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Sample records for achieve common goals

  1. Achieving Common Expectations for Overall Goals amid Diversity among Cooperative Extension Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Barbara

    As a part of the initial phase of a strategic planning effort for the development of Florida's 1988 through 1991 long-range cooperative extension program, an effort was initiated to achieve common expectations for overall organizational mission and purpose among diverse cooperative extension faculty. The unification effort included the following…

  2. Mathematics: Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document defines what are considered to be the essentials in a strong mathematics program for the state of Oregon for grades K-12. The common curriculum goals are organized into nine content strands: (1) number and numeration; (2) appropriate computational skills; (3) problem solving; (4) geometry and visualization skills; (5) measurement;…

  3. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  4. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  5. Dissociable medial frontal negativities from a common monitoring system for self- and externally caused failure of goal achievement.

    PubMed

    Gentsch, Antje; Ullsperger, Peter; Ullsperger, Markus

    2009-10-01

    Goal-directed behavior requires the ability to adapt performance strategies based on the attribution of unintended outcomes to internal or external causes. Using event-related brain potentials, the present research compared neural activity following self-generated errors induced by a flanker task and following externally generated errors induced by supposed "technical malfunctions". Errors and malfunctions were associated with temporally dissociable ERP components, the short-latency error-related negativity (ERN) and the longer-latency feedback-related negativity (FRN), respectively. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to compare the underlying neural components of ERN and FRN. ICA results revealed that the FRN is attributable to the neural sources of the ERN, suggesting that the two components share a source network. Furthermore, single-trial amplitudes of ERN and FRN were specifically related to the implementation of error correction and malfunction compensation: the stronger the failure signal, the more efficient was remedial behavior. Together the results demonstrate that internally and externally generated unintended action outcomes engage a common monitoring mechanism that manifests in two temporally distinct ERP components and induces similar compensatory processes. The temporal dissociation of the ERP components might provide the basis for further processes of outcome attribution underlying action selection and changes in performance strategy. In line with recent neuroimaging findings, ERN and FRN appear to reflect the use of different sources of information about action outcome to update action value. PMID:19486945

  6. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  7. Self-Beliefs and Student Goal Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Caroline J.; Derrer-Rendall, Nicola M.

    2011-01-01

    Two preliminary studies are presented investigating the self-beliefs that may affect goal achievement in a student population. In Study 1, goal achievement on an abstract task, where goals are externally set by others, is considered in relation to students' levels of optimism. In Study 2, goal achievement on academic performance, where goals are…

  8. The Role of Goal Attainment Expectancies in Achievement Goal Pursuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Hulleman, Chris S.

    2013-01-01

    The current studies introduce the goal attainment expectancy construct to achievement goal theory. Three studies, 2 in college classrooms and the other using a novel math task in the laboratory, converged on the same finding. For mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals alike, the harder the goal appeared to attain, the less likely…

  9. Theme: Achieving 2020 Goal 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue focuses on the Reinventing Agricultural Education 2020 Project's goal of partnerships and strategic alliances, which serves as a catalyst to ensure that the other goals are accomplished and sustained. Eleven articles discuss establishing partnerships at local, state, and national levels and balancing old alliances with new connections.…

  10. Examining the Stability of Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Edwards, Ordene

    2009-01-01

    We examined stability and change in students' achievement goal orientations over varying tasks. Two naturalistic longitudinal studies were conducted in undergraduate courses. Students completed self-reports designed to measure their achievement goals. Achievement goals were measured four times: prior to two assignments and two exams. Four…

  11. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  12. A 2 X 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Elliot, A J; McGregor, H A

    2001-03-01

    A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework comprising mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals was proposed and tested in 3 studies. Factor analytic results supported the independence of the 4 achievement goal constructs. The goals were examined with respect to several important antecedents (e.g., motive dispositions, implicit theories, socialization histories) and consequences (e.g., anticipatory test anxiety, exam performance, health center visits), with particular attention allocated to the new mastery-avoidance goal construct. The results revealed distinct empirical profiles for each of the achievement goals; the pattern for mastery-avoidance goals was, as anticipated, more negative than that for mastery-approach goals and more positive than that for performance-avoidance goals. Implications of the present work for future theoretical development in the achievement goal literature are discussed. PMID:11300582

  13. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  14. Type A Performance Standards and Goal Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Clay H.

    Achievement striving is a central dimension of the Type A behavior pattern. To investigate the relationship between Type A behavior pattern, personal performance goals, and goal achievement on two general information tests, 126 undergraduates participated in a two-phase study. First, behavior patterns were assessed using the Framingham Type A…

  15. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  16. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  17. The Common Goals of Michigan Education, Tentative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    The common goals of Michigan education are grouped into four areas. The goals in the first area, citizenship and morality, deal with morality, citizenship and social responsibility, and rights and responsibilities of students. The goals in the second area, democracy and equal opportunity, deal with equality of educational opportunity, education of…

  18. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  19. A 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, a 3 x 2 model of achievement goals is proposed and tested. The model is rooted in the definition and valence components of competence, and encompasses 6 goal constructs: task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, and other-avoidance. The results from 2 studies provided strong support for…

  20. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Instrumental Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2008-01-01

    The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers…

  1. Achievement Goals in a Presentation Task: Performance Expectancy, Achievement Goals, State Anxiety, and Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Ayumi; Takehara, Takuma; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test the linkages between achievement goals to task performance, as mediated by state anxiety arousal. Performance expectancy was also examined as antecedents of achievement goals. A presentation task in a computer practice class was used as achievement task. Fifty-three undergraduates (37 females and 16 males) were…

  2. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  3. Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace Foundation, The, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This Wallace Perspective paper summarizes key findings of a newly-published book, "Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals: The Secondary Principal's Guide," that argues that school counselors could be much more active players in improving student learning. The book, which bases its conclusions heavily on Wallace's Transforming School…

  4. Achievement Goal Orientations and Identity Formation Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Avi; Flum, Hanoch

    2010-01-01

    The present article points to shared underlying theoretical assumptions and central processes of a prominent academic motivation perspective--achievement goal theory--and recent process perspectives in the identity formation literature, and more specifically, identity formation styles. The review highlights the shared definition of achievement…

  5. Mobile Learning and Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asplund, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Students with different achievement goal orientations have different approaches towards learning and studying. There is a widespread interest to find an easy access into learning spaces for those students who have low motivation with fear of failure and academic withdrawal. Mobile learning offers an easily accessible chance with low threshold to…

  6. Young Children Help Others to Achieve Their Social Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2014-01-01

    From early in development, humans have strong prosocial tendencies. Much research has documented young children's propensity to help others achieve their unfulfilled goals toward physical objects. Yet many of our most common and important goals are social--directed toward other people. Here we demonstrate that children are also inclined, and…

  7. Measuring Achievement Goal Orientations of Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Muthart, Thomas; Khan, Ghous M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To measure the achievement goal orientations of pharmacy students attending a 3-year (accelerated) doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Methods. A 16-item survey based on the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) was administered to first-year (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students at the Appalachian College of Pharmacy (ACP). Students were instructed to indicate to what degree each statement was true for them using a 7-point Likert scale (1=not true of me, 7=very true of me). Results. One hundred twenty of the 155 students (77%) completed the survey. Most students had mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and/or performance-avoidance goal orientations; few had work-avoidance goal orientations. Second-year students and male students had higher work-avoidance mean scores than did P1 students and female students (p<0.05). Conclusion. Pharmacy students were mastery- and performance-oriented learners, and most did not have work-avoidance goal orientations. Male students and P2 students had higher work-avoidance than did female students and P1 students, respectively. More longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24761015

  8. Extending the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework: Development of a Measure of Scientific Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Eric D.; Carter, Alice P.; Lobrano, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    The current research sought to extend the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework by developing and testing the Achievement Goals for Research Scale (AGRS). Participants (N = 317) consisted of graduate students in the life, physical, and behavioral sciences. A principal components analysis (PCA) extracted five components accounting for 72.59% of the…

  9. Advancing Achievement Goal Theory: Using Goal Structures and Goal Orientations to Predict Students' Motivation, Cognition, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how different components of achievement goal theory were related to each other and to students' motivation, cognitive engagement, and achievement in mathematics. Junior high school students (N=525) completed a self-report survey that assessed their perceived classroom goal structures; personal goal…

  10. Motivational Climates, Achievement Goals, and Physical Education Outcomes: A Longitudinal Test of Achievement Goal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvari, Hallgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2011-01-01

    The present research tested the longitudinal relations over a school-year between motivational climates, achievement goals, and five physical education outcomes, namely intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, positive attitude, exertion, and attendance in physical education. The results showed that students' mastery goals measured early in the…

  11. Teacher Goal Endorsement, Student Achievement Goals and Student Achievement in Mathematics: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deevers, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among teacher practices, student motivation and student achievement on standardized mathematics assessments using an Achievement Goal Theory framework. From 2006 through 2009, 800 public school students participated in mathematics assessments and completed surveys measuring perceptions of teacher practices and…

  12. Achieving the Goals. Goal 4: Teacher Education and Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Goal 4 of the National Education Goals envisions that teachers will have access to programs for the continued improvement of their professional skills. This book examines what federal agencies are doing to enhance teacher preparation, presents information on career-long development, and offers program descriptions and contact names. The first…

  13. Current Issues in Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pintrich, Paul R.; Conley, AnneMarie M.; Kempler, Toni M.

    2003-01-01

    This article focuses on three general areas of research on achievement goal theory, including the definition and role of achievement goals, the role of contextual goals and factors, and the measurement and induction of goals. Issues regarding the definition of achievement goals include the generality of the approach/avoid dimension and the…

  14. Individual and social dimensions of Filipino students' achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Allan B I

    2008-10-01

    Achievement goal theory assumes that self-instrumental (mastery) achievement goals are associated with academic achievement, whereas social-instrumental (performance) goals are not. However, research on Asian students shows that both mastery and performance-approach goals are positively related to achievement; possibly because achievement motivation in Asian cultures is socially oriented and not individually oriented. The current study explored the structure of the social and individual achievement motivation orientations, and how these achievement orientations and achievement goals were related to achievement of Filipino university students. The results showed two dimensions of social-oriented achievement motivations-parent-oriented and teacher-oriented motivations-and two dimensions of individual-oriented achievement motivations-personal performance standards and personal goal choice. However, these achievement motivation orientations were not associated with achievement. Instead mastery and performance-approach goals were both positively associated with academic achievement, personal performance standards, and parent-oriented achievement motivation. PMID:22022793

  15. Temperament, Personality and Achievement Goals among Chinese Adolescent Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Li-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Temperament and personality have been presumed to affect achievement goals based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. This research investigated the relationships of temperament dimensions and the Big Five personality traits to achievement goals based on the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework among 775 Chinese adolescent students.…

  16. Achieving Learning Goals through Play. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widerstrom, Anne H.

    2004-01-01

    Play is more than just fun; it is a powerful teaching tool that helps young children learn. With this practical, activity-filled guide, teachers will have ready-to-use strategies for weaving individual learning goals into play throughout the school day. Created for use with children ages 2 to 5 who have special needs--but equally effective for…

  17. Ethnicity and Individual Differences in Achievement Goals in Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Barbara L.

    This study examined the effect of ethnicity on individual differences in achievement goals in a replication of the paradigm used by P. Smiley and C. Dweck (1994) to explore individual differences in achievement goals held by young children. The emphasis was on learning goals, which focus effort on mastering new tasks, and performance goals, which…

  18. Reliance on luck: identifying which achievement goals elicit superstitious behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamerman, Eric J; Morewedge, Carey K

    2015-03-01

    People often resort to superstitious behavior to facilitate goal achievement. We examined whether the specific type of achievement goal pursued influences the propensity to engage in superstitious behavior. Across six studies, we found that performance goals were more likely than learning goals to elicit superstitious behavior. Participants were more likely to engage in superstitious behavior at high than at low levels of chronic performance orientation, but superstitious behavior was not influenced by chronic learning orientation (Studies 1 and 2). Similarly, participants exhibited stronger preferences for lucky items when primed to pursue performance goals rather than learning goals (Studies 3 and 4). As uncertainty of goal achievement increased, superstitious behavior increased when participants pursued performance goals but not learning goals (Study 5). Finally, assignment to use a lucky (vs. unlucky) item resulted in greater confidence of achieving performance goals but not learning goals (Study 6). PMID:25617118

  19. Goal Orientations and Adolescent Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Tran Dang

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is a fundamental educational challenge for adolescents in the United States, and particularly for immigrant youth. The motivation to achieve, especially in mathematics, declines during adolescence. Most of what is known about motivation is based on studies of predominately middle-class White students; yet the influx of immigrants over…

  20. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  1. Classroom Goal Structures, Social Achievement Goals, and Adjustment in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Wang, Cen

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the mediating role of social achievement goals in the relation between classroom goal structures and academic engagement and social adjustment among 373 middle school students (52.8% female). Students' perceptions of classroom goal structures were measured in Fall; social achievement goals and academic and social…

  2. Do Performance Goals Promote Learning? A Pattern Analysis of Singapore Students' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Paris, Scott G.; Hogan, David; Luo, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how achievement goals are combined to affect students' learning. We used a multiple goals perspective, based on mastery (i.e., mastery approach) and performance (including both approach and avoidance components) goals, to examine the achievement goal patterns of 1697 Singapore Secondary 3 students in their math study. Four…

  3. Goal Self-Concordance Moderates the Relationship between Achievement Goals and Indicators of Academic Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreau, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the good or bad outcomes associated with mastery- and performance-approach achievement goals depend on the extent to which these goals are pursued for self-concordant reasons. A sample of 220 undergraduate students completed measures of achievement goals, goal self-concordance, academic satisfaction, and academic…

  4. Goal Structures: The Role of Teachers' Achievement Goals and Theories of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Cassady, Jerrell

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how teachers' achievement goals for teaching and implicit theories of their students' intelligence are associated with the goal structures that they create in their classrooms. Teachers ("N" = 209) reported their achievement goals for teaching (mastery, performance-approach goals, and…

  5. Achievement Goal Pursuit: Are Different Goals Activated and More Beneficial in Different Types of Academic Situations?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Kenneth E.; Finney, Sara J.; Davis, Susan L.; Owens, Kara M.

    This study was intended to evaluate whether a recently proposed 2 x 2 achievement goal model could be replicated, and it aimed to evaluate whether students were more advantaged by pursuing one type of goal or a combination of goals. The achievement goals and graded performance of 1,213 undergraduates were studied at 3 time points during a semester…

  6. Students' Goal Achievement: Exploring Individual and Situational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrer-Rendall, Nicola; Wesson, Caroline; Anderson, Lindsey; Bould, Emma

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports a preliminary investigation of the individual and situational factors affecting goal achievement in a psychology student population. The impact of normative information on goal achievement is considered in relation to goal commitment, optimism, gender and academic setting. Method: Psychology students (n=121) from…

  7. Validation of a Chinese Achievement Goal Orientation Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kit-Ling; Lee, John C. K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The mixed findings of previous studies on the nature and effects of performance goals have led to a call for re-examination of the dichotomous framework of achievement goal orientation theory. While the call for a revised achievement goal orientation theory has received considerable discussion in Western studies, it is not clear…

  8. Goal Setting and Student Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Aleidine J.; Theiler, Janine M.; Wu, Chaorong

    2012-01-01

    The connection between goals and student motivation has been widely investigated in the research literature, but the relationship of goal setting and student achievement at the classroom level has remained largely unexplored. This article reports the findings of a 5-year quasi-experimental study examining goal setting and student achievement in…

  9. Revision of Achievement Goal Theory: Necessary and Illuminating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Pintrich, Paul R.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Thrash, Todd M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses three reasons to revise achievement goal theory: the importance of separating approach from avoidance strivings, the positive potential of performance-approach goals, and identification of the ways performance-approach goals can combine with mastery approach goals to promote optimal motivation. Reviews theory and research to substantiate…

  10. Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease: Common pathways, common goals.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Dean; Blumenthal, Thomas; Carrillo, Maria; DiPaolo, Gilbert; Esralew, Lucille; Gardiner, Katheleen; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Iqbal, Khalid; Krams, Michael; Lemere, Cynthia; Lott, Ira; Mobley, William; Ness, Seth; Nixon, Ralph; Potter, Huntington; Reeves, Roger; Sabbagh, Marwan; Silverman, Wayne; Tycko, Benjamin; Whitten, Michelle; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    In the United States, estimates indicate there are between 250,000 and 400,000 individuals with Down syndrome (DS), and nearly all will develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology starting in their 30s. With the current lifespan being 55 to 60 years, approximately 70% will develop dementia, and if their life expectancy continues to increase, the number of individuals developing AD will concomitantly increase. Pathogenic and mechanistic links between DS and Alzheimer's prompted the Alzheimer's Association to partner with the Linda Crnic Institute for Down Syndrome and the Global Down Syndrome Foundation at a workshop of AD and DS experts to discuss similarities and differences, challenges, and future directions for this field. The workshop articulated a set of research priorities: (1) target identification and drug development, (2) clinical and pathological staging, (3) cognitive assessment and clinical trials, and (4) partnerships and collaborations with the ultimate goal to deliver effective disease-modifying treatments. PMID:25510383

  11. Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease: Common pathways, common goals

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Dean; Blumenthal, Thomas; Carrillo, Maria; DiPaolo, Gilbert; Esralew, Lucille; Gardiner, Katheleen; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Iqbal, Khalid; Krams, Michael; Lemere, Cynthia; Lott, Ira; Mobley, William; Ness, Seth; Nixon, Ralph; Potter, Huntington; Reeves, Roger; Sabbagh, Marwan; Silverman, Wayne; Tycko, Benjamin; Whitten, Michelle; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, estimates indicate there are between 250,000 and 400,000 individuals with Down syndrome (DS), and nearly all will develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology starting in their 30s. With the current lifespan being 55 to 60 years, approximately 70% will develop dementia, and if their life expectancy continues to increase, the number of individuals developing AD will concomitantly increase. Pathogenic and mechanistic links between DS and Alzheimer's prompted the Alzheimer's Association to partner with the Linda Crnic Institute for Down Syndrome and the Global Down Syndrome Foundation at a workshop of AD and DS experts to discuss similarities and differences, challenges, and future directions for this field. The workshop articulated a set of research priorities: (1) target identification and drug development, (2) clinical and pathological staging, (3) cognitive assessment and clinical trials, and (4) partnerships and collaborations with the ultimate goal to deliver effective disease-modifying treatments. PMID:25510383

  12. The 2 × 2 Standpoints Model of Achievement Goals.

    PubMed

    Korn, Rachel M; Elliot, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, we proposed and tested a 2 × 2 standpoints model of achievement goals grounded in the development-demonstration and approach-avoidance distinctions. Three empirical studies are presented. Study 1 provided evidence supporting the structure and psychometric properties of a newly developed measure of the goals of the 2 × 2 standpoints model. Study 2 documented the predictive utility of these goal constructs for intrinsic motivation: development-approach and development-avoidance goals were positive predictors, and demonstration-avoidance goals were a negative predictor of intrinsic motivation. Study 3 documented the predictive utility of these goal constructs for performance attainment: Demonstration-approach goals were a positive predictor and demonstration-avoidance goals were a negative predictor of exam performance. The conceptual and empirical contributions of the present research were discussed within the broader context of existing achievement goal theory and research. PMID:27242641

  13. The 2 × 2 Standpoints Model of Achievement Goals

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Rachel M.; Elliot, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, we proposed and tested a 2 × 2 standpoints model of achievement goals grounded in the development-demonstration and approach-avoidance distinctions. Three empirical studies are presented. Study 1 provided evidence supporting the structure and psychometric properties of a newly developed measure of the goals of the 2 × 2 standpoints model. Study 2 documented the predictive utility of these goal constructs for intrinsic motivation: development-approach and development-avoidance goals were positive predictors, and demonstration-avoidance goals were a negative predictor of intrinsic motivation. Study 3 documented the predictive utility of these goal constructs for performance attainment: Demonstration-approach goals were a positive predictor and demonstration-avoidance goals were a negative predictor of exam performance. The conceptual and empirical contributions of the present research were discussed within the broader context of existing achievement goal theory and research. PMID:27242641

  14. Self-Efficacy and Achievement Goals as Motivational Links between Perceived Contexts and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yi; Song, Juyeon; Lee, Minhye; Bong, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to investigate (a) how the subjectively perceived achievement goals of significant others would predict the academic self-efficacy and achievement goals of Korean adolescents and (b) how those self-efficacy and achievement goals in turn predicted their achievement. We also compared these predictive…

  15. Dominant Achievement Goals across Tracks in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheltinga, Peter A. M.; Kuyper, Hans; Timmermans, Anneke C.; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant achievement goals (DAGs) of 7,008 students in the third grade of Dutch secondary education (US grade 9) were investigated, based on Elliot & McGregors' 2 × 2 framework (2001), in relation to track-level and motivational variables. We found the mastery-approach goal and the performance-approach goal, generally considered adaptive,…

  16. Assessing Goal Intent and Achievement of University Learning Community Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer-Lachs, Carole F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the goal intent and achievement of university students, during the Fall 2011 semester, at Blue Wave University, a high research activity public institution in the southeast United States. This study merged theories of motivation to measure goal setting and goal attainment to examine if students who chose to…

  17. Task Values, Achievement Goals, and Interest: An Integrative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulleman, Chris S.; Durik, Amanda M.; Schweigert, Shaun B.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2008-01-01

    The research presented in this article integrates 3 theoretical perspectives in the field of motivation: expectancy-value, achievement goals, and interest. The authors examined the antecedents (initial interest, achievement goals) and consequences (interest, performance) of task value judgments in 2 learning contexts: a college classroom and a…

  18. Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was assessed as…

  19. A Model of Statistics Performance Based on Achievement Goal Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandalos, Deborah L.; Finney, Sara J.; Geske, Jenenne A.

    2003-01-01

    Tests a model of statistics performance based on achievement goal theory. Both learning and performance goals affected achievement indirectly through study strategies, self-efficacy, and test anxiety. Implications of these findings for teaching and learning statistics are discussed. (Contains 47 references, 3 tables, 3 figures, and 1 appendix.)…

  20. Did Tanzania Achieve the Second Millennium Development Goal? Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoti, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Development Goal "Achieve universal primary education", the challenges faced, along with the way forward towards achieving the fourth Sustainable Development Goal "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all". Statistics show that Tanzania has made very promising steps…

  1. Age-Related Differences in Achievement Goal Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bong, Mimi

    2009-01-01

    Validity of the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework for school-aged children and adolescents was examined, using self-report responses from 1,196 Korean elementary and middle school students. Confirmatory factor analysis models hypothesizing 4 distinct achievement goal factors demonstrated the best fit in all age groups. Nevertheless, achievement…

  2. Structure and Relationships of University Instructors’ Achievement Goals

    PubMed Central

    Daumiller, Martin; Grassinger, Robert; Dickhäuser, Oliver; Dresel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the achievement goals of university instructors, particularly the structure of such goals, and their relationship to biographic characteristics, other aspects of instructors’ motivation, and teaching quality. Two hundred and fifty-one university instructors (184 without Ph.D., 97 with Ph.D., thereof 51 full professors; 146 males, 92 females) answered a questionnaire measuring achievement goals, self-efficacy, and enthusiasm in altogether 392 courses. Teaching quality was assessed using reports from 9,241 students who were attending these courses. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed mastery, performance approach, performance avoidance, work avoidance, and relational goals as being distinguishable from each other. Distinct relationships were found between different instructors’ achievement goals, and gender, age, and career status as well as self-efficacy and enthusiasm. Hierarchical linear models suggested positive associations of instructors’ mastery goals with teaching quality, while negative associations were indicated for performance avoidance goals and work avoidance goals in relation to teaching quality. Exploratory analyses conducted due to a quite large correlation between performance approach and performance avoidance goals indicated that for university instructors, differentiating performance goals into appearance and normative components might also be adequate. All in all, the study highlights the auspiciousness of the theoretical concept of university instructors’ achievement goals and contributes to making it comprehensively accessible. PMID:27047411

  3. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  4. Achievement Goal Theory: The Relationship of Accounting Students' Goal Orientations with Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, Richard B.; Schleifer, Lydia L. F.; McMillan, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Students' goal orientations are examined using two major frameworks for learning: achievement goal theory (AGT) and students' approaches to learning (SAL). Previous student success research is extended, by examining goal constructs from the AGT framework to determine if they help explain the learning process in accounting. Data were gathered using…

  5. Goal Setting in Principal Evaluation: Goal Quality and Predictors of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on goal-setting theory to investigate the goals set by experienced principals during their performance evaluations. While most goals were about teaching and learning, they tended to be vaguely expressed and only partially achieved. Five predictors (commitment, challenge, learning, effort, and support) explained a significant…

  6. Social Perceptions of Achieving Students and Achievement Goals of Students in Malaysia and the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, Allan B. I.; Ismail, Rosnah

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the hypothesis that country differences in achievement goals of students are associated with differences in how students with different achievement goals are perceived by students in different cultures. University students from Malaysia and the Philippine were asked to complete questionnaires on their achievement goals and…

  7. Individual Differences in Achievement Goals: A Longitudinal Study of Cognitive, Emotional, and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Haynes, Tara L.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Newall, Nancy E.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Within achievement goal theory debate remains regarding the adaptiveness of certain combinations of goals. Assuming a multiple-goals perspective, we used cluster analysis to classify 1002 undergraduate students according to their mastery and performance-approach goals. Four clusters emerged, representing different goal combinations: high…

  8. Academic resilience in education: the role of achievement goal orientations

    PubMed Central

    JOWKAR, BAHRAM; KOJURI, JAVAD; KOHOULAT, NAEIMEH; HAYAT, ALI ASGHAR

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the past 2 decades, research findings established achievement goal theory as a powerful framework for conceptualizing difference in the quality of student's engagement, persistence on task, and academic resilience. So the present study examined the relationship between achievement goal orientations and academic resilience. Method: Participants were 606 students (307 girls and 297 boys) selected from Shiraz high schools. They completed the Achievement Goals Questionnaire and Youth development Module Scale (RYDM). To analyze the data, the relationships between variables were examined, using Pearson product–moment correlations. Also simulanteous multiple regression was performed to investigate the prediction of academic resilience by achievement goal orientations. To examine the reliability and the validity of measures Cronbach alpha coefficient and factor analysis method were applied, respectively. Results: Simultaneous multiple regression of achievement goal orientations on academic resilience showed that "mastery-approach" was a significant positive predictor of the "home care/high" and "peer care" subscales. Also, "performance-approach" was a significant, positive predictor of "home care/high", and "school/community meaningful" was predicted by "performance-avoidance" positively. Conclusion: According to the findings, it seems that achievement goal orientation has a critical role in students’ academic achievement. Implications of the results are discussed in more details.  PMID:25512916

  9. Socially oriented achievement goals of Chinese university students in Singapore: structure and relationships with achievement motives, goals and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weining C; Wong, Kaishi

    2008-10-01

    Contemporary literature on culture, self, and motivations (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) suggests that in collectivistic cultures, individual achievement is interdependent of one's social others. We proposed that this cultural characteristic could be exemplified in the achievement goal orientation and tested the notion with university students in a collectivistic community-Singapore. A socially oriented achievement goal construct was developed by taking into consideration the significant social others in the students' lives. A measuring instrument was established with a sample of Singaporean Chinese university students (N = 196; 144 females and 52 males); its relationships to achievement motives, goals, and consequences were examined. Although the socially oriented achievement goal items were originally constructed from four categories of social others, confirmatory factor analysis suggested a unifactor structure. Results showed that the socially oriented goal was related positively with students' performance goal, mastery goal, and competitive motive; it bore no relationship to mastery motive, work ethic, and interest in learning; and it predicted negatively future engagement. After the effects of mastery and performance goals were controlled for, the socially oriented goal did not predict test anxiety. PMID:22022792

  10. The Role of Goal Orientations for Adolescent Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Tran D.; Conley, AnneMarie M.; Duncan, Greg J.; Domina, Thurston

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the association between personal goal orientations and mathematics achievement within the trichotomous goal framework. Participants comprised approximately 2000 seventh and eighth grade White, Hispanic, and Vietnamese students in a low-income urban school district in California. Regression analysis with classroom fixed effects…

  11. Perfectionism and Achievement Goal Orientations in Adolescent School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damian, Lavinia E.; Stoeber, Joachim; Negru, Oana; Baban, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Perfectionism has been shown to predict individual differences in achievement goal orientations in university students, but research on perfectionism and goal orientations in school students is still very limited. Investigating 584 adolescent school students in a cross-sectional correlational design, the present study examined how self-oriented…

  12. Link Data to Learning Goals: Common District Assessments Connect Teaching Effectiveness to Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psencik, Kay; Baldwin, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, district leaders of Douglas County Public Schools, Douglasville, Georgia, launched an ambitious initiative to ensure that teachers set goals that focus on increasing their effectiveness and show student growth. To achieve this goal, the district leadership team focused on common district assessments to establish common learning…

  13. Using the 2 x 2 Framework of Achievement Goals to Predict Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul; Larkin, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has established how achievement emotions are related to the trichotomous model of achievement goals, and how they predict academic performance. In our study we examine relations using an additional, mastery-avoidance goal, and whether outcome-focused emotions are predicted by mastery as well as performance goals. Results showed that…

  14. The Longitudinal Effects of Achievement Goals and Perceived Control on University Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Stewart, Tara L.; Newall, Nancy E. G.; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2014-01-01

    In the area of achievement motivation, students' beliefs pertaining to achievement goals and perceived control have separately guided a large amount theoretical and empirical research. However, limited research has considered the simultaneous effects of goals and control on achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine primary and…

  15. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  16. Mathematics: Common Curriculum Goals. Curriculum Mapping: End of Eleventh Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document is designed to help school personnel analyze their current curriculum for grades 9, 10, and 11 in terms of the Mathematics Common Curriculum for Oregon. The common curriculum goals are organized into nine content strands: (1) number and numeration; (2) appropriate computational skills; (3) problem solving; (4) geometry and…

  17. Mathematics: Common Curriculum Goals. Curriculum Mapping: End of Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document is designed to help school personnel analyze their current curriculum for grades 4 and 5 in terms of the Mathematics Common Curriculum for Oregon. The common curriculum goals are organized into nine content strands: (1) number and numeration; (2) appropriate computational skills; (3) problem solving; (4) geometry and visualization…

  18. Mathematics: Common Curriculum Goals. Curriculum Mapping: End of Eighth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document is designed to help school personnel analyze their current curriculum for grades 6, 7, and 8 in terms of the Mathematics Common Curriculum for Oregon. The common curriculum goals are organized into nine content strands: (1) number and numeration; (2) appropriate computational skills; (3) problem solving; (4) geometry and…

  19. Mathematics: Common Curriculum Goals. Curriculum Mapping: End of Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document is designed to help school personnel analyze their current curriculum for grades 1, 2, and 3 in terms of the Mathematics Common Curriculum for Oregon. The common curriculum goals are organized into nine content strands: (1) number and numeration; (2) appropriate computational skills; (3) problem solving; (4) geometry and…

  20. Identifying Achievement Goals and Their Relationship to Academic Achievement in Undergraduate Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the achievement goal orientations of first-year with those of third-year undergraduate Australian pharmacy students and to examine the relationship of goal orientations to academic achievement. Methods. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to first-year and third-year students during class time. Students’ grades were obtained from course coordinators. Results. More first-year students adopted performance-approach and mastery-approach goals than did third-year students. Performance-approach goals were positively correlated with academic achievement in the first year. Chinese Australian students scored the highest in adopting performance-approach goals. Vietnamese Australian students adopted mastery-avoidance goals more than other ethnicities. First-year students were more strongly performance approach goal-oriented than third-year students. Conclusion. Adopting performance-approach goals was positively correlated with academic achievement, while adopting avoidance goals was not. Ethnicity has an effect on the adoption of achievement goals and academic achievement. PMID:25258438

  1. Goal achievement and the accountability of consumer-run organizations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louis D; Shepherd, Matthew D; Wituk, Scott A; Meissen, Greg

    2007-01-01

    This study explores how consumer-run organizations (CROs) can maintain independence while meeting the accountability needs of funding agencies. The importance of both funding agency needs for accountability and CRO needs for independence are discussed. A goal-tracking process is proposed as a potential strategy for balancing the potentially conflicting needs of accountability and independence. To demonstrate the utility of the goal tracking approach, this study analyzes goal tracking documentation in 3 years of quarterly reports from 21 CROs (also known as consumer drop-in centers and self-help agencies). Results detail the different goals of CROs. A 68% goal achievement rate suggests general organizational competence. Furthermore, CRO operations appear to be relatively cost-efficient, with an average of $11.51 spent per person per day. The analysis of quarterly reports leads to a discussion of several insights that may be useful to CROs, funding agencies, researchers, and mental health professionals. PMID:17180718

  2. Achieving blood pressure goals: why aren't we?

    PubMed

    Cushman, William C; Basile, Jan

    2006-12-01

    The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) recommends a blood pressure (BP) goal of <140/90 mm Hg in patients with hypertension and <130/80 mm Hg in those with diabetes or chronic kidney disease. Achievement of BP goals is associated with significant benefits in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although evidence suggests these goals are attainable, only about one third of patients are meeting them. There is a significant gap between treatment guideline recommendations and their implementation in clinical practice. Many clinicians appear satisfied with modest BP reductions and do not make the necessary treatment adjustments to achieve BP goals. Patient nonadherence is another important reason for lack of BP control. For the success of clinical trials to be reproduced in clinical practice, clinicians must recognize the importance of treating BP to goal, emphasize to patients the need to adhere to treatments, and provide persistent, goal-targeted therapy. PMID:17170612

  3. University Students' Achievement Goals and Approaches to Learning in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Francisco; Berben, A. B. G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Achievement goals (AG) and students' approaches to learning (SAL) are two research perspectives on student motivation and learning in higher education that have until now been pursued quite independently. Aims: This study sets out: (a) to explore the relationship between the most representative variables of SAL and AG; (b) to identify…

  4. Monitoring Achievement of Educational Governance/Management Policy Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sederberg, Charles H.; Hendrix, Vernon L.

    This paper reports on a field test of a system for monitoring the achievement of selected educational governance/management goals. The study entailed (1) collection of enrollment, revenue, expenditure, and teacher assignment data from a stratified random sample of Minnesota districts for a seven-year period, 1969-70 through 1975-76; (2) reduction…

  5. Knowledge Accessibility, Achievement Goals, and Memory Strategy Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escribe, Christian; Huet, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Background: An important aim of educational psychology is to account for the difficulties in cognitive strategy maintenance. Possible explanations may be found in developmental studies concerning the interdependence of knowledge accessibility and strategy use, and in current achievement goal models which assume that individuals with a learning…

  6. Validity and Reliability of Trichotomous Achievement Goal Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilker, Gokce Erturan; Arslan, Yunus; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2011-01-01

    The Trichotomous Achievement Goal Scale was developed by Agbuga and Xiang (2008) by including selected items from the scales of Duda and Nicholls (1992), Elliot (1999), and Elliot and Church (1997) and adapting them into Turkish. The scale consists of 18 items, and students rated each item on a 7-point Likert scale. To ascertain the validity and…

  7. Implicit Beliefs, Achievement Goals, and Procrastination: A Mediational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Andrew J.; Buro, Karen

    2009-01-01

    As a maladaptive behavioural outcome, procrastination should correlate with beliefs about ability and achievement goals that are themselves relatively maladaptive. Accordingly, procrastination should be predicted by entity as opposed to incremental implicit theories (i.e., viewing attributes such as ability as relatively fixed vs. malleable,…

  8. Modern Psychometrics for Assessing Achievement Goal Orientation: A Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Winne, Philip H.; Edwards, Ordene V.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. Aim: We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the…

  9. Perceived Achievement Goal Structure and College Student Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies examined associations between college students' help seeking and perceptions of their classes' achievement goal structure. Study 1 established that students' help seeking (N = 883 in 6 chemistry classes) could be parsimoniously described by distinct approach (intentions to seek autonomous help from teachers) and avoidance patterns…

  10. A Psychometric Evaluation of Two Achievement Goal Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnellan, M. Brent

    2008-01-01

    The properties of the achievement goal inventories developed by Grant and Dweck (2003) and Elliot and McGregor (2001) were evaluated in two studies with a total of 780 participants. A four-factor specification for the Grant and Dweck inventory did not closely replicate results published in their original report. In contrast, the structure of the…

  11. Literature Review on Achievement Goals and Classroom Goal Structure: Implications for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain

    2010-01-01

    Since its origin in the late 1970s and early 1980s, achievement goal theory has provided significant contributions to the research and practice in education and psychology. The theory has been considered to be an influential framework for conceptualizing student motivation. The term motivation refers to the interaction dynamics of many factors in…

  12. Understanding Student Goal Orientation Tendencies to Predict Student Performance: A 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark Alan

    2013-01-01

    The study tested the 2X2 model of the Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO) theory in a military technical training environment while using the Air Force Officers Qualifying Test's academic aptitude score to control for the differences in the students' academic aptitude. The study method was quantitative and the design was correlational.…

  13. A Mediation Analysis of Achievement Motives, Goals, Learning Strategies, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. Aims: To investigate the relationship between achievement motives,…

  14. Discriminant and Criterion-Related Validity of Achievement Goals in Predicting Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the discriminant and criterion-related validity of achievement goals in predicting academic achievement. Analysis of 151 studies yielded 172 independent samples (N = 52,986) with correlations among achievement goals and between achievement goals and academic achievement. The discriminant validity of achievement goals in the 2-,…

  15. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

  16. Storage Ring Based EDM Search — Achievements and Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrach, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    This paper summarizes the experimental achievements of the JEDI (Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations) Collaboration to exploit and demonstrate the feasibility of charged particle Electric Dipole Moment searches with storage rings at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Jülich. Recent experimental results, design and optimization of critical accelerator elements, progress in beam and spin tracking, and future goals of the R & D program at COSY are presented.

  17. Student Perceptions of Classroom Achievement Goal Structure: Is It Appropriate to Aggregate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Arena C.; Ruzek, Erik A.; Schenke, Katerina; Conley, AnneMarie M.; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Student reports are a common approach to characterizing how students experience their classrooms. We used a recently developed method--multilevel confirmatory factor analysis--to determine whether commonly employed measures of achievement goal structure constructs (mastery and performance) typically verified at the student level can be verified at…

  18. Moving the Achievement Goal Approach One Step Forward: Toward a Systematic Examination of the Autonomous and Controlled Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Elliot, Andrew J.; Soenens, Bart; Mouratidis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    An important recent development in the achievement goal literature is to define achievement goals strictly as aims. In this overview, we argue that this restrictive definition of achievement goals paves the way for a systematic consideration of the autonomous and controlled reasons underlying individuals' achievement goals, a distinction…

  19. Comparing Dichotomous and Trichotomous Approaches to Achievement Goal Theory: An Example Using Motivational Regulations as Outcome Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2007-01-01

    Background: It is commonly assumed that there is conceptual equivalence between the task and ego achievement goals proposed by Nicholl's (1989) dichotomous achievement goal theory (Nicholls, 1989), and the mastery and performance approach goals advanced by Elliot's (1997) trichotomous hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement…

  20. Students' Achievement Values, Goal Orientations, and Interest: Definitions, Development, and Relations to Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigfield, Allan; Cambria, Jenna

    2010-01-01

    Students' achievement task values, goal orientations, and interest are motivation-related constructs which concern students' purposes and reasons for doing achievement activities. The authors review the extant research on these constructs and describe and compare many of the most frequently used measures of these constructs. They also discuss…

  1. 2 x 2 Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Cluster Analysis of Students' Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Leong Yeok; Liu, Woon Chia

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to better understand the adoption of multiple achievement goals at an intra-individual level, and its links to emotional well-being, learning, and academic achievement. Participants were 480 Secondary Two students (aged between 13 and 14 years) from two coeducational government schools. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed the…

  2. Greenidge multi-pollutant project achieves emissions reduction goals

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Performance testing at the Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Project has met or exceeded project goals, indicating that deep emission reduciton sin small, difficult-to-retrofit power plants can be achieved. The technology fitted at the 107 MWe AES Greenridge Unit 4 includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction/selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control (NOxOUT CASCADE) and a Turbosorp circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system for SO{sub 2}, mercury, SO{sub 3} HC and Hf control. 2 figs.

  3. The Relationship among Achievement Motivation Orientations, Achievement Goals, and Academic Achievement and Interest: A Multiple Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.; Patrick, Rosan R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the relationships among achievement motivation orientations and academic achievement and interest and whether achievement goals mediate these relationships. A sample of 503 students aged 14-16 years from 8 secondary schools in two Australia cities responded to a questionnaire package, comprising measures…

  4. Taiwanese Sixth Graders' Achievement Goals and Their Motivation, Strategy Use, and Grades: An Examination of the Multiple Goal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2005-01-01

    Using the trichotomous framework of achievement goals, in the present study I investigated the effects of different combinations of achievement goals on Taiwanese sixth graders' motivation, strategy use, and performance. 242 students completed a self-report survey assessing their achievement goal orientations and a range of outcomes including…

  5. Setting Goals for Achievement in Physical Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghurst, Timothy; Tapps, Tyler; Kensinger, Weston

    2015-01-01

    Goal setting has been shown to improve student performance, motivation, and task completion in academic settings. Although goal setting is utilized by many education professionals to help students set realistic and proper goals, physical educators may not be using goal setting effectively. Without incorporating all three types of goals and…

  6. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised for Thai College Students and Asian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratsameemonthon, L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The four dimensions (2x2) of achievement goal are the latest versión of achievement goal questionnaire to explain reasons or purposes of individuals pursuing their goal. In Thailand the 2x2 framework of achievement goal questionnaire to examine a student's achievement goal in the Thai Language version may not have been sufficiently…

  7. Human regeneration: An achievable goal or a dream?

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sukla

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of regenerative medicine is to replenish cells or tissues or even to restore different body parts that are lost or damaged due to disease, injury and aging. Several avenues have been explored over many decades to address the fascinating problem of regeneration at the cell, tissue and organ levels. Here we discuss some of the primary approaches adopted by researchers in the context of enhancing the regenerating ability of mammals. Natural regeneration can occur in different animal species, and the underlying mechanism is highly relevant to regenerative medicine-based intervention. Significant progress has been achieved in understanding the endogenous regeneration in urodeles and fishes with the hope that they could help to reach our goal of designing future strategies for human regeneration. PMID:26949097

  8. Integrating Turkish Work and Achievement Goals With Schwartz's Human Values.

    PubMed

    Tevrüz, Suna; Turgut, Tülay; Çinko, Murat

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the integration of indigenous values developed in Turkey to Schwartz's universal values. Students (N = 593) from six universities in Istanbul responded the value scale, which consists of 10 etic PVQ items (each item representing one of 10 main Schwartz values) and 23 emic WAG items (representing work-achievement goals). PROXSCAL, a multidimensional scaling method, was used to test whether etic and emic sets of values integrate and form the universal circular structure proposed in Schwartz value theory. The motivational continuum of values as a circular structure was similar to pan-cultural results, but adding another value type to the openness to change pole. While some of the items in this region represent autonomy of thought, remaining items diverge. The principle of conflicting values on opposite poles was not supported in relation to openness to change-conservation dimension. These two poles had similar priorities, contrasting with pan-cultural results, and demonstrating a culture-specific aspect of responding to motivational goals. Insights gained by emic studies will be functional in enriching understanding values, and contributing to the comprehensiveness and universality of Schwartz value theory. PMID:27247656

  9. Oil Independence: Achievable National Goal or Empty Slogan?

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; Leiby, Paul Newsome; Patterson, Philip D; Plotkin, Steven E; Singh, Margaret K

    2007-01-01

    Oil independence has been a goal of U.S. energy policy for the past 30 years yet has never been rigorously defined. A rigorous, measurable definition is proposed: to reduce the costs of oil dependence to less than 1% of GDP in the next 20 to 25 years, with 95% probability. A simulation model incorporating the possibility of future oil supply disruptions and other sources of uncertainty is used to test whether two alternative energy policy strategies, Business as Usual and an interpretation of the strategy proposed by the National Commission on Energy Policy (NCEP), can achieve oil independence for the United States. Business as Usual does not produce oil independence. The augmented NCEP strategy comes close to achieving oil independence for the U.S. economy within the next 20-25 years but more is needed. The success of the strategy appears to be robust regardless of how the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) responds to it. Expected annual savings are estimated to exceed $250 billion per year by 2030.

  10. Hope & Achievement Goals as Predictors of Student Behavior & Achievement in a Rural Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Christopher O.; Winn, Tina D.; Adams, Blakely N.; Shepard, Misty R.; Huddleston, Chelsea D.; Godwin, Kayce L.

    2009-01-01

    Relations among a set of cognitive-motivational variables were examined with the intent being to assess and clarify the nature of their interconnections within a middle school sample. Student perception of hope, which includes perceptions of agency and pathways, was investigated, along with personal achievement goal orientation, as predictors of…

  11. Achieving fruit, juice, and vegetable recipe preparation goals influences consumption by 4th grade students

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Karen W; Watson, Kathy B; Zakeri, Issa; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice H

    2007-01-01

    Background Including children in food preparation activities has long been recommended as a method to encourage children's consumption, but has not been evaluated. Goal setting is also a common component of behavior change programs. This study assessed the impact of attaining goals to prepare fruit-juice or vegetable recipes on student fruit and vegetable consumption as part of a 10-week fruit and vegetable intervention for fourth grade students. Methods At six of the 10 sessions, students (n = 671) selected a fruit-juice or vegetable recipe to prepare at home before the next session. Students returned parent-signed notes reporting their child's goal attainment. Baseline and post consumption were assessed with up to four days of dietary recalls. Analyses included regression models predicting post consumption from the number of fruit-juice or vegetable recipe preparation goals attained, controlling for baseline consumption. Results In general, girls and Hispanic students achieved the most recipe preparation goals. For students with highest baseline fruit-juice consumption, post fruit-juice consumption was higher by about 1.0 serving for those achieving 2 or 3 fruit-juice recipe preparation goals. Post vegetable consumption was highest for students reporting the highest baseline vegetable consumption and who achieved two or three vegetable recipe preparation goals. In general, recipe goal setting was a useful procedure primarily for those with high baseline consumption. Conclusion This is one of the first reports demonstrating that home recipe preparation was correlated with dietary change among children. PMID:17603875

  12. Achievement Goals, Efficacy Beliefs and Coping Strategies in Mathematics: The Roles of Perceived Parent and Teacher Goal Emphases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedel, Jeanne M.; Cortina, Kai S.; Turner, Julianne C.; Midgley, Carol

    2007-01-01

    This study examines children's perceptions of the achievement goals parents and teachers emphasize for them in mathematics, and the relation of these goals to children's personal achievement goals, self-efficacy beliefs, and coping strategies. Results indicated that children's perceptions of both parent and teacher mastery and performance goal…

  13. Predicting Teachers' Achievement Goals for Teaching: The Role of Perceived School Goal Structure and Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, YoonJung; Shim, Sungok Serena

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated contextual and personal factors associated with teachers' achievement goals for teaching. A total of 211 teachers completed an online survey. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that perceived school mastery goal structure and performance goal structure predicted teachers' mastery goals and…

  14. Is genetic rescue of cystinosis an achievable treatment goal?

    PubMed Central

    Cherqui, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease that belongs to the family of lysosomal storage disorders. The defective gene is CTNS, which encodes the lysosomal cystine transporter, cystinosin. Cystine accumulates in all tissues and leads to organ damage including end-stage renal disease. In this review, we outline the studies that support that genetic rescue of cystinosis could be an achievable goal, even though cystinosis is a multi-compartmental disease and cystinosin an intracellular transmembrane protein. Using the mouse model of cystinosis, the Ctns−/− mice, we showed that transplanted hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were able to act as vehicles for the delivery of a functional Ctns gene to the different organs and led to the significant decrease of the tissue cystine content and tissue preservation. Ex vivo gene-modified Ctns−/− HSC transplantation using a lentiviral vector containing CTNS complementary DNA (cDNA) was also successful in the Ctns−/− mice and built the foundations for a clinical trial for autologous HSC transplantation for cystinosis. The capacity of HSCs for rescuing non-hematopoietic disease is controversial, and new insights into regenerative medicine could be gained from unraveling the underlying mechanism of action. PMID:23861466

  15. Profiling Learners' Achievement Goals when Completing Academic Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chi-Hung Clarence

    2009-01-01

    This study explored adult learners' goal profiles in relation to the completion of a compulsory academic essay. Based on learners' scores on items assessing mastery, performance-approach, and work-avoidance goals, cluster analyses produced three distinct categories of learners: performance-focused, work-avoidant, and multiple-goal learners. These…

  16. Regulating Debilitating Emotions in the Context of Performance: Achievement Goal Orientations, Achievement-Elicited Emotions, and Socialization Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Diana F.; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Hill, Nancy E.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical framework that incorporates emotional responses and emotion regulation into achievement goal theory is proposed as an alternative view to understanding the inconsistent pattern of findings linking achievement goal orientations to academic outcomes. In this critical review and synthesis, the relation of achievement goal orientations…

  17. Primary Mathematics Teachers' Goal Orientations and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Throndsen, Inger; Turmo, Are

    2013-01-01

    Primary mathematics teachers' (N = 521) personal goal orientation and instructional practices were examined based on questionnaire responses. The teachers (grades 2 and 3) were oriented towards mastery goals and mastery approaches to instruction, and reported high teaching efficacy. Strong positive relation between performance orientation and…

  18. Health in the developing world: achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410

  19. Health in the developing world: achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Jeffrey D

    2004-12-01

    The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410

  20. Testing Multiple Goals Theory in an Asian Context: Filipino University Students' Motivation and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dela Rosa, Elmer D.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goals research has focused on the importance of mastery relative to performance goals, but the multiple goals perspective asserts that performance goals also lead to positive outcomes and that learners adopt multiple goals in adaptive ways. However, this multiple-goals perspective has not been extensively studied in Asian students. The…

  1. Examination of Achievement Goals and Social Goals of College Students at Different Levels of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenowich, Patricia Ann

    2009-01-01

    Goal theory postulates that learners have both academic and social reasons for pursuing academic outcomes. In domain-learning theory, the development of expertise is domain specific and is a progressive learning process that is characterized by the interplay of knowledge, interest, and strategic processing. This study integrated goal theory and…

  2. Deep Learning in Distance Education: Are We Achieving the Goal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Rick L.; Gregg, Andrea; Joo, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    As educators, one of our goals is to help students arrive at deeper levels of learning. However, how is this accomplished, especially in online courses? This design-based research study explored the concept of deep learning through a series of design changes in a graduate education course. A key question that emerged was through what learning…

  3. The GOALS Program. Gaining Opportunities to Achieve Lifetime Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwich, Andy; Otto, Nonie

    Designed to support the development of well-rounded individuals, this resource guide integrates the World Cup and soccer into social studies, language arts, mathematics, science, and physical education. The objectives of the GOALS program are for students to: (1) recognize the importance of the World Cup and soccer throughout the world; (2)…

  4. Goal Orientations and Achievement among Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David W.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined four goal orientations and their relationships to achievement among 1041 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. These students endorsed learning and social goals over performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals. The endorsement of learning goals emerged consistently as the significant predictor predicting achievement in…

  5. Achievement Goals and Approaches to Studying: Evidence from Adult Learners in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remedios, Richard; Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goals predict learning in children and young adults, but it is unclear whether they apply to older adults and how they are related to approaches to studying. An online survey examined achievement goals, approaches to studying and academic attainment in distance learners. The Achievement Goals Questionnaire-Revised and the Approaches to…

  6. Investigating the Achievement Goals of University Students in Terms of Psycho-Social Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayis, Ahmet Rifat; Ceyhan, Aydogan Aykut

    2015-01-01

    It is the aim of this research to investigate the achievement goals of university students. Firstly, university students' adoption levels of achievement goals are described. Next, how their level of academic self-efficacy, irrational beliefs, perfectionism, self-determination, locus of control and gender predict each achievement goal is depicted.…

  7. Examining the Relationships among Classroom Goal Structure, Achievement Goal Orientation, Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning for Ethnically Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, David; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill; Shores, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the learning strategies used by ethnically diverse learners and to investigate the relationships among the constructs of classroom goal structure, achievement goal orientation, motivation and self-regulated learning in an ethnically diverse population of fourth and fifth grade learners (n = 396). Goal…

  8. Striving to Connect: Extending an Achievement Goal Approach to Teacher Motivation to Include Relational Goals for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were designed to extend Butler's (2007) model and measure of achievement goals for teaching, to recognize that teaching is an interpersonal endeavor, not just personal endeavor. In Study 1, results from 530 teachers in Israel confirmed the predicted 5-factor model comprising relational goals, whereby teachers aspire to create close and…

  9. The Influence of Achievement Goals and Social Goals on Help-Seeking from Peers in an Academic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roussel, Peggy; Elliot, Andrew J.; Feltman, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The influence of achievement goals and social goals on help-seeking from peers in an academic context was examined in two studies. A total of 551 high school students participated in the two studies. The results across the studies demonstrated strong convergence, revealing that mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, and friendship-approach goals…

  10. Achievement Motivation Goals in Relation to Academic Performance in Traditional and Nontraditional College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppler, Marion; Harju, Beverly L.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the relationship between goal orientation and academic performance in 262 undergraduates, classified as traditional or nontraditional, found both groups rated themselves higher on learning goals than achievement goals, but nontraditional students endorsed learning goals more strongly. Goal orientations were a better predictor of…

  11. International note: The relationship between achievement goals and academic-related boredom.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang

    2015-06-01

    In a sample of 520 Chinese high school students, the present study aimed to replicate the prior Western findings about the relationship between achievement goals and academic boredom. Our findings indicated that mastery-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals predicted academic boredom, but mastery-avoidance goals and performance-approach goals did not. PMID:25828547

  12. Ecological Engineering: Reshaping Our Environments to Achieve Our Goals.

    PubMed

    Levy, Neil

    2012-12-01

    Human beings are subject to a range of cognitive and affective limitations which interfere with our ability to pursue our individual and social goals. I argue that shaping our environment to avoid triggering these limitations or to constrain the harms they cause is likely to be more effective than genetic or pharmaceutical modifications of our capacities because our limitations are often the flip side of beneficial dispositions and because available enhancements seem to impose significant costs. I argue that carefully selected environmental interventions respect agents' autonomy and are consistent with democratic decision making. PMID:23396750

  13. Self-Regulation and Achievement Goals in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusho, Akane; Edwards, Kelcey

    2011-01-01

    Although the causes of achievement are many and varied, it is widely assumed that "motivation" and "self-regulation" are crucial determinants of academic performance. Substantial evidence indicates that students who focus on learning and understanding course material are more likely to perform well academically (Dweck and Leggett, 1988).…

  14. Academic Identity Status and the Relationship to Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Was, Christopher A.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim; Stack-Oden, Maura; Isaacson, Randall M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Two constructs that have received a great deal of attention in Educational Psychology research are Achievement Orientation and Identity Status. However, the relationship between these two constructs has not received the attention that the current researcher feel is warranted. The impetus for the current study is the paucity of…

  15. Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals. The Secondary Principals Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Gordon, Molly F.

    2005-01-01

    Many principals feel they lack the personnel necessary to raise student achievement to mandated levels. Yet, as school leaders seek to improve educational outcomes, one of the most underutilized groups remains student support professionals-the counselors, social workers, and nurses already on site. The authors offer a practical approach to…

  16. The role of goal structures and peer climate in trajectories of social achievement goals during high school.

    PubMed

    Makara, Kara A; Madjar, Nir

    2015-04-01

    Students' social goals--reasons for engaging in interpersonal relationships with peers--are consequential for students' interactions with their peers at school and for their well-being. Despite the salience of peer relationships during adolescence, research on social goals is generally lacking compared with academic goals, and it is unknown how these social goals develop over time, especially among high school students. The aim of the study was to assess trajectories of students' social goals and to determine how relevant individual and contextual variables predicted initial levels and trajectories of students' social goals. Participants were 9th through 12th grade students (N = 526) attending a U.S. high school. Students filled out surveys of their social goals (social development, social demonstration-approach, and social demonstration-avoidance) 6 times across 2 school years. Nonlinear growth curve analyses and piecewise growth curve analyses were used to assess trajectories of social goals across time. Students' initial levels of social goals differed based on their gender, grade level, prior achievement, and perceptions of classroom goals structures and peer climate. Furthermore, despite substantial stability over time, the shapes of these goal trajectories were predicted by students' gender, grade level, and perceptions of classroom goal structures and peer climate. In particular, students who perceived an increase in performance-avoidance classroom goals maintained higher demonstration social goals and decreased in developmental social goals over time, and students who perceived an increase in positive peer climate decreased in demonstration-avoidance social goals. Implications and directions for future research on social goals are discussed. PMID:25730313

  17. How new coal plants help achieve environmental goals

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, B.

    2009-03-15

    A compelling case can be made for building more coal plants to reduce CO{sub 2}. If all the existing coal-fired power plants are replaced by new ultra-supercritical plants, there would be a reduction in coal use and greenhouse gases of 30% and the US could easily meet the 2020 goals. If coal plants co-fired 15% biomass, the total reduction would be 45%. If the waste heat is efficiently utilized there is another 20% gain. This is even before you consider the use of electricity to replace gasoline in cars or carbon capture and sequestration. When you add it all together there is a strong case that coal can contribute to a big reduction in CO{sub 2}. The author advocates that it can be part of the solution and not the problem. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Achieving the Cairo Conference (ICPD) goal for youth in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Laila; Rob, Ubaidur; Bhuiya, Ismat; Khan, M E; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    Sexual and reproductive health education is not yet formally introduced in Bangladesh without which the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo's goal to ensure young people's right to access to such information and services will remain unfulfilled. The Population Council provided technical assistance to a governmental department to pilot youth reproductive health education. Study findings from the pre- and posttests of 379 matched respondents revealed significant changes in knowledge, attitudes, and life-skills. Knowledge about long-term contraceptives and skills on negotiating safe sex improved significantly by 63% and 26%, respectively. Youths who do not consider menstruation as a disease nearly doubled, and misunderstandings about the mother's role in sex determination of a child were significantly dispelled. Decisions not to accompany friends in visiting sex workers and to use condoms, ignoring friends' disapproval, were increased over 18%. Over 98% of students reported that teachers discussed condoms, while only 12% alleged unfriendly behavior. Findings motivated the department to scale up the reproductive health curriculum. PMID:17686687

  19. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire in a General Academic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finney, Sara J.; Pieper, Suzanne L.; Barron, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ), when modified for a general academic context, were examined. Previous research has found evidence of a four-factor structure of achievement goal orientation when this measure was used in a course-specific context. This study is an important addition to goal orientation…

  20. Profiling Differences in Achievement and Social Goals of Students at Different Levels of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patricia Tenowich; Sonnenschein, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate domain-learning theory and goal theory to investigate the learning processes, achievement goals, social goals, and achievement of 141 college students. Cluster-analytic procedures were used to categorize participants at different levels of expertise based on their responses on knowledge, interest, and…

  1. Positive Biases in Self-Assessment of Mathematics Competence, Achievement Goals, and Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Escribe, Christian; Huet, Nathalie; Regner, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The study examined how biases in self-evaluations of math competence relate to achievement goals and progress in math achievement. It was expected that performance goals would be related to overestimation and mastery goals to accurate self-assessments. A sample of French high-school students completed a questionnaire measuring their math…

  2. Counselor Trainee Achievement Goal Orientation and the Acquisition of Time-Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivlighan, Dennis M., Jr.; Schuetz, Steven A.; Kardash, CarolAnne M.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between trainee achievement goal orientation and acquisition of Time-Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy (TLDP) skills was examined over four counseling sessions with a recruited client. Trainee learning goal orientation was related to the pattern of TLDP skill acquisition. Approaches to achievement goals, results, training issues, and…

  3. Achievement Goals, Study Strategies, and Achievement: A Test of the "Learning Agenda" Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Hama, Hidetoshi; Belmonte, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Two classroom studies tested whether mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals nudge students to pursue different learning agendas. Each showed that mastery-approach goals promote an interest-based studying approach in which students allocate study time disproportionately to personally interesting material over duller material. Study 2…

  4. Goals and Progress Feedback: Effects on Self-Efficacy and Writing Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunk, Dale H.; Swartz, Carl W.

    This study assessed how goal setting and progress feedback affect self-efficacy and writing achievement for 20 male and 20 female fourth graders. Children received writing strategy instruction and were given a process goal of learning the strategy, a product goal of writing paragraphs, or a general goal of working productively (control condition).…

  5. Exploring Relationships between Student Achievement and the Intensity and Specificity of Individual Student Goals in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Melissa Ann

    2010-01-01

    The application of goal theory in the classroom can be a link between the articulation of personal responsibility and adolescent academic performance. Consistent with goal theory, this research posits that adolescents who set intense and specific goals (i.e., high goal commitment) will have higher self-efficacy and higher achievement in the math…

  6. Dominant Achievement Goals of Older Workers and Their Relationship with Motivation-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Annet H.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase our insight into older employees' achievement motivation by examining the prevalence of dominant achievement goals among a "unique" group of 172 Dutch workers who remained active after their post-statutory retirement age. Moreover, we investigated how their dominant achievement goals were linked to…

  7. An Examination of Achievement Goals in Learning: A Quasi-Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The achievement goals framework has been researched and used to explain and account for individuals' learning and academic achievements. Over the past three decades, progress has been made in the conceptualizations and research development of different possible theoretical models of achievement goals. Notably, in this study, we…

  8. Achieving safety/risk goals for less ATR backup power upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment for internal fire and flood events defined a relatively high risk for a total loss of electric power possibly leading to core damage. Backup power sources were disabled due to fire and flooding in the diesel generator area with propagation of the flooding to a common switchgear room. The ATR risk assessment was employed to define options for relocation of backup power system components to achieve needed risk reduction while minimizing costs. The risk evaluations were performed using sensitivity studies and importance measures. The risk-based evaluations of relocation options for backup power systems saved over $3 million from what might have been otherwise considered {open_quotes}necessary{close_quotes} for safety/risk improvement. The ATR experience shows that the advantages of a good risk assessment are to define risk significance, risk specifics, and risk solutions which enable risk goals to be achieved at the lowest cost.

  9. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  10. Prevalence, Stability, and Functionality of Achievement Goal Profiles in Mathematics from Third to Seventh Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinger, Malte; Wild, Elke

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal trajectories of achievement goal profiles in mathematics from third to seventh grade in a sample of 302 German students. Latent profile analyses were conducted separately for each school year and revealed three subgroups of students with distinct goal profiles labeled high multiple goals, moderate multiple…

  11. Improving Low Achievers' Academic Performance at University by Changing the Social Value of Mastery Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Meier, Emanuele; Brandner, Catherine; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in a university context, mastery goals are highly valued and that students may endorse these goals either because they believe in their utility (i.e., social utility), in which case mastery goals are positively linked to achievement, or to create a positive image of themselves (i.e., social desirability), in which…

  12. Achievement Goal Theory at the Crossroads: Old Controversies, Current Challenges, and New Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Hulleman, Chris S.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    Achievement goal theory has been one of the most prominent theories of motivation in educational research for more than 25 years. It has undergone considerable revision during that span, most notably with the distinction between approach and avoidance goals, debate concerning the critical features of performance goals, and the emergence of a…

  13. Academic and Social Achievement Goals: Their Additive, Interactive, and Specialized Effects on School Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Aims: Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and…

  14. The Prevalence, Development and Domain Specificity of Elementary School Students' Achievement Goal Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen in de Wal, Joost; Hornstra, Lisette; Prins, Frans J.; Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

    2016-01-01

    This study's aim was to examine the prevalence, development and domain specificity of fifth- and sixth-grade elementary school students' achievement goal profiles. Achievement goals were measured for language and mathematics among 722 pupils at three points in time. These data were analysed through latent profile analysis and latent transition…

  15. Achievement Goals, the Classroom Environment, and Reflective Thinking: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Research pertaining to achievement goals and reflective thinking practice has received considerable attention in educational psychology. However, very few, if any, studies have looked at the impact of the classroom climate and how this psychosocial milieu may influence students' engagement in achievement goals and reflective thinking…

  16. Changes in Self-Esteem across the First Year in College: The Role of Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Ryan, Allison M.; Cassady, Jerrell

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effects of achievement goals on the growth trajectories of self-esteem during the first-year at a comprehensive public university. College freshmen (N = 311) were followed for one academic year with three time points. Between-individual differences and within-individual change in achievement goals were…

  17. The Achievement Goals Orientation of South African First Year University Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain; Ramaila, Sam

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the achievement goals orientation of first year physics students at a South African university. The mixed methods design involved a quantitative survey of 291 students using an achievement goals questionnaire and individual interviews of selected participants. Results showed that the students perceived they have a stronger…

  18. Achievement Goal Validation among African American High School Students: CFA and Rasch Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Caroline O.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Jones, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goal theory helps describe how and why students engage in various academic behaviors. Historically, achievement goals have been examined almost exclusively with undergraduate, nonminority samples, and predominately with factor analytic techniques. The present study adds to a growing literature by providing initial validation of a…

  19. Examining Achievement Goals and Causal Attributions Together as Predictors of Academic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Christopher A.; Fan, Weihua; Daugherty, Stacy G.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to forge stronger theoretical and empirical links between achievement goal theory and attribution theory. High school students ("N" = 224) completed a self-report survey that assessed 3 types of achievement goals, 7 types of attributions, and self-efficacy. Results indicated that students' adoption of…

  20. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire among Nigerian Preservice Mathematics and Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Fatade, Alfred O.; Awofala, Awoyemi A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The stability of the achievement goal orientation across different contexts has been a source of further research since the new millennium. Through theoretically-driven and empirically-based analyses, this study investigated the psychometric properties of the Elliot and McGregor 2x2 framework for achievement goal questionnaire within…

  1. Achievement Goals during Middle Childhood: Individual Differences in Motivation and Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis M.; Zheng, Chanjin; Lemoine, Katherine A.; Martin, Caroline P.; Tang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Person-centered analyses of achievement goals have been scarce in studies of elementary school children. In this investigation, the authors examined the natural combinations of achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, performance-avoidance) among 3rd grade students (N = 195) and how clusters differed in self-, teacher-, and peer-reported…

  2. Achievement Goals as Mediators of the Relationship between Competence Beliefs and Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Symes, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous work suggests that the expectation of failure is related to higher test anxiety and achievement goals grounded in a fear of failure. Aim: To test the hypothesis, based on the work of Elliot and Pekrun (2007), that the relationship between perceived competence and test anxiety is mediated by achievement goal orientations.…

  3. Testing Structural Invariance of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire in American, Chinese, and Dutch College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Huaping; Hernandez, Diley

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the structural invariance of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) in American, Chinese, and Dutch college students. Using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), the authors found evidence for the four-factor structure of achievement goals in all three samples. Subsequent multigroup CFAs supported structural invariance of…

  4. Validation of the Chinese Version of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yanhua; Zhu, Xiangru; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the validity of a Chinese version of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale (C-SAGOS), a measure testing the trichotomous framework of achievement goal orientations in a social domain. A total of 208 college students (51% female) aged 18 to 23 participated in the study. Factor analyses showed that the three-factor model…

  5. Achievement Goal Orientations of Community College Mathematics Students and the Misalignment of Instructor Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the results of a survey of achievement goal orientations administered to a sample of 777 students enrolled in remedial and college-level mathematics courses at a community college. Results indicate that students' achievement goal orientations are consistent with adaptive learning patterns: Students are interested in…

  6. To Master or Perform? Exploring Relations between Achievement Goals and Conceptual Change Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. Aims: To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Sample and Method:…

  7. Personal and Contextual Antecedents of Achievement Goals: Their Direct and Indirect Relations to Students' Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    In this correlational research, we investigated to what extent achievement goals, in conjunction with need for achievement and fear of failure as well as perceived classroom goal structures, are related to learning strategies among upper elementary school students. After taking into account students' tendency to respond in a socially desirable…

  8. Procrastination and the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework in Malaysian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganesan, Rajalakshmi; Mamat, Norul Hidayah Bt; Mellor, David; Rizzuto, Laura; Kolar, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated academic procrastination in the context of the 2 x 2 goal achievement theoretical framework within a population of 450 Malaysian undergraduate students, aged 18 to 25 years. Participants completed the Achievement Goal Questionnaire and the Tuckman Procrastination Test. Approach dimensions of both the mastery and…

  9. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  10. Relationship between Achievement Goals, Meta-Cognition and Academic Success in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Yousuf, Muhammad Imran; Hussain, Shafqat; Noreen, Shumaila

    2009-01-01

    The research was the replication of the study done by Coutinho (2006) and it aimed at finding the relationship between achievement goals, meta-cognition and academic success. Achievement goals were further divided into two types: mastery and performance. The participants were 119 students enrolled in M. A. Education, Department of Education at the…

  11. The Impact of Achievement Goals on Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Does Self-Efficacy Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lochbaum, Marc; Guan, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The relationships among students' self-efficacy, 2 × 2 achievement goals (mastery-approach [MAp], mastery-avoidance [MAv], performance-approach [PAp], and performance-avoidance goals), and achievement performance remain largely unanswered. We tested a model of the mediating role of self-efficacy on the relationship between 2 × 2…

  12. Investigating Elementary Students' Learning Approaches, Motivational Goals, and Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacieminoglu, Esme; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among students' learning approaches, motivational goals, previous science grades, and their science achievement for the concepts related to atomic theory and explored the effects of gender and sociodemographic variables on students' learning approaches, motivational goals, and their science achievement for the…

  13. Predicting Seventh Grade Students' Engagement in Science by Their Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidiroglu, Melike; Sungur, Semra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how well seventh grade students' engagement in science can be predicted by their achievement goals. For the specified purpose, a correlational research design was utilized. Data were obtained from 153 seventh grade students through administration of Achievement Goal Questionnaire and Engagement Questionnaire.…

  14. Amalgamation of Future Time Orientation, Epistemological Beliefs, Achievement Goals and Study Strategies: Empirical Evidence Established

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently research evidence emphasizes two main lines of inquiry, namely the relations between future time perspective (FTP), achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance) and study processing strategies, and the relations between epistemological beliefs, achievement goals and study processing strategies.…

  15. The Influence of Achievement Goals on the Constructive Activity of Low Achievers during Collaborative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriele, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous research on small-group learning has found that level of constructive activity (solving or explaining how to solve problems using ideas stated or implied in the explanation provided by a partner) was a better predictor of post-test achievement than either a student's prior achievement or the quality of help received (Webb,…

  16. Extending Antecedents of Achievement Goals: The Double-Edged Sword Effect of Social-Oriented Achievement Motive and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Youyan; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2013-01-01

    Underpinned by the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance motivation, the study examined the differential relations of individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motives to approach and avoidance achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-avoidance). A total of 570 Chinese high school…

  17. Exploring the Relationships among Mirror Neurons, Theory of Mind, and Achievement Goals: Towards a Model of Achievement Goal Contagion in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay

    2009-01-01

    This article aimed to examine the relationship between mirror neuron and theory of mind functions and to explore their possible roles in the emergence of an achievement goal contagion in educational settings such as classrooms. Based on the evidence from different lines of research such as neurobiology, neuropsychology, social psychology, and…

  18. Relationship between Achievement Goals and Students' Self-Reported Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized the 2x2 achievement goal model (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals) to explore the relationships between achievement goals and self-reported personal and social responsibility behaviors in high school physical education settings. Two hundred and twenty one Turkish students completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, personal and social responsibility behaviors. Results of the one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences among the four achievement goals, F(3, 660) = 137.05, p < .001, η2 = .39. The result also revealed that students were more likely to endorse the mastery-approach goal than three other goals. The simple correlations revealed mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were positively related to students' self-reported personal (r = .54, p < .001; r = .37, p < .001, respectively) and social responsibility (r = .38, p < .001; r = .22, p < .001, respectively) behaviors. However, hierarchical regression analyses indicated only the mastery-approach goal emerged as the significant positive predictor, b = .52, t(216) = 7.19, p < .001 for personal responsibility behaviors, and b = .41, t(216) = 5.23, p < .001 for social responsibility behaviors. These findings seem to provide convergent evidence that mastery-approach goals are positively related to positive educational outcomes. PMID:25896600

  19. An international validation study of two achievement goal measures in a pharmacy education context

    PubMed Central

    Alrakaf, Saleh; Abdelmageed, Ahmed; Kiersma, Mary; Coulman, Sion A; John, Dai N; Tordoff, June; Anderson, Claire; Noreddin, Ayman; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Background Achievement goal theory helps us understand what motivates students to participate in educational activities. However, measuring achievement goals in a precise manner is problematic. Elliot and McGregor’s Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) and Elliot and Murayama’s revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R) are widely used to assess students’ achievement goals. Both instruments were developed and validated using undergraduate psychology students in the USA. Methods In this study, our aims were to first of all, assess the construct validity of both questionnaires using a cohort of Australian pharmacy students and, subsequently, to test the generalizability and replicability of these tools more widely in schools of pharmacy in other English-speaking countries. The AGQ and the AGQ-R were administered during tutorial class time. Confirmatory factor analysis procedures, using AMOS 19 software, were performed to determine model fit. Results In contrast to the scale developers’ findings, confirmatory factor analysis supported a superior model fit for the AGQ compared with the AGQ-R, in all countries under study. Conclusion Validating measures of achievement goal motivation for use in pharmacy education is necessary and has implications for future research. Based on these results, the AGQ will be used to conduct future cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of the achievement goals of undergraduate pharmacy students from these countries. PMID:25298743

  20. Achievement Goals and Emotions: The Mediational Roles of Perceived Progress, Control, and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Nathan C.; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Muis, Krista R.; Ranellucci, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: The link between achievement goals and achievement emotions is well established; however, research exploring potential mediators of this relationship is lacking. The control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006, "Educational Psychology Review," 18, 315) posits that perceptions of control and value mediate the…

  1. Student Achievement Goal Setting: Using Data to Improve Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Grant, Leslie W.

    2009-01-01

    The first book in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice series focuses on improving student achievement through academic goal setting. It offers the tools and plan of action to use performance data to improve instructional practice and increase student achievement. The book is divided into three parts: (1) How Student Achievement Data Can Be…

  2. Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David A.; Phillips, Prudence

    1985-01-01

    Presents two discussions which focus on the rationale for and goals of teaching electrochemistry at high school and college levels. The first is "Electrochemistry" by Ronald Perkins and the second is "Goals in Teaching Electrochemistry" by J. T. Maloy. (JN)

  3. Insight into error hiding: exploration of nursing students' achievement goal orientations.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Karee E

    2014-02-01

    An estimated 50% of medication errors go unreported, and error hiding is costly to hospitals and patients. This study explored one issue that may facilitate error hiding. Descriptive statistics were used to examine nursing students' achievement goal orientations in a high-fidelity simulation course. Results indicated that although this sample of nursing students held high mastery goal orientations, they also held moderate levels of performance-approach and performance-avoidance goal orientations. These goal orientations indicate that this sample is at high risk for error hiding, which places the benefits that are typically gleaned from a strong mastery orientation at risk. Understanding variables, such as goal orientation, that can be addressed in nursing education to reduce error hiding is an area of research that needs to be further explored. This article discusses the study results and evidence-based instructional practices for this sample's achievement goal orientation profile. PMID:24444007

  4. Perceived social loafing and anticipated effort reduction among young football (soccer) players: an achievement goal perspective.

    PubMed

    Høigaard, Rune; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motivational climates, personal achievement goals, and three different aspects of social loafing in football (soccer). 170 male competitive football players completed questionnaires assessing perceived motivational climate, achievement goal, and measures of perceived social loafing (anticipation of lower effort amongst their teammates and themselves). The results indicated a marginal but significant positive relationship between an ego-oriented achievement goal and perceived social loafing. In addition, a mastery climate was negatively associated with perceived social loafing and anticipation of lower effort of team members, particularly for athletes who also strongly endorsed a task-oriented achievement goal. A performance climate, in contrast, related positively with these two aspects of social loafing. A mastery climate also related negatively to the third aspect of social loafing, i.e., players' readiness to reduce their own effort in response to their perception of social loafing among their teammates. PMID:17688105

  5. Performance-Approach Goal Effects on Achievement under Low versus High Challenge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Durik, Amanda M.; Patel, Lily; Lovejoy, Chelsea M.; Valentiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of university students' achievement goals on performance under low versus high challenge conditions. The first was a laboratory experiment in which participants were assigned goals to pursue on a novel mathematics task alleged to be simple or complex to use. The second was a survey study in which students set goals…

  6. How Students' Achievement Goals Shape Their Beliefs about Effective Teaching: A "Build-a-Professor" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Belmonte, Kimberly; Yakhkind, Anastasyia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Which instructor qualities do students consider most important? The answer likely depends on the student. This study attempted to trace beliefs about the most essential instructor qualities to students' academic achievement goals. Aims: The present study tested the hypothesis that students pursuing mastery goals favour instructors who…

  7. Achievement Goal Orientation for Athletic Training Education: Preparing for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This review of literature presents the theoretical framework of goal orientation and student achievement from a pedagogical perspective while providing practical applications and implications for integrating goal orientation into athletic training education programs. Data Sources: Selected literature derived from EBSCO, Education…

  8. Goal Orientations, Locus of Control and Academic Achievement in Prospective Teachers: An Individual Differences Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulus, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the prospective teachers' locus of control in goal orientations and of both orientations in academic achievement. The participants were 270 undergraduate students studying in different majors at the Faculty of Education in Pamukkale University. Goal Orientations and Locus of Control Scales were…

  9. Achievement Goal Orientations and Subjective Well-Being: A Person-Centred Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Niemivirta, Markku

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether students with different achievement goal orientation profiles differ in terms of subjective well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, school-related burnout, and educational goal appraisals). Six groups of students with unique motivational profiles were identified. Observed differences in subjective well-being…

  10. Relationship between Lifestyle Values and Achievement Goal Orientation among Vocational Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chantara, Soontornpathai; Koul, Ravinder; Kaewkuekool, Sittichai

    2014-01-01

    This study brings models of value theory and motivational goal theory together to investigate the relationship between lifestyle values (materialism, religiosity, physical well-being and image) and achievement goal orientation of college students enrolled in vocational programmes in Thailand (N?=?1670, males?=?38.5% and females?=?61.5%). We found…

  11. Achievement Goal Orientation and Differences in Self-Reported Copying Behaviour across Academic Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songsriwittaya, Alisa; Koul, Ravinder; Kongsuwan, Sak

    2010-01-01

    This survey study investigated the relationship between achievement goal orientation and self-reported copying behaviour among college students (N = 2007) enrolled in five different academic programmes in Thailand. Results of statistical analysis showed several significant findings: performance approach goal orientation, performance avoidance goal…

  12. Achievement Goals for Teaching and Teachers' Reference Norms: Relations with Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retelsdorf, Jan; Gunther, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    This study is connected to recent research that introduced achievement goal theory as a framework for research on teacher motivation. We aimed at investigating teachers' goals' indirect effects on their instructional practices through their reference norms. Drawing on a sample of 206 teachers, structural equation modeling revealed that mastery…

  13. Indicators of Success in Achieving the El Centro College Goals, 1997-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Centro Coll., Dallas, TX.

    This is a report on indicators of success in achieving community college goals at El Centro College (Texas). The report provides statistics from 1997-2000 and focuses on the progress of nine goals: (1) institutionalizing service beyond expectation--according to student satisfaction surveys, campus changes that have occurred between 1996 and 1999…

  14. Academic Goals, Achievement, and Age at First Sexual Intercourse: Longitudinal, Bidirectional Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schvaneveldt, Paul L.; Miller, Brent C.; Berry, E. Helen; Lee, Thomas R.

    2001-01-01

    Data from the National Survey of Children were used to test the hypothesis that lower educational goals and achievement is associated with initiating sexual intercourse at a younger age. Adolescents who had lower educational goals and who performed at lower academic levels were more likely to engage in sexual intercourse earlier. This was true for…

  15. Relationships among Properties of College Students' Self-Set Academic Goals and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acee, Taylor W.; Cho, Yoonjung; Kim, Jung-In; Weinstein, Claire Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among properties of college students' self-set academic goals and academic achievement, using multiple theoretical perspectives. Using a personal goal-based research methodology, college students enrolled in a learning-to-learn course (N = 130) were asked to list 20 of their…

  16. Academic Identity Status, Goal Orientation, and Academic Achievement among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejazi, Elaheh; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Amani, Habib; Was, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic identity status, goal orientations and academic achievement. 301 first year high school students completed the Academic Identity Measure and Goal Orientation Questionnaire. The average of 10 exam scores in the final semester was used as an index of academic…

  17. On the Need for Rethinking Current Practice that Highlights Goal Achievement Risk in an Enterprise Context.

    PubMed

    Aven, Eyvind; Aven, Terje

    2015-09-01

    This article addresses the issue of how performance and risk management can complement each other in order to enhance the management of an enterprise. Often, we see that risk management focuses on goal achievements and not the enterprise risk related to its activities in the value chain. The statement "no goal, no risk" is a common misconception. The main aim of the article is to present a normative model for describing the links between performance and risk, and to use this model to give recommendations on how to best structure and plan the management of an enterprise in situations involving risk and uncertainties. The model, which has several novel features, is based on the interaction between different types of risk management (enterprise risk management, task risk management, and personal risk management) and a structure where the enterprise risk management overrules both the task and personal risk management. To illustrate the model we use the metaphor of a ship, where the ship is loaded with cash-generating activities and has a direction over time determined by the overall strategic objectives. Compared to the current enterprise risk management practice, the model and related analysis are founded on a new perspective on risk, highlighting knowledge and uncertainties beyond probabilities. PMID:25930689

  18. Achieving fruit, juice, and vegetable recipe preparation goals influences consumption by 4th grade students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Including children in food preparation activities has long been recommended as a method to encourage children's consumption, but has not been evaluated. Goal setting is also a common component of behavior change programs. This study assessed the impact of attaining goals to prepare fruit-juice or ve...

  19. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P. Craig; Buyon, Lucas E.; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the “big three” diseases—namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria—has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda

  20. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P Craig; Buyon, Lucas E; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the "big three" diseases--namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria--has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda. PMID

  1. Quantitative analyses and modelling to support achievement of the 2020 goals for nine neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Adams, Emily R; Anderson, Roy M; Atkins, Katherine; Bartsch, Sarah; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Behrend, Matthew; Blok, David J; Chapman, Lloyd A C; Coffeng, Luc; Courtenay, Orin; Crump, Ron E; de Vlas, Sake J; Dobson, Andy; Dyson, Louise; Farkas, Hajnal; Galvani, Alison P; Gambhir, Manoj; Gurarie, David; Irvine, Michael A; Jervis, Sarah; Keeling, Matt J; Kelly-Hope, Louise; King, Charles; Lee, Bruce Y; Le Rutte, Epke A; Lietman, Thomas M; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial; Medley, Graham F; Michael, Edwin; Pandey, Abhishek; Peterson, Jennifer K; Pinsent, Amy; Porco, Travis C; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Reimer, Lisa; Rock, Kat S; Singh, Brajendra K; Stolk, Wilma; Swaminathan, Subramanian; Torr, Steve J; Townsend, Jeffrey; Truscott, James; Walker, Martin; Zoueva, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative analysis and mathematical models are useful tools in informing strategies to control or eliminate disease. Currently, there is an urgent need to develop these tools to inform policy to achieve the 2020 goals for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). In this paper we give an overview of a collection of novel model-based analyses which aim to address key questions on the dynamics of transmission and control of nine NTDs: Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, soil-transmitted helminths, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and trachoma. Several common themes resonate throughout these analyses, including: the importance of epidemiological setting on the success of interventions; targeting groups who are at highest risk of infection or re-infection; and reaching populations who are not accessing interventions and may act as a reservoir for infection,. The results also highlight the challenge of maintaining elimination 'as a public health problem' when true elimination is not reached. The models elucidate the factors that may be contributing most to persistence of disease and discuss the requirements for eventually achieving true elimination, if that is possible. Overall this collection presents new analyses to inform current control initiatives. These papers form a base from which further development of the models and more rigorous validation against a variety of datasets can help to give more detailed advice. At the moment, the models' predictions are being considered as the world prepares for a final push towards control or elimination of neglected tropical diseases by 2020. PMID:26652272

  2. Predicting subjective vitality and performance in sports: the role of passion and achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang

    2010-06-01

    The major purpose of this study was to test the hypothesized paths from dualistic passions through achievement goals to subjective vitality and performance in sports. 645 high school athletes participated. The proposed structural equation model, with relationships between dualistic passions and subjective vitality and sports performance mediated by achievement goals, fit the data well, especially for mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Harmonious and obsessive passions may lead athletes to high performance via the adoption of mastery-approach goals. However, these passions seem to have two paths influencing personal functioning: direct effects make players feel energetic, and indirect effects on subjective vitality through adoption of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. PMID:20865990

  3. Theories of Intelligence, Achievement Goals and Learning Strategies of Chinese Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hau, Kit-Tai; Hui, Hing-fai

    It has been suggested that students' belief of whether intelligence is malleable and flexible would affect their purpose of achievement (achievement goals). This might, in turn, influence their learning strategies. The present study examined the above relationships among 194 Grade 7 Chinese students in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling…

  4. Perceived Competence and Autonomy as Moderators of the Effects of Achievement Goal Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, YoonJung; Weinstein, Claire Ellen; Wicker, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of two moderators--perceived competence and perceived autonomy--in the relationships of achievement goal orientations with a broad range of learning-related variables, including interest, effort, learning strategy use and academic achievement. Perceived competence and autonomy played…

  5. The Interactive Effects of Personal Achievement Goals and Performance Feedback in an Undergraduate Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Ranellucci, John; Franco, Gina M.; Crippen, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored whether manipulating feedback influenced cognition, motivation, and achievement in an undergraduate chemistry course. They measured students' ("N" = 250) achievement goals, test anxiety, self-efficacy, and metacognitive strategy use at the beginning and end of the semester. After completing the first set of…

  6. The Use of ICT in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaino, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the contribution of higher education institutions in achieving these have been emphasized. This study sought to find out the extent to which university-based researches on ICTs addressed and impacted the three MDGs of gender…

  7. Predicting College Grades: The Value of Achievement Goals in Supplementing Ability Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Achievement goal theory is an important theoretical framework for understanding achievement motivation. In previous studies, a mastery orientation has been shown to be related to students' interest, while a performance orientation has been found to be predictive of academic performance outcomes such as course grades. In this study, the two mastery…

  8. Achievement Goal Orientations and Self-Reported Study Strategies as Predictors of Online Studying Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Zhou, Mingming; Nesbit, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether achievement motivations influence the adoption of learning strategies and learning strategies influence studying behavior in an online learning environment. The Goal Orientation Questionnaire was used to measure achievement motives, and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was…

  9. How University Students with Reading Difficulties Are Supported in Achieving Their Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    We examine (a) what social ties university students with a history of reading difficulty (RD) report assisting them to achieve their goals, (b) outlets available for developing social ties, (c) resources mobilized within these relationships, and (d) the impact of social ties' status on academic achievement. Participants were 107 university…

  10. Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement: Why Do Implicit Beliefs, Goals, and Effort Regulation Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komarraju, Meera; Nadler, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    We examined motivational orientations, cognitive-metacognitive strategies, and resource management in predicting academic achievement. Undergraduates (407) completed the Motivated Strategies Learning Questionnaire, Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale, Achievement Goal Inventory, and self-reported grade point average. A MANCOVA (controlling for…

  11. Attributional Beliefs of Singapore Students: Relations to Self-Construal, Competence and Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Hogan, David J.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Sheng, Yee Zher; Aye, Khin Maung

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates attributional beliefs of Singapore secondary students in their English study and how they can be predicted by self-construal, competence and achievement goals. A total of 1,496 students were administered surveys on seven attributions, independent and interdependent self-construals, previous achievement, self-efficacy,…

  12. The Role of Achievement Goals in Online Test Anxiety and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yan; Taylor, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of achievement goals in online test anxiety and help-seeking while controlling for self-efficacy and potential demographic differences. A total of 150 online students participated in the survey. Separate hierarchical regression analysis results suggested the differential roles of achievement goals…

  13. The influence of momentary classroom goal structures on student engagement and achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, Diana Janet

    Teachers' instructional practices fundamentally shape students' classroom experiences. However, it is still unclear what patterns of instructional practice are related to specific classroom goal structures, and how momentary changes in classroom goal structures affect students' momentary cognitive engagement in high school science. This study examined the relationship between classroom goal structures in high school science and two different learning outcomes: (1) students' cognitive engagement in science and (2) students' science course grades. To achieve this aim, classroom goal structures were examined as both a variable feature of the classroom that shifts from activity to activity (i.e., momentary classroom goal structure), and as a single global characteristic describing the dominant goal structure of a classroom over time (i.e., global classroom goal structure). Students' momentary cognitive engagement significantly increased when instructional moments were mastery or performance goal structured compared to moments that had no identifiable goal structure. However, no relationships were found between global classroom goal structure and cognitive engagement or science course grades.

  14. Friendship networks and achievement goals: an examination of selection and influence processes and variations by gender.

    PubMed

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M

    2014-09-01

    Interactions with friends are a salient part of students' experience at school. Thus, friends are likely to be an important source of influence on achievement goals. This study investigated processes within early adolescent friendships (selection and influence) with regard to achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals) among sixth graders (N = 587, 50% girls at wave 1, N = 576, 52% girls at wave 2) followed from fall to spring within one academic year. Students' gender was examined as a moderator in these processes. Longitudinal social network analysis found that friends were similar to each other in mastery goals and that this similarity was due to both selection and influence effects. Influence but not selection effects were found for performance-approach goals. Influence effects for performance-approach goals were stronger for boys compared to girls in the classroom. Neither selection, nor influence, effects were found in relation to performance-avoidance goals. However, the higher a student was in performance-avoidance goals, the less likely they were to be named as a friend by classmates. Implications for early adolescents' classroom adjustment are discussed. PMID:24820296

  15. Prediction of intrinsic motivation and sports performance using 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly. PMID:21675576

  16. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as predictors of work effort: the moderating role of achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bård

    2013-09-01

    This research explored the roles of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) and the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort (WE). A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between IM and increased WE was more positive for employees with high levels of mastery-approach goals. This observation suggests that having congruent goals may accentuate the positive relationship between IM and WE. PMID:22273179

  17. The influence of avoidance temperament and avoidance-based achievement goals on flow.

    PubMed

    Oertig, Daniela; Schüler, Julia; Brandstätter, Veronika; Augustine, Adam A

    2014-06-01

    In the present research, we conducted two studies designed to examine the joint influence of avoidance temperament and avoidance-based achievement goals on the experience of flow on a creativity task. In both a laboratory study (N = 101; M(age)  = 22.61, SD(age)  = 4.03; 74.3% female) and a naturalistic study (N = 102; M(age)  = 16.23, SD(age)  = 1.13; 48% female), participants high in avoidance temperament were shown to experience greater flow when performance-avoidance goals were induced; no differences were found in any of the other three achievement goal conditions from the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. These findings reveal a short-term benefit for a disposition-goal match grounded in avoidance motivation, and point to the need for more research on both avoidance-based matches and the short-term versus long-term implications of such matches. PMID:23672810

  18. Self-Determined Motivation and Social Achievement Goals in Children's Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouratidis, Athanasios; Michou, Aikaterini

    2011-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study we investigated to what extent autonomous and controlled motivation and social achievement goals are associated with students' emotional experiences at school. We found in a sample of 426 elementary school students, aged from 10 to 12 years, autonomous motivation (i.e. students' engagement in class activities because…

  19. Pupils' Self-Regulation in Physical Education: The Role of Motivational Climates and Differential Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of motivational climate and differential achievement goals to meta-cognitive self-regulation, regulation of effort, help-seeking and self-handicapping in physical education (PE). The sample consisted of 273 pupils (boys n = 125; girls n = 148) attending 10th grade PE classes in Norway. Both motivational…

  20. Classroom Achievement Goal Structure, School Engagement, and Substance Use among 10th Grade Students in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Åge; Samdal, Oddrun

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the relationships between students' perceived classroom achievement goals, school engagement and substance use in terms of smoking and drinking, and at investigating gender differences regarding these issues in a sample of 1,239 Norwegian 10th grade students. A multivariate analysis showed that…

  1. Stability and Change in Achievement Goal Orientations: A Person-Centered Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Niemivirta, Markku

    2011-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies used a person-centered approach to examine the stability and change in students' achievement goal orientations within a school year (i.e., during 9th grade; measurement period 4 months, N = 530) and between school years (i.e., across 11th and 12th grade; measurement period 12 months, N = 519). Distinct groups of students…

  2. Achievement Goal Orientations and Academic Well-Being across the Transition to Upper Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Niemivirta, Markku

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine students' (N = 579) achievement goal orientation profiles, the temporal stability of these profiles across the transition to upper secondary education, and profile differences in academic well-being (i.e., school value, school burnout, schoolwork engagement, satisfaction with educational choice). By means of…

  3. Chinese Mindset: Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation and Academic Achievement in Hong Kong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei-Wen; Wong, Yi-Lee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between theories of intelligence and goal orientations, and their joint connections to students' academic achievement in the Chinese cultural context. A total of 418 university students in Hong Kong participated in the present study. The survey was administered to collect information…

  4. The Influence of Achievement Goal Orientations and Task Concreteness on Situational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapola, Anna; Jaakkola, Tomi; Niemivirta, Markku

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in elementary school students' (n = 140) situational interest as a function of achievement goal orientation profiles and task characteristics. The authors repeatedly measured situational interest during a simulated science learning task in 2 task conditions that differed in the concreteness of the task…

  5. Analyzing State and Private School Students' Achievement Goal Orientation Levels in Terms of Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türkçapar, Ünal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the state and private school students' achievement goal orientation levels in terms of some variables. Quantitative survey method was used in this study. Study group in this research consists of 201 students who are studying at state and private school in Kahramanmaras during the 2014-2015 academic year.…

  6. Achievement Goal Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Gender Invariance in a Sample of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jing; Bai, Yu; He, Yini; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Ling, Yu; Smith, Hannah; Huebner, E. Scott

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the gender invariance of the Chinese version of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-C) utilizing a sample of 1,115 Chinese university students. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis supported the configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the AGQ-C across genders. Analyses also revealed that the latent…

  7. Effects of Feedback on Achievement Goals and Perceived Motivational Climate in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback…

  8. Antecedents and Trajectories of Achievement Goals: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciani, Keith D.; Sheldon, Kennon M.; Hilpert, Jonathan C.; Easter, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that both achievement goal theory and self-determination theory (SDT) are quite useful in explaining student motivation and success in academic contexts. However, little is known about how the two theories relate to each other. Aim: The current research used SDT as a framework to understand why students enter classes…

  9. Achievement Goal Orientation of Community College Mathematics Students and the Misalignment of Instructors' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa, Vilma

    2011-01-01

    This study reports findings regarding the application of a survey of achievement goal orientations to a sample of mathematics 777 students enrolled in remedial and college mathematics courses at a community college. The survey was based on the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales [PALS] and it included questions from the Views About Mathematics…

  10. Exploring Students' Reflective Thinking Practice, Deep Processing Strategies, Effort, and Achievement Goal Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy Phuong

    2009-01-01

    Recent research indicates that study processing strategies, effort, reflective thinking practice, and achievement goals are important factors contributing to the prediction of students' academic success. Very few studies have combined these theoretical orientations within one conceptual model. This study tested a conceptual model that included, in…

  11. Students' Perceptions of Parental and Teacher Academic Involvement: Consequences on Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regner, Isabelle; Loose, Florence; Dumas, Florence

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether students' perceptions of two major facets of parental and teacher academic involvement (i.e., academic support and academic monitoring), contribute to the process of students' achievement goals adoption. French junior high-school students completed two questionnaires assessing first their perceptions of parental…

  12. Autonomy Support versus Psychological Control, Perfectionism, and Taiwanese Adolescents' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2013-01-01

    The author attempted to explore potential antecedents of achievement goals and relations of teacher and parental autonomy support versus psychological control to Taiwanese adolescents' perfectionistic tendencies. A total of 512 eighth-grade students completed self-reported questionnaires assessing variables of interest. Results indicated that…

  13. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  14. Self-Efficacy, Goal Orientations and Learning Strategies as Mediators between Preceding and Subsequent Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Age

    2011-01-01

    High school grade point average (HSGPA), self-efficacy, goal orientations, learning strategies, and examination grade were measured in a sample of Norwegian undergraduate psychology students in order to investigate motives and strategies as mediators between preceding and subsequent academic achievement. Correlation analysis showed strong…

  15. Achievement Goals and Persistence across Tasks: The Roles of Failure and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Kaplan, Avi

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study is on the role of achievement goals in students' persistence. The authors administered 5 puzzles to 96 college students: 4 unsolvable and 1 relatively easy (acting as a hope probe). They examined whether and how persistence may deteriorate as a function of failing the puzzles, as well as whether and how persistence may…

  16. An Exploration of Young Adolescents' Social Achievement Goals and Social Adjustment in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Allison M.; Shim, S. Serena

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the proposition that social achievement goals (different orientations toward social competence) are an important aspect of young adolescents' social motivation. Study 1 (N = 153 6th-grade students) established that different orientations toward developing or demonstrating social competence can be seen in young adolescents'…

  17. Transforming Schools with Technology: How Smart Use of Digital Tools Helps Achieve Six Key Education Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew A.

    2008-01-01

    In this timely and thoughtful book, Andrew Zucker argues that technology can and will play a central role in efforts to achieve crucial education goals, and that it will be an essential component of further improvement and transformation of schools. The book is marked not only by Zucker's cutting-edge sophistication about digital technologies, but…

  18. Self-Regulation, Goal Orientation, and Academic Achievement of Secondary Students in Online University Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matuga, Julia M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the self-regulation, goal orientation, and academic achievement of 40 secondary students who completed online university courses in the sciences. Students were enrolled in one of three online university science courses. Each course was taught by a two-person team, made up of one university science professor and one…

  19. Effects of Task-Focused Goals on Low-Achieving Students with and without Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Karns, Kathy; Hamlett, Carol L.; Katzaroff, Michelle; Dutka, Suzanne

    1997-01-01

    The effects of a task-focused goals (TFG) treatment in mathematics were studied with low-achieving students with or without learning disabilities. Results with 40 elementary classrooms showed that TFG students enjoyed the approach, but that increased effort was associated with greater learning only for those without learning disabilities. (SLD)

  20. Motivation Orientations, Academic Achievement, and Career Goals of Undergraduate Music Education Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Charles P.; Zdzinski, Stephen F.; Ballard, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    This study is an examination of motivation orientations (mastery, intrinsic, cooperative, individual, competition, ego, approach success, avoid failure, hypercompetition, personal development competition) and musical self-concept in relation to measures of academic achievement and career goals of preservice music teachers. The research questions…

  1. School Environmental Health Programs and the Challenges of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Shendell, Derek G.

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) mandate of achieving healthful living for all by the year 2015 through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is facing several challenges. In the school environment, and particularly in less developed countries (LDCs), the situation is further strained by both relatively weak infrastructure and competing governmental…

  2. The Influence of Context-Specific and Dispositional Achievement Goals on Children's Paired Collaborative Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Amanda; Yuill, Nicola; Luckin, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Background: Research has demonstrated that working collaboratively can have positive effects on children's learning. While key factors have been identified which influence the quality of these interactions, little research has addressed the influence of children's achievement goals on collaborative behaviour. Aims: This paper investigates the…

  3. Parental Involvement and Expectations of Children's Academic Achievement Goals in Botswana: Parent's Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kgosidialwa, Keinyatse T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the school related activities that parents in Botswana engage in with their children. The study also examined how parents in Botswana perceive their involvement and expectations of their children's academic achievement goals. Sixteen parents (15 females and 1 male) who had children in standards five, six, or seven participated…

  4. Socially Oriented Motivational Goals and Academic Achievement: Similarities between Native and Anglo Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Jinnat; McInerney, Dennis M.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; King, Ronnel B.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the relations between two socially oriented dimensions of student motivation and academic achievement of Native (Navajo) American and Anglo American students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a multidimensional and hierarchical model was found to explain the relations between performance and social goals. Four first-order…

  5. Goals, Data Use, and Instruction: The Effect of a Teacher Professional Development Program on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.; Ritzema, Evelien S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated whether student reading comprehension could be improved with help of a teacher Professional Development (PD) program targeting goals, data use, and instruction. The effect of this PD program on 2nd- and 3rd-grade student achievement was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design. Applying propensity score…

  6. School Socio-Economic Status and Student Socio-Academic Achievement Goals in Upper Secondary Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Nathan; Archer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In recent years motivational researchers have spent considerable time examining race/ethnicity and gender differences in academic and social achievement goals, but little time examining the influence of socioeconomic status (SES). This lack of attention is surprising given that both student motivation and SES have been shown to predict academic…

  7. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Achievement and Social Goals among Chinese and Filipino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.; Ganotice, Fraide A.; Watkins, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined how achievement (mastery and performance) and social goals (affiliation, approval, concern, and status) influenced various learning outcomes in two collectivist cultures. Filipino (n = 355) and Hong Kong Chinese (n = 697) secondary students answered the relevant questionnaires. Regression analyses using mastery, performance, and social…

  8. Achievement Goals, Motivational Climate and Sportspersonship: A Study of Young Handball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stornes, Tor; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between achievement goals, perceptions of motivational climate and sportspersonship in a sample of young male Norwegian handball players. A cross-sectional study of 440 male handball players aged from 14 to 16 was conducted, in which the players responded to a questionnaire measuring…

  9. Saving for Success: Financial Education and Savings Goal Achievement in Individual Development Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstead, Mary L.; Mauldin, Teresa; Sabia, Joseph J.; Koonce, Joan; Palmer, Lance

    2011-01-01

    Using microdata from the American Dream Demonstration, the current study examines factors associated with savings and savings goal achievement (indicated by a matched withdrawal) among participants of individual development account (IDA) programs. Multinomial logit results show that hours of participation in financial education programs, higher…

  10. The Role of Goal Structures and Peer Climate in Trajectories of Social Achievement Goals during High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makara, Kara A.; Madjar, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Students' social goals--reasons for engaging in interpersonal relationships with peers-are consequential for students' interactions with their peers at school and for their well-being. Despite the salience of peer relationships during adolescence, research on social goals is generally lacking compared with academic goals, and it is unknown how…

  11. Do Goals Lead to Outcomes or Can It Be the Other Way Around?: Causal Ordering of Mastery Goals, Metacognitive Strategies, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Goal theory research has mostly focused on the unidirectional effects of goals on learning strategies and academic achievement. Reciprocal relationships have mostly been neglected. Aims: The primary aim of this study was to examine the reciprocal relations and causal ordering of mastery goals, metacognitive strategy use, and academic…

  12. Goal!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the story of his son, Joshua Pauls. Josh is an energetic young man who learned at a very young age not to let anything stop him from achieving his dreams. Born with a birth defect known as bilateral bibia hemimelia, which means he was born without his tibia bone in both of his legs, Josh was only 10 months old…

  13. Summative and Formative Assessments in Mathematics Supporting the Goals of the Common Core Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Being proficient in mathematics involves having rich and connected mathematical knowledge, being a strategic and reflective thinker and problem solver, and having productive mathematical beliefs and dispositions. This broad set of mathematics goals is central to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. High-stakes testing often drives…

  14. English Language Arts: Common Curriculum Goals; Curriculum Mapping, End of Eighth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Based on common curriculum goals outlined by the Oregon Department of Education, this curriculum map is designed to assist eighth grade teachers in evaluating and revising their current curriculum. Instructions describe how teachers can effectively use the material provided to gather information and tally and analyze results. The map consists of…

  15. English Language Arts: Common Curriculum Goals; Curriculum Mapping, End of Eleventh Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Based on common curriculum goals outlined by the Oregon Department of Education, this curriculum map is designed to assist eleventh grade teachers in evaluating and revising their current curriculum. Instructions describe how teachers can effectively use the material provided to gather information and tally and analyze results. The curriculum map…

  16. English Language Arts: Common Curriculum Goals; Curriculum Mapping, End of Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Based on common curriculum goals outlined by the Oregon Department of Education, this curriculum map is designed to assist fifth grade teachers in evaluating and revising their current curriculum. Instructions describe how teachers can effectively use the material provided to gather information and tally and analyze results. The map consists of…

  17. English Language Arts: Common Curriculum Goals; Curriculum Mapping, End of Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Based on common curriculum goals outlined by the Oregon Department of Education, this curriculum map is designed to assist third grade teachers in evaluating and revising their current curriculum. Instructions describe how teachers can effectively use the material provided to gather information and tally and analyze results. The map consists of…

  18. Working Together Toward a Common Goal: A Grounded Theory of Nurse-Physician Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Fewster-Thuente, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Working together toward a common goal is an empirically derived theory that can guide education and practice to improve patient outcomes while saving money and lives. Grounded theory was used to explore nurses' and physicians' experiences with collaboration in order to understand the process intrinsically. PMID:26665873

  19. Relationship between achievement goal constructs and physical self-perceptions in a physical activity setting.

    PubMed

    Newton, Maria; Detling, Nicole; Kilgore, Jennifer; Bernhardt, Paul

    2004-12-01

    The relations of achievement goal theory constructs and physical self-perceptions were explored with 225 students (91 men, 109 women, and 25 nonindicators; M age=23.5 yr., SD=9.2), enrolled in basic physical activity classes (aerobics, weight training, modern dance, badminton, yoga, tai chi, basketball, racquetball, gymnastics, bowling, aquatone, and step aerobics) in a university setting. Goal orientations (Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire), perceptions of the motivational climate (Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2), and physical self-perceptions (Physical Self-perception Profile) were assessed. Data were analyzed separately by sex. Ego orientation was the only predictor of Physical Self-perceptions in men, accounting for between 12 and 15% of the variance in Physical Self-worth, Sport Competence, Physical Conditioning, and Body Attractiveness. Constructs of achievement goal theory were not predictive of Physical Self-perceptions in the women. The results are discussed in light of achievement goal theory and the nature of the sample. PMID:15648467

  20. Students' Achievement Goal Orientations and Their Behavioral and Emotional Engagement: Co-Examining the Role of Perceived School Goal Structures and Parent Goals during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonida, Eleftheria N.; Voulala, Katerina; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris

    2009-01-01

    The role of perceived school goal structures and parent goals in predicting adolescents' goal orientations and their behavioral and emotional engagement in the classroom was examined in the present study. Surveys were given to a sample of 271 seventh- and ninth-grade students. Path analyses showed that (a) perceived school mastery goal structures…

  1. Values based decision making: a tool for achieving the goals of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Mills, Anne E; Spencer, Edward M

    2005-03-01

    The recognition that the success of the healthcare organization depends on its achievement of two interrelated goals is a relatively recent phenomenon. In its mid-history the healthcare organization was largely able to ignore cost issues. In its latter history, many would argue that it ignored its quality goals as it pursued its cost goals (15). Either approach, given declining revenues and a competitive landscape, is incompatible with continued responsible operation. If this is true, then tools that were appropriate when the healthcare organization was focused on the achievement of one or another of these goals are not adequate as the healthcare organization seeks to achieve both goals together. Thus, new perspectives and new tools must be found that help the organization address two intimately related but sometimes conflicting goals. Values based decision-making can be the perspective needed, and organization ethics is one tool that can be of use in supporting it within the institution. But there are caveats. In order for values based decision-making to be effective, leadership must take an active role in promoting its use. It must relinquish a degree of control and it must begin to trust its stakeholders to make decisions within the context of the organization's values and goals. This can be extremely difficult, as control by senior management is often seen as the only effective means of ensuring that correct decisions are made. There are additional difficulties in the healthcare organization. Control rests within two groups and the healthcare organization is operating in an environment in which variance elimination is emphasized as a means of controlling costs. This may be an appealing notion for revenue strapped healthcare organization leaders, but it implies greater control exerted by managers, not less. Relinquishing any degree of control is a frightening prospect, but it has been done successfully. An excellent example of leadership encouraging decisions

  2. Stereotype threat's effect on women's achievement in chemistry: The interaction of achievement goal orientation for women in science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested in the domain of chemistry, which is related to mathematics and often involves high level of mathematics skills. I attempted to generate a stereotype threat in the participants through describing a chemistry challenge exam as either one that had consistently shown a gender bias against women and to create a nullification effect by describing the exam as one that had shown no gender bias in the past. In the third experimental condition acting as a control, participants received only generic instructions related to taking the test itself. The second part of this study investigated whether stereotype threat effects could impact women's achievement goal orientations. In previous studies performance avoidance goal orientations have been associated with individuals placed in a stereotype threat environment. The findings on the stereotype threat effect were not significant for the chemistry challenge test achievement scores. This may be due to several factors. One factor may be the design of the chemistry challenge test and the instructions for the test. The other factor may be the women in this study. As individuals who have chosen a science based major, they may have developed coping skills and strategies that reduced the impact of a stereotype threat. It is also possible that the testing environment itself generated an implicit stereotype

  3. Academic Goals, Student Homework Engagement, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School.

    PubMed

    Valle, Antonio; Regueiro, Bibiana; Núñez, José C; Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    There seems to be a general consensus in the literature that doing homework is beneficial for students. Thus, the current challenge is to examine the process of doing homework to find which variables may help students to complete the homework assigned. To address this goal, a path analysis model was fit. The model hypothesized that the way students engage in homework is explained by the type of academic goals set, and it explains the amount of time spend on homework, the homework time management, and the amount of homework done. Lastly, the amount of homework done is positively related to academic achievement. The model was fit using a sample of 535 Spanish students from the last three courses of elementary school (aged 9 to 13). Findings show that: (a) academic achievement was positively associated with the amount of homework completed, (b) the amount of homework completed was related to the homework time management, PMID:27065928

  4. The effect of workshop groups on achievement goals and performance in biology: An outcome evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Wendi Kay

    This two-year quasi-experiment evaluated the effect of peer-led workshop groups on performance of minority and majority undergraduate biology students in a three-course series and investigated motivational explanations for performance differences. The workshop intervention used was modeled after a program pioneered by Treisman (1992) at the University of California. Majority volunteers randomly assigned to workshops (n = 61) performed between 1/2 and 1 standard deviation better than those assigned to the control group (n = 60; p < .05) in each quarter without spending more time studying. During Quarter 1, workshop minority students (n = 25) showed a pattern of increasing exam performance in comparison to historic control minority students (n = 21), who showed a decreasing pattern (p < .05). Although sex differences in biology performance were a focus of investigation, none were detected. Motivational predictions derived from the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation (Elliot & Church, 1997) were partially supported. Self-report survey measures of achievement goals, modeled after those used by Elliot and colleagues, were requested from all enrolled students. Volunteers (n = 121) reported higher average levels of approach and avoidance goals than nonvolunteers (n = 439; p < .05) and the relationship of goals to performance was moderated by volunteer status. Performance of volunteers was negatively related to avoidance of failure goals (r = .41, p < .01) and unrelated to performance approach goals. Performance of nonvolunteers was unrelated to avoidance of failure goals and positively related to performance approach goals (r = .28, p < .01). Mastery goals were unrelated to performance for all students. Results were inconsistent with Dweck and Leggett's (1988) theory of mastery vs. performance orientation, but were similar to results found by Elliot and colleagues. Contrary to hypotheses, motivational goals did not mediate performance for

  5. The Role of Self-Efficacy, Task Value, and Achievement Goals in Predicting Learning Strategies, Task Disengagement, Peer Relationship, and Achievement Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Arief Darmanegara; Lau, Shun; Nie, Youyan

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a combination of expectancy-value and achievement goal theories, this study examined the role of self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals in students' learning strategies, task disengagement, peer relationship, and English achievement outcome. A sample of 1475 Year-9 students participated in the study. A structural equation model…

  6. Adult Students' Achievement Goal Orientations and Evaluations of the Learning Environment: A Person-Centred Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulkka, Antti-Tuomas; Niemivirta, Markku

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the stability and change in students' achievement goal orientations and whether the students' perceptions of the learning environment vary as a function of their achievement goal orientations. Participants were 169 students of the Finnish National Defense University. The students' goal orientations and their evaluations of…

  7. Examining the Construct Validity of the Thai Version of the 2 × 2 Achievement Goal Orientation Scale among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poondej, Chanut; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita

    2016-01-01

    In the literature on motivational goals, there has been an increase on the interest of a concept of the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. However, evidences supporting the reliability and validity of this framework are still needed. The study reported in this paper was to validate the Thai version of the 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation scale by…

  8. Different Methods, Different Results: Examining the Implications of Methodological Divergence and Implicit Processes for Achievement Goal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Laura; Remedios, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal theory is one of the most popular theories of achievement motivation. Techniques researchers have used to assess goals include standardized questionnaires and interviews. One curious finding is that participants whose self-report questionnaire responses strongly indicate they operate with a performance goal do not make performance…

  9. Goals for Human Milk Feeding in Mothers of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: How Do Goals Change and Are They Achieved During the NICU Hospitalization?

    PubMed Central

    Bigger, Harold; Patel, Aloka L.; Rossman, Beverly; Fogg, Louis F.; Meier, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Little is known about human milk (HM) feeding goals for mothers of very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1,500 g birth weight) infants, especially for black mothers, for whom rates of VLBW birth are higher and lactation rates lower. This study examined the establishment, modification, and achievement of HM feeding goals during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization for mothers of VLBW infants and the influence of maternal race and income. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study measured maternal HM feeding goals (exclusive [EHM], partial, none) predelivery and during three time intervals: day of life (DOL) 1–14, 15–28, and 29–72. Goal achievement compared the goal for the time interval with the proportion of HM feedings received by the infant. Goal establishment, modification, and achievement were examined using chi-squared and contingency tables. Results: Three hundred fifty-two mother–infant dyads (53% black; 70% low-income; mean birth weight, 1,048 g) were studied. Predelivery, 55% of mothers planned to provide EHM; fewer black and low-income mothers chose EHM. During DOL 1–14, 63% of mothers chose EHM, and predelivery racial differences disappeared. Only 10% of mothers chose exclusive at-breast EHM feedings. EHM feeding goals decreased during NICU hospitalization, especially for black mothers. Whereas most mothers met their HM feeding goals initially, achievement rates declined during hospitalization. Mothers' EHM goal achievement was not influenced by race or income. Conclusions: Mothers changed their predelivery HM feeding goals after birth of a VLBW infant. Longitudinally, HM feeding goals and achievement reflected less HM use, highlighting the need to target lactation maintenance in this population. PMID:26110439

  10. Personal Best (PB) and "Classic" Achievement Goals in the Chinese Context: Their Role in Predicting Academic Motivation, Engagement and Buoyancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Kai; Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has shown personal best (PB) goals to be significantly related to students' motivation, engagement and achievement. However, research thus far has investigated PB goals only among Western samples and it is unclear to what extent PB goals hold academic merit in the Asian context. It is also unclear whether PB goals explain…

  11. On the Value of Intrinsic Rather than Traditional Achievement Goals for Performing Artists: A Short-Term Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacaille, Natalie; Koestner, Richard; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Educational researchers have examined the effect of achievement goals on student performance, and suggest that both mastery goals and performance-approach goals are beneficial, whereas performance-avoidance goals are harmful. Recent research proposes that these results may not be generalized in the domain of music. The purpose of the present study…

  12. Economic costs of achieving current conservation goals in the future as climate changes.

    PubMed

    Shaw, M Rebecca; Klausmeyer, Kirk; Cameron, D Richard; Mackenzie, Jason; Roehrdanz, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Conservation of biologically diverse regions has thus far been accomplished largely through the establishment and maintenance of protected areas. Climate change is expected to shift climate space of many species outside existing reserve boundaries. We used climate-envelope models to examine shifts in climate space of 11 species that are representative of the Mount Hamilton Project area (MHPA) (California, U.S.A.), which includes areas within Alameda, Santa Clara, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Merced, and San Benito counties and is in the state's Central Coast ecoregion. We used Marxan site-selection software to determine the minimum area required as climate changes to achieve a baseline conservation goal equal to 80% of existing climate space for all species in the MHPA through 2050 and 2100. Additionally, we assessed the costs associated with use of existing conservation strategies (land acquisition and management actions such as species translocation, monitoring, and captive breeding) necessary to meet current species-conservation goals as climate changes. Meeting conservation goals as climate changes through 2050 required an additional 256,000 ha (332%) of protected area, primarily to the south and west of the MHPA. Through 2050 the total cost of land acquisition and management was estimated at US$1.67-1.79 billion, or 139-149% of the cost of achieving the same conservation goals with no climate change. To maintain 80% of climate space through 2100 required nearly 380,000 additional hectares that would cost $2.46-2.62 billion, or 209-219% of the cost of achieving the same conservation goals with no climate change. Furthermore, maintaining 80% of existing climate space within California for 27% of the focal species was not possible by 2100 because climate space for these species did not exist in the state. The high costs of conserving species as the climate changes-that we found in an assessment of one conservation project-highlights the need for tools that will aid

  13. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx.10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders, if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  14. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  15. Predicting elite Scottish athletes' attitudes towards doping: examining the contribution of achievement goals and motivational climate.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine; Taylor, John; Dimeo, Paul; Dixon, Sarah; Robinson, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding athletes' attitudes to doping continues to be of interest for its potential to contribute to an international anti-doping system. However, little is known about the relationship between elite athletes' attitudes to drug use and potential explanatory factors, including achievement goals and the motivational climate. In addition, despite specific World Anti-Doping Agency Code relating to team sport athletes, little is known about whether sport type (team or individual) is a risk or protective factor in relation to doping. Elite athletes from Scotland (N = 177) completed a survey examining attitudes to performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, achievement goal orientations and perceived motivational climate. Athletes were generally against doping for performance enhancement. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that task and ego goals and mastery motivational climate were predictors of attitudes to PED use (F (4, 171) = 15.81, P < .01). Compared with individual athletes, team athletes were significantly lower in attitude to PED use and ego orientation scores and significantly higher in perceptions of a mastery motivational climate (Wilks' lambda = .76, F = 10.89 (5, 170), P < .01). The study provides insight into how individual and situational factors may act as protective and risk factors in doping in sport. PMID:25537139

  16. Academic Goals, Student Homework Engagement, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Antonio; Regueiro, Bibiana; Núñez, José C.; Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    There seems to be a general consensus in the literature that doing homework is beneficial for students. Thus, the current challenge is to examine the process of doing homework to find which variables may help students to complete the homework assigned. To address this goal, a path analysis model was fit. The model hypothesized that the way students engage in homework is explained by the type of academic goals set, and it explains the amount of time spend on homework, the homework time management, and the amount of homework done. Lastly, the amount of homework done is positively related to academic achievement. The model was fit using a sample of 535 Spanish students from the last three courses of elementary school (aged 9 to 13). Findings show that: (a) academic achievement was positively associated with the amount of homework completed, (b) the amount of homework completed was related to the homework time management, (c) homework time management was associated with the approach to homework, (d) and the approach to homework, like the rest of the variables of the model (except for the time spent on homework), was related to the student's academic motivation (i.e., academic goals). PMID:27065928

  17. Goals matter: Both achievement and pain-avoidance goals are associated with pain severity and disability in patients with low back and upper extremity pain.

    PubMed

    Karsdorp, Petra A; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2011-06-01

    It has been proposed that goal pursuit plays a role in the development of chronic pain disorders. On the basis of (affective) motivational theories, it was hypothesized that both long-term achievement goals and short-term hedonic goals would be related to increased levels of pain and disability, particularly in patients with high negative affect. Participants with musculoskeletal pain complaints (N=299) completed a battery of questionnaires including a novel goal pursuit questionnaire (GPQ) measuring the extent to which participants preferred hedonic goals (mood-management or pain-avoidance goals) over achievement goals in various situations. Explorative factor analysis of the GPQ resulted in a reliable pain-avoidance (α=.88) and mood-management subscale (α=.76). A nonlinear, U-shaped relationship was found among the pain-avoidance scale (but not the mood-management scale) and pain and disability. This indicated that participants who strongly endorsed either achievement or pain-avoidance goals also reported higher pain and disability levels while controlling for biographical variables and pain catastrophizing. For pain but not disability, these relationships were only found among patients with high negative affect. For disability, goal pursuit and negative affect were independently related to disability. These findings provide support for the validity of an affective-motivational approach to chronic pain, suggesting that the experience of pain and the interference of pain on daily life activities depends on goal pursuit and negative affect. Interventions aimed at improving disability in chronic pain should address both patient's goal pursuit and negative affect. An affective-motivational approach to chronic pain indicates that achievement and pain-avoidance goals are associated with pain severity and disability, particularly in patients with high negative affect. PMID:21392886

  18. Assisting Pupils in Mathematics Achievement (The Common Core Standards)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics teachers must expect reasonably high standards of achievement from pupils. Too frequently, pupils attain at a substandard level and more optimal achievement is necessary. Thus, pupils should have self esteem needs met in the school and classroom setting. Thus, learners feel that mathematics is worthwhile and effort must be put forth to…

  19. The effects of achievement goals on performance, enjoyment, and practice of a novel motor task.

    PubMed

    Kavussanu, Maria; Morris, Rebecca L; Ring, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    We examined the effects of trichotomous achievement goals on performance, enjoyment, and practice of a golf-putting task. Male (n = 39) and female (n = 63) undergraduate students participated in the experiment in exchange for course credit. Participants were assigned to a mastery, performance-approach, or performance-avoidance goal condition and completed seven blocks of 10 trials (one for baseline, four for the experimental phase, and two for the transfer phase) of a golf-putting task. Distance from the target was measured and performance measures of accuracy and consistency were calculated. Self-reported enjoyment during the baseline and experimental phases and practice during a 5-min period before and following the experimental task were also assessed. Performance accuracy and consistency improved similarly among the three groups. Individuals in all three conditions reported enjoying the task to the same extent. Mastery participants practiced for longer than performance-approach participants during the practice period. Performance-avoidance participants did not differ significantly from the other two groups. The three goals were equally effective in promoting performance and enjoyment of the golf-putting task. The differential practice results for the two performance goals suggest that they should be considered separately. PMID:19735037

  20. Wind/tornado design criteria, development to achieve required probabilistic performance goals

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, D.S.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes the strategy for developing new design criteria for a critical facility to withstand loading induced by the wind/tornado hazard. The proposed design requirements for resisting wind/tornado loads are based on probabilistic performance goals. The proposed design criteria were prepared by a Working Group consisting of six experts in wind/tornado engineering and meteorology. Utilizing their best technical knowledge and judgment in the wind/tornado field, they met and discussed the methodologies and reviewed available data. A review of the available wind/tornado hazard model for the site, structural response evaluation methods, and conservative acceptance criteria lead to proposed design criteria that has a high probability of achieving the required performance goals.

  1. Advances in genetics and genomics: use and limitations in achieving malaria elimination goals

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D.

    2015-01-01

    Success of the global research agenda towards eradication of malaria will depend on the development of new tools, including drugs, vaccines, insecticides and diagnostics. Genetic and genomic information now available for the malaria parasites, their mosquito vectors and human host, can be harnessed to both develop these tools and monitor their effectiveness. Here we review and provide specific examples of current technological advances and how these genetic and genomic tools have increased our knowledge of host, parasite and vector biology in relation to malaria elimination and in turn enhanced the potential to reach that goal. We then discuss limitations of these tools and future prospects for the successful achievement of global malaria elimination goals. PMID:25943157

  2. Chagas disease: an impediment in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Von, Anna; Hidron, Alicia; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Tellez, Ildefonso; Barragán, Maribel; Jones, Danielle; Náquira, Cesar G; Mendez, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Background Achieving sustainable economic and social growth through advances in health is crucial in Latin America within the framework of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Discussion Health-related Millennium Development Goals need to incorporate a multidimensional approach addressing the specific epidemiologic profile for each region of the globe. In this regard, addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease of American trypanosomiasis, will play a key role to enable the most impoverished populations in Latin America the opportunity to achieve their full potential. Most cases of Chagas disease occur among forgotten populations because these diseases persist exclusively in the poorest and the most marginalized communities in Latin America. Summary Addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with T. cruzi infection will contribute to improve the health of the most impoverished populations in Latin America and will ultimately grant them with the opportunity to achieve their full economic potential. PMID:17725836

  3. How university students with reading difficulties are supported in achieving their goals.

    PubMed

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L; Parrila, Rauno K; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    We examine (a) what social ties university students with a history of reading difficulty (RD) report assisting them to achieve their goals, (b) outlets available for developing social ties, (c) resources mobilized within these relationships, and (d) the impact of social ties' status on academic achievement. Participants were 107 university students with RD who were currently completing or had recently completed a university degree. Results showed that university students with RD named friends, parents, and significant others (e.g., boy/girlfriend, spouse) as social ties most often. Personal social ties were developed through social media networking sites and within close relationships, and institutional social ties through academic centers and university general services, among others. Resources mobilized among personal and institutional social ties included emotional and social support, advice and planning, writing and studying help, and goal setting. Institutional social ties also afforded job search assistance, accommodations, skill development, financial support, and mental health services. Finally, the status of employed, but not student, social ties explained academic achievement. PMID:24127482

  4. Achievement of cardiometabolic goals in aware hypertensive patients in Spain: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Banegas, José R; Graciani, Auxiliadora; de la Cruz-Troca, Juan J; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Coca, Antonio; Ruilope, Luis M; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    Despite the importance of achieving cardiometabolic goals beyond blood pressure, in the health of hypertensives, no comprehensive assessment of these characteristics has been performed in whole countries. We studied in 2008-2010 a total of 11 957 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged≥18 years. Information on cardiometabolic characteristics was collected at the participants' homes, through structured questionnaires, physical examination, and fasting blood samples. A total of 3983 individuals (33.3%) had hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg or current antihypertensive drug treatment), 59.4% were aware of their condition, 78.8% treated among those aware, and 48.5% controlled among those aware and treated (22.7% of all hypertensives). Of the aware hypertensives, 13.8% had a body mass index<25 kg/m2, 38.6% consumed <2.4 g/d of sodium, 19.3% were diabetic with 61% attaining goal hemoglobin A1c<6.5%, whereas 42.3% had hypercholesterolemia, with 38.1% reaching goal low-density lipoprotein<115 mg/dL. Only 30.7% of overweight patients received a prescription of specific method for weight loss, 17.4% of daily smokers were offered a smoking cessation strategy, and 15.8% of older patients were given a flu shot. Aware and unaware hypertensives showed a similar frequency of some lifestyle, such as adequate physical activity. In conclusion, in a European country with a well-developed, free-access healthcare system, achievement of many cardiometabolic goals among hypertensives is poor. Moreover, a serious deficiency in hypertension awareness and in the effectiveness of some lifestyle interventions among aware hypertensives is present. Greater effort is needed in the management of coexisting risk factors and on lifestyle medical advice to improve the cardiometabolic health of hypertensives. PMID:22949530

  5. [LDL cholesterol control in patients with very high cardiovascular risk. A simplified algorithm for achieving LDL cholesterol goals "in two steps"].

    PubMed

    Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Galve, Enrique; Cordero-Fort, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Reducing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) is the main lipid goal of treatment for patients with very high cardiovascular risk. In these patients the therapeutic goal is to achieve a LDL-c lower than 70 mg/dL, as recommended by the guidelines for cardiovascular prevention commonly used in Spain and Europe. However, the degree of achieving these objectives in this group of patients is very low. This article describes the prevalence of the problem and the causes that motivate it. Recommendations and tools that can facilitate the design of an optimal treatment strategy for achieving the goals are also given. In addition, a new tool with a simple algorithm that can allow these very high risk patients to achieve the goals "in two-steps", i.e., with only two doctor check-ups, is presented. PMID:25048471

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Self-Reported Achievement Goals and Nonself-Report Performance across Three Achievement Domains (Work, Sports, and Education)

    PubMed Central

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual’s drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that – overall – approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of

  7. University Students' Emotion During Online Search Task: A Multiple Achievement Goal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingming

    2016-07-01

    Endorsing a multiple goal perspective, students' academic emotions were examined with different goal profiles while solving learning tasks online. One hundred and seven Chinese undergraduates were classified based on the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework into three groups: Mastery-approach-focused, Approach-oriented, and Avoidance-oriented group. Participants' emotional states were assessed immediately prior to the task and following the task. Prior to the task, the Avoidance-oriented group reported significantly higher levels of deactivated negative emotion (i.e., bored and confused) than the Approach-oriented group. The Mastery-approach-focused group reported significantly higher levels of activated positive emotions (i.e., excited and eager) than the Avoidance-oriented group after the task. Within each group, all three groups followed a similar emotion change pattern prior versus after the search task in deactivated positive emotion, with a significant increase. In addition, the Mastery-approach-focused group also reported a significantly higher level of happiness after completing the task, whereas the other two groups did not report much change. The Avoidance-oriented group also reported a significant drop in the feeling of excitement, eagerness, anxiety, and nervousness; whereas, the Approach-oriented group reported a significantly higher level of confusion after the task was finished. Implications of the findings are further discussed. PMID:26914815

  8. Peer relationships in adolescent competitive soccer: associations to perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Yngvar; Roberts, Glyn C; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas; Miller, Blake W

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the perceived motivational climate, achievement goals, perfectionism and indices of peer relationships in a sample of young male and female Norwegian soccer players. The sample consisted of 1719 experienced soccer players (1231 males, 488 females) aged 12-19 years (mean = 14.9 years) participating in the Norway Cup international youth soccer competition. The players responded to a questionnaire measuring perceived peer acceptance and quality of friendship in soccer, perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism in soccer. Canonical correlation analyses revealed that young female players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly mastery oriented, and who were moderately task oriented and scored negatively on maladaptive perfectionism, reported better relations with their peers in soccer. Constructive peer relations were evident in that they scored positively on companionship with their best friend in soccer; they perceived this friend as being loyal and allowing of free discussion, and they reported being socially accepted by their peers in soccer. Mirroring these findings, young male players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly performance oriented, who had a moderately negative score on task orientation but a quite strong positive score on maladaptive perfectionism, reported negative relationships with peers in terms of these aspects. They also reported being in conflict with their best soccer friend. The findings suggest that the qualities of motivation have a systematic relationship with peer acceptance and the quality of friendship in male and female youth soccer. PMID:16195049

  9. Millennium Development Goals: how public health professionals perceive the achievement of MDGs

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Laaser, Ulrich; Theisling, Mareike; Tapia, Leticia; Borisch, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs. The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention. Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework. PMID:25249060

  10. Achieving Millennium Development Goals for Health: Building Understanding, Trust and Capacity to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Heidi J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical interventions promise achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals provided social-, capacity- and knowledge-based constraints to scaling up and reaching marginalized people at risk, are addressed, and balance between prevention and treatment is struck. We argue for a new approach: multi-stakeholder capacity building and learning for empowerment: MuSCLE. MuSCLE is used as a way to frame three systemic weaknesses in traditional health science and policy approaches: 1) a lack of engagement with people at risk to build a collective understanding of the contexts of health problems; 2) a lack of multi-criteria evaluation of alternative interventions; and 3) a lack of attention paid to integrated capacity building. The MuSCLE framework responds in three ways: 1) Participatory assessment of the ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political contexts of health, identifying priorities using risk and vulnerability science, and modeling drivers; 2) Selection among intervention alternatives that makes ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political tradeoffs transparent; and 3) Integrated capacity building for sustainable and adaptive interventions. Literature and field lessons support the argument, and guidelines are set down. A MuSCLE approach argues for a transformation in health science and policy in order to achieve Millennium Development Goals for health. PMID:17399849

  11. Common Core and America's High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    While the merit and politics of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have been much debated and discussed, one topic has been virtually ignored: What do the standards portend for America's high-ability students? This brief addresses that question and provides guidance for CCSS-implementing districts and schools as they seek to help these…

  12. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  13. Achieving universal health coverage goals in Thailand: the vital role of strategic purchasing

    PubMed Central

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Limwattananon, Supon; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Thammatacharee, Jadej; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut; Sirilak, Supakit

    2015-01-01

    Strategic purchasing is one of the key policy instruments to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goals of improved and equitable access and financial risk protection. Given favourable outcomes of Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), this study synthesized strategic purchasing experiences in the National Health Security Office (NHSO) responsible for the UCS in contributing to achieving UHC goals. The UCS applied the purchaser–provider split concept where NHSO, as a purchaser, is in a good position to enforce accountability by public and private providers to the UCS beneficiaries, through active purchasing. A comprehensive benefit package resulted in high level of financial risk protection as reflected by low incidence of catastrophic health spending and impoverished households. The NHSO contracted the District Health System (DHS) network, to provide outpatient, health promotion and disease prevention services to the whole district population, based on an annual age-adjusted capitation payment. In most cases, the DHS was the only provider in a district without competitors. Geographical monopoly hampered the NHSO to introduce a competitive contractual agreement, but a durable, mutually dependent relationship based on trust was gradually evolved, while accreditation is an important channel for quality improvement. Strategic purchasing services from DHS achieved a pro-poor utilization due to geographical proximity, where travel time and costs were minimal. Inpatient services paid by Diagnostic Related Group within a global budget ceiling, which is estimated based on unit costs, admission rates and admission profiles, contained cost effectively. To prevent potential under-provisions of the services, some high cost interventions were unbundled from closed end payment and paid on an agreed fee schedule. Executing monopsonistic purchasing power by NHSO brought down price of services given assured quality. Cost saving resulted in more patients served within a finite

  14. Achieving universal health coverage goals in Thailand: the vital role of strategic purchasing.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Limwattananon, Supon; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Thammatacharee, Jadej; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut; Sirilak, Supakit

    2015-11-01

    Strategic purchasing is one of the key policy instruments to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goals of improved and equitable access and financial risk protection. Given favourable outcomes of Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), this study synthesized strategic purchasing experiences in the National Health Security Office (NHSO) responsible for the UCS in contributing to achieving UHC goals. The UCS applied the purchaser-provider split concept where NHSO, as a purchaser, is in a good position to enforce accountability by public and private providers to the UCS beneficiaries, through active purchasing. A comprehensive benefit package resulted in high level of financial risk protection as reflected by low incidence of catastrophic health spending and impoverished households. The NHSO contracted the District Health System (DHS) network, to provide outpatient, health promotion and disease prevention services to the whole district population, based on an annual age-adjusted capitation payment. In most cases, the DHS was the only provider in a district without competitors. Geographical monopoly hampered the NHSO to introduce a competitive contractual agreement, but a durable, mutually dependent relationship based on trust was gradually evolved, while accreditation is an important channel for quality improvement. Strategic purchasing services from DHS achieved a pro-poor utilization due to geographical proximity, where travel time and costs were minimal. Inpatient services paid by Diagnostic Related Group within a global budget ceiling, which is estimated based on unit costs, admission rates and admission profiles, contained cost effectively. To prevent potential under-provisions of the services, some high cost interventions were unbundled from closed end payment and paid on an agreed fee schedule. Executing monopsonistic purchasing power by NHSO brought down price of services given assured quality. Cost saving resulted in more patients served within a finite

  15. It's Not Always Just about the Grade: Exploring the Achievement Goal Orientations of Pre-Med Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Gail

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the achievement goal orientations of a group of all male pre-med students attending a small, urban undergraduate college. Semi-structured interviews examined under what circumstances students adopted extrinsic goals, mastery goals, or a mixture of the two. Findings indicated that while nearly all students…

  16. An Integrative Cultural View of Achievement Motivation: Parental and Classroom Predictors of Children's Goal Orientations when Learning Mathematics in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In; Schallert, Diane L.; Kim, Myoungsook

    2010-01-01

    Our goal was to identify how students' perceptions of their parents shape the kind and degree of motivational goal orientations that they adopt in their mathematics classroom, broadening the application of achievement goal orientation theory and self-determination theory to students in Korea. Two groups of students participated, one from a middle…

  17. Examining Hong Kong Students' Achievement Goals and Their Relations with Students' Perceived Classroom Environment and Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kit-Ling; Lee, John

    2008-01-01

    This study examined Hong Kong students' achievement goals and their relations with students' perceived classroom environment and strategy use based on the multiple goal perspective of goal orientation theory. A total of 925 Grade 8 students from six secondary schools in Hong Kong voluntarily responded to a questionnaire that measured these three…

  18. Goal Importance and Related Achievement Beliefs and Emotions during the Transition from Vocational School to Work: Antecedents and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Koivisto, Petri

    2002-01-01

    Finnish young adults (n=250) were surveyed at vocational school and 8 and 18 months after graduation. Those who emphasized work-related goals and progressed in achieving them were more likely to find relevant jobs. Those whose work was commensurate with their education thought their goals increasingly achievable and associated with positive…

  19. From Self-Theories of Intelligence to Academic Delay of Gratification: The Mediating Role of Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.; AL-Nabhani, Hilal Z.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among implicit self-theories, achievement goals, and academic delay of gratification. Do achievement goals mediate the relationship between implicit self-theories and academic delay of gratification? A sample of 195 Omani high school students rated themselves on three measures tapping these constructs. A path…

  20. The Measurement Structure, Stability and Mediating Effects of Achievement Goals in Math with Middle-School Student Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the measurement structure, cross-year stability of achievement goals, and mediating effects of achievement goals between self-efficacy and math grades in a national sample of Taiwan middle school students. The measurement model with factorial structure showed good fit to the data. In the panel data (N?=?343), four achievement…

  1. College Students' Achievement Goal Orientation and Motivational Regulations in Physical Activity Classes: A Test of Gender Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Xiaoxia; McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the measurement invariance across 361 male and female college students' 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation and motivational regulations. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and motivational regulations. Multigroup CFA analyses showed that male and female students' scores were fully…

  2. The Effects of Achievement Goals and Self-Regulated Learning Behaviors on Reading Comprehension in Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernacki, Matthew L.; Byrnes, James P.; Cromley, Jennifer G.

    2012-01-01

    Studies examining students' achievement goals, cognitive engagement strategies and performance have found that achievement goals tend to predict classes of cognitive strategy use which predict performance on measures of learning. These studies have led to deeper theoretical understanding, but their reliance on self-report data limit the…

  3. Parental Behaviors and Adolescents' Achievement Goals at the Beginning of Middle School: Emotional Problems as Potential Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, Stephane; Ratelle, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Recent literature on the determinants of academic motivation has shown that parenting and emotions are central elements in understanding students' achievement goals. The authors of this study set out to examine the predictive relationship between parental behaviors during the last year of elementary school and adolescents' achievement goals at the…

  4. Configural, Metric, and Scalar Invariance of the Modified Achievement Goal Questionnaire across African American and White University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Hilary L.; Barry, Carol L.; Joe, Jilliam N.; Finney, Sara J.

    2008-01-01

    There has been growing interest in comparing achievement goal orientations across ethnic groups. Such comparisons, however, cannot be made until validity evidence has been collected to support the use of an achievement goal orientation instrument for that purpose. Therefore, this study investigates the measurement invariance of a particular…

  5. An Investigation of Achievement Goals and Time Perspective in Community College Students Engaged in a First-Year Experience Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campen, Darrin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the relationship between time perspective and achievement goals among 144 community college students engaged in a first-year experience course. A 4 X 5 correlational model was utilized to examine the relationship between four different achievement goals as measured by scores on the…

  6. Sexually harassing behavior against adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh: implications for achieving millennium development goals.

    PubMed

    Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2010-03-01

    This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data on sexual harassments of 5,106 girls aged 13-19 years selected randomly. Results reveal that gendered harassments were experienced by 35% of the girls, unwanted sexual attentions by 34%, and sexual intimidations by 14%, yielding prevalence of sexual harassments of any type 43%. Higher girls' education and household economic status heightened their risks of being harassed. Perpetrators were male young spoilt bullies (64%), neighborhood youths (30%), students (22%) and hoodlums (6%). High prevalence of sexual harassments mirrors vulnerability of adolescent girls in the community and deserves to be tackled to achieve millennium development goals (MDGs) in gender equality in health and social development. PMID:19458081

  7. The Reciprocal Relations between Self-Concept, Motivation and Achievement: Juxtaposing Academic Self-Concept and Achievement Goal Orientations for Mathematics Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…

  8. Does the NASA Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the U.S. have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle Missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth.

  9. Integrating Turkish Work and Achievement Goals With Schwartz’s Human Values

    PubMed Central

    Tevrüz, Suna; Turgut, Tülay; Çinko, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the integration of indigenous values developed in Turkey to Schwartz’s universal values. Students (N = 593) from six universities in Istanbul responded the value scale, which consists of 10 etic PVQ items (each item representing one of 10 main Schwartz values) and 23 emic WAG items (representing work-achievement goals). PROXSCAL, a multidimensional scaling method, was used to test whether etic and emic sets of values integrate and form the universal circular structure proposed in Schwartz value theory. The motivational continuum of values as a circular structure was similar to pan-cultural results, but adding another value type to the openness to change pole. While some of the items in this region represent autonomy of thought, remaining items diverge. The principle of conflicting values on opposite poles was not supported in relation to openness to change-conservation dimension. These two poles had similar priorities, contrasting with pan-cultural results, and demonstrating a culture-specific aspect of responding to motivational goals. Insights gained by emic studies will be functional in enriching understanding values, and contributing to the comprehensiveness and universality of Schwartz value theory. PMID:27247656

  10. Achievement of Vancomycin Therapeutic Goals in Critically Ill Patients: Early Individualization May Be Beneficial

    PubMed Central

    Shahrami, Bita; Najmeddin, Farhad; Mousavi, Sarah; Ahmadi, Arezoo; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Kourosh; Mojtahedzadeh, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to assess and validate the effectiveness of early dose adjustment of vancomycin based on first dose monitoring in achieving target recommended goal in critically ill patients. Methods. Twenty critically ill patients with sepsis received loading dose of 25 mg/kg of vancomycin and then were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Group 1 received maximum empirical doses of vancomycin of 15 mg/kg every 8 hrs. In group 2, the doses were individualized based on serum concentrations of vancomycin. First dose nonsteady state sampling was used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters of the patients within 24 hours. Results. Steady state trough serum concentrations were significantly higher in group 2 in comparison with group 1 (19.4 ± 4.4 mg/L versus 14.4 ± 4.3 mg/L) (P = 0.03). Steady state AUCs were significantly higher in group 2 compared with group 1 (665.9 ± 136.5 mg·hr/L versus 490.7 ± 101.1 mg·hr/L) (P = 0.008). Conclusions. With early individualized dosing regimen, significantly more patients achieved peak and trough steady state concentrations. In the context of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic goal of area under the time concentration curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) ≥400 and also to obtain trough serum concentration of vancomycin of ≥15 mg/L, it is necessary to individualize doses of vancomycin in critically ill patients. PMID:27073695

  11. The Effect of Achievement Goals on Moral Attitudes in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carlos Eduardo; Silva, Manuel J Coelho e; Cruz, Jaume; Torregrosa, Miquel; Cumming, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the hypothesis that achievement goal orientations will predict sportpersonship attitudes among young athletes, namely that task orientation will predict socially positive attitudes and ego orientation will predict socially negative attitudes. For hundred and eighty two athletes, aged 13 to 16 years completed the Portuguese versions of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQp) and of the Sports Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQp). Bivariate correlations were used to examine the relationships between TEOSQp and SAQp. Afterwards, relationships between ego orientation and score agreement in cheating and gamesmanship as well as task orientation and score agreement in convention and commitment were examined through EQS (version 5.7). For the estimation of the model, the maximum likelihood method was used. A matrix correlation between the variables (task orientation, ego orientation, cheating, gamesmanship, convention and commitment) showed positive correlations between task orientation and convention (r = 0.29, p < 0.01) and commitment (r = 0. 40, p < 0.01). Ego orientation appeared to be positively correlated with cheating (r = 0.30, p < 0.01) and gamesmanship (r = 0.33, p < 0.01), and negatively with convention (r = -0.16, p < 0.01).The fit of the model was evaluated using the CFI (0.97) and SRMR (0.04). The hypothesized model was confirmed. Task and ego orientations produced a significant effect on prosocial attitudes and on antisocial attitudes, respectively. Task-oriented goals in youth sport programs can represent a relevant framework for promoting prosocial attitudes and consequentely increment the effectiveness of educational interventions. Key points Sport seems to be an important component of daily physical activity in children and adolescents and its importance is often viewed as positive. Literature suggests that a high task orientation has a positive link with moral variables and a high ego orientation is

  12. Achievement goals and autonomy: how person--context interactions predict effective functioning and well-being during a career transition.

    PubMed

    Heidemeier, Heike; Wiese, Bettina S

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how achievement goals interact with autonomy to explain mastery of a challenging career transition. In a sample of women who were returning from maternity leave, we examined how autonomy interacted with achievement goals to explain two types of outcomes: effective functioning (i.e., self-rated work adjustment, coworker-rated work adjustment, and coworker-rated learning competence) and well-being at work (i.e., positive affect and life satisfaction). In a longitudinal design (249 employees), we found that achievement goals and autonomy had direct effects on successful return to work. Moreover, maladaptive motivational states hindered the effective use of workplace resources: Autonomy moderated the consequences associated with performance-prove and -avoidance goals. Among those who adopted performance-prove goals, autonomy improved work adjustment and learning. However, women who adopted performance-avoidance goals experienced a trade-off between effective functioning and well-being, when equipped with high autonomy. PMID:24447218

  13. Social loafing and identifiability: the mediating role of achievement goal orientations.

    PubMed

    Swain, A

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if differences in the tendency to exhibit social loafing is a function of achievement-goal orientation and identifiability. Ninety-six males drawn from 10th-grade physical education classes responded to the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Duda, 1992) prior to completing a 30-meter sprint task under three separate conditions: as an individual, in a team with individual performance identified, and in a team with individual performance not identified. Following a median split of the task and ego values reported, subjects were divided into high and low groups for both orientations. Sprint times were compared by means of a 2 x 2 x 3 ANOVA (task x ego x sprint condition) with repeated measures on the third factor. Findings revealed that individuals with a combined low task/high ego orientation were significantly slower in the nonidentifiable team condition than in the other two conditions, whereas high-task/low-ego-oriented individuals demonstrated consistent performance across all three conditions. While confirming that identifiability of performance is an important situational variable, the findings suggest that the dispositional factor of achievement orientation may interact to provide a more detailed explanation of the social loafing phenomenon. PMID:8888422

  14. Consumer-driven health care: a path to achieving shared goals.

    PubMed

    Levine, S R

    2000-01-01

    Consumers are the driving force for a transition to a best outcomes-driven health care system that values and rewards outreach, innovation, and the rapid translation of scientific advances into everyday practice. They are the engine for change that can drive outcomes improvement, encourage broader and more timely use of new knowledge, and demand mechanisms to evaluate and report the effects. Consumers alone are fueled by the passion and urgency that results from living with the effects of illness, or seeing those they care about suffer. This best outcomes-driven system will need to be defined by consumers, professionals, and scientific evidence. But to participate as effective change agents, consumers will need good information, decision-support tools, access to resources, and ongoing support from entities they trust. By putting the consumer in the center of a best outcomes-driven system, we can begin to achieve our shared goals: universal access to high-quality, affordable health care and the opportunity for everyone to achieve optimal health-related quality of life and function. PMID:11187400

  15. An International Comparison Study of Pharmacy Students’ Achievement Goals and their Relationship to Assessment Type and Scores

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Claire; Coulman, Sion A.; John, Dai N.; Tordoff, June; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify pharmacy students’ preferred achievement goals in a multi-national undergraduate population, to investigate achievement goal preferences across comparable degree programs, and to identify relationships between achievement goals, academic performance, and assessment type. Methods: The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to second year students in 4 universities in Australia, New Zealand, England, and Wales. Academic performance was measured using total scores, multiple-choice questions, and written answers (short essay). Results: Four hundred eighty-six second year students participated. Students showed an overall preference for the mastery-approach goal orientation across all sites. The predicted relationships between goal orientation and multiple-choice questions, and written answers scores, were significant. Conclusion: This study is the first of its kind to examine pharmacy students’ achievement goals at a multi-national level and to differentiate between assessment type and measures of achievement motivation. Students adopting a mastery-approach goal are more likely to gain high scores in assessments that measure understanding and depth of knowledge. PMID:25995510

  16. Examining Relationships between Achievement Goals, Study Strategies, and Class Performance in Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Li; Nietfeld, John L.

    2007-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationships between students' learning goals, performance goals, study strategies, and test performances over a 14-week undergraduate course in educational psychology. Sixty undergraduate students provided goals at the beginning of the semester and reflected on their goals, study strategies, and test…

  17. Sustaining Public Education Events through Partnerships: Joining Forces for a Common Goal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, L. R.; Clift, S.; Moore, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Well-designed public STEM events benefit both the subject matter experts and the broader community. But planning and conducting these events costs participants' time and energy. For 15 years, the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin has hosted an Austin Earth Science Week Career Day, in which STEM professionals showcase their knowledge, skills, and experiences for middle-school students. By establishing partnerships and assuming a leadership role, the Bureau has leveraged resources to host a sustainable series of educational events. Key to success was finding a common goal that all participants were interested in fulfilling. Engaging and educating students about careers in geoscience became that unifying goal. Governmental agency staffers, industry professionals, graduate students, and school administrators were all interested in this effort. The career theme also attracted a wide variety of professionals, many of whom have participated in the event every year. The biggest challenge is meeting the demand from schools for this type of educational experience. In early years, the event was hosted by a few Bureau scientists in their offices. As word spread about the event, new partners and a larger facility were required to accommodate the growing number of participants. Currently, new media and distance learning platforms are being explored for broadening the event to meet demand. After 15 years, the Austin Earth Science Week Career Day has now become a tradition. We hope it serves as a model to others interested in establishing a STEM event in their own community.

  18. The Role of Self-Regulated Strategies and Goal Orientation in Predicting Achievement of Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitsantas, Anastasia; Steen, Sam; Huie, Faye

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the predictiveness of self-regulated learning strategies and goal orientation of elementary students' academic achievement. Eighty one (n = 81) fifth graders were asked to respond to two scales. It was hypothesized that student achievement would be predicted by prior achievement, use of self-regulation strategies,…

  19. Comparing the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics and the NAEP Framework. Achieving the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Through the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Initiative, states and territories have collaborated in the development of a common core of standards in English Language Arts and mathematics for grades kindergarten through twelve that are now being adopted by states. Designed not only for the purpose of providing strong, shared expectations, the…

  20. Financial wellness awareness: A step closer to achieve Millennium Development Goals for Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Rehana; Katpar, Shahjahan; Khan, Rakhshaan; Hussain, Mehwish

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore financial wellness (FW) awareness amongst public and private sector medical college students of Karachi. Methods: A cross sectional questionnaire based survey was conducted on medical students from 3 public and 5 private sector medical colleges of Karachi from February 2011 to December 2011. All ethnic groups having age range of 18-23 years were included. A questionnaire tailored from wellness wheel evaluated the responses of FW on a four point Likert’s scale ranging from 0-3(never, sometimes, mostly, and always). Factor analysis explored common FW factors among both public and private sector medical college (MC) students. Results: Private MC Students were better in terms of making short and long terms financial goals compared to students in public sector. The students of public MC were more focused to make and restricting to given budgets (p=0.05). The FW element of keeping savings in bank account was responded more by private MC candidates (P < 0.0001) but was spent thrift as well (P < 0.0001). Factor analysis revealed two factors; ‘Financial Security Wellness’ which was better in Private MC Students (p=0.001) and ‘Care towards Expenses Wellness” in which results were not significant. Conclusion: Both groups of medical college students lacked FW awareness element in terms of caring towards financial expenses. The awareness of importance of financial security was practiced better by private MC students in terms of making short and long term financial goals and keeping savings in bank accounts. They were however deficient in the knowledge of making and restricting themselves to budgets. PMID:25878613

  1. Difficulties Experienced in Setting and Achieving Goals by Participants of a Falls Prevention Programme: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Wendy; Haines, Terry P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the ability of participants of a falls prevention programme to set and achieve goals. Methods: The study used a prospective longitudinal design and a mixed-methods approach to data collection. Study participants were (1) 220 older adults participating in a 15-week combined exercise and education falls prevention programme and (2) 9 practitioners (3 home-care nurses, 5 community workers, and an exercise physiologist) involved in delivering the programme. Data from goal-setting forms were analyzed, and descriptive statistics were used to determine the number of appropriate goals set and achieved. Data were analyzed according to programme setting (home- or group-based) and whether or not participants were classified as being from a Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) background in the Australian context. Semi-structured interviews with programme practitioners were thematically analyzed. Results: A total of 144 respondents (n=75 CALD group, n=41 non-CALD group, n=6 CALD home, n=22 non-CALD home) set 178 goals. Only 101 (57%) goals could be evaluated according to achievement, because participants set goals that focused on health state instead of behaviour, set goals not relevant to falls prevention, used inappropriate constructs to measure goal achievement, and either did not review their goals or dropped out of the programme before goal review. Of these 101 goals, 64 were achieved. Practitioners described their own difficulties in understanding the process of setting health behaviour goals along with communication, cultural, and logistic difficulties. Conclusions: Both CALD and non-CALD participants and those participating in both group- and home-based programmes experienced difficulty in setting and achieving goals to facilitate behaviour change for falls prevention. Data suggest that home-based participants had more difficulty in setting goals than their group-based counterparts and, to a lesser extent, that CALD participants

  2. Does the Constellation Program Offer Opportunities to Achieve Space Science Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.; Dissel, Adam F.; Folta, David C.; Stevens, John; Budinoff, Jason G.

    2008-01-01

    Future space science missions developed to achieve the most ambitious goals are likely to be complex, large, publicly and professionally very important, and at the limit of affordability. Consequently, it may be valuable if such missions can be upgraded, repaired, and/or deployed in space, either with robots or with astronauts. In response to a Request for Information from the US National Research Council panel on Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA's Constellation System, we developed a concept for astronaut-based in-space servicing at the Earth-Moon L1,2 locations that may be implemented by using elements of NASA's Constellation architecture. This libration point jobsite could be of great value for major heliospheric and astronomy missions operating at Earth-Sun Lagrange points. We explored five alternative servicing options that plausibly would be available within about a decade. We highlight one that we believe is both the least costly and most efficiently uses Constellation hardware that appears to be available by mid-next decade: the Ares I launch vehicle, Orion/Crew Exploration Vehicle, Centaur vehicle, and an airlock/servicing node developed for lunar surface operations. Our concept may be considered similar to the Apollo 8 mission: a valuable exercise before descent by astronauts to the lunar surface.

  3. Task Goal Attributes, n Achievement, and Supervisory Performance. Technical Report No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steers, Richard M.

    A review of the research literature on goal-setting in organizational settings reveals that goal-setting on an individual job results in better task performance. However, the processes behind their effectiveness is unclear. For example, how are various job attributes of task goals related to performance, and how do various individual differences…

  4. Disengaging from Unattainable Career Goals and Reengaging in More Achievable Ones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Hood, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Participants were 181 university students who completed measures of career development (self-efficacy, perceived barriers, distress, planning, and exploration) and goal adjustment capacity (disengagement and reengagement). We expected (a) that when contemplating unachievable goals, those with a higher capacity to adjust their goals (i.e., to…

  5. Breastfeeding: What are the Barriers? Why Women Struggle to Achieve Their Goals.

    PubMed

    Sriraman, Natasha K; Kellams, Ann

    2016-07-01

    Despite recognized health benefits for both mothers and infants, significant disparities still exist in the rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Major organizations representing the health of women and children (including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP], American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology [ACOG], American Academy of Family Physicians [AAFP], United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), the World Health Organization [WHO], and the United States Public Health Service [PHS]) recommend exclusive breastfeeding, but statistics show that although many women initiate breastfeeding, few meet the recommended goals for duration and exclusivity. This article reviews the evidence related to barriers (prenatal, medical, societal, hospital, and sociocultural) that many mothers face, and explore the known barriers and the impact they have on a woman's ability to breastfeed her infant. Strategies will be discussed to address (and potentially overcome) some of the most common barriers women face along with a list of resources that can be useful in this effort. Gaps in care and areas that need further research will be noted. This article is targeted toward physicians and other healthcare providers who work with women and who can assist with and advocate for the removal of barriers and thereby improve the health of women and children by increasing the rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity in the United States. PMID:27111125

  6. Zambian Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Views on Chemistry Education Goals and Challenges for Achieving Them in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Asiana; Mumba, Frackson; Chabalengula, Vivien M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Zambian preservice chemistry teachers' views on the goals of chemistry education, the importance of the goals, and challenges for achieving them in schools. The study sample was comprised of 59 pre-service chemistry teachers at the University of Zambia. Data were collected using a modified Likert-scale questionnaire that…

  7. The Role of Personal Best (PB) and Dichotomous Achievement Goals in Students' Academic Motivation and Engagement: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Elliot, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the role of prior personal best goals in predicting subsequent academic motivation and engagement. A total of 1160 high school students participated in a longitudinal survey study exploring the extent to which personal best and mastery and performance (dichotomous) achievement goals predict students' academic motivation and…

  8. Achievement Goal Orientations and Self Handicapping as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Intrinsic Achievement Motivation and Negative Automatic Thoughts in Adolescence Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapikiran, Sahin

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator role of self-handicapping and achievement goal orientations variables on the relationship between negative automatic thoughts intrinsic achievement motivation in high school students. 586 high school students, ranging in age from 14 to 20 (M = 16.08), adolescence students…

  9. A Path Analysis of Basic Need Support, Self-Efficacy, Achievement Goals, Life Satisfaction and Academic Achievement Level among Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Age; Danielsen, Anne G.; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' support of basic psychological needs, self-efficacy, achievement goals, life satisfaction and academic achievement level was measured in a sample of 240 secondary school students (8th and 10th grades). Correlation analysis showed significant positive relations between all of the variables, except for the relation between need support of…

  10. Besides Knowledge: A Cross-Sectional Study on the Relations between Epistemic Beliefs, Achievement Goals, Self-Beliefs, and Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Boscolo, Pietro; Tornatora, Maria; Ronconi, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the contribution of learner cognitive and motivational characteristics to achievement in science at three grade levels. Specifically, the relations between domain-specific epistemic beliefs about the development and justification of scientific knowledge, achievement goals, knowledge, self-concept, self-efficacy, and achievement…

  11. Critical factors for achieving multiple goals with water tariff systems: Combining limited data sources and expert testimony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalhuisen, Jasper; Nijkamp, Peter

    2002-07-01

    Price instruments are well-known policy handles to influence effectively residential water demand. Prices used to be set by water authorities in such a way that the principle of cost coverage was respected; they acted as prominent instruments in residential water policies in the past decades. More recently, however, price instruments are increasingly used to meet simultaneously financial, environmental, and social goals. This paper addresses four conditions for an appropriate tariff system for residential water use which are often found in the recent literature on the economics of water use. The paper analyzes the importance of background factors (e.g., low water availability) of these four principles as well as the extent to which actual tariff systems are employed in five mutually contrasting cities (Amsterdam, Athens, London, Seville, and Tel Aviv). Meta-analytic techniques, in particular, rough set analysis stemming from artificial intelligence, are applied to identify the common underlying relations between background factors and success of achieving multiple goals in these five urban case studies. The paper concludes with policy recommendations.

  12. Monitoring the performance of community forestry to achieve REDD+ goals through geospatial methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, H.; Krishna Gautam, S.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Koju, U. A.; Uddin, K.; Karky, B.

    2014-11-01

    sequestrate more and more carbon in coming years. A linear regress model obtained (AGB = 0.0543*CPA - 62.078 with R2 = 0.76) by plotting the delineated crowns from satellite image and field based biomass values at 1ha grid. The present study was conducted in order to analyse, the performance of community forestry to achieve REDD+ goals by considering a sample of pilot project site in Nepal.

  13. Malaria elimination in Haiti by the year 2020: an achievable goal?

    PubMed

    Boncy, Paul Jacques; Adrien, Paul; Lemoine, Jean Frantz; Existe, Alexandre; Henry, Patricia Jean; Raccurt, Christian; Brasseur, Philippe; Fenelon, Natael; Dame, John B; Okech, Bernard A; Kaljee, Linda; Baxa, Dwayne; Prieur, Eric; El Badry, Maha A; Tagliamonte, Massimiliano S; Mulligan, Connie J; Carter, Tamar E; Beau de Rochars, V Madsen; Lutz, Chelsea; Parke, Dana M; Zervos, Marcus J

    2015-01-01

    Haiti and the Dominican Republic, which share the island of Hispaniola, are the last locations in the Caribbean where malaria still persists. Malaria is an important public health concern in Haiti with 17,094 reported cases in 2014. Further, on January 12, 2010, a record earthquake devastated densely populated areas in Haiti including many healthcare and laboratory facilities. Weakened infrastructure provided fertile reservoirs for uncontrolled transmission of infectious pathogens. This situation results in unique challenges for malaria epidemiology and elimination efforts. To help Haiti achieve its malaria elimination goals by year 2020, the Laboratoire National de Santé Publique and Henry Ford Health System, in close collaboration with the Direction d'Épidémiologie, de Laboratoire et de Recherches and the Programme National de Contrôle de la Malaria, hosted a scientific meeting on "Elimination Strategies for Malaria in Haiti" on January 29-30, 2015 at the National Laboratory in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The meeting brought together laboratory personnel, researchers, clinicians, academics, public health professionals, and other stakeholders to discuss main stakes and perspectives on malaria elimination. Several themes and recommendations emerged during discussions at this meeting. First, more information and research on malaria transmission in Haiti are needed including information from active surveillance of cases and vectors. Second, many healthcare personnel need additional training and critical resources on how to properly identify malaria cases so as to improve accurate and timely case reporting. Third, it is necessary to continue studies genotyping strains of Plasmodium falciparum in different sites with active transmission to evaluate for drug resistance and impacts on health. Fourth, elimination strategies outlined in this report will continue to incorporate use of primaquine in addition to chloroquine and active surveillance of cases. Elimination of

  14. Financing of health systems to achieve the health Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Fryatt, Robert; Mills, Anne; Nordstrom, Anders

    2010-01-30

    Concern that underfunded and weak health systems are impeding the achievement of the health Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries led to the creation of a High Level Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems in September, 2008. This report summarises the key challenges faced by the Taskforce and its Working Groups. Working Group 1 examined the constraints to scaling up and costs. Challenges included: difficulty in generalisation because of scarce and context-specific health-systems knowledge; no consensus for optimum service-delivery approaches, leading to wide cost differences; no consensus for health benefits; difficulty in quantification of likely efficiency gains; and challenges in quantification of the financing gap owing to uncertainties about financial commitments for health. Working Group 2 reviewed the different innovative mechanisms for raising and channelling funds. Challenges included: variable definitions of innovative finance; small evidence base for many innovative finance mechanisms; insufficient experience in harmonisation of global health initiatives; and inadequate experience in use of international investments to improve maternal, newborn, and child health. The various mechanisms reviewed and finally recommended all had different characteristics, some focusing on specific problems and some on raising resources generally. Contentious issues included the potential role of the private sector, the rights-based approach to health, and the move to results-based aid. The challenges and disagreements that arose during the work of the Taskforce draw attention to the many issues facing decision makers in low-income countries. International donors and recipient governments should work together to improve the evidence base for strengthening health systems, increase long-term commitments, and improve accountability through transparent and inclusive national approaches. PMID:20113826

  15. The development of future thinking: young children's ability to construct event sequences to achieve future goals.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Janani; Hudson, Judith A

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that the ability to think about and act on the future emerges between 3 and 5 years of age. However, it is unclear what underlying processes change during the development of early future-oriented behavior. We report three experiments that tested the emergence of future thinking ability through children's ability to explicitly maintain future goals and construct future scenarios. Our main objectives were to examine the effects of goal structure and the effects of working memory demands on children's ability to construct future scenarios and make choices to satisfy future goals. The results indicate that 4-year-olds were able to successfully accomplish two temporally ordered goals even with high working memory demands and a complex goal structure, whereas 3-year-olds were able to accomplish two goals only when the working memory demands were low and the goal structure did not involve additional demands from inferential reasoning and contingencies between the temporally ordered goals. Results are discussed in terms of the development of future thinking in conjunction with working memory, inferential reasoning ability, and goal maintenance abilities. PMID:24786765

  16. WE-G-19A-01: Radiologists and Medical Physicists: Working Together to Achieve Common Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A; Ma, J; Steele, J; Choi, H

    2014-06-15

    It is vitally important that medical physicists understand the clinical questions that radiologists are trying to answer with patient images. Knowledge of the types of information the radiologist needs helps medical physicists configure imaging protocols that appropriately balance radiation dose, time, and image quality. The ability to communicate with radiologists and understand medical terminology, anatomy, and physiology is key to creating such imaging protocols. In this session, radiologists will present clinical cases and describe the information they are seeking in the clinical images. Medical physicists will then discuss how imaging protocols are configured. Learning Objectives: Understand the types of information that radiologists seek in medical images. Apply this understanding in configuring the imaging equipment to deliver this information. Develop strategies for working with physician colleagues.

  17. The effects of training and competition on achievement goals, motivational responses, and performance in a golf-putting task.

    PubMed

    van de Pol P, K C; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships between goals and effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance. Participants (32 males, 28 females; M age = 19.12 years) performed a golf-putting task in a training condition and a competition condition and completed measures of goal involvement, effort, enjoyment, and tension; putting performance was also measured. Both task and ego involvement varied across training and competition, and variation in ego involvement explained variation in effort and enjoyment between these conditions. Ego involvement positively predicted effort in training and performance in competition, and interacted positively with task involvement to predict effort and enjoyment in competition. Our findings suggest that the distinction between training and competition is a valuable one when examining individuals' achievement motivation. PMID:23204359

  18. Maximal Levels of Aspiration, Minimal Boundary Goals, and Their Relationships with Academic Achievement: The Case of Secondary-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodis, Flaviu A.; Johnston, Michael; Meyer, Luanna H.; McClure, John; Hodis, Georgeta M.; Starkey, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Maximising educational attainment is important for both individuals and societies. However, understanding of why some students achieve better than others is far from complete. Motivation and achievement data from a sample of 782 secondary-school students in New Zealand reveal that two specific types of outcome goals, namely "maximal levels of…

  19. Task- and Self-Related Pathways to Deep Learning: The Mediating Role of Achievement Goals, Classroom Attentiveness, and Group Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Shun; Liem, Arief Darmanegara; Nie, Youyan

    2008-01-01

    Background: The expectancy-value and achievement goal theories are arguably the two most dominant theories of achievement motivation in the contemporary literature. However, very few studies have examined how the constructs derived from both theories are related to deep learning. Moreover, although there is evidence demonstrating the links between…

  20. Can achievement goal theory provide a useful motivational perspective for explaining psychosocial attributes of medical students?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations), for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation). Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT), is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. Methods 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS), psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S) and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT). Results All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's α ranged from .66 to .90) and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S) (β = .16, p < .05) and negatively associated with low frustration tolerance (β = -.22, p < .05) while performance goal orientation was significantly associated with low frustration tolerance (β = .36, p < .001). Conclusions The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context

  1. Stereotype Threat's Effect on Women's Achievement in Chemistry: The Interaction of Achievement Goal Orientation for Women in Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For…

  2. The Arts and Education: Partners in Achieving Our National Education Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC.

    This action guide reflects the discussions and recommendations of the Goals 2000 Education Action Planning Process. The booklet includes a summary checklist of critical actions that must be taken by those working at the national, state, and local levels to advance the arts in the Goals 2000 education improvement process. The sections of the…

  3. Achievement Goals and Coping Strategies: Identifying the Traditional/Nontraditional Students Who Use Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed 178 undergraduates to investigate whether differences exist between traditional and nontraditional students' goal orientations and/or coping strategies and to investigate relationships between goal orientations and coping strategies. Using the variables age, marital status, parental status, and whether time was ever taken off from…

  4. The Influence of Goal Orientation on Student Satisfaction, Academic Engagement and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebken, Heinke

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: A variety of studies has shown that the type of goal orientation determines students' cognitive and behavioral reactions as well as their educational performance (e.g. Ames 1992, Ames/Archer 1988, Valle et al. 2003). Contrary to many views, this study perceives goal orientation as a multidimensional construct with different…

  5. Antecedents of Approach-Avoidance Achievement Goal Adoption: An Analysis of Two Physical Education Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Victoria; Spray, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between implicit theories of ability and competence perceptions to changes in approach-avoidance goal adoption in two specific activities in the curriculum. Four hundred and thirty pupils, aged 11-15 years, completed measures of approach-avoidance goals, perceived competence and implicit…

  6. The Influence of Momentary Classroom Goal Structures on Student Engagement and Achievement in High School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaleski, Diana Janet

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' instructional practices fundamentally shape students' classroom experiences. However, it is still unclear what patterns of instructional practice are related to specific classroom goal structures, and how momentary changes in classroom goal structures affect students' momentary cognitive engagement in high school science.…

  7. Differential Effects of Goal Setting and Value Reappraisal on College Women's Motivation and Achievement in Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acee, Taylor Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the differential effects of goal setting and value reappraisal on female students' self-efficacy beliefs, value perceptions, exam performance and continued interest in statistics. It was hypothesized that the Enhanced Goal Setting Intervention (GS-E) would positively impact students'…

  8. Goal Modification, Global-Analytical Learning Styles, and Achievement in Technical Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabalan, Danilo A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the possibility of developing different goals, mastery or competitive, on students and consequently affecting their learning styles. In the 3-week experiment period, a pretest-posttest design was used to the two intact college English classes. The outcomes revealed that the goals of the students could be modified in different…

  9. Achievement and Social Goals of Younger and Older Elementary Students: Response to Academic and Social Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Beike, Suzanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with mild disabilities experience sufficient failure to produce negative future expectations (goals), which may compound early academic and social deficits. This research compared the teacher- and student-rated goals of 57 children at two age levels, who were average learners, had a reading problem/disability (RP), and were hyperactive or…

  10. Accelerating the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Ghana: Literacy, the Missing Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagoe, Michael Ayitey

    2011-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals launched in 2001 provide a worldwide agenda to reduce poverty by 2015. Though the eight goals provide synergies for the rapid reduction of poverty, the MDGs have come under criticism for being too narrow and sometimes leaving out critical aspects of human development and well-being. Although the MDGs address some…

  11. Battling malaria iceberg incorporating strategic reforms in achieving Millennium Development Goals & malaria elimination in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V P

    2012-12-01

    .5 billion in the coming years against the annual requirement of US$ 5 billion. While appreciating the foreign assistance, we wish to highlight the fact that unless we have internal strength of resources and manpower, sustained battles against malaria may face serious problems in achieving the final goal of malaria elimination. PMID:23391787

  12. Battling malaria iceberg incorporating strategic reforms in achieving Millennium Development Goals & malaria elimination in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    .5 billion in the coming years against the annual requirement of US$ 5 billion. While appreciating the foreign assistance, we wish to highlight the fact that unless we have internal strength of resources and manpower, sustained battles against malaria may face serious problems in achieving the final goal of malaria elimination. PMID:23391787

  13. Associations between Achievement Goal Orientations and Academic Performance Among Students at a UK Pharmacy School

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Hanna, Alan; Hall, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To ascertain goal orientations of pharmacy students and establish whether associations exist between academic performance, gender, or year of study. Methods. Goal orientations were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Respondents were categorized as high or low performers based on university grades. Associations and statistical significance were ascertained using parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression, as appropriate. Results. A response rate of 60.7% was obtained. High performers were more likely to be female than male. The highest mean score was for mastery approach; the lowest for work avoidance. The mean score for work avoidance was significantly greater for low performers than for high performers and for males than for females. First-year students were most likely to have top scores in mastery and performance approaches. Conclusion. It is encouraging that the highest mean score was for mastery approach orientation, as goal orientation may play a role in academic performance of pharmacy students. PMID:26396273

  14. Endorsing Achievement Goals Exacerbates the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect on Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde; Van Damme, Jan; Verschueren, Karine

    2015-01-01

    The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) model predicts students' academic self-concept to be negatively predicted by the achievement level of their reference group, controlling for individual achievement. Despite an abundance of empirical evidence supporting the BFLPE, there have been relatively few studies searching for possible moderators.…

  15. Hard-Pressed to Achieve the EFA Goals by 2015 in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caoli-Rodriguez, Rhona B.

    2008-01-01

    The Philippines has experienced a setback in its progress towards EFA 2015 Goals. In particular, a decline in primary and secondary education performance indicators and a widening gap between boys' and girls' performance were noted. While the present policy environment in the country has been conducive to education reforms, a lack of political…

  16. A Qualitative Study of the Achievement Goals of Recreational Exercise Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Helen; Morris, Tony; Moore, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for many of today's leading causes of ill health. In-order to increase physical activity (PA) participation and information about why people engage in PA is needed. We interviewed 11 recreational exercise participants to examine their goals for participating in recreational exercise. Our results revealed…

  17. Smoothing out Transitions: How Pedagogy Influences Medical Students' Achievement of Self-Regulated Learning Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Casey B.

    2007-01-01

    Medical school is an academic and developmental path toward a professional life demanding self-regulation and self-education. Thus, many medical schools include in their goals for medical student education their graduates' ability to self-assess and self-regulate their education upon graduation and throughout their professional lives. This study…

  18. Effects of Graphing, Goal Setting, and Conferencing on Reading and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Amy T.

    2016-01-01

    Improving foundational academic skills for elementary level students continues to be a challenge for classroom teachers. This study implemented weekly progress monitoring procedures using curriculum-based measurement assessments in conjunction with weekly individual student-teacher graphing and goal-setting conferences to determine the effect the…

  19. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Goals, Practices, and Styles in Relation to Their Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spera, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The current study examines research questions proposed by an expanded version of Darling and Steinberg's contextual model of parenting. Using a sample of 184 adolescents, the analyses indicated that adolescents' perceptions of parental educational goals and values were related positively and significantly to their reports of parental school…

  20. Goals, Values, and Beliefs as Predictors of Achievement and Effort in High School Mathematics Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Barbara A.; DeBacker, Teresa K.; Ravindran, Bhuvaneswari; Krows, A. Jean

    1999-01-01

    Examined gender and motivation in high school mathematics classes through an expectancy-value framework with 366 students. Task-specific goals were much stronger predictors of effort than were any other set of variables. For both males and females, endorsing the stereotype that mathematics is a male domain was negatively related to reported…

  1. Improving Student Achievement in Alaska. Alaska Goals 2000 Annual Report, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Alaska Goals 2000 is part of a coordinated, statewide effort to improve public education for all students in Alaska. In 1997-1998, 90% of Alaska's federal funding was used to fund grants to local school districts, and 10% was used to fund state-level activities through the Alaska Department of Education. During 1997-1998, curriculum frameworks and…

  2. Achieving Citizenship Goals: Demonstrations, Engagement, and Sensitivity in Social Studies. Current Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Roberta

    1993-01-01

    Questions how the goal of participatory citizenship can be taught within the typical classroom environment. Argues that the hidden curriculum, textbooks, and instructional methods do not provide opportunities to see citizenship in action or ways to practice it. Recommends providing students with choices and opportunities for engagement in some…

  3. Achieving Service-Learning Goals in a Financial Accounting Class Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Darwin D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A financial accounting class in a Philippine university has a service-learning group project that involves setting up a simple accounting system for microenterprises. Aims: This paper examines the extent to which service-learning goals such as course learning, teamwork, civic responsibility, and impact on the client organization are…

  4. Intrinsic Motivation, Learning Goals, Engagement, and Achievement in a Diverse High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froiland, John Mark; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Using structural equation models, with gender, parent education, and prior grade point average (GPA) as control variables, we examined the relationships among intrinsic motivation to learn, learning goals, behavioral engagement at school, and academic performance (measured by GPA) in 1,575 students in an ethnically and racially diverse high…

  5. Interrelationships between Expressive Individualism and Other Achievement Goal Orientations among African and European American Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gano-Overway, Lori A.; Duda, Joan L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the construct of expressive individualism and its relationship to other goal perspectives established in sport literature. European and African American high school athletes completed surveys. Results indicate that personal expression relates to task orientation for African Americans, whereas for European Americans it relates to ego…

  6. Students' Explanatory Style, Goal Orientation and Achievement in Mathematics: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Shirley M.

    During childhood students develop habitual, characteristic, optimistic or pessimistic causal explanations for the everyday events in their lives. Furthermore, they acquire attributional patterns for their educational successes and failures which influence their attitudes, motivations and goals. In this study, relationships between primary and…

  7. The Role of Academic Help-Seeking Attitudes, Achievement Goal Orientations, and Dissertation Self-Efficacy in Dissertation Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Tisha Stoll

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored socialization variables (academic discipline, part-time versus full-time enrollment status, and student involvement with research and teaching assistantships) and educational psychological variables (academic help-seeking attitudes, achievement goal orientations, and dissertation self-efficacy) in relation to…

  8. The Effects of Different Motivational Climates on Students' Achievement Goals, Motivational Strategies and Attitudes toward Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilker, Gokce Erturan; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse whether conducting physical education lessons according to different motivational climates leads to a significant difference between students' achievement goals, motivational strategies and attitudes towards physical education. Participants (81-ninth grade students) were allocated to one of three experimental…

  9. The Relationship between Self-Determination, Achievement Goal Orientation and Satisfaction with the Learning Experience: Working with Adult Lifelong Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodd, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated how self-perceptions of self-determination and of achievement goal orientation were related to self-perceptions of satisfaction with the learning experience in a population of 495 adults engaged in non-formal lifelong learning through participation as amateur members of the United States Dressage Association.…

  10. Influence of Students' Understanding and Goal Commitment on Academic Achievement in Introductory Technology in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpan, Godwin A.; Mbaba, Uduak G.; Udofia, Aniefiok E.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the influence of students' understanding and goal commitment on their academic achievement in Introductory Technology in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. An ex-post facto survey design was used and a random sample of 2,500 junior secondary three (13-14 years old) students from a population of 48,302 JSS three…

  11. The Pivotal Role of Effort Beliefs in Mediating Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Achievement Goals and Academic Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Rienties, Bart; Giesbers, Bas; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies into meaning systems surrounding implicit theories of intelligence typically entail two stringent assumptions: that different implicit theories and different effort beliefs represent opposite poles on a single scale, and that implicit theories directly impact the constructs as achievement goals and academic motivations. Through…

  12. Does the Confidence of First-Year Undergraduate Students Change over Time According to Achievement Goal Profile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the changes in students' academic behavioural confidence over the course of their first year of academic study and whether changes differ by their achievement goal profile. Self-report data were collected from 434 participants in three waves: at the beginning of the first semester of their first year of undergraduate study, at…

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Achievement Goal Orientations during the Middle School Transition: The Contribution of Emotional and Behavioral Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, Stéphane; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Feng, Bei

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study builds on research addressing changes in achievement goal orientations (AG) across the transition to middle school. We had two objectives. The first was to identify and describe different development trajectories of AG (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance) from the last year of elementary school (Grade…

  14. Steps to Self-Determination: A Curriculum To Help Adolescents Learn To Achieve Their Goals. Self-Determination Knowledge Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Alan; Field, Sharon; Sawilowsky, Shlomo

    The "Self-Determination Knowledge Scale" (SDKS) Form A and Form B are designed as a pretest and posttest for the "Steps to Self-Determination" curriculum. The program is meant to assist students, with and without disabilities, to learn more about themselves and develop skills to achieve their goals, get support from family and friends, and learn…

  15. Steps to Self-Determination: A Curriculum To Help Adolescents Learn To Achieve Their Goals. Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Sharon; Hoffman, Alan

    This student activity book includes worksheets that secondary students with and without disabilities can use to complete each activity in the "Steps to Self-Determination" curriculum. The program is meant to assist students in learning more about themselves and developing the skills they need to achieve their goals, getting support from family and…

  16. LinguaFolio Goal Setting Intervention and Academic Achievement: Increasing Student Capacity for Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Oxana D.

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades there has been a shift from thinking less about teaching and more about learning. Such a paradigm shift from teacher-centered to student-centered instruction requires students to think about their own learning and to monitor their own learning development and language achievement. Researchers have identified goal setting…

  17. Understanding the Self-Directed Online Learning Preferences, Goals, Achievements, and Challenges of MIT OpenCourseWare Subscribers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Curtis J.; Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Kou, Xiaojing; Xu, Shuya; Sheu, Feng-Ru

    2015-01-01

    This research targeted the learning preferences, goals and motivations, achievements, challenges, and possibilities for life change of self-directed online learners who subscribed to the monthly OpenCourseWare (OCW) e-newsletter from MIT. Data collection included a 25-item survey of 1,429 newsletter subscribers; 613 of whom also completed an…

  18. Implementation of the Language-in-Education Policy and Achieving Education for All Goals in Botswana Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokibelo, Eureka

    2016-01-01

    Nations are tasked with expanding education, increasing its accessibility and quality to develop skilled labour forces needed to compete in the global world. Every nation is under pressure to strive to give their learners an opportunity to explore their potential to achieve the national and global educational goals. In learning, language and…

  19. Investigating Predictive Role of 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientations on Learning Strategies with Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltaninejad, Mehraneh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between achievement goal orientations and Learning Strategies. The sample of study consists of 350 public high school students (135 males and 215 females, mean age: 17 ± 0.65) from two high schools in Kerman province of Iran selected by random multistage cluster sampling method. In this…

  20. Profile of Administrators of Schools of Nursing, Part I: Resources for Goal Achievement. Part II: Mentoring Relationships and Influence Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Judy D.

    1997-01-01

    The first part of a survey of 441 nursing school deans/directors (324 responses) identified important sources affecting goal achievement: communication skills, interpersonal skills, and creative thinking. The second part revealed that 70% had had a mentor but only 27% did while serving as dean/director. Psychosocial functions of mentoring were…

  1. Changes in achievement goals and self-concept in the early months of junior high school.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Athanasios G; Siskos, Basil N

    2008-12-01

    Changes in goal orientations and self-concept in Greek language and physical education classes during the first months of junior high school in Greece were studied. Participants, 572 students in their first year of junior high school, responded to questionnaires assessing (a) goal orientations and satisfaction in physical education and Greek language classes, (b) multidimensional self-concept, (c) attitudes toward school and teachers, and (d) life satisfaction. The measures were collected in three sessions: at the beginning of the school year, 6 wk. later, and 14 wk. later. The third measurement followed the students' grades for the first term. Students showed significant decreases in mastery and social-approval goal orientations in both physical education and Greek language classes. They also showed negative attitudes toward teachers, perceptions of physical ability, and relationships with parents. Most differences emerged between Weeks 6 and 14. The learning environment and the assessment system in Greek junior high school seem to play an important role in the decrease of students' motivation and perceived competence. PMID:19320209

  2. A Meta-Analytic Review of Achievement Goal Measures: Different Labels for the Same Constructs or Different Constructs with Similar Labels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulleman, Chris S.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Bodmann, Shawn M.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2010-01-01

    This meta-analysis addresses whether achievement goal researchers are using different labels for the same constructs or putting the same labels on different constructs. We systematically examined whether conceptual and methodological differences in the measurement of achievement goals moderated achievement goal intercorrelations and relationships…

  3. Achievement Goals, School Achievement, Self-Estimations of School Achievement, and Calibration in Students with and without Special Education Needs in Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Susanne; Hessels, Marco G. P.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the goal orientation of students with and without special education needs (SEN) in inclusive schools. Participants were 186 students (110 boys; 76 girls) from Grade 7 (mean age = 13.83). Of these, 93 were diagnosed as having SEN, while the other 93 were mainstream students matched on IQ. Students without SEN scored…

  4. Reaching the Goal: The Applicability and Importance of the Common Core State Standards to College and Career Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.; Drummond, Kathryn V.; de Gonzalez, Alicia; Rooseboom, Jennifer; Stout, Odile

    2011-01-01

    In June 2010, the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) released the Common Core State Standards[C]. The stated aim of the Common Core State Standards is to define the knowledge and skills students should achieve in order to graduate from high school ready to…

  5. Relationships among Achievement Goal Motivation, Impulsivity, and the Music Practice of Collegiate Brass and Woodwind Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miksza, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between observed practice behaviors consistent with conceptions of deliberate practice (Lehmann & Ericsson, 1997) and the performance achievement of collegiate wind players (N = 55). The secondary purpose of this study was to explore relationships among observed practice behaviors,…

  6. Achieving Our Environmental Sustainability Goals: The Opportunities and Pitfalls of Applying Life Cycle Thinking

    EPA Science Inventory

    An increasing number of people around the world are beginning to realize that a systems approach, such as life cycle thinking, is necessary to truly achieve environmental sustainability. Without the holistic perspective that life cycle thinking provides, our actions risk leading ...

  7. The Effects of Teacher Certification on Student Achievement of Music Instruction Goals and Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkle, Janet E.

    This study focused on the extent to which teacher certifications influence student achievement in the elementary music curriculum. It examined the roles of music specialists, classroom teachers, and visiting artists in the instruction of elementary school music, hypothesizing that students taught by a music specialist will attain higher…

  8. Using Achievement Goal Theory to Translate Psychological Principles into Practice in the Secondary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Sandra A.

    2004-01-01

    As teachers begin to respond to educational reform efforts that stipulate the use of research-based practices in the classroom and translate them into feasible everyday approaches in the secondary classroom, many have turned to the field of educational psychology for guidance. This article uses educational psychology research on achievement goal…

  9. 38 CFR 21.53 - Reasonable feasibility of achieving a vocational goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Independent living services. The counseling psychologist shall determine the current reasonable feasibility of...&E) Officer is required in any case in which the counseling psychologist does not approve a program... psychologist in the Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Division shall determine whether achievement of...

  10. 38 CFR 21.53 - Reasonable feasibility of achieving a vocational goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Independent living services. The counseling psychologist shall determine the current reasonable feasibility of...&E) Officer is required in any case in which the counseling psychologist does not approve a program... psychologist in the Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Division shall determine whether achievement of...

  11. Cognitive therapy to achieve personal goals: results of telephone group counseling with disabled adults.

    PubMed

    Evans, R L; Halar, E M; Smith, K M

    1985-10-01

    Physical disability alters a person's lifestyle and can be detrimental in its effects on mood and activity. We describe a counseling program for severely disabled persons who participated in cognitive therapy by telephone. Therapy involved solving problems related to personal dissatisfaction, loneliness, or depression. The treated group reported significantly less loneliness after treatment and were observed by their families to demonstrate more social role skills than the control group. High goal attainment reported by the treated groups was significantly correlated with decreased loneliness, positive changes in social role skills, and family expectations. Treating affective problems with scheduled telephone contact should be further evaluated because of the observed effectiveness and potential for reaching homebound clientele. PMID:2932085

  12. Achieving Science Goals with CubeSats: a Study by the National Academies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbuchen, T.; Sheffer, A.

    2015-12-01

    We will discuss an ongoing study by the National Academies' Space Studies Board focused on CubeSats, and in particular their scientific potential and technological promise. Through this study, several US agencies seek inputs on the current status of CubeSat programs in government, academic and industrial sectors. The study will also make recommendations about additional investments that are needed to further increase the value of CubeSats to the science community. Furthermore, the committee will provide sample priority science goals that describe near-term opportunities, such as providing continuity of key measurements to mitigate potential gaps in measurements of key parameters- and that can be accomplished given the current state of CubeSat capabilities. We will summarize some data in the public domain about CubeSats our study is based on, and also focus on some selected science opportunities that can be addressed by CubeSats and which are part of Decadal Survey priorities.

  13. Teacher and Child Predictors of Achieving IEP Goals of Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ruble, Lisa; McGrew, John H.

    2013-01-01

    It is encouraging that children with autism show a strong response to early intervention, yet more research is needed for understanding the variability in responsiveness to specialized programs. Treatment predictor variables from 47 teachers and children who were randomized to receive the COMPASS intervention (Ruble et al. in The collaborative model for promoting competence and success for students with ASD. Springer, New York, 2012a) were analyzed. Predictors evaluated against child IEP goal attainment included child, teacher, intervention practice, and implementation practice variables based on an implementation science framework (Dunst and Trivette in J Soc Sci 8:143–148, 2012). Findings revealed one child (engagement), one teacher (exhaustion), two intervention quality (IEP quality for targeted and not targeted elements), and no implementation quality variables accounted for variance in child outcomes when analyzed separately. When the four significant variables were compared against each other in a single regression analysis, IEP quality accounted for one quarter of the variance in child outcomes. PMID:23838728

  14. How PEPFAR's public-private partnerships achieved ambitious goals, from improving labs to strengthening supply chains.

    PubMed

    Sturchio, Jeffrey L; Cohen, Gary M

    2012-07-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), established in 2003, is widely recognized as one of the most ambitious and successful bilateral programs ever implemented to address a single disease. Part of the program's success is attributable to the participation of the private sector, working in partnership with the US and local governments and implementing organizations to maximize the reach and effectiveness of every dollar spent. We examined key public-private partnerships that grew out of PEPFAR to identify features that have made them effective. For example, PEPFAR's Supply Chain Management System took advantage of private industry's best practices in logistics, and a partnership with the medical technology company BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company) improved laboratory systems throughout sub-Saharan Africa. We found that setting ambitious goals, enlisting both global and local partners, cultivating a culture of collaboration, careful planning, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and measuring outcomes systematically led to the most effective programs. The Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator and PEPFAR should continue to strengthen their capacity for private-sector partnerships, learning from a decade of experience and identifying new ways to make smart investments that will make the most efficient use of taxpayer resources, expand proven interventions more rapidly, and help ensure the sustainability of key programs. PMID:22778334

  15. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  16. Achieving conservation goals in managed forests of the southeastern coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Loehle, Craig; Wigley, T Bently; Schilling, Erik; Tatum, Vickie; Beebe, John; Vance, Eric; Van Deusen, Paul; Weatherford, Philip

    2009-12-01

    Managed forests are a primary land use within the Coastal Plain of the southern United States. These forests are generally managed under standards, guidelines, or regulations to conserve ecosystem functions and services. Economic value of commercial forests provides incentives for landowners to maintain forests rather than convert them to other uses that have substantially reduced environmental benefits. In this review, we describe the historical context of commercial forest management in the southern United States Coastal Plain, describe how working forests are managed today, and examine relationships between commercial forest management and maintenance of functional aquatic and wetland systems and conservation of biological diversity. Significant challenges for the region include increasing human population and urbanization and concomitant changes in forest area and structure, invasive species, and increased interest in forest biomass as an energy feedstock. Research needs include better information about management of rare species and communities and quantification of relationships between ecosystem attributes and forest management, including biomass production and harvest. Incentives and better information may help commercial forest managers in the Coastal Plain more efficiently contribute to landscape-scale conservation goals. PMID:19856021

  17. The effects of frontal lobe lesions on goal achievement in the water jug task.

    PubMed

    Colvin, M K; Dunbar, K; Grafman, J

    2001-11-15

    Patients with prefrontal cortex lesions are impaired on a variety of planning and problem-solving tasks. We examined the problem-solving performance of 27 patients with focal frontal lobe damage on the Water Jug task. The Water Jug task has never been used to assess problem-solving ability in neurologically impaired patients nor in functional neuroimaging studies, despite sharing structural similarities with other tasks sensitive to prefrontal cortex function, including the Tower of Hanoi, Tower of London, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST). Our results demonstrate that the Water Jug task invokes a unique combination of problem-solving and planning strategies, allowing a more precise identification of frontal lobe lesion patients' cognitive deficits. All participants (patients and matched controls) appear to be utilizing a hill-climbing strategy that does not require sophisticated planning; however, frontal lobe lesion patients (FLLs) struggled to make required "counterintuitive moves" not predicted by this strategy and found within both solution paths. Left and bilateral FLLs were more impaired than right FLLs. Analysis of the left hemisphere brain regions encompassed by the lesions of these patients found that poor performance was linked to left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex damage. We propose that patients with left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lesions have difficulty making a decision requiring the conceptual comparison of nonverbal stimuli, manipulation of select representations of potential solutions, and are unable to appropriately inhibit a response in keeping with the final goal. PMID:11784450

  18. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  19. Is Shared Decision Making a Utopian Dream or an Achievable Goal?

    PubMed

    Blair, Louisa; Légaré, France

    2015-12-01

    The idea of shared decision making (SDM) between patient and physician grew out of a generalized challenge to traditional social hierarchies that occurred in the middle of the last century. Governments have espoused SDM, thousands of articles about it have been published, and evidence has shown that it improves some of the healthcare processes as well as patient outcomes. Yet it has not been widely adopted. From their cross-disciplinary perspective (practical theology and clinical medicine), the authors locate this reluctance in the unfolding of scientific paradigm shifts, summarize the perceived risks and benefits of SDM and the evidence for each, and suggest practical, achievable approaches for clinicians. Finally, they explore some important emerging territories for SDM. PMID:25680338

  20. Furnace veneering systems of special design help achieve energy reduction goals at Armco

    SciTech Connect

    Caspersen, L.J.

    1982-12-01

    A steel company conserves energy by veneering reheat furnaces with a ceramic fiber modular system. The furnace lining system incorporates several grades of veneering materials (modules, cements, coatings) whose application is matched to the exact conditions in the furnace. Zoned linings utilize a combination of grades of alumina-silica modules to achieve thermally efficient yet durable performance. High temperature cements exhibit good tackiness, easy module penetration and high strength retention after firing. A protective coating is sprayed in a thin layer over the modules and can be easily reapplied at a later date should it be necessary. Benefits include greater thermal control (temperature responsiveness and heating uniformity), less over-firing, less fuel use, and less heat loss. Fuel efficiency is increased by 20 to 50%.

  1. Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of the Advances in Public Health for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Amal K.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC. PMID:20623022

  2. Latin America and the Caribbean: assessment of the advances in public health for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Amal K; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Gisela

    2010-05-01

    To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC. PMID:20623022

  3. Role of fuel carbon intensity in achieving 2050 greenhouse gas reduction goals within the light-duty vehicle sector.

    PubMed

    Melaina, M; Webster, K

    2011-05-01

    Recent U.S. climate change policy developments include aggressive proposals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including cap-and-trade legislation with a goal of an 83% reduction below 2005 levels by 2050. This study examines behavioral and technological changes required to achieve this reduction within the light-duty vehicle (LDV) sector. Under this "fair share" sectoral assumption, aggressive near-term actions are necessary in three areas: vehicle miles traveled (VMT), vehicle fuel economy (FE), and fuel carbon intensity (FCI). Two generic scenarios demonstrate the important role of FCI in meeting the 2050 goal. The first scenario allows deep reductions in FCI to compensate for relatively modest FE improvements and VMT reductions. The second scenario assumes optimistic improvements in FE, relatively large reductions in VMT and less aggressive FCI reductions. Each generic scenario is expanded into three illustrative scenarios to explore the theoretical implications of meeting the 2050 goal by relying exclusively on biofuels and hybrid vehicles, biofuels and plug-in hybrid vehicles, or hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles. These scenarios inform a discussion of resource limitations, technology development and deployment challenges, and policy goals required to meet the 2050 GHG goal for LDVs. PMID:21456550

  4. Achieving the 30% Goal: Energy and Cost Savings Analysis of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Wang, Weimin; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Cho, Heejin; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2011-05-24

    This Technical Support Document presents the energy and cost savings analysis that PNNL conducted to measure the potential energy savings of 90.1-2010 relative to 90.1-2004. PNNL conducted this analysis with inputs from many other contributors and source of information. In particular, guidance and direction was provided by the Simulation Working Group under the auspices of the SSPC90.1. This report documents the approach and methodologies that PNNL developed to evaluate the energy saving achieved from use of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010. Specifically, this report provides PNNL’s Progress Indicator process and methodology, EnergyPlus simulation framework, prototype model descriptions. This report covers the combined upgrades from 90.1-2004 to 90.1-2010, resulting in a total of 153 addenda. PNNL has reviewed and considered all 153 addenda for quantitative analysis in the Progress Indicator process. 53 of those are included in the quantitative analysis. This report provides information on the categorization of all of the addenda, a summary of the content, and deeper explanation of the impact and modeling of 53 identified addenda with quantitative savings.

  5. The Relationship between Goal Orientation and Academic Achievement--The Mediation Role of Self Regulated Learning Strategies--A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barzegar, Majid

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediation role of self regulated learning strategies in relationship between goal orientation and Academic Achievement. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), study strategies (metacognitive, deep cognitive, surface cognitive and resource…

  6. The association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: findings from the GOALS study.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, Martin L; De Groot, Renate H; Savelberg, Hans H; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents. Students in Grades 7 and 9 (N = 255) were included. Overall, we found no significant dose-response association between physical activity and academic achievement. However, in Grade 7 total physical activity volume (Total PA) was negatively associated with academic achievement, while moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was negatively associated with both academic achievement and mathematics performance. In contrast, in Grade 9 both Total PA and MVPA were positively associated with mathematics performance. In addition, the overall association between MVPA and academic achievement followed an inverted U-shaped curve. Finally, Total PA was positively associated with executive functioning, while executive functioning in turn mediated the associations between Total PA and both academic achievement and mathematics performance. These results indicate that the association between physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents is complex and might be affected by academic year, physical activity volume and intensity, and school grade. PMID:25356610

  7. Military and civilian emergency aeromedical services: common goals and different approaches.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, R A

    1997-01-01

    Military and civilian organizations in the U.S. operate separate but parallel emergency aeromedical services. Despite common origins, military and civilian approaches and methods have diverged. This article compares and contrasts the capabilities, priorities, safety, equipment, training and personnel of the largest military service, the U.S. Army, to civilian rotary wing (helicopter) emergency aeromedical programs. The different successes of military and civilian emergency aeromedical programs can be considered for use to improve the services of each. In general, Army programs operate larger aircraft and utilize two pilots per aircraft. Safety is a high priority and the Army aeromedical safety record is excellent. The Army also places a high degree of emphasis on crashworthiness and protective gear for the crew. Most civilian air Emergency Medical Service (EMS) programs operate small to moderate-sized aircraft flying with a single pilot. The recent safety record has improved dramatically. Civilian programs may add to their safety by considering two pilots and incorporating the crashworthy and protective advancements made by the military. Civilian programs fly with two highly trained medical technicians, nurses or physicians, equipped with state-of-the-art medical equipment. Army helicopters fly with one lesser-trained medical crewmember and less equipment. Improved combat casualty care and battlefield survival may be possible by increasing both the number and training of the medical attendants on Army aircraft. PMID:9006884

  8. Common standards for quantitative electrocardiography: goals and main results. CSE Working Party.

    PubMed

    Willems, J L; Arnaud, P; van Bemmel, J H; Degani, R; Macfarlane, P W; Zywietz, C

    1990-09-01

    Computer processing of electrocardiograms (ECGs) has over the last 15 years increased rapidly. Still, there are at present no standards for computer ECG interpretation. Different techniques are used not only for measurement and interpretation, but also for transmission and storage of data. In order to fill these gaps, a large international project, sponsored by the European Commission, was launched in 1980 to develop "Common Standards for Quantitative Electrocardiography (CSE)". The main objective of the first CSE study was to reduce the wide variation in wave measurements currently obtained by ECG computer programs. The second study was started in 1985 and aimed at the assessment and improvement of diagnostic classification of ECG interpretation programs. To this end reference libraries of well documented ECGs have been developed and comprehensive reviewing schemes devised for the visual and computer analysis of ECGs. This task was performed by a board of cardiologists in a Delphi review process, and by 9 VCG and 10 standard 12-lead programs developed by university research groups and by industry. A third action was started in June 1989 to harmonize acquisition, encoding, interchange and storing of digital ECG data. The action thus performed have become internationally recognized milestones for the standardization of quantitative electrocardiography. PMID:2233372

  9. Which Feedback Is More Effective for Pursuing Multiple Goals of Differing Importance? The Interaction Effects of Goal Importance and Performance Feedback Type on Self-Regulation and Task Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how performance feedback type (progress vs. distance) affects Korean college students' self-regulation and task achievement according to relative goal importance in the pursuit of multiple goals. For this study, 146 students participated in a computerised task. The results showed the interaction effects of goal importance and…

  10. Examining a negative halo effect to anabolic steroids users through perceived achievement goals, sportspersonship orientations, and aggressive tendencies.

    PubMed

    Chantal, Yves; Bernache-Assollant, Iouri; Schiano-Lomoriello, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the social image of anabolic steroids (AS) users grounding our analysis on the achievement goal theory of Nicholls. Our main goal was to explore how an athlete's acceptance of AS use would impact on the way that athlete will be perceived by others. Non-AS-using participants reacted to one of two scenarios portraying a male athlete either accepting or refusing to engage in drug use behavior. The results suggested that the acceptance of anabolic steroids yielded an unfavorable social image--perceivers inferred a predominant ego orientation to characterize the AS-user's motivation as well as weaker sportspersonship and a stronger proclivity for reactive aggression than instrumental aggression. Moreover, the analyses did not yield significant gender or interaction effects. Finally, those findings are commented in view of methodological shortcomings and of the perspectives that they may offer for future research concerning the motivational aspects of the social perceptions of drug use in sport. PMID:23301931

  11. Personal Best (PB) Goal Structure, Individual PB Goals, Engagement, and Achievement: A Study of Chinese- and English-Speaking Background Students in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Collie, Rebecca J.; Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior cross-cultural research with students in different national contexts (Australia and China) has shown consistency in the extent to which individual personal best (PB) goals are associated with engagement at school. Aims: This study extends this work to a multicultural context, assessing perceived PB goal structure in school and…

  12. Leadership and culture of data governance for the achievement of higher education goals (Case study: Indonesia University of Education)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putro, Budi Laksono; Surendro, Kridanto; Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Data is a vital asset in a business enterprise in achieving organizational goals. Data and information affect the decision-making process on the various activities of an organization. Data problems include validity, quality, duplication, control over data, and the difficulty of data availability. Data Governance is the way the company / institution manages its data assets. Data Governance covers the rules, policies, procedures, roles and responsibilities, and performance indicators that direct the overall management of data assets. Studies on governance data or information aplenty recommend the importance of cultural factors in the governance of research data. Among the organization's leadership culture has a very close relationship, and there are two concepts turn, namely: Culture created by leaders, leaders created by culture. Based on the above, this study exposure to the theme "Leadership and Culture Of Data Governance For The Achievement Of Higher Education Goals (Case Study: Indonesia University Of Education)". Culture and Leadership Model Development of on Higher Education in Indonesia would be made by comparing several models of data governance, organizational culture, and organizational leadership on previous studies based on the advantages and disadvantages of each model to the existing organizational business. Results of data governance model development is shown in the organizational culture FPMIPA Indonesia University Of Education today is the cultural market and desired culture is a culture of clan. Organizational leadership today is Individualism Index (IDV) (83.72%), and situational leadership on selling position.

  13. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  14. Challenges in striving to simultaneously achieve multiple resource allocation goals: the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) example

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Cathy; Elit, Laurie; Gafni, Amiram

    2016-01-01

    The pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) makes recommendations to Canada's provinces and territories (except Quebec) to guide their cancer drug funding decisions. The objective of this paper is to explore, using an economic perspective and the pCODR as an example, the challenges associated with striving to simultaneously achieve the goals of maximizing health benefits with available resources and improving access to a more consistent standard of care across Canada. The first challenge concerns how to interpret the goals in order to determine how resources should be allocated to achieve each goal. The second challenge relates to whether, if pursued simultaneously, both goals can be achieved to the same extent that each goal could have been achieved alone with the same available resources. Regarding the first challenge, we illustrate that, due to a lack of definitional clarity, it is difficult to determine exactly how resources should be allocated in order to achieve the goal of improving access to a more consistent standard of care across Canada. Regarding the second challenge, we illustrate that choosing to strive for both of the pCODR goals simultaneously will likely be associated with tradeoffs in the extent to which one or both goals can be achieved (relative to what could have been achieved for each goal alone with the same available resources). We suggest that, if the pCODR and the provincial drug plan decision-makers it supports want to strive for both goals simultaneously, they must prioritize the goals and explicitly identify the tradeoffs associated with the prioritization. This will ensure that the consequences of striving to simultaneously achieve both goals are explicit, transparent, and predictable for provincial drug plan decision-makers, physicians, patients, caregivers, and society as a whole. PMID:27489586

  15. A Review of Literature to Understand the Complexity of Equity, Ethics and Management for Achieving Public Health Goals in India

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Pankaj; Nagpal, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    In the context of inadequate public spending on health care in India (0.9% of the GDP); government liberalized its policies in the form of subsidized lands and tax incentives, resulting in the mushrooming of private hospitals and clinics in India. Paradoxically, a robust framework was not developed for the regulation of these health care providers, resulting in disorganized health sector, inadequate financing models, and lack of prioritization of services, as well as a sub-optimal achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). We systematically reviewed the evidence base regarding regulation of private hospitals, applicability of private-public mix, state of health insurance and effective policy development for India, while seeking lessons on regulation of private health systems, from South African (a developing country) and Australian (a developed country) health care systems. PMID:24701465

  16. A review of literature to understand the complexity of equity, ethics and management for achieving public health goals in India.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pankaj; Nagpal, Jitender

    2014-02-01

    In the context of inadequate public spending on health care in India (0.9% of the GDP); government liberalized its policies in the form of subsidized lands and tax incentives, resulting in the mushrooming of private hospitals and clinics in India. Paradoxically, a robust framework was not developed for the regulation of these health care providers, resulting in disorganized health sector, inadequate financing models, and lack of prioritization of services, as well as a sub-optimal achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). We systematically reviewed the evidence base regarding regulation of private hospitals, applicability of private-public mix, state of health insurance and effective policy development for India, while seeking lessons on regulation of private health systems, from South African (a developing country) and Australian (a developed country) health care systems. PMID:24701465

  17. [Why is it important to achieve the goals of treatment of hypertension…. About a case that began as ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Sauza-Sosa, Julio César; Romero-Figueroa, José Antonio; Sierra-Galán, Lilia Mercedes; Ferez-Santander, Sergio Mario

    2016-01-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is one of the most common conditions seen in primary care of cardiovascular disease and whose consequences; depending on the "target organ" affecting produce ischemic heart disease, cerebral vascular disease or chronic kidney disease. In the pathogenesis of HAS are several physiopathological mechanisms involved; of which currently, to name the most important and frequent play a role in increasing adrenaline levels, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and recently, much the participation of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia mentioned. These processes lead to an imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, coupled with hypersensitivity sodium trigger one of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypertension. SAH is currently defined as finding numbers of older blood pressure 140/90mm Hg. This is one of the diseases that most affect the world population prevalences found in age and gender groups 45 to 55% in men between 45 and 70 years and 45 to 65% in women of the same age group. In 2013 most recent clinical guidelines for treatment and the recommended goals, which has managed to reduce its complications and mortality were published; among which include vascular diseases such as ischemic heart and brain and kidney. In this paper a case that exemplifies the secondary complications in late diagnosis, damage to "target organ" by long-term exposure and inadequate compliance with therapeutic goals discussed. PMID:26549152

  18. The place of spirituality in managed care. Attending to spiritual needs can help managed care systems achieve their goals.

    PubMed

    Hilsman, G J

    1997-01-01

    If managed care leaders are able to achieve their goals of enhancing total well-being within a capitated system of care, they must attend to the broad new societal interest in spiritual perspectives and find ways to integrate them into their structure of care. Imaginative and sensitive members of many professions, particularly those who acknowledge the value of spirituality in their own lives and are convinced of its value in healing, will likely spearhead this integrated movement. Promoting individuals' total well-being necessitates an acknowledgement that everyone has a unique personal spirituality that needs to be addressed at times of crisis, such as illness or hospitalization. Further, attention to the spiritual dimensions of problems that result in high healthcare costs, such as violence, alcoholism, and the fear of death, can help reduce those costs. The process of grief also needs to be addressed in healthcare settings, for professionals as well as patients, to enhance understanding, acceptance, and the quality of care. People recover and retain health through a balanced integration of physical, spiritual, and community aspects of their lives. If professional chaplains who have emphasized crisis and acute care in their ministry styles are to contribute to this integrative healing and its adoption into managed care systems, they may need to explore broader frameworks, holistic concepts of healing processes, motivations for self-care, and a personal holistic balance. PMID:10165750

  19. Fear of Failure, 2x2 Achievement Goal and Self-Handicapping: An Examination of the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lung Hung; Wu, Chia-Huei; Kee, Ying Hwa; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Shui, Shang-Hsueh

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the hierarchical model of achievement motivation [Elliot, A. J. (1997). Integrating the "classic" and "contemporary" approaches to achievement motivation: A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. In P. Pintrich & M. Maehr (Eds.), "Advances in motivation and achievement" (Vol. 10, pp. 143-179).…

  20. Effects of teachers' assessment practices on ninth grade students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations in Muscat science classrooms in the Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Kharusi, Hussain A.

    2007-12-01

    Classroom assessment is a continual activity for teachers to improve the quality of instruction and motivate students to learn (Brookhart, 1999; Gronlund, 2006). Although there is a great deal of research on teachers' classroom assessment practices, few empirical research attempts have been made to link these practices to students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and motivation defined in terms of achievement goal orientations. This study examined teachers' assessment practices within the framework of classroom assessment literature and achievement goal theory. More specifically, the purposes of this study were to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations and to investigate the possible effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on perceived classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. The participants were 1,636 ninth grade students and their corresponding 83 science teachers enrolled in public schools within Muscat educational region in Oman during the spring semester 2007. Two questionnaires were developed and used, one for students and one for teachers. The student's questionnaire focused on students' perceived classroom assessment environment, achievement goal orientations, and academic self-efficacy. The teacher's questionnaire focused on teachers' frequent uses of traditional assessments, alternative assessments, and classroom assessment practices recommended by experts of educational measurement and assessment. Principal components/exploratory factor analyses (PCA/EFA) were conducted to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were employed to examine the effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment

  1. Effects of teachers' assessment practices on ninth grade students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations in Muscat science classrooms in the Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Kharusi, Hussain A.

    2007-12-01

    Classroom assessment is a continual activity for teachers to improve the quality of instruction and motivate students to learn (Brookhart, 1999; Gronlund, 2006). Although there is a great deal of research on teachers' classroom assessment practices, few empirical research attempts have been made to link these practices to students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and motivation defined in terms of achievement goal orientations. This study examined teachers' assessment practices within the framework of classroom assessment literature and achievement goal theory. More specifically, the purposes of this study were to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations and to investigate the possible effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on perceived classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. The participants were 1,636 ninth grade students and their corresponding 83 science teachers enrolled in public schools within Muscat educational region in Oman 2 during the spring semester 2007. Two questionnaires were developed and used, one for students and one for teachers. The student's questionnaire focused on students' perceived classroom assessment environment, achievement goal orientations, and academic selfefficacy. The teacher's questionnaire focused on teachers' frequent uses of traditional assessments, alternative assessments, and classroom assessment practices recommended by experts of educational measurement and assessment. Principal components/exploratory factor analyses (PCA/EFA) were conducted to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were employed to examine the effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment

  2. Goal Disengagement Capacities and Severity of Disease across Older Adulthood: The Sample Case of the Common Cold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobin, Joelle; Wrosch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    This study examined age-related associations between goal disengagement capacities, emotional distress, and disease severity across older adulthood. Given that an age-related increase in the experience of stressors might render important goals unattainable, it is expected that goal disengagement capacities would predict a decrease in the severity…

  3. What Is the Nature of the Achievement Gap, Why Does It Persist and Are Government Goals Sufficient to Create Social Justice in the Education System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ruth; Burton, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The "achievement gap"--the term typically used to refer to differences in pupil attainment associated with social class, ethnicity and gender--remains an enduring obstacle to government goals of creating a socially just society. This article explores the nature of the achievement gap and some of the mechanisms that serve to perpetuate disadvantage…

  4. Effects of Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Goals on Student Achievement Using Computer-Based Drill-and-Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Christine M.; Rieth, Herbert J.

    1991-01-01

    Forty-six mildly handicapped junior high school students were paired and assigned to cooperative, competitive, individualistic, and no goal control conditions in a computer-assisted computational setting. Findings indicated students improved rates of correct responding regardless of goal condition. (Author/DB)

  5. Diabetes treatment patterns and goal achievement in primary diabetes care (DiaRegis) - study protocol and patient characteristics at baseline

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for disease and treatment related complications after the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data from clinical practice with respect to this patient group are however scarce. Therefore we set up a registry in primary care documenting the course and outcomes of this patient group. Methods Diabetes Treatment Patterns and Goal Achievement in Primary Diabetes Care (DiaRegis) is a prospective, observational, German, multicenter registry including patients with type-2 diabetes in which oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data were recorded at baseline and will be prospectively documented during visits at 6 ± 1, 12 ± 2 and 24 ± 2 months. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of patients with at least 1 episode of severe hypoglycemia within one year. Results 313 primary care offices included 4,048 patients between June 2009 and March 2010 of which 3,810 patients fulfilled the in- and exclusion criteria. 46.7% of patients were female; patients had a median diabetes duration of 5.5 years and most were obese with respect to BMI or waist circumference. HbA1c at baseline was 7.4%, fasting plasma glucose 142 mg/dl and postprandial glucose 185 mg/dl. Co-morbidity in this patient population was substantial with 17.9% having coronary artery disease, 14.4% peripheral neuropathy, 9.9% heart failure and 6.0% peripheral arterial disease. 68.6% of patients received oral monotherapy, 31.4% dual oral combination therapy. The most frequent antidiabetic agent used as monotherapy was metformin (79.0%) followed by sulfonylureas (14.8%). Conclusions DiaRegis is a large, prospective registry in primary diabetes care to document the course and outcomes of patients with type-2 diabetes in which the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. The two year follow-up will allow for a prospective evaluation of these patients during multiple

  6. Occult peripheral artery disease is common and limits the benefit achieved in cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Tam, Marty C; Longenecker, Chris T; Chow, Chen; Vest, Marianne; Sukeena, Richard; Madan Mohan, Sri K; Carman, Teresa; Parikh, Sahil A; Josephson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has proven morbidity and mortality benefits in cardiovascular disease, which directly correlates with exercise performance achieved. Many patients in CR exercise at sub-optimal levels, without obvious limitations. Occult lower-extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) may be a determinant of diminished exercise capacity and reduced benefit obtained from traditional CR. In this prospective study of 150 consecutive patients enrolled in Phase II CR, we describe the prevalence of PAD, the utility of externally validated screening questionnaires, and the observed impact on CR outcomes. Abnormal ankle-brachial indices (ABI) (< 0.9 and >1.4) were observed in 19% of those studied. The Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire was insensitive for detecting PAD by low ABI in this population, and the Walking Impairment Questionnaire and a modified Gardner protocol demonstrated a lack of typical symptoms with low levels of activity. Importantly, at completion of traditional CR, exercise improvement measured in metabolic equivalents (METs) was worse in those with a low ABI compared to those with a normal ABI (+1.39 vs +2.41 METs, p = 0.002). In conclusion, PAD is common in patients in Phase II CR and often clinically occult. Screening based on standard questionnaires appears insensitive in this population, suggesting a need for a broad-based screening strategy with ABI measurements. In this study, undiagnosed PAD significantly attenuated improvements in exercise performance, which potentially has bearings on future clinical events. PMID:26850114

  7. GLAMOR – OR HOW WE ACHIEVED A COMMON UNDERSTANDING ON THE DECREASE OF GLASS DISSOLUTION KINETICS

    SciTech Connect

    Van Iseghem, Pierre; Aerstens, Marc; Gin, Stephane; Deneele, Dimitri; Grambow, Bernd; Strachan, Denis M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Wicks, George G.

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the EC funded GLAMOR project was to achieve a common understanding of the processes that control the decrease of the dissolution rate of high-level waste glass in water when silica becomes saturated. Is the affinity controlled concept, or the protective layer concept dominating? The following steps were taken: (1) review of the literature, (2) selection of an experimental dataset, and selection of the models r(t) and GM2003, and (3) application by the GLAMOR partners of the models to the datasets. The main focus has been on dissolution tests in pure water at different values of surface to volume and pH. Some of the main conclusions were: (1) both affinity and protective layer concepts must be considered in the interpretation of the rate decreasing stage, (2) the residual dissolution rate observed beyond the silica saturation stage is far more important in view of the long-term performance of the glass, and deserves more attention in future R&D. GLAMOR also discussed in detail the modelling parameters such as the silica saturation concentration, the silica diffusion coefficient, the silica retention factor in the reaction layer, and the water diffusion coefficient.

  8. Comparative Study of Vibration Stability at Operating Light Source Facilities and Lessons Learned in Achieving NSLS II Stability Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Simos,N.; Fallier, M.; Amick, H.

    2008-06-23

    In an effort to ensure that the stability goals of the NSLS II will be met once the accelerator structure is set on the selected BNL site a comprehensive evaluation of the ground vibration observed at existing light source facilities has been undertaken. The study has relied on measurement data collected and reported by the operating facilities as well as on new data collected in the course of this study. The primary goal of this comprehensive effort is to compare the green-field conditions that exist in the various sites both in terms of amplitude as well as frequency content and quantify the effect of the interaction of these accelerator facilities with the green-field vibration. The latter represents the ultimate goal of this effort where the anticipated motion of the NSLS II ring is estimated prior to its construction and compared with the required stability criteria.

  9. Achieving Academic Goals through Place-Based Learning: Students in Five States Show How To Do It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, Elaina

    2003-01-01

    Place-based education roots learning in real issues and needs and helps students become both academic achievers and good citizens. This article profiles programs in five states that are fostering academic achievement. The Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative (AKRSI) links Alaska Native culture and indigenous knowledge with the formal educational…

  10. Advanced Proficiency for Foreign Language Teacher Candidates: What Can We Do to Help Them Achieve This Goal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lynn; Fonseca-Greber, Bonnibeth; Foell, Kristie

    2006-01-01

    This article examines various issues related to the development of advanced proficiency by foreign language teacher candidates with the goal of providing information and strategies for teacher educators and administrators at the university level. Recent changes in the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) requirements…

  11. Teachers' Self-Efficacy, Achievement Goals, Attitudes and Intentions to Implement the New Greek Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorozidis, Georgios; Papaioannou, Athanasios

    2011-01-01

    The network of relations between Physical Education (PE) teachers' self-efficacy, goal orientations, attitudes, intentions and behaviours concerning the implementation of a new PE curriculum was examined. Participants were 290 Greek junior high school PE teachers. Two years after the introduction of the new curriculum, participants responded to…

  12. Students' Beliefs and Intentions to Play with Peers with Disabilities in Physical Education: Relationships with Achievement and Social Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrusnikova, Iva; Dillon, Suzanna Rocco

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated beliefs and physical education goals associated with intentions of students without disabilities to play with a hypothetical peer with a physical disability in general physical education (GPE). The Children's Intentions to Play with Peers with Disabilities in Middle School Physical Education (CBIPPD-MPE), the Task and Ego…

  13. The Effects of Concept Mapping and Academic Self-Efficacy on Mastery Goals and Reading Comprehension Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Andrew; Kim, Wonsun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of concept mapping on mastery goal orientation and academic self-efficacy in a collaborative learning environment. The current study employed a randomized controlled pretest-posttest group design to examine if learning strategies such as concept mapping can help students with both reading…

  14. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students-that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status-a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals-as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison-the higher the students' WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  15. Effective use of risk assessments and the public comment process to achieve acceptable remediation goals for mercury-contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.Q.; Barnett, M.

    1996-04-01

    As a result of recalculating risk levels using new information, the remediation goals and cleanup strategy for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplains have been significantly changed to reflect an important reduction in cleanup costs while ensuring protectionof human health and the environment. This project and its stakeholders have made the risk assessment more effective by better defining the contaminant and adjusting assessment parameters. As a result, the remediation goal initially set at 50 ppM Hg has been changed to 400 ppM, resulting in significant reductions in both the destruction of the floodplain landscape and project costs. Volume of soils to be excavated has been decreased from 1 million cubic yards to 25,000 cubic yards, and the cost has been reduced from about $1 billion to less than $20 million. The Record of Decision for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek was approved in August 1995.

  16. Toward a National Standard for Oregon's Common Curriculum Goals: A Series of Briefing Papers for Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    A framework for the revision of Oregon's curriculum goals is presented in this set of briefing papers. The papers offer information to help administrators and other educators understand curricular and instructional trends in each of the state's eight required subject areas: mathematics, science, English language arts, social studies, art, music,…

  17. Examining the Self-Congruent Engagement Hypothesis: The Link between Academic Self-Schemas, Motivational Goals, Learning Approaches and Achievement within an Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chi-hung Clarence

    2014-01-01

    Academic self-schemas are important cognitive frames capable of guiding students' learning engagement. Using a cohort of Year 10 Australian students, this longitudinal study examined the self-congruence engagement hypothesis which maintains that there is a close relationship among academic self-schemas, achievement goals, learning approaches,…

  18. Reliability and Validity Evidence of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire in a Sample of Spanish Students of Compulsory Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Castejon, Juan L.; Valle, Antonio; Delgado, Beatriz; Marzo, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the Spanish version of the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ) using a sample of 2,022 (51.1% boys) Spanish students from grades 7 to 10. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the correlated three-factor structure of the AGTQ in this sample: Learning…

  19. Perceived Structure and Achievement Goals as Predictors of Students' Self-Regulated Learning and Affect and the Mediating Role of Competence Need Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouratidis, Athanasios; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Michou, Aikaterini; Lens, Willy

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which perceived structure and personal achievement goals could explain students' effective learning strategies and affect-related experiences in a sample of Greek adolescent students (N = 606; 45.4% males; mean age: M = 15.05, SD = 1.43). Having controlled for students' social desirability responses, we used…

  20. The Effects of a Growth Mindset Intervention on the Beliefs about Intelligence, Effort Beliefs, Achievement Goal Orientations, and Academic Self-Efficacy of LD Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldridge, Mary Caufield

    2010-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a "growth mindset" intervention on the beliefs about intelligence, effort beliefs, achievement goals, and academic self-efficacy of learning disabled (LD) students with reading difficulties. The treatment group consisted of 12 high school LD students with reading difficulties. This…

  1. Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire across Gender and Age in a Sample of Spanish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Castejon, Juan L.; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Valle, Antonio; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Delgado, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of scores on the Spanish version of the "Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire" (AGTQ) across gender and age groups in 2022 Spanish students (51.1% boys) in grades 7 through 10. The equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses.…

  2. The student-institution fit at university: interactive effects of academic competition and social class on achievement goals

    PubMed Central

    Sommet, Nicolas; Quiamzade, Alain; Jury, Mickaël; Mugny, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    As compared to continuing-generation students, first-generation students are struggling more at university. In the present article, we question the unconditional nature of such a phenomenon and argue that it depends on structural competition. Indeed, most academic departments use harsh selection procedure all throughout the curriculum, fostering between-student competition. In these departments, first-generation students tend to suffer from a lack of student-institution fit, that is, inconsistencies with the competitive institution’s culture, practices, and identity. However, one might contend that in less competitive academic departments continuing-generation students might be the ones experiencing a lack of fit. Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the consequences of such a context- and category-dependent lack of fit on the endorsement of scholastically adaptive goals. We surveyed N = 378 first- and continuing-generation students from either a more competitive or a less competitive department in their first or final year of bachelor’s study. In the more competitive department, first-to-third year decrease of mastery goals (i.e., the desire to learn) was found to be steeper for first- than for continuing-generation students. In the less competitive department, the reversed pattern was found. Moreover, first-to-third year decrease of performance goals (i.e., the desire to outperform others) was found to be steeper within the less competitive department but did not depend on social class. This single-site preliminary research highlights the need to take the academic context into account when studying the social class graduation gap. PMID:26124732

  3. The student-institution fit at university: interactive effects of academic competition and social class on achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Sommet, Nicolas; Quiamzade, Alain; Jury, Mickaël; Mugny, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    As compared to continuing-generation students, first-generation students are struggling more at university. In the present article, we question the unconditional nature of such a phenomenon and argue that it depends on structural competition. Indeed, most academic departments use harsh selection procedure all throughout the curriculum, fostering between-student competition. In these departments, first-generation students tend to suffer from a lack of student-institution fit, that is, inconsistencies with the competitive institution's culture, practices, and identity. However, one might contend that in less competitive academic departments continuing-generation students might be the ones experiencing a lack of fit. Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the consequences of such a context- and category-dependent lack of fit on the endorsement of scholastically adaptive goals. We surveyed N = 378 first- and continuing-generation students from either a more competitive or a less competitive department in their first or final year of bachelor's study. In the more competitive department, first-to-third year decrease of mastery goals (i.e., the desire to learn) was found to be steeper for first- than for continuing-generation students. In the less competitive department, the reversed pattern was found. Moreover, first-to-third year decrease of performance goals (i.e., the desire to outperform others) was found to be steeper within the less competitive department but did not depend on social class. This single-site preliminary research highlights the need to take the academic context into account when studying the social class graduation gap. PMID:26124732

  4. The Validity of Goal Achievement as an Outcome Measure in Physical Rehabilitation Day Hospitals for Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneebone, Ian I.; Hurn, Jane S.; Raisbeck, Elizabeth; Cropley, Mark; Khoshnaw, Hiro; Milton, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    Physical rehabilitation day hospitals are widely used community-based services designed to meet the medical and rehabilitation needs of older people. While there is evidence for the effectiveness of these services, concerns about the shortcomings of how this is measured have led to the recommendation that the achievement of individually tailored…

  5. SB08 212 Legislative Update Report: Colorado's Achievement Plan for Kids (CAP4K) 2010 Goals and Accomplishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper serves as the Colorado Department of Education's (CDE's) third annual update on the progress and plan for the implementation of the Colorado Achievement Plan for Kids (CAP4K). Enclosed within this report is a narrative that documents accomplishments to date with respect to key deliverables, as well as supporting appendices, including…

  6. The Can-Do Central Office: With an Eye on Student Achievement, Illinois District Redefines Its Roles and Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Deanne; Kachur, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    Facing a superintendent change in 2006-2007, Decatur Public School District 61 in Illinois was already confronting the major challenges of a widening student achievement gap, increasing dropout rate, and schools not meeting Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). From the beginning, Superintendent Gloria J. Davis professed several simple beliefs that…

  7. The Place of Multiple Intelligence in Achieving the Objectives and Goals of Open and Distance Learning Institutions: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo, Olugbenga David; Olakulehin, Felix Kayode

    2006-01-01

    This paper examined the nature of open and distance learning institutions as organizations where synergy of efforts of all personnel is required in order to achieve the aims and objectives of the institution. It explored the huge infrastructural and personnel requirements of distance learning institutions, especially at inception, and the…

  8. Sub-optimal achievement of guideline-derived lipid goals in management of diabetes patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, despite high use of evidence-based therapies.

    PubMed

    DeGuzman, Pamela B; Akosah, Kwame O; Simpson, Allan G; Barbieri, Kirk E; Megginson, Gregory C; Goldberg, Randal I; Beller, George A

    2012-04-01

    Guidelines recommend aggressive goals for lipid and blood pressure reduction for high risk patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic coronary disease. However, it remains unclear how many patients achieve treatment goals versus the number of people merely placed on treatment. We conducted an observational study in an academic cardiology clinic. A total of 926 patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and concomitant diabetes mellitus met criteria. Mean age was 68.4 ± 10.2, 65.6% were male, and 86.8% were Caucasian. By the last visit a high percentage of patients were receiving recommended medications. Mean LDL-cholesterol achieved was 80.4 mg/dl with 40.9% reaching ≤ 70 mg/dl, and 61.7% reaching SBP ≤ 130 mmHg. Many patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease are prescribed recommended medications; however, few achieve guidelines-specified therapeutic goals for LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure. Studies evaluating performance improvement should include percentage of patients reaching treatment goals. Mechanisms underlying the treatment gap need to be identified and addressed. PMID:22234950

  9. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students—that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status—a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals—as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison—the higher the students’ WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  10. Using Common Formative Assessments to Promote Student Achievement: A Case Study of Practice, Leadership, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Patricia T. C.

    2012-01-01

    It is the moral responsibility of educators to work diligently to provide every student with rich, challenging coursework in efforts to prepare them for post high school careers and education. The use of common formative assessments provides teachers with the valuable, timely information they need to make instructional decisions that will better…

  11. The interaction between dietary and life goals: using goal systems theory to explore healthy diet and life goals

    PubMed Central

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Wright, Julie A.; Migneault, Jeffrey P.; Quintiliani, Lisa; Friedman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the types of life and dietary goals individuals report and how these goal domains interact as framed by goal systems theory. Methods: This work is a cross-sectional survey study. Measures included the incidence of common life and dietary goals and how these goals interact with and facilitate each other. Results: The results of a quantitative survey (n = 46 participants), which was informed by two focus groups (n = 17 participants), showed that participants are trying to achieve several different life (e.g. achieving financial success) and dietary goals (e.g. eating more fruits and vegetables, drinking more water, and losing weight) and that these two types of goals interact to both facilitate and conflict with each other. Having a life goal of exercising was significantly associated with healthy eating goals when compared with other life goals (p's < .05), suggesting these goals may be linked and help to facilitate one another. Being in the maintenance phase with the goal of healthy eating was associated with participants feeling like they were more successful in their other non-diet-related health goals (p < .05), suggesting maintenance of goals can facilitate success in achieving other goals. Conclusions: Life goals can have an impact on a person's ability to achieve and maintain dietary and other health goals. Health educators may help to facilitate long-term behavior change by examining a person's life goals as well as dietary goals. PMID:25750817

  12. Biotech crops: imperative for achieving the millenium development goals and sustainability of agriculture in the climate change era.

    PubMed

    Husaini, Amjad M; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnological intervention in the development of crops has opened new vistas in agriculture. Central to the accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), biotech-agriculture is essential in meeting these targets. Biotech crops have already made modest contributions toward ensuring food and nutrition security by reducing losses and increasing productivity, with less pesticide input. These crops could help address some of the major challenges in agriculture-based economies created by climate change. Projections of global climate change expect the concentration of greenhouse gases to increase, aridization of the environment to increase, temperature fluctuations to occur sharply and frequently, and spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall to be disturbed-all of which will increase abiotic stress-related challenges to crops. Countering these challenges and to meet the food requirement of the ever-increasing world population (expected to reach 9 billion by 2030) we need to (1) develop and use biotech crops for mitigating adverse climatic changes; (2) develop biotech crops resilient to adverse environmental conditions; and (3) address the issues/non-issues raised by NGO's and educate the masses about the benefits of biotech crops. PMID:23160541

  13. Free solar lanterns to below poverty line girls in India: a step toward achieving millennium development goals.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Development sectors like health cannot function in isolation. Intersectoral coordination between various departments helps in bringing a positive change in the health-seeking behavior of society in the long run. The decision by the Government of India to provide free solar lanterns (lamps) to the school-going girls of below poverty line families is a welcome step in this context. This initiative would help in reducing the number of school dropout girls and thus help in improving the health indicators that are directly related to women's education. Thus it is an initiative that will help in attainment of Millennium Development Goals through women's education and empowerment. Along with that, the environment-friendly approach will definitely have an impact on health of the girls by switching from kerosene/wood stoves to solar lantern light. Also this initiative would pave the path of real "intersectoral coordination" in the health sector in India that is marred with watertight functioning of various departments. There is an urgent need to popularize the scheme and involve different stakeholders like corporate houses, media, nongovernment organizations, multinational welfare agencies, and local governing bodies for ensuring the availability and utilization of solar lanterns in India. PMID:24802214

  14. Superconducting Resonators Development for the FRIB and ReA Linacs at MSU: Recent Achievements and Future Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Facco, A; Binkowski, J; Compton, C; Crisp, J L; Dubbs, L J; Elliot, K; Harle, L L; Hodek, M; Johnson, M J; Leitner, D; Leitner, M; Malloch, I M; Miller, S J; Oweiss, R; Popielarski, J; Popielarski, L; Saito, K; Wei, J; Wlodarczak, J; Xu, Y; Zhang, Y; Zheng, Z; Burrill, A; Davis, G K; Macha, K; Reilly, A V

    2012-07-01

    The superconducting driver and post-accelerator linacs of the FRIB project, the large scale radioactive beam facility under construction at MSU, require the construction of about 400 low-{beta} Quarter-wave (QWR) and Half-wave resonators (HWR) with four different optimum velocities. 1st and 2nd generation prototypes of {beta}{sub 0} = 0.041 and 0.085 QWRs and {beta}{sub 0} = 0.53 HWRs have been built and tested, and have more than fulfilled the FRIB and ReA design goals. The present cavity surface preparation at MSU allowed production of low-{beta} cavities nearly free from field emission. The first two cryostats of {beta}{sub 0} = 0.041 QWRs are now in operation in the ReA3 linac. A 3rd generation design of the FRIB resonators allowed to further improve the cavity parameters, reducing the peak magnetic field in operation and increasing the possible operation gradient, with consequent reduction of the number of required resonators. The construction of the cavities for FRIB, which includes three phases for each cavity type (development, pre-production and production runs) has started. Cavity design, construction, treatment and performance will be described and discussed.

  15. ABC goal achievement predicts microvascular but not macrovascular complications over 6-years in adults with type 1 diabetes: the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    Bjornstad, Petter; Maahs, David M.; Rewers, Marian; Johnson, Richard J.; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothesis Vascular complications of type 1 diabetes are thought to cluster. We examined the prevalence and incidence of vascular complications and American Diabetes Association’s ABC goal achievements in a prospective cohort of adults with type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that ABC achievement at baseline would predict both micro- and macrovascular complications over 6-years. Methods Participants (N=652) were 19–56 year old at baseline and re-examined 6-years later. Microvascular complications included diabetic nephropathy (DN), defined as incident albuminuria (AER≥20μg/min) or rapid GFR decline (>3.3%/year) by CKD-EPI cystatin C and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), defined as laser eye-therapy. Macrovascular complications were defined as coronary artery calcium progression (CACp), measured by electron-beam computed-tomography. ABC goals were defined as HbA1c<7.0%, BP<130/80 mmHg, LDL-C<100mg/dL. Results ABC control was suboptimal with only 6% meeting all goals. Meeting no ABC goals at baseline compared to meeting all goals was associated with increased odds of developing microvascular complications (OR: 8.5, 2.3–31.5, p=0.001), but did not reach significance for CACp (OR: 1.7, 0.8–3.9, p=0.19). Conclusion ABC achievement at baseline strongly predicted microvascular but not macrovascular complications over 6-years in adults with type 1 diabetes, suggesting a need for novel therapeutic targets to complement conventional risk factors in treating macrovascular complications. PMID:25270733

  16. A Very Different Non-Stressful Comprehensive Final Exam that Achieve Our Goals for Student Evaluation and Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavsar, Suketu

    2015-08-01

    I will introduce the radical concept of a final exam where the questions are given beforehand, a method I first encountered as a graduate student at Princeton University from an outstanding and well known astrophysicist and exceptional teacher, Lyman Spitzer.Every Instructor aspires for students to master all the material covered. A comprehensive final can assess the breadth and depth of their learning. Students are required to review early material in light of later topics, create connections and integrate understanding, thus retaining knowledge for the long term. Comprehensive finals can therefore be a significant basis for student learning and evaluation, but are especially daunting for non-STEM majors in required GE synthesis STEM classes. The exam format proposed here calmed student fears and encouraged thorough review.Ten days before the exam students received 20-30 challenging, well-crafted, numbered questions that interconnected and spanned the entire range of topics. The key is crafting questions that lead to deeply understanding the subject matter and mastering skills to solve problems. At the final, each student was required to pick a number out of a hat and answer that numbered question in a 5-minute presentation. They also had to critically comment on 10 other presentations of their peers. They are graded equally on both.The exam sets up definite goals for a student. Equally important, it enhances collaborative learning and peer mentoring. The conceptual questions and problems that students are required to answer can be studied together in study groups. The final presentation is theirs and they are not only encouraged but required to be constructively critical of their peer presentations.I will provide examples of some of the conceptual and problem solving questions I used. These were crafted to interconnect and span the entire range of topics. This method requires students to be prepared for all of the multitude of crafted question encouraging

  17. The Ha Noi Expert Statement: recognition of maternal mental health in resource-constrained settings is essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jane Rw; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Izutsu, Takashi; Tran, Tuan

    2011-01-01

    Mental health problems in women during pregnancy and after childbirth and their adverse consequences for child health and development have received sustained detailed attention in high-income countries. In contrast, evidence has only been generated more recently in resource-constrained settings.In June 2007 the United Nations Population Fund, the World Health Organization, the Key Centre for Women's Health in Society, a WHO Collaborating Centre for Women's Health and the Research and Training Centre for Community Development in Vietnam convened the first international expert meeting on maternal mental health and child health and development in resource-constrained settings. It aimed to appraise the evidence about the nature, prevalence and risks for common perinatal mental disorders in women; the consequences of these for child health and development and ameliorative strategies in these contexts.The substantial disparity in rates of perinatal mental disorders between women living in high- and low-income settings, suggests social rather than biological determinants. Risks in resource-constrained contexts include: poverty; crowded living situations; limited reproductive autonomy; unintended pregnancy; lack of empathy from the intimate partner; rigid gender stereotypes about responsibility for household work and infant care; family violence; poor physical health and discrimination. Development is adversely affected if infants lack day-to-day interactions with a caregiver who can interpret their cues, and respond effectively. Women with compromised mental health are less able to provide sensitive, responsive infant care. In resource-constrained settings infants whose mothers are depressed are less likely to thrive and to receive optimal care than those whose mothers are well.The meeting outcome is the Hanoi Expert Statement (Additional file 1). It argues that the Millennium Development Goals to improve maternal health, reduce child mortality, promote gender equality

  18. Common Vision--Shared Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski, Chris M.

    2014-01-01

    It has been only a few years since the state of Montana adopted revised standards for Information Literacy/Library Media. In the years since their adoption, the district's curriculum review team, made up of K-12 school librarians, defined the local curriculum directly from these standards. As Montana's school librarians reflect on their…

  19. Comparison of hemoglobin A1c goal achievement with the addition of pioglitazone to maximal/highest tolerated doses of sulfonylurea and metformin combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, M. Shawn; Huddleston, Lana; Tammareddi, Kumar; McKenzie, Michael; Bean, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objectives It has been proposed that the combination of thiazolidinedione (TZD) therapy to metformin and sulfonylurea is beneficial due to each medication having a unique mechanism of action. Within the Veterans Affairs Hospital, specific criteria of use define when TZD therapy can be initiated. Most patients who receive TZD therapy have failed other medications prior to use. The primary objective of this study was to determine the percentage of patients achieving the American Diabetes Association (ADA) goal hemoglobin A1c (A1c) of less than 7% with the addition of pioglitazone to the maximal/highest tolerated doses of sulfonylurea and metformin combination therapy. Methods This was a six healthcare system retrospective, descriptive, analysis of type 2 diabetic patients (DM-2). Patients must have received the maximal/highest tolerated doses of sulfonylurea and metformin combination therapy and have been TZD naïve or off TZD therapy for a minimum of 6 months, a baseline A1c greater than 7%, a repeat A1c at 3 and 6 months available, and deemed medication compliant. Results We evaluated 98 total patients. The percentage of veteran patients achieving ADA goal A1c of less than 7% after the addition of pioglitazone reached statistical significance at both 3 and 6 months post TZD initiation. The mean reduction in A1c post-pioglitazone initiation was 0.67% (SD ± 0.92) and 0.78% (SD ± 0.94) at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Conclusion The addition of pioglitazone to veteran patients who were already receiving maximal/highest tolerated doses of sulfonylurea was able to achieve a higher percentage in with the ADA goal A1c of less than 7%. Initiating pioglitazone in patients with an A1c of 9% or greater did not reach statistical significance in achieving an A1c less than 7%. The initial starting dose of pioglitazone 30 mg can be considered as compared to 15 mg daily if contraindications do not exist.

  20. Ethiopia and its steps to mobilize resources to achieve 2020 elimination and control goals for neglected tropical diseases webs joined can tie a lion.

    PubMed

    Mengitsu, Belete; Shafi, Oumer; Kebede, Biruck; Kebede, Fikreab; Worku, Dagemlidet T; Herero, Merce; French, Michael; Kebede, Biruk; Mackenzie, Charles; Martindale, Sarah; Kebede, Zeyede; Hirpa, Tigist; Frawley, Hannah; Crowley, Kathryn; O'Neil, Maggie; McPherson, Scott

    2016-03-01

    In June 2013, at the launch of its National Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Master Plan, the Ethiopian government pledged to achieve WHO NTD elimination and control targets by 2020. With an estimated 80 million people living in areas where one or more NTDs are endemic, this goal presented an enormous challenge for the Federal Ministry of Health. However, as of September 2015, the Federal Ministry of Health has managed to mobilize support to implement mass drug administration in 84% of the trachoma endemic districts and 100% of the endemic districts for onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis. The national program still is facing large gaps in its podoconiosis and leishmaniasis programs, and it faces significant other challenges to stay on track for 2020 targets. However, this unprecedented scale-up in support was achieved through significant government investment in NTD interventions and creative coordination between donors and implementing partners, which may provide valuable lessons for other national NTD programs trying to achieve nationwide coverage. PMID:26940308

  1. Cross-country analysis of strategies for achieving progress towards global goals for women’s and children’s health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Rawal, Lal B; Chowdhury, Sadia A; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Jack, Susan; Hinton, Rachael; Alam, Prima M

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify how 10 low- and middle-income countries achieved accelerated progress, ahead of comparable countries, towards meeting millennium development goals 4 and 5A to reduce child and maternal mortality. Methods We synthesized findings from multistakeholder dialogues and country policy reports conducted previously for the Success Factors studies in 10 countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Nepal, Peru, Rwanda and Viet Nam. A framework approach was used to analyse and synthesize the data from the country reports, resulting in descriptive or explanatory conclusions by theme. Findings Successful policy and programme approaches were categorized in four strategic areas: leadership and multistakeholder partnerships; health sector; sectors outside health; and accountability for resources and results. Consistent and coordinated inputs across sectors, based on high-impact interventions, were assessed. Within the health sector, key policy and programme strategies included defining standards, collecting and using data, improving financial protection, and improving the availability and quality of services. Outside the health sector, strategies included investing in girls’ education, water, sanitation and hygiene, poverty reduction, nutrition and food security, and infrastructure development. Countries improved accountability by strengthening and using data systems for planning and evaluating progress. Conclusion Reducing maternal and child mortality in the 10 fast-track countries can be linked to consistent and coordinated policy and programme inputs across health and other sectors. The approaches used by successful countries have relevance to other countries looking to scale-up or accelerate progress towards the sustainable development goals. PMID:27147765

  2. Dependence of Achievable Plan Quality on Treatment Technique and Planning Goal Refinement: A Head-and-Neck Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Application

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, X. Sharon Ruan, Dan; Lee, Steve P.; Pham, Andrew; Kupelian, Patrick; Low, Daniel A.; Steinberg, Michael; Demarco, John

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a practical workflow for retrospectively analyzing target and normal tissue dose–volume endpoints for various intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques; to develop technique-specific planning goals to improve plan consistency and quality when feasible. Methods and Materials: A total of 165 consecutive head-and-neck patients from our patient registry were selected and retrospectively analyzed. All IMRT plans were generated using the same dose–volume guidelines for TomoTherapy (Tomo, Accuray), TrueBeam (TB, Varian) using fixed-field IMRT (TB-IMRT) or RAPIDARC (TB-RAPIDARC), or Siemens Oncor (Siemens-IMRT, Siemens). A MATLAB-based dose–volume extraction and analysis tool was developed to export dosimetric endpoints for each patient. With a fair stratification of patient cohort, the variation of achieved dosimetric endpoints was analyzed among different treatment techniques. Upon identification of statistically significant variations, technique-specific planning goals were derived from dynamically accumulated institutional data. Results: Retrospective analysis showed that although all techniques yielded comparable target coverage, the doses to the critical structures differed. The maximum cord doses were 34.1 ± 2.6, 42.7 ± 2.1, 43.3 ± 2.0, and 45.1 ± 1.6 Gy for Tomo, TB-IMRT, TB-RAPIDARC, and Siemens-IMRT plans, respectively. Analyses of variance showed significant differences for the maximum cord doses but no significant differences for other selected structures among the investigated IMRT delivery techniques. Subsequently, a refined technique-specific dose–volume guideline for maximum cord dose was derived at a confidence level of 95%. The dosimetric plans that failed the refined technique-specific planning goals were reoptimized according to the refined constraints. We observed better cord sparing with minimal variations for the target coverage and other organ at risk sparing for the Tomo cases, and higher

  3. Rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin in achieving lipid goals in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease in clinical practice: A randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study (DISCOVERY Alpha study)

    PubMed Central

    Binbrek, Azan S.; Elis, Avishay; Al-Zaibag, Muayed; Eha, Jaan; Keber, Irena; Cuevas, Ada M.; Mukherjee, Swati; Miller, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    laboratory analysis and direct questioning of the patients. Results: A total of 1506 patients (52.1% women, 47.9% men; mean [SD] age, 58.2 [10.8] years) participated in the study (rosuvastatin, 1002 patients; atorvastatin, 504 patients; previous LLT, 567 patients). A significantly higher proportion of patients achieved 1998 European LDL-C goals after 12 weeks with rosuvastatin 10 mg than with atorvastatin 10 mg (72.5% vs 56.6%; P < 0.001). Similarly, more patients achieved the 2003 European LDL-C goals with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared with atorvastatin 10 mg (57.5% vs 39.2%). Rosuvastatin 10 mg was associated with a significantly greater change in LDL-C levels compared with atorvastatin 10 mg, in patients who were LLT-naive (LDL-C: −44.7% vs −33.9%; P < 0.001) and in patients who had received previous LLT (LDL-C: −32.0% vs −26.5%; P = 0.006). TG levels were also decreased with rosuvastatin 10 mg and atorvastatin 10 mg, although there was no significant difference between treatments. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between treatments. The most common adverse events overall were headache 16/1497 (1.1%), myalgia 10/1497 (0.7%), and nausea 10/1497 (0.7%). Conclusions: In this study in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia in clinical practice, greater reductions in LDL-C levels were achieved with a starting dose (10 mg) of rosuvastatin compared with atorvastatin 10 mg, with more patients achieving European LDL-C goals. Both treatments were well tolerated PMID:24936119

  4. Integration of health management and support systems is key to achieving cost reduction and operational concept goals of the 2nd generation reusable launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Phillip L.; Greene, Scott

    2002-07-01

    Our aerospace customers are demanding that we drastically reduce the cost of operating and supporting our products. Our space customer in particular is looking for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle systems to support more aircraft like operation. To achieve this goal requires more than an evolution in materials, processes and systems, what is required is a paradigm shift in the design of the launch vehicles and the processing systems that support the launch vehicles. This paper describes the Automated Informed Maintenance System (AIM) we are developing for NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Our system includes an Integrated Health Management (IHM) system for the launch vehicles and ground support systems, which features model based diagnostics and prognostics. Health Management data is used by our AIM decision support and process aids to automatically plan maintenance, generate work orders and schedule maintenance activities along with the resources required to execute these processes. Our system will automate the ground processing for a spaceport handling multiple RLVs executing multiple missions. To accomplish this task we are applying the latest web based distributed computing technologies and application development techniques.

  5. Improving the Achievement, Motivation, and Engagement of Students with ADHD: The Role of Personal Best Goals and Other Growth-Based Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    In light of recent evidence suggesting the academic benefits of personal best (PB) goals for students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this article explores practical approaches to implementing PB goals in the counselling and classroom context. Beginning with a brief summary of how and why PB goals impact academic outcomes and…

  6. Comparing the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics to the Recommendations of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel. Achieving the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Through the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Initiative, states and territories have collaborated in the development of a common core of standards in English Language Arts and mathematics for grades kindergarten through twelve that are now being adopted by states. Designed not only for the purpose of providing strong, shared expectations, the…

  7. Middle School Focus: Examining the Interplay between Middle School Students Achievement Goals and Self-Efficacy in a Technology-Enhanced Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Peggy; Cho, Yunjoong; Liu, Min; Schallert, Diane L.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that self-efficacy and goal orientation are context specific variables. However, few researchers have addressed these variables in technology-enhanced learning environments. This study examined changes in 549 middle school students' goal orientation, self-efficacy, and science knowledge after engaging in science learning…

  8. Examining the Motivational Impact of Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Framing and Autonomy-Supportive Versus Internally Controlling Communication Style on Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Matos, Lennia

    2005-01-01

    The present experimental research examined whether framing early adolescents' (11- to 12-year-olds) learning activity in terms of the attainment of an extrinsic (i.e., physical attractiveness) versus intrinsic (i.e., health) goal and communicating these different goal contents in an internally controlling versus autonomy-supportive way affect…

  9. Where Did You Come From? Where Will You Go? Human Evolutionary Biology Education and American Students' Academic Interests and Achievements, Professional Goals, and Socioscientific Decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrein, Caitlin M.

    In the United States, there is a national agenda to increase the number of qualified science, technology, engineering, and maths (STEM) professionals and a movement to promote science literacy among the general public. This project explores the association between formal human evolutionary biology education (HEB) and high school science class enrollment, academic achievement, interest in a STEM degree program, motivation to pursue a STEM career, and socioscientific decision-making for a sample of students enrolled full-time at Arizona State University. Given a lack of a priori knowledge of these relationships, the Grounded Theory Method was used and was the foundation for a mixed-methods analysis involving qualitative and quantitative data from one-on-one interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, and an online survey. Theory development and hypothesis generation were based on data from 44 students. The survey instrument, developed to test the hypotheses, was completed by 486 undergraduates, age 18--22, who graduated from U.S. public high schools. The results showed that higher exposure to HEB was correlated with greater high school science class enrollment, particularly for advanced biological science classes, and that, for some students, HEB exposure may have influenced their enrollment, because the students found the content interesting and relevant. The results also suggested that students with higher K--12 HEB exposure felt more prepared for undergraduate science coursework. There was a positive correlation between HEB exposure and interest in a STEM degree and an indirect relationship between higher HEB exposure and motivation to pursue a STEM career. Regarding a number of socioscientific issues, including but not limited to climate change, homosexuality, and stem cell research, students' behaviors and decision-making more closely reflected a scientific viewpoint---or less-closely aligned to a religion-based perspective---when students had greater HEB exposure

  10. Raising Low-Income/Minority Achievement by Reducing Student Sense of Academic Futility: The Underlying Theoretical Commonalities of Suggested Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stephen K.; Crano, William D.

    The author argues that despite the conventional wisdom that schools cannot overcome the effects of socioeconomic status and race on academic achievement, there is a growing body of literature indicating that school climate and students' sense of control of their environment are strongly correlated with achievement. Five school-specific strategies…

  11. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  12. A Long-Term Experimental Case Study of the Ecological Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Invasive Plant Management in Achieving Conservation Goals: Bitou Bush Control in Booderee National Park in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmayer, David B.; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J.; Catford, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  13. Achieving lipid goals with rosuvastatin compared with simvastatin in high risk patients in real clinical practice: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center study: the DISCOVERY-Beta study.

    PubMed

    Laks, Toivo; Keba, Ester; Leiner, Mariann; Merilind, Eero; Petersen, Mall; Reinmets, Sirje; Väli, Sille; Sööt, Terje; Otter, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this multi-center, open-label, randomized, parallel-group trial was to compare the efficacy of rosuvastatin with that of simvastatin in achieving the 1998 European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) lipid treatment goals. 504 patients (> or =18 years) with primary hypercholesterolemia and a 10-year cardiovascular (CV) risk >20% or history of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other established atherosclerotic disease were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive rosuvastatin 10 mg or simvastatin 20 mg once daily for 12 weeks. A significantly higher proportion of patients achieved 1998 EAS low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal after 12 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared to simvastatin 20 mg (64 vs 51.5%, p < 0.01). Similarly, significantly more patients achieved the 1998 EAS total cholesterol (TC) goal and the 2003 EAS LDL-C and TC goals (p < 0.001) with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared with simvastatin 20 mg. The incidence of adverse events and the proportion of patients who discontinued study treatment were similar between treatment groups. In conclusion, in the DISCOVERY-Beta Study in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia greater proportion of patients in the rosuvastatin 10 mg group achieved the EAS LDL-C treatment goal compared with the simvastatin 20 mg group. Drug tolerability was similar across both treatment groups. PMID:19337553

  14. Achieving lipid goals with rosuvastatin compared with simvastatin in high risk patients in real clinical practice: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center study: the DISCOVERY-Beta study

    PubMed Central

    Laks, Toivo; Keba, Ester; Leiner, Mariann; Merilind, Eero; Petersen, Mall; Reinmets, Sirje; Väli, Sille; Sööt, Terje; Otter, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this multi-center, open-label, randomized, parallel-group trial was to compare the efficacy of rosuvastatin with that of simvastatin in achieving the 1998 European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) lipid treatment goals. 504 patients (≥18 years) with primary hypercholesterolemia and a 10-year cardiovascular (CV) risk >20% or history of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other established atherosclerotic disease were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive rosuvastatin 10 mg or simvastatin 20 mg once daily for 12 weeks. A significantly higher proportion of patients achieved 1998 EAS low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal after 12 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared to simvastatin 20 mg (64 vs 51.5%, p < 0.01). Similarly, significantly more patients achieved the 1998 EAS total cholesterol (TC) goal and the 2003 EAS LDL-C and TC goals (p < 0.001) with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared with simvastatin 20 mg. The incidence of adverse events and the proportion of patients who discontinued study treatment were similar between treatment groups. In conclusion, in the DISCOVERY-Beta Study in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia greater proportion of patients in the rosuvastatin 10 mg group achieved the EAS LDL-C treatment goal compared with the simvastatin 20 mg group. Drug tolerability was similar across both treatment groups. PMID:19337553

  15. Achievement of Optimal Medical Therapy Goals for US Adults with Coronary Artery Disease: Results from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Todd M.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Bittner, Vera; Brenner, David A.; Cushman, Mary; Goff, David C.; Glasser, Stephen; Muntner, Paul; Tabereaux, Paul B.; Safford, Monika M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In a non-clinical trial setting, to determine the proportion of individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD) with optimal risk factor levels based on the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) trial. Background In COURAGE, the addition of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to optimal medical therapy did not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction in stable CAD patients but resulted in more revascularization procedures. Methods REGARDS is a national prospective cohort study of 30,239 African American and White community-dwelling individuals aged >45 years enrolled in 2003-7. We calculated the proportion of 3,167 participants with self-reported CAD meeting 7 risk factor goals based on COURAGE: 1) aspirin use, 2) systolic blood pressure <130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure <85 mmHg (<80 mmHg if diabetic), 3) low density lipoprotein cholesterol <85 mg/dL, high density lipoprotein cholesterol >40 mg/dL, and triglycerides <150 mg/dL, 4) fasting glucose <126 mg/dL, 5) nonsmoking status, 6) body mass index <25 kg/m,2 and 7) exercise ≥4 days per week. Results The mean age of participants was 69±9 years, 33% were African American, and 35% were female. Overall, the median number of goals met was 4. Less than a quarter met ≥5 of the 7 goals, and 16% met all 3 goals for aspirin, blood pressure, and LDL-C. Older age, white race, higher income, more education, and higher physical functioning were independently associated with meeting more goals. Conclusions There is substantial room for improvement in risk factor reduction among US individuals with CAD. PMID:24534599

  16. Goals set after completing a teleconference-delivered program for managing multiple sclerosis fatigue.

    PubMed

    Asano, Miho; Preissner, Katharine; Duffy, Rose; Meixell, Maggie; Finlayson, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Setting goals can be a valuable skill to self-manage multiple sclerosis (MS) fatigue. A better understanding of the goals set by people with MS after completing a fatigue management program can assist health care professionals with tailoring interventions for clients. This study aimed to describe the focus of goals set by people with MS after a teleconference-delivered fatigue management program and to evaluate the extent to which participants were able to achieve their goals over time. In total, 485 goals were set by 81 participants. Over a follow-up period, 64 participants rated 284 goals regarding progress made toward goal achievement. Approximately 50% of the rated goals were considered achieved. The most common type of goal achieved was that of instrumental activities of daily living. Short-term goals were more likely to be achieved. This study highlights the need for and importance of promoting and teaching goal-setting skills to people with MS. PMID:25871602

  17. Separate Paths, Common Goals: Cross-District Collaboration on Mathematics and English Learner Instruction. Special Series on the Fresno-Long Beach Learning Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Helen; Brown, Jim; Hannan, Stephanie; O'Day, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Across the country, resource-strapped school districts are looking for opportunities to work strategically with other districts to increase efficiencies and learn from each other's experiences. The Fresno-Long Beach Learning Partnership, established in 2008, serves as a useful example of such collaboration. The overarching goal of the Partnership…

  18. Teacher Attitudes on Personal Teaching Efficacy and Responsive Teaching, and Principal Leadership Behaviors in the Areas of Leader Social Relationships, Leadership/Goal Setting, and Collaboration for Learning in Low Wealth, Low and High Achieving Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Eliana K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether middle school teacher attitudes on personal teaching efficacy and responsive teaching and their descriptions of their principal's leadership behaviors in the areas of leader social relationships, leadership/goal setting, and collaboration for learning differ for high- and low-achieving Grade 8…

  19. A Comparison of Academic Achievement and Adherence to the Common School Ideal in Public and Catholic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinan, Maureen; Kubitschek, Warren N.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines two critical questions related to equality of educational opportunity. First, does the academic advantage that was observed in Catholic high schools more than two decades ago continue to hold for contemporary students in Catholic middle schools? Second, how closely do different school sectors adhere to the common school…

  20. Discovering Common Ground: How Future Search Conferences Bring People Together To Achieve Breakthrough Innovation, Empowerment, Shared Vision, and Collaborative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, Marvin R.; And Others

    This book contains 35 papers about planning and holding future search conferences, as well as their benefits and likely future directions. The following papers are included: "Applied Common Sense" (Weisbord); "Inventing the Search Conference" (Weisbord); "Building Collaborative Communities" (Schindler-Rainman, Lippitt); "Parallel Paths to…

  1. The Effects of Common Knowledge Construction Model Sequence of Lessons on Science Achievement and Relational Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenezer, Jazlin; Chacko, Sheela; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Koya, Satya Kiran; Ebenezer, Devairakkam Luke

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the Common Knowledge Construction Model (CKCM) lesson sequence, an intervention based both in conceptual change theory and in Phenomenography, a subset of conceptual change theory. A mixed approach was used to investigate whether this model had a significant effect on 7th grade students'…

  2. The "Phantom" Collapse of Student Achievement in New York: Lessons for Educators as States Implement the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, John; Jensen, Nate

    2014-01-01

    On August 7th, 2013, the New York State Education Commissioner, John King, announced the initial results of the state's new assessment, which was designed to measure college and career readiness relative to the Common Core Learning Standards. Commissioner King noted that the proficiency rates on these assessments were significantly lower than…

  3. Prevalence of Obesity and Its Influence on Achievement of Cardiometabolic Therapeutic Goals in Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Patients: An Analysis of the Nationwide, Cross-Sectional 3B Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xianghai; Ji, Linong; Ran, Xingwu; Su, Benli; Ji, Qiuhe; Pan, Changyu; Weng, Jianping; Ma, Changsheng; Hao, Chuanming; Zhang, Danyi; Hu, Dayi

    2016-01-01

    Background There are few data on the prevalence of obesity and its influence on achieving blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipid (3B) goals in Chinese type 2 diabetes outpatients. Methods Patient demographic data, anthropometric measurements, medications, and blood glucose and lipid profiles of 24,512 type 2 diabetes patients from a large, geographically diverse study (CCMR-3B) were analyzed. Using cut-points for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) recommended by the Working Group on Obesity in China, overweight and obesity were defined as BMIs of 24–27.9kg/m2 and ≥28.0kg/m2. Central obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥80cm in women and ≥85cm in men. The 3B therapeutic goals were HbA1c<7.0%, BP<140/90mmHg and LDL-C<2.6mmol/L. Results Overall, 43.0% of type 2 diabetes patients were overweight and 16.7% were obese; 13.3% of overweight and and10.1% of obese patients achieved all the 3B target goals. Overweight or obese patients were less likely to achieve 3B goals than those with normal BMIs. More than a half the overweight or obese patients (69.6%) were centrally obese. Patients with abdominal obesity were less likely to achieve cardiometabolic targets than those without abdominal obesity. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, female, higher BMI and waist circumference, smoking, drinking, sedentary lifestyle, and longer diabetes duration were significantly correlated with failure to achieve 3B control goals. Conclusions Obesity is highly prevalent and associated with poor 3B control in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients. In clinical practice, more attention and resources should focus on weight loss for such patients. PMID:26726883

  4. The Use of Goal Setting and Progress Self-Monitoring with Formative Assessment in Community College to Increase Academic Achievement and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Tiffany L.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effects of formative assessment on community college students' content-specific vocabulary skills, academic achievement and academic self-efficacy. Sixty-one community college students who were enrolled in Developmental Psychology took part in formative assessment only (N = 24), formative assessment in conjunction with goal…

  5. Autonomy Support and Achievement Goals as Predictors of Perceived School Performance and Life Satisfaction in the Transition between Lower and Upper Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Åge; Samdal, Oddrun

    2014-01-01

    A self-determination theory perspective on motivation assumes that basic need support is a prerequisite for motivation, achievement, and well-being in several domains of life. In the present cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 2.594 Norwegian students in their final year of lower secondary education and their first year of upper…

  6. RTT Goals Challenge Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Ambitious student-achievement targets turn up the heat, as winners of the $4 billion federal grant effort push to deliver. Winners of the $4 billion Race to the Top jackpot committed to grand goals in using the federal grants to raise student achievement, as measured by higher test scores, narrowed achievement gaps, and increased graduation and…

  7. The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

    Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the

  8. Cost goals for biofuels technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Flaim, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Federally funded energy research seeks to demonstrate that alternative fuels can be produced and then to induce private sector involvement by showing that they can be produced profitably. Prices for fossil fuels may be used as cost goals for biofuels to determine when profitability may be achieved. Achieving equality with fossil fuel prices drives out the highest-cost sources of supply and enables initial market penetration; as costs decrease, biofuels can potentially gain a greater market share. However, achieving competitive costs is not a sufficient condition for success unless prices of conventional substitutes are expected to rise. Cost goals are used for research planning purposes, as a common denominator to allow comparisons among many biofuels options. Application of standard investment criteria to biofuels R and D would require that benefits from their use pay back research costs. These benefits must be discounted because they are realized in the future. Furthermore, realization of future savings is uncertain, so risks must be accounted for. Research may be justified if the expected value of the discounted benefits is greater than the discounted cost of the research. Cost goals satisfying this condition might be substantially lower than projected fuel prices. This paper examines recent fossil fuel price projections and discusses the challenges biofuels research faces just to produce competitive products. In light of the difficult goals, researchers should adopt a strategy targeting major technological breakthroughs rather than incremental improvements. Production of ethanol from wood is used as an example of this strategy. 35 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Reducing child mortality: the contribution of Ceará state, northeast of Brazil, on achieving the Millennium Development Goal 4 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante e Silva, Anamaria; Correia, Luciano Lima; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Andrade, Francisca Maria de Oliveira; Silveira, Dirlene Mafalda Ildefonso da; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Rocha, Hermano A L; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Cunha, Antonio Jose Ledo Alves da

    2015-04-01

    To describe the experience of Ceará, Northeast of Brazil, state on improving child survival, over a 20 year period, and discuss its contribution to Brazil's progress toward the achievement of MDG 4. Five population-based, statewide household surveys, with children <3 years of age, known as PESMIC (Mother and Child Health Survey of Ceará), were conducted in 1987, 1990, 1994, 2001 and 2007. They aimed to investigate levels and causes of mortality and access to child health services. The cluster sampling of 8,000 households identified 2,000 children on average. They used the same methodological approach and indicators. Important changes occurred in demographic and health indicators in the 20 year period, including 81 % reduction in the infant mortality rate, 43 % increase in breastfeeding rate and the achievement of a 95 % immunization rate. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition declined from 28 to 13 % and acute malnutrition from 13 to 5 %. Diarrheal diseases contributed with 36.6 % to the infant mortality in 1986 and 3.9 % in 2007. The major improvements in child health contributed substantially to the progress on MDG 4 in Brazil. Results of the 5 surveys produced reliable information for planning and evaluation that contributed to the remarkable progress made by the state. PMID:25095765

  10. Hands-On Science Reform, Science Achievement, and the Elusive Goal of "science for All" in a Diverse Elementary School District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarria, Marissa

    Given the emphasis on "science for all" in national reform documents, this study analyzed student science achievement scores in hands-on reform versus traditional classrooms for 3,667 students in Grades 3 to 6 by gender, ethnicity, free or reduced lunch status, parent education, and level of English proficiency to determine whether these subgroups performed better or worse in reform classrooms. Teachers in reform classrooms used exemplary hands-on science kits and attended 1-day in-service training per kit. Teachers in traditional classrooms used the regular activity-based science curriculum with textbook. Gender differences favoring boys appeared in both types of classrooms, but were larger in the reform classrooms. Boys from lower socioeconomic levels performed better in reform classrooms, but limited-English-proficient boys performed worse. Parent education was significantly related to higher achievement for boys only in reform classrooms. For girls this relation was significant only in traditional classrooms. White girls performed significantly worse in reform classroom, but there were no differences for Asian and Hispanic girls. Implications for adapting hands-on science reform to meet student needs are discussed.

  11. Effects of an intensive middle school science experience on the attitude toward science, self-esteem, career goal orientation, and science achievement of eighth-grade female students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Tammy Kay

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a year long intensive extracurricular middle school science experience on the self-esteem, career goal orientation, and attitude toward science of eighth grade female students using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Sixteen self-selected eighth grade female students participated in extracurricular science experiences such as camping, rock climbing, specimen collecting and hiking, as well as meeting and interacting with female science role models. Data was collected using pre- and posttest methods using the Children's Attitude Toward Science Survey, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Self-Directed Search (SDS) Career Explorer. End of year science course grades were examined for seventh and eighth grades and compared to first semester high school grades. Qualitative data was in the form of: (1) focus group interviews conducted prior to field experiences, at the end of all field experiences, and at the end of the first semester of high school, and (2) journal entries from throughout the project. Qualitative data was examined for changes in student perceptions of science as a discipline, self as scientist, women in science, and social comparison of self in science.

  12. An analysis of factors correlated with the achievement of the goal standard for the science portion of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmetz, Barbara Fotta

    2001-07-01

    This study sought to identify factors that could be used to predict the success of students on the science portion of the grade ten Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT). While the Connecticut State Department of Education measures student achievement in mathematics, reading and writing in grades 4, 6, and 8, science is assessed only in the grade ten CAPT. Since the CAPT science test does not identify specific areas in need of improvement, it is not possible to determine causes for low test scores. To address this, the study investigated the predictive values of the grade eight Mastery Tests in mathematics and reading, the student ability scores of the Otis-Lennon School Ability Index, and grades in prior science courses. The research sample consisted of five hundred and twenty-five students, member of the graduating classes of 2000 and 2001 in a large suburban high school. Students in the study had participated in the district testing program and their scores for the grade seven Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT), the grade eight Connecticut Mastery Tests (CMT) and the grade ten Connecticut Academic Performance Tests (CAPT) were available for analysis. This study investigated correlations between student achievement on the CMT and the science subtest of the CAPT, between OLSAT scores and the CAPT science scores, and between grades in ninth grade science and CAPT science scores. Scores were disaggregated by gender and by course level. Hypotheses 1, 2, 3 and 4 investigated the Pearson Product Moment Correlations of the OLSAT, CMT and course grades with scores on the science portion of the CAPT. Hypothesis 5 compared the scores of male and female students, using the t-test of independent sample means. Calculations showed moderate correlations for hypotheses 1--4, and the hypotheses were accepted. Hypothesis 5 was accepted for one class and rejected for the other. On the whole, female students received higher course grades and lower standardized test

  13. Self-Image Goals and Compassionate Goals: Costs and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Jennifer; Olivier, Marc-Andre; Nuer, Noah

    2010-01-01

    Two types of interpersonal goals—self-image goals and compassionate goals—reflect distinct motivational perspectives on the relationship between the self and others—egosystem and ecosystem perspectives, respectively. Research on the associations of self-image goals and compassionate goals with students’ experiences in their first semester of college is described. Chronic self-image goals and compassionate goals predict changes in learning and achievement goals, self-regulation and goal progress, social support and friendships, emotions, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Self-image goals have costs for belonging, and compassionate goals have benefits for belonging. PMID:21218194

  14. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  15. Patients’ empowerment, physicians’ perceptions, and achievement of therapeutic goals in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Chiquete, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Background Physicians’ perception may not parallel objective measures of therapeutic targets in patients with diabetes. This is an issue rarely addressed in the medical literature. We aimed to analyze physicians’ perception and characteristics of adequate control of patients with diabetes. Patients and methods We studied information on physicians and their patients who participated in the third wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study registry in Mexico. This analysis was performed on 2,642 patients, 203 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 2,439 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), treated by 200 physicians. Results The patients perceived at target had lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose than those considered not at target. However, overestimation of the frequency of patients with HbA1c <7% was 41.5% in patients with T1DM and 31.7% in patients with T2DM (underestimation: 2.8% and 8.0%, respectively). The agreement between the physicians’ perception and the class of HbA1c was suboptimal (κ: 0.612). Diabetologists and endocrinologists tested HbA1c more frequently than primary care practitioners, internists, or cardiologists; however, no differences were observed in mean HbA1c, for both T1DM (8.4% vs 7.2%, P=0.42) and T2DM (8.03% vs 8.01%, P=0.87) patients. Nevertheless, insulin users perceived at target, who practiced self-monitoring and self-adjustment of insulin, had a lower mean HbA1c than patients without these characteristics (mean HbA1c in T1DM: 6.8% vs 9.6%, respectively; mean HbA1c in T2DM: 7.0% vs 10.1%, respectively). Conclusion Although there is a significant physicians’ overestimation about the optimal glycemic control, this global impression and characteristics of patients’ empowerment, such as self-monitoring and self-adjustment of insulin, are associated with the achievement of targets. PMID:27555751

  16. Achieving Proficiency Goals through Competency Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartz, Walter H.; Strasheim, Lorraine

    The Indiana Foreign Language Generic Competencies for Levels 1-4 define language-learning outcomes in terms of communicative competencies within generic cultural contexts. Nine cultural contexts (travel/transportation, the "world" of the target language, school and education, family and home, leisure time, meeting personal needs, world of work,…

  17. The Heart of 25 by 25: Achieving the Goal of Reducing Global and Regional Premature Deaths From Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke: A Modeling Study From the American Heart Association and World Heart Federation.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Ralph L; Roth, Gregory A; Reddy, K Srinath; Arnett, Donna K; Bonita, Ruth; Gaziano, Thomas A; Heidenreich, Paul A; Huffman, Mark D; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mendis, Shanthi; Murray, Christopher J L; Perel, Pablo; Piñeiro, Daniel J; Smith, Sidney C; Taubert, Kathryn A; Wood, David A; Zhao, Dong; Zoghbi, William A

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, the United Nations set key targets to reach by 2025 to reduce the risk of premature noncommunicable disease death by 25% by 2025. With cardiovascular disease being the largest contributor to global mortality, accounting for nearly half of the 36 million annual noncommunicable disease deaths, achieving the 2025 goal requires that cardiovascular disease and its risk factors be aggressively addressed. The Global Cardiovascular Disease Taskforce, comprising the World Heart Federation, American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology Foundation, European Heart Network, and European Society of Cardiology, with expanded representation from Asia, Africa, and Latin America, along with global cardiovascular disease experts, disseminates information and approaches to reach the United Nations 2025 targets. The writing committee, which reflects Global Cardiovascular Disease Taskforce membership, engaged the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, to develop region-specific estimates of premature cardiovascular mortality in 2025 based on various scenarios. Results show that >5 million premature CVD deaths among men and 2.8 million among women are projected worldwide by 2025, which can be reduced to 3.5 million and 2.2 million, respectively, if risk factor targets for blood pressure, tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, and obesity are achieved. However, global risk factor targets have various effects, depending on region. For most regions, United Nations targets for reducing systolic blood pressure and tobacco use have more substantial effects on future scenarios compared with maintaining current levels of body mass index and fasting plasma glucose. However, preventing increases in body mass index has the largest effect in some high-income countries. An approach achieving reductions in multiple risk factors has the largest impact for almost all regions. Achieving these goals can be accomplished only if countries set priorities

  18. The Heart of 25 by 25: Achieving the Goal of Reducing Global and Regional Premature Deaths From Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke: A Modeling Study From the American Heart Association and World Heart Federation.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Ralph L; Roth, Gregory A; Reddy, K Srinath; Arnett, Donna K; Bonita, Ruth; Gaziano, Thomas A; Heidenreich, Paul A; Huffman, Mark D; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mendis, Shanthi; Murray, Christopher J L; Perel, Pablo; Piñeiro, Daniel J; Smith, Sidney C; Taubert, Kathryn A; Wood, David A; Zhao, Dong; Zoghbi, William A

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, the United Nations set key targets to reach by 2025 to reduce the risk of premature noncommunicable disease death by 25% by 2025. With cardiovascular disease being the largest contributor to global mortality, accounting for nearly half of the 36 million annual noncommunicable disease deaths, achieving the 2025 goal requires that cardiovascular disease and its risk factors be aggressively addressed. The Global Cardiovascular Disease Taskforce, comprising the World Heart Federation, American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology Foundation, European Heart Network, and European Society of Cardiology, with expanded representation from Asia, Africa, and Latin America, along with global cardiovascular disease experts, disseminates information and approaches to reach the United Nations 2025 targets. The writing committee, which reflects Global Cardiovascular Disease Taskforce membership, engaged the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, to develop region-specific estimates of premature cardiovascular mortality in 2025 based on various scenarios. Results show that >5 million premature CVD deaths among men and 2.8 million among women are projected worldwide by 2025, which can be reduced to 3.5 million and 2.2 million, respectively, if risk factor targets for blood pressure, tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, and obesity are achieved. However, global risk factor targets have various effects, depending on region. For most regions, United Nations targets for reducing systolic blood pressure and tobacco use have more substantial effects on future scenarios compared with maintaining current levels of body mass index and fasting plasma glucose. However, preventing increases in body mass index has the largest effect in some high-income countries. An approach achieving reductions in multiple risk factors has the largest impact for almost all regions. Achieving these goals can be accomplished only if countries set priorities

  19. A new perspective on therapeutic inhibition of advanced glycation in diabetic microvascular complications: common downstream endpoints achieved through disparate therapeutic approaches?

    PubMed

    Sourris, Karly C; Harcourt, Brooke E; Forbes, Josephine M

    2009-01-01

    A commonality among the chemically disparate compounds that inhibit the formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) or their signalling pathways is their end organ protection in experimental models of diabetes complications. Although this group of therapeutics are structurally and functionally distinct with numerous mechanisms of action, the most important factor governing their therapeutic capability is clearly their ability to alleviate the tissue burden of advanced glycation, rather than the biochemical mechanism by which this is achieved. However, it remains to be determined if it is the reduction in tissue AGE levels per se or inhibition of downstream signal pathways which is ultimately required for end organ protection. For example, a number of these agents stimulate antioxidant defences, modify lipid profiles and inhibit low-grade inflammation. These novel actions emphasise the importance of further examination of the advanced glycation pathway and in particular the diverse action of these agents in ameliorating the development of diabetic complications such as nephropathy. PMID:19556753

  20. Sustainable Health Development Goals (SHDG): breaking down the walls

    PubMed Central

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Crossey, Mary Margaret Elizabeth; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2015-01-01

    The world's governments failed to achieve the Health for All 2000 goals from the Alma Ata Declaration of 1978. Although a lot of milestones have been covered since 2000, the world's governing authorities are unlikely to achieve the current Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which expire by the end of this year. The inability to achieve these goals may be linked to the multiplicity of health-related directives and fragmentation of health systems in many countries. However, with the proposed 17 sustainability development goals, health has only one universal aim: to ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages. Accomplishing this will require a focus on health systems (system-thinking), commonization of services and full integration of services with total dismantling of vertical programs across the world. PMID:26966502