Science.gov

Sample records for achieve climate neutrality

  1. Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C.

    This paper discusses ways that institutions can change the higher education system and environment to accommodate more minority students. The first section, "Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement," presents an overview of the problems facing colleges and universities with respect to recruiting and retaining minority students. In the…

  2. Achieving Carbon Neutrality in the Global Aluminum Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subodh

    2012-02-01

    In the 21st century, sustainability is widely regarded as the new corporate culture, and leading manufacturing companies (Toyota, GE, and Alcoa) and service companies (Google and Federal Express) are striving towards carbon neutrality. The current carbon footprint of the global aluminum industry is estimated at 500 million metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq), representing about 1.7% of global emissions from all sources. For the global aluminum industry, carbon neutrality is defined as a state where the total "in-use" CO2eq saved from all products in current use, including incremental process efficiency improvements, recycling, and urban mining activities, equals the CO2eq expended to produce the global output of aluminum. This paper outlines an integrated and quantifiable plan for achieving "carbon neutrality" in the global aluminum industry by advocating five actionable steps: (1) increase use of "green" electrical energy grid by 8%, (2) reduce process energy needs by 16%, (3) deploy 35% of products in "in-use" energy saving applications, (4) divert 6.1 million metric tonnes/year from landfills, and (5) mine 4.5 million metric tonnes/year from aluminum-rich "urban mines." Since it takes 20 times more energy to make aluminum from bauxite ore than to recycle it from scrap, the global aluminum industry could set a reasonable, self-imposed energy/carbon neutrality goal to incrementally increase the supply of recycled aluminum by at least 1.05 metric tonnes for every tonne of incremental production via primary aluminum smelter capacity. Furthermore, the aluminum industry can and should take a global leadership position by actively developing internationally accepted and approved carbon footprint credit protocols.

  3. Budgeting for Climate Neutrality, Colleges Consider Energy Credits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    More and more colleges are grappling with issues on budgeting for climate neutrality. Around 40 percent of colleges' greenhouse-gas emissions come from purchased electricity. Through the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment, which originated in 2007, hundreds of colleges have vowed to buy energy from green sources. In…

  4. Campus Climate Neutrality--Yes We Can! It's a Big Challenge, but Here's How to Do It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Everyone knows climate change is real, it's happening quickly, its risks are great, and it is not too late to do something about it. Indicative of change is the fact that as of early 2009 over 600 colleges and universities have pledged to achieve climate neutrality through the American College & University Presidents Climate Commitment. Presidents…

  5. Neutral biogeography and the evolution of climatic niches.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Florian C; Thuiller, Wilfried; Davies, T Jonathan; Lavergne, Sébastien

    2014-05-01

    Recent debate on whether climatic niches are conserved through time has focused on how phylogenetic niche conservatism can be measured by deviations from a Brownian motion model of evolutionary change. However, there has been no evaluation of this methodological approach. In particular, the fact that climatic niches are usually obtained from distribution data and are thus heavily influenced by biogeographic factors has largely been overlooked. Our main objective here was to test whether patterns of climatic niche evolution that are frequently observed might arise from neutral dynamics rather than from adaptive scenarios. We developed a model inspired by neutral biodiversity theory, where individuals disperse, compete, and undergo speciation independently of climate. We then sampled the climatic niches of species according to their geographic position and showed that even when species evolve independently of climate, their niches can nonetheless exhibit evolutionary patterns strongly differing from Brownian motion. Indeed, climatic niche evolution is better captured by a model of punctuated evolution with constraints due to landscape boundaries, two features that are traditionally interpreted as evidence for selective processes acting on the niche. We therefore suggest that deviation from Brownian motion alone should not be used as evidence for phylogenetic niche conservatism but that information on phenotypic traits directly linked to physiology is required to demonstrate that climatic niches have been conserved through time.

  6. Neutral biogeography and the evolution of climatic niches

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Florian C.; Thuiller, Wilfried; Davies, T. Jonathan; Lavergne, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Recent debate on whether climatic niches are conserved through time has focused on how phylogenetic niche conservatism can be measured by deviations from a Brownian motion model of evolutionary change. However, there has been no evaluation of this methodological approach. In particular, the fact that climatic niches are usually obtained from distribution data and are thus heavily influenced by biogeographic factors has largely been overlooked. Our main objective here was to test whether patterns of climatic niche evolution that are frequently observed might arise from neutral dynamics rather than adaptive scenarios. We develop a model inspired by Neutral Biodiversity Theory, where individuals disperse, compete, and undergo speciation independently of climate. We then sample the climatic niches of species according to their geographic position and show that even when species evolved independently of climate, their niches can nonetheless exhibit evolutionary patterns strongly differing from Brownian motion. Indeed, climatic niche evolution is better captured by a model of punctuated evolution with constraints due to landscape boundaries, two features that are traditionally interpreted as evidence for selective processes acting on the niche. We therefore suggest that deviation from Brownian motion alone should not be used as evidence for phylogenetic niche conservatism, but that information on phenotypic traits directly linked to physiology is required to demonstrate that climatic niches have been conserved through time. PMID:24739191

  7. Achieving climate connectivity in a fragmented landscape

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, Joshua J.; McRae, Brad H.; Nuñez, Tristan A.; Theobald, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The contiguous United States contains a disconnected patchwork of natural lands. This fragmentation by human activities limits species’ ability to track suitable climates as they rapidly shift. However, most models that project species movement needs have not examined where fragmentation will limit those movements. Here, we quantify climate connectivity, the capacity of landscape configuration to allow species movement in the face of dynamically shifting climate. Using this metric, we assess to what extent habitat fragmentation will limit species movements in response to climate change. We then evaluate how creating corridors to promote climate connectivity could potentially mitigate these restrictions, and we assess where strategies to increase connectivity will be most beneficial. By analyzing fragmentation patterns across the contiguous United States, we demonstrate that only 41% of natural land area retains enough connectivity to allow plants and animals to maintain climatic parity as the climate warms. In the eastern United States, less than 2% of natural area is sufficiently connected. Introducing corridors to facilitate movement through human-dominated regions increases the percentage of climatically connected natural area to 65%, with the most impactful gains in low-elevation regions, particularly in the southeastern United States. These climate connectivity analyses allow ecologists and conservation practitioners to determine the most effective regions for increasing connectivity. More importantly, our findings demonstrate that increasing climate connectivity is critical for allowing species to track rapidly changing climates, reconfiguring habitats to promote access to suitable climates. PMID:27298349

  8. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  9. School Climate and Academic Achievement in Suburban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulak, Tracey N.

    2016-01-01

    School climate research has indicated a relationship between the climate of a school and academic achievement. The majority of explanatory models have been developed in urban schools with less attention given to suburban schools. Due to the process of formation of suburban schools, there is a likelihood these campuses differ from the traditional…

  10. Achieving Global Ocean Color Climate Data Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Ocean color, or the spectral distribution of visible light upwelling from beneath the ocean surface, carries information on the composition and concentration of biological constituents within the water column. The CZCS mission in 1978 demonstrated that quantitative ocean color measurements could be. made from spaceborne sensors, given sufficient corrections for atmospheric effects and a rigorous calibration and validation program. The launch of SeaWiFS in 1997 represents the beginning of NASA's ongoing efforts to develop a continuous ocean color data record with sufficient coverage and fidelity for global change research. Achievements in establishing and maintaining the consistency of the time-series through multiple missions and varying instrument designs will be highlighted in this talk, including measurements from NASA'S MODIS instruments currently flying on the Terra and Aqua platforms, as well as the MERIS sensor flown by ESA and the OCM-2 sensor recently launched by ISRO.

  11. CO₂-neutral wastewater treatment plants or robust, climate-friendly wastewater management? A systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Tove A

    2015-12-15

    CO2-neutral wastewater treatment plants can be obtained by improving the recovery of internal wastewater energy resources (COD, nutrients, energy) and reducing energy demand as well as direct emissions of the greenhouse gases N2O and CH4. Climate-friendly wastewater management also includes the management of the heat resource, which is most efficiently recovered at the household level, and robust wastewater management must be able to cope with a possible resulting temperature decrease. At the treatment plant there is a substantial energy optimization potential, both from improving electromechanical devices and sludge treatment as well as through the implementation of more energy-efficient processes like the mainstream anammox process or nutrient recovery from urine. Whether CO2 neutrality can be achieved depends not only on the actual net electricity production, but also on the type of electricity replaced: the cleaner the marginal electricity the more difficult to compensate for the direct emissions, which can be substantial, depending on the stability of the biological processes. It is possible to combine heat recovery at the household scale and nutrient recovery from urine, which both have a large potential to improve the climate friendliness of wastewater management.

  12. Classroom Emotional Climate, Student Engagement, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Maria R.; Brackett, Marc A.; Rivers, Susan E.; White, Mark; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The emotional connections students foster in their classrooms are likely to impact their success in school. Using a multimethod, multilevel approach, this study examined the link between classroom emotional climate and academic achievement, including the role of student engagement as a mediator. Data were collected from 63 fifth- and sixth-grade…

  13. Motivational Climates, Achievement Goals, and Physical Education Outcomes: A Longitudinal Test of Achievement Goal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvari, Hallgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2011-01-01

    The present research tested the longitudinal relations over a school-year between motivational climates, achievement goals, and five physical education outcomes, namely intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, positive attitude, exertion, and attendance in physical education. The results showed that students' mastery goals measured early in the…

  14. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  15. National Climate Program: Early achievements and future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Activities of the National Climate Program since 1978 are reviewed, and outlines new directions which should be emphasized over the next five years or so. These are discussed under the subentities of climate system research; climate impacts; and climatic data, information, and services.

  16. Climate, history and neutrality as drivers of mammal beta diversity in Europe: insights from multiscale deconstruction.

    PubMed

    Svenning, Jens-Christian; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Baselga, Andrés

    2011-03-01

    1. Environmental sorting, historical factors and neutral dynamics may all drive beta diversity (change in species composition across space), but their relative importance remains unresolved. In the case of European mammals, key potential drivers of large-scale beta diversity include current climate, neutral dynamics and two historical factors: Pleistocene glaciations and peninsular dynamics (immigration from extra-regional eastern faunal source areas and inter-linked relictual survival and evolutionary differentiation in isolated areas). 2. We assessed the relative importance of these drivers using a novel analytical framework to deconstruct beta diversity of non-volant mammals in Europe (138 species) into its turnover (change in species composition because of species replacements) and nestedness components (change in species composition because of species richness differences) at continental and regional (250,000 km(2) ) scales. 3. We found continental-scale mammal beta diversity to be mainly caused by spatial turnover (99·9%), with only a small contribution (0·1%) from nestedness. 4. Current climate emerged as an important driver of beta diversity, given the strong continental-scale turnover, particularly in north-south direction, i.e., in line with the latitudinal climate gradient, and, more directly, the strong correlation of climate with spatial turnover at both continental and regional scales. 5. However, there was also evidence for the importance of non-climatic drivers. Notably, the compositional variation purely accounted for by space was greater than that purely accounted for by environment for both the turnover and the nestedness component of beta diversity. Furthermore, the strong longitudinal turnover within Southern Europe is in accordance with the region's long-term climatic stability having allowed multiple refugia and local evolutionary diversification. As expected from peninsular dynamics, there was increasing dissimilarity with

  17. A scenario neutral approach to assess low flow sensitivity to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauquet, Eric; Prudhomme, Christel

    2015-04-01

    Most impact studies of climate change on river flow regime are performed following top-down approaches, where changes in hydrological characteristics are obtained from rainfall-runoff models forced by downscaled projections provided by GCMs. However, such approaches are not always considered robust enough to bridge the gap between climate research and stake holders needs to develop relevant adaptation strategy (Wilby et al., 2014). Alternatively, 'bottom-up' approaches can be applied to climate change impact studies on water resources to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of the catchments and ultimately help to prioritize adaptation actions for areas highly sensitive to small deviations from the present-day climate conditions. A general framework combining the scenario-neutral methodology developed by Prudhomme et al. (2010) and climate elasticity analyses (Sankarasubramanian et al., 2001) is presented and applied to measure the vulnerability of low flows and droughts on a large dataset of more than 400 French gauged basins. The different steps involved in the suggested framework are: - Calibration of the GR5J rainfall runoff model (Pushpalatha et al., 2011) against observations, - Identification of the main climate factors influencing low flows, - Definition of the sensitivity domain for precipitation (P), temperature (T) and potential evapotranspiration (PE) scenarios consistent with most recent climate change projections, - Derivation of the response surface describing changes in low flow and drought regime in terms of severity, duration and seasonality (Catalogne, 2012), - Uncertainty assessment. Results are the basis for a classification of river basins according to their sensitivity at national scale and for discussions on adaptation requirements with stakeholders. Catalogne C (2012) Amélioration des méthodes de prédétermination des débits de référence d'étiage en sites peu ou pas jaugés. PHD thesis, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, 285 pp

  18. Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Apply to the Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award), which publicly recognizes organizations that achieve publicly-set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals.

  19. Relation between Classroom Climate and Achievement in Physical Science of Secondary School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    R., Smitha; Sajan, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the extent of relationship between "Achievement in Physical Science" and "Classroom Climate" for the total sample and Sub sample based on gender. The tools used for collecting the data are scale of classroom climate and achievement test in physical science. The study reveals that boys show indifferent or…

  20. Cumulative carbon as a policy framework for achieving climate stabilization.

    PubMed

    Matthews, H Damon; Solomon, Susan; Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2012-09-13

    The primary objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that will avoid dangerous climate impacts. However, greenhouse gas concentration stabilization is an awkward framework within which to assess dangerous climate change on account of the significant lag between a given concentration level and the eventual equilibrium temperature change. By contrast, recent research has shown that global temperature change can be well described by a given cumulative carbon emissions budget. Here, we propose that cumulative carbon emissions represent an alternative framework that is applicable both as a tool for climate mitigation as well as for the assessment of potential climate impacts. We show first that both atmospheric CO(2) concentration at a given year and the associated temperature change are generally associated with a unique cumulative carbon emissions budget that is largely independent of the emissions scenario. The rate of global temperature change can therefore be related to first order to the rate of increase of cumulative carbon emissions. However, transient warming over the next century will also be strongly affected by emissions of shorter lived forcing agents such as aerosols and methane. Non-CO(2) emissions therefore contribute to uncertainty in the cumulative carbon budget associated with near-term temperature targets, and may suggest the need for a mitigation approach that considers separately short- and long-lived gas emissions. By contrast, long-term temperature change remains primarily associated with total cumulative carbon emissions owing to the much longer atmospheric residence time of CO(2) relative to other major climate forcing agents.

  1. Cumulative carbon as a policy framework for achieving climate stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, H. Damon; Solomon, Susan; Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that will avoid dangerous climate impacts. However, greenhouse gas concentration stabilization is an awkward framework within which to assess dangerous climate change on account of the significant lag between a given concentration level and the eventual equilibrium temperature change. By contrast, recent research has shown that global temperature change can be well described by a given cumulative carbon emissions budget. Here, we propose that cumulative carbon emissions represent an alternative framework that is applicable both as a tool for climate mitigation as well as for the assessment of potential climate impacts. We show first that both atmospheric CO2 concentration at a given year and the associated temperature change are generally associated with a unique cumulative carbon emissions budget that is largely independent of the emissions scenario. The rate of global temperature change can therefore be related to first order to the rate of increase of cumulative carbon emissions. However, transient warming over the next century will also be strongly affected by emissions of shorter lived forcing agents such as aerosols and methane. Non-CO2 emissions therefore contribute to uncertainty in the cumulative carbon budget associated with near-term temperature targets, and may suggest the need for a mitigation approach that considers separately short- and long-lived gas emissions. By contrast, long-term temperature change remains primarily associated with total cumulative carbon emissions owing to the much longer atmospheric residence time of CO2 relative to other major climate forcing agents. PMID:22869803

  2. The Effects of School Culture and Climate on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeil, Angus J.; Prater, Doris L.; Busch, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether Exemplary, Recognized and Acceptable schools differ in their school climates, as measured by the 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory. Significant differences were found on all 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory, with Exemplary schools out-performing Acceptable…

  3. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  4. Climate variables explain neutral and adaptive variation within salmonid metapopulations: The importance of replication in landscape genetics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hand, Brian K; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Wade, Alisa A.; Kovach, Ryan; Whited, Diane C.; Narum, Shawn R.; Matala, Andrew P; Ackerman, Michael W.; Garner, B. A.; Kimball, John S; Stanford, Jack A.; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how environmental variation influences population genetic structure is important for conservation management because it can reveal how human stressors influence population connectivity, genetic diversity and persistence. We used riverscape genetics modelling to assess whether climatic and habitat variables were related to neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation (population-specific and pairwise FST) within five metapopulations (79 populations, 4583 individuals) of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, USA. Using 151 putatively neutral and 29 candidate adaptive SNP loci, we found that climate-related variables (winter precipitation, summer maximum temperature, winter highest 5% flow events and summer mean flow) best explained neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation within metapopulations, suggesting that climatic variation likely influences both demography (neutral variation) and local adaptation (adaptive variation). However, we did not observe consistent relationships between climate variables and FST across all metapopulations, underscoring the need for replication when extrapolating results from one scale to another (e.g. basin-wide to the metapopulation scale). Sensitivity analysis (leave-one-population-out) revealed consistent relationships between climate variables and FST within three metapopulations; however, these patterns were not consistent in two metapopulations likely due to small sample sizes (N = 10). These results provide correlative evidence that climatic variation has shaped the genetic structure of steelhead populations and highlight the need for replication and sensitivity analyses in land and riverscape genetics.

  5. Climate variables explain neutral and adaptive variation within salmonid metapopulations: the importance of replication in landscape genetics.

    PubMed

    Hand, Brian K; Muhlfeld, Clint C; Wade, Alisa A; Kovach, Ryan P; Whited, Diane C; Narum, Shawn R; Matala, Andrew P; Ackerman, Michael W; Garner, Brittany A; Kimball, John S; Stanford, Jack A; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how environmental variation influences population genetic structure is important for conservation management because it can reveal how human stressors influence population connectivity, genetic diversity and persistence. We used riverscape genetics modelling to assess whether climatic and habitat variables were related to neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation (population-specific and pairwise FST ) within five metapopulations (79 populations, 4583 individuals) of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, USA. Using 151 putatively neutral and 29 candidate adaptive SNP loci, we found that climate-related variables (winter precipitation, summer maximum temperature, winter highest 5% flow events and summer mean flow) best explained neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation within metapopulations, suggesting that climatic variation likely influences both demography (neutral variation) and local adaptation (adaptive variation). However, we did not observe consistent relationships between climate variables and FST across all metapopulations, underscoring the need for replication when extrapolating results from one scale to another (e.g. basin-wide to the metapopulation scale). Sensitivity analysis (leave-one-population-out) revealed consistent relationships between climate variables and FST within three metapopulations; however, these patterns were not consistent in two metapopulations likely due to small sample sizes (N = 10). These results provide correlative evidence that climatic variation has shaped the genetic structure of steelhead populations and highlight the need for replication and sensitivity analyses in land and riverscape genetics.

  6. Climatic niche and neutral genetic diversity of the six Iberian pine species: a retrospective and prospective view.

    PubMed

    Soto, A; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; González-Martínez, S C; Smouse, P E; Alía, R

    2010-04-01

    Quaternary climatic fluctuations have left contrasting historical footprints on the neutral genetic diversity patterns of existing populations of different tree species. We should expect the demography, and consequently the neutral genetic structure, of taxa less tolerant to particular climatic extremes to be more sensitive to long-term climate fluctuations. We explore this hypothesis here by sampling all six pine species found in the Iberian Peninsula (2464 individuals, 105 populations), using a common set of chloroplast microsatellite markers, and by looking at the association between neutral genetic diversity and species-specific climatic requirements. We found large variation in neutral genetic diversity and structure among Iberian pines, with cold-enduring mountain species (Pinus uncinata, P. sylvestris and P. nigra) showing substantially greater diversity than thermophilous taxa (P. pinea and P. halepensis). Within species, we observed a significant positive correlation between population genetic diversity and summer precipitation for some of the mountain pines. The observed pattern is consistent with the hypotheses that: (i) more thermophilous species have been subjected to stronger demographic fluctuations in the past, as a consequence of their maladaptation to recurrent glacial cold stages; and (ii) altitudinal migrations have allowed the maintenance of large effective population sizes and genetic variation in cold-tolerant species, especially in more humid regions. In the light of these results and hypotheses, we discuss some potential genetic consequences of impending climate change.

  7. School Climate, Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement: Results from a Multi-Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…

  8. Servant Leadership and Its Impact on Classroom Climate and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research was to see to what degree a relationship existed between servant leadership, classroom climate, and student achievement in a collegiate environment. This was a quantitative, correlational study. The foundational theories for this research included servant leadership and organizational climate that pertain…

  9. Perception of Classroom Climate, Use of WebCT, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2006-01-01

    The current investigation sought to understand the relationships between college student perception of classroom climate, use of WebCT, and academic achievement. Fifty-three college students provided three categories of predictor and criterion measures: (1) rating scale responses that assessed perception of seven dimensions of classroom climate,…

  10. Why Try? Achievement Motivation and Perceived Academic Climate among Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Natalie J.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2010-01-01

    Elliot and McGregor's (2001) 2 x 2 model of achievement motivation (mastery approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach and performance-avoidance) was used among 143 Latino adolescents to examine how achievement motivation changes over time, and whether perception of academic climate influences eventual academic outcomes. A series of…

  11. Exploring the School Climate--Student Achievement Connection: Making Sense of Why the First Precedes the Second

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Albert; Shindler, John

    2016-01-01

    Many educators view school climate and student achievement as separate considerations. For some, the idea of promoting a high quality climate can seem like a luxury in the face of the current high stakes assessment climate in which student achievement gains are the paramount consideration. However, the results of this study suggest that climate…

  12. Differentiation in neutral genes and a candidate gene in the pied flycatcher: using biological archives to track global climate change.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Kerstin; Schwenk, Klaus; Both, Christiaan; Canal, David; Johansson, Ulf S; van der Mije, Steven; Töpfer, Till; Päckert, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Global climate change is one of the major driving forces for adaptive shifts in migration and breeding phenology and possibly impacts demographic changes if a species fails to adapt sufficiently. In Western Europe, pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) have insufficiently adapted their breeding phenology to the ongoing advance of food peaks within their breeding area and consequently suffered local population declines. We address the question whether this population decline led to a loss of genetic variation, using two neutral marker sets (mitochondrial control region and microsatellites), and one potentially selectively non-neutral marker (avian Clock gene). We report temporal changes in genetic diversity in extant populations and biological archives over more than a century, using samples from sites differing in the extent of climate change. Comparing genetic differentiation over this period revealed that only the recent Dutch population, which underwent population declines, showed slightly lower genetic variation than the historic Dutch population. As that loss of variation was only moderate and not observed in all markers, current gene flow across Western and Central European populations might have compensated local loss of variation over the last decades. A comparison of genetic differentiation in neutral loci versus the Clock gene locus provided evidence for stabilizing selection. Furthermore, in all genetic markers, we found a greater genetic differentiation in space than in time. This pattern suggests that local adaptation or historic processes might have a stronger effect on the population structure and genetic variation in the pied flycatcher than recent global climate changes.

  13. School Instructional Climate and Student Achievement: An Examination of Group Norms for Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Yvonne; Goddard, Roger; Kim, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between school instructional climate and students' fifth-grade mathematics and reading achievement, with a particular emphasis on norms for practice consistent with differentiated instruction. Using data from a stratified random sample of Michigan elementary schools, we employed…

  14. The Effect of Community Involvement through PENCIL Partners on School Climate and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that community partnerships could have on school climate and, ultimately, student achievement. Specifically, community partnerships that were formed through the PENCIL (Public Education Needs Community Involvement and Leadership) Foundation in Nashville, Tennessee were researched to determine…

  15. A Correlational Study: The Relationship between School Climate, Connectedness, and Reading Achievement of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanford, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, correlational research study was to develop an understanding of the relationship between the quality of school climate and connectedness as perceived by 3rd- to 5th-grade students and their teachers, and the level and of reading achievement of 3rd- to 5th-grade students in one district in the Northwestern United…

  16. Examining the Impact of Leadership Style and School Climate on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate whether or not leadership style and school climate are significant predictors of student achievement. The target population consisted of elementary and high school teachers from Virginia public schools who had taught under the leadership of their respective current principals for at least 4…

  17. Perceptions of School Climate and Student Achievement in Middle and Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Alicia L.; Brown, Neil L.

    The relationship of middle school climate to academic achievement was examined. Participants were members of eight 6th grade classes. Four of the classes were in elementary settings, and four in middle school settings. Classes were matched as closely as possible on economic status and ethnic composition. Entered into correlational analyses were…

  18. Achievement Goals, Motivational Climate and Sportspersonship: A Study of Young Handball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stornes, Tor; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between achievement goals, perceptions of motivational climate and sportspersonship in a sample of young male Norwegian handball players. A cross-sectional study of 440 male handball players aged from 14 to 16 was conducted, in which the players responded to a questionnaire measuring…

  19. Influence of School Climate on Students' Achievement and Teachers' Productivity for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeogun, A. A.; Olisaemeka, Blessing U.

    2011-01-01

    The study covers ten secondary schools in Lagos State of Nigeria. The purpose is to ascertain the relationship between school climate and student achievements and teachers' productivity for sustainable development. A total sample of 150 respondents was taken. Ten principals, seven teachers and seven students were randomly picked per school. This…

  20. How Does School Climate Impact Academic Achievement? An Examination of Social Identity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Katherine J.; Lee, Eunro; Turner, Isobel; Bromhead, David; Subasic, Emina

    2017-01-01

    In explaining academic achievement, school climate and social belonging (connectedness, identification) emerge as important variables. However, both constructs are rarely explored in one model. In the current study, a social psychological framework based on the social identity perspective (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987) is…

  1. Effects of Feedback on Achievement Goals and Perceived Motivational Climate in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback condition…

  2. Does Leadership Matter? Examining the Relationship among Transformational Leadership, School Climate, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nancy; Grigsby, Bettye; Peters, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between transformational leadership, school climate, and student mathematics and reading achievement. Survey data were collected from a purposeful sample of elementary school principals and a convenience sample of his or her respective teachers located in a small suburban…

  3. Developing the next-generation climate system models: challenges and achievements.

    PubMed

    Slingo, Julia; Bates, Kevin; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Piggott, Matthew; Roberts, Malcolm; Shaffrey, Len; Stevens, Ian; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Weller, Hilary

    2009-03-13

    Although climate models have been improving in accuracy and efficiency over the past few decades, it now seems that these incremental improvements may be slowing. As tera/petascale computing becomes massively parallel, our legacy codes are less suitable, and even with the increased resolution that we are now beginning to use, these models cannot represent the multiscale nature of the climate system. This paper argues that it may be time to reconsider the use of adaptive mesh refinement for weather and climate forecasting in order to achieve good scaling and representation of the wide range of spatial scales in the atmosphere and ocean. Furthermore, the challenge of introducing living organisms and human responses into climate system models is only just beginning to be tackled. We do not yet have a clear framework in which to approach the problem, but it is likely to cover such a huge number of different scales and processes that radically different methods may have to be considered. The challenges of multiscale modelling and petascale computing provide an opportunity to consider a fresh approach to numerical modelling of the climate (or Earth) system, which takes advantage of the computational fluid dynamics developments in other fields and brings new perspectives on how to incorporate Earth system processes. This paper reviews some of the current issues in climate (and, by implication, Earth) system modelling, and asks the question whether a new generation of models is needed to tackle these problems.

  4. Assessing Current State Science Teaching and Learning Standards for Ability to Achieve Climate Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    addressed. Least covered were number 6 "Human activities are impacting the climate system" and number 7 "Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives." Most references, either direct or indirect, occurred in the high school standards for earth science, a class not required for graduation in either state. This research points to the gaps between what the 7 Essential Principles of Climate Literacy defines as essential knowledge and what students may learn in their K-12 science classes. Thus, the formal system does not seem to offer an experience which can potentially develop a more knowledgeable citizenry who will be able to make wise personal and policy decisions about climate change, falling short of the ultimate goal of achieving widespread climate literacy. Especially troubling was the sparse attention to the principles addressing the human connection to the climate - principles number 6 and 7. If climate literate citizens are to make "wise personal and policy decisions" (USGCRP, 2009), these two principles especially are vital. This research, therefore, has been valuable for identifying current shortcomings in state standards.

  5. Achieving Potent Autologous Neutralizing Antibody Responses against Tier 2 HIV-1 Viruses by Strategic Selection of Envelope Immunogens.

    PubMed

    Hessell, Ann J; Malherbe, Delphine C; Pissani, Franco; McBurney, Sean; Krebs, Shelly J; Gomes, Michelle; Pandey, Shilpi; Sutton, William F; Burwitz, Benjamin J; Gray, Matthew; Robins, Harlan; Park, Byung S; Sacha, Jonah B; LaBranche, Celia C; Fuller, Deborah H; Montefiori, David C; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Sather, D Noah; Haigwood, Nancy L

    2016-04-01

    Advancement in immunogen selection and vaccine design that will rapidly elicit a protective Ab response is considered critical for HIV vaccine protective efficacy. Vaccine-elicited Ab responses must therefore have the capacity to prevent infection by neutralization-resistant phenotypes of transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses that establish infection in humans. Most vaccine candidates to date have been ineffective at generating Abs that neutralize T/F or early variants. In this study, we report that coimmunizing rhesus macaques with HIV-1 gp160 DNA and gp140 trimeric protein selected from native envelope gene sequences (envs) induced neutralizing Abs against Tier 2 autologous viruses expressing cognate envelope (Env). The Env immunogens were selected from envs emerging during the earliest stages of neutralization breadth developing within the first 2 years of infection in two clade B-infected human subjects. Moreover, the IgG responses in macaques emulated the targeting to specific regions of Env known to be associated with autologous and heterologous neutralizing Abs developed within the human subjects. Furthermore, we measured increasing affinity of macaque polyclonal IgG responses over the course of the immunization regimen that correlated with Tier 1 neutralization. In addition, we report firm correlations between Tier 2 autologous neutralization and Tier 1 heterologous neutralization, as well as overall TZM-bl breadth scores. Additionally, the activation of Env-specific follicular helper CD4 T cells in lymphocytes isolated from inguinal lymph nodes of vaccinated macaques correlated with Tier 2 autologous neutralization. These results demonstrate the potential for native Env derived from subjects at the time of neutralization broadening as effective HIV vaccine elements.

  6. Achieving Potent Autologous Neutralizing Antibody Responses against Tier 2 HIV-1 Viruses by Strategic Selection of Envelope Immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Hessell, Ann J.; Malherbe, Delphine C.; Pissani, Franco; McBurney, Sean; Krebs, Shelly J.; Gomes, Michelle; Pandey, Shilpi; Sutton, William F.; Burwitz, Benjamin J.; Gray, Matthew; Robins, Harlan; Park, Byung S.; Sacha, Jonah B.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Fuller, Deborah H.; Montefiori, David C.; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Sather, D. Noah

    2016-01-01

    Advancement in immunogen selection and vaccine design that will rapidly elicit a protective Ab response is considered critical for HIV vaccine protective efficacy. Vaccine-elicited Ab responses must therefore have the capacity to prevent infection by neutralization-resistant phenotypes of transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses that establish infection in humans. Most vaccine candidates to date have been ineffective at generating Abs that neutralize T/F or early variants. In this study, we report that coimmunizing rhesus macaques with HIV-1 gp160 DNA and gp140 trimeric protein selected from native envelope gene sequences (envs) induced neutralizing Abs against Tier 2 autologous viruses expressing cognate envelope (Env). The Env immunogens were selected from envs emerging during the earliest stages of neutralization breadth developing within the first 2 years of infection in two clade B–infected human subjects. Moreover, the IgG responses in macaques emulated the targeting to specific regions of Env known to be associated with autologous and heterologous neutralizing Abs developed within the human subjects. Furthermore, we measured increasing affinity of macaque polyclonal IgG responses over the course of the immunization regimen that correlated with Tier 1 neutralization. In addition, we report firm correlations between Tier 2 autologous neutralization and Tier 1 heterologous neutralization, as well as overall TZM-bl breadth scores. Additionally, the activation of Env-specific follicular helper CD4 T cells in lymphocytes isolated from inguinal lymph nodes of vaccinated macaques correlated with Tier 2 autologous neutralization. These results demonstrate the potential for native Env derived from subjects at the time of neutralization broadening as effective HIV vaccine elements. PMID:26944928

  7. Peer relationships in adolescent competitive soccer: associations to perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Yngvar; Roberts, Glyn C; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas; Miller, Blake W

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the perceived motivational climate, achievement goals, perfectionism and indices of peer relationships in a sample of young male and female Norwegian soccer players. The sample consisted of 1719 experienced soccer players (1231 males, 488 females) aged 12-19 years (mean = 14.9 years) participating in the Norway Cup international youth soccer competition. The players responded to a questionnaire measuring perceived peer acceptance and quality of friendship in soccer, perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism in soccer. Canonical correlation analyses revealed that young female players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly mastery oriented, and who were moderately task oriented and scored negatively on maladaptive perfectionism, reported better relations with their peers in soccer. Constructive peer relations were evident in that they scored positively on companionship with their best friend in soccer; they perceived this friend as being loyal and allowing of free discussion, and they reported being socially accepted by their peers in soccer. Mirroring these findings, young male players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly performance oriented, who had a moderately negative score on task orientation but a quite strong positive score on maladaptive perfectionism, reported negative relationships with peers in terms of these aspects. They also reported being in conflict with their best soccer friend. The findings suggest that the qualities of motivation have a systematic relationship with peer acceptance and the quality of friendship in male and female youth soccer.

  8. Predicting elite Scottish athletes' attitudes towards doping: examining the contribution of achievement goals and motivational climate.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine; Taylor, John; Dimeo, Paul; Dixon, Sarah; Robinson, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding athletes' attitudes to doping continues to be of interest for its potential to contribute to an international anti-doping system. However, little is known about the relationship between elite athletes' attitudes to drug use and potential explanatory factors, including achievement goals and the motivational climate. In addition, despite specific World Anti-Doping Agency Code relating to team sport athletes, little is known about whether sport type (team or individual) is a risk or protective factor in relation to doping. Elite athletes from Scotland (N = 177) completed a survey examining attitudes to performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, achievement goal orientations and perceived motivational climate. Athletes were generally against doping for performance enhancement. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that task and ego goals and mastery motivational climate were predictors of attitudes to PED use (F (4, 171) = 15.81, P < .01). Compared with individual athletes, team athletes were significantly lower in attitude to PED use and ego orientation scores and significantly higher in perceptions of a mastery motivational climate (Wilks' lambda = .76, F = 10.89 (5, 170), P < .01). The study provides insight into how individual and situational factors may act as protective and risk factors in doping in sport.

  9. Impact of climate change on crop yield and role of model for achieving food security.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj

    2016-08-01

    In recent times, several studies around the globe indicate that climatic changes are likely to impact the food production and poses serious challenge to food security. In the face of climate change, agricultural systems need to adapt measures for not only increasing food supply catering to the growing population worldwide with changing dietary patterns but also to negate the negative environmental impacts on the earth. Crop simulation models are the primary tools available to assess the potential consequences of climate change on crop production and informative adaptive strategies in agriculture risk management. In consideration with the important issue, this is an attempt to provide a review on the relationship between climate change impacts and crop production. It also emphasizes the role of crop simulation models in achieving food security. Significant progress has been made in understanding the potential consequences of environment-related temperature and precipitation effect on agricultural production during the last half century. Increased CO2 fertilization has enhanced the potential impacts of climate change, but its feasibility is still in doubt and debates among researchers. To assess the potential consequences of climate change on agriculture, different crop simulation models have been developed, to provide informative strategies to avoid risks and understand the physical and biological processes. Furthermore, they can help in crop improvement programmes by identifying appropriate future crop management practises and recognizing the traits having the greatest impact on yield. Nonetheless, climate change assessment through model is subjected to a range of uncertainties. The prediction uncertainty can be reduced by using multimodel, incorporating crop modelling with plant physiology, biochemistry and gene-based modelling. For devloping new model, there is a need to generate and compile high-quality field data for model testing. Therefore, assessment of

  10. Modeling and analysis of vegetation-climate interactions using neutral networks and generalized logit models

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, E.; Kandikar, M.; Dowlatabadi, H.

    1995-12-31

    The importance of biosphere-climate interactions for energy and moisture balances and major biogeochemical cycles is well recognized. Climate change is expected to alter the functioning and distribution of major ecosystems. These changes have been investigated using global vegetation transfer models.

  11. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  12. [Effects of soil, climate, and their interaction on some neutral volatile aroma components in flue-cured tobacco leaves from high quality tobacco planting regions of Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiao-Hua; Xie, Peng-Fei; Peng, Xin-Hui; Yi, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Ji-Heng; Zhou, Qing-Ming; Pu, Wen-Xuan; Dai, Yuan-Gang

    2010-08-01

    A pot experiment with the soils from Yongzhou, Liuyang, and Sangzhi, the high-quality tobacco planting regions of Hunan Province, was conducted to study the effects of climate, soil, and their interaction on some neutral volatile aroma components in flue-cured tobacco leaves. The contents of test neutral volatile aroma components in the flue-cured tobacco leaves were of medium variation, and the variation intensity was decreased in the order of dihydroactinolide, damascenone, furfural, total megastigmatrienone, and beta-ionone. Climate, soil, and their interaction affected the neutral volatile aroma components in different degrees. The furfural content was most affected by climate, the damascenone content was most affected by climate and by soil, the total megastigmatrienone and beta-ionone contents were most affected by the interaction of soil and climate, while the dihydroactinolide content was less affected by soil, climate, and their interaction. The contribution of climate, soil, and their interaction to the contents of the five aroma components was 40.82%, 20.67%, and 38.51%, respectively. During different growth periods of tobacco, different climate factors had different effects on the neutral volatile aroma components. The rainfall, cloudiness, and mean air temperature at rooting stage, the diurnal temperature amplitude, sunshine time, and evaporation at vigorous growth stage, and the rainfall, evaporation, and mean air temperature at maturing stage were the top three climate factors affecting the contents of the neutral volatile aroma components in flue-tobacco leaves. For the soil factors, the available potassium, available phosphorus, and pH were the top three factors affecting the contents of the five components.

  13. Relationships among School Climate, School Safety, and Student Achievement and Well-Being: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Klinger, Don A.; Hussain, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    School climate, safety and well-being of students are important antecedents of academic achievement. However, school members do not necessarily experience school climate in the same way; rather, their subjective perceptions of the environment and personal characteristics influence individual outcomes and behaviours. Therefore, a closer look at the…

  14. The Impact of School Climate on the Achievement of Elementary School Students Who Are Economically Disadvantaged a Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Gina W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the impact of school climate on the achievement of third and fourth grade students who are economically disadvantaged in Mathematics and Reading/Language Arts. Students' perception of school climate was studied using the "Tripod Survey" variables of a caring, captivating, and academically…

  15. The Influence of Classroom Disciplinary Climate of Schools on Reading Achievement: A Cross-Country Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Bo; Van Damme, Jan; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Yang, Xiangdong; Gielen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in research and practice in the effect of classroom disciplinary climate of schools on academic achievement, little is known about the generalizability of this effect over countries. Using hierarchical linear analyses, the present study reveals that a better classroom disciplinary climate in a school is significantly…

  16. A parametrization, based on sea ice morphology, of the neutral atmospheric drag coefficients for weather prediction and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüpkes, Christof; Gryanik, Vladimir M.; Hartmann, JöRg; Andreas, Edgar L.

    2012-07-01

    A hierarchy of parametrizations of the neutral 10 m drag coefficients over polar sea ice with different morphology regimes is derived on the basis of a partitioning concept that splits the total surface drag into contributions of skin drag and form drag. The new derivation, which provides drag coefficients as a function of sea ice concentration and characteristic length scales of roughness elements, needs fewer assumptions than previous similar approaches. It is shown that form drag variability can explain the variability of surface drag in the marginal sea ice zone (MIZ) and in the summertime inner Arctic regions. In the MIZ, form drag is generated by floe edges; in the inner Arctic, it is generated by edges at melt ponds and leads due to the elevation of the ice surface relative to the open water surface. It is shown that an earlier fit of observed neutral drag coefficients is obtained as a special case within the new concept when specific simplifications are made which concern the floe and melt pond geometry. Due to the different surface morphologies in the MIZ and summertime Arctic, different functional dependencies of the drag coefficients on the sea ice concentration result. These differences cause only minor differences between the MIZ and summertime drag coefficients in average conditions, but they might be locally important for atmospheric momentum transport to sea ice. The new parametrization formulae can be used for present conditions but also for future climate scenarios with changing sea ice conditions.

  17. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  18. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  19. Strategies for achieving energy neutrality in biological nutrient removal systems - a case study of the Slupsk WWTP (northern Poland).

    PubMed

    Zaborowska, Ewa; Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Makinia, Jacek

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents a model-based evaluation of technological upgrades on the energy and cost balance in a large biological nutrient removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the city of Slupsk (northern Poland). The proposed upgrades include chemically enhanced primary sludge removal and reduction of the nitrogen load in the deammonification process employed for reject water treatment. Simulations enabled to estimate the increased biogas generation and decreased energy consumption for aeration. The proposed upgrades may lead the studied WWTP from the energy deficit to energy neutrality and positive cost balance, while still maintaining the required effluent standards for nitrogen. The operating cost balance depends on the type of applied coagulants/flocculants and specific costs of electric energy. The choice of the coagulant/flocculent was found as the main factor determining a positive cost balance.

  20. School Climate, Family Structure, and Academic Achievement: A Study of Moderation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Eklund, Katie

    2015-01-01

    School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family…

  1. Classroom Management, School Staff Relations, School Climate, and Academic Achievement: Testing A Model with Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Lindsey T.; Polk, Elizabeth; Keys, Christopher B.; McMahon, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    Urban learning environments pose distinct instructional challenges for teachers and administrators, and can lead to lower achievement compared to suburban or rural schools. Today's educational climate increasingly emphasises a need for positive academic outcomes, often measured by standardised tests, on which student educational opportunities,…

  2. The Relationship between Student Voice and Perceptions of Motivation, Attachment, Achievement and School Climate in Davidson and Rutherford Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Sharon Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which there were statistically significant relationships between school administrators' systemic implementation of student voice work and student perceptions (i.e. achievement, motivation, attachment and school climate) and PLAN performance. Student voice was defined as students being equal partners in school…

  3. Examining the Relationships among Classroom Climate, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement in Undergraduate Mathematics: A Multi-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, leaders in American industry, military, education, and politics have focused considerable attention on STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education. Given the increased societal demand for STEM careers, the relationships among classroom climate, self-efficacy, and achievement in undergraduate mathematics…

  4. The Effects of School Climate on Student Achievement in Lower and Higher Performing Public and Charter Elementary Schools in Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Aszure Emond

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the number of charter schools that exist has occurred due, in part, to expectations that are aimed toward producing better results through student achievement, as compared to traditional public schools. An abundance of professional literature has supported the concept that school climate is important in the effort to improve student…

  5. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  6. Achievement or Arrest? The Influence of the Collegiate Religious and Spiritual Climate on Students' Worldview Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Bryant, Alyssa N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the collegiate religious, spiritual, and ideological climate and worldview commitment. As part of this process, 1,071 students responded to the Collegiate Religious and Spiritual Climate Survey, an empirically validated and reliable measure designed to assess dimensions of a…

  7. School climate, family structure, and academic achievement: a study of moderation effects.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L; Eklund, Katie

    2015-03-01

    School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family structure (i.e., two-parent, one-parent, foster-care, and homeless households), and academic performance (i.e., self-reported [grade point average] GPA). The present sample consisted of 902 California public high schools, including responses from over 490,000 students in Grades 9 and 11. Results indicated that, regardless of family structure, students with more positive school climate perceptions self-reported higher GPAs. Youths with two-parent, one-parent, and homeless family structures displayed stepwise, linear improvements in self-reported GPA as perceptions of climate improved. Foster-care students' positive school climate perceptions had a weaker effect on their self-reported GPA compared with students living in other family structures. A unique curvilinear trend was found for homeless students, as the relationship between their school climate perceptions and self-reported GPA was stronger at lower levels. Overall, the moderation effect of positive school climate perceptions on self-reported GPA was strongest for homeless youth and youth from one-parent homes, suggesting that school climate has a protective effect for students living in these family structures. A protective effect was not found for youth in foster-care. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  8. How the Alliance for Climate Education engages national and local partners to achieve collective impact in climate literacy and action (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappe, M.; Gonzalez, R.; Shanley Hope, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) has a mission to educate and inspire young people to break through the challenge of climate change. ACE believes that achieving a safe and stable climate in our lifetime requires the ideas, action and influence of young people. Since 2009, ACE has reached almost 2 million teens in 2,200 schools in over 20 states across the US. In order to support these young people to become leaders in their schools and communities, ACE works closely with local and national partners. In this presentation, ACE will discuss strategic partnerships that have yielded measurable impact and explore how nonprofits, universities, school districts, private companies and government agencies can more effectively align efforts to achieve shared goals. Examples of successful partnerships discussed will include PG&E, Chicago Public Schools, Monterey Bay Aquarium, DC Public Schools, the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network, NOAA, The Next Generation, Los Angeles Public Schools and research universities. ACE will also discuss how research in the field of transformational leadership informs our partnership strategy.

  9. Multiculturalism as a dimension of school climate: the impact on the academic achievement of Asian American and Hispanic youth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Janet; Le, Thao N

    2010-10-01

    Multiculturalism constitutes an important element of school climate, but the relation between perceived multiculturalism and academic achievement has not been widely studied. This study examined the influence of students' perceptions of school support for multiculturalism on academic achievement among 280 Asian American and Hispanic youth, including ethnic identity and ethnocultural empathy as potential mediators. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that perceived multiculturalism was significantly positively related to ethnocultural empathy for Asian Americans and Hispanics, and that ethnocultural empathy, in turn, was predictive of academic achievement for Hispanics only. Results of bootstrapping to test for mediation effects revealed ethnocultural empathy to be a salient mediator for Hispanic youth. Although ethnic identity did not mediate the link between multiculturalism and academic achievement, ethnic identity was significantly predictive of achievement for Hispanics. On the whole, these findings suggest that fostering a school climate supportive of multiculturalism may improve empathy toward ethnic out-groups. Furthermore, schools that promote compassion and tolerance for diverse ethnic groups may achieve better academic outcomes among Hispanic youth.

  10. The Impact of School Climate on Student Achievement in the Middle Schools of the Commonwealth of Virginia: A Quantitative Analysis of Existing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, David Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study was designed to be an analysis of the relationship between school climate and student achievement through the creation of an index of climate-factors (SES, discipline, attendance, and school size) for which publicly available data existed. The index that was formed served as a proxy measure of climate; it was analyzed…

  11. An Investigation of the Relationship between the Components of School Climate and Leadership Behaviors on Student Achievement: Urban School Districts in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Karmen J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate the relationship between the components of school climate and leadership behaviors on student achievement in an urban school district in the mid-atlantic region. School climate and leadership behaviors for the participating school districts was determined by the School Climate Survey (Corner…

  12. Carbon-Neutral Energy Supply and Energy Demand-Reduction Technology Needed for Continued Economic Growth Without Dangerous Interference in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffert, M. I.; Caldeira, K.

    2007-12-01

    Stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at levels likely to avoid unacceptable climate risk will require a major transformation in the ways we produce and use energy. Most of our energy will need to come from sources that do not emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and that energy will need to be used efficiently. The required reduction of carbon dioxide emissions as global energy consumption and GDP grow imposes quantitative requirements on some combination of carbon-neutral primary power and energy demand reduction. (Emission reductions are expressed relative to an implicit or explicit baseline; explicit being better for policy-making. Energy demand reduction involves both efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes.) These requirements can be expressed as CO2 emission reductions needed, or as carbon-neutral primary power production needed combined with power not used by virtue of increased energy end use efficiency or lifestyle changes ("negawatts"), always subject to some reasonably well-characterized uncertainty limits. Climatic changes thus far have been closer to the more extreme zone of the climatic uncertainty envelope of global warming indicating the potential for disastrous impacts by mid-century and beyond for business-as-usual. Emission reductions needed to avoid "dangerous interference in the climate system" imply a revolutionary change in the global energy system beginning now; particularly ominous are massive conventional coal-fired electric power energy infrastructures under construction by the US, China & India. Strong arguments, based on physical science considerations, exist for prompt measures such as (1) an immediate moratorium on coal-fired plants that don't sequester CO2, (2) a gradually increasing price on carbon emissions and (3) regulatory standards, for example, that would encourage utilities and car manufacturers to improve efficiency, and (4) Apollo-scale R & D projects beginning now to develop sustainable carbon-neutral power that can be

  13. Two Brief Interventions to Mitigate a "Chilly Climate" Transform Women's Experience, Relationships, and Achievement in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Gregory M.; Logel, Christine; Peach, Jennifer M.; Spencer, Steven J.; Zanna, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    In a randomized-controlled trial, we tested 2 brief interventions designed to mitigate the effects of a "chilly climate" women may experience in engineering, especially in male-dominated fields. Participants were students entering a selective university engineering program. The "social-belonging intervention" aimed to protect…

  14. Neutral pH hydrogen-enriched electrolyzed water achieves tumor-preferential clonal growth inhibition over normal cells and tumor invasion inhibition concurrently with intracellular oxidant repression.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Yasukazu; Okayasu, Hajime; Xiao, Li; Harata, Yoshikazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2008-01-01

    The properties and effects of neutral pH hydrogen-enriched electrolyzed water (NHE water) on tumor cells were examined. NHE water diminished hydroxyl radicals as demonstrated by ESR in a cell-free system. Human tongue carcinoma cells HSC-4 were inhibited for either colony formation efficiencies or colony sizes by NHE water without significant inhibition to normal human tongue epithelial-like cells DOK. Furthermore, NHE water caused growth inhibition, cell degeneration, and inhibition of invasion through the reconstituted basement membrane to human fibrosarcoma cells HT-1080. Intracellular oxidants such as hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxides were scavenged in HSC-4 or HT-1080 cells by NHE water. In the human oral cavity, a dissolved hydrogen concentrations (DH) of NHE water was drastically declined from 1.1 to 0.5 ppm, but settled to 0.3-0.4 ppm until 180 s, upon static holding without gargling. Thus, NHE water was shown to achieve tumor-preferential growth inhibition and tumor invasion together with scavenging of intracellular oxidants, and is expected as a preventive material against tumor progression and invasion.

  15. Trade-offs of different land and bioenergy policies on the path to achieving climate targets

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Wise, Marshall A.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-10-16

    Many papers have shown that bioenergy and land-use are potentially important elements in a strategy to limit anthropogenic climate change. But, significant expansion of bioenergy production can have a large terrestrial footprint. In this paper, we test the implications for land use, the global energy system, carbon cycle, and carbon prices of meeting a specific climate target, using a single fossil fuel and industrial sector policy instrument—the carbon tax, but with five alternative bioenergy and land-use policy architectures. We find that the policies we examined have differing effects on the different segments of the economy. Comprehensive land policies can reduce land-use change emissions, increasing allowable emissions in the energy system, but have implications for the cost of food. Bioenergy taxes and constraints, on the other hand, have little effect on food prices, but can result in increased carbon and energy prices.

  16. Academic self-efficacy mediates the effects of school psychological climate on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Høigaard, Rune; Kovač, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth- and tenth- grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement. The results of a bootstrapping technique used to analyze relationships between the constructs indicated that school-goal orientations and organizational citizenship predicted academic self-efficacy. Furthermore, school-goal orientation, organizational citizenship, and academic self-efficacy explained 46% of the variance in academic achievement. Mediation analyses revealed that academic self-efficacy mediated the effects of perceived task goal structure, perceived ability structure, civic virtue, and sportsmanship on adolescents' academic achievements. The results are discussed in reference to current scholarship, including theories underlying our hypothesis. Practical implications and directions for future research are suggested.

  17. The Role of Technology for Achieving Climate Policy Objectives: Overview of the EMF 27 Study on Technology Strategies and Climate Policy Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegler, Elmar; Weyant, John; Blanford, Geoffrey J.; Krey, Volker; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Luderer, Gunnar; Riahi, Keywan; Richels, Richard G.; Rose, Steven; Tavoni, Massimo; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-01

    This article presents the synthesis of results from the Stanford Energy Modeling Forum Study 27, an inter-comparison of 19 energy-economy and integrated assessment models. The study investigated the value of individual mitigation technologies such as energy intensity improvements, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), nuclear power, solar and wind power and bioenergy for climate mitigation. Achieving atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration targets at 450 and 550 ppm CO2 equivalent requires massive greenhouse gas emissions reductions. A fragmented policy approach at the level of current ambition is inconsistent with these targets. The availability of a negative emissions technology, in most models biofuels with CCS, proved to be a key element for achieving the climate targets. Robust characteristics of the transformation of the energy system are increased energy intensity improvements and the electrification of energy end use coupled with a fast decarbonization of the electricity sector. Non-electric energy end use is hardest to decarbonize, particularly in the transport sector. Technology is a key element of climate mitigation. Versatile technologies such as CCS and bioenergy have largest value, due in part to their combined ability to produce negative emissions. The individual value of low-carbon power technologies is more limited due to the many alternatives in the sector. The scale of the energy transformation is larger for the 450 ppm than for the 550 ppm CO2e target. As a result, the achievability and the costs of the 450 ppm target are more sensitive to variations in technology variability. Mitigation costs roughly double when moving from 550 ppm to 450 ppm CO2e, but remain below 3% of GDP for most models.

  18. The Greenhouse Gas Project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI): Phase 2 Achievements and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Boesch, H.; Aben, I.; Alexe, M.; Armante, R.; Bergamaschi, P.; Bovensmann, H.; Brunner, D.; Buchmann, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Butz, A.; Chavallier, F.; Chedin, A.; Crevoisier, C. D.; De Maziere, M.; De Wachter, E.; Detmers, R.; Dils, B.; Frankenberg, C.; Gonzi, S.; Hahne, P.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Hewson, W.; Heymann, J.; Houweling, S.; Hilker, M.; Kaminski, T.; Kuhlmann, G.; Laeng, A.; Leeuwen, T. T. V.; Lichtenberg, G.; Marshall, J.; Noel, S.; Notholt, J.; Palmer, P. I.; Parker, R.; Somkuti, P.; Scholze, M.; Stiller, G. P.; Warneke, T.; Zehner, C.

    2015-11-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org/) is one of several projects of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). The goal of the CCI is to generate and deliver data sets of various satellite-derived Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) in line with GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) requirements. The "ECV Greenhouse Gases" (ECV GHG) is the global distribution of important climate relevant gases – namely atmospheric CO2 and CH4 - with a quality sufficient to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks. The main goal of GHG-CCI is to generate long-term highly accurate and precise time series of global near-surface-sensitive satellite observations of CO2 and CH4, i.e., XCO2 and XCH4, starting with the launch of ESA's ENVISAT satellite. These products are currently retrieved from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT (2002-2012) and TANSO- FTS/GOSA T (2009-today) nadir mode observations in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared spectral region. In addition, other sensors (e.g., IASI and MIPAS) are also considered and in the future also data from other satellites. The GHG-CCI data products and related documentation are freely available via the GHG-CCI website. Here we present an overview about the latest data set (Climate Research Data Package No. 2 (CRDP#2)) focusing on the GHG-CCI core products and present a short overview about GHG-CCI-related achievements in terms of scientific publications.

  19. Self-Regulatory Climate: A Social Resource for Student Regulation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.; Dollarhide, Ellen; Miskell, Ryan; Ware, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Schools have differential effects on student learning and development, but research has not generated much explanatory evidence of the social-psychological pathway to better achievement outcomes. Explanatory evidence of how normative conditions enable students to thrive is particularly relevant in the urban context where…

  20. Academic Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of School Psychological Climate on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Høigaard, Rune; Kovac, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth-and tenth-grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic…

  1. Three Decades of Precision Orbit Determination Progress, Achievements, Future Challenges and its Vital Contribution to Oceanography and Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott; Rowlands, David; Lemoine, Frank; Zelensky, Nikita; Beckley, Brian; Klosko, Steve; Chinn, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Although satellite altimetry has been around for thirty years, the last fifteen beginning with the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon (TP) have yielded an abundance of significant results including: monitoring of ENS0 events, detection of internal tides, determination of accurate global tides, unambiguous delineation of Rossby waves and their propagation characteristics, accurate determination of geostrophic currents, and a multi-decadal time series of mean sea level trend and dynamic ocean topography variability. While the high level of accuracy being achieved is a result of both instrument maturity and the quality of models and correction algorithms applied to the data, improving the quality of the Climate Data Records produced from altimetry is highly dependent on concurrent progress being made in fields such as orbit determination. The precision orbits form the reference frame from which the radar altimeter observations are made. Therefore, the accuracy of the altimetric mapping is limited to a great extent by the accuracy to which a satellite orbit can be computed. The TP mission represents the first time that the radial component of an altimeter orbit was routinely computed with an accuracy of 2-cm. Recently it has been demonstrated that it is possible to compute the radial component of Jason orbits with an accuracy of better than 1-cm. Additionally, still further improvements in TP orbits are being achieved with new techniques and algorithms largely developed from combined Jason and TP data analysis. While these recent POD achievements are impressive, the new accuracies are now revealing subtle systematic orbit error that manifest as both intra and inter annual ocean topography errors. Additionally the construction of inter-decadal time series of climate data records requires the removal of systematic differences across multiple missions. Current and future efforts must focus on the understanding and reduction of these errors in order to generate a complete and

  2. A uniform geostationary visible calibration approach to achieve a climate quality dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, C.; Doelling, D.; Bhatt, R.; Scarino, B. R.; Gopalan, A.

    2013-12-01

    The geostationary (GEO) weather satellite visible and IR image record has surpassed 30 years. They have been preserved in the ISCCP-B1U 3-hourly dataset and other archives such as McIDAS, EUMETSAT, and NOAA CLASS. Since they were designed to aid in weather forecasting, long-term calibration stability was not a high priority. All GEO imagers lack onboard visible calibration and suffer from optical degradation after they are launched. In order to piece together the 35+ GEO satellite record both in time and space, a uniform calibration approach is desired to remove individual GEO temporal trends, as well as GEO spectral band differences. Otherwise, any artificial discontinuities caused by sequential GEO satellite records or spurious temporal trends caused by optical degradation may be interpreted as a change in climate. The approach relies on multiple independent methods to reduce the overall uncertainty of the GEO calibration coefficients. Consistency among methods validates the approach. During the MODIS record (2000 to the present) the GEO satellites are inter-calibrated against MODIS using ray-matched or bore-sighted radiance pairs. The MODIS and the VIIRS follow on instruments are equipped with onboard calibration thereby providing a stable calibration reference. The GEO spectral band differences are accounted for using a Spectral Band Adjustment Factor (SBAF) based on hyper-spectral SCIAMACHY data. During the pre-MODIS era, invariant earth targets of deserts and deep convective clouds (DCC) are used. Since GEO imagers have maintained their imaging scan schedules, GEO desert and DCC bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) can be constructed and validated during the MODIS era. The BRDF models can then be applied to historical GEO imagers. Consistency among desert and DCC GEO calibration gains validates the approach. This approach has been applied to the GEO record beginning in 1985 and the results will be presented at the meeting.

  3. Leveraging Improvements in Precipitation Measuring from GPM Mission to Achieve Prediction Improvements in Climate, Weather and Hydrometeorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    The main scientific goal of the GPM mission, currently planned for start in the 2007 time frame, is to investigate important scientific problems arising within the context of global and regional water cycles. These problems cut across a hierarchy of scales and include climate-water cycle interactions, techniques for improving weather and climate predictions, and better methods for combining observed precipitation with hydrometeorological prediction models for applications to hazardous flood-producing storms, seasonal flood/draught conditions, and fresh water resource assessments. The GPM mission will expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of some 9 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band precipitation radar and an advanced, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer with vertical-horizontal polarization discrimination. The other constellation members will include new dedicated satellites and co-existing Operational/research satellites carrying similar (but not identical) passive microwave radiometers. The goal of the constellation is to achieve approximately 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe. The constellation's orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous satellites with the core satellite providing measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus calibration-quality rainrate retrievals to be used with the other retrieval information to ensure bias-free constellation coverage. GPM is organized internationally, currently involving a partnership between NASA in the US and the National Space Development Agency in Japan. Additionally, the program is actively pursuing agreements with other international partners and domestic scientific agencies and institutions, as well as participation by individual scientists from academia, government, and the private sector to fulfill mission goals and to pave

  4. The role of goal structures and peer climate in trajectories of social achievement goals during high school.

    PubMed

    Makara, Kara A; Madjar, Nir

    2015-04-01

    Students' social goals--reasons for engaging in interpersonal relationships with peers--are consequential for students' interactions with their peers at school and for their well-being. Despite the salience of peer relationships during adolescence, research on social goals is generally lacking compared with academic goals, and it is unknown how these social goals develop over time, especially among high school students. The aim of the study was to assess trajectories of students' social goals and to determine how relevant individual and contextual variables predicted initial levels and trajectories of students' social goals. Participants were 9th through 12th grade students (N = 526) attending a U.S. high school. Students filled out surveys of their social goals (social development, social demonstration-approach, and social demonstration-avoidance) 6 times across 2 school years. Nonlinear growth curve analyses and piecewise growth curve analyses were used to assess trajectories of social goals across time. Students' initial levels of social goals differed based on their gender, grade level, prior achievement, and perceptions of classroom goals structures and peer climate. Furthermore, despite substantial stability over time, the shapes of these goal trajectories were predicted by students' gender, grade level, and perceptions of classroom goal structures and peer climate. In particular, students who perceived an increase in performance-avoidance classroom goals maintained higher demonstration social goals and decreased in developmental social goals over time, and students who perceived an increase in positive peer climate decreased in demonstration-avoidance social goals. Implications and directions for future research on social goals are discussed.

  5. Nature of science conceptions, attitudes towards evolution and global climate change, and course achievement in an introductory biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Benjamin Elijah

    Many researchers have studied student attitudes toward and knowledge of evolutionary science, attitudes towards global climate change (GCC), conceptions about the nature of science (NOS), and course success. However, at the time of this writing, no studies explicitly link these topics. It is overwhelmingly acknowledged by the scientific community that evolution and global climate change (GCC) are undeniably supported by physical evidence. And yet, both topics remain very politically contentious in the United States. Efforts to mitigate the disconnects between the scientific community and the general public on these issues are imperative to science education. Such undertakings need to examine students' conceptions of the nature of science (NOS), how evidence is treated, how theories are constructed, and how scientific consensus is reached, as these may be key factors in acceptance of evolution and GCC. If students have a more thorough understanding of the weight behind scientific consensus and better tools to discern scientific versus non-scientific arguments, they may become more likely to accept strongly supported scientific ideas. Our study explored this hypothesis guided by the following questions: Do changes in NOS conceptions correlate with changes in attitudes towards evolution or GCC? If there are correlations, are they similar for evolution and GCC? What demographic factors affect these correlations? Further, we asked whether attitudes towards evolution before the course began was a significant predictor of achievement in the course. Previously-developed tools were used to measure students' conceptions of the nature of science and attitudes towards evolution, while national public opinion poll questions were used to measure attitudes towards GCC. Demographic questions were produced to target factors thought to influence attitudes towards evolution or global climate change. Overall sample size was N=620. Principle Components Analysis was used to determine

  6. A New Solar Spectral Irradiance Reconstruction based on MGII and Neutral Monitoring Indices for Use in Climate Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuillier, G.; Bolsée, D.; DeLand, M.; Melo, S. M. L.; Schmutz, W.; Shapiro, A.

    2012-04-01

    For atmosphere and climate studies, the solar spectral irradiance may be necessary at a time where no data exist. Use of proxies is then mandatory. In order to represent the solar forcing as variable in chemistry-climate numerical models, we need consistent series of temporal solar total and spectral variability covering over the periods of interest. While measurements are available, there is currently no harmonized series with some understanding of its accuracy and precision that can be readily implemented in model simulations. In this paper we present a new method to reconstruct the solar spectrum irradiance in the Ly α-400 nm region, and its variability, based on the Mg II index and neutron monitor data. This approach has the advantage of being independent of the absolute calibration and aging of the instruments. First, the Mg II index is derived using solar spectra from Ly α (121 nm) to 410 nm measured from 1978 to 2010 by several space missions. The variability of the spectra with respect to a chosen reference spectrum as a function of time and wavelength is scaled to the derived Mg II index. Then, the set of coefficients expressing the spectral variability can be applied to a chosen reference spectrum to reconstruct the solar spectra within a given time frame or a Mg II index values. The accuracy of this method is estimated by calculating the standard deviation between the measured spectra and their reconstruction. For the second step, the relationship between the Mg II index and the neutron monitor data is searched for the 30-year of Mg II index availability. Finally, the reconstruction at a given date consists in using the neutron monitor data at that date, derive the corresponding Mg II index and use the coefficients of SSI variability to obtain the SSI at that date using a chosen reference spectrum. One major advantage is that using technology of today, we can reconstruct the solar spectral irradiance consistently from today to times when cosmogenic

  7. Interaction of plasma jets produced from pinch plasma with neutral atoms in order to achieve an effective charge exchange table top X-laser

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, A.; Lebert, R.; Koshelev, K. N.; Sidelnikov, Yu. V.; Churilov, S. S.; Gavrilescu, C.; Neff, W.

    1997-05-05

    Charge exchange recombination is known as an effective scheme to get population inversion in the EUV-range. Highly ionised plasma jets and a neutral target could be very efficient ({sigma}{sub CE}>10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}) to realisation of this atomic scheme. Theoretical estimates and preliminary experiments show that for plasma focus with a stored energy of several kJ one can reach a substantial population inversion for ions of light elements with charge number Z<10. Experimental studies of production of these plasma jets in a 2 kJ plasma focus device is presented. Moreover the optimal properties of possible targets are investigated. Experimental results for the interaction of the plasma jets and targets are presented.

  8. Exploring the Causal Impact of the McREL Balanced Leadership Program on Leadership, Principal Efficacy, Instructional Climate, Educator Turnover, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin; Goddard, Roger; Kim, Minjung; Miller, Robert; Goddard, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a randomized design to assess the impact of the Balanced Leadership program on principal leadership, instructional climate, principal efficacy, staff turnover, and student achievement in a sample of rural northern Michigan schools. Participating principals report feeling more efficacious, using more effective leadership practices,…

  9. An Evaluation of Instructional Coaching at Selected High Schools in North Louisiana and Its Effect on Student Achievement, Organizational Climate, and Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare high schools in north Louisiana to determine if the presence or absence of instructional coaches influenced student achievement, organizational climate, and/or teacher efficacy in any significant manner. The 11 high schools in north Louisiana utilizing instructional coaches were matched to 11 high schools…

  10. Influences of Disciplinary Classroom Climate on High School Student Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Achievement: A Look at Gender and Racial-Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of disciplinary climate in the classroom and student math self-efficacy on math achievement. The student part of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 survey containing 4,199 U.S. observations was employed in a weighted least squares nested multiple regression framework to predict math…

  11. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.

    1986-01-01

    A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

  12. The Relationship between Perceptions of School Climate and Student Achievement in Schools That Use Jostens' Renaissance Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Amy Yarborough

    2012-01-01

    Each school has unique attributes and a personality that gives the school a distinct climate. Psychological qualities that schools possess might include trust, collaboration, cooperation, teaching attributes, expectations, community involvement, and engagement (Rhodes, Camic, Milburn, & Lowe, 2009). Given information regarding school climate,…

  13. Validation of a Brief Measure of Teachers' Perceptions of School Climate: Relations to Student Achievement and Suspensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, George G.; Yang, Chunyan; Pell, Megan; Gaskins, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Based on theory and research on learning environments, the Delaware School Climate Survey-Teacher/Staff (DSCS-T/S) was developed to provide schools with a brief, psychometrically sound measure of teachers' perceptions of school climate. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 5,781 teachers, support staff,…

  14. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  15. A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarofim, M. C.; Martinich, J.; Waldhoff, S.; DeAngelo, B. J.; McFarland, J.; Jantarasami, L.; Shouse, K.; Crimmins, A.; Li, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project establishes a new multi-model framework to systematically assess the physical impacts, economic damages, and risks from climate change. The primary goal of this framework is to estimate the degree to which climate change impacts and damages in the United States are avoided or reduced in the 21st century under multiple greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation scenarios. The first phase of the CIRA project is a modeling exercise that included two integrated assessment models and 15 sectoral models encompassing five broad impacts sectors: water resources, electric power, infrastructure, human health, and ecosystems. Three consistent socioeconomic and climate scenarios are used to analyze the benefits of global GHG mitigation targets: a reference scenario and two policy scenarios with total radiative forcing targets in 2100 of 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2. In this exercise, the implications of key uncertainties are explored, including climate sensitivity, climate model, natural variability, and model structures and parameters. This presentation describes the motivations and goals of the CIRA project; the design and academic contribution of the first CIRA modeling exercise; and briefly summarizes several papers published in a special issue of Climatic Change. The results across impact sectors show that GHG mitigation provides benefits to the United States that increase over time, the effects of climate change can be strongly influenced by near-term policy choices, adaptation can reduce net damages, and impacts exhibit spatial and temporal patterns that may inform mitigation and adaptation policy discussions.

  16. Eighth-Grade Students' Perceptions of School Climate Based on School Diversity, Ethnicity, Educational Category, Socioeconomic Status, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate if there were differences in students' school climate perceptions based on the independent variables, which were measured on a nominal scale and included school diversity (highly, moderately, minimally), ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, White, Other), educational category (general education, special…

  17. School Leadership and Its Impact on Student Achievement: The Mediating Role of School Climate and Teacher Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, Vartika; Sahney, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of teacher job satisfaction and school climate in mediating the relative effects of principals' instructional and transformational leadership practices on student outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Guided by strong evidence from theories on school leadership and work psychology, the…

  18. Biotech crops: imperative for achieving the millenium development goals and sustainability of agriculture in the climate change era.

    PubMed

    Husaini, Amjad M; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnological intervention in the development of crops has opened new vistas in agriculture. Central to the accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), biotech-agriculture is essential in meeting these targets. Biotech crops have already made modest contributions toward ensuring food and nutrition security by reducing losses and increasing productivity, with less pesticide input. These crops could help address some of the major challenges in agriculture-based economies created by climate change. Projections of global climate change expect the concentration of greenhouse gases to increase, aridization of the environment to increase, temperature fluctuations to occur sharply and frequently, and spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall to be disturbed-all of which will increase abiotic stress-related challenges to crops. Countering these challenges and to meet the food requirement of the ever-increasing world population (expected to reach 9 billion by 2030) we need to (1) develop and use biotech crops for mitigating adverse climatic changes; (2) develop biotech crops resilient to adverse environmental conditions; and (3) address the issues/non-issues raised by NGO's and educate the masses about the benefits of biotech crops.

  19. The Education of English Language Learners in Arizona: A Legacy of Persisting Achievement Gaps in a Restrictive Language Policy Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Lawton, Kerry; Diniz de Figueiredo, Eduardo H.

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews achievement gaps in both reading and math between ELL and non-ELL students in Arizona over the post-Proposition 203 period 2005-2009 and during the first year of implementation of the 4 hour ELD block, 2008-09. The study finds that Arizona has made little to no progress in closing the achievement gap between ELL and non-ELL…

  20. Achievement and Climate Outcomes for the Knowledge Is Power Program in an Inner-City Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; McDonald, Aaron J.; Alberg, Marty; McSparrin-Gallagher, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of a whole school reform, the Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP), specifically designed to raise academic achievement of at-risk urban middle school students by establishing an extended school day and year, a rigorous curriculum, after-school access to teachers, and increased family-school connections.…

  1. Carbon neutral hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Frank S; Keith, David W

    2008-11-13

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector may be the most difficult aspect of climate change mitigation. We suggest that carbon neutral hydrocarbons (CNHCs) offer an alternative pathway for deep emission cuts that complement the use of decarbonized energy carriers. Such fuels are synthesized from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon neutral hydrogen. The result is a liquid fuel compatible with the existing transportation infrastructure and therefore capable of a gradual deployment with minimum supply disruption. Capturing the atmospheric CO2 can be accomplished using biomass or industrial methods referred to as air capture. The viability of biomass fuels is strongly dependent on the environmental impacts of biomass production. Strong constraints on land use may favour the use of air capture. We conclude that CNHCs may be a viable alternative to hydrogen or conventional biofuels and warrant a comparable level of research effort and support.

  2. Creating a Climate for Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Deborah D.

    2015-01-01

    As the first principal of a new Title 1 school in Texas, Deborah Brennan faced the challenge of where to begin improving instruction when a school's population bears no resemblance to the traditional Response to Intervention pyramid (in which 75-85 percent of students flourish with Tier 1 instruction). In contrast, nearly 300 of the 850 students…

  3. Kinetic Simulations of Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joseph

    2010-05-21

    Ion beam emission/neutralization is one of the most fundamental problems in spacecraft plasma interactions and electric propulsion. Although ion beam neutralization is readily achieved in experiments, the understanding of the underlying physical process remains at a rather primitive level. No theoretical or simulation models have convincingly explained the detailed neutralization mechanism, and no conclusions have been reached. This paper presents a fully kinetic simulation of ion beam neutralization and plasma beam propagation and discusses the physics of electron-ion coupling and the resulting propagation of a neutralized mesothermal plasma.

  4. Exploring the potential influence of climate change and particulate organic carbon scenarios on the fate of neutral organic contaminants in the Arctic environment.

    PubMed

    Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to explore the potential influence of climate change and particulate organic carbon scenarios on the fate of organic chemicals in the Arctic marine environment using an evaluative modeling approach. Particulate organic carbon scenarios are included to represent changes such as enhanced primary production and terrestrial inputs. Simulations are conducted for a set of hypothetical chemicals covering a wide range of partitioning property combinations using a 40-year emission scenario. Differences in model output between the default simulations (i.e. contemporary conditions) and future scenarios during the primary emission phase are limited in magnitude (typically within a factor of two), consistent with other modeling studies. The changes to particulate organic carbon levels in the Arctic Ocean assumed in the simulations exert a relatively important influence for hydrophobic organic chemicals during the primary emission phase, mitigating the potential for exposure via the pelagic food web by reducing freely-dissolved concentrations in the water column. The changes to particulate organic carbon levels are also influential in the secondary emission/depuration phase. The model results illustrate the potential importance of changes to organic carbon levels in the Arctic Ocean and support efforts to improve the understanding of organic carbon cycling and links to climate change.

  5. Overview of the Special Issue: A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project establishes a new multi-model framework to systematically assess the impacts, economic damages, and risks from climate change in the United States. The primary goal of this framework to estimate how climate change impac...

  6. A Cross-Grade Comparison to Examine the Context Effect on the Relationships among Family Resources, School Climate, Learning Participation, Science Attitude, and Science Achievement Based on TIMSS 2003 in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shin-Feng; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Jing-Ru; Lin, Sheau-Wen; Kao, Huey-Lien

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether the relationships among family resources, school climate, learning participation, science attitude, and science achievement are different between primary school students and junior high school students within one educational system. The subjects included 4,181 Grade 4 students and 5,074 Grade 8 students who…

  7. Linking Student Achievement and Teacher Science Content Knowledge about Climate Change: Ensuring the Nations 3 Million Teachers Understand the Science through an Electronic Professional Development System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepold, F.; Byers, A.

    2009-12-01

    The scientific complexities of global climate change, with wide-ranging economic and social significance, create an intellectual challenge that mandates greater public understanding of climate change research and the concurrent ability to make informed decisions. The critical need for an engaged, science literate public has been repeatedly emphasized by multi-disciplinary entities like the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the National Academies (Rising Above the Gathering Storm report), and the interagency group responsible for the recently updated Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. There is a clear need for an American public that is climate literate and for K-12 teachers confident in teaching relevant science content. A key goal in the creation of a climate literate society is to enhance teachers’ knowledge of global climate change through a national, scalable, and sustainable professional development system, using compelling climate science data and resources to stimulate inquiry-based student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This session will explore innovative e-learning technologies to address the limitations of one-time, face-to-face workshops, thereby adding significant sustainability and scalability. The resources developed will help teachers sift through the vast volume of global climate change information and provide research-based, high-quality science content and pedagogical information to help teachers effectively teach their students about the complex issues surrounding global climate change. The Learning Center is NSTA's e-professional development portal to help the nations teachers and informal educators learn about the scientific complexities of global climate change through research-based techniques and is proven to significantly improve teacher science content knowledge.

  8. Vendor neutral archive in PACS.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Tapesh Kumar; Sanjeev

    2012-10-01

    An archive is a location containing a collection of records, documents, or other materials of historical importance. An integral part of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is archiving. When a hospital needs to migrate a PACS vendor, the complete earlier data need to be migrated in the format of the newly procured PACS. It is both time and money consuming. To address this issue, the new concept of vendor neutral archive (VNA) has emerged. A VNA simply decouples the PACS and workstations at the archival layer. This is achieved by developing an application engine that receives, integrates, and transmits the data using the different syntax of a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) format. Transferring the data belonging to the old PACS to a new one is performed by a process called migration of data. In VNA, a number of different data migration techniques are available to facilitate transfer from the old PACS to the new one, the choice depending on the speed of migration and the importance of data. The techniques include simple DICOM migration, prefetch-based DICOM migration, medium migration, and the expensive non-DICOM migration. "Vendor neutral" may not be a suitable term, and "architecture neutral," "PACS neutral," "content neutral," or "third-party neutral" are probably better and preferred terms. Notwithstanding this, the VNA acronym has come to stay in both the medical IT user terminology and in vendor nomenclature, and radiologists need to be aware of its impact in PACS across the globe.

  9. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  10. Overview of the Special Issue: A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Martinich, Jeremy; Sarofim, Marcus; DeAngelo, B. J.; McFarland, Jim; Jantarasami, Lesley; Shouse, Kate C.; Crimmins, Allison; Ohrel, Sara; Li, Jia

    2015-07-01

    The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) modeling exercise is a unique contribution to the scientific literature on climate change impacts, economic damages, and risk analysis that brings together multiple, national-scale models of impacts and damages in an integrated and consistent fashion to estimate climate change impacts, damages, and the benefits of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation actions in the United States. The CIRA project uses three consistent socioeconomic, emissions, and climate scenarios across all models to estimate the benefits of GHG mitigation policies: a Business As Usual (BAU) and two policy scenarios with radiative forcing (RF) stabilization targets of 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 in 2100. CIRA was also designed to specifically examine the sensitivity of results to uncertainties around climate sensitivity and differences in model structure. The goals of CIRA project are to 1) build a multi-model framework to produce estimates of multiple risks and impacts in the U.S., 2) determine to what degree risks and damages across sectors may be lowered from a BAU to policy scenarios, 3) evaluate key sources of uncertainty along the causal chain, and 4) provide information for multiple audiences and clearly communicate the risks and damages of climate change and the potential benefits of mitigation. This paper describes the motivations, goals, and design of the CIRA modeling exercise and introduces the subsequent papers in this special issue.

  11. Climate Solutions Presentations on Science On a Sphere (SOS) and SOS Explorer achieve acceptance of Climate Science among Policymakers as well as the Public: US National Academy of Sciences Symposium/Open House Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievering, H.

    2015-12-01

    The outcomes of climate science are inherently rife with discussions of dire consequences for humans that leave many listeners feeling helpless and hopeless. We have found that a focus on clean energy solutions, without reference to dirty energy, substantially reduces (may even eliminate) the negativity associated with sea level rise, extreme weather and other climate change presentations. US audiences respond well to discussion of California's clean energy transformation with solar, wind, geothermal and water power together now approaching 25% of total energy supply for the world's sixth largest economy. For both policymakers and the general public, a "positive climate change" presentation does not generally suffice on its own. Clear visual display of climate science information is essential. We have found the Science On a Sphere (SOS) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration science education tool, to be exceptional in this regard. Further, broad dissemination is possible given the SOS network consists of over 120 sites in 23 countries. The new SOS Explorer system, an advanced science education tool, can readily utilize the over 500 available SOS data sets. We have recently developed an arctic amplification and mid-latitude climate change impacts program for the upcoming US National Academy of Sciences' Arctic Matters Symposium/Open House. This SOS and SOS Explorer education program will be described with emphasis on the climate solutions incorporated into this module targeted at US policymakers and invited open house public.

  12. The Nanchang communication about the potential for the implementation of conservation practices for climate change mitigation and adaptation to achieve food security in the 21st century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several recent peer reviewed manuscripts have reported on the great challenges humanity is confronting during the XXI century, including a changing climate, depletion of water resources from groundwater and/or snow caps sources that are needed for agricultural production, deforestation, desertificat...

  13. The Effect of Improved School Climate over Time on Fifth-Grade Students' Achievement Assessment Scores and Teacher Administered Grade Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of improved school climate, as teachers' beliefs changed from negative to positive over time, on students' reading, math, and writing assessment scores and teacher administered grade scores in reading, math, and writing. Overall, findings indicate that lose, maintain, or improve…

  14. The Guanajuato Communication about the Potential for Implementation of Conservation Practices for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation to Achieve Food Security in Mexico During the 21st Century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The scientific literature reports that climate change will impact weather in North America, with projections for a drier and hotter southeastern United States and northwestern Mexico. The areas of Mexico that are projected to be impacted cover important grain areas of the country. Additionally, seve...

  15. Effects of Single Gender Classrooms and Coeducational Classrooms on Student Achievement and School Climate for Middle School Students in a Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Nickalous A.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared student achievement and student attitudes for students in single-gender classrooms and students in coeducational classrooms in the seventh grade. The study utilized the TCAP reading and math tests and the Renaissance reading and math formative assessments for the measures on student achievement. The school district's climate…

  16. The Effect of a Zoo-Based Experiential Academic Science Program on High School Students' Math and Science Achievement and Perceptions of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulkerrin, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 11th-grade and 12th-grade zoo-based academic high school experiential science program compared to a same school-district school-based academic high school experiential science program on students' pretest and posttest science, math, and reading achievement, and student perceptions of…

  17. Space charge neutralization in inertial electrostatic confinement plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Evstatiev, E. G.; Nebel, R. A.; Chacon, L.; Park, J.; Lapenta, G.

    2007-04-15

    A major issue for electron injected inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) devices is space charge neutralization. A new formalism is developed that will allow this neutralization to occur for both oscillating and steady-state IEC plasmas. Results indicate that there are limits on the amount of compression that can be achieved by oscillating plasmas while simultaneously maintaining space charge neutralization and parabolic background potential. For steady-state plasmas, there are no such limits and space charge neutralization can be achieved even when the plasma becomes quasineutral.

  18. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  19. Vendor neutral archive in PACS

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Tapesh Kumar; Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    An archive is a location containing a collection of records, documents, or other materials of historical importance. An integral part of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is archiving. When a hospital needs to migrate a PACS vendor, the complete earlier data need to be migrated in the format of the newly procured PACS. It is both time and money consuming. To address this issue, the new concept of vendor neutral archive (VNA) has emerged. A VNA simply decouples the PACS and workstations at the archival layer. This is achieved by developing an application engine that receives, integrates, and transmits the data using the different syntax of a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) format. Transferring the data belonging to the old PACS to a new one is performed by a process called migration of data. In VNA, a number of different data migration techniques are available to facilitate transfer from the old PACS to the new one, the choice depending on the speed of migration and the importance of data. The techniques include simple DICOM migration, prefetch-based DICOM migration, medium migration, and the expensive non-DICOM migration. “Vendor neutral” may not be a suitable term, and “architecture neutral,” “PACS neutral,” “content neutral,” or “third-party neutral” are probably better and preferred terms. Notwithstanding this, the VNA acronym has come to stay in both the medical IT user terminology and in vendor nomenclature, and radiologists need to be aware of its impact in PACS across the globe. PMID:23833411

  20. Neutralization Assay for Chikungunya Virus Infection: Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test.

    PubMed

    Azami, Nor Azila Muhammad; Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Neutralization assay is a technique that detects and quantifies neutralizing antibody in serum samples by calculating the percentage of reduction of virus activity, as the concentration of virus used is usually constant. Neutralizing antibody titer is conventionally determined by calculating the percentage reduction in total virus infectivity by counting and comparing number of plaques (localized area of infection due to cytopathic effect) with a standard amount of virus. Conventional neutralizing test uses plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to determine neutralizing antibody titers against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Here we describe the plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT) using Vero cell lines to obtain neutralizing antibody titers.

  1. Solar Neutral Particles

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows a neutral solar particle's path leaving the sun, following the magnetic field lines out to the heliosheath. The solar particle hits a hydrogen atom, stealing its electron, and ...

  2. Ions and neutralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncet, A.

    After a short presentation of intensity limitations examples due to trapped ions, the processes of ionization and neutralization build up in particle accelerators and storage rings are briefly reviewed. The tolerable limits in neutralization are then assessed at the light of current theories of incoherent and coherent effects driven by ions. Finally the usual antidotes such as clearing electrodes, missing bunch schemes and beam shaking are presented.

  3. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit - In a humid, temperate climate: Lessons from the University of Hawai'i at Manoa

    SciTech Connect

    Regnier, Cindy; Robinson, Alastair

    2013-06-01

    The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) partnered with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit exiting buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.1 Kuykendall Hall, located on the UHM campus in Honolulu, was the focus of a CBP analysis and design collaboration among the University of Hawai’i, their consultants, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Kuykendall Hall consists of two 1960s-era wings – a four-story wing containing classrooms, and a seven-story tower containing offices – with a total floor area of approximately 76,000 square feet (ft2). The retrofit design, which uses local prevailing winds to aid ventilation and cooling and incorporates envelope and lighting elements that reduce the need for cooling, was initially on track to use about 50% less energy than the current building, exceeding the CBP’s 30% savings goal. With the addition of building-mounted solar electric panels, the retrofitted building is projected to achieve net-zero annual energy use. Achieving net-zero energy addressed an emerging challenge to the university – how to lower energy usage and reduce dependence on imported fossil fuel in the face of already-high energy prices that are forecast to double by 2040. Not only will the retrofit dramatically reduce Kuykendall Hall’s annual energy costs, but the project lays the groundwork for new campus policies and processes and low-energy design approaches and is building a campus knowledge base on low-energy practices. This project is a model of integrated design and building delivery that will be replicated in future projects on the campus.

  4. Semiconductor etching by hyperthermal neutral beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Timothy K. (Inventor); Giapis, Konstantinos P. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An at-least dual chamber apparatus and method in which high flux beams of fast moving neutral reactive species are created, collimated and used to etch semiconductor or metal materials from the surface of a workpiece. Beams including halogen atoms are preferably used to achieve anisotropic etching with good selectivity at satisfactory etch rates. Surface damage and undercutting are minimized.

  5. Relative contributions of neutral and non-neutral genetic differentiation to inform conservation of steelhead trout across highly variable landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Matala, Andrew P; Ackerman, Michael W; Campbell, Matthew R; Narum, Shawn R

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence of climatic effects on riverine environments and adaptive responses of fishes have elicited growing conservation concerns. Measures to rectify population declines include assessment of local extinction risk, population ecology, viability, and genetic differentiation. While conservation planning has been largely informed by neutral genetic structure, there has been a dearth of critical information regarding the role of non-neutral or functional genetic variation. We evaluated genetic variation among steelhead trout of the Columbia River Basin, which supports diverse populations distributed among dynamic landscapes. We categorized 188 SNP loci as either putatively neutral or candidates for divergent selection (non-neutral) using a multitest association approach. Neutral variation distinguished lineages and defined broad-scale population structure consistent with previous studies, but fine-scale resolution was also detected at levels not previously observed. Within distinct coastal and inland lineages, we identified nine and 22 candidate loci commonly associated with precipitation or temperature variables and putatively under divergent selection. Observed patterns of non-neutral variation suggest overall climate is likely to shape local adaptation (e.g., potential rapid evolution) of steelhead trout in the Columbia River region. Broad geographic patterns of neutral and non-neutral variation demonstrated here can be used to accommodate priorities for regional management and inform long-term conservation of this species. PMID:25067950

  6. Tautomerism in neutral histidine.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Celina; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2014-10-06

    Histidine is an important natural amino acid, involved in many relevant biological processes, which, because of its physical properties, proved difficult to characterize experimentally in its neutral form. In this work, neutral histidine has been generated in the gas phase by laser ablation of solid samples and its N(ε)H tautomeric form unraveled through its rotational spectrum. The quadrupole hyperfine structure, arising from the existing three (14)N nuclei, constituted a site-specifically probe for revealing the tautomeric form as well as the side chain configuration of this proteogenic amino acid.

  7. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  8. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  9. Beyond Viral Neutralization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, George K; Pazgier, Marzena; Evans, David; Ferrari, Guido; Bournazos, Stylianos; Parsons, Matthew S; Bernard, Nicole F; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-01-13

    It has been known for more than 30 years that Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) infection drives a very potent B cell response resulting in the production of anti-HIV-1 antibodies targeting several viral proteins, particularly its envelope glycoproteins (Env). Env epitopes are exposed on the surfaces of viral particles and infected cells where they are targets of potentially protective antibodies. These antibodies can interdict infection by neutralization and there is strong evidence suggesting that Fc-mediated effector function can also contribute to protection. Current evidence suggests that Fc-mediated effector function plays a role in protection against infection by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and it might be important for protection by non-neutralizing antibodies. Fc-mediated effector function includes diverse mechanisms that include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-mediated complement activation (ADC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), antibody-mediated trancytosis inhibition, and antibody-mediated virus opsonization. All these functions could be beneficial in fighting viral infections including HIV-1. In this perspective, we discuss the latest developments for ADCC responses discussed at the HIVR4P satellite session on non-neutralizing antibodies, with emphasis on the mechanisms of ADCC resistance employed by HIV-1, the structural basis of epitopes recognized by antibodies that mediate ADCC, NK-cell education and ADCC, and murine models to study ADCC against HIV-1.

  10. Assessing School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan; Pickeral, Terry; McCloskey, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Compelling empirical research shows that a positive and sustained school climate promotes students' academic achievement and healthy development. Not surprisingly, a positive school climate also promotes teacher retention, which itself enhances student success. Yet the knowledge of the effects of school climate on learning has not been translated…

  11. Kinetic Simulations of Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, O.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    Full particle PIC simulations are performed to study the neutralization of an ion beam in the cohesionless, mesothermal regime. Simulations further confirmed that neutralization is achieved through interactions between the trapped electrons and the potential well established by the propagation of the beam front along the beam direction and is not through plasma instabilities as previous studies suggested. In the transverse direction, the process is similar to that of the expansion of mesothermal plasma into vacuum. Parametric simulations are also performed to investigate the effects of beam radius and domain boundary condition on the neutralization process. The results suggests that, while the qualitative behavior may be similar in ground tests, quantitative parameters such as the beam potential will be affected significantly by the vacuum chamber because of the limits imposed on the expansion process by the finite chamber space.

  12. Intense ion beam neutralization using underdense background plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Berdanier, William; Roy, Prabir K.; Kaganovich, Igor

    2015-01-15

    Producing an overdense background plasma for neutralization purposes with a density that is high compared to the beam density is not always experimentally possible. We show that even an underdense background plasma with a small relative density can achieve high neutralization of intense ion beam pulses. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we show that if the total plasma electron charge is not sufficient to neutralize the beam charge, electron emitters are necessary for effective neutralization but are not needed if the plasma volume is so large that the total available charge in the electrons exceeds that of the ion beam. Several regimes of possible underdense/tenuous neutralization plasma densities are investigated with and without electron emitters or dense plasma at periphery regions, including the case of electron emitters without plasma, which does not effectively neutralize the beam. Over 95% neutralization is achieved for even very underdense background plasma with plasma density 1/15th the beam density. We compare results of particle-in-cell simulations with an analytic model of neutralization and find close agreement with the particle-in-cell simulations. Further, we show experimental data from the National Drift Compression experiment-II group that verifies the result that underdense plasma can neutralize intense heavy ion beams effectively.

  13. Climate: Building a Culture of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. Howard

    1995-01-01

    Examines how educators can create a school culture that supports and nurtures the success and accomplishments of all students. Discusses the role of institutional core values; school heroes and leaders representing those values; the school's system of rewards, reinforcement, and punishments; the school's ceremonies and rituals; and how the…

  14. Neutral atom traps.

    SciTech Connect

    Pack, Michael Vern

    2008-12-01

    This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

  15. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Fred L.; Blank, Merle L.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated ether-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood pressure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  16. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  17. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.

    1984-10-26

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated either-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood presure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  18. Neutrality between Government and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    The overall guiding principle of neutrality between government and religion masks a tension that exists between free exercise of religion and establishment of religion. Reviews the development and current status of "Lemon" as a test for neutrality; proposes a new test for neutrality, evenhandedness, that is common to both the Free…

  19. Deterministic nanoassembly: Neutral or plasma route?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchenko, I.; Ostrikov, K.; Keidar, M.; Xu, S.

    2006-07-01

    It is shown that, owing to selective delivery of ionic and neutral building blocks directly from the ionized gas phase and via surface migration, plasma environments offer a better deal of deterministic synthesis of ordered nanoassemblies compared to thermal chemical vapor deposition. The results of hybrid Monte Carlo (gas phase) and adatom self-organization (surface) simulation suggest that higher aspect ratios and better size and pattern uniformity of carbon nanotip microemitters can be achieved via the plasma route.

  20. Filled Landau levels in neutral quantum gases

    SciTech Connect

    Oehberg, P.; Juzeliunas, G.; Ruseckas, J.; Fleischhauer, M.

    2005-11-15

    We consider the signatures of the integer quantum Hall effect in a degenerate gas of electrically neutral atomic fermions. An effective magnetic field is achieved by applying two incident light beams with a high orbital angular momentum. We show how states corresponding to completely filled Landau levels are obtained and discuss various possibilities to measure the incompressible nature of the trapped two-dimensional gas.

  1. Ultracold neutral plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, M.; Rolston, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    By photoionizing samples of laser-cooled atoms with laser light tuned just above the ionization limit, plasmas can be created with electron and ion temperatures below 10 K. These ultracold neutral plasmas have extended the temperature bounds of plasma physics by two orders of magnitude. Table-top experiments, using many of the tools from atomic physics, allow for the study of plasma phenomena in this new regime with independent control over the density and temperature of the plasma through the excitation process. Characteristic of these systems is an inhomogeneous density profile, inherited from the density distribution of the laser-cooled neutral atom sample. Most work has dealt with unconfined plasmas in vacuum, which expand outward at velocities of order 100 m/s, governed by electron pressure, and with lifetimes of order 100 μs, limited by stray electric fields. Using detection of charged particles and optical detection techniques, a wide variety of properties and phenomena have been observed, including expansion dynamics, collective excitations in both the electrons and ions, and collisional properties. Through three-body recombination collisions, the plasmas rapidly form Rydberg atoms, and clouds of cold Rydberg atoms have been observed to spontaneously avalanche ionize to form plasmas. Of particular interest is the possibility of the formation of strongly coupled plasmas, where Coulomb forces dominate thermal motion and correlations become important. The strongest impediment to strong coupling is disorder-induced heating, a process in which Coulomb energy from an initially disordered sample is converted into thermal energy. This restricts electrons to a weakly coupled regime and leaves the ions barely within the strongly coupled regime. This review will give an overview of the field of ultracold neutral plasmas, from its inception in 1999 to current work, including efforts to increase strong coupling and effects on plasma properties due to strong coupling.

  2. Pulsed field sample neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Dahl, David A.; Delmore, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for alternating voltage and for varying the rate of extraction during the extraction of secondary particles, resulting in periods when either positive ions, or negative ions and electrons are extracted at varying rates. Using voltage with alternating charge during successive periods to extract particles from materials which accumulate charge opposite that being extracted causes accumulation of surface charge of opposite sign. Charge accumulation can then be adjusted to a ratio which maintains a balance of positive and negative charge emission, thus maintaining the charge neutrality of the sample.

  3. Neutral beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Duesing, G.; Altmann, H.; Falter, H.; Goede, A.; Haange, R.; Hemsworth, R.S.; Kupschus, P.; Stork, D.; Thompson, E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the neutral injection (NI) system for the Joint European Torus and its status in 1985 are reported. First the system parameters are discussed and the layout is described, followed by a summary of the physics design calculations, the development, production, and testing of the components and the subsystem assembly. The system commissioning is presented, including a description of the function and the realization of the NI test bed. A summary of performance predictions for 80-keV beam heating experiments, and of the experimental evidence on balanced versus coinjection, is presented. The operational experience with the first injector and the plasma physics results obtained so far are summarized.

  4. Quantification of Transient Changes of Thermospheric Neutral Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-24

    Pedersen conductivity at high latitudes . Based on Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites...capture more random behavior of the electric field variability. The notable exception to this trend is EOF 11, which captures mid- latitude variations on...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0320 Quantification of Transient Changes of Thermospheric Neutral Density Arthur Richmond UNIVERSITY CORPORATION FOR ATMOSPHERIC

  5. Links & Contacts | Climate Leaders Collaboration | New ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    In 2013 EPA New England held a climate leaders summit. A key outgrowth of that summit was the formation of a Climate Leaders Steering Committee and six Action Plan Teams to help New England communities achieve climate resilience.

  6. Climate Leaders Collaboration | New England | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    In 2013 EPA New England held a climate leaders summit. A key outgrowth of that summit was the formation of a Climate Leaders Steering Committee and six Action Plan Teams to help New England communities achieve climate resilience.

  7. Neutral polypropylene laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolfino, Chiara; Lertora, Enrico; Gambaro, Carla

    2016-10-01

    The joining of polymeric materials is a technology used in many industrial applications, from transport to telecommunications and the medical sector. A new technology for the joining of polymers is the laser welding process. In particular, fibre laser welding is a flexible technology which allows high process speed and the realization of good quality joints. Despite its application becoming more widespread in the production of assemblies of high precision, the application of laser technology for the welding of polymers has not been the subject of many studies up to now. This study focused on the welding of neutral polypropylene. The window process parameter was identified, without the use of additives to increase radiation absorption, and a mechanical characterization was conducted in order to evaluate the quality of the joints realized.

  8. Transient Photochemistry of Neutral Red.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    ascorbic acid system to 50 successive flashes, indicating that no ground state neutral red is permanently converted to leuco dye . Since leuco neutral...complete regeneration of ground state neutral red in this pH range in the present study suggests that formation of leuco dye is not significant. The second...radical disproportionation step is followed by a slower step which converts leuco dye to semireduced radical. Because coupling the two steps

  9. Transient ion neutralization by electrons.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    The nonlinear initial-boundary-value problems describing the lateral neutralization of ion beams for the cases that (1) an auxiliary electric field accelerates the electrons into the ion space, and (2) the electrons are injected into the ion space at a prescribed current density are treated. Analytical solutions are derived which give the position and speed of the neutralization front as a function of time, and the temporal development of the electron density, velocity, and electric fields during the neutralization process.

  10. Higher Throughput Quantification of Neutralizing Antibody to Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Tamara P; Mitchell, Michelle C; Korom, Maria; Wang, Hong; Yu, Yinyi; Morrison, Lynda A; Belshe, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    We report a rapid, higher throughput method for measuring neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus (HSV) in human sera. Clinical isolates and sera from the Herpevac Trial for Women were used in a colorimetric assay in which infection of tissue culture (lack of neutralization) was indicated by substrate metabolism by beta-galactosidase induced in the ELVIS cell line. The neutralization assay was optimized by addition of guinea pig complement, which particularly enhanced neutralizing antibody titers to HSV-2. Higher neutralizing antibody titers were also achieved using virus particles isolated from the supernatant of infected cells rather than lysate of infected cells as the source of virus. The effect of assay incubation time and incubation time with substrate were also optimized. We found that incubating with substrate until a standard optical density of 1.0 was reached permitted a better comparison among virus isolates, and achieved reliable measurement of neutralizing antibody activity. Interestingly, in contrast to results in the absence of complement, addition of complement allowed sera from HSV-2 gD-vaccinated subjects to neutralize HSV-1 and HSV-2 clinical and laboratory isolates with equal potency.

  11. Constraining the Europa Neutral Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard T.; Mitchell, Donald; mauk, Barry; Johnson, Robert E.; clark, george

    2016-10-01

    "Neutral tori" consist of neutral particles that usually co-orbit along with their source forming a toroidal (or partial toroidal) feature around the planet. The distribution and composition of these features can often provide important, if not unique, insight into magnetospheric particles sources, mechanisms and dynamics. However, these features can often be difficult to directly detect. One innovative method for detecting neutral tori is by observing Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) that are generally considered produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between charged and neutral particles.Mauk et al. (2003) reported the detection of a Europa neutral particle torus using ENA observations. The presence of a Europa torus has extremely large implications for upcoming missions to Jupiter as well as understanding possible activity at this moon and providing critical insight into what lies beneath the surface of this icy ocean world. However, ENAs can also be produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between two ionized particles and in that case cannot be used to infer the presence of neutral particle population. Thus, a detailed examination of all possible source interactions must be considered before one can confirm that likely original source population of these ENA images is actually a Europa neutral particle torus. For this talk, we examine the viability that the Mauk et al. (2003) observations were actually generated from a neutral torus emanating from Europa as opposed to charge particle interactions with plasma originating from Io. These results help constrain such a torus as well as Europa source processes.

  12. The role of metal-organic frameworks in a carbon-neutral energy cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoedel, Alexander; Ji, Zhe; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2016-04-01

    Reducing society's reliance on fossil fuels presents one of the most pressing energy and environmental challenges facing our planet. Hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide, which are some of the smallest and simplest molecules known, may lie at the centre of solving this problem through realization of a carbon-neutral energy cycle. Potentially, this could be achieved through the deployment of hydrogen as the fuel of the long term, methane as a transitional fuel, and carbon dioxide capture and sequestration as the urgent response to ongoing climate change. Here we detail strategies and technologies developed to overcome the difficulties encountered in the capture, storage, delivery and conversion of these gas molecules. In particular, we focus on metal-organic frameworks in which metal oxide ‘hubs’ are linked with organic ‘struts’ to make materials of ultrahigh porosity, which provide a basis for addressing this challenge through materials design on the molecular level.

  13. A new approach to entangling neutral atoms.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jongmin; Martin, Michael J.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Deutsch, Ivan H.; Biedermann, Grant W.

    2016-11-01

    Our team has developed a new approach to entangling neutral atoms with a Rydberg-dressed interaction. Entangling neutral atoms is an essential key of quantum technologies such as quantum computation, many-body quantum simulation, and high-precision atomic sensors . The demonstrated Rydberg-dressed protocol involves adiabatically imposing a light shift on the ground state by coupling an excited Rydberg state with a tuned laser field. Using this technique, we have demonstrated a strong and tunable dipole - dipole interaction between two individually trapped atoms with energy shifts of order 1 MHz, which has been challenging to achieve in other protocols . During this program, we experimentally demonstrated Bell-state entanglement and the isomorphism to the Jaynes - Cumming model of a Rydberg-dressed two-atom system. Our theoretical calculations of a CPHASE quantum logic gate and arbitrary Dicke state quantum control in this system encourage further work.

  14. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in

  15. CO2-neutral fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  16. Achievements and opportunities from ESF Research Networking Programme: Natural molecular structures as drivers and tracers of terrestrial C fluxes, and COST Action 639: Greenhouse gas budget of soils under changing climate and land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckx, P.; Rasse, D.; Jandl, R.

    2009-04-01

    soils under changing climate and land use" (BurnOut) (www.cost.esf.org/domains_actions/essem/Actions/changing_climate or bfw.ac.at/rz/bfwcms.web?dok=5906) BurnOut aims at improving the management of greenhouse gas emissions from European soils under different regimes of ecosystem disturbances and land-use change. This will allow the identification of soil and site conditions (hot spots) that are vulnerable to greenhouse gas emissions. The specific objectives are: - Identification of hot spots of greenhouse gas emissions from soils; - Identification of soil and site conditions that are vulnerable to GHG emissions; - Development of an advanced greenhouse gas reporting concept across different of land forms, land use and land use changes; - Communication of policy relevant GHG reporting concepts; Burnout covers the following activities: - Organisation of specific topical workshops; - Short-term scientific visits for scientists. Participating countries in BurnOut are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, Russian Federation, and Bosnia Herzegovina. During this oral presentation, possible lines of cooperation, opportunities and recent achievements will be exemplified and the audience will be invited to contribute their views on these initiatives.

  17. Is science metaphysically neutral?

    PubMed

    Fry, Iris

    2012-09-01

    This paper challenges the claim that science is metaphysically neutral upheld by contenders of the separation of peacefully co-existent science and religion and by evolutionary theists. True, naturalistic metaphysical claims can neither be refuted nor proved and are thus distinct from empirical hypotheses. However, metaphysical assumptions not only regulate the theoretical and empirical study of nature, but are increasingly supported by the growing empirical body of science. This historically evolving interaction has contributed to the development of a naturalistic worldview that renounces the necessity of a transcendent god and of purposeful design. The thesis presented here differs not only from the claims of the "separatists" and of evolutionary theists. In pointing to the metaphysical aspects of science, I also criticize the failure of some evolutionary naturalists to distinguish between empirical and metaphysical contentions. Most important, based on the examination of science suggested here, creationists' false accusation that science is only a naturalistic dogma is refuted. Finally, the difficulties involved in the position endorsed here for the public support of evolution are acknowledged, taking into account the high religious profile of the American society and the social and political context in the US and in other countries.

  18. Weak neutral current chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R.

    1996-07-01

    Metal cluster organic complexes, neither atomic nor solid but in analogy to atomic nuclei and to mesoscopic systems, have unusual dynamics and catalytic properties. Organo-metal clusters as quintessence prebiotic enzymes could have originated the homochirality of the molecules from achiral precursors, controlled from the atomic-nucleus, with the initial product itself serving subsequently as chiral auxiliary transferring and amplifying the chirality in the autocatalytic process now. High resolution spectroscopic studies of diatomic molecules beginning now may lead to upper estimates of the interaction strength of weak neutral currents (WNG) with valence electrons of metal clusters and suggest kinetic pathways to dynamic symmetry breaking in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral molecules. An estimate of 10{sup {minus}5} kT (thousand times larger than for radiolysis) for the parity violating energy (PVE) could be sufficient to run an entropy driven spin-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. Expect then, wherever there are metal clusters in interstellar dust or under the sea chiral molecular production. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Weak neutral current chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, R.

    1996-07-01

    Metal cluster organic complexes, neither atomic nor solid but in analogy to atomic nuclei and to mesoscopic systems, have unusual dynamics and catalytic properties. Organo-metal clusters as quintessence prebiotic enzymes could have originated the homochirality of the molecules from achiral precursors, controlled from the atomic-nucleus, with the initial product itself serving subsequently as chiral auxiliary transferring and amplifying the chirality in the autocatalytic process now. High resolution spectroscopic studies of diatomic molecules beginning now may lead to upper estimates of the interaction strength of weak neutral currents (WNG) with valence electrons of metal clusters and suggest kinetic pathways to dynamic symmetry breaking in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral molecules. An estimate of 10-5 kT (thousand times larger than for radiolysis) for the parity violating energy (PVE) could be sufficient to run an entropy driven spin-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. Expect then, wherever there are metal clusters in interstellar dust or under the sea chiral molecular production.

  20. The neutral upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. N.

    2002-07-01

    After World War II, Professor S.K. Mitra wrote a comprehensive book called The Upper Atmosphere, which dealt with information available from ground-based and balloon-borne experiments. As a result, topics such as day airglow were investigated and further ground-based experiments using incoherent back-scattering were carried out. These activities resulted in important new information on the ozonosphere. The dramatic discovery of ozone holes forms a new and exciting chapter in the discovery of atmospheric processes. While dealing with the limits of the atmosphere, reference may be made to interstellar molecules whose discovery has raised considerable scientific curiosity. Knowledge on the solar-terrestrial relationship advanced a great deal when more information on solar radiation became available by measuring higher energy photons in the UV, EUV, and even X-ray regime. All this information is incorporated in this volume and presented under the title The Neutral Upper Atmosphere. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/0-7923-6434-1

  1. Neutralization tests on the SERT 2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Domitz, S.

    1979-01-01

    Neutralization test data obtained on the SERT 2 spacecraft are presented. Tests included ion beam neutralization of a thruster by a close (normal design) neutralizer as well as by a distant (1 meter) neutralizer. Parameters affecting neutralization, such as neutralizer bias voltage, neutralizer anode voltage, local spacecraft plasma density, and solar array voltage configuration were varied and changes in plasma potentials were measured. A plasma model is presented as an approximation of observed results.

  2. The Effects of Plasma-Neutral Interactions on Neutral Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, V.; Thayer, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Plasma-neutral interactions are fundamental to the structure and behavior of the neutral thermosphere. This interaction, primarily through ion-neutral collisions, ties electrodynamics with hydrodynamics requiring a fully coupled ionosphere - thermosphere model to simulate and dissect the sequence of responses that occur in the neutral gas when a change occurs in the ionosphere. In particular, changes in the ion drag force prompt a hydrodynamic response that will alter several properties of the thermosphere, including neutral winds. Here, the fully coupled National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR TIEGCM) is used to evaluate how changes in mechanical coupling, through the ion drag force, alter thermosphere properties, with a focus on thermospheric neutral winds. The equatorial thermosphere anomaly (ETA) produces a transient wind system, and a dissection of the hydrodynamic processes responsible for its formation will be used to demonstrate the causal structure in neutral gas response to a change in field-aligned ion drag force. This well-behaved response elucidates processes that must be occurring in other regions of the thermosphere where more significant changes in the ion drag force occur.

  3. Environmental neutralization of polonium-218

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.D.; Hopke, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that two mechanisms of neutralization of the singly charged polonium ion exist. Charged Polonium-218 can be neutralized by reacting with oxygen to form a polonium oxide ion with a higher ionization potential than that of the polonium metal and then accepting an electron transferred from a lower ionization potential gas. In this present work, this mechanism has been verified by determining that the polonium oxide has an ionization potential in the range 10.35-10.53 eV. It was also previously reported that /sup 218/Po can be neutralized, in the absence of oxygen, by the scavenging of electrons by a trace gas such as water or nitrogen dioxide and their diffusion to the polonium ion. To verify this second neutralization mechanism, concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in nitrogen in the range of 50 ppb-1 ppm were examined for their ability to neutralize the polonium ion. Complete neutralization of /sup 218/Po was observed at nitrogen dioxide concentrations greater than 700 ppb. For concentrations below 700 ppb, the degree of neutralization was found to increase smoothly with the nitrogen dioxide concentration.

  4. The Low-Energy Neutral Imager (LENI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westlake, J. H.; Mitchell, D. G.; Brandt, P. C.-son.; Andrews, B. G.; Clark, G.

    2016-09-01

    To achieve breakthroughs in the areas of heliospheric and magnetospheric energetic neutral atom (ENA) imaging, a new class of instruments is required. We present a high angular resolution ENA imager concept aimed at the suprathermal plasma populations with energies between 0.5 and 20 keV. This instrument is intended for understanding the spatial and temporal structure of the heliospheric boundary recently revealed by Interstellar Boundary Explorer instrumentation and the Cassini Ion and Neutral Camera. The instrument is also well suited to characterize magnetospheric ENA emissions from low-altitude ENA emissions produced by precipitation of magnetospheric ions into the terrestrial upper atmosphere, or from the magnetosheath where solar wind protons are neutralized by charge exchange, or from portions of the ring current region. We present a new technique utilizing ultrathin carbon foils, 2-D collimation, and a novel electron optical design to produce high angular resolution (≤2°) and high-sensitivity (≥10-3 cm2 sr/pixel) ENA imaging in the 0.5-20 keV energy range.

  5. The Low‐Energy Neutral Imager (LENI)

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, D. G.; Brandt, P. C.‐son.; Andrews, B. G.; Clark, G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To achieve breakthroughs in the areas of heliospheric and magnetospheric energetic neutral atom (ENA) imaging, a new class of instruments is required. We present a high angular resolution ENA imager concept aimed at the suprathermal plasma populations with energies between 0.5 and 20 keV. This instrument is intended for understanding the spatial and temporal structure of the heliospheric boundary recently revealed by Interstellar Boundary Explorer instrumentation and the Cassini Ion and Neutral Camera. The instrument is also well suited to characterize magnetospheric ENA emissions from low‐altitude ENA emissions produced by precipitation of magnetospheric ions into the terrestrial upper atmosphere, or from the magnetosheath where solar wind protons are neutralized by charge exchange, or from portions of the ring current region. We present a new technique utilizing ultrathin carbon foils, 2‐D collimation, and a novel electron optical design to produce high angular resolution (≤2°) and high‐sensitivity (≥10−3 cm2 sr/pixel) ENA imaging in the 0.5–20 keV energy range. PMID:27867800

  6. Climate models and model evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, W.L.

    1994-12-31

    This brief overview addresses aspects of the nature, uses, evaluation and limitations of climate models. A comprehensive global modeling capability has been achieved only for the physical climate system, which is characterized by processes that serve to transport and exchange momentum, heat and moisture within and between the atmosphere, ocean and land surface. The fundamental aim of climate modeling, and the justification for the use of climate models, is the need to achieve a quantitative understanding of the operation of the climate system and to exploit any potential predictability that may exist.

  7. Neutralization of reovirus: the gene responsible for the neutralization antigen

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    The S1 genome segment of reovirus is linked to type specificity as determined by neutralization antibody. This gene segment codes for a minor outer capsid polypeptide (sigma1). Therefore, sigma1 is the peptide responsible for induction of neutralization antibody and confers type specificity. This biologic property of reovirus was defined using hybrid recombinants clones between reovirus types 1 and 3 and 2 and 3. PMID:925604

  8. Neutral particle dynamics in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Niemczewski, Artur P.

    1995-08-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study of neutral particle dynamics in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The primary diagnostic used is a set of six neutral pressure gauges, including special-purpose gauges built for in situ tokamak operation. While a low main chamber neutral pressure coincides with high plasma confinement regimes, high divertor pressure is required for heat and particle flux dispersion in future devices such as ITER. Thus we examine conditions that optimize divertor compression, defined here as a divertor-to-midplane pressure ratio. We find both pressures depend primarily on the edge plasma regimes defined by the scrape-off-layer heat transport. While the maximum divertor pressure is achieved at high core plasma densities corresponding to the detached divertor state, the maximum compression is achieved in the high-recycling regime. Variations in the divertor geometry have a weaker effect on the neutral pressures. For otherwise similar plasmas the divertor pressure and compression are maximum when the strike point is at the bottom of the vertical target plate. We introduce a simple flux balance model, which allows us to explain the divertor neutral pressure across a wide range of plasma densities. In particular, high pressure sustained in the detached divertor (despite a considerable drop in the recycling source) can be explained by scattering of neutrals off the cold plasma plugging the divertor throat. Because neutrals are confined in the divertor through scattering and ionization processes (provided the mean-free-paths are much shorter than a typical escape distance) tight mechanical baffling is unnecessary. The analysis suggests that two simple structural modifications may increase the divertor compression in Alcator C-Mod by a factor of about 5. Widening the divertor throat would increase the divertor recycling source, while closing leaks in the divertor structure would eliminate a significant neutral loss mechanism.

  9. Incomplete Neutralization and Deviation from Sigmoidal Neutralization Curves for HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Laura E; Falkowska, Emilia; Doores, Katie J; Le, Khoa; Sok, Devin; van Gils, Marit J; Euler, Zelda; Burger, Judith A; Seaman, Michael S; Sanders, Rogier W; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Poignard, Pascal; Wrin, Terri; Burton, Dennis R

    2015-08-01

    The broadly neutralizing HIV monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs) PG9, PG16, PGT151, and PGT152 have been shown earlier to occasionally display an unusual virus neutralization profile with a non-sigmoidal slope and a plateau at <100% neutralization. In the current study, we were interested in determining the extent of non-sigmoidal slopes and plateaus at <100% for HIV bnMAbs more generally. Using both a 278 panel of pseudoviruses in a CD4 T-cell (U87.CCR5.CXCR4) assay and a panel of 117 viruses in the TZM-bl assay, we found that bnMAbs targeting many neutralizing epitopes of the spike had neutralization profiles for at least one virus that plateaued at <90%. Across both panels the bnMAbs targeting the V2 apex of Env and gp41 were most likely to show neutralization curves that plateaued <100%. Conversely, bnMAbs targeting the high-mannose patch epitopes were less likely to show such behavior. Two CD4 binding site (CD4bs) Abs also showed this behavior relatively infrequently. The phenomenon of incomplete neutralization was also observed in a large peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)-grown molecular virus clone panel derived from patient viral swarms. In addition, five bnMAbs were compared against an 18-virus panel of molecular clones produced in 293T cells and PBMCs and assayed in TZM-bl cells. Examples of plateaus <90% were seen with both types of virus production with no consistent patterns observed. In conclusion, incomplete neutralization and non-sigmoidal neutralization curves are possible for all HIV bnMAbs against a wide range of viruses produced and assayed in both cell lines and primary cells with implications for the use of antibodies in therapy and as tools for vaccine design.

  10. Neutral and Selective Processes Drive Population Differentiation for Iris hexagona

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow among widespread populations can be reduced by geographical distance or by divergent selection resulting from local adaptation. In this study, we tested for the divergence of phenotypes and genotypes among 8 populations of Iris hexagona. Using a genotyping-by-sequencing approach, we generated a panel of 750 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and used population genetic analyses to determine what may affect patterns of divergence across I. hexagona populations. Specifically, genetic differentiation was compared between populations at neutral and nonneutral SNPs and detected significant differences between the 2 types of markers. We then asked whether loci with the strongest degree of population genetic differentiation were also the loci with the strongest association to morphology or climate differences, allowing us to test if pollinators or climate drive population differentiation or some combination of both. We found 2 markers that were associated with morphology and 1 marker associated with 2 of the environmental variables, which were also identified in the outlier analysis. We then show that the SNPs putatively under selection were positively correlated with both geographic distance and phenotypic distance, albeit weakly to phenotypic distance. Moreover, neutral SNPs were only correlated with geographic distance and thus isolation-by-distance was observed for neutral SNPs. Our data suggest that both deterministic and neutral processes have contributed to the evolutionary trajectory of I. hexagona populations. PMID:26163584

  11. The Relationship between Students' Perception of Being Safe in School, Principals' Perception of School Climate and Science Achievement in TIMSS 2007: A Comparison between Urban and Rural Public School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulifa, Khalid; Kaaouachi, Abdelali

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the assessment of the effects of Index of Principals' Perception of School Climate (PPSC), intimidation of students and gender in Moroccan public schools on student performance in science. The study focused on fourth grade students who participated in the TIMSS 2007. The objective of this study is to answer the following…

  12. Improved numerical calculation of the generation of a neutral beam by charge transfer between chlorine ions/neutrals and a graphite surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Naoki; Ohtsuka, Shingo; Iwasaki, Takuya; Ono, Kohei; Iriye, Yasuroh; Samukawa, Seiji

    2014-11-01

    The charge transfer process between chlorine particles (ions or neutrals) and a graphite surface on collision was investigated by using a highly stable numerical simulator based on time-dependent density functional theory to understand the generation mechanism of a high-efficiency neutral beam developed by Samukawa et al (2001 Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 40 L779). A straightforward calculation was achieved by adopting a large enough unit cell. The dependence of the neutralization efficiency on the incident energy of the particle was investigated, and the trend of the experimental result was reproduced. It was also found that doping the electrons and holes into graphite could change the charge transfer process and neutralization probability. This result suggests that it is possible to develop a neutral beam source that has high neutralization efficiency for both positive and negative ions.

  13. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  14. Gas cell neutralizers (Fundamental principles)

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehrer, B.

    1985-06-01

    Neutralizing an ion-beam of the size and energy levels involved in the neutral-particle-beam program represents a considerable extension of the state-of-the-art of neutralizer technology. Many different mediums (e.g., solid, liquid, gas, plasma, photons) can be used to strip the hydrogen ion of its extra electron. A large, multidisciplinary R and D effort will no doubt be required to sort out all of the ''pros and cons'' of these various techniques. The purpose of this particular presentation is to discuss some basic configurations and fundamental principles of the gas type of neutralizer cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the ''Gasdynamic Free-Jet'' neutralizer since this configuration has the potential of being much shorter than other type of gas cells (in the beam direction) and it could operate in nearly a continuous mode (CW) if necessary. These were important considerations in the ATSU design which is discussed in some detail in the second presentation entitled ''ATSU Point Design''.

  15. Reduced neutral XLPE cable design

    SciTech Connect

    Valli, G.F.; Zawadzki, J.A.; Orton, H.E. )

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes the theoretical, laboratory and economic analyses undertaken to determine the optimum metallic concentric neutral design for its single conductor 750 and 500 kcmil aluminum XLPE 15 kV insulated concentric-neutral type feeder cables. The results suggest that reducing the cross-sectional area of this concentric neutral from the currently-recognized industry standard of 20 percent of the central conductor to 7% results in overall present-worth system cost saving of approximately $3 per conductor meter or approximately 22% of the cable first cost. The neutral configuration ultimately chosen to replace the previous standard 37 - number 14 AWG wires was 2 - 1 inch {times} 5 mil tinned copper tapes overlapped by 25%. Line voltage fault test were run in the high-power laboratory on samples with various neutral configurations to confirm they would successfully pass our worst-case fault duty of 10 kA for 20 cycles (i.e., .33 sec) with no reclosing.

  16. Selective neutrality and enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, L

    1997-10-01

    This article appeals to a recent theory of enzyme evolution to show that the properties, neutral or adaptive, which characterize the observed allelic variation in natural populations can be inferred from the functional parameters, substrate specificity, and reaction rate. This study delineates the following relations between activity variables, and the forces--adaptive or neutral--determining allelic variation: (1) Enzymes with broad substrate specificity: The observed polymorphism is adaptive; mutations in this class of enzymes can result in increased fitness of the organism and hence be relevant for positive selection. (2) Enzymes with absolute substrate specificity and diffusion-controlled rates: Observed allelic variation will be absolutely neutral; mutations in this class of enzymes will be either deleterious or have no effect on fitness. (3) Enzymes with absolute or group specificity and nondiffusion-controlled rates: Observed variation will be partially neutral; mutants which are selectively neutral may become advantageous under an appropriate environmental condition or different genetic background. We illustrate each of the relations between kinetic properties and evolutionary states with examples drawn from enzymes whose evolutionary dynamics have been intensively studied.

  17. Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation (ENAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinsley, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    The Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation experiment is scheduled to be flown on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission. The objective of this experiment is to measure very faint emissions at nighttime arising from fluxes of energetic neutral atoms in the thermosphere. These energetic atoms have energies ranging up to about 50 keV, and arise from ions of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen trapped in the inner magnetosphere. Some of these ions become neutralized in charge exchange reactions with neutral hydrogen in the hydrogen geocorona that extends through the region. The ions are trapped on magnetic field lines which cross the equatorial plane at 2 to 6 earth radii distance, and they mirror at a range of heights on these field lines, extending down to the thermosphere at 500 km altitude. The ATLAS 1 measurements will not be of the neutral atoms themselves but of the optical emission produced by those on trajectories that intersect the thermosphere. The ENAP measurements are to be made using the Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO) which is being flown on the ATLAS mission primarily for daytime spectral observations, and the ENAP measurements will all be nighttime measurements because of the faintness of the emissions and the relatively low level of magnetic activity expected.

  18. Gas-liquid chromatography of fecal neutral steriods.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, K O; Gehrke, C W; Rogers, I T; Flynn, M A; Hentges, D J

    1977-05-21

    A method is described for the analysis of fecal neutral steriods with a dual-column gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) system. After saponification of the fecal slurry, the neutral steroids were extracted with hexane. The GLC separation of the compounds and quantitation were achieved by simultaneous injection of the derivatized and derivatized aliquots of the extract onto dual colmuns under identical conditions. The neutral steroids of interest were than identified by matching the retention times with those of known standards, and identification was confirmed by use of an interfaced GLC high-resolution mass spectrometry system. The detection limit was 0.003 mg of steroid/g of fecal slurry. The pricision of the method is illustrated by a relative standard diviation of 2-10% and a recovery of neutral steroids from 73-96%. The method was applied to the determination of fecal neutral steroids in a "High protein diet in colon cancer study". A considerably larger level of coprostanone than of coprostanol was observed. Data on neutral steroids in fecal samples from subjects on different diets are the subject of a separate publication.

  19. Facility for intense diagnostic neutral beam (IDNB) development

    SciTech Connect

    Kasik, R.J.; Hinckley, W.B.; Bartsch, R.R.; Rej, D.J.; Henins, I.; Greenly, J.B.

    1993-08-01

    An intense, pulsed neutral beam source is under development for use as a probe beam on hot, burning plasmas such as in the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) which is presently in the planning stage. A pulsed, neutral hydrogen beam of 10s of kilo amperes of current can have an alpha particle, charge-exchange-recombination-spectroscopy (alpha-CHERS) signal-to-noise ratio of {approximately} 10. This beam would allow the measurement, on a single pulse of a few hundred nanoseconds duration, of the local alpha particle distribution function as well as other features of the tokamak plasma such as current density profile, impurity density, and microturbulence spectrum. The cross-sections for the CHERS diagnostic dictate operation with proton energies greater than {approximately}50keV. A pulsed neutral hydrogen source of this voltage and intensity can be achieved by neutralizing the ion flux from a magnetized ion-diode. The cross-sections for attachment and stripping, when coupled with scaling from Child-Langmiur, space-charge-limited, ion-current flow imply operation below - 100keV for maximum neutral fluence. The development of a flashover-anode, ion source for forthcoming evaluation of a neutralizing section is described below. This source operates in the accelerator voltage range 70 to 100keV. Eventually, the flashover-anode, magnetized ion-diode will be replaced with a plasma-anode, magnetized ion-diode.

  20. Climate Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things About Water Trees Tell Us About Past Climate 10 Things About Air Learn About Coral Bleaching! ... years. What if it keeps rising this fast? Climate Time Machine Mystery Climate Kids is produced by ...

  1. Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, or ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. Climate ...

  2. Simulations of neutralized final focus

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Genoni, T.C.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to drive an inertial fusion target or study high energy density physics with heavy ion beams, the beam radius must be focused to < 3 mm and the pulse length must be compressed to < 10 ns. The conventional scheme for temporal pulse compression makes use of an increasing ion velocity to compress the beam as it drifts and beam space charge to stagnate the compression before final focus. Beam compression in a neutralizing plasma does not require stagnation of the compression, enabling a more robust method. The final pulse shape at the target can be programmed by an applied velocity tilt. In this paper, neutralized drift compression is investigated. The sensitivity of the compression and focusing to beam momentum spread, plasma, and magnetic field conditions is studied with realistic driver examples. Using the 3D particle-in-cell code, we examine issues associated with self-field generation, stability, and vacuum-neutralized transport transition and focusing.

  3. A Re-Examiniation of Phonological Neutralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinnsen, D.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews research studies that raise serious questions about phonological neutralization, that is, the merger of a contrast in certain contexts. Some findings cast doubt on the very existence of neutralization and the correctness of the theoretical principles that make assumptions based on neutralization. Reanalyzes neutralization in light of these…

  4. Dynamics of Ion Beam Charge Neutralization by Ferroelectric Plasma Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Ji, Qing; Persaud, Arun; Seidl, Peter A.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams. Here we present experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a FEPS plasma. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15 V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Near-complete charge neutralization is established 5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS, and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub- μs surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS suggest that plasma can be generated for tens of μs after the high voltage pulse is applied. This is confirmed by fast photography of the plasma in the 1-meter long FEPS on NDCX-II, where effective charge neutralization of the beam was achieved with the optimized FEPS timing. This work was supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under contracts DE-AC0209CH11466 (PPPL) and DE-AC0205CH11231 (LBNL).

  5. About the Center for Corporate Climate Leadership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership encourages organizations with emerging climate objectives to identify and achieve cost-effective GHG emission reductions, while helping more advanced organizations drive innovations in reducing GHG impacts.

  6. Comparing current fitness center members' perceptions of the motivational climate with non-members.

    PubMed

    Brown, Theresa C; Volberding, Jennifer; Baghurst, Timothy; Sellers, John

    2017-03-01

    Researchers using an achievement goal theory and caring climate framework have highlighted the connection between fitness center members' climate perceptions and their exercise motivation. However, much of what is known comes from current members, with little known about former and non-members' perceptions. The purpose of this study was to compare current, former, and non-members' perceptions of the motivational climate of a university campus fitness facility. Faculty and staff ( N = 657) at a large American university completed a one-time mixed-methods survey about their perceptions of the motivational climate (i.e. caring climate; preference for caring, task-, ego-involving climate), staff behaviors (i.e. caring, task involving), and usage of their campus fitness facility. Despite usage, quantitative analyses indicated that all participants reported valuing a caring, task-involving climate over a non-caring, ego-involving climate when choosing a fitness center. When asked about the particular fitness center for this study, current members were more likely than former and never users to perceive a caring climate where staff engaged in task-involving behaviors. Content analysis of the qualitative comments revealed that three main themes emerged with regard to perceptions and fell into positive, negative, and neutral categories. Overall, current users were more likely to perceive caring behaviors among the staff such as taking measures to welcome members and supporting their individualized goals. Former and never users were more likely to perceive staff as unhelpful, unwelcoming, and unfriendly. In an effort to remove barriers to physical activity, fitness professionals should consider how their behaviors, interactions, and promotional materials impact individuals' decision of whether to exercise at their fitness facility. The findings include a discussion for fitness staff to consider when creating advertisement and outreach efforts as well as how to foster the

  7. Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers

    PubMed Central

    Ashkin, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    The techniques of optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles by lasers provide unique means to control the dynamics of small particles. These new experimental methods have played a revolutionary role in areas of the physical and biological sciences. This paper reviews the early developments in the field leading to the demonstration of cooling and trapping of neutral atoms in atomic physics and to the first use of optical tweezers traps in biology. Some further major achievements of these rapidly developing methods also are considered. PMID:9144154

  8. ECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Kolchin, P.; Davidson, E.C.; Yu, S.S.; Logan, B.G.

    2002-05-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being considered as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus beyond the space-charge limit. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length {approx} 0.1-2 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An ECR source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) to support a joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 1-10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures {approx} 10{sup -6} Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10{sup -4}-10{sup -1} Torr. Electron densities in the range of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} have been achieved. Low-pressure operation is important to reduce ion beam ionization. A cusp magnetic field has been installed to improve radial confinement and reduce the field strength on the beam axis. In addition, axial confinement is believed to be important to achieve lower-pressure operation. To further improve breakdown at low pressure, a weak electron source will be placed near the end of the ECR source.

  9. Integrating SPOT-VEGETATION 13-yr time series and land-surface modelling to forecast the terrestrial carbon dynamics in a changing climate - The VEGECLIM project: achievements and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defourny, Pierre; Verbeeck, Hans; Moreau, Inès; De Weirdt, Marjolein; Verhegghen, Astrid; Kibambe-Lubamba, Jean-Paul; Jungers, Quentin; Maignan, Fabienne; Najdovski, Nicolas; Poulter, Benjamin; MacBean, Natasha; Peylin, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Vegetation is a major carbon sink and is as such a key component of the international response to climate change caused by the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. However, anthropogenic disturbances like deforestation are the primary mechanism that changes ecosystems from carbon sinks to sources, and are hardly included in the current carbon modelling approaches. Moreover, in tropical regions, the seasonal/interannual variability of carbon fluxes is still uncertain and a weak or even no seasonality is taken into account in global vegetation models. In the context of climate change and mitigation policies like "Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries" (REDD), it is particularly important to be able to quantify and forecast the vegetation dynamics and carbon fluxes in these regions. The overall objective of the VEGECLIM project is to increase our knowledge on the terrestrial carbon cycle in tropical regions and to improve the forecast of the vegetation dynamics and carbon stocks and fluxes under different climate-change and deforestation scenarios. Such an approach aims to determine whether the African terrestrial carbon balance will remain a net sink or could become a carbon source by the end of the century, according to different climate-change and deforestation scenarios. The research strategy is to integrate the information of the land surface characterizations obtained from 13 years of consistent SPOT-VEGETATION time series (land cover, vegetation phenology through vegetation indices such as the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI)) as well as in-situ carbon flux data into the process based ORCHIDEE global vegetation model, capable of simulating vegetation dynamics and carbon balance. Key challenge of this project was to bridge the gap between the land cover and the land surface model teams. Several improvements of the ORCHIDEE model have been realized such as a new seasonal leaf dynamics for tropical evergreen

  10. Photodetachment process for beam neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H. [Livermore, CA; Frank, Alan M. [Livermore, CA

    1979-02-20

    A process for neutralization of accelerated ions employing photo-induced charge detachment. The process involves directing a laser beam across the path of a negative ion beam such as to effect photodetachment of electrons from the beam ions. The frequency of the laser beam employed is selected to provide the maximum cross-section for the photodetachment process.

  11. Photodetachment process for beam neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Fink, J.H.; Frank, A.M.

    1979-02-20

    A process for neutralization of accelerated ions employing photo-induced charge detachment is disclosed. The process involves directing a laser beam across the path of a negative ion beam such as to effect photodetachment of electrons from the beam ions. The frequency of the laser beam employed is selected to provide the maximum cross-section for the photodetachment process. 2 figs.

  12. Low energy neutral atom imaging

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Gosling, J.T.; Moore, K.R.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Energetic neutral atom (ENA) and low energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging of space plasmas are emerging new technology which promises to revolutionize the way we view and understand large scale space plasma phenomena and dynamics. ENAs and LENAs are produced in the magnetosphere by charge exchange between energetic and plasma ions and cold geocoronal neutrals. While imaging techniques have been previously developed for observing ENAs, with energies above several tens of keV, most of the ions found in the terrestrial magnetosphere have lower energies. We recently suggested that LENAs could be imaged by first converting the neutrals to ions and then electrostatically analyzing them to reject the UV background. In this paper we extend this work to examine in detail the sensor elements needed to make an LENA imager. These elements are (1) a biased collimator to remove the ambient plasma ions and electrons and set the azimuthal field-of-view; (2) a charge modifier to convert a portion of the incident LENAs to ions; (3) an electrostatic analyzer to reject UV light and set the energy passband; and (4) a coincidence detector to measure converted LENAs while rejecting noise and penetrating radiation. We also examine the issue of LENA imager sensitivity and describe ways of optimizing sensitivity in the various sensor components. Finally, we demonstrate in detail how these general considerations are implemented by describing one relatively straightforward design based on a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer.

  13. MSFC Skylab neutral buoyancy simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of a neutral buoyancy simulator for developing extravehicular activity systems and for training astronauts in weightless activities is discussed. The construction of the facility and the operations are described. The types of tests and the training activities conducted in the simulator are reported. Photographs of the components of the simulator and actual training exercises are included.

  14. Laser Cooling and Trapping of Neutral Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, William D.

    1998-05-01

    Laser cooling was proposed in 1975 and first demonstrated for trapped ions in 1978, but the effective laser cooling of neutral atoms took longer, in part because neutrals are so hard to trap. Laser deceleration and cooling of an atomic beam came in the early 1980s, followed by magnetic trapping of atoms in 1985. In 1988 we discovered that laser cooling results in temperatures far lower than expected from the then-accepted theory. The new understanding, developed in the groups of Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and Steve Chu, of the physical process of laser cooling has allowed us to achieve temperatures below a microkelvin. Today, laser cooling and trapping is being used for applications ranging from atomic clocks to Bose-Einstein condensation. This talk is an adaptation of the Nobel Lecture given in Stockholm, December 1997. Special thanks go to my colleagues at NIST and to the entire laser cooling community. This work was supported by NIST and by the ONR.

  15. Biometric Denture Space- Concept of Neutral Zone Revisited Using A Hydrocolloid Impression Material

    PubMed Central

    Umamaheswaran, Aruna; Nayar, Sanjna

    2015-01-01

    Though the concept of neutral zone in making complete denture and its significance are well known, the material of choice has always been experimented to achieve better results. Recording of neutral zone using irreversible hydrocolloid (Alginate) as a material of choice would make the way of recording the neutral zone easier, as well as comfortable for the patient, when compared with other materials used for the purpose. This article describes the method of recording the biometric denture space (neutral zone) using hydrocolloid impression material which is most commonly used in everyday dental practice. PMID:26673250

  16. Global land-cover and land-use change of the last 6000 years for climate modelling studies: the PAGES LandCover6k initiative and its first achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Morrison, Kathleen; Madella, Marco; Whitehouse, Nicki J.; Pages Landcover6k Sub-Coordinators

    2016-04-01

    The goal of the PAGES LandCover6k initiative is to provide relevant, empirical data on past anthropogenic land-cover change (land-use change) to climate modellers (e.g. the CMIP5 initiative). Land-use change is one of many climate forcings and its effect on climate is still badly understood. Among the effects of land-cover change on climate, the best known are the biogeochemical effects, and in particular the influence on the exchange of CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere. The biogeophysical effects are less well understood, i.e. the net effect of changes in the albedo and evapotranspiration is complex. Moreover, the net effect of both biogeochemical and biogeophysical processes due to land-use change is still a matter of debate. The LandCover6k working group infers land-use data from fossil pollen records from lake sediments and peat deposits, and from historical archives and archaeological records (including pollen and other palaeoecological records such as wood and plant micro/macroremains). The working group is divided into two activities, i) pollen-based reconstructions of past land cover using pollen-vegetation modelling approaches, and mapping of pollen-based land-cover change using spatial statistics (e.g. Trondman et al., 2015; Pirzimanbein et al., 2014), and ii) upscaling and summarizing historical and archaeological data into maps of major land-use categories linked to quantitative attributes. Studies on pollen productivity of major plant taxa are an essential part of activity i). Pollen productivity estimates are available for a large number of the northern hemisphere, major plant taxa, but are still missing for large parts of the tropics for which research is currently in progress. The results of both activities are then used to revise existing Anthropogenic Land-Cover Change (ALCC) scenarios, the HYDE database (Klein-Goldewijk et al.,) and KK (Kaplan et al.,). Climate modellers (e.g. the CMIP5 initiative) can use the LandCover6k products

  17. A redox-neutral catechol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Yan, Dingyuan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ting; Xiong, Feng; Wei, Wei; Lu, Yi; Sun, Wei-Yin; Li, Jie Jack; Zhao, Jing

    2017-01-27

    Ubiquitous tyrosinase catalyses the aerobic oxidation of phenols to catechols through the binuclear copper centres. Here, inspired by the Fischer indole synthesis, we report an iridium-catalysed tyrosinase-like approach to catechols, employing an oxyacetamide-directed C-H hydroxylation on phenols. This method achieves one-step, redox-neutral synthesis of catechols with diverse substituent groups under mild conditions. Mechanistic studies confirm that the directing group (DG) oxyacetamide acts as the oxygen source. This strategy has been applied to the synthesis of different important catechols with fluorescent property and bioactivity from the corresponding phenols. Finally, our method also provides a convenient route to (18)O-labelled catechols using (18)O-labelled acetic acid.

  18. A redox-neutral catechol synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qian; Yan, Dingyuan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ting; Xiong, Feng; Wei, Wei; Lu, Yi; Sun, Wei-Yin; Li, Jie Jack; Zhao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitous tyrosinase catalyses the aerobic oxidation of phenols to catechols through the binuclear copper centres. Here, inspired by the Fischer indole synthesis, we report an iridium-catalysed tyrosinase-like approach to catechols, employing an oxyacetamide-directed C-H hydroxylation on phenols. This method achieves one-step, redox-neutral synthesis of catechols with diverse substituent groups under mild conditions. Mechanistic studies confirm that the directing group (DG) oxyacetamide acts as the oxygen source. This strategy has been applied to the synthesis of different important catechols with fluorescent property and bioactivity from the corresponding phenols. Finally, our method also provides a convenient route to 18O-labelled catechols using 18O-labelled acetic acid.

  19. A redox-neutral catechol synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qian; Yan, Dingyuan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ting; Xiong, Feng; Wei, Wei; Lu, Yi; Sun, Wei-Yin; Li, Jie Jack; Zhao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitous tyrosinase catalyses the aerobic oxidation of phenols to catechols through the binuclear copper centres. Here, inspired by the Fischer indole synthesis, we report an iridium-catalysed tyrosinase-like approach to catechols, employing an oxyacetamide-directed C–H hydroxylation on phenols. This method achieves one-step, redox-neutral synthesis of catechols with diverse substituent groups under mild conditions. Mechanistic studies confirm that the directing group (DG) oxyacetamide acts as the oxygen source. This strategy has been applied to the synthesis of different important catechols with fluorescent property and bioactivity from the corresponding phenols. Finally, our method also provides a convenient route to 18O-labelled catechols using 18O-labelled acetic acid. PMID:28128196

  20. The Neutral Current Detector Phase of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonehill, Laura

    2005-04-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has recently started taking data in the Neutral Current Detector (NCD) phase, in which an array of forty ^3He- and ^4He-filled proportional counter strings has been added to SNO's heavy water to detect neutrons liberated in neutral current interactions of neutrinos with deuterium. Pulse shape analysis of digitized current pulses from the NCDs is used to achieve the background rejection necessary to extract the neutral current signal. Alphas from uranium and thorium contamination in the NCD bodies are the primary physics background to the NCD neutron signal. This talk will focus on the NCD analysis techniques under development, and, in particular, emphasize techniques for discrimination against alpha backgrounds.

  1. Does Recreational Computer Use Affect High School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Berland, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between student academic achievement and use of computers for fun and video gaming has been described from a multitude of perspectives, from positive, to negative, to neutral. However, recent research has indicated that computer use and video gaming may be positively associated with achievement, yet these studies…

  2. Electron-temperature requirements for neutralized inertial-confinement-fusion light-ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their large self-space-charge fields, light ion beam drivers of energy and power sufficient to achieve inertial confinement fusion (ICF) cannot be focused on a small fuel pellet unless neutralized. Even if initially neutralized with comoving electrons, these beams will not stay neutralized and focus during propagation through a vacuum chamber unless the initial thermal energy of the neutralizing electrons is sufficiently small. In this paper we discuss the effects which contribute to the effective initial temperature of the neutralizing electrons, including compressional shock heating. We also employ a simple heuristic model to construct envelope equations which govern axial as well as radial beam compression and use them to predict the largest initial electron temperature consistent with the required beam compression. This temperature for typical light ion beam systems is about ten eV - a temperature which may be possible to achieve.

  3. Studies on Neutral Beam Injection into the SSPX Spheromak Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jayakumar, R; Pearlstein, L D; Casper, T A; Fowler, T K; Hill, D N; Hudson, B; McLean, H; Moller, J

    2007-10-19

    In the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, (SSPX) ['Improved operation of the SSPX spheromak', R.D. Wood, D.N. Hill, E.B. Hooper, S. Woodruff1, H.S. McLean and B.W. Stallard, Nucl. Fusion 45 1582-1588 (2005)], plasmas with core electron temperatures reaching up to 500 eV at densities of 10{sup 20}/m{sup 3} have been sustained for several milliseconds, making them suitable as targets for neutral beam injection. High performance and further progress in understanding Spheromak plasma physics are expected if neutral beams are injected into the plasma. This paper presents the results of numerical 1.5 D modeling of the plasma to calculate neutral beam current drive and ion and electron heating. The results are presented for varying initial conditions of density, temperatures and profiles and beam energy, injection angle and power. Current drive efficiency (Ampere/Watt of absorbed power) of up to 0.08 can be achieved with best performance SSPX shots as target. Analyses of neutral beam heating indicate that ion temperatures of up to 1.5 keV and electron temperatures of up to 750 eV can be obtained with injection of about 1 MW of neutral beam for 5-10 ms and with diffusivities typically observed in SSPX. Injection targeting near the magnetic axis appears to be the best for heating and current drive. Effect of the current drive and evolution of SSPX equilibrium are discussed.

  4. Optical neutrality: invisibility without cloaking.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Reed; Dean, Cleon; Durach, Maxim

    2017-02-15

    We show that it is possible to design an invisible wavelength-sized metal-dielectric metamaterial object without evoking cloaking. Our approach is an extension of the neutral inclusion concept by Zhou and Hu [Phys. Rev. E74, 026607 (2006)PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.74.026607] to Mie scatterers. We demonstrate that an increase of metal fraction in the metamaterial leads to a transition from dielectric-like to metal-like scattering, which proceeds through invisibility or optical neutrality of the scatterer. Formally this is due to cancellation of multiple scattering orders, similarly to plasmonic cloaking introduced by Alù and Engheta [Phys. Rev. E72, 016623 (2005)PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.72.016623], but without introduction of the separation of the scatterer into cloak and hidden regions.

  5. Neutral matter in planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinerstein, Harriet L.

    1991-01-01

    A review of current studies of neutral envelopes is presented with particular attention given to the use of the envelopes as test cases for understanding the ionization and thermal structure of photodissociation regions. The study of near-IR H2 emission is discussed with detailed spectra given for a few planetary nebulae, and airborne observations of far-IR atomic lines are discussed. These two methods can discern photodissociation regions with warm gas and UV flux is fairly prominent. The use of resonance-absorption-line spectroscopy is also reviewed with respect to the analysis of the Na D lines, and thereby allows the measurement of integrated columns of material through the shell. The methods provide evidence for the notion that planetary nebulae consist of more than just ionized material; large amounts of neutral and molecular material are being confirmed, which has important implications for the mass-loss episode of the nebulae.

  6. Neutral depletion versus repletion due to ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Fruchtman, A.; Makrinich, G.; Raimbault, J.-L.; Liard, L.; Rax, J.-M.; Chabert, P.

    2008-05-15

    Recent theoretical analyses which predicted unexpected effects of neutral depletion in both collisional and collisionless plasmas are reviewed. We focus on the depletion of collisionless neutrals induced by strong ionization of a collisionless plasma and contrast this depletion with the effect of strong ionization on thermalized neutrals. The collisionless plasma is analyzed employing a kinetic description. The collisionless neutrals and the plasma are coupled through volume ionization and wall recombination only. The profiles of density and pressure both of the plasma and of the neutral-gas and the profile of the ionization rate are calculated. It is shown that for collisionless neutrals the ionization results in neutral depletion, while when neutrals are thermalized the ionization induces a maximal neutral-density at the discharge center, which we call neutral repletion. The difference between the two cases stems from the relation between the neutral density and pressure. The pressure of the collisionless neutral-gas turns out to be maximal where its density is minimal, in contrast to the case of a thermalized neutral gas.

  7. Optimization of Neutral Atom Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shappirio, M.; Coplan, M.; Balsamo, E.; Chornay, D.; Collier, M.; Hughes, P.; Keller, J.; Ogilvie, K.; Williams, E.

    2008-01-01

    The interactions between plasma structures and neutral atom populations in interplanetary space can be effectively studied with energetic neutral atom imagers. For neutral atoms with energies less than 1 keV, the most efficient detection method that preserves direction and energy information is conversion to negative ions on surfaces. We have examined a variety of surface materials and conversion geometries in order to identify the factors that determine conversion efficiency. For chemically and physically stable surfaces smoothness is of primary importance while properties such as work function have no obvious correlation to conversion efficiency. For the noble metals, tungsten, silicon, and graphite with comparable smoothness, conversion efficiency varies by a factor of two to three. We have also examined the way in which surface conversion efficiency varies with the angle of incidence of the neutral atom and have found that the highest efficiencies are obtained at angles of incidence greater then 80deg. The conversion efficiency of silicon, tungsten and graphite were examined most closely and the energy dependent variation of conversion efficiency measured over a range of incident angles. We have also developed methods for micromachining silicon in order to reduce the volume to surface area over that of a single flat surface and have been able to reduce volume to surface area ratios by up to a factor of 60. With smooth micro-machined surfaces of the optimum geometry, conversion efficiencies can be increased by an order of magnitude over instruments like LENA on the IMAGE spacecraft without increase the instruments mass or volume.

  8. Plasma sources for spacecraft neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. A.; Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the operation of plasma sources for the neutralization of the surface of a spacecraft traveling in the presence of hot plasma are discussed with special attention given to the hollow-cathode-based plasma contactors. Techiques are developed that allow the calculation of the potentials and particle densities in the near environment of a hollow cathode plasma contactor in both the test tank and the LEO environment. The techniques and codes were validated by comparison of calculated and measured results.

  9. Interstellar neutrals in interplanetary space

    SciTech Connect

    Hovestadt, D.; Moebius, E. )

    1989-03-01

    The solar system is moving through the interstellar medium with a velocity of about 20 km/s. The neutral interstellar gas, which thereby penetrates the heliosphere, is subject to ionization by solar UV radiation, charge exchange with the solar wind, and electron collisions. The newly created ions are then picked by the solar wind through interaction of interstellar neutrals with the interplanetary magnetic field. The pick-up ions with their peculiar elemental composition probably also constitute the source particles of the Anomalous Cosmic Ray Component (ACR). In this report descriptions of the interaction with the solar wind are reviewed. While most of the constituents are already ionized far beyond the orbit of the Earth, neutral helium (because of its high ionization potential) approaches the Sun to {lt}1 AU. The pick-up of interstellar He{sup +} ions has recently been directly observed for the first time. The observed velocity distribution of He{sup +} extending up to twice the solar wind velocity can be explained in terms of pitch angle scattering of the ions probably by interplanetary Alven waves and subsequent adiabatic cooling in the expanding solar wind. Thermal coupling of the He{sup +} to the solar wind is negligible in the inner heliosphere. Detailed studies of the pick-up distribution provide a method to investigate the interplanetary propagation parameters and the state of the local interstellar medium.

  10. Neutral naturalness with bifundamental gluinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherghetta, Tony; Nguyen, Minh; Thomas, Zachary

    2016-12-01

    We study constraints on one-loop neutral naturalness at the LHC by considering gluon partners which are required to ameliorate the tuning in the Higgs mass-squared arising at two loops. This is done with a simple orbifold model of folded supersymmetry which not only contains color-neutral stops but also bifundamental gluinos that are charged under the Standard Model color group S U (3 )C and a separate S U (3 )C' group. The bifundamental gluinos reduce the Higgs mass tuning at two loops and maintain naturalness provided the gluinos are lighter than approximately 1.9 TeV for a 5 TeV cutoff scale. Limits from the LHC already forbid bifundamental gluinos below 1.4 TeV, and other noncolored states such as electroweakinos, Z' bosons and dark sector bound states may be probed at future colliders. The search for bifundamental gluinos therefore provides a direct probe of one-loop neutral naturalness that can be fully explored at the LHC.

  11. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  12. Sociology: The growing climate divide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Andrew J.

    2011-07-01

    Climate change has reached the level of a 'scientific consensus', but is not yet a 'social consensus'. New analysis highlights that a growing divide between liberals and conservatives in the American public is a major obstacle to achieving this end.

  13. Neutral-current x-distributions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Friedman, J. I.; Kendall, H. W.; Bogert, D.; Burnstein, R.; Fisk, R.; Fuess, S.; Bofill, J.; Busza, W.; Eldridge, T.; Abolins, M.; Brock, R.; et al.

    1984-06-01

    The role of the semi leptonic neutral current interaction as a probe of nucleon structure is examined. Previous measurements of neutral current x-distributions are reviewed, and new results from the Fermilab - MIT - MSU collaboration are presented.

  14. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  15. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline employing direct energy recovery of unneutralized residual ions is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell, and thus improves the overall neutral beamline efficiency. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beam direction in the neutral izer exit region. The ions which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be loosely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell are reflected onto and collected at an interior wall of the neutralizer formed by the modified end geometry, and thus do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell. Electrons within the neutralizer are prevented from exiting the neutralizer end opening by the action of crossed fields drift (ExB) and are terminated to a collector collar around the downstream opening of the neutralizer. The correct combination of the extended neutralizer end structure and the magnet region is designed so as to maximize the exit of full energy ions and to contain the fractional energy ions.

  16. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  17. Priming Effects for Affective vs. Neutral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Wyatt, Gwinne; Frohlich, Jonathan; Vardy, Susan B.; Dimitri, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Affective and Neutral Tasks (faces with negative or neutral content, with different lighting and orientation) requiring reaction time judgments of poser identity were administered to 32 participants. Speed and accuracy were better for the Affective than Neutral Task, consistent with literature suggesting facilitation of performance by affective…

  18. Climate Informatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monteleoni, Claire; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Alexander, Francis J.; Niculescu-Mizil, Alexandru; Steinhaeuser, Karsten; Tippett, Michael; Banerjee, Arindam; Blumenthal, M. Benno; Ganguly, Auroop R.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Tedesco, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of present and potential future climate change will be one of the most important scientific and societal challenges in the 21st century. Given observed changes in temperature, sea ice, and sea level, improving our understanding of the climate system is an international priority. This system is characterized by complex phenomena that are imperfectly observed and even more imperfectly simulated. But with an ever-growing supply of climate data from satellites and environmental sensors, the magnitude of data and climate model output is beginning to overwhelm the relatively simple tools currently used to analyze them. A computational approach will therefore be indispensable for these analysis challenges. This chapter introduces the fledgling research discipline climate informatics: collaborations between climate scientists and machine learning researchers in order to bridge this gap between data and understanding. We hope that the study of climate informatics will accelerate discovery in answering pressing questions in climate science.

  19. [Air quality and climate change].

    PubMed

    Loft, Steffen

    2009-10-26

    Air quality, health and climate change are closely connected. Ozone depends on temperature and the greenhouse gas methane from cattle and biomass. Pollen presence depends on temperature and CO2. The effect of climate change on particulate air pollution is complex, but the likely net effect is greater health risks. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by reduced livestock production and use of combustion for energy production, transport and heating will also improve air quality. Energy savings in buildings and use of CO2 neutral fuels should not deteriorate indoor and outdoor air quality.

  20. School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John; And Others

    Chapter 8 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter defines school climate and suggests ways to improve the learning environment at the school building level. School climate is defined as the feeling an individual gets from experiences within a school system. More specifically, climate is the composite of norms, expectations, and…

  1. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  2. Space station neutral external environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  3. Neutral gas dynamics in fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2011-06-01

    Fireballs are local discharge phenomena on positively biased electrodes in partially ionized plasmas. Electrons, energized at a double layer, heat neutral gas which expands. The gas pressure exceeds the plasma pressure, hence becomes important to the stability and transport in fireballs. The flow of gas moves the electrode and sensors similar to a mica pendulum. Flow speed and directions are measured. A fireball gun has been developed to partially collimate the flow of hot gas and heat objects in its path. New applications of fireballs are suggested.

  4. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  5. The "Basics" Relative to School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallich, Lynn R.

    School climate is defined as the norms, beliefs, and attitudes reflected in institutional patterns and practices that enhance or impede student achievement. Research findings support the notion that school learning climate is an important factor in determining academic outcomes. School climate is largely dependent on the leadership of the…

  6. Competencies Framework for Climate Services.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Enric

    2016-04-01

    The World Climate Conference-3 (Geneva, 2009) established the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) to enable better management of the risks of climate variability and change and adaptation to climate change at all levels, through development and incorporation of science-based climate information and prediction into planning, policy and practice. The GFCS defines Climate Services as the result of transforming climate data into climate information in a way that responds to user needs and assists decision-making by individuals and organizations. Capacity Development is a cross-cutting pillar of the GFCS to ensure that services are provided by institutions with professionals whom achieved the adequate set of competencies recommended by WMO, which are yet to be fully defined. The WMO-Commission for Climatology Expert Team on Education and Training, ET-ETR, has been working to define a Competencies Framework for Climate Services to help the institutions to deliver high quality climate services in compliance with WMO standards and regulations, specifically those defined by WMO's Commission for Climatology and the GFCS. This framework is based in 5 areas or competence, closely associated to the areas of work of climate services providers: create and manage climate data sets; derive products from climate data; create and/or interpret climate forecasts and model output; ensure the quality of climate information and services; communicate climatological information with users. With this contribution, we intend to introduce to a wider audience the rationale behind these 5 top-level competency statements and the performance criteria associated with them, as well as the plans of the ET-ETR for further developing them into an instrument to support education and training within the WMO members, specially the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services.

  7. Detailed Atomic Structure of Neutral and Near-Neutral Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Paul; Hibbert, Alan

    2011-05-11

    This paper highlights the issues which need to be addressed in undertaking accurate calculations of multi-electron atoms and ions, particularly at or near the neutral end of an isoelectronic sequence. We illustrate the processes through two calculations--of transitions in Cl I and Sn II--and discuss the convergence of our results as well as updating previous work. In particular, in the case of Cl I, we propose new identifications of the levels involved in certain transitions which are important in determining the abundance of chlorine in the inter-stellar medium (ISM), while in singly ionised tin, our calculations suggest a re-evaluation of the the abundance of tin in the ISM. We also confirm recent identification of Sn II lines seen in tokamak plasmas.

  8. Advances in Neutral Transport Modeling with DEGAS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karney, C. F. F.; Stotler, D. P.; Braams, B. J.; Rognlien, T. D.; Rensink, M. E.; Kanzleiter, R. J.

    1997-11-01

    With the next major release of the DEGAS 2 Monte Carlo neutral transport code(D. Stotler and C. Karney, Contrib. Plasma Phys.) 34, 392 (1994)., the user will have access to a flexible scoring capability; a standard set of neutral and background plasma scores will be included by default. A separate set of scoring arrays will be used for time-dependent coupling to fluid plasma codes. Implicit techniques are being investigated as a way to increase the time-step relative to the explicit approach(D. Reiter, Chr. May, D. Coster, and R. Schneider, J. Nucl. Mater.) 220-222, 987 (1995).. Satisfactory execution times will be achieved by running the coupled system on massively parallel computers. Handling of high neutral density regions will be improved via a hybrid fluid-Monte Carlo model of the neutral transport. The DG grid generation and surface data input facility is being adapted for use with DEGAS 2 to provide an easy way for the user to transform equilibrium data and CAD hardware files into DEGAS 2 geometry input.

  9. Advances in low energy neutral atom imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Scime, E.E.; Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Moore, K.R. ); Gruntman, M. . Space Sciences Center)

    1993-01-01

    Recently proposed low energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging techniques use a collisional process to convert the low energy neutrals into ions before detection. At low energies, collisional processes limit the angular resolution and conversion efficiencies of these devices. However, if the intense ultraviolet light background can be suppressed, direct LENA detection is possible. We present results from a series of experiments designed to develop a novel filtering structure based on free-standing transmission gratings. If the grating period is sufficiently small, free standing transmission gratings can be employed to substantially polarize ultraviolet (UV) light in the wavelength range 300 [Angstrom] to 1500 [Angstrom]. If a second grating is placed behind the first grating with its axis of polarization oriented at a right angle to the first's, a substantial attenuation of UV radiation is achievable. ne neutrals will pass through the remaining open area of two gratings and be detected without UV background complications. We have obtained nominal 2000 [Angstrom] period (1000 [Angstrom] bars with 1000 [Angstrom] slits) free standing, gold transmission gratings and measured their UV and atomic transmission characteristics. The geometric factor of a LENA imager based on this technology is comparable to that of other proposed LENA imagers. In addition, this of imager does not distort the neutral trajectories, allowing for high angular resolution.

  10. Correlations Between Neutral and Ionized Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, M.; Pilkerton, B.; Moore, T.

    The Low Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) Imager on the IMAGE spacecraft has observed the neutral component of the solar wind (JGR, 106, 24,893, 2001) independently adumbrated by Akasofu and Dessler about forty years ago. Neutral solar wind is formed by solar wind charge exchange with interstellar neutrals, dust and the Earth's exosphere, in addition to any intrinsically neutral component. Here we report the results of a statistical study correlating the solar wind fluxes observed by ACE during late 2000 and throughout 2001 with neutral solar wind fluxes observed by LENA. The average correlation coefficient between the neutral and ionized solar wind is 0.66 with "good" correlations (peak correlation coefficient above 0.80) occurring about 28% of the time. The results are similar to those obtained by in-situ multi-spacecraft correlation studies. In this study, however, IMAGE is almost never in the solar wind or magnetosheath. The slope of the relationship between the neutral solar wind flux and the solar wind flux shows a peak in the upstream direction, but shifted toward higher ecliptic longitudes than the interstellar neutral (ISN) flow direction by about 20 degrees. The estimated peak interstellar neutral upstream density is about 10-2 cm-3.

  11. Climate Benchmark Missions: CLARREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, David F.

    2010-01-01

    CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is one of the four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC decadal survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to rigorously observe climate change on decade time scales and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through highly accurate and SI traceable decadal change observations sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. The same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. The CLARREO breakthrough in decadal climate change observations is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. These accuracy levels are determined both by the projected decadal changes as well as by the background natural variability that such signals must be detected against. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties of calibration, sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most other missions, all of the CLARREO requirements are judged not by instantaneous accuracy, but instead by accuracy in large time/space scale average decadal changes. Given the focus on decadal climate change, the NRC Decadal Survey concluded that the single most critical issue for decadal change observations was their lack of accuracy and low confidence in

  12. Ergonomically neutral arm support system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J; Chung, Jeffrey Y; Dellinges, Steven; Lafever, Robin E

    2005-08-02

    An ergonomic arm support system maintains a neutral position for the forearm. A mechanical support structure attached to a chair or other mounting structure supports the arms of a sitting or standing person. The system includes moving elements and tensioning elements to provide a dynamic balancing force against the forearms. The support structure is not fixed or locked in a rigid position, but is an active dynamic system that is maintained in equipoise by the continuous operation of the opposing forces. The support structure includes an armrest connected to a flexible linkage or articulated or pivoting assembly, which includes a tensioning element such as a spring. The pivoting assembly moves up and down, with the tensioning element providing the upward force that balances the downward force of the arm.

  13. Pressure anisotropy and radial stress balance in the Jovian neutral sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paranicas, C. P.; Mauk, B. H.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    By examining particle and magnetic field data from the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft, signatures were found indicating that the (greater than about 28 keV) particle pressure parallel to the magnetic field is greater than the pressure perpendicular to the field within the nightside neutral sheet (three nightside neutral sheet crossings, with favorable experimental conditions, were used). By incorporating the pressure anisotropy into the calculation of radial forces within the hightside neutral sheet, it is found that (1) force balance is approximately achieved and (2) the anisotropy force term provides the largest contribution of the other particle forces considered (pressure gradients and the corotation centrifugal force). With regard to the problem of understanding the balance of radial forces within the dayside neutral sheet (McNutt, 1984; Mauk and Krimigis, 1987), the nightside pressure anisotropy force is larger than the dayside pressure gradient forces at equivalent radial distances; however, a full accounting of the dayside regions remains to be achieved.

  14. Measurement of Neutral Current Neutral Pion Production on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kurimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the π0 production via neutrino-nucleus neutral current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for the neutrino oscillation experiments. In this thesis, we present a study of neutral current π0 production from muon neutrinos scattering on a polystyrene (C8H8) target in the SciBooNE experiment. All neutrino beam data corresponding to 0.99 × 1020 protons on target have been analyzed. We have measured the cross section ratio of the neutral current π0 production to the total charge current interaction and the π0 kinematic distribution such as momentum and direction. We obtain [7.7 ± 0.5(stat.) ± 0.5(sys.)] × 10-2 as the ratio of the neutral current neutral pion production to total charged current cross section; the mean energy of neutrinos producing detected neutral pions is 1.1 GeV. The result agrees with the Rein- Sehgal model, which is generally used for the Monte Carlo simulation by many neutrino oscillation experiments. We achieve less than 10 % uncertainty which is required for the next generation search for νµ → νe oscillation. The spectrum shape of the π0 momentum and the distribution of the π0 emitted angle agree with the prediction, which means that not only the Rein-Sehgal model but also the intra-nuclear interaction models describe our data well. We also measure the ratio of the neutral current coherent pion production to total charged current cross section to be (1.17 ± 0.23 ) × 10-2 based on the Rein and Sehgal model. The result gives the evidence for non-zero coherent pion production via neutral current interaction at the mean neutrino energy of 1.0 GeV.

  15. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  16. Implementation of a 3D halo neutral model in the TRANSP code and application to projected NSTX-U plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S. S.; Liu, D.; Gorelenkova, M. V.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Stagner, L.

    2016-01-12

    A 3D halo neutral code developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and implemented for analysis using the TRANSP code is applied to projected National Spherical Torus eXperiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U plasmas). The legacy TRANSP code did not handle halo neutrals properly since they were distributed over the plasma volume rather than remaining in the vicinity of the neutral beam footprint as is actually the case. The 3D halo neutral code uses a 'beam-in-a-box' model that encompasses both injected beam neutrals and resulting halo neutrals. Upon deposition by charge exchange, a subset of the full, one-half and one-third beam energy components produce first generation halo neutrals that are tracked through successive generations until an ionization event occurs or the descendant halos exit the box. The 3D halo neutral model and neutral particle analyzer (NPA) simulator in the TRANSP code have been benchmarked with the Fast-Ion D-Alpha simulation (FIDAsim) code, which provides Monte Carlo simulations of beam neutral injection, attenuation, halo generation, halo spatial diffusion, and photoemission processes. When using the same atomic physics database, TRANSP and FIDAsim simulations achieve excellent agreement on the spatial profile and magnitude of beam and halo neutral densities and the NPA energy spectrum. The simulations show that the halo neutral density can be comparable to the beam neutral density. These halo neutrals can double the NPA flux, but they have minor effects on the NPA energy spectrum shape. The TRANSP and FIDAsim simulations also suggest that the magnitudes of beam and halo neutral densities are relatively sensitive to the choice of the atomic physics databases.

  17. Implementation of a 3D halo neutral model in the TRANSP code and application to projected NSTX-U plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, S. S.; Liu, D.; Gorelenkova, M. V.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Stagner, L.

    2016-02-01

    A 3D halo neutral code developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and implemented for analysis using the TRANSP code is applied to projected National Spherical Torus eXperiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U plasmas). The legacy TRANSP code did not handle halo neutrals properly since they were distributed over the plasma volume rather than remaining in the vicinity of the neutral beam footprint as is actually the case. The 3D halo neutral code uses a ‘beam-in-a-box’ model that encompasses both injected beam neutrals and resulting halo neutrals. Upon deposition by charge exchange, a subset of the full, one-half and one-third beam energy components produce first generation halo neutrals that are tracked through successive generations until an ionization event occurs or the descendant halos exit the box. The 3D halo neutral model and neutral particle analyzer (NPA) simulator in the TRANSP code have been benchmarked with the Fast-Ion D-Alpha simulation (FIDAsim) code, which provides Monte Carlo simulations of beam neutral injection, attenuation, halo generation, halo spatial diffusion, and photoemission processes. When using the same atomic physics database, TRANSP and FIDAsim simulations achieve excellent agreement on the spatial profile and magnitude of beam and halo neutral densities and the NPA energy spectrum. The simulations show that the halo neutral density can be comparable to the beam neutral density. These halo neutrals can double the NPA flux, but they have minor effects on the NPA energy spectrum shape. The TRANSP and FIDAsim simulations also suggest that the magnitudes of beam and halo neutral densities are relatively sensitive to the choice of the atomic physics databases.

  18. Neutral-beam current drive in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Devoto, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of neutral-beam current drive in tokamaks is reviewed. Experiments are discussed where neutral beams have been used to drive current directly and also indirectly through neoclassical effects. Application of the theory to an experimental test reactor is described. It is shown that neutral beams formed from negative ions accelerated to 500 to 700 keV are needed for this device.

  19. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindt, Steffen T.; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-02-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading to a change in the redox potential of water in opposite directions on the two electrodes, resulting in the wider stability window. The magnitude of this effect is suggested to be dependent on the buffer capacity, rather than the intrinsic pH value of the electrolyte. This is confirmed by studying the impact of addition of a buffer to such systems. It is shown that a 56 % higher dynamic storage capacity may be achieved, simply by controlling the buffer capacity of the electrolyte. The model system used, is based on a well-known commercial activated carbon (NORIT™ A SUPRA) as the electrode material, aqueous potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system.

  20. Nuclear pumping of a neutral carbon laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prelas, M. A.; Anderson, J. H.; Boody, F. P.; Nagalingam, S. J. S.; Miley, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear pumped lasing on the neutral carbon line at 1.45 micron was achieved in mixtures of He-CO, He-N2-CO, He-CO2, and Ne-CO and Ne-CO2. A minimum thermal neutron flux of 2 x 10 to the 14th power sq cm-sec was sufficient for oscillation in the helium mixtures. The peak of the laser output was delayed up to 5.5 ms relative to the neutron pulse in He-CO2, He-N2-CO, Ne-CO, and Ne-CO2 mixtures while no delay was observed in He-CO mixtures. Lasing was obtained with helium pressures from 20 to 800 T, Ne pressures from 100 to 200 T, CO from 0.25 to 20 mT, N2 from 0.5 mT, and CO2 from 0.1 to 25 mT in the respective mixtures.

  1. Photoproduction of Neutral Kaons on Deuterons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckford, Brian

    2006-11-01

    Experimentation to greater understand the strangeness production mechanism can be performed by observing the electromagnetic interaction that leads to Kaon photoproduction. The n (γ, K^0) λ reaction may assist in answering questions about the strangeness photo-production process. An experiment into the elementary Kaon photoproduction process was investigated in an experiment conducted at the Laboratory of Nuclear Science of Tohoku University (LNS) using the Neutral Kaon Spectrometer. (NKS). The experiment was conducted by the d (γ, K^0) reaction. K^0 will be measured in the K^0->π^+π^- decay chain by the NKS. The NKS implements many detectors working in coincidence: These ranging from the Tagged Photon Beam generated by the 1.2 GeV Electron beam via bremsstrahlung, an Inner Plastic Scintillator Hodoscope (IH), a Straw Drift Chamber (SDC), a Cylindrical Drift Chamber (CDC), and an Outer Plastic Scintillator Hodoscope. Due to the background produced through the γ-> e+e- process, electron veto counters (EV) were placed in the middle of the OH to reject charged particles in the horizontal plane of the beam line. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates the need for pulse height correction. This was achieved by analysis of the Inner and Outer hodoscopes, and determining the energy deposit in the scintillators.

  2. Universality in a Neutral Evolution Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Dawn; Scott, Adam; Maric, Nevena; Bahar, Sonya

    2013-03-01

    Agent-based models are ideal for investigating the complex problems of biodiversity and speciation because they allow for complex interactions between individuals and between individuals and the environment. Presented here is a ``null'' model that investigates three mating types - assortative, bacterial, and random - in phenotype space, as a function of the percentage of random death δ. Previous work has shown phase transition behavior in an assortative mating model with variable fitness landscapes as the maximum mutation size (μ) was varied (Dees and Bahar, 2010). Similarly, this behavior was recently presented in the work of Scott et al. (submitted), on a completely neutral landscape, for bacterial-like fission as well as for assortative mating. Here, in order to achieve an appropriate ``null'' hypothesis, the random death process was changed so each individual, in each generation, has the same probability of death. Results show a continuous nonequilibrium phase transition for the order parameters of the population size and the number of clusters (analogue of species) as δ is varied for three different mutation sizes of the system. The system shows increasing robustness as μ increases. Universality classes and percolation properties of this system are also explored. This research was supported by funding from: University of Missouri Research Board and James S. McDonnell Foundation

  3. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  4. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  5. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  6. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  7. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  8. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  9. ION SOURCE WITH SPACE CHARGE NEUTRALIZATION

    DOEpatents

    Flowers, J.W.; Luce, J.S.; Stirling, W.L.

    1963-01-22

    This patent relates to a space charge neutralized ion source in which a refluxing gas-fed arc discharge is provided between a cathode and a gas-fed anode to provide ions. An electron gun directs a controlled, monoenergetic electron beam through the discharge. A space charge neutralization is effected in the ion source and accelerating gap by oscillating low energy electrons, and a space charge neutralization of the source exit beam is effected by the monoenergetic electron beam beyond the source exit end. The neutralized beam may be accelerated to any desired energy at densities well above the limitation imposed by Langmuir-Child' s law. (AEC)

  10. Influenza virus antigenicity and broadly neutralizing epitopes.

    PubMed

    Air, Gillian M

    2015-04-01

    A vaccine formulation that would be effective against all strains of influenza virus has long been a goal of vaccine developers, but antibodies after infection or vaccination were seen to be strain specific and there was little evidence of cross-reactive antibodies that neutralized across subtypes. Recently a number of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been characterized. This review describes the different classes of broadly neutralizing antibodies and discusses the potential of their therapeutic use or for design of immunogens that induce a high proportion of broadly neutralizing antibodies.

  11. Neutral Vlasov kinetic theory of magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tronci, Cesare; Camporeale, Enrico

    2015-02-15

    The low-frequency limit of Maxwell equations is considered in the Maxwell-Vlasov system. This limit produces a neutral Vlasov system that captures essential features of plasma dynamics, while neglecting radiation effects. Euler-Poincaré reduction theory is used to show that the neutral Vlasov kinetic theory possesses a variational formulation in both Lagrangian and Eulerian coordinates. By construction, the new model recovers all collisionless neutral models employed in plasma simulations. Then, comparisons between the neutral Vlasov system and hybrid kinetic-fluid models are presented in the linear regime.

  12. EFFECTS OF LEAKAGE NEUTRAL PARTICLES ON SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2012-10-20

    In this paper, we investigate effects of neutral particles on shocks propagating into the partially ionized medium. We find that for 120 km s{sup -1} < u {sub sh} < 3000 km s{sup -1} (u {sub sh} is the shock velocity), about 10% of upstream neutral particles leak into the upstream region from the downstream region. Moreover, we investigate how the leakage neutral particles affect the upstream structure of the shock and particle accelerations. Using four-fluid approximations (upstream ions, upstream neutral particles, leakage neutral particles, and pickup ions), we provide analytical solutions of the precursor structure due to leakage neutral particles. It is shown that the upstream flow is decelerated in the precursor region and the shock compression ratio becomes smaller than without leakage neutral particles, but the total compression ratio does not change. Even if leakage of neutral particles is small (a few percent of total upstream particles), this smaller compression ratio of the shock can explain steep gamma-ray spectra from young supernova remnants. Furthermore, leakage neutral particles could amplify the magnetic field and heat the upstream region.

  13. Simulations of space charge neutralization in a magnetized electron cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhwiler, David; Gerity, James; Hall, Christopher; McIntyre, Peter; Park, Chong Shik; Moens, Vince; Stancari, Giulio

    2016-10-01

    Magnetized electron cooling at relativistic energies and Ampere scale current is essential to achieve the proposed ion luminosities in a future electron-ion collider (EIC). Neutralization of the space charge in such a cooler can significantly increase the magnetized dynamic friction and, hence, the cooling rate. The Warp framework is being used to simulate magnetized electron beam dynamics during and after the build up of neutralizing ions, via ionization of residual gas in the cooler. The design follows previous experiments at Fermilab as a verification case. We also discuss the relevance to EIC designs. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Award Number DE-SC0015212.

  14. Neutral density filters with Risley prisms: analysis and design.

    PubMed

    Duma, Virgil-Florin; Nicolov, Mirela

    2009-05-10

    We achieve the analysis and design of optical attenuators with double-prism neutral density filters. A comparative study is performed on three possible device configurations; only two are presented in the literature but without their design calculus. The characteristic parameters of this optical attenuator with Risley translating prisms for each of the three setups are defined and their analytical expressions are derived: adjustment scale (attenuation range) and interval, minimum transmission coefficient and sensitivity. The setups are compared to select the optimal device, and, from this study, the best solution for double-prism neutral density filters, both from a mechanical and an optical point of view, is determined with two identical, symmetrically movable, no mechanical contact prisms. The design calculus of this optimal device is developed in essential steps. The parameters of the prisms, particularly their angles, are studied to improve the design, and we demonstrate the maximum attenuation range that this type of attenuator can provide.

  15. Progress of beam diagnosis system for EAST neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y. J. Hu, C. D.; Yu, L.; Liang, L. Z.; Zhang, W. T.; Chen, Y.; Li, X.

    2016-02-15

    Neutral beam injection has been recognized as one of the most effective means for plasma heating. According to the research plan of the EAST physics experiment, two sets of neutral beam injector (NBI) were built and operational in 2014. The paper presents the development of beam diagnosis system for EAST NBI and the latest experiment results obtained on the test-stand and EAST-NBI-1 and 2. The results show that the optimal divergence angle is (0.62°, 1.57°) and the full energy particle is up to 77%. They indicate that EAST NBI work properly and all targets reach or almost reach the design targets. All these lay a solid foundation for the achievement of high quality plasma heating for EAST.

  16. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  17. Climate Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Space, William

    2007-01-01

    Numerous connections exist between climate science and topics normally covered in physics and physical science courses. For instance, lessons on heat and light can be used to introduce basic climate science, and the study of electric circuits provides a context for studying the relationship between electricity consumption and carbon pollution. To…

  18. Climate Controlled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2014-01-01

    More than 250 higher education leaders from campuses across the U.S. met last week in Boston for the 2014 Presidential Summit on Climate Leadership. The summit was organized by Second Nature, the supporting organization for the American College & University Presidents' Climate Commitment (ACUPCC). Almost 700 colleges and universities have…

  19. Neutralization efficiency estimation in a neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vozniy, O. V.; Yeom, G. Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the optimal conditions of neutral beam generation to maintain a high degree of neutralization and focusing during beam energy variation for a neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma with a three-grid ion beam acceleration system. The neutral beam energy distribution was estimated by measuring the energy profiles of ions that 'survived' the neutralization after reflection. The energy measurements of the primary and reflected ions showed narrow distribution functions, each with only one peak. At higher beam energies, both the ratio of the ion energy loss to the primary energy and the degree of energy divergence decreased, confirming the precise alignment of the neutral beam. The neutralization efficiency of the neutral beam source with a three-grid acceleration system was found to be affected mainly by the beam angle divergence rather than by the particle translation energy.

  20. Nitrogen use efficiency in the US economy: Towards mitigation of climate change impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlton, B. Z.; Boyer, E. W.; Finzi, A. C.; Galloway, J. N.; Leach, A.; Liptzin, D.; Melillo, J. M.; Rosenstock, T.; Sobota, D. J.; Townsend, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) interacts strongly with climate change in determining the severity and extent of many human health and environmental issues, such as eutrophication, poor air quality, and the maintenance of a secure food system. We were motivated by such N-climate interactions and their environmental impacts as part of a broader assessment of N in the continental United States. We here seek to identify and quantify inefficiencies associated with intentional N creation (i.e., creating synthetic N fertilizers and cultivating N-fixing legumes) among the major N-dependent sectors of the United States economy. We define efficiency of N use as the proportion N directly incorporated into food, fiber, biofuel, and industrial goods from the pool of intentionally created N. We are interested in whether reductions in N use could be achieved without changing the current functioning of the major N-dependent economic sectors. Our analysis points to substantial inefficiencies in N use at the national scale. A large percentage of the N applied as synthetic fertilizer and fixed by legumes annually fails to enter the United States food supply. Much of the unincorporated N enters air, land and water, where it can impact human health and ecosystems. The climate change forcing of N is uncertain, though it appears that the combined effects of intentionally and unintentionally created N on climate is roughly neutral in the United States (i.e., net effect of N-enhanced C storage, nitrous oxide emissions, N-based aerosols, and tropospheric ozone on climate forcing). Thus, it is reasonable to expect that improved efficiencies in N use would have minimal negative side effects on the United States economy, human health and the environment. We suggest that policies aimed at improving N-use efficiencies are an alternative to direct climate mitigation strategies in offsetting several impacts of climate change on human health and ecosystem functioning.

  1. Calculation of Neutral Beam Injection into SSPX

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, L D; Casper, T A; Hill, D N; LoDestro, L L; McLean, H S

    2006-06-13

    The SSPX spheromak experiment has achieved electron temperatures of 350eV and confinement consistent with closed magnetic surfaces. In addition, there is evidence that the experiment may be up against an operational beta limit for Ohmic heating. To test this barrier, there are firm plans to add two 0.9MW Neutral Beam (NB) sources to the experiment. A question is whether the limit is due to instability. Since the deposited Ohmic power in the core is relatively small the additional power from the beams is sufficient to significantly increase the electron temperature. Here we present results of computations that will support this contention. We have developed a new NB module to calculate the orbits of the injected fast fast-ions. The previous computation made heavy use of tokamak ordering which fails for a tight-aspect-ratio device, where B{sub tor} {approx} B{sub pol}. The model calculates the deposition from the NFREYA package [1]. The neutral from the CX deposition is assumed to be ionized in place, a high-density approximation. The fast ions are then assumed to fill a constant angular momentum orbit. And finally, the fast ions immediately assume the form of a dragged down distribution. Transfer rates are then calculated from this distribution function [2]. The differential times are computed from the orbit times and the particle weights in each flux zone (the sampling bin) are proportional to the time spent in the zone. From this information the flux-surface-averaged profiles are obtained and fed into the appropriate transport equation. This procedure is clearly approximate, but accurate enough to help guide experiments. A major advantage is speed: 5000 particles can be processed in under 4s on our fastest LINUX box. This speed adds flexibility by enabling a ''large'' number of predictive studies. Similar approximations, without the accurate orbit calculation presented here, had some success comparing with experiment and TRANSP [3]. Since our procedure does not

  2. Neutral Models of Microbiome Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qinglong; Sukumaran, Jeet; Wu, Steven; Rodrigo, Allen

    2015-01-01

    There has been an explosion of research on host-associated microbial communities (i.e.,microbiomes). Much of this research has focused on surveys of microbial diversities across a variety of host species, including humans, with a view to understanding how these microbiomes are distributed across space and time, and how they correlate with host health, disease, phenotype, physiology and ecology. Fewer studies have focused on how these microbiomes may have evolved. In this paper, we develop an agent-based framework to study the dynamics of microbiome evolution. Our framework incorporates neutral models of how hosts acquire their microbiomes, and how the environmental microbial community that is available to the hosts is assembled. Most importantly, our framework also incorporates a Wright-Fisher genealogical model of hosts, so that the dynamics of microbiome evolution is studied on an evolutionary timescale. Our results indicate that the extent of parental contribution to microbial availability from one generation to the next significantly impacts the diversity of microbiomes: the greater the parental contribution, the less diverse the microbiomes. In contrast, even when there is only a very small contribution from a constant environmental pool, microbial communities can remain highly diverse. Finally, we show that our models may be used to construct hypotheses about the types of processes that operate to assemble microbiomes over evolutionary time. PMID:26200800

  3. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  4. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  5. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words “man”, “men”, or their...

  6. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words “man”, “men”, or their...

  7. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words “man”, “men”, or their...

  8. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words “man”, “men”, or their...

  9. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words “man”, “men”, or their...

  10. Energetic neutral particles from Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    The Voyager 1 spacecraft has detected energetic neutral particles escaping from the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. These energetic neutrals are created in charge exchange reactions between radiation belt ions and ambient atoms or molecules in the magnetosphere. If the Io torus is assumed to be the dominant Jovian source region for energetic neutrals, the Voyager observations can be used to infer upper limits to the average ion intensities there below about 200 keV. No readily interpretable in-situ measurements are available in the Io torus at these energies. The middle and outer Jovian magnetospheres may also be a significant source of energetic neutrals. At Saturn, the observed neutral particle count rates are too high to be explained by charge exchange between fast protons and H atoms of the Titan torus. Most of the energetic neutrals may be produced by charge exchanges between heavy ions and a neutral cloud containing H2O in Saturn's inner magnetosphere. If so, the Voyager measurements of energetic neutral fluxes would be the first detected emissions from this region of Saturn's magnetosphere.

  11. The Source of Saturn's Extended Neutral Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleshman, B. L.; Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.

    2010-12-01

    The Enceladus plumes are largely responsible for the water and its by-products found throughout Saturn's Enceladus plasma-neutral torus. Flybys of Enceladus by the Cassini spacecraft from 2005 to present have revealed a dynamic system, from which varying estimates have been made of the release rate of neutral H2O from Enceladus at 75-1600 kg/s. The rate of fresh ion pick-up near Enceladus has also been observed to vary between flybys. In Fleshman et al. (2010a), we showed that the magnitude of fresh ion pick-up on respective flybys requires a source (possibly in beams) of `hot' electrons at Enceladus. In this work, we build on our understanding of the local interaction by quantifying the degree to which neutrals produced as a by-product of charge exchange contribute to the Saturn's neutral cloud extending from 3 to 10 RS (see also Johnson et al., (2006)). We follow individual ion and neutral trajectories, while accounting for velocity-dependent cross sections. Our aim is to compare the neutral cloud resulting from charge exchange at Enceladus to that resulting from both (1) photodissociation and (2) electron impact dissociation throughout the Enceladus torus. The goal of the study, when compared with neutral cloud observations, is to shed light on which of these mechanisms dominates the neutral cloud morphology at Saturn.

  12. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  13. Types of Neutralization and Types of Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Dodder, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Neutralization theory was tested with questionnaires administered to a random sample of public high school students (N-298) and institutionalized male delinquents (N-53). Neutralization acceptance technique patterns were similar across subsamples; however, correlations between each technique and each type of delinquency were statistically…

  14. Implications of tritium in neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J; Stewart, L D

    1980-01-01

    Neutral injectors for heating plasmas of D-T burning fusion reactors are subject to tritium contamination. This paper discusses relevant questions and problem areas pertinent to tritium environment, including calculations of tritium contaminations in different neutral injectors, gas handling and pumping systems, and implications on beam line components.

  15. Neutral-current x-distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bogert, D.; Burnstein, R.; Fisk, R.; Fuess, S.; Bofill, J.; Busza, W.; Eldridge, T.; Friedman, J.I.; Abolins, M.; Brock, R.

    1984-06-01

    The role of the semi-leptonic neutral current interaction as a probe of nucleon structure is examined. Previous measurements of neutral current x-distributions are reviewed, and new results from the Fermilab - MIT - MSU collaboration are presented. 4 references.

  16. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  17. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  18. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  19. A New Age of Constructivism: "Mode Neutral"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Peter; Smith, Brian; Sherratt, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    This article presents work in progress exploring social constructivism within Mode Neutral, and how various conditions impact upon the student experience. Mode Neutral's three dimensions--curriculum design, the role of the tutor and communication for learning--are affected by the conditions that can vary in any given context. The authors realise…

  20. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  1. Neutral red staining for plant vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Birgit; Hülskamp, Martin

    2010-06-01

    For almost 100 years, neutral red has been used to stain living cells and fixed tissue. It can be used as a general-purpose stain, a pH indicator (turning from red to yellow, as the medium becomes alkaline), or a nuclear stain. In this protocol, neutral red is used to stain plant vacuoles.

  2. Targets for high power neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.

    1980-01-01

    Stopping high-power, long-pulse beams is fast becoming an engineering challenge, particularly in neutral beam injectors for heating magnetically confined plasmas. A brief review of neutral beam target technology is presented along with heat transfer calculations for some selected target designs.

  3. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between ions and neutrals in a partially ionized plasma are important throughout heliophysics, including near the solar surface in prominences. Understanding how ion-neutral coupling affects formation, support, structure, and dynamics of prominences will advance our physical understanding of magnetized systems involving a transition from a weakly ionized dense gas to a fully ionized tenuous plasma. We address the fundamental physics of prominence support, which is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force, and the implications for observations. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized, it is necessary to consider the support of the both the ionized and neutral components. Support of the neutrals is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material.

  4. Efficient laser production of energetic neutral beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollica, F.; Antonelli, L.; Flacco, A.; Braenzel, J.; Vauzour, B.; Folpini, G.; Birindelli, G.; Schnuerer, M.; Batani, D.; Malka, V.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-driven ion acceleration by intense, ultra-short, laser pulse has received increasing attention in recent years, and the availability of much compact and versatile ions sources motivates the study of laser-driven sources of energetic neutral atoms. We demonstrate the production of a neutral and directional beam of hydrogen and carbon atoms up to 200 keV per nucleon, with a peak flow of 2.7× {{10}13} atom s-1. Laser accelerated ions are neutralized in a pulsed, supersonic argon jet with tunable density between 1.5× {{10}17} cm-3and 6× {{10}18} cm-3. The neutralization efficiency has been measured by a time-of-flight detector for different argon densities. An optimum is found, for which complete neutralization occurs. The neutralization rate can be explained only at high areal densities (>1× {{10}17} cm-2) by single electron charge transfer processes. These results suggest a new perspective for the study of neutral production by laser and open discussion of neutralization at a lower density.

  5. Unpacking the concept of land degradation neutrality and addressing its operation through the Rio Conventions.

    PubMed

    Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam; Stringer, Lindsay C; Erlewein, Alexander; Metternicht, Graciela; Minelli, Sara; Safriel, Uriel; Sommer, Stefan

    2016-09-22

    The world's commitment towards land degradation neutrality (LDN) became enshrined in various international agreements and decisions throughout the year 2015. The challenge now becomes one of addressing its operation, in order to achieve these new policy goals and targets by the year 2030. Advancing LDN demands attention to what the concept seeks to achieve, as well as unravelling the perspectives of the key multi-lateral environmental agreements through which progress can be made. The three Rio Conventions (the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)) all play key roles in shaping the international LDN governance and implementation context. Their different but related foci create a number of challenges and opportunities for advancing LDN. In this paper we critically analyze the literature to elucidate potential challenges and opportunities in moving LDN towards implementation, considering the mandates and objectives of all three Rio Conventions. We first unpack the concept of LDN's aspirations. We highlight the importance of the definitions and terminology used, and the relationships between those definitions, terms and the actors using them, as well as their implications in framing the range of policy actions and synergies that could benefit progress towards multiple Sustainable Development Goals. We then examine the LDN pilot project spearheaded by the UNCCD to identify key lessons for LDN implementation. Synthesizing these lessons, we present a portfolio of blended interventions that seeks to address the aspirations of the UNCCD, UNFCCC and CBD in the LDN space, identifying synergistic options for national actions to move towards LDN. Overall, our analysis provides insights in advancing LDN from its current position as a policy target, towards synergetic action.

  6. Broadly Neutralizing Anti-Influenza Virus Antibodies: Enhancement of Neutralizing Potency in Polyclonal Mixtures and IgA Backbones

    PubMed Central

    He, Wenqian; Mullarkey, Caitlin E.; Duty, J. Andrew; Moran, Thomas M.; Palese, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Current influenza virus vaccines rely upon the accurate prediction of circulating virus strains months in advance of the actual influenza season in order to allow time for vaccine manufacture. Unfortunately, mismatches occur frequently, and even when perfect matches are achieved, suboptimal vaccine efficacy leaves several high-risk populations vulnerable to infection. However, the recent discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that target the hemagglutinin (HA) stalk domain has renewed hope that the development of “universal” influenza virus vaccines may be within reach. Here, we examine the functions of influenza A virus hemagglutinin stalk-binding antibodies in an endogenous setting, i.e., as polyclonal preparations isolated from human sera. Relative to monoclonal antibodies that bind to the HA head domain, the neutralization potency of monoclonal stalk-binding antibodies was vastly inferior in vitro but was enhanced by several orders of magnitude in the polyclonal context. Furthermore, we demonstrated a surprising enhancement in IgA-mediated HA stalk neutralization relative to that achieved by antibodies of IgG isotypes. Mechanistically, this could be explained in two ways. Identical variable regions consistently neutralized virus more potently when in an IgA backbone compared to an IgG backbone. In addition, HA-specific memory B cells isolated from human peripheral blood were more likely to be stalk specific when secreting antibodies of IgA isotypes compared to those secreting IgG. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence that HA stalk-binding antibodies perform optimally when in a polyclonal context and that the targeted elicitation of HA stalk-specific IgA should be an important consideration during “universal” influenza virus vaccine design. IMPORTANCE Influenza viruses remain one of the most worrisome global public health threats due to their capacity to cause pandemics. While seasonal vaccines fail to protect against the

  7. Geoengineering the Earth's Climate

    ScienceCinema

    Google Tech Talks

    2016-07-12

    Emergency preparedness is generally considered to be a good thing, yet there is no plan regarding what we might do should we be faced with a climate emergency. Such an emergency could take the form of a rapid shift in precipitation patterns, a collapse of the great ice sheets, the imminent triggering of strong climate system feedbacks, or perhaps the loss of valuable ecosystems. Over the past decade, we have used climate models to investigate the potential to reverse some of the effects of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by deflecting some incoming sunlight back to space. This would probably be most cost-effectively achieved with the placement of small particles in or above the stratosphere. Our model simulations indicate that such geoengineering approaches could potentially bring our climate closer to the state is was in prior to the introduction of greenhouse gases. This talk will present much of what is known about such geoengineering approaches, and raise a range of issues likely to stimulate lively discussion. Speaker: Ken Caldeira Ken Caldeira is a scientist at the Carnegie Institution Department of Global Ecology and a Professor (by courtesy) at the Stanford University Department of Environmental and Earth System Sciences. Previously, he worked for 12 years in the Energy and Environment Directorate at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Department of Energy). His research interests include the numerical simulation of Earth's climate, carbon, and biogeochemistry; ocean acidification; climate emergency response systems; evaluating approaches to supplying environmentally-friendly energy services; ocean carbon sequestration; long-term evolution of climate and geochemical cycles; and marine biogeochemical cycles. Caldeira has a B.A. in Philosophy from Rutgers College and an M.S. and Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences from New York University.

  8. Geoengineering the Earth's Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Google Tech Talks

    2008-01-08

    Emergency preparedness is generally considered to be a good thing, yet there is no plan regarding what we might do should we be faced with a climate emergency. Such an emergency could take the form of a rapid shift in precipitation patterns, a collapse of the great ice sheets, the imminent triggering of strong climate system feedbacks, or perhaps the loss of valuable ecosystems. Over the past decade, we have used climate models to investigate the potential to reverse some of the effects of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by deflecting some incoming sunlight back to space. This would probably be most cost-effectively achieved with the placement of small particles in or above the stratosphere. Our model simulations indicate that such geoengineering approaches could potentially bring our climate closer to the state is was in prior to the introduction of greenhouse gases. This talk will present much of what is known about such geoengineering approaches, and raise a range of issues likely to stimulate lively discussion. Speaker: Ken Caldeira Ken Caldeira is a scientist at the Carnegie Institution Department of Global Ecology and a Professor (by courtesy) at the Stanford University Department of Environmental and Earth System Sciences. Previously, he worked for 12 years in the Energy and Environment Directorate at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Department of Energy). His research interests include the numerical simulation of Earth's climate, carbon, and biogeochemistry; ocean acidification; climate emergency response systems; evaluating approaches to supplying environmentally-friendly energy services; ocean carbon sequestration; long-term evolution of climate and geochemical cycles; and marine biogeochemical cycles. Caldeira has a B.A. in Philosophy from Rutgers College and an M.S. and Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences from New York University.

  9. Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E.

    2013-12-15

    It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup −3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 μs. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

  10. Sensitive neutralization test for rubella antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, H; Albrecht, P; Krugman, S; Ennis, F A

    1979-01-01

    A modified rubella virus plaque neutralization test for measuring rubella antibody was developed based on the potentiation of the virus-antibody complex by heterologous anti-immunoglobulin. The test is highly sensitive, yielding titers on the average 50 to 100 times higher than the haemagglutination inhibition test or the conventional plaque neutralization test. The sensitivity of this enhanced neutralization test is somewhat limited by the existence of a prozone phenomenon which precludes testing of low-titered sera below a dilution of 1:16. No prozone effect was observed with cerebrospinal fluids. The specificity of the enhanced neutralization test was determined by seroconversion of individuals receiving rubella vaccine. Although the rubella hemagglutination inhibition test remains the test of choice in routine diagnostic and surveillance work, the enhanced rubella neutralization test is particularly useful in monitoring low-level antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid in patients with neurological disorders and in certain instances of vaccine failure. PMID:107192

  11. Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Jonathan

    2001-05-01

    In recent years climate change has become recognised as the foremost environmental problem of the twenty-first century. Not only will climate change potentially affect the multibillion dollar energy strategies of countries worldwide, but it also could seriously affect many species, including our own. A fascinating introduction to the subject, this textbook provides a broad review of past, present and likely future climate change from the viewpoints of biology, ecology and human ecology. It will be of interest to a wide range of people, from students in the life sciences who need a brief overview of the basics of climate science, to atmospheric science, geography, and environmental science students who need to understand the biological and human ecological implications of climate change. It will also be a valuable reference for those involved in environmental monitoring, conservation, policy-making and policy lobbying. The first book to cover not only the human impacts on climate, but how climate change will affect humans and the species that we rely on Written in an accessible style, with specialist terms used only when necessary and thoroughly explained The author has years of experience conveying the views of biological science learned societies to policy-makers

  12. Estimating the stoichiometry of HIV neutralization.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Carsten; Regoes, Roland R

    2010-03-19

    HIV-1 virions infect target cells by first establishing contact between envelope glycoprotein trimers on the virion's surface and CD4 receptors on a target cell, recruiting co-receptors, fusing with the cell membrane and finally releasing the genetic material into the target cell. Specific experimental setups allow the study of the number of trimer-receptor-interactions needed for infection, i.e., the stoichiometry of entry and also the number of antibodies needed to prevent one trimer from engaging successfully in the entry process, i.e., the stoichiometry of (trimer) neutralization. Mathematical models are required to infer the stoichiometric parameters from these experimental data. Recently, we developed mathematical models for the estimations of the stoichiometry of entry [1]. In this article, we show how our models can be extended to investigate the stoichiometry of trimer neutralization. We study how various biological parameters affect the estimate of the stoichiometry of neutralization. We find that the distribution of trimer numbers-which is also an important determinant of the stoichiometry of entry-influences the estimated value of the stoichiometry of neutralization. In contrast, other parameters, which characterize the experimental system, diminish the information we can extract from the data about the stoichiometry of neutralization, and thus reduce our confidence in the estimate. We illustrate the use of our models by re-analyzing previously published data on the neutralization sensitivity [2], which contains measurements of neutralization sensitivity of viruses with different envelope proteins to antibodies with various specificities. Our mathematical framework represents the formal basis for the estimation of the stoichiometry of neutralization. Together with the stoichiometry of entry, the stoichiometry of trimer neutralization will allow one to calculate how many antibodies are required to neutralize a virion or even an entire population of

  13. Dr. Michael MacCracken, Climate Institute, Washington, DC

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Michael MacCracken

    2016-07-12

    Achieving International Agreement and Climate Protection by Coordinated Mitigation of Short- and Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases. Presented at the China-US Workshop on the "Climate-Energy Nexus" at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on November 11, 2009.

  14. Dr. Michael MacCracken, Climate Institute, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Michael MacCracken

    2009-11-13

    Achieving International Agreement and Climate Protection by Coordinated Mitigation of Short- and Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases. Presented at the China-US Workshop on the "Climate-Energy Nexus" at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on November 11, 2009.

  15. Cleaner Cooking Solutions to Achieve Health, Climate, and Economic Cobenefits

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly half the world’s population has to rely on solid fuels such as biomass (wood, charcoal, agricultural residues, and animal dung) and coal for household energy, burning them in inefficient open fires and stoves with inadequate ventilation. Household solid fuel combustion is...

  16. Climate Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Lindzen, Richard

    2011-11-09

    Warming observed thus far is entirely consistent with low climate sensitivity. However, the result is ambiguous because the sources of climate change are numerous and poorly specified. Model predictions of substantial warming aredependent on positive feedbacks associated with upper level water vapor and clouds, but models are notably inadequate in dealing with clouds and the impacts of clouds and water vapor are intimately intertwined. Various approaches to measuring sensitivity based on the physics of the feedbacks will be described. The results thus far point to negative feedbacks. Problems with these approaches as well as problems with the concept of climate sensitivity will be described.

  17. In vitro assay for neutralizing antibody to hepatitis C virus: evidence for broadly conserved neutralization epitopes.

    PubMed

    Bartosch, Birke; Bukh, Jens; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Granier, Christelle; Engle, Ronald E; Blackwelder, William C; Emerson, Suzanne U; Cosset, François-Loïc; Purcell, Robert H

    2003-11-25

    Our understanding of the humoral immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) is limited because the virus can be studied only in humans and chimpanzees and because previously described neutralization assays have not been robust or simple to perform. Nevertheless, epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggested that neutralizing Ab to HCV might be important in preventing infection. We have recently described a neutralization assay based on the neutralization of pseudotyped murine retrovirus constructs bearing HCV envelope glycoproteins on their surface. We have applied the assay to well characterized clinical samples from HCV-infected patients and chimpanzees, confirmed the existence of neutralizing Ab to HCV, and validated most previously reported neutralizations of the virus. We did not find neutralizing anti-HCV in resolving infections but did find relatively high titers (>1:320) of such Ab in chronic infections. Neutralizing Ab was directed not only to epitope(s) in the hypervariable region of the E2 envelope protein but also to one or more epitopes elsewhere in the envelope of the virus. Neutralizing Ab was broadly reactive and could neutralize pseudotype particles bearing the envelope glycoproteins of two different subgenotypes (1a and 1b). The ability to assay neutralizing anti-HCV should permit an assessment of the prospects for successful Ab-mediated passive and active immunoprophylaxis against hepatitis C.

  18. In vitro assay for neutralizing antibody to hepatitis C virus: Evidence for broadly conserved neutralization epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Bartosch, Birke; Bukh, Jens; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Granier, Christelle; Engle, Ronald E.; Blackwelder, William C.; Emerson, Suzanne U.; Cosset, François-Loïc; Purcell, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    Our understanding of the humoral immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) is limited because the virus can be studied only in humans and chimpanzees and because previously described neutralization assays have not been robust or simple to perform. Nevertheless, epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggested that neutralizing Ab to HCV might be important in preventing infection. We have recently described a neutralization assay based on the neutralization of pseudotyped murine retrovirus constructs bearing HCV envelope glycoproteins on their surface. We have applied the assay to well characterized clinical samples from HCV-infected patients and chimpanzees, confirmed the existence of neutralizing Ab to HCV, and validated most previously reported neutralizations of the virus. We did not find neutralizing anti-HCV in resolving infections but did find relatively high titers (>1:320) of such Ab in chronic infections. Neutralizing Ab was directed not only to epitope(s) in the hypervariable region of the E2 envelope protein but also to one or more epitopes elsewhere in the envelope of the virus. Neutralizing Ab was broadly reactive and could neutralize pseudotype particles bearing the envelope glycoproteins of two different subgenotypes (1a and 1b). The ability to assay neutralizing anti-HCV should permit an assessment of the prospects for successful Ab-mediated passive and active immunoprophylaxis against hepatitis C. PMID:14617769

  19. Aquarius: Climate

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sea surface salinity has a massive influence on Earth’s climate. With Aquarius, scientists will have a new way to measure that influence in a consistent way. With its unprecedented accurate and ...

  20. Climate catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budyko, Mikhail

    1999-05-01

    Climate catastrophes, which many times occurred in the geological past, caused the extinction of large or small populations of animals and plants. Changes in the terrestrial and marine biota caused by the catastrophic climate changes undoubtedly resulted in considerable fluctuations in global carbon cycle and atmospheric gas composition. Primarily, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas contents were affected. The study of these catastrophes allows a conclusion that climate system is very sensitive to relatively small changes in climate-forcing factors (transparency of the atmosphere, changes in large glaciations, etc.). It is important to take this conclusion into account while estimating the possible consequences of now occurring anthropogenic warming caused by the increase in greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere.

  1. Interhemispheric asymmetry of ionospheric conductance and neutral dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; Sheng, C.; Yue, X.; Huang, Y.; Wu, Q.; Noto, J.; Drob, D. P.; Kerr, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Interhemispheric asymmetry has been identified in a number of studies with hemispheric power (HP) and convection pattern between the two hemispheres. The asymmetry of geomagnetic forcing in the two hemispheres can strongly influence the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling process. Subsequently the responses of the thermospheric dynamics and density to geomagnetic storms between the two hemispheres were reported to be different as well. In our study, the asymmetry has been examined in both ionosphere and thermosphere. First, the Pedersen conductance at high latitudes has been estimated from the electron density profiles (EDPs) of the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites observations during 2008 to 2011. The ratio of the height-integrated Pedersen conductivities between E (100-150 km) and F (150-600 km) regions has been calculated. The analysis shows that the ratio reaches maximum in local winter and minimum in local summer, but the variation of the ratio from local summer to local winter in the southern hemisphere is larger than that in the northern hemisphere, which indicates that the energy partition between the E and F regions in the southern hemisphere changes more significantly than that in the northern hemisphere. Secondly, the seasonal variation of F region neutral wind from the mid-latitude conjugate Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) observations has been studied. The neutral winds from Palmer station (64◦S, 64◦W) have been compared with those from the geomagnetic conjugate location, Millstone Hill (MH). At equinox, the local
time variation of neutral wind shows a very good conjugacy between these two locations. But at June solstice, the similarity in the zonal wind becomes less clear. The annual variation of daily average neutral wind from Palmer and MH has also been compared. The annual variation of neutral wind, especially the zonal component, is much less symmetric between the two

  2. Zero emission targets as long-term global goals for climate protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Knutti, Reto; Alcamo, Joseph; Riahi, Keywan; Hare, William

    2015-10-01

    Recently, assessments have robustly linked stabilization of global-mean temperature rise to the necessity of limiting the total amount of emitted carbon-dioxide (CO2). Halting global warming thus requires virtually zero annual CO2 emissions at some point. Policymakers have now incorporated this concept in the negotiating text for a new global climate agreement, but confusion remains about concepts like carbon neutrality, climate neutrality, full decarbonization, and net zero carbon or net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here we clarify these concepts, discuss their appropriateness to serve as a long-term global benchmark for achieving temperature targets, and provide a detailed quantification. We find that with current pledges and for a likely (>66%) chance of staying below 2 °C, the scenario literature suggests net zero CO2 emissions between 2060 and 2070, with net negative CO2 emissions thereafter. Because of residual non-CO2 emissions, net zero is always reached later for total GHG emissions than for CO2. Net zero emissions targets are a useful focal point for policy, linking a global temperature target and socio-economic pathways to a necessary long-term limit on cumulative CO2 emissions.

  3. TFTR neutral beam control and monitoring for DT operations

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, T.; Kamperschroer, J.; Chu, J.

    1995-12-31

    Record fusion power output has recently been obtained in TFTR with the injection of deuterium and tritium neutral beams. This significant achievement was due in part to the controls, software, and data processing capabilities added to the neutral beam system for DT operations. Chief among these improvements was the addition of SUN workstations and large dynamic data storage to the existing Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) system. Essentially instantaneous look back over the recent shot history has been provided for most beam waveforms and analysis results. Gas regulation controls allowing remote switchover between deuterium and tritium were also added. With these tools, comparison of the waveforms and data of deuterium and tritium for four test conditioning pulses quickly produced reliable tritium setpoints. Thereafter, all beam conditioning was performed with deuterium, thus saving the tritium supply for the important DT injection shots. The lookback capability also led to modifications of the gas system to improve reliability and to control ceramic valve leakage by backbiasing. Other features added to improve the reliability and availability of DT neutral beam operations included master beamline controls and displays, a beamline thermocouple interlock system, a peak thermocouple display, automatic gas inventory and cryo panel gas loading monitoring, beam notching controls, a display of beam/plasma interlocks, and a feedback system to control beam power based on plasma conditions.

  4. Uranium mill tailings neutralization: contaminant complexation and tailings leaching studies

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to compare the effectiveness of limestone (CaCO/sub 3/) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/) for improving waste water quality through the neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings liquor. The experiments were designed to also assess the effects of three proposed mechanisms - carbonate complexation, elevated pH, and colloidal particle adsorption - on the solubility of toxic contaminants found in a typical uranium mill waste solution. Of special interest were the effects each of these possible mechanisms had on the solution concentrations of trace metals such as Cd, Co, Mo, Zn, and U after neutralization. Results indicated that the neutralization of acidic tailings to a pH of 7.3 using hydrated lime provided the highest overall waste water quality. Both the presence of a carbonate source or elevating solution pH beyond pH = 7.3 resulted in a lowering of previously achieved water quality, while adsorption of contaminants onto colloidal particles was not found to affect the solution concentration of any constituent investigated. 24 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Return flux of neutral and charged particles in geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P. D.; Fong, Michael C.; Neier, Karen L.

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes a model for the return flux of neutral and charged particles to a satellite in geosynchronous earth orbit. For neutral particles, the main return flux mechanisms is back-scattering via self-collisions among molecules outgassed or vented from the satellite; whereas for charged particles, the main mechanism is electrostatic re-attraction of ionized outgassed or vented molecules to a negatively charged satellite. Computer codes that simulate spacecraft charging typically contain a 3D charged particle trajectory-tracking procedure that, in principle, could be used for contamination studies. In practice, however, it is difficult to obtain quantitative results on the return flux distribution by this method. This makes such a code impractical to use as an engineering tool for identifying contamination problems reliably and evaluating corrective measures through simulation. To achieve a practical engineering tool, we prose an alternative to the particle tracking technique. We treat the problem for both neutral and charged particles in a unified manner by direct numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation in the BGK approximation. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated by favorable numerical results presented for the simplified geometry of a spherical spacecraft.

  6. RF plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon S.; Logan, B. Grant

    2003-05-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being used as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus the ion beam to a small spot size. A radio frequency (RF) plasma source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The goal is to operate the source at pressures {approx} 10{sup -5} Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10{sup -4}-10{sup -1} Torr and electron densities in the range of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Recently, pulsed operation of the source has enabled operation at pressures in the 10{sup -6} Torr range with densities of 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Near 100% ionization has been achieved. The source has been integrated with the NTX facility and experiments have begun.

  7. Virion endocytosis is a major target for murid herpesvirus-4 neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Daniel L.; Gillet, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Herpesviruses consistently transmit from immunocompetent carriers, implying that their neutralization is hard to achieve. Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) exploits host IgG Fc receptors to bypass blocks to cell binding, and pH-dependent protein conformation changes to unveil its fusion machinery only after endocytosis. Nevertheless, neutralization remains possible by targeting the virion glycoprotein H (gH)–gL heterodimer, and the neutralizing antibody responses of MuHV-4 carriers are improved by boosting with recombinant gH–gL. We analysed here how gH–gL-directed neutralization works. The MuHV-4 gH–gL binds to heparan sulfate. However, most gH–gL-specific neutralizing antibodies did not block this interaction; neither did they act directly on fusion. Instead, they blocked virion endocytosis and transport to the late endosomes, where membrane fusion normally occurs. The poor endocytosis of gH–gL-neutralized virions was recapitulated precisely by virions genetically lacking gL. Therefore, driving virion uptake appears to be an important function of gH–gL that provides a major target for antibody-mediated neutralization. PMID:22377583

  8. Persistent ENSO in different climates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. V.; Manucharyan, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that, despite profound changes in tropical climate, ENSO has been active over a vast geological epoch stretching millions of years from the Late Cretaceous through the Holocene. In particular, ENSO persisted during the Pliocene when there occurred a dramatic reduction in the mean east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific - a key element of tropical dynamics. Here we use a comprehensive climate model to explore the dependence of ENSO on this temperature gradient. We find that in a broad range of climates ENSO remains surprisingly robust. When the east-west temperature gradient is reduced from 6oC to 1oC, the amplitude of ENSO decreases only by 30-40%, its dominant period remains close to 3-4 years, and the spectral peak stays above red noise. To explain these results we assess the magnitude of ocean-atmosphere feedbacks that control the stability of the natural mode of ENSO (the Bjerknes Index). We find that due to reorganization of the atmospheric Walker circulation in response to changes in the mean temperature gradient, the growth/decay rates of the ENSO mode stay nearly constant throughout different climates. This factor explains the persistence of the Southern Oscillation in past geological epochs and reconciles the seemingly contradictory findings of ENSO occurrence and the small east-west temperature gradient during the Pliocene. Finally, our results explain why ENSO in many climate models seems to be controlled by a weakly-damped mode just below neutral stability.

  9. Neutral Supersymmetric Higgs Boson Searches

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Stephen Luke

    2008-07-01

    In some Supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, including the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the coupling of Higgs bosons to b-quarks is enhanced. This enhancement makes the associated production of the Higgs with b-quarks an interesting search channel for the Higgs and Supersymmetry at D0. The identification of b-quarks, both online and offline, is essential to this search effort. This thesis describes the author's involvement in the development of both types of b-tagging and in the application of these techniques to the MSSM Higgs search. Work was carried out on the Level-3 trigger b-tagging algorithms. The impact parameter (IP) b-tagger was retuned and the effects of increased instantaneous luminosity on the tagger were studied. An extension of the IP-tagger to use the z-tracking information was developed. A new b-tagger using secondary vertices was developed and commissioned. A tool was developed to allow the use of large multi-run samples for trigger studies involving b-quarks. Offline, a neural network (NN) b-tagger was trained combining the existing offline lifetime based b-tagging tools. The efficiency and fake rate of the NN b-tagger were measured in data and MC. This b-tagger was internally reviewed and certified by the Collaboration and now provides the official b-tagging for all analyses using the Run IIa dataset at D0. A search was performed for neutral MSSM Higgs bosons decaying to a b{bar b} pair and produced in association with one or more b-quarks. Limits are set on the cross-section times the branching ratio for such a process. The limits were interpreted in various MSSM scenarios. This analysis uses the NN b-tagger and was the first to use this tool. The analysis also relies on triggers using the Level-3 IP b-tagging tool described previously. A likelihood discriminant was used to improve the analysis and a neural network was developed to cross-check this technique. The result of the analysis has been submitted to PRL and

  10. Evaluation of smallpox vaccines using variola neutralization.

    PubMed

    Damon, Inger K; Davidson, Whitni B; Hughes, Christine M; Olson, Victoria A; Smith, Scott K; Holman, Robert C; Frey, Sharon E; Newman, Frances; Belshe, Robert B; Yan, Lihan; Karem, Kevin

    2009-08-01

    The search for a 'third'-generation smallpox vaccine has resulted in the development and characterization of several vaccine candidates. A significant barrier to acceptance is the absence of challenge models showing induction of correlates of protective immunity against variola virus. In this light, virus neutralization provides one of few experimental methods to show specific 'in vitro' activity of vaccines against variola virus. Here, we provide characterization of the ability of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine to induce variola virus-neutralizing antibodies, and we provide comparison with the neutralization elicited by standard Dryvax vaccination.

  11. On the neutral points in Rayleigh transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viik, T.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we consider the dependence of the existence and position of the neutral points on the albedo of single scattering and the optical thickness in a Rayleigh scattering plane-parallel homogeneous atmospheres. We use the Chandrasekhar method of discrete ordinates and the method of approximating the Sobolev resolvent function to solve the vector equation of transfer in l- and r-representation. On the basis of many different models of Rayleigh atmospheres we show the behaviour of the neutral points while the parallel incident flux can be both unpolarized or polarized. Our calculations show with high probability that the maximum number of neutral points in a Rayleigh atmosphere is four.

  12. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  13. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  14. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  15. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  16. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  17. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  18. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  19. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  20. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  1. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  2. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  3. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  4. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  5. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  6. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  7. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  8. In vitro neutralization of prions with PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Taschuk, Ryan; Van der Merwe, Jacques; Marciniuk, Kristen; Potter, Andrew; Cashman, Neil; Griebel, Philip; Napper, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases reflect the misfolding of a self-protein (PrP(C)) into an infectious, pathological isomer (PrP(Sc)). By targeting epitopes uniquely exposed by misfolding, our group developed PrP(Sc)-specific vaccines to 3 disease specific epitopes (DSEs). Here, antibodies induced by individual DSE vaccines are evaluated for their capacity to neutralize prions in vitro. For both purified antibodies and immunoreactive sera, the PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies were equally effective in neutralizing prions. Further, there was no significant increase in neutralizing activity when multiple DSEs were targeted within an assay. At a low antibody concentration, the PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies matched the neutralization achieved by an antibody that may act via both PrP(C) and PrP(Sc). At higher doses, however, this pan-specific antibody was more effective, potentially due to a combined deactivation of PrP(Sc) and depletion of PrP(C).

  9. In vitro neutralization of prions with PrPSc-specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Taschuk, Ryan; Van der Merwe, Jacques; Marciniuk, Kristen; Potter, Andrew; Cashman, Neil; Griebel, Philip; Napper, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prion diseases reflect the misfolding of a self-protein (PrPC) into an infectious, pathological isomer (PrPSc). By targeting epitopes uniquely exposed by misfolding, our group developed PrPSc-specific vaccines to 3 disease specific epitopes (DSEs). Here, antibodies induced by individual DSE vaccines are evaluated for their capacity to neutralize prions in vitro. For both purified antibodies and immunoreactive sera, the PrPSc-specific antibodies were equally effective in neutralizing prions. Further, there was no significant increase in neutralizing activity when multiple DSEs were targeted within an assay. At a low antibody concentration, the PrPSc-specific antibodies matched the neutralization achieved by an antibody that may act via both PrPC and PrPSc. At higher doses, however, this pan-specific antibody was more effective, potentially due to a combined deactivation of PrPSc and depletion of PrPC. PMID:26284508

  10. Temporal and spatial instability in neutral and adaptive (MHC) genetic variation in marginal salmon populations

    PubMed Central

    Ciborowski, Kate; Jordan, William C; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Consuegra, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    The role of marginal populations for the long-term maintenance of species’ genetic diversity and evolutionary potential is particularly timely in view of the range shifts caused by climate change. The Centre-Periphery hypothesis predicts that marginal populations should bear reduced genetic diversity and have low evolutionary potential. We analysed temporal stability at neutral microsatellite and adaptive MHC genetic variation over five decades in four marginal Atlantic salmon populations located at the southern limit of the species’ distribution with a complicated demographic history, which includes stocking with foreign and native salmon for at least 2 decades. We found a temporal increase in neutral genetic variation, as well as temporal instability in population structuring, highlighting the importance of temporal analyses in studies that examine the genetic diversity of peripheral populations at the margins of the species’ range, particularly in face of climate change. PMID:28186200

  11. Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models is a very broad topic, so a single volume can only offer a small sampling of relevant research activities. This volume of 14 chapters includes descriptions of a variety of modeling studies for a variety of geographic regions by an international roster of authors. The climate research community generally uses the rubric climate models to refer to organized sets of computer instructions that produce simulations of climate evolution. The code is based on physical relationships that describe the shared variability of meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, precipitation rate, circulation, radiation fluxes, etc. Three-dimensional climate models are integrated over time in order to compute the temporal and spatial variations of these parameters. Model domains can be global or regional and the horizontal and vertical resolutions of the computational grid vary from model to model. Considering the entire climate system requires accounting for interactions between solar insolation, atmospheric, oceanic and continental processes, the latter including land hydrology and vegetation. Model simulations may concentrate on one or more of these components, but the most sophisticated models will estimate the mutual interactions of all of these environments. Advances in computer technology have prompted investments in more complex model configurations that consider more phenomena interactions than were possible with yesterday s computers. However, not every attempt to add to the computational layers is rewarded by better model performance. Extensive research is required to test and document any advantages gained by greater sophistication in model formulation. One purpose for publishing climate model research results is to present purported advances for evaluation by the scientific community.

  12. Ion-neutral Coupling During Deep Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Cheryl Y.; Roddy, Patrick A.; Sutton, Eric K.; Stoneback, Russell; Pfaff, Robert F.; Gentile, Louise C.; Delay, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    The equatorial ionosphere under conditions of deep solar minimum exhibits structuring due to tidal forces. Data from instruments carried by the Communication Navigation Outage Forecasting System (CNOFS) which was launched in April 2008 have been analyzed for the first 2 years following launch. The Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP), Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) and Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) all detect periodic structures during the 20082010 period which appear to be tides. However when the tidal features detected by these instruments are compared, there are distinctive and significant differences between the observations. Tides in neutral densities measured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite were also observed during June 2008. In addition, Broad Plasma Decreases (BPDs) appear as a deep absolute minimum in the plasma and neutral density tidal pattern. These are co-located with regions of large downward-directed ion meridional velocities and minima in the zonal drifts, all on the nightside. The region in which BPDs occur coincides with a peak in occurrence rate of dawn depletions in plasma density observed on the Defense Meterological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, as well as a minimum in radiance detected by UV imagers on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) and IMAGE satellites

  13. Kinetics of neutralization of Po-218

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    In a well-defined experimental system the neutralization of polonium-218 ions was investigated as a function of the physical and chemical properties of the controlled composition atmosphere. The mobilities of Po/sup +/ and PoO/sub 2//sup +/ are determined by combining experimental results with a computer model of the system. Three neutralization mechanisms were individually studied. The small ion recombination rate has been found to be proportional to the square root of radon concentration. The electron scavenging mechanism is responsible for the neutralization of Po/sup +/ in NO/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/O in nitrogen. When PoO/sub 2//sup +/ is formed, the electron transfer mechanism dominates the neutralization process. The electron is transferred to PoO/sub 2//sup +/ from molecules with lower ionization potentials. The ionization potential of PoO/sub 2//sup +/ is also determined to be 10.44 +/- 0.05 eV.

  14. An autoneutralizing neutral molecular beam gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmore, J. E.; Appelhans, A. D.; Dahl, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    A high-energy (up to 28 keV) neutral molecular beam gun has been developed and put into routine use that takes advantage of the autoneutralization properties of the sulfur hexafluoride anion for the production of high-energy sulfur hexafluoride neutral molecules. The anions are produced in an electron-capture source, accelerated, and focused in a lens assembly designed to minimize residence time, allowed to drift at their terminal velocity for a suitable distance during which up to 30% auto-eject an electron, and all remaining charged particles are electrostatically skimmed, resulting in a focused neutral beam. Rasterable neutral beams focused to a 5-mm spot size up to 3 m from the source have been produced with beam currents up to 40 pA equivalent. Spot sizes of 1 mm can be produced with intensity levels of a few picoamperes equivalent.

  15. Neutrality tests for sequences with missing data.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Luca; Raineri, Emanuele; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastian

    2012-08-01

    Missing data are common in DNA sequences obtained through high-throughput sequencing. Furthermore, samples of low quality or problems in the experimental protocol often cause a loss of data even with traditional sequencing technologies. Here we propose modified estimators of variability and neutrality tests that can be naturally applied to sequences with missing data, without the need to remove bases or individuals from the analysis. Modified statistics include the Watterson estimator θW, Tajima's D, Fay and Wu's H, and HKA. We develop a general framework to take missing data into account in frequency spectrum-based neutrality tests and we derive the exact expression for the variance of these statistics under the neutral model. The neutrality tests proposed here can also be used as summary statistics to describe the information contained in other classes of data like DNA microarrays.

  16. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, H.; DeVore, C. R.; Karpen, J.; Kucera, T.; Antiochos, S.; Kawashima, R.

    2011-01-01

    Coupling between ions and neutrals in magnetized plasmas is fundamentally important to many aspects of heliophysics, including our ionosphere, the solar chromosphere, the solar wind interaction with planetary atmospheres, and the interface between the heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Ion-neutral coupling also plays a major role in the physics of solar prominences. By combining theory, modeling, and observations we are working toward a better understanding of the structure and dynamics of partially ionized prominence plasma. Two key questions are addressed in the present work: 1) what physical mechanism(s) sets the cross-field scale of prominence threads? 2) Are ion-neutral interactions responsible for the vertical flows and structure in prominences? We present initial results from a study investigating what role ion-neutral interactions play in prominence dynamics and structure. This research was supported by NASA.

  17. ITER neutral beam system US conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Purgalis, P.

    1990-09-01

    In this document we present the US conceptual design of a neutral beam system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The design incorporates a barium surface conversion D{sup {minus}} source feeding a linear array of accelerator channels. The system uses a dc accelerator with electrostatic quadrupoles for strong focusing. A high voltage power supply that is integrated with the accelerator is presented as an attractive option. A gas neutralizer is used and residual ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected to water-cooled dumps. Cryopanels are located at the accelerator exit to pump excess gas from the source and the neutralizer, and in the ion dump cavity to pump re-neutralized ions and neutralizer gas. All the above components are packaged in compact identical, independent modules which can be removed for remote maintenance. The neutral beam system delivers 75 MW of DO at 1.3 MeV, into three ports with a total of 9 modules arranged in stacks of three modules per port . To increase reliability each module is designed to deliver up to 10 MW; this allows eight modules operating at partial capacity to deliver the required power in the event one module is out of service, and provides 20% excess capacity to improve availability. Radiation protection is provided by shielding and by locating critical components in the source and accelerator 46.5 m from the torus centerline. Neutron shielding in the drift duct and neutralizer provides the added feature of limiting conductance and thus reducing gas flow to and from the torus.

  18. Nitrogen-neutrality: a step towards sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leip, Adrian; Leach, Allison; Musinguzi, Patrick; Tumwesigye, Trust; Olupot, Giregon; Tenywa, John Stephen; Mudiope, Joseph; Hutton, Olivia; Cordovil, Claudia M. d. S.; Bekunda, Mateete; Galloway, James

    2014-11-01

    We propose a novel indicator measuring one dimension of the sustainability of an entity in modern societies: Nitrogen-neutrality. N-neutrality strives to offset Nr releases an entity exerts on the environment from the release of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the environment by reducing it and by offsetting the Nr releases elsewhere. N-neutrality also aims to increase awareness about the consequences of unintentional releases of nitrogen to the environment. N-neutrality is composed of two quantified elements: Nr released by an entity (e.g. on the basis of the N footprint) and Nr reduction from management and offset projects (N offset). It includes management strategies to reduce nitrogen losses before they occur (e.g., through energy conservation). Each of those elements faces specific challenges with regard to data availability and conceptual development. Impacts of Nr releases to the environment are manifold, and the impact profile of one unit of Nr release depends strongly on the compound released and the local susceptibility to Nr. As such, N-neutrality is more difficult to conceptualize and calculate than C-neutrality. We developed a workable conceptual framework for N-neutrality which was adapted for the 6th International Nitrogen Conference (N2013, Kampala, November 2013). Total N footprint of the surveyed meals at N2013 was 66 kg N. A total of US 3050 was collected from the participants and used to offset the conference’s N footprint by supporting the UN Millennium Village cluster Ruhiira in South-Western Uganda. The concept needs further development in particular to better incorporate the spatio-temporal variability of impacts and to standardize the methods to quantify the required N offset to neutralize the Nr releases impact. Criteria for compensation projects need to be sharply defined to allow the development of a market for N offset certificates.

  19. Neutral thermospheric temperature from ion concentration measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breig, E. L.; Donaldson, J. S.; Hanson, W. B.; Hoffman, J. H.; Power, R. A.; Kayser, D. C.; Spencer, N. W.; Wharton, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for extracting information on neutral temperature from in situ F region measurements of O(+) and H(+) ion concentrations is analyzed and evaluated. Advantage is taken of the condition of charge-exchange equilibrium of these species in the neighborhood of 320 km to infer the associated relative abundances of neutral oxygen and hydrogen. Results are shown to be generally consistent with other concurrent in situ measurements.

  20. A class of neutral functional differential equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melvin, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Formulation and study of the initial value problem for neutral functional differential equations. The existence, uniqueness, and continuation of solutions to this problem are investigated, and an analysis is made of the dependence of the solutions on the initial conditions and parameters, resulting in the derivation of a continuous dependence theorem in which the fundamental mathematical principles underlying the continuous dependence problem for a very general system of nonlinear neutral functional differential equations are separated out.

  1. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  2. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  3. Teaching Climate Social Science and Its Practices: A Two-Pronged Approach to Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwom, R.; Isenhour, C.; McCright, A.; Robinson, J.; Jordan, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Essential Principles of Climate Science Literacy states that a climate-literate individual can: "understand the essential principles of Earth's climate system, assess scientifically credible information about climate change, communicate about climate and climate change in a meaningful way, and make informed and responsible decisions with regard to actions that may affect climate." We argue that further integration of the social science dimensions of climate change will advance the climate literacy goals of communication and responsible actions. The underlying rationale for this argues: 1) teaching the habits of mind and scientific practices that have synergies across the social and natural sciences can strengthen students ability to understand and assess science in general and that 2) understanding the empirical research on the social, political, and economic processes (including climate science itself) that are part of the climate system is an important step for enabling effective action and communication. For example, while climate literacy has often identified the public's faulty mental models of climate processes as a partial explanation of complacency, emerging research suggests that the public's mental models of the social world are equally or more important in leading to informed and responsible climate decisions. Building student's ability to think across the social and natural sciences by understanding "how we know what we know" through the sciences and a scientific understanding of the social world allows us to achieve climate literacy goals more systematically and completely. To enable this integration we first identify the robust social science insights for the climate science literacy principles that involve social systems. We then briefly identify significant social science contributions to climate science literacy that do not clearly fit within the seven climate literacy principles but arguably could advance climate literacy goals. We conclude

  4. Climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  5. The Phobos neutral and ionized torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, A. R.; Curry, S. M.; Fatemi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Charged particle sputtering, micrometeoroid impact vaporization, and photon-stimulated desorption are fundamental processes operating at airless surfaces throughout the solar system. At larger bodies, such as Earth's Moon and several of the outer planet moons, these processes generate tenuous surface-bound exospheres that have been observed by a variety of methods. Phobos and Deimos, in contrast, are too gravitationally weak to keep ejected neutrals bound and, thus, are suspected to generate neutral tori in orbit around Mars. While these tori have not yet been detected, the distribution and density of both the neutral and ionized components are of fundamental interest. We combine a neutral Monte Carlo model and a hybrid plasma model to investigate both the neutral and ionized components of the Phobos torus. We show that the spatial distribution of the neutral torus is highly dependent on each individual species (due to ionization rates that span nearly 4 orders of magnitude) and on the location of Phobos with respect to Mars. Additionally, we present the flux distribution of torus pickup ions throughout the Martian system and estimate typical pickup ion fluxes. We find that the predicted pickup ion fluxes are too low to perturb the ambient plasma, consistent with previous null detections by spacecraft around Mars.

  6. Structural Basis for Broad and Potent Neutralization of HIV-1 by Antibody VRC01

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Tongqing; Georgiev, Ivelin; Wu, Xueling; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Dai, Kaifan; Finzi, Andrés; Kwon, Young Do; Scheid, Johannes F.; Shi, Wei; Xu, Ling; Yang, Yongping; Zhu, Jiang; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Sodroski, Joseph; Shapiro, Lawrence; Nabel, Gary J.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2010-08-26

    During HIV-1 infection, antibodies are generated against the region of the viral gp120 envelope glycoprotein that binds CD4, the primary receptor for HIV-1. Among these antibodies, VRC01 achieves broad neutralization of diverse viral strains. We determined the crystal structure of VRC01 in complex with a human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 gp120 core. VRC01 partially mimics CD4 interaction with gp120. A shift from the CD4-defined orientation, however, focuses VRC01 onto the vulnerable site of initial CD4 attachment, allowing it to overcome the glycan and conformational masking that diminishes the neutralization potency of most CD4-binding-site antibodies. To achieve this recognition, VRC01 contacts gp120 mainly through immunoglobulin V-gene regions substantially altered from their genomic precursors. Partial receptor mimicry and extensive affinity maturation thus facilitate neutralization of HIV-1 by natural human antibodies.

  7. Comparison of JEV neutralization assay using pseudotyped JEV with the conventional plaque-reduction neutralization test.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Jung; Min, Kyung-Il; Park, Ki Hoon; Choi, Hyo Jung; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Ahn, Chi-Young; Hong, Young-Jin; Kim, Young Bong

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported the development of a neutralization assay system for evaluating Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) neutralizing antibody (NAb) using pseudotyped-JEV (JEV-PV). JEV-PV-based neutralization assay offers several advantages compared with the current standard plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT), including simplicity, safety, and speed. To evaluate the suitability of the JEV-PV assay as new replacement neutralization assay, we compared its repeatability, reproducibility, specificity, and correlated its results with those obtained using the PRNT. These analyses showed a close correlation between the results obtained with the JEV-PV assay and the PRNT, using the 50% plaque reduction method as a standard for measuring NAb titers to JEV. The validation results met all analytical acceptance criteria. These results suggest that the JEV-PV assay could serve as a safe and simple method for measuring NAb titer against JEV and could be used as an alternative approach for assaying the potency of JEV neutralization.

  8. Automated facial coding software outperforms people in recognizing neutral faces as neutral from standardized datasets.

    PubMed

    Lewinski, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about people's accuracy of recognizing neutral faces as neutral. In this paper, I demonstrate the importance of knowing how well people recognize neutral faces. I contrasted human recognition scores of 100 typical, neutral front-up facial images with scores of an arguably objective judge - automated facial coding (AFC) software. I hypothesized that the software would outperform humans in recognizing neutral faces because of the inherently objective nature of computer algorithms. Results confirmed this hypothesis. I provided the first-ever evidence that computer software (90%) was more accurate in recognizing neutral faces than people were (59%). I posited two theoretical mechanisms, i.e., smile-as-a-baseline and false recognition of emotion, as possible explanations for my findings.

  9. Automated facial coding software outperforms people in recognizing neutral faces as neutral from standardized datasets

    PubMed Central

    Lewinski, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about people’s accuracy of recognizing neutral faces as neutral. In this paper, I demonstrate the importance of knowing how well people recognize neutral faces. I contrasted human recognition scores of 100 typical, neutral front-up facial images with scores of an arguably objective judge – automated facial coding (AFC) software. I hypothesized that the software would outperform humans in recognizing neutral faces because of the inherently objective nature of computer algorithms. Results confirmed this hypothesis. I provided the first-ever evidence that computer software (90%) was more accurate in recognizing neutral faces than people were (59%). I posited two theoretical mechanisms, i.e., smile-as-a-baseline and false recognition of emotion, as possible explanations for my findings. PMID:26441761

  10. Entangling two transportable neutral atoms via local spin exchange.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A M; Lester, B J; Foss-Feig, M; Wall, M L; Rey, A M; Regal, C A

    2015-11-12

    To advance quantum information science, physical systems are sought that meet the stringent requirements for creating and preserving quantum entanglement. In atomic physics, robust two-qubit entanglement is typically achieved by strong, long-range interactions in the form of either Coulomb interactions between ions or dipolar interactions between Rydberg atoms. Although such interactions allow fast quantum gates, the interacting atoms must overcome the associated coupling to the environment and cross-talk among qubits. Local interactions, such as those requiring substantial wavefunction overlap, can alleviate these detrimental effects; however, such interactions present a new challenge: to distribute entanglement, qubits must be transported, merged for interaction, and then isolated for storage and subsequent operations. Here we show how, using a mobile optical tweezer, it is possible to prepare and locally entangle two ultracold neutral atoms, and then separate them while preserving their entanglement. Ground-state neutral atom experiments have measured dynamics consistent with spin entanglement, and have detected entanglement with macroscopic observables; we are now able to demonstrate position-resolved two-particle coherence via application of a local gradient and parity measurements. This new entanglement-verification protocol could be applied to arbitrary spin-entangled states of spatially separated atoms. The local entangling operation is achieved via spin-exchange interactions, and quantum tunnelling is used to combine and separate atoms. These techniques provide a framework for dynamically entangling remote qubits via local operations within a large-scale quantum register.

  11. Entangling two transportable neutral atoms via local spin exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, A. M.; Lester, B. J.; Foss-Feig, M.; Wall, M. L.; Rey, A. M.; Regal, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    To advance quantum information science, physical systems are sought that meet the stringent requirements for creating and preserving quantum entanglement. In atomic physics, robust two-qubit entanglement is typically achieved by strong, long-range interactions in the form of either Coulomb interactions between ions or dipolar interactions between Rydberg atoms. Although such interactions allow fast quantum gates, the interacting atoms must overcome the associated coupling to the environment and cross-talk among qubits. Local interactions, such as those requiring substantial wavefunction overlap, can alleviate these detrimental effects; however, such interactions present a new challenge: to distribute entanglement, qubits must be transported, merged for interaction, and then isolated for storage and subsequent operations. Here we show how, using a mobile optical tweezer, it is possible to prepare and locally entangle two ultracold neutral atoms, and then separate them while preserving their entanglement. Ground-state neutral atom experiments have measured dynamics consistent with spin entanglement, and have detected entanglement with macroscopic observables; we are now able to demonstrate position-resolved two-particle coherence via application of a local gradient and parity measurements. This new entanglement-verification protocol could be applied to arbitrary spin-entangled states of spatially separated atoms. The local entangling operation is achieved via spin-exchange interactions, and quantum tunnelling is used to combine and separate atoms. These techniques provide a framework for dynamically entangling remote qubits via local operations within a large-scale quantum register.

  12. Climate patriots? Concern over climate change and other environmental issues in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tranter, Bruce; Lester, Libby

    2015-12-15

    Echoing the anti-pollution and resource conservation campaigns in the United States in the early-to-mid-twentieth century, some scholars advocate mobilising support for environmental issues by harnessing the notion of environmental patriotism. Taking action to reduce the impact of global warming has also been cast as a patriotic cause. Drawing upon quantitative data from a recent national survey, we examine the link between patriotism and environmental attitudes in Australia, focussing upon climate change. We find that patriotism has a largely neutral association with concern over environmental issues, with the exception of climate change and, to a lesser extent, wildlife preservation. Expressing concern over climate change appears to be unpatriotic for some Australians. Even after controlling for political party identification and other important correlates of environmental issue concerns, patriots are less likely than others to prioritise climate change as their most urgent environmental issue and less likely to believe that climate change is actually occurring.

  13. Optical nanofibres and neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieddu, Thomas; Gokhroo, Vandna; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2016-05-01

    Optical nanofibres are increasingly being used in cold atom experiments due to their versatility and the clear advantages they have when developing all-fibred systems for quantum technologies. They provide researchers with a method of overcoming the Rayleigh range for achieving high intensities in a focussed beam over a relatively long distance, and can act as a noninvasive tool for probing cold atoms. In this review article, we will briefly introduce the theory of mode propagation in an ultrathin optical fibre and highlight some of the more significant theoretical and experimental progresses to date, including the early work on atom probing, manipulation and trapping, the study of atom-dielectric surface interactions, and the more recent observation of nanofibre-mediated nonlinear optics phenomena in atomic media. The functionality of optical nanofibres in relation to the realisation of atom-photon hybrid quantum systems is also becoming more evident as some of the earlier technical challenges are surpassed and, recently, several schemes to implement optical memories have been proposed. We also discuss some possible directions where this research field may head, in particular, in relation to the use of optical nanofibres that can support higher-order modes with an associated orbital angular momentum.

  14. Inequalities in School Climate in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K.; Huang, Kevin; Hanson, Thomas L.; Austin, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: School climate, or the physical and social conditions of the learning environment, has implications for academic achievement. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors examine how school climate varies by school-level characteristics in California using administrative data and the California School…

  15. Flight Testing Under Extreme Climatic Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    FACILITY .. ........ 33 MCKINLEY CIMATIC LABORATORY .... ............ 34 Climatic Laboratory Description ... ........... 35 Climatic Laboratory...with other changes result- ing from a development program. This assures the availability of a globally effective system in the shortest possible time...procedural changes /improvements implemented and an assessment made of objectives achieved. This assessment sets the stage for preparation of the procedures

  16. Climate Change: Basic Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Climate Change Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Climate Change: Basic Information On This Page Climate change is ...

  17. Structural repertoire of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies targeting the CD4 supersite in 14 donors

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tongqing; Lynch, Rebecca M.; Chen, Lei; Acharya, Priyamvada; Wu, Xueling; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Joyce, M. Gordon; Lingwood, Daniel; Soto, Cinque; Bailer, Robert T.; Ernandes, Michael J.; Kong, Rui; Longo, Nancy S.; Louder, Mark K.; McKee, Krisha; O’Dell, Sijy; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Tran, Lillian; Yang, Zhongjia; Druz, Aliaksandr; Luongo, Timothy S.; Moquin, Stephanie; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Zheng, Anqi; Pancera, Marie; Kirys, Tatsiana; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Gindin, Tatyana; Peng, Hung-Pin; Yang, An-Suei; Mullikin, James C.; Gray, Matthew D.; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Cohen, Myron S.; Haynes, Barton F.; Casazza, Joseph P.; Connors, Mark; Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Sattentau, Quentin J.; Weiss, Robin A.; West, Anthony P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Scheid, Johannes F.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    The site on the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein that binds the CD4 receptor is recognized by broadly reactive antibodies, several of which neutralize over 90% of HIV-1 strains. To understand how antibodies achieve such neutralization, we isolated CD4-binding-site (CD4bs) antibodies and analyzed 16 co-crystal structures –8 determined here– of CD4bs antibodies from 14 donors. The 16 antibodies segregated by recognition mode and developmental ontogeny into two types: CDR H3-dominated and VH-gene-restricted. Both could achieve greater than 80% neutralization breadth, and both could develop in the same donor. Although paratope chemistries differed, all 16 gp120-CD4bs antibody complexes showed geometric similarity, with antibody-neutralization breadth correlating with antibody-angle of approach relative to the most effective antibody of each type. The repertoire for effective recognition of the CD4 supersite thus comprises antibodies with distinct paratopes arrayed about two optimal geometric orientations, one achieved by CDR H3 ontogenies and the other achieved by VH-gene-restricted ontogenies. PMID:26004070

  18. Antigenic relatedness of two strains of hepatitis A virus determined by cross-neutralization.

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, S M; Binn, L N

    1983-01-01

    Cell culture-adapted HM-175 (Australia) and PA-21 (Panama) strains of hepatitis A virus were compared in a cross-neutralization radioimmunofocus inhibition assay. The ratio of antibody titers achieved with two sera against the two viruses differed by less than twofold, indicating a high degree of antigenic relatedness between epidemiologically disparate strains of virus. PMID:6194118

  19. Capturing Tweets on Climate Change: What is the role of Twitter in Climate Change Communication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, A. M.; McNeal, K.; Luginbuhl, S.; Enteen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is a major environmental issue that is often discussed throughout the world using social media outlets such as Twitter. This research followed and collected tweets about climate change as they related to two events: (i) the June 18, 2015 release of the Encyclical by Pope Francis which included content about climate change and (ii) the upcoming COP21 conference, a United Nations climate change conference, to be held on Dec. 7-8, 2015 in Paris. Using a Twitter account and Ncapture we were able to collect tens of thousands of climate change related tweets that were then loaded into a program called Nvivo which stored the tweets and associated publically available user information. We followed a few major hashtags such as COP21, UNFCCC, @climate, and the Pope. We examined twitter users, the information sources, locations, number of re-tweets, and frequency of tweets as well as the category of the tweet in regard to positive, negative, and neutral positions about climate. Frequency analysis of tweets over a 10 day period of the Encyclical event showed that ~200 tweets per day were made prior to the event, with ~1000 made on the day of the event, and ~100 per day following the event. For the COP21 event, activity ranged from 2000-3000 tweets per day. For the Encyclical event, an analysis of 1100 tweets on the day of release indicated that 47% of the tweets had a positive perspective about climate change, 50% were neutral, 1% negative, and 2% were unclear. For the COP21 event, an analysis of 342 tweets randomly sampled from 31,721 tweets, showed that 53% of the tweets had a positive perspective about climate change, 12% were neutral, 13% negative, and 22% were unclear. Differences in the frequency and perspectives of tweets were likely due to the nature of the events, one a long-term and recurring international event and the other a single international religious-oriented event. We tabulated the top 10 tweets about climate change as they relate to these two

  20. Diamagnetic currents in the neutral He atoms.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takashi; Yamabe, Tokio

    2007-09-06

    The mechanism of the occurrence of intraatomic diamagnetic currents in the neutral He atoms with microscopic sizes is investigated. It is found that most of all electrons can form electron pairs originating from attractive Coulomb interactions between two electrons with opposite spins occupying the 1s atomic orbital in the neutral He atom at 298 K. Intraatomic diamagnetic currents in the neutral He atoms with microscopic sizes can be explained by such electron pairing. The transition temperature Tc(He),(1s) value at which intraatomic diamagnetic currents can disappear in each He atom is estimated. The Tc(He),(1s) values for the neutral He atoms with microscopic sizes are estimated to be much larger than the superconducting transition temperatures Tc,BCS values for the conventional superconductors with macroscopic sizes. This result can be understood from continuous energy levels of electronic states in conventional superconductivity with macroscopic sizes, and from discrete energy levels of electronic states in the neutral He atoms with microscopic sizes. The energy difference between the occupied and unoccupied orbitals decreases with an increase in material size and thus the second-order perturbation effect becomes more important with an increase in material size. Therefore, the mechanism of the occurrence of intraatomic diamagnetic current in the neutral He atoms suggested in this research would not be true for materials with large sizes. The dependence of electronic properties on temperature in the diamagnetic currents in the neutral He atoms with microscopic sizes is studied and compared with that in the conventional superconductivity with macroscopic sizes.

  1. Climate change and game theory.

    PubMed

    Wood, Peter John

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the problem of achieving global cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Contributions to this problem are reviewed from noncooperative game theory, cooperative game theory, and implementation theory. We examine the solutions to games where players have a continuous choice about how much to pollute, as well as games where players make decisions about treaty participation. The implications of linking cooperation on climate change with cooperation on other issues, such as trade, are also examined. Cooperative and noncooperative approaches to coalition formation are investigated in order to examine the behavior of coalitions cooperating on climate change. One way to achieve cooperation is to design a game, known as a mechanism, whose equilibrium corresponds to an optimal outcome. This paper examines some mechanisms that are based on conditional commitments, and their policy implications. These mechanisms could make cooperation on climate change mitigation more likely.

  2. Energy neutral and low power wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orhan, Oner

    Wireless sensor nodes are typically designed to have low cost and small size. These design objectives impose restrictions on the capacity and efficiency of the transceiver components and energy storage units that can be used. As a result, energy becomes a bottleneck and continuous operation of the sensor network requires frequent battery replacements, increasing the maintenance cost. Energy harvesting and energy efficient transceiver architectures are able to overcome these challenges by collecting energy from the environment and utilizing the energy in an intelligent manner. However, due to the nature of the ambient energy sources, the amount of useful energy that can be harvested is limited and unreliable. Consequently, optimal management of the harvested energy and design of low power transceivers pose new challenges for wireless network design and operation. The first part of this dissertation is on energy neutral wireless networking, where optimal transmission schemes under different system setups and objectives are investigated. First, throughput maximization for energy harvesting two-hop networks with decode-and-forward half-duplex relays is studied. For a system with two parallel relays, various combinations of the following four transmission modes are considered: Broadcast from the source, multi-access from the relays, and successive relaying phases I and II. Next, the energy cost of the processing circuitry as well as the transmission energy are taken into account for communication over a broadband fading channel powered by an energy harvesting transmitter. Under this setup, throughput maximization, energy maximization, and transmission completion time minimization problems are studied. Finally, source and channel coding for an energy-limited wireless sensor node is investigated under various energy constraints including energy harvesting, processing and sampling costs. For each objective, optimal transmission policies are formulated as the solutions of a

  3. Climate Fluctuations and Climate Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, Gerald R.; Yip, Kuor-Jier Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Some evidence is presented that the main part of the atmospheric climate system is such that small forcings in the heat balance lead to linear responses in the surface temperature field. By examining first a noise forced energy-balance climate model and then comparing it with a long run of a highly symmetrical general circulation model, one finds a remarkable connection between spatial autocorrelation statistics and the thermal influence function for a point heat source. These findings are brought together to indicate that this particular climatological field may be largely governed by linear processes.

  4. Adapting agriculture to climate change.

    PubMed

    Howden, S Mark; Soussana, Jean-François; Tubiello, Francesco N; Chhetri, Netra; Dunlop, Michael; Meinke, Holger

    2007-12-11

    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management. We show that implementation of these options is likely to have substantial benefits under moderate climate change for some cropping systems. However, there are limits to their effectiveness under more severe climate changes. Hence, more systemic changes in resource allocation need to be considered, such as targeted diversification of production systems and livelihoods. We argue that achieving increased adaptation action will necessitate integration of climate change-related issues with other risk factors, such as climate variability and market risk, and with other policy domains, such as sustainable development. Dealing with the many barriers to effective adaptation will require a comprehensive and dynamic policy approach covering a range of scales and issues, for example, from the understanding by farmers of change in risk profiles to the establishment of efficient markets that facilitate response strategies. Science, too, has to adapt. Multidisciplinary problems require multidisciplinary solutions, i.e., a focus on integrated rather than disciplinary science and a strengthening of the interface with decision makers. A crucial component of this approach is the implementation of adaptation assessment frameworks that are relevant, robust, and easily operated by all stakeholders, practitioners, policymakers, and scientists.

  5. Solar Influence on Future Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenovic, Pavle; Stenke, Andrea; Rozanov, Eugene; Peter, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Global warming is one of the main threats to mankind. There is growing evidence that anthropogenic greenhouse gases have become the dominant factor, however natural factors such as solar variability cannot be neglected. Sun is a variable star; its activity varies in regular 11-years solar cycles. Longer periods of decreased solar activity are called Grand Solar Minima, which have stronger impact on terrestrial climate. Another natural factor related with solar activity are energetic particles. They can ionize neutral molecules in upper atmosphere and produce NOx and HOx which deplete ozone. We investigate the effect of proposed Grand Solar Minimum in 21st and 22nd century on terrestrial climate and ozone layer. The simulations are performed with different solar forcing scenarios for period of 200 years (2000-2200) using global chemistry-climate model coupled with ocean model (SOCOL-MPIOM). We also deal with problem of representation of middle range energy electrons (30-300 keV) in the model and investigation of their influence on climate.

  6. Pliocene climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Caballero-Gill, R. P.

    2010-01-01

    The Pliocene Epoch, 5.3 Ma to 1.8 Ma, was a time when paleoclimate conditions ranged from very warm, equable climates (on a global scale), rhythmically varying every 40,000 years, to high-amplitude glacial-interglacial cycles that led to the “Ice Ages” of the Pleistocene. Evidence for paleoclimate conditions comes from fossils, geochemical data, and the integration of these data with sophisticated numerical models. The Pliocene exhibited a range in atmospheric CO2 concentrations with highs estimated to be at most ~425 ppm in the early Pliocene followed by overall decrease toward preindustrial levels by the close of the Pliocene Epoch (Pagani et al. 2010). Sea levels were estimated to be 25m higher than present day and the size and position of ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica were decidedly different from today. On the other hand, by the mid-Pliocene, the majority of fauna and flora as well as continental configurations were basically the same as today. Man’s ability to adapt to or mitigate the effects of future climate require a deep understanding of the rates and magnitude of future climate change on an ever finer scale. Since conditions projected for the end of this century are not in the human experience, we depend upon a combination of numerical climate models and comparison to analogous conditions in the geologic past. The Pliocene contains what might be the closest analog to climate conditions expected in the near future, and therefore understanding the Pliocene is not only of academic interest but essential for human adaptation.

  7. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.; Haselton, Halsey H.; Stirling, William L.; Whealton, John H.

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline generator with unneutralized ion energy recovery is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell of the beamline. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beamline in the cell exit region. The ions, which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage, are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be closely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell with the full energy ions are reflected back into the gas cell. Thus, the fractional energy ions do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell which can reach the ground potential interior surfaces of the beamline housing.

  8. Correlations between neutral and ionized solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilkerton, B. M.; Collier, M. R.; Moore, T. E.

    We report results of a statistical study correlating ionized solar wind (ISW) fluxes observed by ACE during late 2000 and throughout 2001 with neutral solar wind (NSW) fluxes observed by IMAGE/LENA over the same period. The average correlation coefficient between the neutral and ionized solar wind is 0.66 with correlations greater than 0.80 occurring about 29% of the time. Correlations appear to be driven by high solar wind flux variability, similar to results obtained by in situ multi-spacecraft correlation studies. In this study, however, IMAGE remains inside the magnetosphere on over 95% of its orbits. As a function of day of year, or equivalently ecliptic longitude, the slope of the relationship between the neutral solar wind flux and the ionized solar wind flux shows an enhancement near the upstream direction, but the symmetry point appears shifted toward higher ecliptic longitudes than the interstellar neutral (ISN) flow direction by about 20°. The estimated peak interstellar neutral upstream density inside of 1 AU is about 7 × 10 -3 cm -3.

  9. Species ages in neutral biodiversity models.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; O'Dwyer, James P

    2014-05-01

    Biogeography seeks to understand the mechanisms that drive biodiversity across long temporal and large spatial scales. Theoretical models of biogeography can be tested by comparing their predictions of quantities such as species ages against empirical estimates. It has previously been claimed that the neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography predicts species ages that are unrealistically long. Any improved theory of biodiversity must rectify this problem, but first it is necessary to quantify the problem precisely. Here we provide analytical expressions for species ages in neutral biodiversity communities. We analyse a spatially implicit metacommunity model and solve for both the zero-sum and non-zero-sum cases. We explain why our new expressions are, in the context of biodiversity, usually more appropriate than those previously imported from neutral molecular evolution. Because of the time symmetry of the spatially implicit neutral model, our expressions also lead directly to formulas for species persistence times and species lifetimes. We use our new expressions to estimate species ages of forest trees under a neutral model and find that they are about an order of magnitude shorter than those predicted previously but still unrealistically long. In light of our results, we discuss different models of biogeography that may solve the problem of species ages.

  10. Infrared thermography and overloaded neutral conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComb, John; Niebla, Hector E.

    1999-03-01

    Present findings of two recent case studies. One involves transformer failures on three computer-stores within eight hours of their grand opening. The second discusses the findings during an infrared thermography-training course for electric utility engineers of a transformer vault serving an industrial customer. Both of these deal with overloaded neutral conductors. Historically, the average neutral conductor carried only the imbalance of the current between the phases of a three-phase system. This current was typically small in relation to the load being served. In fact, for economic reasons many neutrals were installed smaller than their associated phase conductors. Today however, certain types of loads (non-linear loads such as computers) and certain transformer connections (4 bushing single phase with a collector bus) cause the neutral to have up to three times as much amperage as the phase conductors. This paper will discuss the conditions under which such loading occurs and further investigate steps that can be taken/recommended should an infrared test indicate an overloaded neutral conductor.

  11. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  12. ``We're all unisex anyway'': The persistent discourse of gender neutrality in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Allison

    2015-03-01

    Doctoral physics students have stories about the kinds of actions, behaviours and ways of doing physics that enable them to be recognized as physicists. This presentation will illuminate some of these stories through a lens that scrutinizes how discourses about gender can shape both the stories that students tell and the behaviours they practice to achieve recognition in their field. Through observations, photo-elicitation, and life history interviews, eleven men and women shared stories about their experiences with physics, and the contexts that have enabled or constrained their participation in doctoral physics. The results of this study revealed that recognition was often achieved through the reproduction or reworking of persistent discourses of gender norms. This presentation will explore the particularly persistent discourse of gender neutrality in physics. I will explore how this discourse is constructed, how it can be contested, and how it may be constraining for both men and women students. The construction of physics as gender neutral can pose conflicts of identity for students who feel the need to refigure their gender performances in ways that permit recognition as ``physics people.'' This presentation will look at two case studies that demonstrate the conflict students experience between expressions of femininity and doing physics against the backdrop of gender neutrality. I will discuss the problematic of gender neutrality, and I will also discuss some of the creative solutions doctoral students adopt to navigate discourses of gender in this neutral terrain.

  13. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  14. When neutral turns significant: brain dynamics of rapidly formed associations between neutral stimuli and emotional contexts.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Bort, Carlos; Löw, Andreas; Wendt, Julia; Dolcos, Florin; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2016-09-01

    The ability to associate neutral stimuli with motivationally relevant outcomes is an important survival strategy. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate brain dynamics of associative emotional learning when participants were confronted with multiple heterogeneous information. Participants viewed 144 different objects in the context of 144 different emotional and neutral background scenes. During each trial, neutral objects were shown in isolation and then paired with the background scene. All pairings were presented twice to compare ERPs in response to neutral objects before and after single association. After single pairing, neutral objects previously encoded in the context of emotional scenes evoked a larger P100 over occipital electrodes compared to objects that were previously paired with neutral scenes. Likewise, larger late positive potentials (LPPs) were observed over parieto-occipital electrodes (450-750 ms) for objects previously associated with emotional relative to neutral contexts. The LPP - but not P100 - enhancement was also related to subjective object/context binding. Taken together, our ERP data provide evidence for fast emotional associative learning, as reflected by heightened perceptual and sustained elaborative processing for neutral information previously encountered in emotional contexts. These findings could assist in understanding binding mechanisms in stress and anxiety, as well as in addiction and eating-related disorders.

  15. Negative Charge Neutralization in the Loops and Turns of Outer Membrane Phospholipase A Impacts Folding Hysteresis at Neutral pH.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sarah K; Fleming, Karen G

    2016-11-08

    Hysteresis in equilibrium protein folding titrations is an experimental barrier that must be overcome to extract meaningful thermodynamic quantities. Traditional approaches to solving this problem involve testing a spectrum of solution conditions to find ones that achieve path independence. Through this procedure, a specific pH of 3.8 was required to achieve path independence for the water-to-bilayer equilibrium folding of outer membrane protein OmpLA. We hypothesized that the neutralization of negatively charged side chains (Asp and Glu) at pH 3.8 could be the physical basis for path-independent folding at this pH. To test this idea, we engineered variants of OmpLA with Asp → Asn and Glu → Gln mutations to neutralize the negative charges within various regions of the protein and tested for reversible folding at neutral pH. Although not fully resolved, our results show that these mutations in the periplasmic turns and extracellular loops are responsible for 60% of the hysteresis in wild-type folding. Overall, our study suggests that negative charges impact the folding hysteresis in outer membrane proteins and their neutralization may aid in protein engineering applications.

  16. Customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS): climate satisfaction evaluation based on subjective perception.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Yang, Shing-Ru; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Climate not only influences the behavior of people in urban environments but also affects people's schedules and travel plans. Therefore, providing people with appropriate long-term climate evaluation information is crucial. Therefore, we developed an innovative climate assessment system based on field investigations conducted in three cities located in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The field investigations included the questionnaire surveys and climate data collection. We first analyzed the relationship between the participants and climate parameters comprising physiologically equivalent temperature, air temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, cloud cover, and precipitation. Second, we established the neutral value, comfort range, and dissatisfied range of each parameter. Third, after verifying that the subjects' perception toward the climate parameters vary based on individual preferences, we developed the customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS) approach, which featured functions such as personalized and default climate suitability information to be used by users exhibiting varying demands. Finally, we performed calculations using the climate conditions of two cities during the past 10 years to demonstrate the performance of the CRACS approach. The results can be used as a reference when planning activities in the city or when organizing future travel plans. The flexibility of the assessment system enables it to be adjusted for varying regions and usage characteristics.

  17. Customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS): climate satisfaction evaluation based on subjective perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Yang, Shing-Ru; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Climate not only influences the behavior of people in urban environments but also affects people's schedules and travel plans. Therefore, providing people with appropriate long-term climate evaluation information is crucial. Therefore, we developed an innovative climate assessment system based on field investigations conducted in three cities located in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The field investigations included the questionnaire surveys and climate data collection. We first analyzed the relationship between the participants and climate parameters comprising physiologically equivalent temperature, air temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, cloud cover, and precipitation. Second, we established the neutral value, comfort range, and dissatisfied range of each parameter. Third, after verifying that the subjects' perception toward the climate parameters vary based on individual preferences, we developed the customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS) approach, which featured functions such as personalized and default climate suitability information to be used by users exhibiting varying demands. Finally, we performed calculations using the climate conditions of two cities during the past 10 years to demonstrate the performance of the CRACS approach. The results can be used as a reference when planning activities in the city or when organizing future travel plans. The flexibility of the assessment system enables it to be adjusted for varying regions and usage characteristics.

  18. Climate Assessment for 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waple, A. M.; Lawrimore, J. H.

    2003-04-01

    It is the thirteenth year that the Climate Assessment has been written to summarize the state of the earth's climate, and the third year that the National Climatic Data Center has taken the lead in its production. It is a cooperative effort that includes contributions from scientists around the country and the world. Neutral ENSO conditions at the beginning of 2002 gave way to a strengthening El Niño episode during late boreal summer and continuing into early winter. Weather patterns across the world began to reflect the positive ENSO conditions during the boreal autumn. Global temperatures in 2002 were 0.56°C above the long-term (1880-2001) average, which places 2002 as the second warmest year on record. Land temperatures were 0.89°C above average and ocean temperatures were 0.42°C above the 1880-2001 mean. This ranks both land and ocean as second warmest on record. The Northern Hemisphere temperature continues to average near record levels in 2002 at 0.63°C above the long-term average. The Southern Hemisphere also reflects the globally warmer conditions, with a positive anomaly of 0.47°C. Annual anomalies in excess of 1.0°C were widespread across much of Russia, Eastern Europe, Alaska, and central South America, while significantly cooler than average conditions were confined to the eastern half of Canada, southern South America and the eastern Pacific Ocean, near the coast of the United States. Although 12 tropical storms developed in the Atlantic during the boreal summer of 2002, most of them were weak and short-lived leading to a slightly below normal season in terms of overall activity, which is consistent with the developing El Nino. However, seven tropical storms made landfall on the coast of the United States, with an eighth brushing the coast of North Carolina. Hurricane Lili was the first hurricane to impact the U.S. directly in three years. Other notable aspects of the climate in 2002 include extreme drought in parts of the U.S., Canada and

  19. Landau-like states in neutral particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Saikat; Ågren, Hans; Balatsky, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    We show the emergence of a new type of dispersion relation for neutral atoms with an interesting similarity to the spectrum of two-dimensional electrons in an applied perpendicular constant magnetic field. These neutral atoms can be confined in toroidal optical traps and give quasi-Landau spectra. In strong contrast to the equidistant infinitely degenerate Landau levels for charged particles, the spectral gap for such two-dimensional neutral particles increases in particular electric-field configurations. The idea in the paper is motivated by the development in cold atom experiments and builds on the seminal paper of Aharonov and Casher [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 319 (1984), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.319].

  20. Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for HIV Eradication.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Kathryn E; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-02-01

    Passive transfer of antibodies has long been considered a potential treatment modality for infectious diseases, including HIV. Early efforts to use antibodies to suppress HIV replication, however, were largely unsuccessful, as the antibodies that were studied neutralized only a relatively narrow spectrum of viral strains and were not very potent. Recent advances have led to the discovery of a large portfolio of human monoclonal antibodies that are broadly neutralizing across many HIV-1 subtypes and are also substantially more potent. These antibodies target multiple different epitopes on the HIV envelope, thus allowing for the development of antibody combinations. In this review, we discuss the application of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) for HIV treatment and HIV eradication strategies. We highlight bNAbs that target key epitopes, such as the CD4 binding site and the V2/V3-glycan-dependent sites, and we discuss several bNAbs that are currently in the clinical development pipeline.

  1. Methods for neutralizing anthrax or anthrax spores

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, Mark A; Vivekandanda, Jeevalatha; Holwitt, Eric A; Kiel, Johnathan L

    2013-02-26

    The present invention concerns methods, compositions and apparatus for neutralizing bioagents, wherein bioagents comprise biowarfare agents, biohazardous agents, biological agents and/or infectious agents. The methods comprise exposing the bioagent to an organic semiconductor and exposing the bioagent and organic semiconductor to a source of energy. Although any source of energy is contemplated, in some embodiments the energy comprises visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, radiofrequency, microwave, laser radiation, pulsed corona discharge or electron beam radiation. Exemplary organic semiconductors include DAT and DALM. In certain embodiments, the organic semiconductor may be attached to one or more binding moieties, such as an antibody, antibody fragment, or nucleic acid ligand. Preferably, the binding moiety has a binding affinity for one or more bioagents to be neutralized. Other embodiments concern an apparatus comprising an organic semiconductor and an energy source. In preferred embodiments, the methods, compositions and apparatus are used for neutralizing anthrax spores.

  2. Neutral Beam Injection in the Electric Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Carter, T. A.; Gauvreau, J.-L.; Grossman, A.; Lafonteese, D. J.; Pace, D. C.; Schmitz, L. W.; Taylor, R. J.; White, A. E.; Yates, T. F.

    2004-11-01

    The Electric Tokamak (ET) at UCLA (Bt=0.25T, R=5m, a=1m, Te(0)=300eV, tau(0)=1s) is now running long shots (5s). A new development program was started last year to include a neutral beam in the daily operations of the machine. As a result, a 10kV neutral beam injector was built to deal with plasma and measurement issues. The design and parameters of the beam are discussed. The source is based on an RF generated plasma, with a single extraction grid providing an accel-decel configuration. Plasma neutralization efficiency is also presented. Co- or counter injection is now possible using a single beam. The construction of a second beam is planned for simultaneous co- and counter injections for toroidal momentum input control. Plasma toroidal and poloidal rotation, particle diffusion and current drive effects will be presented.

  3. Edge rotation from momentum transport by neutrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotani, JT; Newton, SL; Pusztai, I.; Fülöp, T.

    2016-11-01

    Due to their high cross field mobility, neutral atoms can have a strong effect on transport even at the low relative densities found inside the separatrix. We use a charge-exchange dominated model for the neutrals, coupled to neoclassical ions, to calculate momentum transport when it is dominated by the neutrals. We can then calculate self-consistently the radial electric field and predict the intrinsic rotation in an otherwise torque-free plasma. Using a numerical solver for the ion distribution to allow arbitrary collisionality, we investigate the effects of inverse aspect ratio and elongation on plasma rotation. We also calculate the rotation of a trace carbon impurity, to facilitate future comparison to experiments using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostics.

  4. Viewing perspective in energetic neutral atom intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Lui, Anthony T. Y.; Fok, Mei-Ching

    2008-09-01

    Through interspacecraft comparison of energetic neutral oxygen (ENO) intensity from two different vantage points provided by IMAGE and Geotail, Lui et al. (2005) showed that viewing perspective plays a very important role in the observed ENO intensity level during a magnetic storm period. Motivated by the findings of Lui et al. (2005), we investigate how viewing perspective influences energetic neutral atom emissions from a modeling perspective. The main results of this paper are that (1) our simulation results, based upon O+ ion fluxes from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model and the subsequent ENO calculation, reproduce the total differential ENO intensity obtained from two spacecraft to a reasonable degree and (2) further analysis of our results indicates that pitch angle anisotropy in ring current ion flux, a crucial physical quantity in ring current dynamics, is one major contributor to the difference in energetic neutral atom intensity from different viewing perspectives.

  5. Approaches to 30 Percent Energy Savings at the Community Scale in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas-Rees, S.; Beal, D.; Martin, E.

    2013-03-01

    BA-PIRC has worked with several community-scale builders within the hot humid climate zone to improve performance of production, or community scale, housing. Tommy Williams Homes (Gainesville, FL), Lifestyle Homes (Melbourne, FL), and Habitat for Humanity (various locations, FL) have all been continuous partners of the Building America program and are the subjects of this report to document achievement of the Building America goal of 30% whole house energy savings packages adopted at the community scale. Key aspects of this research include determining how to evolve existing energy efficiency packages to produce replicable target savings, identifying what builders' technical assistance needs are for implementation and working with them to create sustainable quality assurance mechanisms, and documenting the commercial viability through neutral cost analysis and market acceptance. This report documents certain barriers builders overcame and the approaches they implemented in order to accomplish Building America (BA) Program goals that have not already been documented in previous reports.

  6. Carbon Neutrality and the Use of Offsets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Richard A.; Purman, Judith R.

    2009-01-01

    Many organizations, including colleges and universities, are moving to address the threat of climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from their operations. For example, the rapid growth of participation in the Presidents Climate Commitment (PCC) now means that more than 600 colleges and universities have pledged to develop plans…

  7. A Label as a Hidden Persuader: Chemists' Neutralization Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    1991-01-01

    Identifies and describes the problems students have with the concept of neutralization. Analysis of over 7,500 students' answers to test questions over neutralization showed that many students understand the concept in its original meaning. Students assumed that in any neutralization reaction a neutral solution is formed, even if a weak acid or…

  8. Community College Organizational Climate for Minorities and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Barbara K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the issues of what would constitute a positive organizational climate for women and minorities within the community college setting and ways in which such a climate might be achieved. It first describes some traditional or standard measures of a positive organizational climate for women and minorities and then evaluates how…

  9. Assessing School and Classroom Climate. A Consumer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arter, Judith A.

    School and classroom climate is often cited in effective schools research as being important for student achievement. This consumer guide is intended to help educators evaluate their own educational climate by providing reviews and descriptions of the major tests and surveys used to assess climate. Section 2 presents reasons for examining school…

  10. Using Rasch Measurement To Evaluate the Organizational Climate Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borkan, Bengu; Capa, Yesim; Figueiredo, Claudia; Loadman, William E.

    School climate has been acknowledged as a construct with impact on important aspects of educational outcomes, such as student achievement, school effectiveness, and school completion. The Organizational Climate Index was an instrument developed to measure school climate (W.Hoy, 2001). This study evaluated this instrument by using Rasch…

  11. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  12. Theory of neutral clustering for growing populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram

    2009-11-01

    The spatial distribution of most species in nature is nonuniform. We have shown recently [B. Houchmandzadeh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 078103 (2008)] on an experimental ecological community of amoeba that the most basic facts of life—birth and death—are enough to cause considerable aggregation which cannot be smoothened by random movements of the organisms. This clustering, termed neutral and always present, is independent of external causes and social interaction. We develop here the theoretical groundwork of this phenomenon by explicitly computing the pair-correlation function and the variance to mean ratio of the above neutral model and its comparison to numerical simulations.

  13. Photoproduction of neutral pions off protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crede, V.; Sparks, N.; Wilson, A.; Anisovich, A. V.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Bantes, R.; Bartholomy, O.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Beloglazov, Y. A.; Castelijns, R.; Dutz, H.; Elsner, D.; Ewald, R.; Frommberger, F.; Funke, Chr.; Gregor, R.; Gridnev, A.; Gutz, E.; Hillert, W.; Hoffmeister, P.; Jaegle, I.; Junkersfeld, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kammer, S.; Klein, Frank; Klein, Friedrich; Klempt, E.; Kotulla, M.; Krusche, B.; Löhner, H.; Lopatin, I. V.; Lugert, S.; Menze, D.; Mertens, T.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Nikonov, V. A.; Novinski, D.; Novotny, R.; Ostrick, M.; Pant, L. M.; van Pee, H.; Pfeiffer, M.; Roy, A.; Sarantsev, A. V.; Schadmand, S.; Schmidt, C.; Schmieden, H.; Schoch, B.; Shende, S.; Sokhoyan, V.; Süle, A.; Sumachev, V. V.; Szczepanek, T.; Thoma, U.; Trnka, D.; Varma, R.; Walther, D.; Wendel, Ch.

    2011-11-01

    Photoproduction of neutral pions has been studied with the CBELSA/TAPS detector in the reaction γp→pπ0 for photon energies between 0.85 and 2.50 GeV. The π0 mesons are observed in their dominant neutral decay mode: π0→γγ. For the first time, the differential cross sections cover the very forward region, θc.m.<60∘. A partial-wave analysis of these data within the Bonn-Gatchina framework observes the high-mass resonances G17(2190), D13(2080), and D15(2070).

  14. Apparatus for neutralization of accelerated ions

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H.; Frank, Alan M.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for neutralization of a beam of accelerated ions, such as hydrogen negative ions (H.sup.-), using relatively efficient strip diode lasers which emit monochromatically at an appropriate wavelength (.lambda. = 8000 A for H.sup.- ions) to strip the excess electrons by photodetachment. A cavity, formed by two or more reflectors spaced apart, causes the laser beams to undergo multiple reflections within the cavity, thus increasing the efficiency and reducing the illumination required to obtain an acceptable percentage (.about. 85%) of neutralization.

  15. High-current plasma contactor neutralizer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Williamson, W. S.; Matossian, J. N.; Vourgourakis, E. J.; Burch, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    A plasma-contactor neutralizer system is described, for the stabilizing the Orbiter's potential during flights of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science missions. The plasma contactor neutralizer will include a Xe plasma source that can provide steady-state ion-emission currents of up to 1.5 A. The Orbiter's potential will be maintained near that of the surrounding space plasma during electron-beam accelerator firings through a combination of ion emission from the Xe plasma source and electron collection from the ambient space plasma. Configuration diagrams and block diagrams are presented along with the performance characteristics of the system.

  16. Quaternary climate - Terrestrial Biosphere Interaction: amplifying or stabilizing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    According to the Gaia hypothesis, interaction between climate and biological processes tend to homeostatically maintain, on a global scale, conditions favourable for life. Does the idea of homeostatic interaction between terrestrial biosphere and climate hold for the Quaternary glacial - interglacial changes? Interpretation of palaeoclimate and palaeobotanic evidence by using climate and Earth system models yields an interesting picture. The synergy between the sea-ice albedo - climate feedback and the taiga-tundra - climate feedback is suggested to amplify the orbitally forced climatic precession. This effect seems to be strong at regional scale, but small at global scale. Various simulations indicate that biogeophysical processes amplify the difference of some 4 to 6 K in global mean temperature between glacial and interglacial climate by some 10 percent. The combined effect of biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes, i.e. processes with involve carbon stored in biomass and soil, is less clear. Theoretical studies suggest that in pre-industrial, interglacial climate, a reduction in boreal and extratropical forests tend to cool the climate and a reduction in tropical forest, to warm the climate. Recent estimates in changes in organic carbon stored under ice sheets and in permafrost point at the possibility that the sum of all terrestrial biogeochemical processes might almost "carbon neutral" to the climate system. If corroborated, this observation would favour the assumption of a dominance of biogeophysical processes amplifying orbitally forced Quaternary climate variations.

  17. The American Meteorological Society and Second Nature: Working Together to Increase Climate Literacy at Minority Serving Institutions Nationwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Kauffman, C.; Nugnes, K. A.; Naik, A.

    2013-12-01

    the next 2 years. The AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project follows the proven models of the AMS Weather Studies (2002-2007) and AMS Ocean Studies (2006-2008) Diversity Projects, which have impacted more than 200 MSI faculty and 24,000 students. Second Nature is a national non-profit organization that works with higher education leaders to accelerate movement toward a sustainable society. Second Nature manages and supports the American College & University Presidents' Climate Commitment (ACUPCC), a high-visibility effort by a network of more than 670 presidents and chancellors committed to achieving climate neutrality by eliminating net greenhouse gas emissions from campus operations, and making sustainability a part of the curriculum and other educational experiences for all students. Second Nature has been actively working with MSIs, which has given AMS the opportunity to effectively recruit for the AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project. With successful partnerships, such as this one, AMS is excited to bring climate science coursework to more students, strengthening the pathway towards advanced geoscience study and careers, and empowering institutions to be leaders in deep climate action.

  18. Neutralization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type E by a Humanized Antibody.

    PubMed

    Derman, Yağmur; Selby, Katja; Miethe, Sebastian; Frenzel, André; Liu, Yvonne; Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Pelat, Thibaut; Urbain, Remi; Fontayne, Alexandre; Thullier, Philippe; Sesardic, Dorothea; Lindström, Miia; Hust, Michael; Korkeala, Hannu

    2016-09-12

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause botulism and are the deadliest naturally-occurring substances known to humans. BoNTs have been classified as one of the category A agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, indicating their potential use as bioweapons. To counter bio-threat and naturally-occurring botulism cases, well-tolerated antibodies by humans that neutralize BoNTs are relevant. In our previous work, we showed the neutralizing potential of macaque (Macaca fascicularis)-derived scFv-Fc (scFv-Fc ELC18) by in vitro endopeptidase immunoassay and ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay by targeting the light chain of the botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E). In the present study, we germline-humanized scFv-Fc ELC18 into a full IgG hu8ELC18 to increase its immunotolerance by humans. We demonstrated the protection and prophylaxis capacity of hu8ELC18 against BoNT/E in a mouse model. A concentration of 2.5 ng/mouse of hu8ELC18 protected against 5 mouse lethal dose (MLD) in a mouse protection assay and complete neutralization of 1 LD50 of pure BoNT/E toxin was achieved with 8 ng of hu8ELC18 in mouse paralysis assay. Furthermore, hu8ELC18 protected mice from 5 MLD if injected up to 14 days prior to intraperitoneal BoNT/E administration. This newly-developed humanized IgG is expected to have high tolerance in humans.

  19. Neutralization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type E by a Humanized Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Derman, Yağmur; Selby, Katja; Miethe, Sebastian; Frenzel, André; Liu, Yvonne; Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Pelat, Thibaut; Urbain, Remi; Fontayne, Alexandre; Thullier, Philippe; Sesardic, Dorothea; Lindström, Miia; Hust, Michael; Korkeala, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause botulism and are the deadliest naturally-occurring substances known to humans. BoNTs have been classified as one of the category A agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, indicating their potential use as bioweapons. To counter bio-threat and naturally-occurring botulism cases, well-tolerated antibodies by humans that neutralize BoNTs are relevant. In our previous work, we showed the neutralizing potential of macaque (Macaca fascicularis)-derived scFv-Fc (scFv-Fc ELC18) by in vitro endopeptidase immunoassay and ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay by targeting the light chain of the botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E). In the present study, we germline-humanized scFv-Fc ELC18 into a full IgG hu8ELC18 to increase its immunotolerance by humans. We demonstrated the protection and prophylaxis capacity of hu8ELC18 against BoNT/E in a mouse model. A concentration of 2.5 ng/mouse of hu8ELC18 protected against 5 mouse lethal dose (MLD) in a mouse protection assay and complete neutralization of 1 LD50 of pure BoNT/E toxin was achieved with 8 ng of hu8ELC18 in mouse paralysis assay. Furthermore, hu8ELC18 protected mice from 5 MLD if injected up to 14 days prior to intraperitoneal BoNT/E administration. This newly-developed humanized IgG is expected to have high tolerance in humans. PMID:27626446

  20. Comparison of measured electron density rise and calculated neutral beam particle deposition in the TFTR tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.; Budny, R.; McCune, D.; Taylor, G.; Zarnstorff, M.C. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Barnes, C.W. )

    1991-12-01

    The initial rate of rise of the central electron density during {approximately}100 keV deuterium neutral beam injection is found to agree well with calculations of the beam deposition rate. The best agreement is with beam deposition calculations using older tabulations of the atomic cross-sections; the effects of using new tabulations or including multi-step ionization processes appear to approximately cancel. The neutral-beam deposition profile is a strong function of both the magnitude and the shape of the target plasma density. Peaked heating profiles can be achieved at high target densities only from peaked target density profiles. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Assessing reservoir operations risk under climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brekke, L.D.; Maurer, E.P.; Anderson, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Townsley, E.S.; Harrison, A.; Pruitt, T.

    2009-01-01

    Risk-based planning offers a robust way to identify strategies that permit adaptive water resources management under climate change. This paper presents a flexible methodology for conducting climate change risk assessments involving reservoir operations. Decision makers can apply this methodology to their systems by selecting future periods and risk metrics relevant to their planning questions and by collectively evaluating system impacts relative to an ensemble of climate projection scenarios (weighted or not). This paper shows multiple applications of this methodology in a case study involving California's Central Valley Project and State Water Project systems. Multiple applications were conducted to show how choices made in conducting the risk assessment, choices known as analytical design decisions, can affect assessed risk. Specifically, risk was reanalyzed for every choice combination of two design decisions: (1) whether to assume climate change will influence flood-control constraints on water supply operations (and how), and (2) whether to weight climate change scenarios (and how). Results show that assessed risk would motivate different planning pathways depending on decision-maker attitudes toward risk (e.g., risk neutral versus risk averse). Results also show that assessed risk at a given risk attitude is sensitive to the analytical design choices listed above, with the choice of whether to adjust flood-control rules under climate change having considerably more influence than the choice on whether to weight climate scenarios. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Assessing reservoir operations risk under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, Levi D.; Maurer, Edwin P.; Anderson, Jamie D.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Townsley, Edwin S.; Harrison, Alan; Pruitt, Tom

    2009-04-01

    Risk-based planning offers a robust way to identify strategies that permit adaptive water resources management under climate change. This paper presents a flexible methodology for conducting climate change risk assessments involving reservoir operations. Decision makers can apply this methodology to their systems by selecting future periods and risk metrics relevant to their planning questions and by collectively evaluating system impacts relative to an ensemble of climate projection scenarios (weighted or not). This paper shows multiple applications of this methodology in a case study involving California's Central Valley Project and State Water Project systems. Multiple applications were conducted to show how choices made in conducting the risk assessment, choices known as analytical design decisions, can affect assessed risk. Specifically, risk was reanalyzed for every choice combination of two design decisions: (1) whether to assume climate change will influence flood-control constraints on water supply operations (and how), and (2) whether to weight climate change scenarios (and how). Results show that assessed risk would motivate different planning pathways depending on decision-maker attitudes toward risk (e.g., risk neutral versus risk averse). Results also show that assessed risk at a given risk attitude is sensitive to the analytical design choices listed above, with the choice of whether to adjust flood-control rules under climate change having considerably more influence than the choice on whether to weight climate scenarios.

  3. Approaches to 30% Energy Savings at the Community Scale in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas-Rees, S.; Beal, D.; Martin, E.; Fonorow, K.

    2013-03-01

    BA-PIRC has worked with several community-scale builders within the hot humid climate zone to improve performance of production, or community scale, housing. Tommy Williams Homes (Gainesville, FL), Lifestyle Homes (Melbourne, FL), and Habitat for Humanity (various locations, FL) have all been continuous partners of the BA Program and are the subjects of this report to document achievement of the Building America goal of 30% whole house energy savings packages adopted at the community scale. The scope of this report is to demonstrate achievement of these goals though the documentation of production-scale homes built cost-effectively at the community scale, and modeled to reduce whole-house energy use by 30% in the Hot Humid climate region. Key aspects of this research include determining how to evolve existing energy efficiency packages to produce replicable target savings, identifying what builders' technical assistance needs are for implementation and working with them to create sustainable quality assurance mechanisms, and documenting the commercial viability through neutral cost analysis and market acceptance. This report documents certain barriers builders overcame and the approaches they implemented in order to accomplish Building America (BA) Program goals that have not already been documented in previous reports.

  4. Climate Engineering with Stratospheric Aerosols and Associated Engineering Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.

    2013-02-12

    Climate engineering with stratospheric aerosols, an idea inspired by large volcaniceruptions, could cool the Earth’s surface and thus alleviate some of the predicted dangerous impacts of anthropogenic climate change. However, the effectiveness of climate engineering to achieve a particular climate goal, and any associated side effects, depend on certain aerosol parameters and how the aerosols are deployed in the stratosphere. Through the examples of sulfate and black carbon aerosols, this paper examines "engineering" parameters-aerosol composition, aerosol size, and spatial and temporal variations in deployment-for stratospheric climate engineering. The effects of climate engineering are sensitive to these parameters, suggesting that a particle could be found ordesigned to achieve specific desired climate outcomes. This prospect opens the possibility for discussion of societal goals for climate engineering.

  5. Spatial calibration of a tokamak neutral beam diagnostic using in situ neutral beam emission

    SciTech Connect

    Chrystal, C.; Burrell, K. H.; Pace, D. C.; Grierson, B. A.

    2015-10-15

    Neutral beam injection is used in tokamaks to heat, apply torque, drive non-inductive current, and diagnose plasmas. Neutral beam diagnostics need accurate spatial calibrations to benefit from the measurement localization provided by the neutral beam. A new technique has been developed that uses in situ measurements of neutral beam emission to determine the spatial location of the beam and the associated diagnostic views. This technique was developed to improve the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak and uses measurements of the Doppler shift and Stark splitting of neutral beam emission made by that diagnostic. These measurements contain information about the geometric relation between the diagnostic views and the neutral beams when they are injecting power. This information is combined with standard spatial calibration measurements to create an integrated spatial calibration that provides a more complete description of the neutral beam-CER system. The integrated spatial calibration results are very similar to the standard calibration results and derived quantities from CER measurements are unchanged within their measurement errors. The methods developed to perform the integrated spatial calibration could be useful for tokamaks with limited physical access.

  6. Spatial calibration of a tokamak neutral beam diagnostic using in situ neutral beam emission.

    PubMed

    Chrystal, C; Burrell, K H; Grierson, B A; Pace, D C

    2015-10-01

    Neutral beam injection is used in tokamaks to heat, apply torque, drive non-inductive current, and diagnose plasmas. Neutral beam diagnostics need accurate spatial calibrations to benefit from the measurement localization provided by the neutral beam. A new technique has been developed that uses in situ measurements of neutral beam emission to determine the spatial location of the beam and the associated diagnostic views. This technique was developed to improve the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak and uses measurements of the Doppler shift and Stark splitting of neutral beam emission made by that diagnostic. These measurements contain information about the geometric relation between the diagnostic views and the neutral beams when they are injecting power. This information is combined with standard spatial calibration measurements to create an integrated spatial calibration that provides a more complete description of the neutral beam-CER system. The integrated spatial calibration results are very similar to the standard calibration results and derived quantities from CER measurements are unchanged within their measurement errors. The methods developed to perform the integrated spatial calibration could be useful for tokamaks with limited physical access.

  7. Neutralization escape mutants define a dominant immunogenic neutralization site on hepatitis A virus

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, J.T.; Lemon, S.M.

    1987-02-01

    Hepatitis A virus is an hepatotrophic human picornavirus which demonstrates little antigenic variability. To topologically map immunogenic sites on hepatitis A virus which elicit neutralizing antibodies, eight neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were evaluated in competition immunoassays employing radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and HM-175 virus. Whereas two antibodies (K3-4C8 and K3-2F2) bound to intimately overlapping epitopes, the epitope bound by a third antibody (B5-B3) was distinctly different as evidenced by a lack of competition between antibodies for binding to the virus. The other five antibodies variably blocked the binding of both K3-4C8-K3-2F2 and B5-B3, suggesting that these epitopes are closely spaced and perhaps part of a single neutralization immunogenic site. Several combinations of monoclonal antibodies blocked the binding of polyclonal human convalescent antibody by greater than 96%, indicating that the neutralization epitopes bound by these antibodies are immunodominant in humans. Spontaneously arising HM-175 mutants were selected for resistance to monoclonal antibody-mediated neutralization. Neutralization resistance was associated with reduced antibody binding. These results suggest that hepatitis A virus may differ from poliovirus in possessing a single, dominant neutralization immunogenic site and therefore may be a better candidate for synthetic peptide or antiidiotype vaccine development.

  8. If It's Neutral, It's Not Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strate, Lance

    2012-01-01

    Taking a media ecology perspective, this article argues that technology cannot be neutral, because it is a form of change, and it has an inherent bias based on the properties of its materials and methods. Additionally, the application of a technology is an intrinsic part of the technology itself, as is technique, instructions, software, or…

  9. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  10. Intraprostatic injection of neutralized zinc in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fahim, M.S.; Wang, M.; Sutcu, M.F.; Fahim, Z.; Safron, J.A.; Ganjam, V.K. Xian Medical University )

    1991-03-11

    Zinc has been implicated in steroid endocrinology of the prostate gland. The conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5{alpha}-reductase enzyme is believed to express androgenic responses in the prostate. To note the effect of neutralized zinc on the prostate, 50 sexually mature rats, weighing 325 {plus minus} 20 grams, were divided into 5 groups as follows: (1) control, (2) sham, (3) castrated, (4) injected intraprostatically with 10 mg. neutralized zinc, and (5) injected intraprostatically with 20 mg. neutralized zinc. Results in the treated groups indicated significant reduction of prostate weights, 12% and 53% and histologically normal prostate; no significant change in weight and histological structure of testes, epididymides, and seminal vesicles; significant reduction in 5{alpha}-reductase activity and total protein and DNA concentrations in prostate tissue; and no significant effect on progeny of treated animals. These results suggest that direct application of neutralized zinc to the prostate offers a new modality for treatment of prostatitis without affecting spermatogenesis and testosterone production.

  11. Neutral glycosphingolipid content of ovine milk.

    PubMed

    Zancada, L; Sánchez-Juanes, F; Alonso, J M; Hueso, P

    2010-01-01

    Milk glycosphingolipids (GSL) have been reported to participate in the newborn's defense against pathogens. Taking this into account, in this study we determined the neutral GSL content of ovine milk, including its fatty acid profile. Its role in bacterial adhesion was also addressed by immunodetection of separate GSL in a high-performance thin-layer chromatography overlay assay. Ovine milk has a neutral GSL pattern similar to human milk and includes lactosylceramide (LacCer; 45.7%), monohexosylceramide (glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide, 31.2%), globotriaosylceramide (Gb3; 19.1%), and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4; 3.5%). Globotriaosylceramide and Gb4 are present in human but not bovine milk. Neutral GSL contained C23:0 and C24:0 as the most abundant fatty acids, a finding consistent with its high content of very long chain fatty acids (longer than C20). Most fatty acids were saturated and had a low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Bovine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains bound strongly to LacCer and showed a weak binding to monohexosylceramide. The K99 strain also bound strongly to Gb3, and F41 to Gb4. Lactosylceramide, monohexosylceramide, and Gb3 were also observed to bind to human uropathogenic E. coli strains. The results reported here show the ability of neutral GSL in ovine milk to bind to E. coli strains. These compounds could be used as an alternative and available source to supplement infant or bovine formulas with a view to preventing bacterial infections.

  12. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  13. Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Megumi; Mah, Helen M.; Sgarbi, Paulo W. M.; Lall, Manjinder S.; Ly, Tai Wei; Browne, Lois M.

    2003-01-01

    Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 4.75 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher; Chime plug-in, version compatible with your OS and browser (available from MDL); and Flash player, version 5 or higher (available from Macromedia).

  14. [Spectrophotometric determination of heparin with neutral red].

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Ding, Ya-Qin; Rao, Jun; Jiao, Kui

    2006-07-01

    The interaction of neutral red and heparin was studied by UV-Vis spectrophotometry in pH 3.0 Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer solution. Neutral red has a strong absorbance at 523 nm and the addition of heparin into neutral red solution resulted in the decrease in the absorbance value at 523 nm without the appearance of new absorbance peak. The decrease in absorbance value was linear with the concentration of heparin. The conditions for the interaction were optimized and the interferences of coexistent substances were investigated. Under the optimal conditions a linear regression equation was obtained as deltaA = 0.044 + 0.076c (mg x L(-1)) (n = 12, r = 0.997) in the range of 0.10-15.0 mg x L(-1) with the detection limit of 0.073 mg x L(-1). The molar absorptivity of the method was calculated to be 2.037 x 10(6) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1). The method was applied to determine the heparin sodium injection solution with satisfactory results. The stoichiometry of heparin with neutral red was calculated as 1 : 3.

  15. Absence of neutral alkali atoms in rhodizite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnay, G.; Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Sioda, R.

    1966-01-01

    The formula CsB12Be4Al4O28 has been proposed by others for the mineral rhodizite. Electron-spin-resonance and magnetic susceptibility measurements prove the absence of neutral cesium atoms. An ionic formula CsB11Be4Al4O 26(OH)2is proposed.

  16. Khalfin's Theorem and Neutral Mesons Subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanowski, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The consequences of Khalfin's Theorem are discussed. we find, eg., that diagonal matrix elements of the exact effective Hamiltonian for the neutral meson complex can not be equal if CPT symmetry holds and CP symmetry is violated. Within a given model we examine numerically the Khalfin's Theorem and show in a graphic form how the Khalfin's Theorem works.

  17. Doubly perturbed neutral stochastic functional equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lanying; Ren, Yong

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution to a class of doubly perturbed neutral stochastic functional equations (DPNSFEs in short) under some non-Lipschitz conditions. The solution is constructed by successive approximation. Furthermore, we give the continuous dependence of the solution on the initial value by means of the corollary of Bihari inequality.

  18. Diagnostics for neutral-beam-heated tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    Diagnostic techniques for neutral-beam-heated tokamak plasmas fall into three categories: (1) magnetic diagnostics for measurements of gross stored energy, (2) profile diagnostics for measurements of stored thermal and beam energy, impurity content and plasma rotation, and (3) fast time resolution diagnostics to study MHD fluctuations and micro-turbulence.

  19. Neutralization of potential land mine hazards by abrasive waterjet use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, David A.; Fossey, Robert D.; Thompson, S. J.

    1998-09-01

    A method of neutralizing landmines in which the integrity of the surrounding terrain is retained is herein described. High pressure waterjets which can be used to detect the presence of landmines can then be used to remove the soil and other cover in a plane immediately adjacent to and around the mine so that the side of the mine can be visually inspected through a remote television camera. At that time the flow of water is channeled through a line in which small particles of sand are added to the waterjet which is at a pressure of between 3,000 and 10,000 psi depending on the device which is used. Jet flow rates are on the order of 5 gpm depending on the nozzle configuration used. By bringing this abrasive stream in along a lateral plane through the mine it is possible to intersect, and neutralize, the fusing systems most likely to be used to initiate the charge, in a single pass. At higher flow rates, as the cut is made the jet will generate significant turbulence in the mine body, sufficient to remove a considerable quantity of the explosive which is resident within the mine at the same time as the mine is being dissected. The precision of cut achievable is shown by the longitudinal cutting into two parts of live detonators, as well as representative mine bodies.

  20. Optimization of a Quantitative Micro-neutralization Assay

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yipu; Gu, Yan; McCauley, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The micro-neutralization (MN) assay is a standard technique for measuring the infectivity of the influenza virus and the inhibition of virus replication. In this study, we present the protocol of an imaging-based MN assay to quantify the true antigenic relationships between viruses. Unlike typical plaque reduction assays that rely on visible plaques, this assay quantitates the entire infected cell population of each well. The protocol matches the virus type or subtype with the selection of cell lines to achieve maximum infectivity, which enhances sample contrast during imaging and image processing. The introduction of quantitative titration defines the amount of input viruses of neutralization and enables the results from different experiments to be comparable. The imaging setup with a flatbed scanner and free downloadable software makes the approach high throughput, cost effective, user friendly, and easy to deploy in most laboratories. Our study demonstrates that the improved MN assay works well with the current circulating influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), and B viruses, without being significantly influenced by amino acid substitutions in the neuraminidase (NA) of A(H3N2) viruses. It is particularly useful for the characterization of viruses that either grow to low HA titer and/or undergo an abortive infection resulting in an inability to form plaques in cultured cells. PMID:28060291

  1. Inactivation of biological agents using neutral oxone-chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Delcomyn, Carrie A; Bushway, Karen E; Henley, Michael V

    2006-04-15

    Bleach solutions containing the active ingredient hypochlorite (OCl-) serve as powerful biological disinfectants but are highly caustic and present a significant compatibility issue when applied to contaminated equipment or terrain. A neutral, bicarbonate-buffered aqueous solution of Oxone (2K2HSO5.KHSO4.K2SO4) and sodium chloride that rapidly generates hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in situ was evaluated as a new alternative to bleach for the inactivation of biological agents. The solution produced a free chlorine (HOCl + OCl-) concentration of 3.3 g/L and achieved > or =5.8-log inactivation of spores of Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Aspergillus niger, and Escherichia coli vegetative cells in 1 min at 22 degrees C. Seawaterwas an effective substitute for solid sodium chloride and inactivated 5 to 8 logs of each organism in 10 min over temperatures ranging from -5 degrees C to 55 degrees C. Sporicidal effectiveness increased as free chlorine concentrations shifted from OCl- to HOCl. Neutrally buffered Oxone-chloride and Oxone-seawater solutions are mitigation alternatives for biologically contaminated equipment and environments that would otherwise be decontaminated using caustic bleach solutions.

  2. UAS Detection Classification and Neutralization: Market Survey 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark; Erdman, Matthew Kelly

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to briefly frame the challenges of detecting low, slow, and small (LSS) unmanned aerial systems (UAS). The conclusion drawn from internal discussions and external reports is the following; detection of LSS UAS is a challenging problem that can- not be achieved with a single detection modality for all potential targets. Classification of LSS UAS, especially classification in the presence of background clutter (e.g., urban environment) or other non-threating targets (e.g., birds), is under-explored. Though information of avail- able technologies is sparse, many of the existing options for UAS detection appear to be in their infancy (when compared to more established ground-based air defense systems for larger and/or faster threats). Companies currently providing or developing technologies to combat the UAS safety and security problem are certainly worth investigating, however, no company has provided the statistical evidence necessary to support robust detection, identification, and/or neutralization of LSS UAS targets. The results of a market survey are included that highlights potential commercial entities that could contribute some technology that assists in the detection, classification, and neutral- ization of a LSS UAS. This survey found no clear and obvious commercial solution, though recommendations are given for further investigation of several potential systems.

  3. Selectionism and Neutralism in Molecular Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nei, Masatoshi

    2006-01-01

    Charles Darwin proposed that evolution occurs primarily by natural selection, but this view has been controversial from the beginning. Two of the major opposing views have been mutationism and neutralism. Early molecular studies suggested that most amino acid substitutions in proteins are neutral or nearly neutral and the functional change of proteins occurs by a few key amino acid substitutions. This suggestion generated an intense controversy over selectionism and neutralism. This controversy is partially caused by Kimura's definition of neutrality, which was too strict (|2Ns| ≤ 1). If we define neutral mutations as the mutations that do not change the function of gene products appreciably, many controversies disappear because slightly deleterious and slightly advantageous mutations are engulfed by neutral mutations. The ratio of the rate of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution to that of synonymous substitution is a useful quantity to study positive Darwinian selection operating at highly variable genetic loci, but it does not necessarily detect adaptively important codons. Previously, multigene families were thought to evolve following the model of concerted evolution, but new evidence indicates that most of them evolve by a birth-and-death process of duplicate genes. It is now clear that most phenotypic characters or genetic systems such as the adaptive immune system in vertebrates are controlled by the interaction of a number of multigene families, which are often evolutionarily related and are subject to birth-and-death evolution. Therefore, it is important to study the mechanisms of gene family interaction for understanding phenotypic evolution. Because gene duplication occurs more or less at random, phenotypic evolution contains some fortuitous elements, though the environmental factors also play an important role. The randomness of phenotypic evolution is qualitatively different from allele frequency changes by random genetic drift. However, there is

  4. Compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer with Ion Drifts, Temperatures and Neutral Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, Nikolaos

    2016-07-01

    In situ measurements of atmospheric neutral and ion composition and density, temperatures, ion drifts and neutral winds, are in high demand to study the dynamics of the ionosphere-theremosphere-mesosphere system. This paper presents a compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) with impended ion drifts and temperature, and neutral winds capability for in situ measurements of ions and neutrals H, He, N, O, N2, O2. The mass resolution M/dM is approximately 10 at an incoming energy range of 0-20eV. The goal is to resolve ion drifts in the range 0 to 3000m/sec with a resolution better than 50m/sec, and neutral winds in the range of 0 to 1000m/sec with similar resolution. For temperatures the goal is to cover a dynamic range of 0 to 5000K. The INMS is based on front end optics for ions and neutrals, pre acceleration, gated time of flight, top hat ESA, MCP detectors and compact electronics. The instrument is redundant for ions and neutrals with the ion and neutral sensor heads on opposite sides and with full electronics in the middle. The ion front end includes RPA for temperature scanning and neutral front end includes angular modulation and thermionic ionization and ion blocking grids. The electronics include fast electric gating, TOF electronics, TOF binning and C&DH digital electronics. The data package includes 400 mass bins each for ions and neutrals and key housekeeping data for instrument health and calibration. The data sampling can be commanded from 0.1 to 10 sec with 1sec nominal setting. The instrument has significant onboard storage capability and a data compression scheme. The mass spectrometer version of the instrument has been flown on the Exocube mission. The instrument occupied 1.5U volume, weighed only 560 g and required nominal power of 1.6W The ExoCube mission was designed to acquire global knowledge of in-situ densities of [H], [He], [O] and H+, He+, O+ in the upper ionosphere and lower exosphere in combination with incoherent scatter radar and

  5. School Climate for Academic Success: A Multilevel Analysis of School Climate and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, Darren; Davis, Jonathan Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This multilevel study examined the relationship between school climate and academic achievement. Using the Educational Longitudinal Survey (ELS, 2002), and a sample of 16,258 students and 1954 schools nationwide, we found that student-level perception of school climate--especially the student learning environment--was highly predictive of academic…

  6. Measuring School Climate: Using Existing Data Tools on Climate and Effectiveness to Inform School Organizational Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Rachel E.; Bettencourt, Amie; Connolly, Faith

    2014-01-01

    Despite--or perhaps due to--the lack of consensus on its definition, there is abundant interest in and research on school climate. Researchers have determined that improving school climate is one way to increase academic achievement, school safety, school completion, teacher retention, healthy social interactions, and student well-being (Cohen,…

  7. Improving organizational climate for excellence in patient care.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Managers in health care organizations today are expected to achieve higher-quality patient care at a lower cost. Developing and maintaining a positive organizational climate can help improve motivation and foster higher employee performance. In turn, this will help the organization deliver better patient care at a lower cost. This article offers metrics for assessing organizational climate, analyzes barriers to a positive climate, and explores strategies that managers can use to build the type of climate that fosters high performance.

  8. Neutral- and Multi-Colored Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Guo, L Jay; Park, Hui Joon

    2016-04-11

    In this review, we summarize recent works on perovskite solar cells with neutral- and multi-colored semitransparency for building-integrated photovoltaics and tandem solar cells. The perovskite solar cells exploiting microstructured arrays of perovskite "islands" and transparent electrodes-the latter of which include thin metallic films, metal nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphenes, and transparent conductive oxides for achieving optical transparency-are investigated. Moreover, the perovskite solar cells with distinctive color generation, which are enabled by engineering the band gap of the perovskite light-harvesting semiconductors with chemical management and integrating with photonic nanostructures, including microcavity, are discussed. We conclude by providing future research directions toward further performance improvements of the semitransparent perovskite solar cells.

  9. A compact and continuously driven supersonic plasma and neutral source.

    PubMed

    Asai, T; Itagaki, H; Numasawa, H; Terashima, Y; Hirano, Y; Hirose, A

    2010-10-01

    A compact and repetitively driven plasma source has been developed by utilizing a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) for diagnostics requiring deep penetration of a large amount of neutral flux. The system consists of a MCPG 95mm in length with a DN16 ConFlat connection port and an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverter power unit. The power supply consists of an array of eight IGBT units and is able to switch the discharge on and off at up to 10 kV and 600 A with a maximum repetitive frequency of 10 kHz. Multiple short duration discharge pulses maximize acceleration efficiency of the plasmoid. In the case of a 10 kHz operating frequency, helium-plasmoids in the velocity range of 20 km/s can be achieved.

  10. A compact and continuously driven supersonic plasma and neutral source

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, T.; Itagaki, H.; Numasawa, H.; Terashima, Y.; Hirano, Y.; Hirose, A.

    2010-10-15

    A compact and repetitively driven plasma source has been developed by utilizing a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) for diagnostics requiring deep penetration of a large amount of neutral flux. The system consists of a MCPG 95mm in length with a DN16 ConFlat connection port and an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverter power unit. The power supply consists of an array of eight IGBT units and is able to switch the discharge on and off at up to 10 kV and 600 A with a maximum repetitive frequency of 10 kHz. Multiple short duration discharge pulses maximize acceleration efficiency of the plasmoid. In the case of a 10 kHz operating frequency, helium-plasmoids in the velocity range of 20 km/s can be achieved.

  11. Neutral Atom Nanolithography Using a Pulsed Magnetic Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anciaux, Erik; Castillo-Garza, Rodrigo; Gardner, Jamie; Raizen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We present the status of a method of neutral atom lithography that achieves sub-10nm resolution. This method is based on the nanoscale imaging of a beam of metastable atoms with an aberration-corrected hexapole lens. The lens creates a magnetic field gradient that increases with the distance from the center of the lens so as to focus divergent low field seeking atoms toward a single focal spot past the lens. The scheme takes advantage of the narrow velocity distribution of a pulsed supersonic beam as well as an optical pumping and cooling scheme that selects the magnetic state of the atoms and further reduces its velocity dispersion. This method can be used not only to pattern but to spectroscopically probe surfaces with spatial resolution below 10nm. . M. G. R. acknowledges support from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the R. A. Welch Foundation (Grant F-1258), and the Sid W. Richardson Foundation.

  12. Uncertainty quantification of bacterial aerosol neutralization in shock heated gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, J. C.; Gottiparthi, K. C.; Menon, S.

    2015-01-01

    A potential method for the neutralization of bacterial endospores is the use of explosive charges since the high thermal and mechanical stresses in the post-detonation flow are thought to be sufficient in reducing the endospore survivability to levels that pose no significant health threat. While several experiments have attempted to quantify endospore survivability by emulating such environments in shock tube configurations, numerical simulations are necessary to provide information in scenarios where experimental data are difficult to obtain. Since such numerical predictions require complex, multi-physics models, significant uncertainties could be present. This work investigates the uncertainty in determining the endospore survivability from using a reduced order model based on a critical endospore temperature. Understanding the uncertainty in such a model is necessary in quantifying the variability in predictions using large-scale, realistic simulations of bacterial endospore neutralization by explosive charges. This work extends the analysis of previous large-scale simulations of endospore neutralization [Gottiparthi et al. in (Shock Waves, 2014. doi:10.1007/s00193-014-0504-9)] by focusing on the uncertainty quantification of predicting endospore neutralization. For a given initial mass distribution of the bacterial endospore aerosol, predictions of the intact endospore percentage using nominal values of the input parameters match the experimental data well. The uncertainty in these predictions are then investigated using the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence and polynomial chaos expansion. The studies show that the endospore survivability is governed largely by the endospore's mass distribution and their exposure or residence time at the elevated temperatures and pressures. Deviations from the nominal predictions can be as much as 20-30 % in the intermediate temperature ranges. At high temperatures, i.e., strong shocks, which are of the most interest, the

  13. Implications of Student Health Problems on Achievement and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Salle, Tamika P.; Hagermoser Sanetti, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy students are better learners. Establishing positive school climates where students are healthy, engaged, and prepared to learn is a critical component in increasing student engagement and closing the achievement gap. As such, educators need to be aware of the impact of education-related outcomes on student outcomes and schools' ability to…

  14. Passive neutralization of acid mine drainage using basic oxygen furnace slag as neutralization material: experimental and modelling.

    PubMed

    Zvimba, John N; Siyakatshana, Njabulo; Mathye, Matlhodi

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated passive neutralization of acid mine drainage using basic oxygen furnace slag as neutralization material over 90 days, with monitoring of the parameters' quality and assessment of their removal kinetics. The quality was observed to significantly improve over time with most parameters removed from the influent during the first 10 days. In this regard, removal of acidity, Fe(II), Mn, Co, Ni and Zn was characterized by fast kinetics while removal kinetics for Mg and SO4(2-) were observed to proceed slowly. The fast removal kinetics of acidity was attributed to fast release of alkalinity from slag minerals under mildly acidic conditions of the influent water. The removal of acidity through generation of alkalinity from the passive treatment system was also observed to generally govern the removal of metallic parameters through hydroxide formation, with overall percentage removals of 88-100% achieved. The removal kinetics for SO4(2-) was modelled using two approaches, yielding rate constant values of 1.56 and 1.53 L/(day mol) respectively, thereby confirming authenticity of SO4(2-) removal kinetics experimental data. The study findings provide insights into better understanding of the potential use of slags and their limitations, particularly in mine closure, as part of addressing this challenge in South Africa.

  15. Classification of illicit heroin by UPLC-Q-TOF analysis of acidic and neutral manufacturing impurities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuimei; Hua, Zhendong; Bai, Yanping

    2015-12-01

    The illicit manufacture of heroin results in the formation of trace levels of acidic and neutral manufacturing impurities that provide valuable information about the manufacturing process used. In this work, a new ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF) method; that features high resolution, mass accuracy and sensitivity for profiling neutral and acidic heroin manufacturing impurities was developed. After the UPLC-Q-TOF analysis, the retention times and m/z data pairs of acidic and neutral manufacturing impurities were detected, and 19 peaks were found to be evidently different between heroin samples from "Golden Triangle" and "Golden Crescent". Based on the data set of these 19 impurities in 150 authentic heroin samples, classification of heroin geographic origins was successfully achieved utilizing partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). By analyzing another data set of 267 authentic heroin samples, the developed discrimiant model was validated and proved to be accurate and reliable.

  16. Improving piezoelectric cell printing accuracy and reliability through neutral buoyancy of suspensions.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Daljeet; Ahmadi, Ali; Cheung, Karen C

    2012-11-01

    The sedimentation and aggregation of cells within inkjet printing systems has been hypothesized to negatively impact printer performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate this influence through the use of neutral buoyancy. Ficoll PM400 was used to create neutrally buoyant MCF-7 breast cancer cell suspensions, which were ejected using a piezoelectric drop-on-demand inkjet printing system. It was found that using a neutrally buoyant suspension greatly increased the reproducibility of consistent cell counts, and eliminated nozzle clogging. Moreover, the use of Ficoll PM400 was shown to not affect cellular viability. This is the first demonstration of such scale and accuracy achieved using a piezoelectric inkjet printing system for cellular dispensing.

  17. Concepts for the magnetic design of the MITICA neutral beam test facility ion acceleratora)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitarin, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2012-02-01

    The megavolt ITER injector concept advancement neutral injector test facility will be constituted by a RF-driven negative ion source and by an electrostatic Accelerator, designed to produce a negative Ion with a specific energy up to 1 MeV. The beam is then neutralized in order to obtain a focused 17 MW neutral beam. The magnetic configuration inside the accelerator is of crucial importance for the achievement of a good beam efficiency, with the early deflection of the co-extracted and stripped electrons, and also of the required beam optic quality, with the correction of undesired ion beamlet deflections. Several alternative magnetic design concepts have been considered, comparing in detail the magnetic and beam optics simulation results, evidencing the advantages and drawbacks of each solution both from the physics and engineering point of view.

  18. Concepts for the magnetic design of the MITICA neutral beam test facility ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Chitarin, G; Agostinetti, P; Marconato, N; Marcuzzi, D; Sartori, E; Serianni, G; Sonato, P

    2012-02-01

    The megavolt ITER injector concept advancement neutral injector test facility will be constituted by a RF-driven negative ion source and by an electrostatic Accelerator, designed to produce a negative Ion with a specific energy up to 1 MeV. The beam is then neutralized in order to obtain a focused 17 MW neutral beam. The magnetic configuration inside the accelerator is of crucial importance for the achievement of a good beam efficiency, with the early deflection of the co-extracted and stripped electrons, and also of the required beam optic quality, with the correction of undesired ion beamlet deflections. Several alternative magnetic design concepts have been considered, comparing in detail the magnetic and beam optics simulation results, evidencing the advantages and drawbacks of each solution both from the physics and engineering point of view.

  19. Simulations Of Laser Cooling In An Ultracold Neutral Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langin, Thomas; Strickler, Trevor; Pohl, Thomas; Vrinceanu, Daniel; Killian, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold neutral plasmas (UNPs) generated by photoionization of laser-cooled, magneto-optically trapped neutral gases, are useful systems for studying strongly coupled plasmas. Coupling is parameterized by Γi, the ratio of the average nearest neighbor Coulomb interaction energy to the ion kinetic energy. For typical UNPs, Γi is currently limited to ~ 3 . For alkaline earth ions, higher Γi can be achieved by laser-cooling. Using Molecular Dynamics and a quantum trajectories approach, we have simulated laser-cooling of Sr+ ions interacting through a Yukawa potential. The simulations include re-pumping from two long-lived D-states, and are conducted at experimentally achievable parameters (density n = 2 e+14 m-3, size σ0 = 4 mm, Te = 19 K). Laser-cooling is shown to both reduce the temperature by a factor of 2 over relevant timescales (tens of μ s) and slow the electron thermal-pressure driven radial expansion of the UNP. We also discuss the unique aspects of laser-cooling in a highly collisional system; in particular, the effect of collisions on dark state formation due to the coupling of the P3/2 state to both the S1/2 (via the cooling transition) and the D5/2 (via a re-pump transition) states. Supported by NSF and DoE, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the NDSEG Program, and NIH NCRR S10RR02950, an IBM SUR Award in partnership with CISCO, Qlogic and Adaptive Computing.

  20. Applications and Implications of Neutral versus Non-neutral Markers in Molecular Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Heather; Freeland, Joanna R.

    2011-01-01

    The field of molecular ecology has expanded enormously in the past two decades, largely because of the growing ease with which neutral molecular genetic data can be obtained from virtually any taxonomic group. However, there is also a growing awareness that neutral molecular data can provide only partial insight into parameters such as genetic diversity, local adaptation, evolutionary potential, effective population size, and taxonomic designations. Here we review some of the applications of neutral versus adaptive markers in molecular ecology, discuss some of the advantages that can be obtained by supplementing studies of molecular ecology with data from non-neutral molecular markers, and summarize new methods that are enabling researchers to generate data from genes that are under selection. PMID:21747718

  1. Lifting Minority Achievement: Complex Answers. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This fourth in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist describes the Minority Achievement Committee scholars program at Shaker Heights High School in Cleveland, Ohio, a powerful antidote to the achievement gap between minority and white and Asian American students. It explains the need to break down stereotypes about academic…

  2. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  3. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  4. Climate Assessment For 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waple, A. M.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Lyon, B.; Halpert, M. S.; Gleason, K. L.; Menne, M. J.; Schnell, R. C.; Thiaw, W.; Wright, W. J.; Alexander, L.; Salinger, M. J.; Bell, G. D.; Higgins, R. W.; Stone, R. S.

    2002-05-01

    It is the twelfth year that the Climate Assessment has been written to summarize the state of the Earth's climate, and the second year that the National Climatic Data Center has taken the lead in its production. It is a cooperative effort that includes contributions from scientists around the country and the world. The long-running La Nina episode finally came to an end in 2001. The weak La Nina, which began in mid-1998 persisted through the first half of the year but gave way to neutral ENSO conditions for the latter half. Global temperatures in 2001 were 0.51C (0.92F) above the long-term (1880-2000) average, which places 2001 as the second warmest year on record. Land temperatures were 0.75C (1.35F) above average and ocean temperatures were 0.40C (0.72F) above the 1880-2000 mean. This ranks them as 2nd and 3rd warmest on record respectively. The Northern Hemisphere temperature continues to average near record levels in 2001 at 0.60C (1.08F) above the long-term average. The Southern Hemisphere also reflects the globally warmer conditions, with a positive anomaly of 0.43C (0.77F). Annual anomalies in excess of 1.0C (1.8F) were widespread across North America and much of Europe and the Middle East, while significantly cooler than average conditions were confined to Western Australia the Northeast and Northwest Pacific Ocean, and the far southeastern region of the Pacific, near coastal Chile. Although no hurricanes made landfall in the United States for the second consecutive year, it was nonetheless an extremely active Atlantic hurricane season, the fourth most active on record. Tropical Storm Allison became the costliest tropical storm on record when it caused around five billion US dollars worth of damage in southern and southeastern USA. The season was slow to start but quickly escalated in the last three months of the season and it was the first time in recorded history that three hurricanes have formed in the Atlantic in the month of November. Other notable

  5. Neutralizer options for high energy H/sup -/ beams

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.H.

    1986-10-01

    A neutralizer converts a negative ion beam into a neutral beam, but it also increases the beamline cost, weight and size while reducing its output power, efficiency and possibly the reliability of the entire system. In addition it scatters the newly formed neutrals, altering the beam current density distribution, causing the beam divergence to get larger and the brightness to go down. In the following, the role of neutralizers for hydrogen ion beams is reviewed, and the problems encountered over a range of beam energies are discussed. Consideration is given to enhancing the goals of the neutral beam application, be they the highest neutral fraction, optimum overall efficiency or maximum beam brightness, etc.

  6. The production of low-energy neutral oxygen beams by grazing-incidence neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albridge, R. G.; Haglund, R. F.; Tolk, N. H.; Daech, A. F.

    1987-01-01

    The Vanderbilt University neutral oxygen facility produces beams of low-energy neutral oxygen atoms by means of grazing-incidence collisions between ion beams and metal surfaces. Residual ions are reflected by applied electric fields. This method can utilize initial ion beams of either O(+) or O2(+) since a very large percentage of molecular oxygen ions are dissociated when they undergo grazing-incidence neutralization. The method of neutralization is applicable to low-energy beams and to all ions. Particular emphasis is on O and N2 beams for simulation of the low Earth orbit space environment. Since the beam is a pure O-neutral beam and since measurements of the interaction of the beam with solid surfaces are made spectroscopically, absolute reaction rates can be determined. The technique permits the beams to be used in conjunction with electron and photon irradiation for studies of synergistic effects. Comparisons of optical spectra of Kapton excited by 2.5-keV O, O(+), and O2(+) show significant differences. Optical spectra of Kapton excited by neutral oxygen beams of less than 1 keV have been recorded.

  7. Detection of Broadly Neutralizing Activity within the First Months of HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fabra-Garcia, A.; Gonzalez, N.; Nicolas, D.; Merino-Mansilla, A.; Manzardo, C.; Ambrosioni, J.; Schultz, A.; Meyerhans, A.; Mascola, J. R.; Gatell, J. M.; Alcami, J.; Miro, J. M.; Yuste, E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A fraction of HIV-1 patients are able to generate broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) after 2 to 4 years of infection. In rare occasions such antibodies are observed close to the first year of HIV-1 infection but never within the first 6 months. In this study, we analyzed the neutralization breadth of sera from 157 antiretroviral-naive individuals who were infected for less than 1 year. A range of neutralizing activities was observed with a previously described panel of six recombinant viruses from five different subtypes (M. Medina-Ramirez et al., J Virol 85:5804–5813, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02482-10). Some sera were broadly reactive, predominantly targeting envelope epitopes within the V2 glycan-dependent region. The neutralization breadth was positively associated with time postinfection (P = 0.0001), but contrary to what has been reported for chronic infections, no association with the viral load was observed. Notably, five individuals within the first 6 months of infection (two as early as 77 and 96 days postinfection) showed substantial cross-neutralization. This was confirmed with an extended panel of 20 Env pseudoviruses from four different subtypes (two in tier 3, 14 in tier 2, and four in tier 1). Sera from these individuals were capable of neutralizing viruses from four different subtypes with a geometric mean 50% infective dose (ID50) between 100 and 800. These results indicate that induction of cross-neutralizing responses, albeit rare, is achievable even within 6 months of HIV-1 infection. These observations encourage the search for immunogens able to elicit this kind of response in preventive HIV-1 vaccine approaches. IMPORTANCE There are very few individuals able to mount broadly neutralizing activity (bNA) close to the first year postinfection. It is not known how early in the infection cross-neutralizing responses can be induced. In the present study, we show that bNAbs, despite being rare, can be induced much earlier

  8. Efficient, Semitransparent Neutral-Colored Solar Cells Based on Microstructured Formamidinium Lead Trihalide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Eperon, Giles E; Bryant, Daniel; Troughton, Joel; Stranks, Samuel D; Johnston, Michael B; Watson, Trystan; Worsley, David A; Snaith, Henry J

    2015-01-02

    Efficient, neutral-colored semitransparent solar cells are of commercial interest for incorporation into the windows and surfaces of buildings and automobiles. Here, we report on semitransparent perovskite solar cells that are both efficient and neutral-colored, even in full working devices. Using the microstructured architecture previously developed, we achieve higher efficiencies by replacing methylammonium lead iodide perovskite with formamidinium lead iodide. Current-voltage hysteresis is also much reduced. Furthermore, we apply a novel transparent cathode to the devices, enabling us to fabricate neutral-colored semitransparent full solar cells for the first time. Such devices demonstrate over 5% power conversion efficiency for average visible transparencies of almost 30%, retaining impressive color-neutrality. This makes these devices the best-performing single-junction neutral-colored semitransparent solar cells to date. These microstructured perovskite solar cells are shown to have a significant advantage over silicon solar cells in terms of performance at high incident angles of sunlight, making them ideal for building integration.

  9. Charge Neutralization in the ESEM for Quantitative X-ray Microanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlton, Robert A.; Lyman, Charles E.; Roberts, James E.

    2004-12-01

    Quantitative chemical analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) in the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) is difficult. This analysis is complicated by the spread of the electron beam by chamber gas molecules and the necessity for surface charge neutralization. Without charge neutralization, errors in quantitative analysis can range up to 15 20% relative. It is possible to achieve the error expected of traditional EDS, ±5% relative error, using a newly developed surface charge neutralization scheme for the ESEM. Estimates of accuracy and precision are based on studies of the National Bureau of Standards (now National Institutes for Science and Technology) Standard Reference Material 482, a series of certified copper gold alloys. The scheme for charge neutralization requires an independent path to ground at or near the surface of the specimen. The current through the ground path must be maintained at zero by adjusting the voltage on the Gaseous Secondary Electron DetectorTM when the sample chamber is at a gas pressure of 1 2 torr. This procedure forms the exact number of chamber gas positive ions to neutralize negative electrical charge on the specimen surface from electron bombardment.

  10. Commercially available immunoglobulins contain virus neutralizing antibodies against all major genotypes of polyomavirus BK.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, P; Pastrana, D V; Zeng, G; Huang, Y; Shapiro, R; Sood, P; Puttarajappa, C; Berger, M; Hariharan, S; Buck, C B

    2015-04-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) form the basis of immunotherapeutic strategies against many important human viral infections. Accordingly, we studied the prevalence, titer, genotype-specificity, and mechanism of action of anti-polyomavirus BK (BKV) NAbs in commercially available human immune globulin (IG) preparations designed for intravenous (IV) use. Pseudovirions (PsV) of genotypes Ia, Ib2, Ic, II, III, and IV were generated by co-transfecting a reporter plasmid encoding luciferase and expression plasmids containing synthetic codon-modified VP1, VP2, and VP3 capsid protein genes into 293TT cells. NAbs were measured using luminometry. All IG preparations neutralized all BKV genotypes, with mean EC50 titers as high as 254 899 for genotype Ia and 6,666 for genotype IV. Neutralizing titers against genotypes II and III were higher than expected, adding to growing evidence that infections with these genotypes are more common than currently appreciated. Batch to batch variation in different lots of IG was within the limits of experimental error. Antibody mediated virus neutralizing was dose dependent, modestly enhanced by complement, genotype-specific, and achieved without effect on viral aggregation, capsid morphology, elution, or host cell release. IG contains potent NAbs capable of neutralizing all major BKV genotypes. Clinical trials based on sound pharmacokinetic principles are needed to explore prophylactic and therapeutic applications of these anti-viral effects, until effective small molecule inhibitors of BKV replication can be developed.

  11. Achievements in Stratospheric Ozone Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes achievements in protecting the ozone layer, the benefits of these achievements, and strategies involved (e.g., using alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, phasing out harmful substances, and creating partnerships).

  12. Time reversal violation for entangled neutral mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabéu, J.

    2013-07-01

    A direct evidence for Time Reversal Violation (TRV) means an experiment that, considered by itself, clearly shows TRV independent of, and unconnected to, the results for CP Violation. No existing result before the recent BABAR experiment with entangled neutral B mesons had demonstrated TRV in this sense. There is a unique opportunity for a search of TRV with unstable particles thanks to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Entanglement between the two neutral mesons in B, and PHI, Factories. The two quantum effects of the first decay as a filtering measurement and the transfer of information to the still living partner allow performing a genuine TRV asymmetry with the exchange of "in" and "out" states. With four independent TRV asymmetries, BABAR observes a large deviation of T-invariance with a statistical significance of 14 standard deviations, far more than needed to declare the result as a discovery. This is the first direct observation of TRV in the time evolution of any system.

  13. EDITORIAL: Negative ion based neutral beam injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsworth, R. S.

    2006-06-01

    It is widely recognized that neutral beam injection (NBI), i.e. the injection of high energy, high power, beams of H or D atoms, is a flexible and reliable system that has been the main heating system on a large variety of fusion devices, and NBI has been chosen as one of the three heating schemes of the International Tokomak Reactor (ITER). To date, all the NBI systems but two have been based on the neutralization (in a simple gas target) of positive hydrogen or deuterium ions accelerated to <100 keV/nucleon. Above that energy the neutralization of positive ions falls to unacceptably low values, and higher energy neutral beams have to be created by the neutralization of accelerated negative ions (in a simple gas target), as this remains high (approx60%) up to >1 MeV/nucleon. Unfortunately H- and D- are difficult to create, and the very characteristic that makes them attractive, the ease with which the electron is detached from the ion, means that it is difficult to create high concentrations or fluxes of them, and it is difficult to avoid substantial, collisional, losses in the extraction and acceleration processes. However, there has been impressive progress in negative ion sources and accelerators over the past decade, as demonstrated by the two pioneering, operational, multi-megawatt, negative ion based, NBI systems at LHD (180 keV, H0) and JT-60U (500 keV, D0), both in Japan. Nevertheless, the system proposed for ITER represents a substantial technological challenge as an increase is required in beam energy, to 1 MeV, D0, accelerated ion (D-) current, to 40 A, accelerated current density, 200 A m-2 of D-, and pulse length, to 1 h. At the Fourth IAEA Technical Meeting on Negative Ion Based Neutral Beam Injectors, hosted by the Consorzio RFX, Padova, Italy, 9-11 May 2005, the status of the R&D aimed at the realization of the injectors for ITER was presented. Because of the importance of this development to the success of the ITER project, participants at that

  14. Quasi-Neutral Theory of Epidemic Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Oscar A.; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Some epidemics have been empirically observed to exhibit outbreaks of all possible sizes, i.e., to be scale-free or scale-invariant. Different explanations for this finding have been put forward; among them there is a model for “accidental pathogens” which leads to power-law distributed outbreaks without apparent need of parameter fine tuning. This model has been claimed to be related to self-organized criticality, and its critical properties have been conjectured to be related to directed percolation. Instead, we show that this is a (quasi) neutral model, analogous to those used in Population Genetics and Ecology, with the same critical behavior as the voter-model, i.e. the theory of accidental pathogens is a (quasi)-neutral theory. This analogy allows us to explain all the system phenomenology, including generic scale invariance and the associated scaling exponents, in a parsimonious and simple way. PMID:21760930

  15. The Neutralization of Ion-Rocket Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Harold R.

    1961-01-01

    The experimental ion-beam behavior obtained without neutralizers is compared with both simple collision theory and plasma-wave theory. This comparison indicates that plasma waves play an important part in beam behavior, although the present state of plasma-wave theory does not permit more than a qualitative comparison. The theories of immersed-emitter and electron-trap neutralizer operation are discussed; and, to the extent permitted by experimental data, the theory is compared with experimental results. Experimental data are lacking completely at the present time for operation in space. The results that might be expected in space and the means of simulating such operation in Earth-bound facilities, however, are discussed.

  16. Low-energy neutral-atom spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, D.E.; Cohen, S.A.

    1982-04-01

    The design, calibration, and performance of a low energy neutral atom spectrometer are described. Time-of-flight analysis is used to measure the energy spectrum of charge-exchange deuterium atoms emitted from the PLT tokamak plasma in the energy range from 20 to 1000 eV. The neutral outflux is gated on a 1 ..mu..sec time scale by a slotted rotating chopper disc, supported against gravity in vacuum by magnetic levitation, and is detected by secondary electron emission from a Cu-Be plate. The energy dependent detection efficiency has been measured in particle beam experiments and on the tokamak so that the diagnostic is absolutely calibrated, allowing quantitative particle fluxes to be determined with 200 ..mu..sec time resolution. In addition to its present application as a plasma diagnostic, the instrument is capable of making a wide variety of measurements relevant to atomic and surface physics.

  17. Neutral zone: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the Neutral Zone between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, much in the news during the Gulf war, that returned to production in June when offshore output resumed at a rate of 100,000 bpd. By this month, offshore production should have attained near its pre-war level of 250,000 bpd. Because of war damage onshore, production will not be restarted onshore for some time. Neutral Zone oil is jointly owned by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Texaco's Getty unit operates some 900 mostly pumping wells in South Umm Gudair, Wafra and South Fawaris onshore fields. However, only about 50 were producing 130,000 bpd last August when Iraqis invaded. Japan's Arabian Oil Co. operates 165 wells-all flowing-in offshore Khafji, Hout and Lulu fields that have a maximum productive capacity of about 300,000 bpd.

  18. Neutral beam source commercialization study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    King, H.J.

    1980-06-01

    The basic tasks of this Phase II project were to: generate a set of design drawings suitable for quantity production of sources of this design; fabricate a functional neutral beam source incorporating as many of the proposed design changes as proved feasible; and document the procedures and findings developed during the contract. These tasks have been accomplished and represent a demonstrated milestone in the industrialization of this complete device.

  19. Linear Sweep Voltammetry of Adsorbed Neutral Red.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    showed that neutral red undergoes a potentiometrically reversible two-electron reduction to the leuco dye and established approximate acidity constants for...both the dye and the leuco dye from equilibrium potential measurements. More recently, Bartels [3,43 estimated the acid dissociation constant of...and the total dye concentration on the equilibrium potential of the dye - leuco dye couple, Nikolskii and coworkers [5-73 derived precise values for

  20. Miniaturized Plasma and Neutral Diagnostics for JIMO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McHarg, M. G.; Enloe, C. L.; Krause, L. A.; Herrero, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a miniaturized suite of instruments which provides both bulk energy resolved plasma properties and coarse neutral mass spectroscopy suitable for measurements on the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). The suite is comprised of two instruments; the Miniaturized Electro-Static Analyzer (MESA), and the Flat Plasma Spectrometer (FLAPS), designed to measure the near earth environment on the Air Force Academy small satellite missions Falconsat-2 and 3.

  1. Anti-Angiogenic Action of Neutral Endopeptidase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-30

    production (this is more of an in vitro phenomenon). A number of studies both in vitro and in patient specimens suggest that enhanced expression of...enzymatic site exposed to the external cell surface, Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is a cell-surface peptidase normally expressed by prostatic epithelial...cells, whose expression is lost in over half of prostate cancers. NEP substrates include small peptides that have been implicated in prostate

  2. Quasi-neutrality in the polar cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, J. L.

    1985-07-01

    Data from the High Altitude Plasma Instrument on Dynamics Explorer have shown a remarkably close correspondence between the densities of suprathermal electrons and positive ions at altitudes between 16,000 and 23,000 km in the polar cusp. It is argued that this quasi-neutrality results from an ambipolar electric field at the magnetopause, which allows the entry of magnetosheath electrons only to the extent required to balance the charge carried by the positive ions.

  3. The neutral surface layer above rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedman, Ann-Sofi; Sahlee, Erik

    2014-05-01

    It is generally accepted that turbulent fluxes (momentum and scalar fluxes) are approx. constant with height above horizontal surfaces with low roughness. But what will happen when the roughness sub-layer is large as found over cities, forests and rough seas? In a study of the kinematic structure of the near neutral atmospheric surface layer, Högström, Hunt and Smedman, 2002, it was demonstrated that a model with detached eddies from above the surface layer impinging on to the surface (Hunt and Morison, 2000) could explain some of the observed features in the neutral atmospheric boundary layer. Thus the detached eddy model proved successful in explaining the dynamic structure of the near neutral atmospheric surface layer, especially the shape of the spectra of the wind components and scalars and corresponding fluxes. Here we make the hypothesis that the detached-eddy model can also be used to explain the experimental results related to the 3-dimensional turbulence structure above rough surfaces. Measurements are taken both over land (grass and forest) and over sea (Baltic Sea and hurricane Fabian in the Atlantic) above the roughness sub-layer. Analysis of the turbulence structure shows a striking similarity between the different sites. Hunt, J.C.R and Morrison, J.F., 2000: Eddy structure in turbulent boundary layers, Euro. J. Mech. B-Fluids, 19, 673-694. Högström, U., Hunt, J.C.R., and Smedman, A., 2002: Theory and measurements for turbulence spectra and variances in the atmospheric neutral surface layer, Bound.-Layer Meteorol., 103,101-124.

  4. Power threshold for neutral beam current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Politzer, P.A. ); Porter, G.D. )

    1989-10-02

    For fully noninductive current drive in tokamaks using neutral beams, there is a power and density threshold condition, setting a minimum value for P{sup 3/2}/n{sup 2}. If this condition is not met, stationary state cannot occur, and a tokamak discharge will collapse. This is a consequence of the coupling between current and electron temperature, or between current drive efficiency and energy confinement time. 4 figs.

  5. Antibody neutralization of retargeted measles viruses.

    PubMed

    Lech, Patrycja J; Pappoe, Roland; Nakamura, Takafumi; Tobin, Gregory J; Nara, Peter L; Russell, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    The measles virus (MV) vaccine lineage is a promising oncolytic but prior exposure to the measles vaccine or wild-type MV strains limits treatment utility due to the presence of anti-measles antibodies. MV entry can be redirected by displaying a polypeptide ligand on the Hemagglutinin (H) C-terminus. We hypothesized that retargeted MV would escape neutralization by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing the H receptor-binding surface and be less susceptible to neutralization by human antisera. Using chimeric H proteins, with and without mutations that ablate MV receptor binding, we show that retargeted MVs escape mAbs that target the H receptor-binding surface by virtue of mutations that ablate infection via SLAM and CD46. However, C-terminally displayed domains do not mediate virus entry in the presence of human antibodies that bind to the underlying H domain. In conclusion, utility of retargeted oncolytic measles viruses does not extend to evasion of human serum neutralization.

  6. Neutral color semitransparent microstructured perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Eperon, Giles E; Burlakov, Victor M; Goriely, Alain; Snaith, Henry J

    2014-01-28

    Neutral-colored semitransparent solar cells are commercially desired to integrate solar cells into the windows and cladding of buildings and automotive applications. Here, we report the use of morphological control of perovskite thin films to form semitransparent planar heterojunction solar cells with neutral color and comparatively high efficiencies. We take advantage of spontaneous dewetting to create microstructured arrays of perovskite "islands", on a length-scale small enough to appear continuous to the eye yet large enough to enable unattenuated transmission of light between the islands. The islands are thick enough to absorb most visible light, and the combination of completely absorbing and completely transparent regions results in neutral transmission of light. Using these films, we fabricate thin-film solar cells with respectable power conversion efficiencies. Remarkably, we find that such discontinuous films still have good rectification behavior and relatively high open-circuit voltages due to the inherent rectification between the n- and p-type charge collection layers. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ease of "color-tinting" such microstructured perovksite solar cells with no reduction in performance, by incorporation of a dye within the hole transport medium.

  7. Atomic Transition Probabilities for Neutral Cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; den Hartog, E. A.; Wood, M. P.; Nitz, D. E.; Chisholm, J.; Sobeck, J.

    2009-10-01

    The spectra of neutral cerium (Ce I) and singly ionized cerium (Ce II) are more complex than spectra of other rare earth species. The resulting high density of lines in the visible makes Ce ideal for use in metal halide (MH) High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps. Inclusion of cerium-iodide in a lamp dose can improve both the Color Rendering Index and luminous efficacy of a MH-HID lamp. Basic spectroscopic data including absolute atomic transition probabilities for Ce I and Ce II are needed for diagnosing and modeling these MH-HID lamps. Recent work on Ce II [1] is now being augmented with similar work on Ce I. Radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements [2] on neutral Ce are being combined with emission branching fractions from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer. A total of 14 high resolution spectra are being analyzed to determine branching fractions for 2000 to 3000 lines from 153 upper levels in neutral Ce. Representative data samples and progress to date will be presented. [4pt] [1] J. E. Lawler, C. Sneden, J. J. Cowan, I. I. Ivans, and E. A. Den Hartog, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 182, 51-79 (2009). [0pt] [2] E. A. Den Hartog, K. P. Buettner, and J. E. Lawler, J. Phys. B: Atomic, Molecular & Optical Physics 42, 085006 (7pp) (2009).

  8. Atomic Transition Probabilities for Neutral Cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John; Nitz, D.; Sobeck, J.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Among the rare earth species, the spectra of neutral cerium (Ce I) and singly ionized cerium (Ce II) are some of the most complex. Like other rare earth species, Ce has many lines in the visible which are suitable for elemental abundance studies. Recent work on Ce II transition probabilities [1] is now being augmented with similar work on Ce I for future studies using such lines from astrophysical sources. Radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements [2] on neutral Ce are being combined with emission branching fractions from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer. A total of 14 high resolution spectra are being analyzed to determine branching fractions for 2500 to 3000 lines from 153 upper levels in neutral Ce. Representative data samples and progress to date will be presented. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program and the Department of Defense's ASSURE program through NSF Award AST-0453442 and NSF Grant CTS0613277. [1] J. E. Lawler, C. Sneden, J. J. Cowan, I. I. Ivans, and E. A. Den Hartog, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 182, 51-79 (2009). [2] E. A. Den Hartog, K. P. Buettner, and J. E. Lawler, J. Phys. B: Atomic, Molecular & Optical Physics 42, 085006 (7pp) (2009).

  9. Neutralization of H- at Nanostructured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obreshkov, Boyan; Thumm, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    The charge transfer rates and the neutralization probabilities for hydrogen anions colliding with nanostructured (vicinal) surfaces are obtained by direct numerical integration of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for the motion of the active electron in the field of the projectile-surface compound. The electronic structure of the surface is calculated from a Thomas-Fermi - von Weizsaecker statistical model with local density approximation for the exchange-correlation energy. In fixed-ion approximation, the decay rate of the electronic state of the anion in front of the surface is obtained by projecting the density of states of the collision system onto the unperturbed projectile level. The ion neutralization probability is calculated from this static width within a rate equation approach for a set of broken-straight-line collision trajectories for kinetic energies of 1 keV. The dependence of decay rates and neutralization probabilities on the surface morphology and the scattering trajectories, and a comparison of our numerical results with the experiments will be discussed.

  10. Intense diagnostic neutral beam development for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Henins, I.; Fonck, R.J.; Kim, Y.J.

    1992-05-01

    For the next-generation, burning tokamak plasmas such as ITER, diagnostic neutral beams and beam spectroscopy will continue to be used to determine a variety of plasma parameters such as ion temperature, rotation, fluctuations, impurity content, current density profile, and confined alpha particle density and energy distribution. Present-day low-current, long-pulse beam technology will be unable to provide the required signal intensities because of higher beam attenuation and background bremsstrahlung radiation in these larger, higher-density plasmas. To address this problem, we are developing a short-pulse, intense diagnostic neutral beam. Protons or deuterons are accelerated using magnetic-insulated ion-diode technology, and neutralized in a transient gas cell. A prototype 25-kA, 100-kV, 1-{mu}s accelerator is under construction at Los Alamos. Initial experiments will focus on ITER-related issues of beam energy distribution, current density, pulse length, divergence, propagation, impurity content, reproducibility, and maintenance.

  11. Intense diagnostic neutral beam development for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Henins, I. ); Fonck, R.J.; Kim, Y.J. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics)

    1992-01-01

    For the next-generation, burning tokamak plasmas such as ITER, diagnostic neutral beams and beam spectroscopy will continue to be used to determine a variety of plasma parameters such as ion temperature, rotation, fluctuations, impurity content, current density profile, and confined alpha particle density and energy distribution. Present-day low-current, long-pulse beam technology will be unable to provide the required signal intensities because of higher beam attenuation and background bremsstrahlung radiation in these larger, higher-density plasmas. To address this problem, we are developing a short-pulse, intense diagnostic neutral beam. Protons or deuterons are accelerated using magnetic-insulated ion-diode technology, and neutralized in a transient gas cell. A prototype 25-kA, 100-kV, 1-{mu}s accelerator is under construction at Los Alamos. Initial experiments will focus on ITER-related issues of beam energy distribution, current density, pulse length, divergence, propagation, impurity content, reproducibility, and maintenance.

  12. Water dynamics at neutral and ionic interfaces.

    PubMed

    Fenn, Emily E; Wong, Daryl B; Fayer, M D

    2009-09-08

    The orientational dynamics of water at a neutral surfactant reverse micelle interface are measured with ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of the hydroxyl stretch, and the results are compared to orientational relaxation of water interacting with an ionic interface. The comparison provides insights into the influence of a neutral vs. ionic interface on hydrogen bond dynamics. Measurements are made and analyzed for large nonionic surfactant Igepal CO-520reverse micelles (water nanopool with a 9-nm diameter). The results are compared with those from a previous study of reverse micelles of the same size formed with the ionic surfactant Aerosol-OT (AOT). The results demonstrate that the orientational relaxation times for interfacial water molecules in the two types of reverse micelles are very similar (13 ps for Igepal and 18 ps for AOT) and are significantly slower than that of bulk water (2.6 ps). The comparison of water orientational relaxation at neutral and ionic interfaces shows that the presence of an interface plays the dominant role in determining the hydrogen bond dynamics, whereas the chemical nature of the interface plays a secondary role.

  13. Experimental Measurement of Micrometeoroid-Produced Neutrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, A.; Sternovsky, Z.; Horanyi, M.; Munsat, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    We describe the first laboratory measurement of vapor produced by simulated micrometeoroid bombardment. Exospheric gas measurements remain one of the outstanding accomplishments of the Apollo era, and are a clear scientific goal for future exploration of airless objects. New in-situ observations of the surface-bounded exosphere (SBE) at Mercury by MESSENGER, and the Moon by LRO/LAMP, have highlighted the uncertainty surrounding the role of micrometeoroid impacts in sustaining planetary SBEs. In a recent series of experiments, the quantity of neutral molecules generated by impacts of simulated micrometeoroids (0.1-1 micron radius, 1-10 km/s speed) was measured in the lab using a fast ionization gauge inside an ultrahigh-vacuum system. The quantity of neutrals released was found to be consistent with a power law N = mv^a in projectile speed v, mass m and exponent a ~ 2.4 We present these experimental results and discuss their implications for the upcoming LADEE mission, which carries both neutral mass and optical spectrometers for exospheric measurements, capable of identifying micrometeoroid-sourced gases.

  14. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  15. Creating a climate for excellence.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, J

    1985-01-01

    Some people are motivated to achieve in a manner consistent with the goals of their organization while others pursue individual goals. The attitudes people hold determine their behavior. Therefore, the manager is charged with creating an environment that fosters employee commitment to organizational goals. To create a climate for achievement, managers must recognize that all employees want recognition. Employees perform more effectively when they understand the goals of the organization, know what is expected of them, and are part of a system that includes feedback and reinforcement. Generally, people perform more effectively in an environment with minimal threat and punishment; individual responsibility should be encouraged, rewards based on results, and a climate of trust and open communication should prevail.

  16. The influence of stray magnetic fields on ion beam neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Y.-C.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental investigation is described of a comparison between the ion beam neutralization characteristics of a local neutralizer (within approximately 5 cm of the beam edge) and those associated with a distant one (approximately 1 meter away from the thruster). The influence of magnetic fields in the vicinity of the neutralizer cathode orifice which are either parallel or normal to the neutralizer axis is assessed. The plasma property profiles which reflect the influence of the magnetic fields are measured. The results suggest that magnetic fields at the region of a neutralizer cathode orifice influence its ability to couple to the ion beam. They reveal that there is a potential jump from the neutralizer cathode orifice to the plasma which exists close to the orifice. This potential drop is found to increase as the axial component of magnetic flux density increases. A magnetic field perpendicular to the neutralizer axis induces a potential rise a few centimeters downstream from the neutralizer cathode.

  17. Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 111 Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms (Web, free access)   Data for ground state electron configurations and ionization energies for the neutral atoms (Z = 1-104) including references.

  18. 67. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NEUTRALIZER BUILDING, LOOKING AT CONDENSERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NEUTRALIZER BUILDING, LOOKING AT CONDENSERS, NEUTRALIZERS AND STORAGE TANKS, APRIL 11, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  19. 3. WIDE ANGLE OF NEUTRAL BUOYANCY SIMULATOR (NBS) FROM WITHIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WIDE ANGLE OF NEUTRAL BUOYANCY SIMULATOR (NBS) FROM WITHIN NBS HIGHBAY DOORS. DIVE BELL IN FOREGROUND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  20. 1. NEUTRAL BUOYANCY SIMULATOR BUILDING (NBS) EXTERIOR ELEVATION LOOKING NORTH; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NEUTRAL BUOYANCY SIMULATOR BUILDING (NBS) EXTERIOR ELEVATION LOOKING NORTH; TANK BUILDING TO LEFT, CONTROL ROOM ETC. TO RIGHT OF CONNECTING BAY. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  1. Agriculture: Climate Change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  2. Neutral theory and the species abundance distribution: recent developments and prospects for unifying niche and neutral perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Thomas J; Whittaker, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Published in 2001, The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography (UNTB) emphasizes the importance of stochastic processes in ecological community structure, and has challenged the traditional niche-based view of ecology. While neutral models have since been applied to a broad range of ecological and macroecological phenomena, the majority of research relating to neutral theory has focused exclusively on the species abundance distribution (SAD). Here, we synthesize the large body of work on neutral theory in the context of the species abundance distribution, with a particular focus on integrating ideas from neutral theory with traditional niche theory. First, we summarize the basic tenets of neutral theory; both in general and in the context of SADs. Second, we explore the issues associated with neutral theory and the SAD, such as complications with fitting and model comparison, the underlying assumptions of neutral models, and the difficultly of linking pattern to process. Third, we highlight the advances in understanding of SADs that have resulted from neutral theory and models. Finally, we focus consideration on recent developments aimed at unifying neutral- and niche-based approaches to ecology, with a particular emphasis on what this means for SAD theory, embracing, for instance, ideas of emergent neutrality and stochastic niche theory. We put forward the argument that the prospect of the unification of niche and neutral perspectives represents one of the most promising future avenues of neutral theory research. PMID:25360266

  3. Managing climate change refugia for climate adaptation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morelli, Toni; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change.

  4. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of refugia has long been studied from theoretical and paleontological perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change ref...

  5. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Dulen, Deanna M.; Ebersole, Joseph L.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Millar, Constance I.; Maher, Sean P.; Monahan, William B.; Nydick, Koren R.; Redmond, Kelly T.; Sawyer, Sarah C.; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change. PMID:27509088

  6. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Toni Lyn; Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Dulen, Deanna M; Ebersole, Joseph L; Jackson, Stephen T; Lundquist, Jessica D; Millar, Constance I; Maher, Sean P; Monahan, William B; Nydick, Koren R; Redmond, Kelly T; Sawyer, Sarah C; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change.

  7. Passive transfer of modest titers of potent and broadly neutralizing anti-HIV monoclonal antibodies block SHIV infection in macaques

    PubMed Central

    Shingai, Masashi; Donau, Olivia K.; Plishka, Ronald J.; Buckler-White, Alicia; Mascola, John R.; Nabel, Gary J.; Nason, Martha C.; Montefiori, David; Moldt, Brian; Poignard, Pascal; Diskin, Ron; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Eckhaus, Michael A.; Klein, Florian; Mouquet, Hugo; Cetrulo Lorenzi, Julio Cesar; Gazumyan, Anna; Burton, Dennis R.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely appreciated that effective human vaccines directed against viral pathogens elicit neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). The passive transfer of anti–HIV-1 NAbs conferring sterilizing immunity to macaques has been used to determine the plasma neutralization titers, which must be present at the time of exposure, to prevent acquisition of SIV/HIV chimeric virus (SHIV) infections. We administered five recently isolated potent and broadly acting anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to rhesus macaques and challenged them intrarectally 24 h later with either of two different R5-tropic SHIVs. By combining the results obtained from 60 challenged animals, we determined that the protective neutralization titer in plasma preventing virus infection in 50% of the exposed monkeys was relatively modest (∼1:100) and potentially achievable by vaccination. PMID:25155019

  8. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield

    PubMed Central

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V.; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33–43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between −25 and −2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha−1year−1 (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971–2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions. PMID:27432777

  9. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V.; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33-43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between -25 and -2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha-1year-1 (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971-2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions.

  10. Collinear laser spectroscopy of francium using online rubidium vapor neutralization and amplitude modulated lasers.

    PubMed

    Sell, J F; Gulyuz, K; Sprouse, G D

    2009-12-01

    Performing collinear laser spectroscopy on low intensity radioactive beams requires sensitive detection techniques. We explain our apparatus to detect atomic resonances in neutralized (208-210)Fr ion beams at beam energies of 5 keV and intensities of 10(5) s(-1). Efficient neutralization (> or = 80%) is accomplished by passing the beam through a dense Rb vapor. Increased detection efficiency is achieved by amplitude modulating the exciting laser to decrease the scattered light background, allowing fluorescence detection only when the laser is near its minimum in the modulation cycle. Using this technique in a collinear geometry we achieve a background reduction by a factor of 180 and a signal-to-noise increase of 2.2, with the lifetime of the atomic state playing a role in the efficiency of this process. Such laser modulation will also produce sidebands on the atomic spectra which we illustrate.

  11. Collinear laser spectroscopy of francium using online rubidium vapor neutralization and amplitude modulated lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, J. F.; Gulyuz, K.; Sprouse, G. D.

    2009-12-01

    Performing collinear laser spectroscopy on low intensity radioactive beams requires sensitive detection techniques. We explain our apparatus to detect atomic resonances in neutralized F208-210r ion beams at beam energies of 5 keV and intensities of 105 s-1. Efficient neutralization (≥80%) is accomplished by passing the beam through a dense Rb vapor. Increased detection efficiency is achieved by amplitude modulating the exciting laser to decrease the scattered light background, allowing fluorescence detection only when the laser is near its minimum in the modulation cycle. Using this technique in a collinear geometry we achieve a background reduction by a factor of 180 and a signal-to-noise increase of 2.2, with the lifetime of the atomic state playing a role in the efficiency of this process. Such laser modulation will also produce sidebands on the atomic spectra which we illustrate.

  12. Collinear laser spectroscopy of francium using online rubidium vapor neutralization and amplitude modulated lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Sell, J. F.; Gulyuz, K.; Sprouse, G. D.

    2009-12-15

    Performing collinear laser spectroscopy on low intensity radioactive beams requires sensitive detection techniques. We explain our apparatus to detect atomic resonances in neutralized {sup 208-210}Fr ion beams at beam energies of 5 keV and intensities of 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}. Efficient neutralization ({>=}80%) is accomplished by passing the beam through a dense Rb vapor. Increased detection efficiency is achieved by amplitude modulating the exciting laser to decrease the scattered light background, allowing fluorescence detection only when the laser is near its minimum in the modulation cycle. Using this technique in a collinear geometry we achieve a background reduction by a factor of 180 and a signal-to-noise increase of 2.2, with the lifetime of the atomic state playing a role in the efficiency of this process. Such laser modulation will also produce sidebands on the atomic spectra which we illustrate.

  13. Climate change and related activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The greenhouse'' process regulates the Earth's climate at a level to sustain life, making our planet unique. The term climate'' refers not only to temperature, but also to the entire system of precipitation, cloudiness, and winds, as well as to the distribution of these features in space and time. The production and consumption of energy contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is the focus of other environmental concerns as well. Yet the use of energy contributes to worldwide economic growth and development. It we are to achieve environmentally sound economic growth, we must develop and deploy energy technologies that contribute to global stewardship. Global climate change is a significant issue for the US Department of Energy (DOE) because greenhouse gases are emitted from the production and use of fossil fuels. Energy use and production now contribute more than half of the total manmade emissions on a global basis. DOE carries out an aggressive scientific research program to address some of the key uncertainties associated with the climate change issue. Of course, research simply to study the science of global climate change is not enough. At the heart of any regime of cost-effective actions to address the possibility of global climate change will be a panoply of new technologies -- technologies both to provide the services we demand and to use energy more efficiently than in the past. These, too, are important areas of responsibility for DOE. This report is a brief description of DOE's activities in scientific research, technology development, policy studies, and international cooperation that are directly related to or have some bearing on the issue of global climate change.

  14. Climate change and related activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The ``greenhouse`` process regulates the Earth`s climate at a level to sustain life, making our planet unique. The term ``climate`` refers not only to temperature, but also to the entire system of precipitation, cloudiness, and winds, as well as to the distribution of these features in space and time. The production and consumption of energy contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is the focus of other environmental concerns as well. Yet the use of energy contributes to worldwide economic growth and development. It we are to achieve environmentally sound economic growth, we must develop and deploy energy technologies that contribute to global stewardship. Global climate change is a significant issue for the US Department of Energy (DOE) because greenhouse gases are emitted from the production and use of fossil fuels. Energy use and production now contribute more than half of the total manmade emissions on a global basis. DOE carries out an aggressive scientific research program to address some of the key uncertainties associated with the climate change issue. Of course, research simply to study the science of global climate change is not enough. At the heart of any regime of cost-effective actions to address the possibility of global climate change will be a panoply of new technologies -- technologies both to provide the services we demand and to use energy more efficiently than in the past. These, too, are important areas of responsibility for DOE. This report is a brief description of DOE`s activities in scientific research, technology development, policy studies, and international cooperation that are directly related to or have some bearing on the issue of global climate change.

  15. Climate Change Indicators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents information, charts and graphs showing measured climate changes across 40 indicators related to greenhouse gases, weather and climate, oceans, snow and ice, heath and society, and ecosystems.

  16. 29 CFR 1207.3 - Compensation of neutrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation of neutrals. 1207.3 Section 1207.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD ESTABLISHMENT OF SPECIAL ADJUSTMENT BOARDS § 1207.3 Compensation of neutrals. (a) Neutrals appointed by the National Mediation Board. All...

  17. 29 CFR 1207.3 - Compensation of neutrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation of neutrals. 1207.3 Section 1207.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD ESTABLISHMENT OF SPECIAL ADJUSTMENT BOARDS § 1207.3 Compensation of neutrals. (a) Neutrals appointed by the National Mediation Board. All...

  18. Influence of Neutralization Attitude in Academic Dishonesty among Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Chan Ling; Othman, Jamilah; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Omar, Zoharah

    2014-01-01

    Previous literature had proposed that individuals tend to use neutralization to motivate their decisions to engage in deviant behaviours. This indicated that even though students have strong motivations not to cheat may do so anyway after employing neutralizing strategies. Hence, this study attempted to examine the role of neutralization in…

  19. Fiscal Neutrality and Local Choice in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, William L.

    1991-01-01

    Extends Feldstein's notion of wealth neutrality to embrace fiscal neutrality, using a representative consumer context. Employs an "ideal" demand system to model school district expenditures in a general equilibrium framework. Rejects constant price and income elasticity demand models. Supports the fiscally neutral elasticity model…

  20. Modeling of neutral entrainment in an FRC thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Brackbill, Jeremiah; Gimelshein, Natalia; Gimelshein, Sergey; Cambier, Jean-Luc; Ketsdever, Andrew

    2012-11-27

    Neutral entrainment in a field reversed configuration thruster is modeled numerically with an implicit PIC code extended to include thermal and chemical interactions between plasma and neutral particles. The contribution of charge exchange and electron impact ionization reactions is analyzed, and the sensitivity of the entrainment efficiency to the plasmoid translation velocity and neutral density is evaluated.