E2 protein. Similar to E2, TopBP1 is recruited to the region of the viral origin of replication during G1/S and early S phase. TopBP1 knockdown increased, while over-expression decreased transient virus replication, without affecting cell cycle. Similarly, using cell lines harboring HPV-16 or HPV-31 genome, TopBP1 knockdown increased while over-expression reduced viral copy number relative to genomic DNA. We propose a model in which TopBP1 serves dual roles in viral replication: it is essential for initiation of replication yet it restricts viral copy number. - Highlights: • Protein interaction study confirmed In-situ interaction between TopBP1 and E2. • TopBP1 present at papillomavirus ori in G1/S and early S phase of cell cycle. • TopBP1 knockdown increased, over-expression reduced virus replication. • TopBP1 protein level change did not influence cell survival or cell cycle. • TopBP1 displaced from papillomavirus ori after initiation of replication.

  5. RanBP2 Modulates Cox11 and Hexokinase I Activities and Haploinsufficiency of RanBP2 Causes Deficits in Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Guruju, Mallikarjuna; Oswald, John; Raz, Dorit; Bush, Ronald A; Sieving, Paul A; Lu, Xinrong; Bock, Cheryl B; Ferreira, Paulo A

    2006-01-01

    The Ran-binding protein 2 (RanBP2) is a large multimodular and pleiotropic protein. Several molecular partners with distinct functions interacting specifically with selective modules of RanBP2 have been identified. Yet, the significance of these interactions with RanBP2 and the genetic and physiological role(s) of RanBP2 in a whole-animal model remain elusive. Here, we report the identification of two novel partners of RanBP2 and a novel physiological role of RanBP2 in a mouse model. RanBP2 associates in vitro and in vivo and colocalizes with the mitochondrial metallochaperone, Cox11, and the pacemaker of glycolysis, hexokinase type I (HKI) via its leucine-rich domain. The leucine-rich domain of RanBP2 also exhibits strong chaperone activity toward intermediate and mature folding species of Cox11 supporting a chaperone role of RanBP2 in the cytosol during Cox11 biogenesis. Cox11 partially colocalizes with HKI, thus supporting additional and distinct roles in cell function. Cox11 is a strong inhibitor of HKI, and RanBP2 suppresses the inhibitory activity of Cox11 over HKI. To probe the physiological role of RanBP2 and its role in HKI function, a mouse model harboring a genetically disrupted RanBP2 locus was generated. RanBP2−/− are embryonically lethal, and haploinsufficiency of RanBP2 in an inbred strain causes a pronounced decrease of HKI and ATP levels selectively in the central nervous system. Inbred RanBP2+/− mice also exhibit deficits in growth rates and glucose catabolism without impairment of glucose uptake and gluconeogenesis. These phenotypes are accompanied by a decrease in the electrophysiological responses of photosensory and postreceptoral neurons. Hence, RanBP2 and its partners emerge as critical modulators of neuronal HKI, glucose catabolism, energy homeostasis, and targets for metabolic, aging disorders and allied neuropathies. PMID:17069463

  6. T-cell involvement in sex differences in blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Crislip, G Ryan; Sullivan, Jennifer C

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension affects one-third of adults in the Western world and is the most common independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the leading cause of premature death globally. Despite available therapeutic options, approximately half of the hypertensive population taking medication does not achieve adequate blood pressure (BP) control leaving them at increased risk of chronic kidney disease, renal failure, stroke, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, aneurysm and peripheral artery disease. New therapeutic options need to be identified for the treatment of hypertension in order to increase the percentage of individuals with controlled BP. There is a growing basic science literature regarding the role of T-cells in the pathogenesis of hypertension and BP control; however, the majority of this literature has been performed exclusively in males despite the fact that both men and women develop hypertension. This is especially problematic since hypertension is well recognized as having distinct sex differences in the prevalence, absolute BP values and molecular mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of the disease. The purpose of this article is to review the available literature regarding sex differences in T-cells in hypertension followed by highlighting the potential pathways that may result in sex-specific effects on T-cell activation and differentiation. PMID:27128802

  7. Does School Size Have Any Relationship to Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett D.; Martellaro, Helena C.

    1990-01-01

    Examines relationship between school size and achievement. Correlates size and achievement factors, controlling for correlated variables. Finds no relationship between enrollment and achievement levels. Links academic achievement to percentages of Title I and ethnic students. Suggests academic achievement related to socioeconomic factors and…

  8. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9{times}10{sup {minus}5}.

  9. Estimating smoothness term for BP stereo matching with sparse disparities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Junxue; Li, Zhanming

    2011-06-01

    The belief propagation stereo matching algorithm has high computational cost and varied parameters. To address these problems and perform stereo matching in practical applications, we implement BP algorithm on cuda and propose an approach to estimate parameters of smoothness term in the energy function automatically. We use Harris corner detector and Pyramidal KLT feature tracker algorithm to extract a sparse disparity map. The rate of increase in the discontinuity cost can be compute out approximately. Experiments demonstrate that our approach is feasible and the approximate parameters of discontinuity cost can be computed out quickly.

  10. Expression and Localization of CaBP Ca2+ Binding Proteins in the Mouse Cochlea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tian; Scholl, Elizabeth S; Pan, Ning; Fritzsch, Bernd; Haeseleer, Françoise; Lee, Amy

    2016-01-01

    CaBPs are a family of EF-hand Ca2+ binding proteins that are structurally similar to calmodulin. CaBPs can interact with, and yet differentially modulate, effectors that are regulated by calmodulin, such as Cav1 voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Immunolabeling studies suggest that multiple CaBP family members (CaBP1, 2, 4, and 5) are expressed in the cochlea. To gain insights into the respective auditory functions of these CaBPs, we characterized the expression and cellular localization of CaBPs in the mouse cochlea. By quantitative reverse transcription PCR, we show that CaBP1 and CaBP2 are the major CaBPs expressed in mouse cochlea both before and after hearing onset. Of the three alternatively spliced variants of CaBP1 (caldendrin, CaBP1-L, and CaBP1-S) and CaBP2 (CaBP2-alt, CaBP2-L, CaBP2-S), caldendrin and CaBP2-alt are the most abundant. By in situ hybridization, probes recognizing caldendrin strongly label the spiral ganglion, while probes designed to recognize all three isoforms of CaBP1 weakly label both the inner and outer hair cells as well as the spiral ganglion. Within the spiral ganglion, caldendrin/CaBP1 labeling is associated with cells resembling satellite glial cells. CaBP2-alt is strongly expressed in inner hair cells both before and after hearing onset. Probes designed to recognize all three variants of CaBP2 strongly label inner hair cells before hearing onset and outer hair cells after the onset of hearing. Thus, CaBP1 and CaBP2 may have overlapping roles in regulating Ca2+ signaling in the hair cells, and CaBP1 may have an additional function in the spiral ganglion. Our findings provide a framework for understanding the role of CaBP family members in the auditory periphery. PMID:26809054

  11. Expression and Localization of CaBP Ca2+ Binding Proteins in the Mouse Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ning; Fritzsch, Bernd; Haeseleer, Françoise; Lee, Amy

    2016-01-01

    CaBPs are a family of EF-hand Ca2+ binding proteins that are structurally similar to calmodulin. CaBPs can interact with, and yet differentially modulate, effectors that are regulated by calmodulin, such as Cav1 voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Immunolabeling studies suggest that multiple CaBP family members (CaBP1, 2, 4, and 5) are expressed in the cochlea. To gain insights into the respective auditory functions of these CaBPs, we characterized the expression and cellular localization of CaBPs in the mouse cochlea. By quantitative reverse transcription PCR, we show that CaBP1 and CaBP2 are the major CaBPs expressed in mouse cochlea both before and after hearing onset. Of the three alternatively spliced variants of CaBP1 (caldendrin, CaBP1-L, and CaBP1-S) and CaBP2 (CaBP2-alt, CaBP2-L, CaBP2-S), caldendrin and CaBP2-alt are the most abundant. By in situ hybridization, probes recognizing caldendrin strongly label the spiral ganglion, while probes designed to recognize all three isoforms of CaBP1 weakly label both the inner and outer hair cells as well as the spiral ganglion. Within the spiral ganglion, caldendrin/CaBP1 labeling is associated with cells resembling satellite glial cells. CaBP2-alt is strongly expressed in inner hair cells both before and after hearing onset. Probes designed to recognize all three variants of CaBP2 strongly label inner hair cells before hearing onset and outer hair cells after the onset of hearing. Thus, CaBP1 and CaBP2 may have overlapping roles in regulating Ca2+ signaling in the hair cells, and CaBP1 may have an additional function in the spiral ganglion. Our findings provide a framework for understanding the role of CaBP family members in the auditory periphery. PMID:26809054

  12. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  13. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  14. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  15. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  16. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  17. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  18. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  19. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  20. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  1. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  2. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  3. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  4. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  5. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  6. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  7. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  8. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  9. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  10. Spontaneous 8bp Deletion in Nbeal2 Recapitulates the Gray Platelet Syndrome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tomberg, Kärt; Khoriaty, Rami; Westrick, Randal J.; Fairfield, Heather E.; Reinholdt, Laura G.; Brodsky, Gary L.; Davizon-Castillo, Pavel; Ginsburg, David; Di Paola, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    During the analysis of a whole genome ENU mutagenesis screen for thrombosis modifiers, a spontaneous 8 base pair (bp) deletion causing a frameshift in exon 27 of the Nbeal2 gene was identified. Though initially considered as a plausible thrombosis modifier, this Nbeal2 mutation failed to suppress the synthetic lethal thrombosis on which the original ENU screen was based. Mutations in NBEAL2 cause Gray Platelet Syndrome (GPS), an autosomal recessive bleeding disorder characterized by macrothrombocytopenia and gray-appearing platelets due to lack of platelet alpha granules. Mice homozygous for the Nbeal2 8 bp deletion (Nbeal2gps/gps) exhibit a phenotype similar to human GPS, with significantly reduced platelet counts compared to littermate controls (p = 1.63 x 10−7). Nbeal2gps/gps mice also have markedly reduced numbers of platelet alpha granules and an increased level of emperipolesis, consistent with previously characterized mice carrying targeted Nbeal2 null alleles. These findings confirm previous reports, provide an additional mouse model for GPS, and highlight the potentially confounding effect of background spontaneous mutation events in well-characterized mouse strains. PMID:26950939

  11. Motivation and Achievement: A Quantitative Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret E.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    Using analysis of variance and regression techniques, the authors analyzed the results of 40 studies that were conducted between 1953 and 1976 and contained 232 correlations between various measures of motivation and achievement. The motivation variables were restricted to students' achievement motivation, locus-of-control perceptions, and general…

  12. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates CtBP1 and down-regulates its activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Youn; Kang, Byung-Hee; Lee, Soon-Min; Cho, Eun-Jung; Youn, Hong-Duk

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► AMPK phosphorylates CtBP1 on serine 158. ► AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CtBP1 causes the ubiquitination and nuclear export of CtBP1. ► AMPK downregulates the CtBP1-mediated repression of Bax transcription. -- Abstract: CtBP is a transcriptional repressor which plays a significant role in the regulation of cell proliferation and tumor progression. It was reported that glucose withdrawal causes induction of Bax due to the dissociation of CtBP from the Bax promoter. However, the precise mechanism involved in the regulation of CtBP still remains unclear. In this study, we found that an activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates CtBP1 on Ser-158 upon metabolic stresses. Moreover, AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CtBP1 (S158) attenuates the repressive function of CtBP1. We also confirmed that triggering activation of AMPK by various factors resulted in an increase of Bax gene expression. These findings provide connections of AMPK with CtBP1-mediated regulation of Bax expression for cell death under metabolic stresses.

  13. IGF2BP3 modulates the interaction of invasion-associated transcripts with RISC

    PubMed Central

    Ennajdaoui, Hanane; Howard, Jonathan M.; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Jahanbani, Fereshteh; Coyne, Doyle J.; Uren, Philip J.; Dargyte, Marija; Katzman, Sol; Draper, Jolene M.; Wallace, Andrew; Cazarez, Oscar; Burns, Suzanne C.; Qiao, Mei; Hinck, Lindsay; Smith, Andrew D.; Toloue, Masoud M.; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Penalva, Luiz O.F.; Sanford, Jeremy R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) expression correlates with malignancy. But its role(s) in pathogenesis remain enigmatic. Here, we interrogated the IGF2BP3-RNA interaction network in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Using a combination of genome-wide approaches we identify 164 direct mRNA targets of IGF2BP3. These transcripts encode proteins enriched for functions such as cell migration, proliferation and adhesion. Loss of IGF2BP3 reduced PDAC cell invasiveness and remodeled focal adhesion junctions. Individual-nucleotide resolution crosslinking immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) revealed significant overlap of IGF2BP3 and miRNA binding sites. IGF2BP3 promotes association of the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) with specific transcripts. Our results show that IGF2BP3 influences a malignancy-associated RNA regulon by modulating miRNA-mRNA interactions. PMID:27210763

  14. IGF2BP3 Modulates the Interaction of Invasion-Associated Transcripts with RISC.

    PubMed

    Ennajdaoui, Hanane; Howard, Jonathan M; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Jahanbani, Fereshteh; Coyne, Doyle J; Uren, Philip J; Dargyte, Marija; Katzman, Sol; Draper, Jolene M; Wallace, Andrew; Cazarez, Oscar; Burns, Suzanne C; Qiao, Mei; Hinck, Lindsay; Smith, Andrew D; Toloue, Masoud M; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Penalva, Luiz O F; Sanford, Jeremy R

    2016-05-31

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) expression correlates with malignancy, but its role(s) in pathogenesis remains enigmatic. We interrogated the IGF2BP3-RNA interaction network in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Using a combination of genome-wide approaches, we have identified 164 direct mRNA targets of IGF2BP3. These transcripts encode proteins enriched for functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and adhesion. Loss of IGF2BP3 reduced PDAC cell invasiveness and remodeled focal adhesion junctions. Individual nucleotide resolution crosslinking immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) revealed significant overlap of IGF2BP3 and microRNA (miRNA) binding sites. IGF2BP3 promotes association of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) with specific transcripts. Our results show that IGF2BP3 influences a malignancy-associated RNA regulon by modulating miRNA-mRNA interactions. PMID:27210763

  15. Phosphorylated 4E-BP1 is Associated with Poor Survival in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Kathryn E.; Warycha, Melanie; Davies, Michael A.; Rodrik, Vanessa; Zhou, Xi K.; Yee, Herman; Polsky, David; Pavlick, Anna C.; Rosen, Neal; Bhardwaj, Nina; Mills, Gordon; Osman, Iman

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Both the PI3K/AKT and RAS/MAPK signal transduction pathways mediate 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, releasing 4E-BP1 from the mRNA cap and permitting translation initiation. Given the prevalence of PTEN and B-RAF mutations in melanoma, we first examined translation initiation, as measured by phosphorylated 4E-BP1, in metastatic melanoma tissues and cell lines. We then tested the association between amounts of total and phosphorylated 4E-BP1 and patient survival. Experimental Design Seven human metastatic melanoma cells lines and 72 metastatic melanoma patients with accessible metastatic tumor tissues and extended follow up information were studied. Expression of 4E-BP1 transcript, total 4E-BP1 protein, and phosphorylated 4E-BP1 were examined. The relationship between 4E-BP1 transcript and protein expression was assessed in a subset of patient tumors (n=41). The association between total and phospho-4E-BP1 levels and survival was examined in the larger cohort of patients (n=72). Results 4E-BP1 was hyperphosphorylated in 4/7 melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF and PTEN mutations as compared to untransformed melanocytes or RAS/RAF/PTEN wild type melanoma cells. 4E-BP1 transcript correlated with 4E-BP1 total protein levels as measured by the semi-quantitative reverse phase protein array (p=0.012). High levels of phosphorylated 4E-BP1 were associated with worse overall and post-recurrence survival (p=0.02, 0.0003 respectively). Conclusion Our data demonstrate that translation initiation is a common event in human metastatic melanoma and correlates with worse prognosis. Therefore, effective inhibition of the pathways responsible for 4E-BP1 phosphorylation should be considered to improve the treatment outcome of metastatic melanoma patients. PMID:19336517

  16. SPECTROPOLARIMETRY OF THE CLASSICAL T TAURI STAR BP TAU

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Johns-Krull, Christopher M. E-mail: cmj@rice.edu

    2013-10-20

    We implement a least-squares deconvolution (LSD) code to study magnetic fields on cool stars. We first apply our code to high-resolution optical echelle spectra of 53 Cam (a magnetic Ap star) and three well-studied cool stars (Arcturus, 61 Cyg A, and ξ Boo A) as well as the Sun (by observing the asteroid Vesta) as tests of the code and the instrumentation. Our analysis is based on several hundred photospheric lines spanning the wavelength range 5000 Å to 9000 Å. We then apply our LSD code to six nights of data on the Classical T Tauri Star BP Tau. A maximum longitudinal field of 370 ± 80 G is detected from the photospheric lines on BP Tau. A 1.8 kG dipole tilted at 129° with respect to the rotation axis and a 1.4 kG octupole tilted at 104° with respect to the rotation axis, both with a filling factor of 0.25, best fit our LSD Stokes V profiles. Measurements of several emission lines (He I 5876 Å, Ca II 8498 Å, and 8542 Å) show the presence of strong magnetic fields in the line formation regions of these lines, which are believed to be the base of the accretion footpoints. The field strength measured from these lines shows night-to-night variability consistent with rotation of the star.

  17. Spectropolarimetry of the Classical T Tauri Star BP Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.

    2013-10-01

    We implement a least-squares deconvolution (LSD) code to study magnetic fields on cool stars. We first apply our code to high-resolution optical echelle spectra of 53 Cam (a magnetic Ap star) and three well-studied cool stars (Arcturus, 61 Cyg A, and ξ Boo A) as well as the Sun (by observing the asteroid Vesta) as tests of the code and the instrumentation. Our analysis is based on several hundred photospheric lines spanning the wavelength range 5000 Å to 9000 Å. We then apply our LSD code to six nights of data on the Classical T Tauri Star BP Tau. A maximum longitudinal field of 370 ± 80 G is detected from the photospheric lines on BP Tau. A 1.8 kG dipole tilted at 129° with respect to the rotation axis and a 1.4 kG octupole tilted at 104° with respect to the rotation axis, both with a filling factor of 0.25, best fit our LSD Stokes V profiles. Measurements of several emission lines (He I 5876 Å, Ca II 8498 Å, and 8542 Å) show the presence of strong magnetic fields in the line formation regions of these lines, which are believed to be the base of the accretion footpoints. The field strength measured from these lines shows night-to-night variability consistent with rotation of the star.

  18. Hba1c, Blood Pressure, and Lipid Control in People with Diabetes: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Huanhuan; Hori, Ai; Nishiura, Chihiro; Sasaki, Naoko; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Tomita, Kentaro; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Nagahama, Satsue; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kochi, Takeshi; Imai, Teppei; Okino, Akiko; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Kashino, Ikuko; Akter, Shamima; Kurotani, Kayo; Nanri, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2016-01-01

    those with treated and controlled hypertension. Conclusion Data from a large working population, predominantly composed of men, suggest that achievement of HbA1c, BP, and LDL-C targets was less than optimal, especially in younger participants. Uncontrolled dyslipidemia was associated with poor glycemic control. Participants not receiving antihypertensive treatment had higher HbA1c levels. PMID:27437997

  19. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  20. Impact of GNB3-C825T, ADRB3-Trp64Arg, UCP2-3'UTR 45 bp del/ins, and PPARγ-Pro12Ala polymorphisms on Bofutsushosan response in obese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Park, Junghyun; Bose, Shambhunath; Hong, Sun-Woo; Lee, Dong-Ki; Yoo, Jae-Wook; Lim, Chi-Yeon; Lee, Myeongjong; Kim, Hojun

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is known to be influenced by a number of genes, including the β3 subunit of G protein (GNB3), β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the above genes, such as GNB3-C825T, ADRB3-Trp64Arg, UCP2-3'UTR 45 bp del/ins, and PPARγ-Pro12Ala, are associated with obesity and body mass index. The present study evaluates the impact of Bofutsushosan, a traditional Eastern Asian herbal medicine with known anti-obesity properties, on obese subjects according to the presence of the above-mentioned SNPs. Upon randomization, the volunteers were allocated to receive Bofutsushosan (n=55) or placebo (n=56) treatments for 8 weeks. Following the treatment schedule, significant reductions in total cholesterol and significant improvement in the Korean version of obesity-related quality of life scale were seen in the Bofutsushosan-treated group, but not in placebo. Bofutsushosan exerted significant anti-obesity effects on a number of parameters in the carriers of the GNB3-825T allele, but only on waist circumference in the GNB3-C/C homozygote. Significant anti-obesity impact of Bofutsushosan was also seen on a number of obesity-indices in both ADRB3-Arg64 carriers and ADRB3-Trp64 homozygotes, as well as in UCP2-D/D carriers, but not in UCP2-D/I+I/I variants. The effect of Bofutsushosan was more pronounced in PPARγ-Pro/Pro genotype compared to PPARγ-Pro/Ala variants. Thus, the results revealed differential responses of the subjects to the anti-obesity effects of Bofutsushosan treatment according to the polymorphism of the vital obesity-related genes. Our study provides new insight into individualized clinical applications of Bofutsushosan for obesity. PMID:24827746

  1. Impact of GNB3-C825T, ADRB3-Trp64Arg, UCP2-3′UTR 45 bp del/ins, and PPARγ-Pro12Ala Polymorphisms on Bofutsushosan Response in Obese Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Park, Junghyun; Bose, Shambhunath; Hong, Sun-Woo; Lee, Dong-Ki; Yoo, Jae-Wook; Lim, Chi-Yeon; Lee, Myeongjong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is known to be influenced by a number of genes, including the β3 subunit of G protein (GNB3), β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the above genes, such as GNB3-C825T, ADRB3-Trp64Arg, UCP2-3′UTR 45 bp del/ins, and PPARγ-Pro12Ala, are associated with obesity and body mass index. The present study evaluates the impact of Bofutsushosan, a traditional Eastern Asian herbal medicine with known anti-obesity properties, on obese subjects according to the presence of the above-mentioned SNPs. Upon randomization, the volunteers were allocated to receive Bofutsushosan (n=55) or placebo (n=56) treatments for 8 weeks. Following the treatment schedule, significant reductions in total cholesterol and significant improvement in the Korean version of obesity-related quality of life scale were seen in the Bofutsushosan-treated group, but not in placebo. Bofutsushosan exerted significant anti-obesity effects on a number of parameters in the carriers of the GNB3-825T allele, but only on waist circumference in the GNB3-C/C homozygote. Significant anti-obesity impact of Bofutsushosan was also seen on a number of obesity-indices in both ADRB3-Arg64 carriers and ADRB3-Trp64 homozygotes, as well as in UCP2-D/D carriers, but not in UCP2-D/I+I/I variants. The effect of Bofutsushosan was more pronounced in PPARγ-Pro/Pro genotype compared to PPARγ-Pro/Ala variants. Thus, the results revealed differential responses of the subjects to the anti-obesity effects of Bofutsushosan treatment according to the polymorphism of the vital obesity-related genes. Our study provides new insight into individualized clinical applications of Bofutsushosan for obesity. PMID:24827746

  2. IGF2BP1 promotes mesenchymal cell properties and migration of tumor-derived cells by enhancing the expression of LEF1 and SNAI2 (SLUG)

    PubMed Central

    Zirkel, Anne; Lederer, Marcell; Stöhr, Nadine; Pazaitis, Nikolaos; Hüttelmaier, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The oncofetal IGF2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) controls the migration and invasiveness of primary as well as tumor-derived cells in vitro. Whether the protein also modulates epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), a hallmark of tumor progression involved in tumor cell dissemination, remained elusive. In this study, we reveal that IGF2BP1 enhances mesenchymal-like cell properties in tumor-derived cells by promoting the expression of the transcriptional regulators LEF1 and SLUG (SNAI2). IGF2BP1 associates with LEF1 transcripts and prevents their degradation in a 3′-UTR-dependent manner resulting in an upregulation of LEF1 expression. LEF1 promotes transcription of the mesenchymal marker fibronectin by associating with the fibronectin 1 promoter. Moreover, LEF1 enforces the synthesis of the ‘EMT-driving’ transcriptional regulator SNAI2. Accordingly, IGF2BP1 knockdown causes MET-like (mesenchymal-epithelial-transition) morphological changes, enhances the formation of cell–cell contacts and reduces cell migration in various mesenchymal-like tumor-derived cells. However, in epithelial-like tumor-derived cells characterized by a lack or low abundance of IGF2BP1, the protein fails to induce EMT. These findings identify IGF2BP1 as a pro-mesenchymal post-transcriptional determinant, which sustains the synthesis of ‘EMT-driving’ transcriptional regulators, mesenchymal markers and enhances tumor cell motility. This supports previous reports, suggesting a role of IGF2BP1 in tumor cell dissemination. PMID:23677615

  3. Reaching Grid Parity Using BP Solar Crystalline Silicon Technology: A Systems Class Application

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Daniel W; Wohlgemuth, John; Carlson, David E; Clark, Roger F; Gleaton, Mark; Posbic, John P; Zahler, James

    2010-12-06

    The primary target market for this program was the residential and commercial PV markets, drawing on BP Solar's premium product and service offerings, brand and marketing strength, and unique routes to market. These two markets were chosen because: (1) in 2005 they represented more than 50% of the overall US PV market; (2) they are the two markets that will likely meet grid parity first; and (3) they are the two market segments in which product development can lead to the added value necessary to generate market growth before reaching grid parity. Federal investment in this program resulted in substantial progress toward the DOE TPP target, providing significant advancements in the following areas: (1) Lower component costs particularly the modules and inverters. (2) Increased availability and lower cost of silicon feedstock. (3) Product specifically developed for residential and commercial applications. (4) Reducing the cost of installation through optimization of the products. (5) Increased value of electricity in mid-term to drive volume increases, via the green grid technology. (6) Large scale manufacture of PV products in the US, generating increased US employment in manufacturing and installation. To achieve these goals BP Solar assembled a team that included suppliers of critical materials, automated equipment developers/manufacturers, inverter and other BOS manufacturers, a utility company, and University research groups. The program addressed all aspects of the crystalline silicon PV business from raw materials (particularly silicon feedstock) through installation of the system on the customers site. By involving the material and equipment vendors, we ensured that supplies of silicon feedstock and other PV specific materials like encapsulation materials (EVA and cover glass) will be available in the quantities required to meet the DOE goals of 5 to 10 GW of installed US PV by 2015 and at the prices necessary for PV systems to reach grid parity in 2015

  4. Achieving Cannabis Cessation - Evaluating N-acetylcysteine Treatment (ACCENT): Design and implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled study in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Sonne, Susan C.; Winhusen, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Ghitza, Udi E.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Matthews, Abigail G.; Sharma, Gaurav; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Vandrey, Ryan G.; Levin, Frances R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Lindblad, Robert; Allen, Colleen; Mooney, Larissa J.; Haynes, Louise; Brigham, Gregory S.; Sparenborg, Steve; Hasson, Albert L.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorders, effect sizes remain modest, and few individuals achieve long-term abstinence. One strategy to enhance outcomes is the addition of pharmacotherapy to complement behavioral treatment, but to date no efficacious medications targeting cannabis use disorders in adults through large, randomized controlled trials have been identified. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) is currently conducting a study to test the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) versus placebo (PBO), added to contingency management, for cannabis cessation in adults (ages 18–50). This study was designed to replicate positive findings from a study in cannabis-dependent adolescents that found greater odds of abstinence with NAC compared to PBO. This paper describes the design and implementation of an ongoing 12-week, intent-to-treat, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with one follow-up visit four weeks post-treatment. Approximately 300 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults will be randomized to NAC or PBO across six study sites in the United States. The primary objective of this 12-week study is to evaluate the efficacy of twice-daily orally-administered NAC (1200 mg) versus matched PBO, added to contingency management, on cannabis abstinence. NAC is among the first medications to demonstrate increased odds of abstinence in a randomized controlled study among cannabis users in any age group. The current study will assess the cannabis cessation efficacy of NAC combined with a behavioral intervention in adults, providing a novel and timely contribution to the evidence base for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. PMID:25179587

  5. The effect of post-discharge educational intervention on patients in achieving objectives in modifiable risk factors six months after discharge following an episode of acute coronary syndrome, (CAM-2 Project): a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether an intervention mainly consisting of a signed agreement between patient and physician on the objectives to be reached, improves reaching these secondary prevention objectives in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors six-months after discharge following an acute coronary syndrome. Background There is room to improve mid-term adherence to clinical guidelines' recommendations in coronary heart disease secondary prevention, specially non-pharmacological ones, often neglected. Methods In CAM-2, patients discharged after an acute coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to the intervention or the usual care group. The primary outcome was reaching therapeutic objectives in various secondary prevention variables: smoking, obesity, blood lipids, blood pressure control, exercise and taking of medication. Results 1757 patients were recruited in 64 hospitals and 1510 (762 in the intervention and 748 in the control group) attended the six-months follow-up visit. After adjustment for potentially important variables, there were, between the intervention and control group, differences in the mean reduction of body mass index (0.5 vs. 0.2; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (1.6 cm vs. 0.6 cm; p = 0.05), proportion of patients who exercise regularly and those with total cholesterol below 175 mg/dl (64.7% vs. 56.5%; p = 0.001). The reported intake of medications was high in both groups for all the drugs considered with no differences except for statins (98.1% vs. 95.9%; p = 0.029). Conclusions At least in the short term, lifestyle changes among coronary heart disease patients are achievable by intensifying the responsibility of the patient himself by means of a simple and feasible intervention. PMID:21092191

  6. Achieving cannabis cessation -- evaluating N-acetylcysteine treatment (ACCENT): design and implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled study in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Winhusen, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M; Ghitza, Udi E; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Matthews, Abigail G; Sharma, Gaurav; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Vandrey, Ryan G; Levin, Frances R; Weiss, Roger D; Lindblad, Robert; Allen, Colleen; Mooney, Larissa J; Haynes, Louise; Brigham, Gregory S; Sparenborg, Steve; Hasson, Albert L; Gray, Kevin M

    2014-11-01

    Despite recent advances in behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorders, effect sizes remain modest, and few individuals achieve long-term abstinence. One strategy to enhance outcomes is the addition of pharmacotherapy to complement behavioral treatment, but to date no efficacious medications targeting cannabis use disorders in adults through large, randomized controlled trials have been identified. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) is currently conducting a study to test the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) versus placebo (PBO), added to contingency management, for cannabis cessation in adults (ages 18-50). This study was designed to replicate positive findings from a study in cannabis-dependent adolescents that found greater odds of abstinence with NAC compared to PBO. This paper describes the design and implementation of an ongoing 12-week, intent-to-treat, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with one follow-up visit four weeks post-treatment. Approximately 300 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults will be randomized to NAC or PBO across six study sites in the United States. The primary objective of this 12-week study is to evaluate the efficacy of twice-daily orally-administered NAC (1200 mg) versus matched PBO, added to contingency management, on cannabis abstinence. NAC is among the first medications to demonstrate increased odds of abstinence in a randomized controlled study among cannabis users in any age group. The current study will assess the cannabis cessation efficacy of NAC combined with a behavioral intervention in adults, providing a novel and timely contribution to the evidence base for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. PMID:25179587

  7. Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID): Design, methods and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial of community health worker assisted diabetes self-management support

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Karin; Drain, Nathan; Robinson, June; Kapp, Janet; Hebert, Paul; Taylor, Leslie; Silverman, Julie; Kiefer, Meghan; Lessler, Dan; Krieger, James

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives Community health workers (CHWs) may be an important mechanism to provide diabetes self-management to disadvantaged populations. We describe the design and baseline results of a trial evaluating a home-based CHW intervention. Methods & Research Design Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID) is a randomized, controlled trial evaluating a home-based CHW-delivered diabetes self-management intervention versus usual care. The study recruited participants from 3 health systems. Change in A1c measured at 12 months is the primary outcome. Change in blood pressure, lipids, health care utilization, health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and diabetes self-management behaviors at 12 months are secondary outcomes. Results A total of 1,438 patients were identified by medical record review as potentially eligible, 445 patients were screened by telephone for eligibility and 287 were randomized. Groups were comparable at baseline on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. All participants were low-income and were from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. The mean A1c was 8.9%, mean BMI was above the obese range, and non-adherence to diabetes medications was high. The cohort had high rates of co-morbid disease and low self-reported health status. Although one-third reported no health insurance, the mean number of visits to a physician in the past year was 5.7. Trial results are pending. Conclusions Peer-AID recruited and enrolled a diverse group of low income participants with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and delivered a home-based diabetes self-management program. If effective, replication of the Peer-AID intervention in community based settings could contribute to improved control of diabetes in vulnerable populations. PMID:24956324

  8. Silencing of CtBP1 suppresses the migration in human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengjin; Shen, Yifen; Tao, Xuelei; Xu, Jian; Lu, Junjie; Liu, Chao; Xu, Zhiwei; Tang, Qing; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Xiubing

    2016-06-01

    Carboxyl-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1), up-regulated in various types of human cancers, has been functionally associated with proliferation, anti-apoptosis, and EMT in vitro studies. However, the functional significance of CtBP1 in the pathophysiology of glioma remains unknown. In the present study, we showed the expression of CtBP1 was markedly higher in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CtBP1 mainly localized in the nucleus of glioma cells. Statistical analysis suggested the upregulation of CtBP1 was considerably correlated with the WHO grade (P < 0.05) and those patients with high CtBP1 levels exhibited shorter survival time (P < 0.01). Silencing CtBP1 by short hairpin RNAi caused an inhibition of cell migration. Moreover, knockdown of CtBP1 increases E-cadherin expression and decreases vimentin expression. These data uncovered that CtBP1 protein is a valuable marker of glioma pathogenic process and that CtBP1 can serve as a novel prognostic marker for glioma therapy. PMID:27160109

  9. E4BP4 is a cardiac survival factor and essential for embryonic heart development.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yi-Jiun; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lin, Ding-Yu; Lin, James A; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tung, Kwong-Chung

    2010-07-01

    The bZIP transcription factor E4BP4, has been demonstrated to be a survival factor in pro-B lymphocytes. GATA factors play important roles in transducing the IL-3 survival signal and transactivating the downstream survival gene, E4BP4. In heart, GATA sites are essential for proper transcription of several cardiac genes, and GATA-4 is a mediator of cardiomyocyte survival. However, the role E4BP4 plays in heart is still poorly understood. In this study, Dot-blot hybridization assays using Dig-labeled RNA probes revealed that the E4BP4 gene was expressed in cardiac tissue from several species including, monkey, dog, rabbit, and human. Western blot analysis showed that the E4BP4 protein was consistently present in all of these four species. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed that the E4BP4 protein was overexpressed in diseased heart tissue in comparison with normal heart tissue. In addition, the overexpression of E4BP4 in vitro activated cell survival signaling pathway of cardiomyocytes. At last, siRNA-mediated knock down of E4BP4 in zebrafish resulted in malformed looping of the embryonic heart tube and decreased heart beating. Based on these results, we conclude that E4BP4 plays as a survival factor in heart and E4BP4 is essential for proper embryonic heart development. PMID:20186462

  10. An Analysis of the Rapidly Rotating Bp star HD 133880

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. D.; Grunhut, J.; Shultz, M.; Wade, G.; Landstreet, J. D.; Bohlender, D.; Lim, J.; Wong, K.; Drake, S.; Linsky, J.

    2012-01-01

    HD 133880 is a rapidly rotating chemically peculiar B-type (Bp) star (nu sin i approx = 103km/s) and is host to one of the strongest magnetic fields of any Ap/Bp star. A member of the Upper Centaurus Lupus association, it is a star with a well-determined age of 16 Myr. 12 new spectra, four of which are polarimetric, obtained from the FEROS, ESPaDOnS and HARPS instruments, provide sufficient material from which to re-evaluate the magnetic field and obtain a first approximation to the atmospheric abundance distributions of He, O, Mg, Si, Ti. Cr, Fe, Ni, Pr and Nd. An abundance analysis was carried out using ZEEMAN, a program which synthesizes spectral line profiles for stars with permeating magnetic fields. The magnetic field structure was characterized by a colinear multipole expansion from the observed variations of the longitudinal and surface fields with rotational phase. Both magnetic hemispheres are clearly visible during the stellar rotation, and thus a three-ring abundance distribution model encompassing both magnetic poles and magnetic equator with equal spans in colatitude was adopted. Using the new magnetic field measurements and optical photometry together with previously published data, we refine the period of HD 133880 to P = 0.877 476 +/- 0.000009 d. Our simple axisymmetric magnetic field model is based on a predominantly quadrupolar component that roughly describes the field variations. Using spectrum synthesis, we derived mean abundances for O, Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe and Pr. All elements; except Mg, are overabundant compared to the Son. Mg appears to be approximately uniform over the stellar surface, while all other elements are more abundant in the negative magnetic hemisphere than in the positive magnetic hemisphere. In contrast to most Ap/Bp stars which show an underabundance in 0, in HD 133880 this element is clearly overabundant compared to the solar abundance ratio. In studying the Ha and Paschen lines in the optical spectra, we could not

  11. Identify Melatonin as a Novel Therapeutic Reagent in the Treatment of 1-Bromopropane(1-BP) Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongpeng; Wang, Shuo; Jiang, Lulu; Wang, Hui; Yang, Yilin; Li, Ming; Wang, Xujing; Zhao, Xiulan; Xie, Keqin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract 1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been used as an alternative for fluoride compounds and 1-BP intoxication may involve lung, liver, and central neural system (CNS). Our previous studies showed that 1-BP impaired memory ability by compromising antioxidant cellular defenses. Melatonin is a powerful endogenous antioxidant, and the objective of this study was to explore the therapeutic role of melatonin in the treatment of 1-BP intoxication. Rats were intragastrically treated with 1-BP with or without melatonin, and then sacrificed on 27th day after 1-BP administration. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate the spatial learning and memory ability of the experimental animals, and NeuN staining was performed to assess neuron loss in hippocampus. We found that rats treated with 1-BP spent more time and swam longer distance before landing on the hidden platform with a comparable swimming speed, which was markedly mitigated by the pretreatment with melatonin in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, 1-BP-induced notable decrease in neuron population in hippocampus by promoting apoptosis, and melatonin pretreatment attenuated those changes in brain. The GSH/GSSG ratio was proportionately decreased and heme oxygenase 1 was increased in the rats exposed to 1-BP (Figure 6), and administration of melatonin restored them. Meanwhile, MDA, the level of lipid peroxidation product, was significantly increased upon exposed to 1-BP, which was significantly attenuated by melatonin pretreatment, indicating that administration of 1-BP could interfere with redox homeostasis of brain in rat, and such 1-BP-induced biomedical changes were reversed by treatment with melatonin. We conclude that treatment with melatonin attenuates 1-BP-induced CNS toxicity through its ROS scavenging effect. PMID:26817862

  12. Identify Melatonin as a Novel Therapeutic Reagent in the Treatment of 1-Bromopropane(1-BP) Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongpeng; Wang, Shuo; Jiang, Lulu; Wang, Hui; Yang, Yilin; Li, Ming; Wang, Xujing; Zhao, Xiulan; Xie, Keqin

    2016-01-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been used as an alternative for fluoride compounds and 1-BP intoxication may involve lung, liver, and central neural system (CNS). Our previous studies showed that 1-BP impaired memory ability by compromising antioxidant cellular defenses. Melatonin is a powerful endogenousantioxidant, and the objective of this study was to explore the therapeutic role of melatonin in the treatment of 1-BP intoxication. Rats were intragastrically treated with 1-BP with or without melatonin, and then sacrificed on 27th day after 1-BP administration. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate the spatial learning and memory ability of the experimental animals, and NeuN staining was performed to assess neuron loss in hippocampus. We found that rats treated with 1-BP spent more time and swam longer distance before landing on the hidden platform with a comparable swimming speed, which was markedly mitigated by the pretreatment with melatonin in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, 1-BP-induced notable decrease in neuron population in hippocampus by promoting apoptosis, and melatonin pretreatment attenuated those changes in brain. The GSH/GSSG ratio was proportionately decreased and heme oxygenase 1 was increased in the rats exposed to 1-BP (Figure 6), and administration of melatonin restored them. Meanwhile, MDA, the level of lipid peroxidation product, was significantly increased upon exposed to 1-BP, which was significantly attenuated by melatonin pretreatment, indicating that administration of 1-BP could interfere with redox homeostasis of brain in rat, and such 1-BP-induced biomedical changes were reversed by treatment with melatonin.We conclude that treatment with melatonin attenuates 1-BP-induced CNS toxicity through its ROS scavenging effect. PMID:26817862

  13. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  14. Microbial Consumption of Natural Gases Released from the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, S. D.; Valentine, D. L.; Farwell, C.

    2010-12-01

    The BP Deepwater Horizon disaster caused the release of natural gas, which dissolved in the water column to form gas plumes. Containing methane, ethane, and propane, these gas plumes fuel microbial respiration. This work targeted the water column to quantify the maximum rate of microbial respiration in the natural gas plume. A novel method using uniformly 13C-labeled substrates as tracers was applied to determine the rate of microbial consumption of these gases in water surrounding the impacted area. Consumption rate experiments were performed on board the R/V Cape Hatteras (July 12-20, 2010) and analyzed using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). The kinetic order and maximum consumption rate of the microbial community were determined by experimental controls using the 13C-labeled tracers in temperature, time, and concentration series. Ongoing sampling efforts allow changes in the response of the microbial community to be monitored over time.

  15. Porcine SOX9 Gene Expression Is Influenced by an 18bp Indel in the 5’-Untranslated Region

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yuyun; Ding, Nengshui; Huang, Lusheng; Schütz, Ekkehard

    2015-01-01

    Sex determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) is an important regulator of sex and skeletal development and is expressed in a variety of embryonal and adult tissues. Loss or gain of function resulting from mutations within the coding region or chromosomal aberrations of the SOX9 locus lead to a plethora of detrimental phenotypes in humans and animals. One of these phenotypes is the so-called male-to-female or female-to-male sex-reversal which has been observed in several mammals including pig, dog, cat, goat, horse, and deer. In 38,XX sex-reversal French Large White pigs, a genome-wide association study suggested SOX9 as the causal gene, although no functional mutations were identified in affected animals. However, besides others an 18bp indel had been detected in the 5′-untranslated region of the SOX9 gene by comparing affected animals and controls. We have identified the same indel (Δ18) between position +247bp and +266bp downstream the transcription start site of the porcine SOX9 gene in four other pig breeds; i.e., German Large White, Laiwu Black, Bamei, and Erhualian. These animals have been genotyped in an attempt to identify candidate genes for porcine inguinal and/or scrotal hernia. Because the 18bp segment in the wild type 5′-UTR harbours a highly conserved cAMP-response element (CRE) half-site, we analysed its role in SOX9 expression in vitro. Competition and immunodepletion electromobility shift assays demonstrate that the CRE half-site is specifically recognized by CREB. Both binding of CREB to the wild type as well as the absence of the CRE half-site in Δ18 reduced expression efficiency in HEK293T, PK–15, and ATDC5 cells significantly. Transfection experiments of wild type and Δ18 SOX9 promoter luciferase constructs show a significant reduction of RNA and protein levels depending on the presence or absence of the 18bp segment. Hence, the data presented here demonstrate that the 18bp indel in the porcine SOX9 5′-UTR is of functional importance and

  16. A photometric and spectrographic study of BP Pegasi

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.; Mcnamara, D.H.; Joner, M.D. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT )

    1989-11-01

    Photometric (uvby beta) and spectrographic observations of the dwarf Cepheid BP Peg are discussed. The observations are used to derive a reddening value of E(b-y) = 0.067 m. An effective temperature of 7470 K, a mean surface gravity, log g = 3.85, and a Fe/H abundance ratio of - 0.08 are obtained. Pulsation theory and stellar model sequences yield M(bol) = 1.4 m, mass = 1.85 solar masses, and age = 1.3 X 10 to the 9th yrs. Also, the radial-velocity data show a mean radial velocity of - 30 km/s and a total velocity range of 36 km/s. 14 refs.

  17. BP Cherry Point Cogeneration Project, Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-09-19

    BP West Coast Products, LLC (BP or the Applicant) proposes to construct and operate a nominal 720-megawatt (MW), natural-gas-fired, combined-cycle cogeneration facility next to the existing BP Cherry Point Refinery in Whatcom County, Washington. The Applicant also owns and operates the refinery, but the cogeneration facility and the refinery would be operated as separate business units. The cogeneration facility and its ancillary infrastructure would provide steam and 85 MW of electricity to meet the operating needs of the refinery and 635 MW of electrical power for local and regional consumption. The proposed cogeneration facility would be located between Ferndale and Blaine in northwestern Whatcom County, Washington. The Canadian border is approximately 8 miles north of the proposed project site. The Washington State Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council (EFSEC) has jurisdiction over the evaluation of major energy facilities including the proposed project. As such, EFSEC will recommend approval or denial of the proposed cogeneration facility to the governor of Washington after an environmental review. On June 3, 2002, the Applicant filed an Application for Site Certification (ASC No. 2002-01) with EFSEC in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 463-42. On April 22, 2003, the Applicant submitted an amended ASC that included, among other things, a change from air to water cooling. With the submission of the ASC and in accordance with the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) (WAC 463-47), EFSEC is evaluating the siting of the proposed project and conducting an environmental review with this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Because the proposed project requires federal agency approvals and permits, this EIS is intended to meet the requirements under both SEPA and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) also will use this EIS as part of their

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi: specific detection of parasites by PCR in infected humans and vectors using a set of primers (BP1/BP2) targeted to a nuclear DNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Silber, A M; Búa, J; Porcel, B M; Segura, E L; Ruiz, A M

    1997-03-01

    In the present work we evaluate Trypanosoma cruzi DNA detection by PCR using the nuclear oligonucleotides BP1/BP2 as primers. These primers are targeted to the 5' and 3' ends of the coding region for the flagellar protein F29. An amplification product of BP1/BP2 is a DNA band 692 bp long. Titration assays were performed to evaluate the minimum amount of parasite DNA that can be detected by this assay, resulting in 10 fg (equivalent to about 1/20 of the genome). The assay was also performed using T. cruzi DNA from different strains, clones, and human-derived isolates obtaining, in all cases, amplification products. No DNA amplification was observed when the PCR was performed using DNA from Leishmania braziliensis, but when T. rangeli DNA was used, a 615-bp-long fragment was amplified. Under appropriate gel conditions T. cruzi and T. rangeli DNA amplicons could be differentiated. When both conventional xenodiagnosis and PCR detection of parasite DNA in the feces of insect vectors fed with blood from infected patients were compared, 10 of 20 samples were positive by both techniques. However, 2 other samples with positive serology were also positive by PCR. When PCR was performed on blood samples from infected and uninfected individuals, 62 of 65 serologically positive human samples amplified the BP1/BP2 692-bp T. cruzi DNA fragment (sensitivity >95%). The 3 negative samples were positive when Southern blot hybridization was performed using the radiolabeled PCR amplification product as probe (sensitivity 100%). PMID:9085919

  19. Lamin A/C-dependent interaction with 53BP1 promotes cellular responses to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Markiewicz, Ewa; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels; Hutchison, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Lamins A/C have been implicated in DNA damage response pathways. We show that the DNA repair protein 53BP1 is a lamin A/C binding protein. In undamaged human dermal fibroblasts (HDF), 53BP1 is a nucleoskeleton protein. 53BP1 binds to lamins A/C via its Tudor domain, and this is abrogated by DNA damage. Lamins A/C regulate 53BP1 levels and consequently lamin A/C-null HDF display a 53BP1 null-like phenotype. Our data favour a model in which lamins A/C maintain a nucleoplasmic pool of 53BP1 in order to facilitate its rapid recruitment to sites of DNA damage and could explain why an absence of lamin A/C accelerates aging. PMID:25645366

  20. NF-κBp65 and Expression of Its Pro-Inflammatory Target Genes Are Upregulated in the Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Cachectic Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez Camargo, Rodolfo; Mendes dos Reis Riccardi, Daniela; Quintas Teixeira Ribeiro, Henrique; Carlos Carnevali, Luiz; Marques de Matos-Neto, Emidio; Enjiu, Lucas; Xavier Neves, Rodrigo; Darck Carola Correia Lima, Joanna; Galvão Figuerêdo, Raquel; Sérgio Martins de Alcântara, Paulo; Maximiano, Linda; Otoch, José; Batista, Miguel Luiz; Püschel, Gerhard; Seelaender, Marilia

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia, of which the most notable symptom is severe and rapid weight loss, is present in the majority of patients with advanced cancer. Inflammatory mediators play an important role in the development of cachexia, envisaged as a chronic inflammatory syndrome. The white adipose tissue (WAT) is one of the first compartments affected in cancer cachexia and suffers a high rate of lipolysis. It secretes several cytokines capable of directly regulating intermediate metabolism. A common pathway in the regulation of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in WAT is the activation of the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB). We have examined the gene expression of the subunits NF-κBp65 and NF-κBp50, as well as NF-κBp65 and NF-κBp50 binding, the gene expression of pro-inflammatory mediators under NF-κB control (IL-1β, IL-6, INF-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1), and its inhibitory protein, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκB-α). The observational study involved 35 patients (control group, n = 12 and cancer group, n = 23, further divided into cachectic and non-cachectic). NF-κBp65 and its target genes expression (TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1 and IκB-α) were significantly higher in cachectic cancer patients. Moreover, NF-κBp65 gene expression correlated positively with the expression of its target genes. The results strongly suggest that the NF-κB pathway plays a role in the promotion of WAT inflammation during cachexia. PMID:26053616

  1. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  2. CENP-C recruits M18BP1 to centromeres to promote CENP-A chromatin assembly

    PubMed Central

    Moree, Ben; Meyer, Corey B.; Fuller, Colin J.

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromosomes segregate by attaching to microtubules of the mitotic spindle through a chromosomal microtubule binding site called the kinetochore. Kinetochores assemble on a specialized chromosomal locus termed the centromere, which is characterized by the replacement of histone H3 in centromeric nucleosomes with the essential histone H3 variant CENP-A (centromere protein A). Understanding how CENP-A chromatin is assembled and maintained is central to understanding chromosome segregation mechanisms. CENP-A nucleosome assembly requires the Mis18 complex and the CENP-A chaperone HJURP. These factors localize to centromeres in telophase/G1, when new CENP-A chromatin is assembled. The mechanisms that control their targeting are unknown. In this paper, we identify a mechanism for recruiting the Mis18 complex protein M18BP1 to centromeres. We show that depletion of CENP-C prevents M18BP1 targeting to metaphase centromeres and inhibits CENP-A chromatin assembly. We find that M18BP1 directly binds CENP-C through conserved domains in the CENP-C protein. Thus, CENP-C provides a link between existing CENP-A chromatin and the proteins required for new CENP-A nucleosome assembly. PMID:21911481

  3. CENP-C recruits M18BP1 to centromeres to promote CENP-A chromatin assembly.

    PubMed

    Moree, Ben; Meyer, Corey B; Fuller, Colin J; Straight, Aaron F

    2011-09-19

    Eukaryotic chromosomes segregate by attaching to microtubules of the mitotic spindle through a chromosomal microtubule binding site called the kinetochore. Kinetochores assemble on a specialized chromosomal locus termed the centromere, which is characterized by the replacement of histone H3 in centromeric nucleosomes with the essential histone H3 variant CENP-A (centromere protein A). Understanding how CENP-A chromatin is assembled and maintained is central to understanding chromosome segregation mechanisms. CENP-A nucleosome assembly requires the Mis18 complex and the CENP-A chaperone HJURP. These factors localize to centromeres in telophase/G1, when new CENP-A chromatin is assembled. The mechanisms that control their targeting are unknown. In this paper, we identify a mechanism for recruiting the Mis18 complex protein M18BP1 to centromeres. We show that depletion of CENP-C prevents M18BP1 targeting to metaphase centromeres and inhibits CENP-A chromatin assembly. We find that M18BP1 directly binds CENP-C through conserved domains in the CENP-C protein. Thus, CENP-C provides a link between existing CENP-A chromatin and the proteins required for new CENP-A nucleosome assembly. PMID:21911481

  4. HLA-G 14-bp Ins/Ins Genotype in Patients Harbouring Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Potential Risk Factor?

    PubMed

    Genre, J; Reginaldo, F P Santos; Andrade, J Marco de Leon; Lima, F P; da Camara, A V Coutinho; Donadi, E A; Crispim, J C

    2016-01-01

    H. pylori is a potent pathogen due to its capacity to successfully evade host defence mechanisms. Despite inducing immune responses in infected individuals, sometimes these responses fail to clear the infection and the bacterium establishes a persistent infection leading to chronic inflammation. In this context, we hypothesized that human leucocyte antigen G (HLA-G), a non-classical major histocompatibility complex molecule that has the ability to regulate immune responses both in physiological and in pathological conditions, may play an important role in promoting tolerance and helping H. pylori to subvert host defence and consequently establish a chronic infection. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of HLA-G 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism in patients harbouring H. pylori infection, as well as their relationship with histological and demographic variables, to gain a better understanding of the actual role of HLA-G and its genetic polymorphisms in bacterial infection. Sixty-eight patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of H. pylori infection were enrolled to assess HLA-G 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism allele and genotype frequencies. After adjustment for covariates (age and gender), the odds of having the genotype Ins/Ins, compared to Del/Del, were 3.77 times greater among HP+ cases than among controls. These findings suggest that the 14-bp Ins/Ins genotype, already associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases as well as some viral and parasitic infections, could confer a greater risk of developing H. pylori infection. PMID:26368842

  5. Association of large scale 4977-bp “common” deletions in sperm mitochondrial DNA with asthenozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Ambulkar, Prafulla S.; Chuadhari, Ajay R.; Pal, Asoke K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions with abnormal sperm or abnormal flagellar movement of human spermatozoa in asthenozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) subjects using percoll gradients fractionation and long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DESIGN: We investigated sixty infertile men and thirty normal healthy fertile controls. Of sixty infertile men, 39 were asthenozoospermia and 21 were OAT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Percoll gradients discontinuous technique was used for separation of spermatozoa on the basis of their motility. Long-range PCR was used for detection of “common” 4977-bp deletions, and primer shift technique was used for confirmation of deletions. RESULTS: Overall fourteen subjects (14/60; 23.3%) of which eight (8/39; 20.5%) asthenozoospermia and six (6/21; 28.6%) OAT had shown deletions of 4977-bp. Deletions were more common (23.3%) in 40% fraction than 60% (11.6%) and 80% (5%) fractions. Sequencing results had shown deleted region of mtDNA. CONCLUSION: Abnormal spermatozoa had more number of mtDNA deletions than normal sperm, and abnormal spermatozoa had lost genes for the oxidative phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that large-scale 4977-bp mtDNA deletions in the spermatozoa from the infertile subjects cause the asthenozoospermic and OAT pathophysiological conditions in infertile males. PMID:27110076

  6. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  7. Independent Control of the Magnetization in Ferromagnetic La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/SrTiO3/LaCoO3 Heterostructures Achieved by Epitaxial Lattice Mismatch.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Murias, Beatriz; Lucas, Irene; Jiménez-Cavero, Pilar; Magén, César; Morellón, Luis; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    We report the effect of interface symmetry-mismatch on the magnetic properties of LaCoO3 (LCO) thin films. Growing epitaxial LCO under tensile strain on top of cubic SrTiO3 (STO) produces a contraction along the c axis and a characteristic ferromagnetic response. However, we report here that ferromagnetism in LCO is completely suppressed when grown on top of a buffer layer of rhombohedral La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO), in spite of identical in-plane and out-of-plane lattice deformation. This confirms that it is the lattice symmetry mismatch and not just the total strain, which determines the magnetism of LCO. On the basis of this control over the magnetic properties of LCO, we designed a multilayered structure to achieve independent rotation of the magnetization in ferromagnetic insulating LCO and half-metallic ferromagnet LSMO. This is an important step forward for the design of spin-filtering tunnel barriers based on LCO. PMID:26822394

  8. Tissue-specific regulation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 phosphorylation by alpha-ketoisocaproate.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Fumiaki; Sekizawa, Haruhito; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Nagasawa, Takashi; Sugahara, Kunio

    2004-02-01

    The indispensable branched-chain amino acid leucine acts as a key regulator of mRNA translation by modulating the phosphorylation of proteins that represent important control points in translation initiation, including the translational repressor, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1). In the current study, we compared the effects of L- and D-enantiomers of leucine on the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1. We also assessed whether leucine itself or its metabolite, alpha-ketoisocaproate (alpha-KIC), mediates the effects of leucine. Food-deprived (18 h) rats were orally administered 135 mg/100 g body weight L-leucine, D-leucine or alpha-KIC and were sacrificed after 1 h. L-Leucine administration had an obvious stimulatory effect on the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 in both skeletal muscle and liver while D-leucine was much less effective, indicating that the effect of leucine is stereospecific. Oral administration of alpha-KIC mimicked the stimulatory effect of L-leucine in skeletal muscle. In contrast to skeletal muscle, provision of alpha-KIC was significantly less effective than L-leucine in the liver. The results showing that the efficacy of L-leucine and alpha-KIC in stimulating phosphorylation of S6K1 and 4E-BP1 is equivalent in skeletal muscle, may be explained by the conversion of alpha-KIC to L-leucine. PMID:15228219

  9. Multiple PAR and E4BP4 bZIP transcription factors in zebrafish: diverse spatial and temporal expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Ben-Moshe, Zohar; Vatine, Gad; Alon, Shahar; Tovin, Adi; Mracek, Philipp; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Gothilf, Yoav

    2010-09-01

    Circadian rhythms of physiology and behavior are generated by an autonomous circadian oscillator that is synchronized daily with the environment, mainly by light input. The PAR subfamily of transcriptional activators and the related E4BP4 repressor belonging to the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family are clock-controlled genes that are suggested to mediate downstream circadian clock processes and to feedback onto the core oscillator. Here, the authors report the characterization of these genes in the zebrafish, an increasingly important model in the field of chronobiology. Five novel PAR and six novel e4bp4 zebrafish homolog genes were identified using bioinformatic tools and their coding sequences were cloned. Based on their evolutionary relationships, these genes were annotated as ztef2, zhlf1 and zhlf2, zdbp1 and zdbp2, and ze4bp4-1 to -6. The spatial and temporal mRNA expression pattern of each of these factors was characterized in zebrafish embryos in the context of a functional circadian clock and regulation by light. Nine of the factors exhibited augmented and rhythmic expression in the pineal gland, a central clock organ in zebrafish. Moreover, these genes were found to be regulated, to variable extents, by the circadian clock and/or by light. Differential expression patterns of multiple paralogs in zebrafish suggest multiple roles for these factors within the vertebrate circadian clock. This study, in the genetically accessible zebrafish model, lays the foundation for further research regarding the involvement and specific roles of PAR and E4BP4 transcription factors in the vertebrate circadian clock mechanism. PMID:20854132

  10. About the {open_quotes}Asian{close_quotes}-specific 9-bp deletion of mtDNA...

    SciTech Connect

    Torroni, A.; Petrozzi, M.; Santolamazza, P.

    1995-08-01

    The 9-bp deletion between the COII and tRNA{sup Lys} genes is due to the lack of one of two adjacent copies of a 9-bp sequence usually present in human mtDNA. This mutation is very common in Asians and populations of Asian ancestry (e.g., Polynesians and Amerinds) and often has been considered and ethnic-specific polymorphism for these populations. We now report the detection of the COII-tRNA{sup Lys} 9-bp deletion in an individual of Italian descent. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the 9-bp deletion has been observed in Europeans. 19 refs.

  11. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  12. CEBAF accelerator achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Y.C. Chao, M. Drury, C. Hovater, A. Hutton, G.A. Krafft, M. Poelker, C. Reece, M. Tiefenback

    2011-06-01

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  13. Humans make near-optimal adjustments of control to initial body configuration in vertical squat jumping.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Maarten F; Richard Casius, L J; Kistemaker, Dinant A

    2013-05-01

    We investigated adjustments of control to initial posture in squat jumping. Eleven male subjects jumped from three initial postures: preferred initial posture (PP), a posture in which the trunk was rotated 18° more backward (BP) and a posture in which it was rotated 15° more forward (FP) than in PP. Kinematics, ground reaction forces and electromyograms (EMG) were collected. EMG was rectified and smoothed to obtain smoothed rectified EMG (srEMG). Subjects showed adjustments in srEMG histories, most conspicuously a shift in srEMG-onset of rectus femoris (REC): from early in BP to late in FP. Jumps from the subjects' initial postures were simulated with a musculoskeletal model comprising four segments and six Hill-type muscles, which had muscle stimulation (STIM) over time as input. STIM of each muscle changed from initial to maximal at STIM-onset, and STIM-onsets were optimized using jump height as criterion. Optimal simulated jumps from BP, PP and FP were similar to jumps of the subjects. Optimal solutions primarily differed in STIM-onset of REC: from early in BP to late in FP. Because the subjects' adjustments in srEMG-onsets were similar to adjustments of the model's optimal STIM-onsets, it was concluded that the former were near-optimal. With the model we also showed that near-maximum jumps from BP, PP and FP could be achieved when STIM-onset of REC depended on initial hip joint angle and STIM-onsets of the other muscles were posture-independent. A control theory that relies on a mapping from initial posture to STIM-onsets seems a parsimonious alternative to theories relying on internal optimal control models. PMID:23384608

  14. An analysis of the rapidly rotating Bp star HD 133880

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. D.; Grunhut, J.; Shultz, M.; Wade, G.; Landstreet, J. D.; Bohlender, D.; Lim, J.; Wong, K.; Drake, S.; Linsky, J.

    2012-06-01

    HD 133880 is a rapidly rotating chemically peculiar B-type (Bp) star (v sin i≃ 103 km s-1) and is host to one of the strongest magnetic fields of any Ap/Bp star. A member of the Upper Centaurus Lupus association, it is a star with a well-determined age of 16 Myr. 12 new spectra, four of which are polarimetric, obtained from the FEROS, ESPaDOnS and HARPS instruments, provide sufficient material from which to re-evaluate the magnetic field and obtain a first approximation to the atmospheric abundance distributions of He, O, Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pr and Nd. An abundance analysis was carried out using ZEEMAN, a program which synthesizes spectral line profiles for stars with permeating magnetic fields. The magnetic field structure was characterized by a colinear multipole expansion from the observed variations of the longitudinal and surface fields with rotational phase. Both magnetic hemispheres are clearly visible during the stellar rotation, and thus a three-ring abundance distribution model encompassing both magnetic poles and magnetic equator with equal spans in colatitude was adopted. Using the new magnetic field measurements and optical photometry together with previously published data, we refine the period of HD 133880 to P= 0.877 476 ± 0.000 009 d. Our simple axisymmetric magnetic field model is based on a predominantly quadrupolar component that roughly describes the field variations. Using spectrum synthesis, we derived mean abundances for O, Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe and Pr. All elements, except Mg, are overabundant compared to the Sun. Mg appears to be approximately uniform over the stellar surface, while all other elements are more abundant in the negative magnetic hemisphere than in the positive magnetic hemisphere. In contrast to most Ap/Bp stars which show an underabundance in O, in HD 133880 this element is clearly overabundant compared to the solar abundance ratio. In studying the Hα and Paschen lines in the optical spectra, we could not unambiguously

  15. Survey and Rapid Detection of Bordetella pertussis in Clinical Samples Targeting the BP485 in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Yinghua; Dong, Derong; Li, Huan; Zhao, Xiangna; Li, Lili; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Xiao; Wang, Xuesong; Huang, Simo; Zeng, Ming; Huang, Liuyu; Zhang, Shumin; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is an important human respiratory pathogen. Here, we describe a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid detection of B. pertussis in clinical samples based on a visual test. The LAMP assay detected the BP485 target sequence within 60 min with a detection limit of 1.3 pg/μl, a 10-fold increase in sensitivity compared with conventional PCR. All 31 non-pertussis respiratory pathogens tested were negative for LAMP detection, indicating the high specificity of the primers for B. pertussis. To evaluate the application of the LAMP assay to clinical diagnosis, of 105 sputum and nasopharyngeal samples collected from the patients with suspected respiratory infections in China, a total of 12 B. pertussis isolates were identified from 33 positive samples detected by LAMP-based surveillance targeting BP485. Strikingly, a 4.5 months old baby and her mother were found to be infected with B. pertussis at the same time. All isolates belonged to different B. pertussis multilocus sequence typing groups with different alleles of the virulence-related genes including four alleles of ptxA, six of prn, four of tcfA, two of fim2, and three of fim3. The diversity of B. pertussis carrying toxin genes in clinical strains indicates a rapid and continuing evolution of B. pertussis. This combined with its high prevalence will make it difficult to control. In conclusion, we have developed a visual detection LAMP assay, which could be a useful tool for rapid B. pertussis detection, especially in situations where resources are poor and in point-of-care tests. PMID:25798436

  16. Design and characterization of novel antimicrobial peptides, R-BP100 and RW-BP100, with activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Torcato, Inês M; Huang, Yen-Hua; Franquelim, Henri G; Gaspar, Diana; Craik, David J; Castanho, Miguel A R B; Troeira Henriques, Sónia

    2013-03-01

    BP100 is a short cationic antimicrobial peptide with a mechanism of action dependent on peptide-lipid interactions and microbial surface charge neutralization. Although active against Gram-negative bacteria, BP100 is inactive against Gram-positive bacteria. In this study we report two newly designed BP100 analogues, RW-BP100 and R-BP100 that have the Tyr residue replaced with a Trp and/or the Lys residues replaced with an Arg. The new analogues in addition to being active against Gram-negative bacteria, possess activity against all tested Gram-positive bacteria. Mechanistic studies using atomic force microscopy, surface plasmon resonance and fluorescence methodologies reveal that the antibacterial efficiency follows the affinity for bacterial membrane. The studies suggest that the activity of BP100 and its analogues against Gram-negative bacteria is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions with the lipopolysaccharide layer and is followed by binding to and disruption of the inner membrane, whereas activity against Gram-positive bacteria, in addition to electrostatic attraction to the exposed lipoteichoic acids, requires an ability to more deeply insert in the membrane environment, which is favoured with Arg residues and is facilitated in the presence of a Trp residue. Knowledge on the mechanism of action of these antimicrobial peptides provides information that assists in the design of antimicrobials with higher efficacy and broader spectra of action, but also on the design of peptides with higher specificity if required. PMID:23246973

  17. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  18. The Effects of Learning Strategy Instruction on Achievement, Attitude, and Achievement Motivation in a Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin; Sahin, Mehmet; Acikgoz, Kamile Un

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the influence of learning strategy instruction on student teachers' physics achievement, attitude towards physics, and achievement motivation. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design with matching control group was used in the study. Two groups of student teachers (n = 75) who were enrolled in an introductory physics…

  19. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  20. Mood lability among offspring of parents with bipolar disorder and community controls

    PubMed Central

    Birmaher, Boris; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Axelson, David A; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Fan, Jieyu; Iyengar, Satish; Ha, Wonho; Diler, Rasim S; Goldstein, Tina; Brent, David; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Sakolsky, Dara; Kupfer, David J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Early identification of bipolar disorder (BP) symptomatology is crucial for improving the prognosis of this illness. Increased mood lability has been reported in BP. However, mood lability is ubiquitous across psychiatric disorders and may be a marker of severe psychopathology and not specific to BP. To clarify this issue, this study examined the prevalence of mood lability and its components in offspring of BP parents and offspring of community control parents recruited through the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study. Methods Forty-one school-age BP offspring of 38 BP parents, 257 healthy or non-BP offspring of 174 BP parents, and 192 offspring of 117 control parents completed a scale that was developed to evaluate mood lability in youth, i.e., the Children’s Affective Lability Scale (CALS). Results A factor analysis of the parental CALS, and in part the child CALS, revealed Irritability, Mania, and Anxiety/Depression factors, with most of the variance explained by the Irritability factor. After adjusting for confounding factors (e.g., parental and offspring non-BP psychopathology), BP offspring of BP parents showed the highest parental and child total and factor scores, followed by the non-BP offspring of BP parents, and then the offspring of the controls. Conclusions Mood lability overall and mania-like, anxious/depressed, and particularly irritability symptoms may be a prodromal phenotype of BP among offspring of parents with BP. Prospective studies are warranted to clarify whether these symptoms will predict the development of BP and/or other psychopathology. If confirmed, these symptoms may become a target of treatment and biological studies before BP develops. PMID:23551755