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Sample records for achieve competitive advantage

  1. Achieving Competitive Advantage in Human Resource Management in General School District of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al dakeel, Taghreed M.; Almannie, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    The general school district of Riyadh is one of largest in the country of (45) school districts in Saudi Arabia. The school districts play an important roles in the development of education, therefore the objective of the study is to examine the roles of the management in the school districts to see if it is achieving competitive advantage. After…

  2. A fuzzy model for achieving lean attributes for competitive advantages development using AHP-QFD-PROMETHEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roghanian, E.; Alipour, Mohammad

    2014-06-01

    Lean production has become an integral part of the manufacturing landscape as its link with superior performance and its ability to provide competitive advantage is well accepted among academics and practitioners. Lean production helps producers in overcoming the challenges organizations face through using powerful tools and enablers. However, most companies are faced with restricted resources such as financial and human resources, time, etc., in using these enablers, and are not capable of implementing all these techniques. Therefore, identifying and selecting the most appropriate and efficient tool can be a significant challenge for many companies. Hence, this literature seeks to combine competitive advantages, lean attributes, and lean enablers to determine the most appropriate enablers for improvement of lean attributes. Quality function deployment in fuzzy environment and house of quality matrix are implemented. Throughout the methodology, fuzzy logic is the basis for translating linguistic judgments required for the relationships and correlation matrix to numerical values. Moreover, for final ranking of lean enablers, a multi-criteria decision-making method (PROMETHEE) is adopted. Finally, a case study in automotive industry is presented to illustrate the implementation of the proposed methodology.

  3. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

  4. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  5. Environmental standards provide competitive advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.; Kirshner, E.

    1993-04-28

    Quality organizations are breaking new ground with the development of international standards for environmental management. These promise to provide the platform for chemical companies wanting to establish their environmental credibility with a global audience. [open quotes]It will be similar to auditing our customers to ISO 9000[close quote], says the environmental manager for a European chemical firm. [open quote]We will only want to deal with people who have got their environmental act together. And we'll be in a better competitive positions[close quote]. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO;Geneva) has set up a taskforce to develop an environmental management standard, which is expected to be completed by the mid-1990s. Observers think the ISO standard will draw heavily on the British Standard Institute's (BSI;London) environmental management standard, BS7750, which will likely be the first system adopted in the world. Published last year, BS7750 has been extensively piloted in the UK (CW, Sept. 30, 1992, p. 62) and is now set to be revised before being offically adopted by BSI. The UK's Chemical Industries Association (CIA;London) is anxious to prevent a proliferation of standards, and its report on BS7750 pilot projects calls for an approach integrating quality, environment, and health and safety. But standard setters, including ISO, appear to be moving in the opposite direction. In the US, the American national Standards Institute (ANSI;Washington) has started work on an environmental management standard.

  6. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  7. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition. PMID:24166062

  8. Creating Competitive Advantage through Effective Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.

    2002-01-01

    Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…

  9. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value. PMID:25154124

  10. Competitive Advantage of PET/MRI

    PubMed Central

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. PMID:23791129

  11. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    PubMed

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. PMID:23791129

  12. Competitive Advantage and its Sources in an Evolving Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaridis, Apostolos D.

    2009-08-01

    In a continuously altered and evolving Market, as is the food manufacturing market, the main and long-lasting objective of firm that is the maximization of its wealth and consequently the continuous remaining in profit regions, appears that it is possible to be achieved via the obtainment and maintenance of diachronically long-term competitive advantage, which it will render the firm unique or leader force in a inexorable competition that is continuously extended in a globalized market. Various definitions and different regards are developed in regard to the competitive advantage and the way with which a firm it is possible, acquiring it, to star in the market in which it is activated. As result of sustainable competitive advantage in a firm comes the above the average performance. Abundance of resources and competences that are proposed as sources of competitive advantage in the resource-based view literature exists, while they are added continuously new based on empiric studies. In any case, it appears to suffer hierarchy of sources of competitive advantage, with regard to sustainability of these.

  13. Establishing a competitive advantage through quality management.

    PubMed

    George, R J

    1996-06-01

    The successful dentist of the future will establish a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace by recognising that patients undergoing dental treatment cannot see the result before purchase, and that they therefore look for signs of service quality to reduce uncertainty. Thus the successful dentist will implement a quality programme that recognises not only that quality is defined by meeting patients' needs and expectations, but also that quality service is fundamental to successful business strategy. Finally, the successful dentist of the future will realise that the pursuit of quality is a never-ending process which requires leadership by example. PMID:8710317

  14. Using information networks for competitive advantage.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, R L

    1995-01-01

    Although the healthcare "information superhighway" has received considerable attention, the use of information technology to create a sustainable competitive advantage is not new to other industries. Economic survival in the new world of managed care may depend on a healthcare delivery system's ability to use network-based communications technologies to differentiate itself in the market, especially through cost savings and demonstration of desirable outcomes. The adaptability of these technologies can help position healthcare organizations to break the paradigms of the past and thrive in a market environment that stresses coordination, efficiency, and quality in various settings. PMID:10146130

  15. Competitive advantage on a warming planet.

    PubMed

    Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred

    2007-03-01

    Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global warming's dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a warming world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's environmental record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an environmental think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging environmental harm), reputational (how a company's environmental policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors. PMID:17348173

  16. Strategies for achieving sustained competitive advantage.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, J R

    1987-06-01

    Sound strategic planning, even in the midst of unprecedented uncertainty and turmoil, is a critical element of every successful health care organization's action plan. The author examines how one organization has responded to the changing demands of the marketplace and a dramatically changed reimbursement system through appropriate strategic planning, selective downsizing on certain fronts and new product development expansion on others. The result is an organization molded to the new environment. It is no longer based on an illness-model hospital but rather focuses on a vertically integrated multi-health cluster intent on capturing market share by providing a single source continuum of health care. PMID:10301856

  17. Information Technology, Core Competencies, and Sustained Competitive Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Terry Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model that depicts a possible connection between competitive advantage and information technology. Focuses on flexibility of the information technology infrastructure as an enabler of core competencies, especially mass customization and time-to-market, that have a relationship to sustained competitive advantage. (Contains 82…

  18. The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael E; Kramer, Mark R

    2002-12-01

    When it comes to philanthropy, executives increasingly see themselves as caught between critics demanding ever higher levels of "corporate social responsibility" and investors applying pressure to maximize short-term profits. In response, many companies have sought to make their giving more strategic, but what passes for strategic philanthropy is almost never truly strategic, and often isn't particularly effective as philanthropy. Increasingly, philanthropy is used as a form of public relations or advertising, promoting a company's image through high-profile sponsorships. But there is a more truly strategic way to think about philanthropy. Corporations can use their charitable efforts to improve their competitive context--the quality of the business environment in the locations where they operate. Using philanthropy to enhance competitive context aligns social and economic goals and improves a company's long-term business prospects. Addressing context enables a company to not only give money but also leverage its capabilities and relationships in support of charitable causes. The produces social benefits far exceeding those provided by individual donors, foundations, or even governments. Taking this new direction requires fundamental changes in the way companies approach their contribution programs. For example, philanthropic investments can improve education and local quality of life in ways that will benefit the company. Such investments can also improve the company's competitiveness by contributing to expanding the local market and helping to reduce corruption in the local business environment. Adopting a context-focused approach goes against the grain of current philanthropic practice, and it requires a far more disciplined approach than is prevalent today. But it can make a company's philanthropic activities far more effective. PMID:12510538

  19. Seeking the competitive advantage: it's more than cost reduction.

    PubMed

    South, S F

    1999-01-01

    Most organizations focus considerable time and energy on reducing operating costs as a way to attain marketplace advantage. This strategy was not inappropriate in the past. To be competitive in the future, however, focus must be placed on other issues, not just cost reduction. The near future will be dominated by service industries, knowledge management, and virtual partnerships, with production optimization and flexibility, innovation, and strong partnerships defining those organizations that attain competitive advantage. Competitive advantage will reside in clarifying the vision and strategic plan, reviewing and redesigning work processes to optimize resources and value-added work, and creating change-ready environments and empowered workforces. PMID:10557880

  20. Educating Students to Give Them a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Christopher D.; Raymond, Mary Anne; Carlson, Les

    2011-01-01

    With an increasingly competitive job market, this study focuses on what marketing educators can do to help students develop a sustainable competitive advantage. The authors conducted a survey of students, faculty, and recruiters to develop a better understanding of what skills and characteristics might be of value to each group of respondents and…

  1. The relation between proactive environmental strategies and competitive advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butnariu, A.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    There are two distinct orientations of the environmental management that companies may adopt: the model of compliance and the strategic model. The strategic model treats environmental expenses as investments that will lead to competitive advantage for the company. Nevertheless, there are few scientific works that prove the relation between corporate environmental investments and competitive advantage. Thereby, in order to bring clarifications about the profound implications of environmental investments, in the first stage of our research we have proposed the hypothesis that the environmental investments would probably lead to competitive advantage by creating capabilities that are mediators of this relation. In the second stage we have tested this hypothesis, using the research method of survey. A questionnaire was sent to managers in textile Romanian industry, and 109 answers were received. The data was analysed using the linear multiple regression method and the results confirm our hypothesis.

  2. Congruent Knowledge Management Behaviors as Discriminate Sources of Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnier-Watanabe, Remy; Senoo, Dai

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: While knowledge management has been shown to be a strategic source of competitive advantage, processes designed to enhance the productivity of knowledge do not, however, equally contribute to the organization's capabilities. Consequently, this research aims to focus on the relationship between each mode of the knowledge management process…

  3. Sustainable Competitive Advantage for Educational Institutions: A Suggested Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey Norman

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a model of factors critical to establishing and maintaining sustainable competitive advantage for education-services enterprises in international markets. The model, which combines industrial economics, management theory, and services marketing, seeks to explain the strategic decision-making environment in which the education exporter…

  4. Strategic Mergers of Strong Institutions to Enhance Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant; Harman, Kay

    2008-01-01

    Strategic mergers are formal combinations or amalgamations of higher education institutions with the aim of enhancing competitive advantage, or merging for "mutual growth". Recently, in a number of countries, there has been a decided shift from mergers initiated by governments, and dealing mainly with "problem" cases, towards…

  5. COMP-1 promotes competitive advantage of nematode sperm.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jody M; Chavez, Daniela R; Stanfield, Gillian M

    2015-01-01

    Competition among sperm to fertilize oocytes is a ubiquitous feature of sexual reproduction as well as a profoundly important aspect of sexual selection. However, little is known about the cellular mechanisms sperm use to gain competitive advantage or how these mechanisms are regulated genetically. In this study, we utilize a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify a gene, comp-1, whose function is specifically required in competitive contexts. We show that comp-1 functions in sperm to modulate their migration through and localization within the reproductive tract, thereby promoting their access to oocytes. Contrary to previously described models, comp-1 mutant sperm show no defects in size or velocity, thereby defining a novel pathway for preferential usage. Our results indicate not only that sperm functional traits can influence the outcome of sperm competition, but also that these traits can be modulated in a context-dependent manner depending on the presence of competing sperm. PMID:25789512

  6. On the duration and intensity of cumulative advantage competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bo; Sun, Liyuan; Figueiredo, Daniel R.; Ribeiro, Bruno; Towsley, Don

    2015-11-01

    Network growth can be framed as a competition for edges among nodes in the network. As with various other social and physical systems, skill (fitness) and luck (random chance) act as fundamental forces driving competition dynamics. In the context of networks, cumulative advantage (CA)—the rich-get-richer effect—is seen as a driving principle governing the edge accumulation process. However, competitions coupled with CA exhibit non-trivial behavior and little is formally known about duration and intensity of CA competitions. By isolating two nodes in an ideal CA competition, we provide a mathematical understanding of how CA exacerbates the role of luck in detriment of skill. We show, for instance, that when nodes start with few edges, an early stroke of luck can place the less skilled in the lead for an extremely long period of time, a phenomenon we call ‘struggle of the fittest’. We prove that duration of a simple skill and luck competition model exhibit power-law tails when CA is present, regardless of skill difference, which is in sharp contrast to the exponential tails when fitness is distinct but CA is absent. We also prove that competition intensity is always upper bounded by an exponential tail, irrespective of CA and skills. Thus, CA competitions can be extremely long (infinite mean, depending on fitness ratio) but almost never very intense. The theoretical results are corroborated by extensive numerical simulations. Our findings have important implications to competitions not only among nodes in networks but also in contexts that leverage socio-physical models embodying CA competitions.

  7. Competitive Advantage in Intercollegiate Athletics: Role of Intangible Resources.

    PubMed

    Won, Doyeon; Chelladurai, Packianathan

    2016-01-01

    The present research explored the dynamics of competitive advantages in intercollegiate athletics by investigating the contribution of intangible resources (i.e., athletic and academic reputations) on the generation of more tangible resources (i.e., human and financial resources), which in turn influence the athletic performance (i.e., winning record) and academic performance (i.e., graduation rates), and gender equity. The research was based entirely on archival data of 324 NCAA Division I member institutions. The results of the SEM supported the study's basic arguments that tangible resources are the sources of competitive advantages in Division I intercollegiate athletics, and that intangible resources contribute to the generation of tangible resources. PMID:26731118

  8. Competitive Advantage in Intercollegiate Athletics: Role of Intangible Resources

    PubMed Central

    Won, Doyeon; Chelladurai, Packianathan

    2016-01-01

    The present research explored the dynamics of competitive advantages in intercollegiate athletics by investigating the contribution of intangible resources (i.e., athletic and academic reputations) on the generation of more tangible resources (i.e., human and financial resources), which in turn influence the athletic performance (i.e., winning record) and academic performance (i.e., graduation rates), and gender equity. The research was based entirely on archival data of 324 NCAA Division I member institutions. The results of the SEM supported the study’s basic arguments that tangible resources are the sources of competitive advantages in Division I intercollegiate athletics, and that intangible resources contribute to the generation of tangible resources. PMID:26731118

  9. Improving the design of competitive bidding in Medicare Advantage.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John H; Whitford, Andrew B

    2007-04-01

    In 2003, Congress passed the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act, which required that in 2006 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implement a system of competitive bids to set payments for the Medicare Advantage program. Managed care plans now bid for the right to enroll Medicare beneficiaries. Data from the first year of bidding suggest that imperfect competition is limiting the success of the bidding system. This article offers suggestions to improve this system based on findings from auction theory and previous government-run auctions. In particular, CMS can benefit by adjusting its system of competitive bids in four ways: credibly committing to regulations governing bidding; limiting the scope for collusion, entry deterrence, and predatory behavior among bidders; adjusting how benchmark reimbursement rates are set; and accounting for asymmetric information among bidders. PMID:17463410

  10. Complexity, Competitive Intelligence and the "First Mover" Advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos

    In the following paper we explore some of the ways in which competitive intelligence and game theory can be employed to assist firms in deciding whether or not to undertake international market diversification and whether or not there is an advantage to being a market leader or a market follower overseas. In attempting to answer these questions, we take a somewhat unconventional approach. We first examine how some of the most recent advances in the physical and biological sciences can contribute to the ways in which we understand how firms behave. Subsequently, we propose a formal methodology for competitive intelligence. While space considerations here do not allow for a complete game-theoretic treatment of competitive intelligence and its use with respect to understanding first and second mover advantage in firm internationalization, that treatment can be found in its entirety in the on-line proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Complex Systems at http://knowledgetoday.org/wiki/indec.php/ICCS06/89

  11. Complexity, Competitive Intelligence and the "First Mover" Advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos

    In the following paper we explore some of the ways in which competitive intelligence and game theory can be employed to assist firms in deciding whether or not to undertake international market diversification and whether or not there is an advantage to being a market leader or a market follower overseas. In attempting to answer these questions, we take a somewhat unconventional approach. We first examine how some of the most recent advances in the physical and biological sciences can contribute to the ways in which we understand how firms behave. Subsequently, we propose a formal methodology for competitive intelligence. While space considerations here do not allow for a complete game-theoretic treatment of competitive intelligence and its use with respect to understanding first and second mover advantage in firm internationalization, that treatment can be found in its entirety in the on-line proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Complex Systems at e">http://knowledgetoday.org/wiki/indec.php/ICCS06/89.

  12. Universities and the Mobilization of Claims of Excellence for Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangenge-Ouma, Gerald; Langa, Patricio V.

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses the phenomenon of making claims of excellence by universities, which we interpret as a response, inter alia, to the hitherto unfamiliar context of scarce and diminishing resources. The main objective is to understand how claims of excellence are mobilised by higher education institutions to achieve "competitive advantage". The…

  13. Students' Use of Extra-Curricular Activities for Positional Advantage in Competitive Job Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulin, Nicolas; Bangerter, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of mass higher education, competition between graduates in the labour market is increasing. Students are aware that their degree will not guarantee them a job and realise they should add value and distinction to their credentials to achieve a positional advantage. Participation in extra-curricular activities (ECAs) is one such…

  14. COMP-1 promotes competitive advantage of nematode sperm

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Jody M; Chavez, Daniela R; Stanfield, Gillian M

    2015-01-01

    Competition among sperm to fertilize oocytes is a ubiquitous feature of sexual reproduction as well as a profoundly important aspect of sexual selection. However, little is known about the cellular mechanisms sperm use to gain competitive advantage or how these mechanisms are regulated genetically. In this study, we utilize a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify a gene, comp-1, whose function is specifically required in competitive contexts. We show that comp-1 functions in sperm to modulate their migration through and localization within the reproductive tract, thereby promoting their access to oocytes. Contrary to previously described models, comp-1 mutant sperm show no defects in size or velocity, thereby defining a novel pathway for preferential usage. Our results indicate not only that sperm functional traits can influence the outcome of sperm competition, but also that these traits can be modulated in a context-dependent manner depending on the presence of competing sperm. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05423.001 PMID:25789512

  15. Competitive advantage in the ERP system's value-chain and its influence on future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Björn; Newman, Mike

    2010-02-01

    Using the resource-based view, we present a set of propositions related to enterprise resource planning (ERP) development, reflections on competitive advantage and the different roles that stakeholders play in the value-chain. This has the goal of building a foundation for future research on ERPs and how stakeholders' desire to achieve competitive advantage influence ERP development, especially when it comes to development of a more standardised or pre-customised ERP system. The propositions also act as a foundation for increasing our knowledge concerning the difficulty in developing improved ERP systems.

  16. Metabolic engineering of microbial competitive advantage for industrial fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A Joe; Lam, Felix H; Hamilton, Maureen; Consiglio, Andrew; MacEwen, Kyle; Brevnova, Elena E; Greenhagen, Emily; LaTouf, W Greg; South, Colin R; van Dijken, Hans; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    Microbial contamination is an obstacle to widespread production of advanced biofuels and chemicals. Current practices such as process sterilization or antibiotic dosage carry excess costs or encourage the development of antibiotic resistance. We engineered Escherichia coli to assimilate melamine, a xenobiotic compound containing nitrogen. After adaptive laboratory evolution to improve pathway efficiency, the engineered strain rapidly outcompeted a control strain when melamine was supplied as the nitrogen source. We additionally engineered the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica to assimilate nitrogen from cyanamide and phosphorus from potassium phosphite, and they outcompeted contaminating strains in several low-cost feedstocks. Supplying essential growth nutrients through xenobiotic or ecologically rare chemicals provides microbial competitive advantage with minimal external risks, given that engineered biocatalysts only have improved fitness within the customized fermentation environment. PMID:27493184

  17. Implement the medical group revenue function. Create competitive advantage.

    PubMed

    Colucci, C

    1998-01-01

    This article shows medical groups how they can employ new financial management and information technology techniques to safeguard their revenue and income streams. These managerial techniques stem from the application of the medical group revenue function, which is defined herein. This article also describes how the medical group revenue function can be used to create value by employing a database and a decision support system. Finally, the article describes how the decision support system can be used to create competitive advantage. Through the wise use of internally generated information, medical groups can negotiate better contract terms, improve their operations, cut their costs, embark on capital investment programs and improve market share. As medical groups gain market power by improving in these areas, they will be more attractive to potential strategic allies, payers and investment bankers. PMID:10181647

  18. Paying Medicare Advantage plans by competitive bidding: how much competition is there?

    PubMed

    Biles, Brian; Pozen, Jonah; Guterman, Stuart

    2009-08-01

    Private health plans that enroll Medicare beneficiaries--known as Medicare Advantage (MA) plans--are being paid $11 billion more in 2009 than it would cost to cover these beneficiaries in regular fee-for-service Medicare. To generate Medicare savings for offsetting the costs of health reform, the Obama Administration has proposed eliminating these extra payments to private insurers and instituting a competitive bidding system that pays MA plans based on the bids they submit. This study examines the concentration of enrollment among MA plans and the degree to which firms offering MA plans actually face competition. The results show that in the large majority of U.S. counties, MA plan enrollment is highly concentrated in a small number of firms. Given the relative lack of competition in many markets as well as the potential impact on traditional Medicare, the authors call for careful consideration of a new system for setting MA plan payments. PMID:19685587

  19. Decision support and data warehousing tools boost competitive advantage.

    PubMed

    Waldo, B H

    1998-01-01

    The ability to communicate across the care continuum is fast becoming an integral component of the successful health enterprise. As integrated delivery systems are formed and patient care delivery is restructured, health care professionals must be able to distribute, access, and evaluate information across departments and care settings. The Aberdeen Group, a computer and communications research and consulting organization, believes that "the single biggest challenge for next-generation health care providers is to improve on how they consolidate and manage information across the continuum of care. This involves building a strategic warehouse of clinical and financial information that can be shared and leveraged by health care professionals, regardless of the location or type of care setting" (Aberdeen Group, Inc., 1997). The value and importance of data and systems integration are growing. Organizations that create a strategy and implement DSS tools to provide decision-makers with the critical information they need to face the competition and maintain quality and costs will have the advantage. PMID:9592525

  20. The competitive advantage of a dual-transporter system.

    PubMed

    Levy, Sagi; Kafri, Moshe; Carmi, Miri; Barkai, Naama

    2011-12-01

    Cells use transporters of different affinities to regulate nutrient influx. When nutrients are depleted, low-affinity transporters are replaced by high-affinity ones. High-affinity transporters are helpful when concentrations of nutrients are low, but the advantage of reducing their abundance when nutrients are abundant is less clear. When we eliminated such reduced production of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae high-affinity transporters for phosphate and zinc, the elapsed time from the initiation of the starvation program until the lack of nutrients limited growth was shortened, and recovery from starvation was delayed. The latter phenotype was rescued by constitutive activation of the starvation program. Dual-transporter systems appear to prolong preparation for starvation and to facilitate subsequent recovery, which may optimize sensing of nutrient depletion by integrating internal and external information about nutrient availability. PMID:22158820

  1. COMPETITIVE BIDDING IN MEDICARE ADVANTAGE: EFFECT OF BENCHMARK CHANGES ON PLAN BIDS

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zirui; Landrum, Mary Beth; Chernew, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Bidding has been proposed to replace or complement the administered prices in Medicare pays to hospitals and health plans. In 2006, the Medicare Advantage program implemented a competitive bidding system to determine plan payments. In perfectly competitive models, plans bid their costs and thus bids are insensitive to the benchmark. Under many other models of competition, bids respond to changes in the benchmark. We conceptualize the bidding system and use an instrumental variable approach to study the effect of benchmark changes on bids. We use 2006–2010 plan payment data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, published county benchmarks, actual realized fee-for-service costs, and Medicare Advantage enrollment. We find that a $1 increase in the benchmark leads to about a $0.53 increase in bids, suggesting that plans in the Medicare Advantage market have meaningful market power. PMID:24308881

  2. Managing Human Resource Capabilities for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: An Empirical Analysis from Indian Global Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khandekar, Aradhana; Sharma, Anuradha

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine the role of human resource capability (HRC) in organisational performance and sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) in Indian global organisations. Design/Methodology/Approach: To carry out the present study, an empirical research on a random sample of 300 line or human resource managers from…

  3. Information Technology Adoption for Service Innovation Practices and Competitive Advantage: The Case of Financial Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J. S.; Tsou, H. T.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The importance of information technology to current business practices has long drawn the attention of practitioners and academicians. Aim: This paper aims to broaden understanding about service innovation as a critical organizational capability through which information technology adoption influences the competitive advantage of a…

  4. Core Competence, Distinctive Competence, and Competitive Advantage: What Is the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Core competence, distinctive competence, and competitive advantage are 3 of the most important business concepts that managers, researchers, and educators rely on for decision making, pedagogy, and research. However, little attention has been paid to defining these concepts. As a result, they have become buzzwords that are used so frequently that…

  5. Competitive Advantage, What Does It Really Mean in the Context of Public Higher Education Institutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Haijing Helen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to critically investigate the discourse on "competitive advantage", a concept that has been widely applied in the public higher education sector, but rarely defined and conceptualised. Design/methodology/approach: In order to get some insightful understanding about how "competitive…

  6. 78 FR 35826 - Unfair Competitive Advantages; Enhancement of the Formal Complaint Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ...The Commission is proposing rules to enhance the formal complaint process in cases involving alleged violations of a law that prohibits the Postal Service from taking certain actions that might provide it with unfair competitive advantages. The proposal provides an optional accelerated procedure that allows for adjudication of this type of complaint within 90 days. The Commission invites......

  7. Comparative Analysis of OECD Member Countries' Competitive Advantage in National Human Resource Development System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hunseok; Choi, Yeseul; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, evaluate, and compare the competitive advantages of the human resource development systems of advanced countries. The Global Human Resource Development Index was utilized for this study, since it has been validated through an expert panel's content review and analytic hierarchy process. Using a sample…

  8. Catching a Wave: An Australian Case Study on Building Competence in Search of Competitive Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellie, Deborah

    1998-01-01

    A case study of an Australian road construction company's skill development project is an example of an attempt to increase competitive advantage through competency acquisition. It remains to be seen whether reconstruction of the company will result in improved productivity and financial performance. (SK)

  9. Advantage Management Strategy in Competition via Technological Race Perspective: Empirical Evidence from the Taiwanese Manufacturing Industry

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Tsu-Yi; Hsiao, Yu-Ju; Wu, Shih-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs) tend to adopt the “catch-up” strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The result indicates that, under financial constraints, Taiwanese manufacturing firms attempt to invest in R&D to catch up with their rivals or to avoid being eliminated from the race. PMID:25295307

  10. Advantage management strategy in competition via technological race perspective: empirical evidence from the Taiwanese manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tsu-Yi; Hsiao, Yu-Ju; Wu, Shih-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs) tend to adopt the "catch-up" strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The result indicates that, under financial constraints, Taiwanese manufacturing firms attempt to invest in R&D to catch up with their rivals or to avoid being eliminated from the race. PMID:25295307

  11. The evolution of increased competitive ability, innate competitive advantages, and novel biochemical weapons act in concert for a tropical invader.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rui-Min; Zheng, Yu-Long; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Callaway, Ragan M; Barclay, Gregor F; Pereyra, Carlos Silva; Feng, Yu-Long

    2013-02-01

    There are many non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for exotic invasions but few studies have concurrently tested more than one hypothesis for the same species. Here, we tested the evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis in two common garden experiments in which Chromolaena odorata plants originating from native and nonnative ranges were grown in competition with natives from each range, and the novel weapons hypothesis in laboratory experiments with leachates from C. odorata. Compared with conspecifics originating from the native range, C. odorata plants from the nonnative range were stronger competitors at high nutrient concentrations in the nonnative range in China and experienced far more herbivore damage in the native range in Mexico. In both China and Mexico, C. odorata was more suppressed by species native to Mexico than by species native to China. Species native to China were much more inhibited by leaf extracts from C. odorata than species from Mexico, and this difference in allelopathic effects may provide a possible explanation for the biogeographic differences in competitive ability. Our results indicate that EICA, innate competitive advantages, and novel biochemical weapons may act in concert to promote invasion by C. odorata, and emphasize the importance of exploring multiple, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for invasions. PMID:23252450

  12. Pre-competition hormonal and psychological levels of elite hockey players: relationship to the "home advantage".

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin; Muir, Cameron; Belanger, Joey; Putnam, Susan K

    2006-10-30

    The home advantage is a robust phenomenon that occurs in the world of amateur and professional sport. Athletic teams have been shown to win significantly more games in their home venue as compared to their opponents' venue. Studies have suggested that the home advantage may be related to familiarity with the facility, increased crowd density and even pre-competition hormonal levels. The present study investigated pre-competition physiological and psychological states of elite hockey players in the home and away venues. Physiological measures included salivary cortisol and testosterone, which were assessed using enzyme immunoassays. In addition, pre-competition psychological states were assessed using the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Physiological measures indicated that the players had significantly higher pre-game testosterone when playing in their home venue as compared to their opponents' venue (t(13)=2.29, p=0.04); however, this difference was not due to a pre-game rise in testosterone while competing at home. Furthermore, players showed a trend toward higher pre-game cortisol when playing in their home venue (t(13)=1.96, p=0.07). Psychological measures indicated that players were more self-confident when playing in their home venue (t(13)=2.8, p=0.008) and also had higher somatic (t(13)=2.3, p=0.02) and cognitive anxiety (t(13)=1.87, p=0.04) when playing in their opponents' venue. The present study supports the notion that there are differences in pre-competition hormonal and psychological states that may play a key role in the "home advantage". PMID:16934844

  13. Can Internationalisation Really Lead to Institutional Competitive Advantage?--A Study of 16 Dutch Public Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Haan, Haijing

    2014-01-01

    Public higher education institutions (PHEIs) have widely acknowledged a positive relationship between internationalization and their institutional competitive advantage enhancement. Although some concerns have been raised by practitioners and researchers about whether institutional competitive advantage can be enhanced given the current ways of…

  14. A Dynamic Capabilities View of Employability: Exploring the Drivers of Competitive Advantage for University Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, David J.; Peacock, Melanie; Levallet, Nadege; Foster, William

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The increasing demand for post-secondary education, and the ongoing difficulty students' face in securing appropriate work upon program completion, highlight the importance of an enhanced understanding of employability resources for university graduates. Just as organizations achieve a strategic advantage from resources and dynamic…

  15. HIV competition dynamics over sexual networks: first comer advantage conserves founder effects.

    PubMed

    Ferdinandy, Bence; Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Tamás; Müller, Viktor

    2015-02-01

    Outside Africa, the global phylogeography of HIV is characterized by compartmentalized local epidemics that are typically dominated by a single subtype, which indicates strong founder effects. We hypothesized that the competition of viral strains at the epidemic level may involve an advantage of the resident strain that was the first to colonize a population. Such an effect would slow down the invasion of new strains, and thus also the diversification of the epidemic. We developed a stochastic modelling framework to simulate HIV epidemics over dynamic contact networks. We simulated epidemics in which the second strain was introduced into a population where the first strain had established a steady-state epidemic, and assessed whether, and on what time scale, the second strain was able to spread in the population. Simulations were parameterized based on empirical data; we tested scenarios with varying levels of overall prevalence. The spread of the second strain occurred on a much slower time scale compared with the initial expansion of the first strain. With strains of equal transmission efficiency, the second strain was unable to invade on a time scale relevant for the history of the HIV pandemic. To become dominant over a time scale of decades, the second strain needed considerable (>25%) advantage in transmission efficiency over the resident strain. The inhibition effect was weaker if the second strain was introduced while the first strain was still in its growth phase. We also tested how possible mechanisms of interference (inhibition of superinfection, depletion of highly connected hubs in the network, one-time acute peak of infectiousness) contribute to the inhibition effect. Our simulations confirmed a strong first comer advantage in the competition dynamics of HIV at the population level, which may explain the global phylogeography of the virus and may influence the future evolution of the pandemic. PMID:25654450

  16. Internet Usage and Competitive Advantage: The Impact of the Internet on an Old Economy Industry in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Aguila Obra, Ana Rosa; Bruque Camara, Sebastian; Padilla Melendez, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether Internet technologies have led to competitive advantage for companies operating in traditional industries. Highlights include a literature review; using the resource-based view (RBV) of firms as a theoretical framework for an empirical investigation; and a survey that investigated Internet technologies and competitive advantage…

  17. Strategy and society: the link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael E; Kramer, Mark R

    2006-12-01

    Governments, activists, and the media have become adept at holding companies to account for the social consequences of their actions. In response, corporate social responsibility has emerged as an inescapable priority for business leaders in every country. Frequently, though, CSR efforts are counterproductive, for two reasons. First, they pit business against society, when in reality the two are interdependent. Second, they pressure companies to think of corporate social responsibility in generic ways instead of in the way most appropriate to their individual strategies. The fact is, the prevailing approaches to CSR are so disconnected from strategy as to obscure many great opportunities for companies to benefit society. What a terrible waste. If corporations were to analyze their opportunities for social responsibility using the same frameworks that guide their core business choices, they would discover, as Whole Foods Market, Toyota, and Volvo have done, that CSR can be much more than a cost, a constraint, or a charitable deed--it can be a potent source of innovation and competitive advantage. In this article, Michael Porter and Mark Kramer propose a fundamentally new way to look at the relationship between business and society that does not treat corporate growth and social welfare as a zero-sum game. They introduce a framework that individual companies can use to identify the social consequences of their actions; to discover opportunities to benefit society and themselves by strengthening the competitive context in which they operate; to determine which CSR initiatives they should address; and to find the most effective ways of doing so. Perceiving social responsibility as an opportunity rather than as damage control or a PR campaign requires dramatically different thinking--a mind-set, the authors warn, that will become increasingly important to competitive success. PMID:17183795

  18. Coal: Cornerstone of America`s competitive advantage in world markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, M.P.

    1997-12-31

    The United States` competitive position in world markets will be determined by many forces. Two of the fundamental factors are the increased use of new technologies, and the availability of low-cost electricity to operate those technologies. The US currently has an will likely continue to have market dominance in both these critical areas. Both of these factors are intimately related since the primary source of new technologies is electric in nature. And, because low-cost coal now dominates and will continue to dominate the electric supply system, and because the US has both an abundance of coal and the world`s largest fleet of coal-fired power plants, the US will have an expanding base of low-cost electricity that will secure its current competitive advantage for years to come. Electric technologies and, increasingly, computer-based technologies integrated with electric technologies are the primary sources of innovative advancement and economic growth. As a consequence, the growth in electricity, which has historically tracked GNP growth, is expected to continue. And, with the restructuring of the electric utility industry and the emergence of vigorous competition, prices are expected to decline as competition increases. The net effect of these forces will be to dramatically increase the use of electric technologies -- and those sources of electricity that can provide low-cost electricity. The data show that coal, the primary source of new los-cost electricity, will supply between one-half and three-fourths of all new electric supply through 2010, at prices of about 3{cents}/kWh, and can do so without new power plant construction. Since the use of coal is expected to rise by at least 200 to 250 million tons/year over the current consumption of 850 million tons, and could increase as much as 400 million tons/yr, some have raised concerns about the emissions impact from the power plants. This report also shows that the net effect of increased electric use, assuming

  19. "Power quality system," a new system of quality management for globalization: towards innovation and competitive advantages.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Rahman, H; Berawi, M A

    Knowledge Management (KM) addresses the critical issues of organizational adoption, survival and competence in the face of an increasingly changing environment. KM embodies organizational processes that seek a synergistic combination of the data and information processing capabilities of information and communication technologies (ICT), and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings to improve ICT In that role, knowledge management will improve quality management and avoid or minimize losses and weakness that usually come from poor performance as well as increase the competitive level of the company and its ability to survive in the global marketplace. To achieve quality, all parties including the clients, company consultants, contractors, entrepreneurs, suppliers, and the governing bodies (i.e., all involved stake-holders) need to collaborate and commit to achieving quality. The design based organizations in major business and construction companies have to be quality driven to support healthy growth in today's competitive market. In the march towards vision 2020 and globalization (i.e., the one world community) of many companies, their design based organizations need to have superior quality management and knowledge management to anticipate changes. The implementation of a quality system such as the ISO 9000 Standards, Total Quality Management, or Quality Function Deployment (QFD) focuses the company's resources towards achieving faster and better results in the global market with less cost. To anticipate the needs of the marketplace and clients as the world and technology change, a new system, which we call Power Quality System (PQS), has been designed. PQS is a combination of information and communication technologies (ICT) and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings to meet the challenges of the new world business and to develop high quality products. PMID:12465710

  20. Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

  1. Charter School Competition, Organization, and Achievement in Traditional Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tomeka M.

    2013-01-01

    Market models of education reform predict that the growth of charter schools will infuse competition into the public school sector, forcing traditional public schools to improve the practices they engage in to educate students. Some scholars have criticized these models, arguing that competition from charter schools is unlikely to produce…

  2. In vitro evaluation of nutrients that selectively confer a competitive advantage to lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Vongsa, R A; Minerath, R A; Busch, M A; Tan, J; Koenig, D W

    2016-03-11

    An assay was developed that tested the ability of Lactobacillus acidophilus to outcompete a challenge of Escherichia coli in a mixed culture containing different test nutrients. Using this assay, addition of fructo-oligosaccharide to the media allowed L. acidophilus to outcompete a challenge of E. coli, whereas in a mixed culture without the prebiotic the trend was reversed. Growth curves generated for E. coli in a single culture showed that fructo-oligosaccharide did not affect growth, indicating that the carbohydrate was not toxic to E. coli. This indicates that fructo-oligosaccharides may increase the ability of beneficial microbes to outcompete a pathogenic challenge. These results were confirmed using a skin simulant model that incorporates growth of the organisms at an air-surface interface to mimic the vulvar environment. It is possible to use a co-culture assay as an in vitro screening tool to define nutrients that confer a competitive advantage to beneficial flora specific to the female urogenital tract. PMID:26689232

  3. Hematopoietic stem cells from NOD mice exhibit autonomous behavior and a competitive advantage in allogeneic recipients.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Paula M; Rezzoug, Francine; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Fugier-Vivier, Isabelle; Ratajczak, Janina; Kucia, Magda; Huang, Yiming; Tanner, Michael K; Ildstad, Suzanne T

    2005-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a systemic autoimmune disease that can be cured by transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from disease-resistant donors. Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice have a number of features that distinguish them as bone marrow transplant recipients that must be understood prior to the clinical application of chimerism to induce tolerance. In the present studies, we characterized NOD HSCs, comparing their engraftment characteristics to HSCs from disease-resistant strains. Strikingly, NOD HSCs are significantly enhanced in engraftment potential compared with HSCs from disease-resistant donors. Unlike HSCs from disease-resistant strains, they do not require graft-facilitating cells to engraft in allogeneic recipients. Additionally, they exhibit a competitive advantage when coadministered with increasing numbers of syngeneic HSCs, produce significantly more spleen colony-forming units (CFU-Ss) in vivo in allogeneic recipients, and more granulocyte macrophage-colony-forming units (CFU-GMs) in vitro compared with HSCs from disease-resistant controls. NOD HSCs also exhibit significantly enhanced chemotaxis to a stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) gradient and adhere significantly better on primary stroma. This enhanced engraftment potential maps to the insulin-dependent diabetes locus 9 (Idd9) locus, and as such the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family as well as ski/sno genes may be involved in the mechanism underlying the autonomy of NOD HSCs. These findings may have important implications to understand the evolution of autoimmune disease and impact on potential strategies for cure. PMID:15522953

  4. Gaining competitive advantage in personal dosimetry services through ISO 9001 certification.

    PubMed

    Noriah, M A

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantage of certification process in the quality assurance of individual dose monitoring in Malaysia. The demand by customers and the regulatory authority for a higher degree of quality service requires a switch in emphasis from a technically focused quality assurance program to a comprehensive quality management for service provision. Achieving the ISO 9001:2000 certification by an accredited third party demonstrates acceptable recognition and documents the fact that the methods used are capable of generating results that satisfy the performance criteria of the certification program. It also offers a proof of the commitment to quality and, as a benchmark, allows measurement of the progress for continual improvement of service performance. PMID:17145724

  5. Competition, Choice and Pupil Achievement. CEE DP 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Machin, Stephen; Silva, Olmo

    2006-01-01

    The expansion of school choice and greater competition between schools is currently the centrepiece of government educational policy in the UK. There is an increasing emphasis on parents' right to choose their preferred schools, and whilst many parents may value choice itself, the advocates of these market oriented reforms usually argue that the…

  6. The whole relationship between environmental variables and firm performance: competitive advantage and firm resources as mediator variables.

    PubMed

    López-Gamero, María D; Molina-Azorín, José F; Claver-Cortés, Enrique

    2009-07-01

    The examination of the possible direct link between environmental protection and firm performance in the literature has generally produced mixed results. The present paper contributes to the literature by using the resource-based view as a mediating process in this relationship. The study specifically tests whether or not the resource-based view of the firm mediates the positive relationships of proactive environmental management and improved environmental performance with competitive advantage, which also has consequences for financial performance. We also check the possible link between the adoption of a pioneering approach and good environmental management practices. Our findings support that early investment timing and intensity in environmental issues impact on the adoption of a proactive environmental management, which in turn helps to improve environmental performance. The findings also show that a firm's resources and competitive advantage act as mediator variables for a positive relationship between environmental protection and financial performance. This contribution is original because the present paper develops a comprehensive whole picture of this path process, which has previously only been partially discussed in the literature. In addition, this study clarifies a relevant point in the literature, namely that the effect of environmental protection on firm performance is not direct and can vary depending on the sector considered. Whereas competitive advantage in relation to costs influences financial performance in the IPPC law sector, the relevant influence in the hotel sector comes from competitive advantage through differentiation. PMID:19482410

  7. How Can We Assess and Evaluate the Competitive Advantage of a Country's Human Resource Development System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hunseok; Ryu, Hyue-Hyun; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an index to assess and evaluate the competitive advantage of a country's human resource development system. Based on an extensive literature review, a theoretical model of a human resource development system at the national level (named National Human Resource Development: NHRD) was constructed. The…

  8. Competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1997-01-01

    Our ambivalence toward competition can be traced to an unspoken preference for certain types of competition which give us an advantage over the types we value less. Four types are defined (a) pure (same rules, same objectives), (b) collaborative (same rules, shared objective), (c) market share (different rules, same objectives), and (d) market growth (different rules, value added orientation). The defining characteristics of the four types of competition are respectively: needing a referee, arguing over the spoils, differentiation and substitutability, and customer focus. Dentistry has features of all four types of competition, thus making it difficult to have a meaningful discussion or frame a coherent policy on this topic. PMID:9270222

  9. Understanding the Positive Role of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Advantage in Achievement: The Contribution of the Home, Child Care and School Environments

    PubMed Central

    Dupéré, Véronique; Leventhal, Tama; Crosnoe, Robert; Dion, Éric

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the mechanisms underlying associations between neighborhood socioeconomic advantage and children’s achievement trajectories between 54 months and 15 years old. Results of hierarchical linear growth models based on a diverse sample of 1,364 children indicate that neighborhood socioeconomic advantage was non-linearly associated with youths’ initial vocabulary and reading scores, such that the presence of educated, affluent professionals in the neighborhood had a favorable association with children’s achievement among those in less advantaged neighborhoods until it leveled off at moderate levels of advantage. A similar tendency was observed for math achievement. The quality of the home and child care environments as well as school advantage partially explained these associations. The findings suggest that multiple environments need to be considered simultaneously for understanding neighborhood-achievement links. PMID:20822235

  10. Taking advantage of ground data systems attributes to achieve quality results in testing software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.; Hageman, Barbara H.

    1994-01-01

    During the software development life cycle process, basic testing starts with the development team. At the end of the development process, an acceptance test is performed for the user to ensure that the deliverable is acceptable. Ideally, the delivery is an operational product with zero defects. However, the goal of zero defects is normally not achieved but is successful to various degrees. With the emphasis on building low cost ground support systems while maintaining a quality product, a key element in the test process is simulator capability. This paper reviews the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) test tool that is used in the acceptance test process for unmanned satellite operations control centers. The TASS is designed to support the development, test and operational environments of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) operations control centers. The TASS uses the same basic architecture as the operations control center. This architecture is characterized by its use of distributed processing, industry standards, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components, and reusable software. The TASS uses much of the same TPOCC architecture and reusable software that the operations control center developer uses. The TASS also makes use of reusable simulator software in the mission specific versions of the TASS. Very little new software needs to be developed, mainly mission specific telemetry communication and command processing software. By taking advantage of the ground data system attributes, successful software reuse for operational systems provides the opportunity to extend the reuse concept into the test area. Consistency in test approach is a major step in achieving quality results.

  11. Teamwork in health care: opportunities for gains in quality, productivity, and competitive advantage. What works, what doesn't, and why.

    PubMed

    Montebello, A R

    1994-01-01

    Wholesale political, economic, and social change is pressuring health-care organizations to reinvent themselves as they enter a new arena of managed competition. Survival is at stake. Will belt-tightening efforts, combined with structural changes and strategic alliances, achieve the necessary improvements in efficiency and help to secure an adequate patient base? It seems reasonable to expect that health-care institutions can realize the major gains in quality, productivity, efficiency, and competitive edge that organizations in the manufacturing and service industries have enjoyed for the past several years. It seems like a logical next step for health-care organizations to deploy proven methods--such as work redesign, team-based structures, and empowered workforces--that have helped to restore competitiveness to many industrial and service firms. This article describes how to organize teams at all levels and accelerate their development to achieve important organizational objectives--such as improving quality, productivity, and efficiency--while increasing employee satisfaction. Pioneering workplace innovations are reviewed to demonstrate how high-involvement teams integrating strategic planning, research, and health-care delivery processes are not only possible but highly desirable. Enhanced quality, improved productivity, greater efficiency, and employee satisfaction all translate to an undeniable competitive advantage. PMID:10133988

  12. Perception of coaching behaviors, coping, and achievement in a sport competition.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Michel; Gaudreau, Patrick; Franche, Veronique

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived coaching behaviors, coping strategies during a sport competition, and sport achievement. A prospective design was used in which 80 athletes from individual sports completed measures of perceived coaching behaviors two days before a competition (Time 1) and measures of coping and sport achievement within three hours after a sport competition (Time 2). As expected, results of multiple regressions indicated that supportive coaching was a positive predictor of task-oriented coping and sport achievement whereas unsupportive coaching was a positive predictor of disengagement-oriented coping. Both types of coping were significantly associated with sport achievement. Task-oriented coping was a significant partial mediator in the relation between supportive coaching and sport achievement. This study, which contributes to both the coaching and coping literatures, highlights the role of supportive coaching behaviors in the initiation of effective stress management during sport competitions. PMID:21659673

  13. Understanding the Positive Role of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Advantage in Achievement: The Contribution of the Home, Child Care, and School Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupere, Veronique; Leventhal, Tama; Crosnoe, Robert; Dion, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the mechanisms underlying associations between neighborhood socioeconomic advantage and children's achievement trajectories between ages 54 months and 15 years. Results of hierarchical linear growth models based on a diverse sample of 1,364 children indicate that neighborhood socioeconomic advantage was…

  14. PLAYERS' PERCEPTIONS OF HOME ADVANTAGE IN THE AUSTRALIAN RUGBY LEAGUE COMPETITION.

    PubMed

    Mcguckin, Teneale A; Sinclair, Wade H; Sealey, Rebecca M; Bowman, Paul W

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to pilot a survey to explore players' perception of home advantage in a rugby league. Twenty-seven players from one team with an identified home advantage believed a home advantage existed as a result of their home crowd (52%), family and friends' support (41%), normal travel (45%) and sleeping arrangements (37%), home weather conditions (48%), and familiarity with playing amenities (37%). However, the players were less definite about influences while playing away from home. The current sample of players identified differing influences, highlighting individual variations in perceived determinants. Individual interviews or focus groups will be required for further exploration. PMID:26682611

  15. The "Virtual Face" of Planning: How to Use Higher Education Web Sites to Assess Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.; Wilson, Jeffery L.

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this article demonstrates how to investigate the competitive position of an institution's academic programs or services through an analysis of the Web sites of other higher education institutions. By using information from research/doctoral, master's, baccalaureate, and community colleges across 40 states, this study…

  16. Strategy Development in UK Higher Education: Towards Resource-Based Competitive Advantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Richard; Baines, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Britain's higher education institutions (HEIs) face fundamental and unprecedented competitive pressures due to lower government funding (Cm 5735, "The Future of Higher Education," Department for Education and Skills, 2003) and a government agenda focused on a "widening participation agenda". We employ the resource-based view (RBV) of strategy…

  17. Theorizing Strategic Human Resource Development: Linking Financial Performance and Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Po

    2007-01-01

    This paper is to explore potential new underlying theory of strategic human resource development based on critiques of current theoretical foundations of HRD. It offers a new definition and model of Strategic HRD based on resource-based view of firm and human resource, with linkage to financial performance and competitiveness. Proposed new model…

  18. Taking Advantage: The Rural Competitive Preference in the Investing in Innovation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strange, Marty

    2011-01-01

    The Investing in Innovation (i3) program is a U.S. Department of Education competitive grant program supporting innovation in public schools. To encourage projects focusing on rural education in its first round of grants in 2010 the Department offered two bonus points in the scoring system for "projects that would implement innovative practices,…

  19. Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage: A Case Study of Higher Technical and Vocational Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsun-I; Lee, Cheng-Fei

    2012-01-01

    Higher technical and vocational education institutions in Taiwan face the pressure of an oversupply of student places and fierce competition from domestic and international institutions. To cope with these challenges, higher technical and vocational education institutions that are better equipped to respond to market requirements are expected to…

  20. Learning from Toyota: How Action Learning Can Foster Competitive Advantage in New Product Development (NPD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    New product development and commercialization are essential to entrepreneurial growth and international competitiveness. Excellence in this area is strongly supported by individual and organizational learning efforts. By analyzing how Japanese car manufacturer Toyota organizes learning, this paper evaluates the potential of action learning to…

  1. Competition and cooperation in the five-factor model: individual differences in achievement orientation.

    PubMed

    Ross, Scott R; Rausch, M Karega; Canada, Kelli E

    2003-07-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between basic achievement orientations of competition and cooperation and the five-factor model of personality as measured by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992). They examined 2 types of competition: hypercompetition (R. M. Ryckman, B. Thornton, & J. C. Butler, 1994) and personal development competition (R. M. Ryckman, M. Hammer, L. M. Kaczor, & J. A. Gold, 1996), as conceptualized by K. Horney (1937). In a sample of 251 young adults, 14% to 38% of the variance in achievement orientations was collectively predicted by NEO-PI-R domain scales. Of NEO-PI-R predictors, Agreeableness was most important in characterizing differences between various achievement orientations; Agreeableness was negatively related to hypercompetition, positively related to cooperation, and unrelated to personal development competition. Extraversion was positively related to both cooperation and personal development competition but was unrelated to hypercompetition. In contrast, Openness and Conscientiousness were least helpful in differentiating among achievement orientations. These findings support the useful application of the NEO-PI-R in achievement research and highlight competition and cooperation as interpersonally laden achievement orientations. PMID:12943183

  2. Highly Invasive Listeria monocytogenes Strains Have Growth and Invasion Advantages in Strain Competition

    PubMed Central

    Manthou, Evanthia; Ciolacu, Luminita; Wagner, Martin; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Listeria monocytogenes strains can be present in the same food sample; moreover, infection with more than one L. monocytogenes strain can also occur. In this study we investigated the impact of strain competition on the growth and in vitro virulence potential of L. monocytogenes. We identified two strong competitor strains, whose growth was not (or only slightly) influenced by the presence of other strains and two weak competitor strains, which were outcompeted by other strains. Cell contact was essential for growth inhibition. In vitro virulence assays using human intestinal epithelial Caco2 cells showed a correlation between the invasion efficiency and growth inhibition: the strong growth competitor strains showed high invasiveness. Moreover, invasion efficiency of the highly invasive strain was further increased in certain combinations by the presence of a low invasive strain. In all tested combinations, the less invasive strain was outcompeted by the higher invasive strain. Studying the effect of cell contact on in vitro virulence competition revealed a complex pattern in which the observed effects depended only partially on cell-contact suggesting that competition occurs at two different levels: i) during co-cultivation prior to infection, which might influence the expression of virulence factors, and ii) during infection, when bacterial cells compete for the host cell. In conclusion, we show that growth of L. monocytogenes can be inhibited by strains of the same species leading potentially to biased recovery during enrichment procedures. Furthermore, the presence of more than one L. monocytogenes strain in food can lead to increased infection rates due to synergistic effects on the virulence potential. PMID:26529510

  3. Does Private School Competition Affect Public School Achievement? An Analysis of North Carolina Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Eric S.

    This report describes a study conducted to determine if there were any applicable effects from private-school competition on public-school student achievement in North Carolina. The study examined multiple student outcomes, including elementary and secondary student achievement results, student dropout rates, and high school student achievement…

  4. Lethal effects of habitat degradation on fishes through changing competitive advantage.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Mark I

    2012-10-01

    Coral bleaching has caused catastrophic changes to coral reef ecosystems around the world with profound ecological, social and economic repercussions. While its occurrence is predicted to increase in the future, we have little understanding of mechanisms that underlie changes in the fish community associated with coral degradation. The present study uses a field-based experiment to examine how the intensity of interference competition between juveniles of two species of damselfish changes as healthy corals degrade through thermal bleaching. The mortality of a damselfish that is a live coral specialist (Pomacentrus moluccensis) increased on bleached and dead coral in the presence of the habitat generalist (Pomacentrus amboinensis). Increased mortality of the specialist was indirectly owing to enhanced aggression by the generalist forcing the specialist higher up and further away from shelter on bleached and dead coral. Evidence from this study stresses the importance of changing interspecific interactions to community dynamics as habitats change. PMID:22810432

  5. An analytical approach to determining the competitive advantage of TQM in health care.

    PubMed

    Yasin, M M; Alavi, J

    1999-01-01

    The utilization of total quality management (TQM) is advocated by some experts, as a partial remedy to the ills of the healthcare industry. However, some healthcare administrators are not yet sold on TQM. Some healthcare administrators still question the impact of TQM on the operational, financial and strategic health of their institutions. They consider the investment in TQM as unjustifiable because the return on such investment in their mind is questionable. This study illustrates how the constant market share model can be utilized to show the competitive benefits of TQM. Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that the fears of some healthcare administrators are unfounded. Not only that TQM does not compromise organizational effectiveness, but it actually improves it, as it contributes to increasing market share. PMID:10351020

  6. Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy.

  7. Creating a Personal Competitive Advantage by Developing a Professional Online Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmiston, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    The recent global economic crisis has created a hypercompetitive job market in which students have struggled to attain positions in fields related to their disciplines. In an effort to provide students with tools to achieve career success, this paper outlines the elements for "Developing POP! A Professional Online Presence." This…

  8. Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning on students' achievement in science class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, Barbara; Johnson, Roger T.; Johnson, David W.

    The effects on students' achievement and attitudes of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic instruction were compared in ninth-grade physical science classes. Forty-four students were included in the study. Students were randomly assigned to conditions stratifying for sex. The results indicate that cooperative learning experiences promoted greater mastery and retention of the material being taught as well as more positive attitudes toward the experience than did competitive and individualistic learning experiences.

  9. Fearful faces have a sensory advantage in the competition for awareness.

    PubMed

    Hedger, Nicholas; Adams, Wendy J; Garner, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    Only a subset of visual signals give rise to a conscious percept. Threat signals, such as fearful faces, are particularly salient to human vision. Research suggests that fearful faces are evaluated without awareness and preferentially promoted to conscious perception. This agrees with evolutionary theories that posit a dedicated pathway specialized in processing threat-relevant signals. We propose an alternative explanation for this "fear advantage." Using psychophysical data from continuous flash suppression (CFS) and masking experiments, we demonstrate that awareness of facial expressions is predicted by effective contrast: the relationship between their Fourier spectrum and the contrast sensitivity function. Fearful faces have higher effective contrast than neutral expressions and this, not threat content, predicts their enhanced access to awareness. Importantly, our findings do not support the existence of a specialized mechanism that promotes threatening stimuli to awareness. Rather, our data suggest that evolutionary or learned adaptations have molded the fearful expression to exploit our general-purpose sensory mechanisms. PMID:26280260

  10. Competitive advantage for multiple-memory strategies in an artificial market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitman, Kurt E.; Choe, Sehyo C.; Johnson, Neil F.

    2005-05-01

    We consider a simple binary market model containing N competitive agents. The novel feature of our model is that it incorporates the tendency shown by traders to look for patterns in past price movements over multiple time scales, i.e. multiple memory-lengths. In the regime where these memory-lengths are all small, the average winnings per agent exceed those obtained for either (1) a pure population where all agents have equal memory-length, or (2) a mixed population comprising sub-populations of equal-memory agents with each sub-population having a different memory-length. Agents who consistently play strategies of a given memory-length, are found to win more on average -- switching between strategies with different memory lengths incurs an effective penalty, while switching between strategies of equal memory does not. Agents employing short-memory strategies can outperform agents using long-memory strategies, even in the regime where an equal-memory system would have favored the use of long-memory strategies. Using the many-body 'Crowd-Anticrowd' theory, we obtain analytic expressions which are in good agreement with the observed numerical results. In the context of financial markets, our results suggest that multiple-memory agents have a better chance of identifying price patterns of unknown length and hence will typically have higher winnings.

  11. Understanding multinational companies in public health systems, using a competitive advantage framework

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper discusses the findings of a study which developed five case studies of five multinational health care companies involved in public health care systems. Strategies were analysed in terms of attitude to marketing, pricing and regulation. The company strategies have been subjected to an analysis using Porter's Five Forces, a business strategy framework, which is unusual in health policy studies. Methods This paper shows how analysing company strategy using a business tool can contribute to understanding the strategies of global capital in national health systems. It shows how social science methodologies can draw from business methods to explain company strategies. Results The five companies considered in this paper demonstrate that their strategies have many dimensions, which fit into Porter's Five Forces of comparative advantage. More importantly the Five Forces can be used to identify factors that influence company entry into public health care systems. Conclusions The process of examining the strategic objectives of five health care companies shows that a business tool can help to explain the actions and motives of health care companies towards public health care systems, and so contribute to a better understanding of the strategies of global capital in national health systems. Health service commissioners need to understand this dynamic process, which will evolve as the nature of public health care systems change. PMID:21722372

  12. Achieving external validity in home advantage research: generalizing crowd noise effects

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Tony D.

    2014-01-01

    Different factors have been postulated to explain the home advantage phenomenon in sport. One plausible explanation investigated has been the influence of a partisan home crowd on sports officials' decisions. Different types of studies have tested the crowd influence hypothesis including purposefully designed experiments. However, while experimental studies investigating crowd influences have high levels of internal validity, they suffer from a lack of external validity; decision-making in a laboratory setting bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. This focused review initially considers threats to external validity in applied and theoretical experimental research. Discussing how such threats can be addressed using representative design by focusing on a recently published study that arguably provides the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. The findings of this controlled experiment conducted in a real tournament setting offer a level of confirmation of the findings of laboratory studies in the area. Finally directions for future research and the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed. PMID:24917839

  13. Achieving external validity in home advantage research: generalizing crowd noise effects.

    PubMed

    Myers, Tony D

    2014-01-01

    Different factors have been postulated to explain the home advantage phenomenon in sport. One plausible explanation investigated has been the influence of a partisan home crowd on sports officials' decisions. Different types of studies have tested the crowd influence hypothesis including purposefully designed experiments. However, while experimental studies investigating crowd influences have high levels of internal validity, they suffer from a lack of external validity; decision-making in a laboratory setting bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. This focused review initially considers threats to external validity in applied and theoretical experimental research. Discussing how such threats can be addressed using representative design by focusing on a recently published study that arguably provides the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. The findings of this controlled experiment conducted in a real tournament setting offer a level of confirmation of the findings of laboratory studies in the area. Finally directions for future research and the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed. PMID:24917839

  14. Student Achievement on Different Types of Tasks under Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David W.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The effects of interpersonal cooperation, competition, and individualistic efforts were compared on math and reading drill-review, story problems, sequencing, triangle identification, and visual sorting according to attributes tasks, using first-grade students. The cooperative group achieved higher scores and found the tasks easier than the…

  15. 75 FR 4788 - FY 2010 Grant Competition Announcement; Promoting Student Achievement at Schools Impacted by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ...The Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) is amending the Promoting Student Achievement at Schools Impacted by Military Force Structure Changes grant competition announcement, which published in the Federal Register on November 24, 2009 (74 FR 61335- 61337). Marion County Schools has been added as a local educational agency associated with Fort...

  16. Product manufacturing, quality, and reliability initiatives to maintain a competitive advantage and meet customer expectations in the semiconductor industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capps, Gregory

    Semiconductor products are manufactured and consumed across the world. The semiconductor industry is constantly striving to manufacture products with greater performance, improved efficiency, less energy consumption, smaller feature sizes, thinner gate oxides, and faster speeds. Customers have pushed towards zero defects and require a more reliable, higher quality product than ever before. Manufacturers are required to improve yields, reduce operating costs, and increase revenue to maintain a competitive advantage. Opportunities exist for integrated circuit (IC) customers and manufacturers to work together and independently to reduce costs, eliminate waste, reduce defects, reduce warranty returns, and improve quality. This project focuses on electrical over-stress (EOS) and re-test okay (RTOK), two top failure return mechanisms, which both make great defect reduction opportunities in customer-manufacturer relationship. Proactive continuous improvement initiatives and methodologies are addressed with emphasis on product life cycle, manufacturing processes, test, statistical process control (SPC), industry best practices, customer education, and customer-manufacturer interaction.

  17. Interpreting the Possible Ecological Role(s) of Cyanotoxins: Compounds for Competitive Advantage and/or Physiological Aide?

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Aleicia; Kinnear, Susan

    2013-01-01

    To date, most research on freshwater cyanotoxin(s) has focused on understanding the dynamics of toxin production and decomposition, as well as evaluating the environmental conditions that trigger toxin production, all with the objective of informing management strategies and options for risk reduction. Comparatively few research studies have considered how this information can be used to understand the broader ecological role of cyanotoxin(s), and the possible applications of this knowledge to the management of toxic blooms. This paper explores the ecological, toxicological, and genetic evidence for cyanotoxin production in natural environments. The possible evolutionary advantages of toxin production are grouped into two main themes: That of “competitive advantage” or “physiological aide”. The first grouping illustrates how compounds produced by cyanobacteria may have originated from the need for a cellular defence mechanism, in response to grazing pressure and/or resource competition. The second grouping considers the contribution that secondary metabolites make to improved cellular physiology, through benefits to homeostasis, photosynthetic efficiencies, and accelerated growth rates. The discussion also includes other factors in the debate about possible evolutionary roles for toxins, such as different modes of exposures and effects on non-target (i.e., non-competitive) species. The paper demonstrates that complex and multiple factors are at play in driving evolutionary processes in aquatic environments. This information may provide a fresh perspective on managing toxic blooms, including the need to use a “systems approach” to understand how physico-chemical conditions, as well biological stressors, interact to trigger toxin production. PMID:23807545

  18. Improving University Ranking to Achieve University Competitiveness by Management Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachyar, M.; Dewi, F.

    2015-05-01

    One way to increase university competitiveness is through information system management. A literature review was done to find information system factors that affect university performance in Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) University Ranking: Asia evaluation. Information system factors were then eliminated using Delphi method through consensus of 7 experts. Result from Delphi method was used as measured variables in PLS-SEM. Estimation with PLS-SEM method through 72 respondents shows that the latent variable academic reputation and citation per paper have significant correlation to university competitiveness. In University of Indonesia (UI) the priority to increase university competitiveness as follow: (i) network building in international conference, (ii) availability of research data to public, (iii) international conference information, (iv) information on achievements and accreditations of each major, (v) ease of employment for alumni.

  19. The effects of training and competition on achievement goals, motivational responses, and performance in a golf-putting task.

    PubMed

    van de Pol P, K C; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships between goals and effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance. Participants (32 males, 28 females; M age = 19.12 years) performed a golf-putting task in a training condition and a competition condition and completed measures of goal involvement, effort, enjoyment, and tension; putting performance was also measured. Both task and ego involvement varied across training and competition, and variation in ego involvement explained variation in effort and enjoyment between these conditions. Ego involvement positively predicted effort in training and performance in competition, and interacted positively with task involvement to predict effort and enjoyment in competition. Our findings suggest that the distinction between training and competition is a valuable one when examining individuals' achievement motivation. PMID:23204359

  20. The Impact of Nursing Students' Chemistry Learning Performance Assessment in Taiwan: Competitive versus Non-Competitive Student Team Achievement Division Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior…

  1. The impact of nursing students' chemistry learning performance assessment in Taiwan: competitive versus non-competitive student team achievement division approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior college in northern Taiwan during the first semester (totaling 18 weeks) of the 2008 academic year. Results: The findings reveal that both a heterogeneous group with external pressure (involving competitive STAD) and a friendship group with affective pressure (involving traditional learning) enhance group cohesion and assist students' meaningful learning; the heterogeneous group without extra pressure (involving non-competitive STAD), by contrast, fails because of apathy and lassitude. Moreover, learning effectiveness will obviously predominate until the learning strategy continues for a long period or at least one semester. Conclusions: This study revealed that the learning performance level of the competitive STAD group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group; and the learning performance level of the traditional group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group. Both the competitive STAD group and traditional group of medium ability students are significantly different from the non-competitive STAD group. Low-ability students from the competitive STAD group are significantly different from those of the non-competitive STAD, though no significant differences were found in learning perception. However, both a lack of friendship and a lack of ability in using algorithms may affect students' chemistry learning. Furthermore, gender imbalance, educational culture, and group emotions are factors that may influence student learning performance. Further study should focus on the use of grouping, improve responsibility in group discussion, and investigate group interaction

  2. Understanding the Competitive Advantages of Inner City Economics. Special Feature: A Preview of the 2003 CUMU Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habiby, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that urban colleges and universities are untapped economic engines for revitalizing urban neighborhoods. The Initiative for a Competitive Inner City has studied the economics of the U.S.'s urban communities for approximately a decade. The findings of the study reveal that inner cities have economic potential that universities can utilize…

  3. Exploring the Development of a Competitive-Advantage Model for Online Education in a Small State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essary, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the 2000s, changes in the external environment, including changing student demographics, increased competition, and declining government support, are affecting public higher education administrators. The growth in online enrollment is increasing at a rate higher than the total higher education enrollment, and the majority of university…

  4. Peer relationships in adolescent competitive soccer: associations to perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Yngvar; Roberts, Glyn C; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas; Miller, Blake W

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the perceived motivational climate, achievement goals, perfectionism and indices of peer relationships in a sample of young male and female Norwegian soccer players. The sample consisted of 1719 experienced soccer players (1231 males, 488 females) aged 12-19 years (mean = 14.9 years) participating in the Norway Cup international youth soccer competition. The players responded to a questionnaire measuring perceived peer acceptance and quality of friendship in soccer, perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism in soccer. Canonical correlation analyses revealed that young female players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly mastery oriented, and who were moderately task oriented and scored negatively on maladaptive perfectionism, reported better relations with their peers in soccer. Constructive peer relations were evident in that they scored positively on companionship with their best friend in soccer; they perceived this friend as being loyal and allowing of free discussion, and they reported being socially accepted by their peers in soccer. Mirroring these findings, young male players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly performance oriented, who had a moderately negative score on task orientation but a quite strong positive score on maladaptive perfectionism, reported negative relationships with peers in terms of these aspects. They also reported being in conflict with their best soccer friend. The findings suggest that the qualities of motivation have a systematic relationship with peer acceptance and the quality of friendship in male and female youth soccer. PMID:16195049

  5. Forms of Competitive Attitude and Achievement Orientation in Relation to Disordered Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckle, Michelle A.; Ryckman, Richard M.; Gold, Joel A.; Thornton, Bill; Audesse, Roberta J.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the differential contributions of two forms of competitive attitude to disordered eating in 198 female Caucasian college students. Results show that it is not competition per se that is a primary contributor to eating disorders but rather a hypercompetitiveness form of competitive attitude. (SLD)

  6. Diffusible signal factor family signals provide a fitness advantage to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in interspecies competition.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinyue; Wu, Jien; Yin, Wenfang; Li, Peng; Zhou, Jianuan; Chen, Shaohua; He, Fei; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2016-05-01

    Diffusible signal factor (DSF) represents a new class of widely conserved quorum sensing signals, which regulates various biological functions through intra- or interspecies signaling. The previous studies identified that there is an antagonistic interaction between Xanthomonas and Bacillus species bacteria in natural ecosystem, but the detailed molecular mechanism of interspecies competition is not clear. This study showed that Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) interfered with morphological transition and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis in mixed cultures, whereas abrogation of the DSF synthase RpfF reduced the interference. DSF inhibited B. thuringiensis cell division and sporulation through modulation of ftsZ, which encodes an important cell division protein in bacterial cells. In addition, RpfF is essential for production of six DSF-family signals in Xcc, which employ the same signaling pathways to regulate biological functions in Xcc and play similar effects on reduction of cell division, sporulation and antibiotic resistance of B. thuringiensis. Furthermore, abrogation of RpfF decreased the competitive capability of Xcc against B. thuringiensis on the surface of Chinese cabbage leaves. Our findings provide new insights into the role of DSF-family signals in interspecies competition and depict molecular mechanisms with which Xcc competes with B. thuringiensis. PMID:26913592

  7. Competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihan, Charles E.

    1991-03-01

    Competition is defined as a spirited, sometimes ruthless, engagement of rivals such as in a race, a match, or an effort by one person to sell goods or services to customers in the marketplace of another. Sound familiar? If you will bear with me for a few minutes, I would like to examine competitiveness on a more global basis with emphasis on the rules of the game. You may be thinking that more often than not the competitive arena is relatively small and far from global, and its consequences are singularly influential on a trivial document called the P & L. However, with the newly established freedom of a major segment of the world population and with the industrial capability formerly known as Communist moving into what has heretofore been "our" limited arena, the competition could get very brisk. Brisk, and perhaps ruthless, unless we work together to try to establish an international industrial policy that is truly based on equality of competitive opportunity for all.

  8. Matching of Learning Styles and Teaching Styles: Advantage and Disadvantage on Ninth-Grade Students' Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Reungtragul, Auyporn

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify learning styles of ninth-grade students, to identify teaching styles of four subject teachers, and to compare four academic achievements between different matching conditions of students' learning styles and teachers' teaching styles. The research participants comprised of 3,382 ninth-grade…

  9. Knowledge-Driven Creative Destruction, or Leveraging Knowledge for Competitive Advantage: Strategic Knowledge Arbitrage and Serendipity as Real Options Drivers Triggered by Co-Opetition, Co-Evolution and Co-Specialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carayannis, Elias G.

    2008-01-01

    In today's globalizing and hypercompetitive marketplace, knowledge and learning are the only capabilities that can provide sustained competitive advantage. "Knowledge" is the content of learning, and a firm gains competitive superiority either by knowing something that its competitors do not know or by having a certain type of knowledge that…

  10. Equity and Competitiveness: Contradictions between the Identification of Educational Skills and Educational Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Amelia Molina

    2013-01-01

    As a starting point, this paper raises various questions to explain the teaching conditions that exist in rural communities and the learning conditions faced by children assigned to the rural community education mode. Equity and competitiveness are the conceptual axis used in the descriptive construction a documentary analysis and my personal…

  11. The Study Experiences of the High Achievers in a Competitive Academic Environment: A Cost of Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmo, Ivar; Samara, Akylina

    2009-01-01

    The present paper is a case study that explores the study experiences and possible costs of success for the students accepted into the professional program in psychology at the University of Bergen in Norway. In this highly competitive environment, between 500 and 1000 students compete for 36 places during the introduction year. The study is based…

  12. Competitive Edge: A Cross-National Examination of Mathematics Achievement in 53 Jurisdictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngwudike, Benjamin C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the cross-national performance of fourth- and eighth-grade students in mathematics on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003. The TIMSS assessment data were used to identify nations that have a competitive edge in the critical area of mathematics. The Trends in International…

  13. Competing for Iron: Duplication and Amplification of the isd Locus in Staphylococcus lugdunensis HKU09-01 Provides a Competitive Advantage to Overcome Nutritional Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Heilbronner, Simon; Brozyna, Jeremy R.; Heinrichs, David E.; Skaar, Eric P.; Peschel, Andreas; Foster, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase negative bacterial pathogen that is particularly associated with severe cases of infectious endocarditis. Unique amongst the coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. lugdunensis harbors an iron regulated surface determinant locus (isd). This locus facilitates the acquisition of heme as a source of nutrient iron during infection and allows iron limitation caused by “nutritional immunity” to be overcome. The isd locus is duplicated in S. lugdunensis HKU09-01 and we show here that the duplication is intrinsically unstable and undergoes accordion-like amplification and segregation leading to extensive isd copy number variation. Amplification of the locus increased the level of expression of Isd proteins and improved binding of hemoglobin to the cell surface of S. lugdunensis. Furthermore, Isd overexpression provided an advantage when strains were competing for a limited amount of hemoglobin as the sole source of iron. Gene duplications and amplifications (GDA) are events of fundamental importance for bacterial evolution and are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance in many species. As such, GDAs are regarded as evolutionary adaptions to novel selective pressures in hostile environments pointing towards a special importance of isd for S. lugdunensis. For the first time we show an example of a GDA that involves a virulence factor of a Gram-positive pathogen and link the GDA directly to a competitive advantage when the bacteria were struggling with selective pressures mimicking “nutritional immunity”. PMID:27575058

  14. Competing for Iron: Duplication and Amplification of the isd Locus in Staphylococcus lugdunensis HKU09-01 Provides a Competitive Advantage to Overcome Nutritional Limitation.

    PubMed

    Heilbronner, Simon; Monk, Ian R; Brozyna, Jeremy R; Heinrichs, David E; Skaar, Eric P; Peschel, Andreas; Foster, Timothy J

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase negative bacterial pathogen that is particularly associated with severe cases of infectious endocarditis. Unique amongst the coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. lugdunensis harbors an iron regulated surface determinant locus (isd). This locus facilitates the acquisition of heme as a source of nutrient iron during infection and allows iron limitation caused by "nutritional immunity" to be overcome. The isd locus is duplicated in S. lugdunensis HKU09-01 and we show here that the duplication is intrinsically unstable and undergoes accordion-like amplification and segregation leading to extensive isd copy number variation. Amplification of the locus increased the level of expression of Isd proteins and improved binding of hemoglobin to the cell surface of S. lugdunensis. Furthermore, Isd overexpression provided an advantage when strains were competing for a limited amount of hemoglobin as the sole source of iron. Gene duplications and amplifications (GDA) are events of fundamental importance for bacterial evolution and are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance in many species. As such, GDAs are regarded as evolutionary adaptions to novel selective pressures in hostile environments pointing towards a special importance of isd for S. lugdunensis. For the first time we show an example of a GDA that involves a virulence factor of a Gram-positive pathogen and link the GDA directly to a competitive advantage when the bacteria were struggling with selective pressures mimicking "nutritional immunity". PMID:27575058

  15. The Competitive Advantage: Client Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffel, Linda G.; DeBord, Karen B.

    The adult education literature contains a considerable amount of research on and discussion of client service in the marketing process, management and staff roles in service- and product-oriented businesses, and the importance of client service and service quality to survival in the marketplace. By applying the principles of client-oriented…

  16. Achieving Mental Health Care Parity Might Require Changes In Payments And Competition.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Thomas G

    2016-06-01

    One of the most prominent features of the Affordable Care Act has been the promotion of individual health plans chosen by consumers in the Marketplaces. These plans are subject to regulation and paid by risk-adjusted capitation, a set of policies known as managed competition. Individual health insurance markets, however, are vulnerable to what economists describe as efficiency problems stemming from adverse selection, and Marketplaces are no exception. Health plans have incentives to discriminate against services used by people with certain chronic illnesses, including mental health conditions. Parity regulations, which dictate coverage for mental health benefits on par with medical and surgical benefits, can eliminate discrimination in coverage but redirect discrimination toward hard-to-regulate tactics from managed care such as restrictive network design and provider payment. This article reviews policy options to contend with ongoing selection issues. "Better enforcement" of parity has less chance of success than more fundamental but feasible changes in the way plans are paid or in the way competition among plans is structured. PMID:27269019

  17. Agrobacterium Uses a Unique Ligand-Binding Mode for Trapping Opines and Acquiring A Competitive Advantage in the Niche Construction on Plant Host

    PubMed Central

    Planamente, Sara; El Sahili, Abbas; Blin, Pauline; Aumont-Nicaise, Magali; Dessaux, Yves; Moréra, Solange; Faure, Denis

    2014-01-01

    By modifying the nuclear genome of its host, the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces the development of plant tumours in which it proliferates. The transformed plant tissues accumulate uncommon low molecular weight compounds called opines that are growth substrates for A. tumefaciens. In the pathogen-induced niche (the plant tumour), a selective advantage conferred by opine assimilation has been hypothesized, but not experimentally demonstrated. Here, using genetics and structural biology, we deciphered how the pathogen is able to bind opines and use them to efficiently compete in the plant tumour. We report high resolution X-ray structures of the periplasmic binding protein (PBP) NocT unliganded and liganded with the opine nopaline (a condensation product of arginine and α-ketoglurate) and its lactam derivative pyronopaline. NocT exhibited an affinity for pyronopaline (KD of 0.6 µM) greater than that for nopaline (KD of 3.7 µM). Although the binding-mode of the arginine part of nopaline/pyronopaline in NocT resembled that of arginine in other PBPs, affinity measurement by two different techniques showed that NocT did not bind arginine. In contrast, NocT presented specific residues such as M117 to stabilize the bound opines. NocT relatives that exhibit the nopaline/pyronopaline-binding mode were only found in genomes of the genus Agrobacterium. Transcriptomics and reverse genetics revealed that A. tumefaciens uses the same pathway for assimilating nopaline and pyronopaline. Fitness measurements showed that NocT is required for a competitive colonization of the plant tumour by A. tumefaciens. Moreover, even though the Ti-plasmid conjugal transfer was not regulated by nopaline, the competitive advantage gained by the nopaline-assimilating Ti-plasmid donors led to a preferential horizontal propagation of this Ti-plasmid amongst the agrobacteria colonizing the plant-tumour niche. This work provided structural and genetic evidences to support the niche

  18. Competitive interactions of attentional resources in early visual cortex during sustained visuospatial attention within or between visual hemifields: evidence for the different-hemifield advantage.

    PubMed

    Walter, Sabrina; Quigley, Cliodhna; Mueller, Matthias M

    2014-05-01

    Performing a task across the left and right visual hemifields results in better performance than in a within-hemifield version of the task, termed the different-hemifield advantage. Although recent studies used transient stimuli that were presented with long ISIs, here we used a continuous objective electrophysiological (EEG) measure of competitive interactions for attentional processing resources in early visual cortex, the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). We frequency-tagged locations in each visual quadrant and at central fixation by flickering light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at different frequencies to elicit distinguishable SSVEPs. Stimuli were presented for several seconds, and participants were cued to attend to two LEDs either in one (Within) or distributed across left and right visual hemifields (Across). In addition, we introduced two reference measures: one for suppressive interactions between the peripheral LEDs by using a task at fixation where attention was withdrawn from the periphery and another estimating the upper bound of SSVEP amplitude by cueing participants to attend to only one of the peripheral LEDs. We found significantly greater SSVEP amplitude modulations in Across compared with Within hemifield conditions. No differences were found between SSVEP amplitudes elicited by the peripheral LEDs when participants attended to the centrally located LEDs compared with when peripheral LEDs had to be ignored in Across and Within trials. Attending to only one LED elicited the same SSVEP amplitude as Across conditions. Although behavioral data displayed a more complex pattern, SSVEP amplitudes were well in line with the predictions of the different-hemifield advantage account during sustained visuospatial attention. PMID:24345166

  19. Achieving Gender Equity in Science Class: Shift from Competition to Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esiobu, G. O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to verify the impact of cooperative learning as an intervention strategy towards the achievement of peace, equality and equity in the science classroom as part of the democratic process necessary for sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach: The study sample comprised 56 SSS 2 students in one public…

  20. CCND1–CDK4–mediated cell cycle progression provides a competitive advantage for human hematopoietic stem cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mende, Nicole; Kuchen, Erika E.; Lesche, Mathias; Grinenko, Tatyana; Kokkaliaris, Konstantinos D.; Hanenberg, Helmut; Lindemann, Dirk; Dahl, Andreas; Platz, Alexander; Höfer, Thomas; Calegari, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of stem cell properties is associated with reduced proliferation. However, in mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), loss of quiescence results in a wide range of phenotypes, ranging from functional failure to extensive self-renewal. It remains unknown whether the function of human HSCs is controlled by the kinetics of cell cycle progression. Using human HSCs and human progenitor cells (HSPCs), we report here that elevated levels of CCND1–CDK4 complexes promoted the transit from G0 to G1 and shortened the G1 cell cycle phase, resulting in protection from differentiation-inducing signals in vitro and increasing human leukocyte engraftment in vivo. Further, CCND1–CDK4 overexpression conferred a competitive advantage without impacting HSPC numbers. In contrast, accelerated cell cycle progression mediated by elevated levels of CCNE1–CDK2 led to the loss of functional HSPCs in vivo. Collectively, these data suggest that the transition kinetics through the early cell cycle phases are key regulators of human HSPC function and important for lifelong hematopoiesis. PMID:26150472

  1. Competitive Exclusion among Fig Wasps Achieved via Entrainment of Host Plant Flowering Phenology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Compton, Stephen G.; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Molecular techniques are revealing increasing numbers of morphologically similar but co-existing cryptic species, challenging the niche theory. To understand the co-existence mechanism, we studied phenologies of morphologically similar species of fig wasps that pollinate the creeping fig (F. pumila) in eastern China. We compared phenologies of fig wasp emergence and host flowering at sites where one or both pollinators were present. At the site where both pollinators were present, we used sticky traps to capture the emerged fig wasps and identified species identity using mitochondrial DNA COI gene. We also genotyped F. pumila individuals of the three sites using polymorphic microsatellites to detect whether the host populations were differentiated. Male F. pumila produced two major crops annually, with figs receptive in spring and summer. A small partial third crop of receptive figs occurred in the autumn, but few of the second crop figs matured at that time. Hence, few pollinators were available to enter third crop figs and they mostly aborted, resulting in two generations of pollinating wasps each year, plus a partial third generation. Receptive figs were produced on male plants in spring and summer, timed to coincide with the release of short-lived adult pollinators from the same individual plants. Most plants were pollinated by a single species. Plants pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 1 released wasps earlier than those pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 3, with little overlap. Plants occupied by different pollinators were not spatially separated, nor genetically distinct. Our findings show that these differences created mismatches with the flight periods of the other Wiebesia species, largely ‘reserving’ individual plants for the resident pollinator species. This pre-emptive competitive displacement may prevent long term co-existence of the two pollinators. PMID:24849458

  2. No Student Left Behind: A Collaborative and Competitive Game-Based Learning Environment to Reduce the Achievement Gap of EFL Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hui-Chun; Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching; Lin, Chiu-Pin

    2015-01-01

    How to close the achievement gap in the classroom so that no student is left behind becomes one of the most important issues nowadays. This study aims to construct a collaborative and competitive game-based learning environment to improve English proficiencies and reduce the achievement gap for disadvantaged students. The Wireless Crossword…

  3. Effects of Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Learning Structures on College Student Achievement and Peer Relationships: A Series of Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilk, Caroline Lual

    2013-01-01

    This series of meta-analyses investigates the effects of social interdependence (cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning structures) on achievement and peer relationships among college students. This study quantitatively synthesized the literature on the effects of social interdependence on achievement and peer relationship outcomes…

  4. The advantage of a decreasing right-hand superiority: the influence of laterality on a selected musical skill (sight reading achievement).

    PubMed

    Kopiez, Reinhard; Galley, Niels; Lee, Ji In

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the unrehearsed performance of music, known as 'sight reading', is used as a model to examine the influence of motoric laterality on highly challenging musical performance skills. As expertise research has shown, differences in this skill can be partially explained by factors such as accumulated practise and an early start to training. However, up until now, neurobiological factors that may influence highly demanding instrumental performance have been widely neglected. In an experiment with 52 piano students at a German university music department, we could show that the most challenging musical skill, sight reading (which is characterized by extreme demands on the performer's real time information processing), is positively correlated with decreasing right-hand superiority of performers. Laterality was measured by the differences between left and right-hand performance in a speed tapping task. SR achievement was measured using an accompanying task paradigm. An overall superiority of 22% for non-right-handed pianists was found. This effect is gender-related and stronger in non-right-handed males (r(24) = -0.49, p<0.05) than in non-right-handed females (r(28) = -0.16, p>0.05). We conclude that non-right-handed motoric laterality is associated with neurobiological advantages required for sight reading, an extremely demanding musical subskill. PMID:16321405

  5. An Analysis of Mathematics Achievement Disparities between Black and White Students and Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and Advantaged Students across Content Strands by Elementary and Middle School Level in a Diverse Virginia School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Benjamin L.

    2013-01-01

    Student achievement gaps between Black and White students, and socioeconomically disadvantaged and advantaged students, have been observed and formally documented since the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) began in the 1970s. In particular, the mathematics achievement gap between these historically disadvantaged populations has…

  6. The student-institution fit at university: interactive effects of academic competition and social class on achievement goals

    PubMed Central

    Sommet, Nicolas; Quiamzade, Alain; Jury, Mickaël; Mugny, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    As compared to continuing-generation students, first-generation students are struggling more at university. In the present article, we question the unconditional nature of such a phenomenon and argue that it depends on structural competition. Indeed, most academic departments use harsh selection procedure all throughout the curriculum, fostering between-student competition. In these departments, first-generation students tend to suffer from a lack of student-institution fit, that is, inconsistencies with the competitive institution’s culture, practices, and identity. However, one might contend that in less competitive academic departments continuing-generation students might be the ones experiencing a lack of fit. Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the consequences of such a context- and category-dependent lack of fit on the endorsement of scholastically adaptive goals. We surveyed N = 378 first- and continuing-generation students from either a more competitive or a less competitive department in their first or final year of bachelor’s study. In the more competitive department, first-to-third year decrease of mastery goals (i.e., the desire to learn) was found to be steeper for first- than for continuing-generation students. In the less competitive department, the reversed pattern was found. Moreover, first-to-third year decrease of performance goals (i.e., the desire to outperform others) was found to be steeper within the less competitive department but did not depend on social class. This single-site preliminary research highlights the need to take the academic context into account when studying the social class graduation gap. PMID:26124732

  7. The student-institution fit at university: interactive effects of academic competition and social class on achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Sommet, Nicolas; Quiamzade, Alain; Jury, Mickaël; Mugny, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    As compared to continuing-generation students, first-generation students are struggling more at university. In the present article, we question the unconditional nature of such a phenomenon and argue that it depends on structural competition. Indeed, most academic departments use harsh selection procedure all throughout the curriculum, fostering between-student competition. In these departments, first-generation students tend to suffer from a lack of student-institution fit, that is, inconsistencies with the competitive institution's culture, practices, and identity. However, one might contend that in less competitive academic departments continuing-generation students might be the ones experiencing a lack of fit. Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the consequences of such a context- and category-dependent lack of fit on the endorsement of scholastically adaptive goals. We surveyed N = 378 first- and continuing-generation students from either a more competitive or a less competitive department in their first or final year of bachelor's study. In the more competitive department, first-to-third year decrease of mastery goals (i.e., the desire to learn) was found to be steeper for first- than for continuing-generation students. In the less competitive department, the reversed pattern was found. Moreover, first-to-third year decrease of performance goals (i.e., the desire to outperform others) was found to be steeper within the less competitive department but did not depend on social class. This single-site preliminary research highlights the need to take the academic context into account when studying the social class graduation gap. PMID:26124732

  8. The 3-D spatial structure of multicellular aggregates can give them a competition-dependent growth advantage in early biofilm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Vernita; Kragh, Kasper; Hutchison, Jaime; Melaugh, Gavin; Rodesney, Chris; Roberts, Aled; Irie, Yasuhiko; Jensen, Peter; Diggle, Stephen; Allen, Rosalind; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    Biofilms are structured communities of sessile microbes. Traditional models of biofilm development begin with single bacteria seeding a surface. However, biofilms can also be seeded by multicellular aggregates. How the three-dimensional structure of aggregates impacts the initiation and development of biofilms is not known. Here we use a combination of experiments and simulations to determine the impact of the seeding structure. We find that whether aggregates or single cells grow better depends on the density of single cells initially seeded. The density of single cells, which we take as our measure of the level of competition, impacts per-cell access to growth resource. The overall biomass accumulation arising from an aggregate is a combination of slow growth in the resource-limited interior, and faster growth on the sides and top. When competition is low, aggregates are disadvantaged, compared with single cells. However, when competition is high, aggregates are fitter than single cells, because the cells at the top of the aggregates have better access to growth resources than do high-density single cells on the surface.

  9. Effects of Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Goals on Student Achievement Using Computer-Based Drill-and-Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Christine M.; Rieth, Herbert J.

    1991-01-01

    Forty-six mildly handicapped junior high school students were paired and assigned to cooperative, competitive, individualistic, and no goal control conditions in a computer-assisted computational setting. Findings indicated students improved rates of correct responding regardless of goal condition. (Author/DB)

  10. Competition in newborn rabbits for thermally advantageous positions in the litter huddle is associated with individual differences in brown fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Amando; Castelán, Francisco; Pérez-Roldán, Humberto; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Hudson, Robyn

    2013-06-13

    The altricial young of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are not brooded by the mother, and although they are born into an underground nest, depend importantly on the warmth and insulation provided by littermates for their early growth and survival. Consistent with previous studies, heavier pups occupied more central, thermally advantageous positions in the litter huddle, maintained higher body temperatures, obtained more milk, were more efficient at converting it to body mass, and consequently grew faster than their lighter sibs occupying the periphery of the huddle. In the present study we measured the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), which is essential for the metabolism of brown adipose tissue to generate body heat in response to cold. In nine litters of domestic rabbits maintained for the first four postnatal days at temperatures below their critical thermoneutral temperature, peripheral pups showed greater expression of UCP-1 than intermediate pups, and these greater expression than central pups. This suggests that during early development littermates of the rabbit experience differing degrees of activation of the sympathetic nervous system as a consequence of exposure to different thermal environments associated with different positions in the litter huddle. Whether this is associated with long term differences in the physiological response to cold and perhaps in the manner of responding to other environmental challenges is currently under investigation. PMID:23711568

  11. Friendly competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    Competition that is characterized by rules, often informal, agreed among mutually accepted participants, and that gives the competitors a special, advantageous status with others is called friendly competition. Dentists have engaged in it deeply and it is good for the profession. Friendly competition offers the advantages of spillover of commonly useful information and technologies, stimulation of innovation, a united and convenient face to customers and suppliers, and standards that promote growth. Friendly competition increases the size of the pie, regardless of market share. Paradoxically, this is even true for the little guy in the shadow of the giant. If carried to extremes, unfriendly competition leads to destroying competitors, the confusion of multiple rules, and encouragement of disruptive change. PMID:17477218

  12. Simulation of fruit-set and trophic competition and optimization of yield advantages in six Capsicum cultivars using functional–structural plant modelling

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Y. T.; Wubs, A. M.; Mathieu, A.; Heuvelink, E.; Zhu, J. Y.; Hu, B. G.; Cournède, P. H.; de Reffye, P.

    2011-01-01

    small-fruited groups of cultivars regarding the effects of source and vegetative sink strength on fruit-set and fruit weight. When the source–sink ratio at fruit-set decreased, the number of fruit retained on the plant increased competition for assimilates with vegetative organs. Therefore, total plant and vegetative dry weights decreased, especially for large-fruited cultivars. Optimization study showed that temporal heterogeneity of fruit-set and ripening was predicted to be reduced when fruits were harvested earlier. Furthermore, there was a 20 % increase in the number of extra fruit set. PMID:21097946

  13. The Effects of Mastery Learning and Cooperative, Competitive and Individualistic Learning Environment Organizations on Achievement and Attitudes in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiran, Guzver; Aydin, Emin

    2005-01-01

    Motivation for learning is important for positive learning outcomes as well as for measured achievement levels. When students come to our classes, they bring with them learning histories in which we as individual teachers, most likely, did not have an input. Our students do not only bring with them different levels of prerequisite leanings but…

  14. Educational advantage.

    PubMed

    2006-03-01

    What special advantage does JERHRE offer to research ethics education? Empirical research employs concepts and methods for understanding and addressing problems; the methods employed can be generalized to related problems in new contexts. Research published in JERHRE uses concepts and methods designed to understand and solve ethical problems in human research. These tools can be reused by JERHRE's readership as part of their learning and problem solving. Instead of telling scientists, students, ethics committee members and others what they ought to do, educators can use curriculum based on the empirical articles contained in JERHRE to enable learners to solve the particular research-related problems they confront. Each issue of JERHRE publishes curriculum based on articles published therein. The lesson plans are deliberately general so that they can be adapted to the particular learners. PMID:19385863

  15. Educational advantage.

    PubMed

    2006-06-01

    WHAT SPECIAL ADVANTAGE DOES JERHRE offer to research ethics education? Empirical research employs concepts and methods for understanding and addressing problems; the methods employed can be generalized to related problems in new contexts. Research published in JERHRE uses concepts and methods designed to understand and solve ethical problems in human research. These tools can be reused by JERHRE's readership as part of their learning and problem solving. Instead of telling scientists, students, ethics committee members and others what they ought to do, educators can use curriculum based on the empirical articles contained in JERHRE to enable learners to solve the particular research-related problems they confront. Each issue of JERHRE publishes curriculum based on articles published therein. The lesson plans are deliberately general so that they can be adapted to the particular learners. PMID:19385873

  16. The Arts: A Competitive Advantage for California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KPMG Peat Marwick, Washington, DC. Policy Economic Group.

    This 1993 study attempts to define the size and scope of state-wide economic activity generated by the arts in California. The analysis is based on data from surveys of nonprofit arts organization and five case studies. The case studies, which provided context for the core research, include examinations of: (1) artists in Los Angeles County; (2)…

  17. Monitoring science and technology for competitive advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, W.B.; Johnson, A.; Stacey, G.

    1994-08-01

    In this age of rapid technological innovation, firms that do not stay abreast of the latest advancements in science and technology (S&T) stand a greater chance of missing opportunities than firms that maintain vigilance over the ever-changing technical environment. As a result, a resurgence of interest in technical intelligence for business is occurring in companies around the globe. Many firms now have formal technical intelligence programs to gather, analyze and use S&T information to watch their competitors, to track emerging trends in technological development and to anticipate significant technology-based changes in key markets. Careful management of technical information that affects a business can have a vital influence on corporate profitability and long term health. This paper describes the main features of technical intelligence operations in business, drawing on the experience of several companies that develop and use intelligence information. The steps of gathering, analyzing, evaluating and using information for business decisions are described and examples are given to illustrate how intelligence concepts are implemented in firms from several different industries. Practical issues such as understanding user needs, ethical data collection, effective analysis methods and using intelligence results are covered in the paper.

  18. The Competitive Advantage of Organizational Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelbaum, Steven H.; Gallagher, John

    2000-01-01

    Explores theories of organizational learning and identifies the implications of the following for learning organizations: the new economy, strategic planning, management practices, and communication. (Contains 32 references.) (SK)

  19. Creating corporate advantage.

    PubMed

    Collis, D J; Montgomery, C A

    1998-01-01

    What differentiates truly great corporate strategies from the merely adequate? How can executives at the corporate level create tangible advantage for their businesses that makes the whole more than the sum of the parts? This article presents a comprehensive framework for value creation in the multibusiness company. It addresses the most fundamental questions of corporate strategy: What businesses should a company be in? How should it coordinate activities across businesses? What role should the corporate office play? How should the corporation measure and control performance? Through detailed case studies of Tyco International, Sharp, the Newell Company, and Saatchi and Saatchi, the authors demonstrate that the answers to all those questions are driven largely by the nature of a company's special resources--its assets, skills, and capabilities. These range along a continuum from the highly specialized at one end to the very general at the other. A corporation's location on the continuum constrains the set of businesses it should compete in and limits its choices about the design of its organization. Applying the framework, the authors point out the common mistakes that result from misaligned corporate strategies. Companies mistakenly enter businesses based on similarities in products rather than the resources that contribute to competitive advantage in each business. Instead of tailoring organizational structures and systems to the needs of a particular strategy, they create plain-vanilla corporate offices and infrastructures. The company examples demonstrate that one size does not fit all. One can find great corporate strategies all along the continuum. PMID:10179655

  20. Improving Student Achievement through Technology. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (March 15, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    The Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness, Committee on Education and the Workforce to met on Thursday, March 15, 2001 at 10:06 a.m., in Room 2175, Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Howard P. "Buck" McKeon, Chairman of the Subcommittee presiding, to hear testimony on the use of technology to improve student achievement.Under Committee…

  1. Second-order advantage achieved by modeling excitation-emission fluorescence matrices affected by inner filter effects using a strategy which combines standardization and calibration: reducing experimental and increasing analytical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Schenone, Agustina V; Culzoni, María J; Galera, María Martínez; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2013-05-15

    A methodology based on second-order data (excitation emission matrices) modeling with one of most popular algorithms presenting the second-order advantage, parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), combined with transference of calibration is proposed to predict the analyte concentration when significant inner filter effects occur, even in the presence of unexpected sample components. The quantitation of phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE) in water samples (concentrations ranged between 250 and 750 ng mL(-1)) in the presence of ibuprofen, acetyl salicylic acid and paracetamol (which produce inner filter effect across the useful wavelength range) was achieved. The strategy allows reducing the experimental work and increasing the analytical sensitivity in the determination of the analyte of interest in the presence of unexpected compounds and matrix effect caused by inner filter, avoiding the preparation of a large number of solutions and maintaining acceptable figures of merit. Recoveries between 97 and 102% for validation and real spiked water samples, respectively, and a relative prediction error of 5% were achieved. Results were compared with those obtained after the application of the classical standard addition method combined with PARAFAC, carrying out five additions to each sample, in triplicate. The presented methodology constitutes a simple and low-cost method for the determination of PHE in water samples with a considerable reduction in standard handling and time. This methodology can be extended to other systems presenting matrix effect and, consequently, can become in a useful tool to know the amount of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment and to evaluate the effect of conventional wastewater treatment plants in the elimination of pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:23618146

  2. Strategic Enterprise Resource Planning for Global Supply Chain Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nageswararao, A. V.; Sahu, Dasarathi; Mohan, V. Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Strategic Enterprise Resource planning (SERP) systems are networked and integrated information mechanisms which are developed to achieve competitive advantage for organizations operating in global scale. It plays a vital role in Integrating various stake holders and channel partners involved in day to day operations. In the present Globalized…

  3. The Effects of Cooperative, Competitive and Individualistic Student Interaction Patterns on the Achievement and Attitudes of Students Learning the Golf Skill of Putting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger T.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Three types of student-student interaction patterns (cooperative, competitive, and individualistic) can be structured for learning of physical skills. Students were studied to observe which type of interaction process promoted learning the golf skill of putting. Results are presented. (Author/DF)

  4. Measuring home advantage in Spanish handball.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Aguilar, Oscar; Saavedra García, Miguel; Fernández Romero, Juan José

    2012-02-01

    Since Pollard established the system for analysing home advantage in 1986, it has been demonstrated and quantified in various sports, including many team sports. This study aims to assess whether home advantage exists in handball, using a sample of more than 19,000 Spanish handball league games. Results of the games played at home and away, the sex of the players, and the levels of the competition were included as variables. In Spanish handball, there was a home advantage of 61%, which means, on average, the team playing at home wins 61% of points available. This value varies according to sex and according to competition level, increasing as competition level decreases and season rank improves. PMID:22582700

  5. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  6. The Research Biobank of the Year Competition of the European, Middle Eastern and African Society for Biopreservation and Biobanking (ESBB): aims and achievements.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Christina; Corfield, Julie; di Donato, Jeanne-Hélène; Meir, Karen; Parodi, Barbara; Schmitz, Arndt A; Tiran, Andreas; Tybring, Gunnel; Hewitt, Robert E

    2014-04-01

    With the increasing number of research biobanks and the importance of their role in supporting medical and biological research, the development and sharing of biobanking best practices and benchmarking standards has become paramount. To promote outstanding biobank services for research, the Research Biobank of the Year Competition (RBYC) has been inaugurated by the European, Middle-Eastern, and African Society for Biopreservation and Biobanking (ESBB) in October 2013. The procedures for the call and evaluation procedure, including the newly developed scoring system, are presented here. The statistics and evaluation results of the first year's applications, as well as the experiences of the jury are reported here, and improvements for the RBYC in subsequent years are proposed. Beyond offering a unique benchmarking opportunity for biobanks, the RBYC is discussed as a novel tool to enhance biobank quality, transparency, usage, connectivity, innovation, and sustainability. PMID:24749884

  7. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. PMID:25528318

  8. Advantages of proteins being disordered

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhirong; Huang, Yongqi

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed great advances in our understanding of protein structure-function relationships in terms of the ubiquitous existence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). The structural disorder of IDPs/IDRs enables them to play essential functions that are complementary to those of ordered proteins. In addition, IDPs/IDRs are persistent in evolution. Therefore, they are expected to possess some advantages over ordered proteins. In this review, we summarize and survey nine possible advantages of IDPs/IDRs: economizing genome/protein resources, overcoming steric restrictions in binding, achieving high specificity with low affinity, increasing binding rate, facilitating posttranslational modifications, enabling flexible linkers, preventing aggregation, providing resistance to non-native conditions, and allowing compatibility with more available sequences. Some potential advantages of IDPs/IDRs are not well understood and require both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher. The connection with protein design is also briefly discussed. PMID:24532081

  9. The PTI1-like kinase ZmPti1a from maize (Zea mays L.) co-localizes with callose at the plasma membrane of pollen and facilitates a competitive advantage to the male gametophyte

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Markus M; Pinto, Sheena; Kluth, Jantjeline; Wienand, Udo; Lorbiecke, René

    2006-01-01

    Background The tomato kinase Pto confers resistance to bacterial speck disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in a gene for gene manner. Upon recognition of specific avirulence factors the Pto kinase activates multiple signal transduction pathways culminating in induction of pathogen defense. The soluble cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinase Pti1 is one target of Pto phosphorylation and is involved in the hypersensitive response (HR) reaction. However, a clear role of Pti1 in plant pathogen resistance is uncertain. So far, no Pti1 homologues from monocotyledonous species have been studied. Results Here we report the identification and molecular analysis of four Pti1-like kinases from maize (ZmPti1a, -b, -c, -d). These kinase genes showed tissue-specific expression and their corresponding proteins were targeted to different cellular compartments. Sequence similarity, expression pattern and cellular localization of ZmPti1b suggested that this gene is a putative orthologue of Pti1 from tomato. In contrast, ZmPti1a was specifically expressed in pollen and sequestered to the plasma membrane, evidently owing to N-terminal modification by myristoylation and/or S-acylation. The ZmPti1a:GFP fusion protein was not evenly distributed at the pollen plasma membrane but accumulated as an annulus-like structure which co-localized with callose (1,3-β-glucan) deposition. In addition, co-localization of ZmPti1a and callose was observed during stages of pollen mitosis I and pollen tube germination. Maize plants in which ZmPti1a expression was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) produced pollen with decreased competitive ability. Hence, our data provide evidence that ZmPti1a plays an important part in a signalling pathway that accelerates pollen performance and male fitness. Conclusion ZmPti1a from maize is involved in pollen-specific processes during the progamic phase of reproduction, probably in crucial signalling processes associated with regions of callose deposition

  10. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  11. The Certification Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John C.; Pritz, Sandra G.

    2006-01-01

    Certificates have become an important career credential and can give students an advantage when they enter the workplace. However, many types of certificates exist, and the number of people seeking them and organizations offering them are both growing rapidly. In a time of such growth, the authors review some of the basics about certification--the…

  12. Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  13. The Competitive Advantage of Foreign Languages and Cultural Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the results of an electronic survey of 2,500 randomly selected alumni from the graduating classes of 1970 through 2002 of Thunderbird, The American Graduate School of International Management. Of the 2,500 alumni, 581 responded. Thunderbird required a minimum of 4 semesters of foreign language for graduation. The survey…

  14. Leveraging Indian Talent Pool and Demographics to Build Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Rakesh

    2009-01-01

    Human capital is a broad and multifaceted concept encompassing many different types of investment in people. However, the key aspect of human capital has to do with the knowledge and skills embodied in people. Human capital has always been an extremely important determinant of individual and social progress. In the present scenario, it is the…

  15. How Organizations Adapt Social Media Capabilities as a Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornhofen, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of scholarly studies that examines how organizations enhance their ability to generate value through social media. It explores why some organizations are able to adopt and benefit from social media while others cannot. Specifically, it examines: (i) how "people" and social networks are essential to…

  16. Strategic service-line planning. Building competitive advantage.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, Elizabeth; Krentz, Susanna E; O'Neill, Molly K

    2003-12-01

    Service-line planning requires a healthcare organization to develop a business plan for each of its service lines. Successful service-line planning requires top leadership support, a willingness to allocate resources, the development of support mechanisms, the active support and involvement of physicians, and management commitment and accountability during implementation. PMID:14686076

  17. The Competitive Advantage of Online versus Traditional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Jillian A.; Helland, Katherine R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined attitudes concerning the effectiveness of distance learning, and determined the impact these perceptions had on selection decisions. Results partially supported the hypotheses, demonstrating that individuals believed distance education was of lower quality than traditional classes, and this perception impacted their hiring…

  18. Learning Communities: An Untapped Sustainable Competitive Advantage for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Shane; Burnett, Bruce; O' Donohue, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper demonstrates the need for the higher education sector to develop and implement scaleable, quantitative measures that evaluate community and establish organisational benchmarks in order to guide the development of future practices designed to enhance the student learning experience. Design/methodology/approach: Literature…

  19. Intercultural Competence as a Competitive Advantage of Secondary School Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnyshev, A. D.; Kostin, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Among the qualities of today's school graduate, the ones that are becoming more and more important are those that determine the ability to compete. These qualities include intercultural competence, which both researchers and practitioners all over the world acknowledge to be one of the most important characteristics of any citizen who engages in…

  20. Competition, Competitive Repulsion, and Coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Darlington, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    This manuscript is concerned with concepts rather than abstruse details or mathematics. Discussed are: competition; extended competition, proposed for competition in the strict sense, extended and modified by all related interactions including predation, parasitism, disease, and even cooperation, all of which can be “weapons of competition”; competitive repulsion, proposed for the sum of forces that determine spacings, including ecologic spacings, of individuals and populations; Darwin (biotic) equilibriums; competitive extinction, Gause's principle, limited and limiting resources, and single-resource competition; de facto coexistence of competing species, exemplified by green plants competing for sunlight; niche competition; the two concepts of competitive exclusion; devision of resources and of their utilizers; cause and effect in real situations; and niches, niche overlap, and coexistence. Stressed is the complexity of the real world, and the confusion that can and does arise from modeling it too simply. PMID:4508308

  1. Parenting and Academic Achievement: Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roksa, Josipa; Potter, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined how cultural capital, recently broadened to include not only high-status cultural activities but also a range of different parenting practices, influences children's educational success. Most of this research assumes that parents' current class location is the starting point of class transmission. However,…

  2. Advantages of Coordinated School Health Portfolios: Documenting and Showcasing Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipley, Meagan; Lohrmann, David; Barnes, Priscilla; O'Neill, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Thirteen school district teams from Michigan and Indiana participated in the Michiana Coordinated School Health Leadership Institute with the intent of Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) implementation. The purpose of this study was to determine if portfolios served as an effective approach for documenting teams'…

  3. Competitive strategy for providers.

    PubMed

    Hackett, M C

    1996-01-01

    National Health Service (NHS) Trusts are struggling to determine a long-term strategic direction for their organizations in response to the competitive pressures generated by the NHS reforms. The development of long-term strategic direction and the methods to implement this are presenting real challenges to the Trusts which have inherited service configurations based on bureaucratic planning frameworks rather than service configurations suited to a more competitive environment. Examines the strategic choices available to these organizations; explores the importance of identifying positive strategic choices; and discusses the advantages and disadvantages in the context of the NHS internal market. PMID:10164226

  4. Spatial Aspects of Interspecific Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrett, Rick; Levin, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Using several variants of a stochastic spatial model introduced by Silvertown et al., we investigate the effect of spatial distribution of individuals on the outcome of competition. First, we prove rigorously that if one species has a competitive advantage over each of the others, then eventually it takes over all the sites in the system. Second, we examine tradeoffs between competition and dispersal distance in a two-species system. Third, we consider a cyclic competitive relationship between three types. In this case, a nonspatial treatment leads to densities that follow neutrally stable cycles or even unstable spiral solutions, while a spatial model yields a stationary distribution with an interesting spatial structure.

  5. Binocular advantages in reading.

    PubMed

    Jainta, Stephanie; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P

    2014-03-01

    Reading, an essential skill for successful function in today's society, is a complex psychological process involving vision, memory, and language comprehension. Variability in fixation durations during reading reflects the ease of text comprehension, and increased word frequency results in reduced fixation times. Critically, readers not only process the fixated foveal word but also preprocess the parafoveal word to its right, thereby facilitating subsequent foveal processing. Typically, text is presented binocularly, and the oculomotor control system precisely coordinates the two frontally positioned eyes online. Binocular, compared to monocular, visual processing typically leads to superior performance, termed the "binocular advantage"; few studies have investigated the binocular advantage in reading. We used saccade-contingent display change methodology to demonstrate the benefit of binocular relative to monocular text presentation for both parafoveal and foveal lexical processing during reading. Our results demonstrate that denial of a unified visual signal derived from binocular inputs provides a cost to the efficiency of reading, particularly in relation to high-frequency words. Our findings fit neatly with current computational models of eye movement control during reading, wherein successful word identification is a primary determinant of saccade initiation. PMID:24530062

  6. 32 CFR 173.2 - Competitive Information Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the offeror may have obtained an unfair competitive advantage from the information and that there is... action may be taken to neutralize the potential unfair competitive advantage. Any decision to deny award... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive Information Certification....

  7. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  8. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  9. Smart Sensors: Advantages and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Paddy James

    For almost 50 years, silicon sensors have been on the market. There have been many examples of success stories for simple silicon sensors, such as the Hall plate and photo-diode. These have found mass-market applications. The development of micromachining techniques brought pressure sensors and accelerometers into the market and later the gyroscope. These have also achieved mass-market. The remaining issue is how far to integrate. Many of the devices on the market use a simple sensor with external electronics or read-out electronics in the same package (system-in-a-package). However, there are also many examples of fully integrated sensors (smart sensors) where the whole system is integrated into a single chip. If the application and the device technology permit this, there can be many advantages. A broader look at sensors shows a wealth of integrated devices. The critical issues are reliability and packaging if these devices are to find the applications. A number of silicon sensors and actuators have shown great commercial success, but still many more have to find their way out of the laboratory. This paper will examine the development of the technologies, some of the success stories and the opportunities for integrated Microsystems as well as the pitfalls.

  10. An ecological dynamics rationale to explain home advantage in professional football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama, José; Dias, Gonçalo; Couceiro, Micael; Passos, Pedro; Davids, Keith; Ribeiro, João

    2016-03-01

    Despite clear findings, research on home advantage in team sports lacks a comprehensive theoretical rationale for understanding why this phenomenon is so compelling. The aim of this study was to provide an explanatory theoretical rationale in ecological dynamics for the influence of home advantage observed in research on professional football. We recorded 30 competitive matches and analyzed 13958 passes, from one highly successful team in the Portuguese Premier League, during season 2010/2011. Performance data were analyzed using the Match Analysis Software—Amisco® (version 3.3.7.25), allowing us to characterize team activity profiles. Results were interpreted from an ecological dynamics perspective, explaining how task and environmental constraints of a competitive football setting required performers to continuously co-adapt to teammate behaviors. Despite slight differences in percentage of ball possession when playing home or away, the number of passes achieved by the team, while in possession of the ball, was quite different between home or away venues. When playing at home, the number of passes performed by the team was considerably higher than when playing away. The explanation proposed in this study for a home advantage effect can be understood from studying interpersonal coordination tendencies of team sports players as agents in a complex adaptive system.

  11. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  12. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  13. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  14. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  15. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  16. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  17. Creating competitive weapons from information systems.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, C; MacMillan, I C

    1984-01-01

    As the pace of competition intensifies in the 1980s, information systems will emerge as critical new weapons in the battle to gain an advantage over competitors. The authors show how a business can use modern information technologies to create a competitive edge by adding value to present products and services. PMID:10269062

  18. Explaining Asian Americans’ academic advantage over whites

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, Amy; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The superior academic achievement of Asian Americans is a well-documented phenomenon that lacks a widely accepted explanation. Asian Americans’ advantage in this respect has been attributed to three groups of factors: (i) socio-demographic characteristics, (ii) cognitive ability, and (iii) academic effort as measured by characteristics such as attentiveness and work ethic. We combine data from two nationally representative cohort longitudinal surveys to compare Asian-American and white students in their educational trajectories from kindergarten through high school. We find that the Asian-American educational advantage is attributable mainly to Asian students exerting greater academic effort and not to advantages in tested cognitive abilities or socio-demographics. We test explanations for the Asian–white gap in academic effort and find that the gap can be further attributed to (i) cultural differences in beliefs regarding the connection between effort and achievement and (ii) immigration status. Finally, we highlight the potential psychological and social costs associated with Asian-American achievement success. PMID:24799702

  19. Understanding Competition in Spine Care.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-04-01

    The changing landscape from volume to value represents a natural transformation in the health care industry. Increasingly provider groups are finding themselves responding to unfamiliar market forces. Whether explicit or implicit, competition is playing a larger role for the sustainability of providers. For spine care providers who are attempting to navigate the transition from volume to value, understanding the forces that shape competition in health care can help achieve success. PMID:26925860

  20. Malaysian competition

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1994-11-01

    Two years ago, the first tentative steps were taken to privatize the Malaysian electricity supply industry with the flotation of 25 percent of Tenaga Nasional Bhd. At the same time the terms were defined for independent power generation, and plans were drawn up for six projects. Now, with six independent power producer projects under construction adding more capacity than the partly privatized TNB, the utility`s station managers are concerned they will be at a competitive disadvantage unless they can operate under the same type of power sales agreement.

  1. Ontogenetic change in skull morphology and mechanical advantage in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Tanner, Jaime B; Zelditch, Miriam L; Lundrigan, Barbara L; Holekamp, Kay E

    2010-03-01

    Weaning represents a challenging transition for young mammals, one particularly difficult for species coping with extreme conditions during feeding. Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) experience such extreme conditions imposed by intense feeding competition during which the ability to consume large quantities of food quickly is highly advantageous. As adult spotted hyenas have massive skulls specialized for durophagy and can feed very rapidly, young individuals are likely at a competitive disadvantage until that specialized morphology is completely developed. Here we document developmental changes in skull size, shape, and mechanical advantage of the jaws. Sampling an ontogenetic series of Crocuta skulls from individuals ranging in age from 2 months to 18 years, we use linear measurements and geometric morphometrics to test hypotheses suggesting that size, limited mechanical advantage of the jaws, and/or limited attachment sites for jaw muscles might constrain the feeding performance of juveniles. We also examine skull development in relation to key life history events, including weaning and reproductive maturity, to inquire whether ontogeny of the feeding apparatus is slower or more protracted in this species than in carnivores not specialized for durophagy. We find that, although mechanical advantage reaches maturity in hyenas at 22 months, adult skull size is not achieved until 29 months of age, and skull shape does not reach maturity until 35 months. The latter is nearly 2 years after mean weaning age, and more than 1 year after reproductive maturity. Thus, skull development in Crocuta is indeed protracted relative to that in most other carnivores. Based on the skull features that continue to change and to provide additional muscle attachment area, protracted development may be largely due to development of the massive musculature required by durophagy. These findings may ultimately shed light on the adaptive significance of the unusual "role-reversed" pattern of

  2. Using integration technology as a strategic advantage.

    PubMed

    Fry, P A

    1993-08-01

    The underlying premise of the Managed Competition Act previously cited is that through managed competition providers will be forced to lower care costs while increasing the level of positive care outcomes. Because it may also be that tomorrow's hospitals will find a severe rationing of technology, what can they do to prepare? Most of the systems in place today already have built within them all the necessary potential to address this premise and technology requirement with no change, no conversion, no expense for new equipment and software, and no disruption in day-to-day operations, just a little re-engineering. Today, however, these systems are similar to a 20-mule team pulling in different directions: all the power is there, but the wagon remains motionless and totally unable to reach its objective. It takes a skilled wagonmaster to bring them together, to make the mules work as a cohesive unit, to make the power of 20 mules greater than the sum of 20 mules. So it is and will be for the hospital of tomorrow. System integration is no longer a question of whether but of when. Those hospitals that use it today as a strategic advantage will be in a better position tomorrow to use it as a competitive strategic advantage in an environment that will reward low cost and high positive care outcomes and will penalize those that cannot compete. The technology is already here and economically within reach of nearly every hospital, just waiting to be used. The question that must nag all of us who want to make the health care system of America better is, Why not make the when now? Rich Helppie, president of Superior Consultant Company, summarized the solution well: The old ways will not give way to the new overnight. The re-engineering process in healthcare must evolve. Compared to the last 20 years, however, such evolution may appear to be a massive, forthright, complete, comprehensive, drastic and rapid revolution. Survival is the name of the game, and for healthcare

  3. Competition in Healthcare: Good, Bad or Ugly?

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The role of competition in healthcare is much debated. Despite a wealth of international experience in relation to competition, evidence is mixed and contested and the debate about the potential role for competition is often polarised. This paper considers briefly some of the reasons for this, focusing on what is meant by "competition in healthcare" and why it is more valuable to think about the circumstances in which competition is more and less likely to be a good tool to achieve benefits, rather than whether or not it is "good" or "bad," per se.M PMID:26340484

  4. Home advantage in Greek football.

    PubMed

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage. PMID:24533517

  5. Some Consideration On Knowledge Management Implication On Organization's Competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draghici, Anca; Ciortan, Marius Areta; Florea, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    The research described in this paper has been focused on two objectives: to debate the knowledge management's active role for organizations competitive advantage and to describe information technology's capabilities in leveraging the knowledge worker's competencies. For the purposes of this article, competitive advantage is perceived as a strength that provides a market advantage relative to a competitor. Often competitive advantage is related to the core competencies of the organisation, which are frequently based on implicit know-how or tacit knowledge. This intangible, unstructured knowledge is difficult to manage; consequently management has ignored it when designing business strategy. However, the increased competitive pressures of the post-industrial global economy and the exponential advances in computing power have increased management's interest in knowledge as a sustainable source of competitive advantage.

  6. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as τseek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  7. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-03-01

    We develop a simplified model for sexual replication within the quasispecies formalism. We assume that the genomes of the replicating organisms are two-chromosomed and diploid, and that the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual replication, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek= 0 , it is possible to show that sexual replication will always outcompete asexual replication. However, as τseek increases, sexual replication only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual replication disappears entirely. The results of this talk suggest that sexual replication is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual replication is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  8. An Experiment in Comparative Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupert, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate economics course experiment designed to teach the concepts of comparative advantage and opportunity costs. Students have a limited number of labor hours and can chose to produce either wheat or steel. As the project progresses, the students trade commodities in an attempt to maximize use of their labor hours. (MJP)

  9. Information Technology: Tomorrow's Advantage Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Stephen; Keen, Peter

    This textbook is designed for a one-semester introductory course in which the goal is to give students a foundation in the basics of information technology (IT). It focuses on how the technology works, issues relating to its use and development, how it can lend personal and business advantages, and how it is creating a globally networked society.…

  10. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  11. Competitive science: is competition ruining science?

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. Measures to encourage collaboration and ameliorate competition in the scientific enterprise are discussed. PMID:25605760

  12. Competitive Science: Is Competition Ruining Science?

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. Measures to encourage collaboration and ameliorate competition in the scientific enterprise are discussed. PMID:25605760

  13. Clusters and the new economics of competition.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1998-01-01

    Economic geography in an era of global competition poses a paradox. In theory, location should no longer be a source of competitive advantage. Open global markets, rapid transportation, and high-speed communications should allow any company to source any thing from any place at any time. But in practice, Michael Porter demonstrates, location remains central to competition. Today's economic map of the world is characterized by what Porter calls clusters: critical masses in one place of linked industries and institutions--from suppliers to universities to government agencies--that enjoy unusual competitive success in a particular field. The most famous example are found in Silicon Valley and Hollywood, but clusters dot the world's landscape. Porter explains how clusters affect competition in three broad ways: first, by increasing the productivity of companies based in the area; second, by driving the direction and pace of innovation; and third, by stimulating the formation of new businesses within the cluster. Geographic, cultural, and institutional proximity provides companies with special access, closer relationships, better information, powerful incentives, and other advantages that are difficult to tap from a distance. The more complex, knowledge-based, and dynamic the world economy becomes, the more this is true. Competitive advantage lies increasingly in local things--knowledge, relationships, and motivation--that distant rivals cannot replicate. Porter challenges the conventional wisdom about how companies should be configured, how institutions such as universities can contribute to competitive success, and how governments can promote economic development and prosperity. PMID:10187248

  14. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  15. Competitive spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  16. Competitive spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  17. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations

    PubMed Central

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation—that is, the competitiveness of its research system—and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of “markers” of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most “sophisticated” needs of the society. PMID:25493626

  18. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations.

    PubMed

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society. PMID:25493626

  19. Extending Home Advantage Theory and Four Factor Theory to Men's Collegiate Basketball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Yvan J.

    2013-01-01

    In sporting events, the home team has been found to win a disproportionate amount of games. Research into this home advantage phenomenon resulted in Courneya and Carron's framework of home advantage theory. In collegiate athletics, administrators face a competitive environment and a goal of enhancing revenues. The problem is that home…

  20. Achieving and Sustaining New Knowledge Development in High-Expectation Start-Ups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matricano, Diego

    2010-01-01

    In markets characterized by strong competition, new knowledge and new knowledge development are generally recognized as the key means for an enterprise to gain competitive advantage. This knowledge-based competitive advantage is critical for all commercial ventures, but is especially so for high-expectation start-ups (technology-based ventures…

  1. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development. PMID:15702597

  2. Competition in the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The conceptual introduction to this issue focuses on two questions: why study competition and what is a competitive market. Four instructional units follow, beginning with "Choosing Competitors." This preschool and kindergarten unit involves students in competitive games (naming colors), role playing competitive behaviors, comparing toys, and…

  3. Competition in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John Martin; DeVitis, Joseph L.

    This book discusses various major aspects of competition in education. It identifies competition within educational policies, programs, and practices, as well as the problems that certain forms of competition create. It also traces the influences of American competitive values on education. Chapter 1 provides an introductory overview of the…

  4. March 2013: Medicare Advantage update.

    PubMed

    Sayavong, Sarah; Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail; McBride, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Key Data Findings. (1) From March 2012 to March 2013, rural enrollment in Medicare Advantage (MA) and other prepaid plans increased by over 200,000 enrollees, to more than 1.9 million. (2) Preferred provider organization (PPO) plan enrollment increased to nearly one million enrollees, accounting for more than 51% of the rural MA market (up from 48% in March 2012). (3) Health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollment continued to grow in 2013, with over 31% of the rural MA market, while private fee-for-service (PFFS) plan enrollment decreased to less than 10% of market share. (4) Despite recent changes to MA payment, rural MA enrollment continues to increase. PMID:25399464

  5. Large- and small-size advantages in sneaking behaviour in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukio

    2012-04-01

    Sneaking tactic, a male alternative reproductive tactic involving sperm competition, is generally adopted by small individuals because of its inconspicuousness. However, large size has an advantage when competition occurs between sneakers for fertilization of eggs. Here, we suggest that both large- and small-size advantages of sneaker males are present within the same species. Large sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus showed a high success rate in intruding into spawning nests because of their advantage in competition among sneaker males in keeping a suitable position to sneak, whereas small sneakers had few chances to sneak. However, small sneaker males were able to stay in the nests longer than large sneaker males when they succeeded in sneak intrusion. This suggests the possibility of an increase in their paternity. The findings of these size-specific behavioural advantages may be important in considering the evolution of size-related reproductive traits.

  6. Belowground competition among invading detritivores.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Han; Szlavecz, Katalin; Filley, Timothy; Buyer, Jeffrey S; Bernard, Michael J; Pitz, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    The factors regulating soil animal communities are poorly understood. Current theory favors niche complementarity and facilitation over competition as the primary forms of non-trophic interspecific interaction in soil fauna; however, competition has frequently been suggested as an important community-structuring factor in earthworms, ecosystem engineers that influence belowground processes. To date, direct evidence of competition in earthworms is lacking due to the difficulty inherent in identifying a limiting resource for saprophagous animals. In the present study, we offer the first direct evidence of interspecific competition for food in this dominant soil detritivore group by combining field observations with laboratory mesocosm experiments using 13C and 15N double-enriched leaf litter to track consumption patterns. In our experiments, the Asian invasive species Amynthas hilgendorfi was a dominant competitor for leaf litter against two European species currently invading the temperate deciduous forests in North America. This competitive advantage may account for recent invasion success of A. hilgendorfi in forests with established populations of European species, and we hypothesize that specific phenological differences play an important role in determining the outcome of the belowground competition. In contrast, Eisenoides lonnbergi, a common native species in the Eastern United States, occupied a unique trophic position with limited interactions with other species, which may contribute to its persistence in habitats dominated by invasive species. Furthermore, our results supported neither the hypothesis that facilitation occurs between species of different functional groups nor the hypothesis that species in the same group exhibit functional equivalency in C and N translocation in the soil. We propose that species identity is a more powerful approach to understand earthworm invasion and its impacts on belowground processes. PMID:27008785

  7. Making geothermal power competitive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassbender, L. L.; Bloomster, C. H.

    The near-term supply curve for the electrical applications of geothermal energy is presented, and the impacts of technological improvements are illustrated. The curve is derived using the subsurface temperature, reservoir thickness, and heat content estimates made by the U.S. Geological Survey for the identified high-temperature and intermediate-temperature hydrothermal resources of the western U.S. Each step in the curve is composed of one or more geothermal resources identified by the USGS. Both high- and intermediate-temperature resources were included up to an arbitrary cost ceiling of 100 mills/kWh. Curves are drawn to show the impacts of combinations of technological advances expected to be achieved by 1982 and 1985. It is shown that most of the identified hydrothermal resources could become competitive with conventional energy sources for electrical power production by 1985.

  8. Competition in a Social Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Longjas, Anthony; Batac, Rene

    Complex adaptive agents develop strategies in the presence of competition. In modern human societies, there is an inherent sense of locality when describing inter-agent dynamics because of its network structure. One then wonders whether the traditional advertising schemes that are globally publicized and target random individuals are as effective in attracting a larger portion of the population as those that take advantage of local neighborhoods, such as "word-of-mouth" marketing schemes. Here, we demonstrate using a differential equation model that schemes targeting local cliques within the network are more successful at gaining a larger share of the population than those that target users randomly at a global scale (e.g., television commercials, print ads, etc.). This suggests that success in the competition is dependent not only on the number of individuals in the population but also on how they are connected in the network. We further show that the model is general in nature by considering examples of competition dynamics, particularly those of business competition and language death.

  9. Cooperation versus Competition: Is There Really Such an Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Ann Michelle

    2007-01-01

    This author argues that youth sports can move beyond the dichotomy of cooperation versus competition by redefining competition. This can be accomplished by considering the development of cooperative skills and achievement motivation. The article addresses how cooperative skills can be taught within a competitive sport. First, it is important to…

  10. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-09-01

    Our well-being depends on both our personal success and the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation an essential trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remains elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly rich social dynamics that explain why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding, coming from over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utilization of network reciprocity. This may explain why, despite its success, rewarding is not as firmly embedded into our societal organization as punishment.

  11. Modeling competition between yeast strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gee, Maarten; van Mourik, Hilda; de Visser, Arjan; Molenaar, Jaap

    2016-04-01

    We investigate toxin interference competition between S. cerevisiae colonies grown on a solid medium. In vivo experiments show that the outcome of this competition depends strongly on nutrient availability and cell densities. Here we present a new model for S. cerevisiae colonies, calculating the local height and composition of the colonies. The model simulates yeast colonies that show a good fit to experimental data. Simulations of colonies that start out with a homogeneous mixture of toxin producing and toxin sensitive cells can display remarkable pattern formation, depending on the initial ratio of the strains. Simulations in which the toxin producing and toxin sensitive species start at nearby positions clearly show that toxin production is advantageous.

  12. Tailored logistics: the next advantage.

    PubMed

    Fuller, J B; O'Conor, J; Rawlinson, R

    1993-01-01

    How many top executives have ever visited with managers who move materials from the factory to the store? How many still reduce the costs of logistics to the rent of warehouses and the fees charged by common carriers? To judge by hours of senior management attention, logistics problems do not rank high. But logistics have the potential to become the next governing element of strategy. Whether they know it or not, senior managers of every retail store and diversified manufacturing company compete in logistically distinct businesses. Customer needs vary, and companies can tailor their logistics systems to serve their customers better and more profitably. Companies do not create value for customers and sustainable advantage for themselves merely by offering varieties of goods. Rather, they offer goods in distinct ways. A particular can of Coca-Cola, for example, might be a can of Coca-Cola going to a vending machine, or a can of Coca-Cola that comes with billing services. There is a fortune buried in this distinction. The goal of logistics strategy is building distinct approaches to distinct groups of customers. The first step is organizing a cross-functional team to proceed through the following steps: segmenting customers according to purchase criteria, establishing different standards of service for different customer segments, tailoring logistics pipelines to support each segment, and creating economics of scale to determine which assets can be shared among various pipelines. The goal of establishing logistically distinct businesses is familiar: improved knowledge of customers and improved means of satisfying them. PMID:10126157

  13. How Successful Is Medicare Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P; McGuire, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Context Medicare Part C, or Medicare Advantage (MA), now almost 30 years old, has generally been viewed as a policy disappointment. Enrollment has vacillated but has never come close to the penetration of managed care plans in the commercial insurance market or in Medicaid, and because of payment policy decisions and selection, the MA program is viewed as having added to cost rather than saving funds for the Medicare program. Recent changes in Medicare policy, including improved risk adjustment, however, may have changed this picture. Methods This article summarizes findings from our group's work evaluating MA's recent performance and investigating payment options for improving its performance even more. We studied the behavior of both beneficiaries and plans, as well as the effects of Medicare policy. Findings Beneficiaries make “mistakes” in their choice of MA plan options that can be explained by behavioral economics. Few beneficiaries make an active choice after they enroll in Medicare. The high prevalence of “zero-premium” plans signals inefficiency in plan design and in the market's functioning. That is, Medicare premium policies interfere with economically efficient choices. The adverse selection problem, in which healthier, lower-cost beneficiaries tend to join MA, appears much diminished. The available measures, while limited, suggest that, on average, MA plans offer care of equal or higher quality and for less cost than traditional Medicare (TM). In counties, greater MA penetration appears to improve TM's performance. Conclusions Medicare policies regarding lock-in provisions and risk adjustment that were adopted in the mid-2000s have mitigated the adverse selection problem previously plaguing MA. On average, MA plans appear to offer higher value than TM, and positive spillovers from MA into TM imply that reimbursement should not necessarily be neutral. Policy changes in Medicare that reform the way that beneficiaries are charged for MA plan

  14. Gaining a Competitive Edge through Human Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Ian C.; Schuler, Randall S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors show how human resources can be used as a strategic weapon to give a company a competitive advantage. The authors develop a thrust/target matrix and plug in examples to illustrate how companies have used and can use their human resources to do this. (CT)

  15. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION... most advantageous to the recipient, price, quality and other factors considered. Solicitations...

  16. Evaluating perennial grass competition as a management tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of plant competition is highly dependent on life stage and cycle. One of the largest problems that Great Basin rangelands face is the competitive nature of the exotic and invasive annual grass, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Advantages of cheatgrass are often attributed to large seed produ...

  17. Knowledge Management and the Competitive Strategy of the Firm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halawi, Leila A.; McCarthy, Richard V.; Aronson, Jay E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge management (KM) has emerged as a strategy to improve organizational competitiveness. Our purpose is to identify the relationship between KM and the firm's competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach: We review the existing literature on KM and strategy formulation. We utilize the resource-based view approach as a lens for…

  18. Advantages of Catalysis in Self-Assembled Molecular Capsules.

    PubMed

    Catti, Lorenzo; Zhang, Qi; Tiefenbacher, Konrad

    2016-06-27

    Control over the local chemical environment of a molecule can be achieved by encapsulation in supramolecular host systems. In supramolecular catalysis, this control is used to gain advantages over classical homogeneous catalysis in bulk solution. Two of the main advantages concern influencing reactions in terms of substrate and product selectivity. Due to size and/or shape recognition, substrate selective conversion can be realized. Additionally, noncovalent interactions with the host environment facilitate alternative reaction pathways and can yield unusual products. This Concept article discusses and highlights literature examples utilizing self-assembled molecular capsules to achieve catalytic transformations displaying a high degree of substrate and/or product selectivity. Furthermore, the advantage of supramolecular hosts in multicatalyst tandem reactions is covered. PMID:27150251

  19. Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liles, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition is a new competition that needs graphics, logos, rules, as well as an arena. Although this is the first year of the competition, the competition is modeled after an existing competition, the Centennial Lunar Excavator Challenge. This competition however is aimed at college students. This makes the challenge identifying key aspects of the original competition and modeling them to fit into an easier task, and creating exciting advertisement that helps encourage participation. By using a youth focus group, young insight, as well as guiding advice from experts in the field, hopefully an arena can be designed and built, rules can be molded and created to fit, and alluring graphics can be printed to bring about a successful first year of the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition.

  20. Advantages of fused night vision in complex urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alistair

    2014-10-01

    Fused night vision systems have been available for a number of years and have matured into practical devices for use by dismounted soldiers. This paper looks at the approaches taken to achieve fused systems and looks at the real world advantages of such systems in complex urban environments with multiple light sources.

  1. Strategizing for Intense Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, William; Bourgeois, Ernest J., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Examines trend toward more aggressive student recruiting strategies by colleges and universities, applying a model that assesses five competitive forces-cause and effect of competition, the expanding marketplace, substitute products, buyer power, and supplier power, and examines various strategies for dealing with these competitive forces, such as…

  2. In Defence of Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prvulovich, Zika Rad

    1982-01-01

    Examines objections to competition as presented by educational philosopher Michael Fielding and others. The two major types of criticism of competition are that it is unfair and divisive and that it is selfish and immoral. The author advocates educational experiences which combine self-competition with cooperation. (AM)

  3. Competitive Anxiety in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rainer; And Others

    This book is a comprehensive review of competitive anxiety research that has used the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, or SCAT (a trait scale), and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). The book describes the theoretical basis and development procedures for both scales, including detailed information on reliability and validity. In…

  4. Intraguild Competition of Three Noctuid Maize Pests.

    PubMed

    Bentivenha, J P F; Baldin, E L L; Hunt, T E; Paula-Moraes, S V; Blankenship, E E

    2016-08-01

    The western bean cutworm Striacosta albicosta (Smith), the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are among the major lepidopteran pests of maize in the United States, belonging to the same guild and injuring the reproductive tissues of this crop. Here, intraguild competition of these lepidopterans on non-Bt maize was evaluated through survival analysis of each species under laboratory and field conditions. Competition scenarios were carried out in arenas containing maize silk or ear tissue, using larvae on different stadium of development. Fitness cost competition studies were conducted to examine the influence of intraguild competition and cannibalism and predation rates on larval development. The survival of S. albicosta competing with the other species was significantly lower than in intraspecific competition, even when the larvae were more developed than the competitor. For S. frugiperda, survival remained high in the different competition scenarios, except when competing in a smaller stadium with H. zea Larvae of H. zea had a high rate of cannibalism, higher survival when competing against S. albicosta than S. frugiperda, and reduced survival when the H. zea larvae were at the same development stadium or smaller than the competitors. Based on fitness cost results, the absence of a competitor for the feeding source may confer an advantage to the larval development of S. frugiperda and H. zea Our data suggest that S. frugiperda has a competitive advantage against the other species, while S. albicosta has the disadvantage in the intraguild competition on non-Bt maize. PMID:27330146

  5. Animal spirits, competitive markets, and endogenous growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses a simple model with an endogenous discount rate and linear technology to investigate whether a competitive equilibrium has a higher balanced growth path (BGP) than the social planning solution and whether the BGP is determinate or indeterminate. The implications are as follows. To start with, people with an instinct to compare themselves with others possess an endogenous discount rate. In turn, this instinct affects the economic growth rate in a competitive market economy. The competitive market economy also sometimes achieves higher economic growth than a social planning economy. However, the outcomes of market economy occasionally fluctuate because of the presence of the self-fulfilling prophecy or animal spirits.

  6. How chimpanzees cooperate in a competitive world.

    PubMed

    Suchak, Malini; Eppley, Timothy M; Campbell, Matthew W; Feldman, Rebecca A; Quarles, Luke F; de Waal, Frans B M

    2016-09-01

    Our species is routinely depicted as unique in its ability to achieve cooperation, whereas our closest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), is often characterized as overly competitive. Human cooperation is assisted by the cost attached to competitive tendencies through enforcement mechanisms, such as punishment and partner choice. To examine if chimpanzees possess the same ability to mitigate competition, we set up a cooperative task in the presence of the entire group of 11 adults, which required two or three individuals to pull jointly to receive rewards. This open-group set-up provided ample opportunity for competition (e.g., freeloading, displacements) and aggression. Despite this unique set-up and initial competitiveness, cooperation prevailed in the end, being at least five times as common as competition. The chimpanzees performed 3,565 cooperative acts while using a variety of enforcement mechanisms to overcome competition and freeloading, as measured by (attempted) thefts of rewards. These mechanisms included direct protest by the target, third-party punishment in which dominant individuals intervened against freeloaders, and partner choice. There was a marked difference between freeloading and displacement; freeloading tended to elicit withdrawal and third-party interventions, whereas displacements were met with a higher rate of direct retaliation. Humans have shown similar responses in controlled experiments, suggesting shared mechanisms across the primates to mitigate competition for the sake of cooperation. PMID:27551075

  7. The Effects of Nurse Staffing on Hospital Financial Performance: Competitive Versus Less Competitive Markets

    PubMed Central

    Everhart, Damian; Neff, Donna; Al-Amin, Mona; Nogle, June; Weech-Maldonado, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Hospitals facing financial uncertainty have sought to reduce nurse staffing as a way to increase profitability. However, nurse staffing has been found to be important in terms of quality of patient care and nursing related outcomes. Nurse staffing can provide a competitive advantage to hospitals and as a result better financial performance, particularly in more competitive markets Purpose In this study we build on the Resource-Based View of the Firm to determine the effect of nurse staffing on total profit margin in more competitive and less competitive hospital markets in Florida. Methodology/Approach By combining a Florida statewide nursing survey with the American Hospital Association Annual Survey and the Area Resource File, three separate multivariate linear regression models were conducted to determine the effect of nurse staffing on financial performance while accounting for market competitiveness. The analysis was limited to acute care hospitals. Findings Nurse staffing levels had a positive association with financial performance (β=3.3; p=0.02) in competitive hospital markets, but no significant association was found in less competitive hospital markets. Practice Implications Hospitals in more competitive hospital markets should reconsider reducing nursing staff, as these cost cutting measures may be inefficient and negatively affect financial performance. PMID:22543824

  8. Cognition, Culture and Competition: An Empirical Test of the Learning Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jashapara, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    Data from 180 British construction companies were collected to examine processes of organizational culture, cognition, and competition and their effects on organizational performance. Double-loop learning provided a competitive advantage and was most likely in competitive cultures, although cooperative cultures also increased performance.…

  9. Workskills and National Competitiveness: A Benchmarking Framework. Report No. 1: Benchmarking Australian Qualification Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, R. B.

    A recent study of work skill competitiveness and overall national competitiveness worldwide revealed that 17 countries are more competitive than Australia. Some countries have a relative resource advantage and will be able to extend access to education and training more effectively than Australia will, and some countries have targeted education…

  10. Four paths of competition

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    The financial community`s focus on utility competition has been riveted on the proceedings now in progress at state regulatory commissions. The fear that something immediately damaging will come out of these proceedings seems to have diminished in recent months, and the stock market has reacted favorably. However, regulatory developments are only one of four paths leading to competition; the others are the marketplace, the legislatures, and the courts. Each could play a critical role in the emergence of competition.

  11. Intramural Gymnastics Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, William L.

    1981-01-01

    An intramural gymnastic competition, if properly organized, can foster student and community interest in gymnastics. Aspects of organization and essential preplanning include: directing, judging, scoring, and managing. (JN)

  12. Analytical advantages of multivariate data processing. One, two, three, infinity?

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2008-08-01

    Multidimensional data are being abundantly produced by modern analytical instrumentation, calling for new and powerful data-processing techniques. Research in the last two decades has resulted in the development of a multitude of different processing algorithms, each equipped with its own sophisticated artillery. Analysts have slowly discovered that this body of knowledge can be appropriately classified, and that common aspects pervade all these seemingly different ways of analyzing data. As a result, going from univariate data (a single datum per sample, employed in the well-known classical univariate calibration) to multivariate data (data arrays per sample of increasingly complex structure and number of dimensions) is known to provide a gain in sensitivity and selectivity, combined with analytical advantages which cannot be overestimated. The first-order advantage, achieved using vector sample data, allows analysts to flag new samples which cannot be adequately modeled with the current calibration set. The second-order advantage, achieved with second- (or higher-) order sample data, allows one not only to mark new samples containing components which do not occur in the calibration phase but also to model their contribution to the overall signal, and most importantly, to accurately quantitate the calibrated analyte(s). No additional analytical advantages appear to be known for third-order data processing. Future research may permit, among other interesting issues, to assess if this "1, 2, 3, infinity" situation of multivariate calibration is really true. PMID:18613646

  13. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs

    PubMed Central

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species. PMID

  14. Utah Mock Trial Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Linda, Comp.

    Background materials and guidelines for secondary students and educators in Utah who wish to participate in the state-wide mock trial competition are provided. Many parts of the publication can be used by educators in other states who are using mock trials in their classrooms or who are developing a state-wide mock trial competition. The manual…

  15. Competition: Was Kohn Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2010-01-01

    Alfie Kohn made the case for competition being destructive to education. The truth may be that there are two separate ways to contest: true competition, which is a healthy desire to excel, and decompetition, which is the unhealthy desire merely to beat the opponent. Decompetition leads to the ills that Kohn enumerated. Educators should teach their…

  16. Competitiveness, Technology and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lall, Sanjaya

    This document examines competitiveness in the developing world. Chapters 1 through 3, which are largely conceptual, examine the following topics: the concept of competitiveness and why it is important; market-stimulating technology policies in developing countries, and the relationship between import liberalization and industrial performance.…

  17. A possible heterozygous advantage in muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Emery, A E H

    2016-01-01

    In certain autosomal recessive disorders there is suggestive evidence that heterozygous carriers may have some selective advantage over normal homozygotes. These include, for example, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease and phenylketonuria. The best example so far, however, is that of significant heterozygous advantage in sickle-cell anaemia with increased resistance to falciparum malaria. PMID:27245530

  18. Tax-advantaged investing: a wise choice.

    PubMed

    Smith, J

    2001-01-01

    Your investment strategy should be just that--a plan to make the most of your assets. Considering the tax advantages and disadvantages help you stretch your investments and take full advantage of stocks, mutual funds, and other investments. PMID:11862646

  19. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

  20. Competitive environments sustain costly altruism with negligible assortment of interactions

    PubMed Central

    Doncaster, C. Patrick; Jackson, Adam; Watson, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Competition hinders the evolution of altruism amongst kin when beneficiaries gain at the expense of competing relatives. Altruism is consequently deemed to require stronger kin selection, or trait-selected synergies, or elastic population regulation, to counter this effect. Here we contest the view that competition puts any such demands on altruism. In ecologically realistic scenarios, competition influences both altruism and defection. We show how environments that pit defectors against each other allow strong altruism to evolve even in populations with negligible kin structure and no synergies. Competition amongst defectors presents relative advantages to altruism in the simplest games between altruists and defectors, and the most generic models of altruistic phenotypes or genotypes invading non-altruistic populations under inelastic density regulation. Given the widespread inevitability of competition, selection will often favour altruism because its alternatives provide lower fitness. Strong competition amongst defectors nevertheless undermines altruism, by facilitating invasion of unrelated beneficiaries as parasites. PMID:24089101

  1. SEX-RATIO MEIOTIC DRIVE AND INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION

    PubMed Central

    Unckless, Robert L.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been known that processes occurring within a species may impact the interactions between species. For example, since competitive ability is sensitive to parameters including reproductive rate, carrying capacity and competition efficiency, the outcome of interspecific competition may be influenced by any process that alters these attributes. While several such scenarios have been discussed, the influence of selfish genetic elements within one species on competition between species has not received theoretical treatment. We show that, with strong competition, sex-ratio meiotic drive systems can result in a significant shift in community composition because the effective birth rate in the population may be increased by a female-biased sex-ratio. Using empirical data we attempt to estimate the magnitude of this effect in several Drosophila species. We infer that meiotic drive elements, selfish genetic elements within species, can provide a substantial competitive advantage to that species within a community. PMID:24835887

  2. Potential Competitive Dynamics of Acoustic Ecology.

    PubMed

    Radford, C A; Montgomery, J C

    2016-01-01

    The top predators in coastal marine ecosystems, such as whales, dolphins, seabirds, and large predatory fishes (including sharks), may compete with each other to exploit food aggregations. Finding these patchy food sources and being first to a food patch could provide a significant competitive advantage. Our hypothesis is that food patches have specific sound signatures that marine predators could detect and that acoustic sources and animal sensory capabilities may contribute to competition dynamics. Preliminary analysis shows that diving gannets have a distinct spectral signature between 80 and 200 Hz, which falls within the hearing sensitivity of large pelagic fishes. Therefore, we suggest that diving birds may contribute to the sound signatures of food aggregations, linking competition dynamics both above and below the water surface. PMID:26611047

  3. Review of "The Effect of Milwaukee's Parental Choice Program on Student Achievement in Milwaukee Public Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilli, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    According to a new study of Milwaukee public schools, student achievement has benefited from voucher-based school competition. A novel method, using geocoding, was proposed for measuring the degree of competition within the city of Milwaukee and, in turn, for determining whether such competition has increased or decreased the achievement of public…

  4. The Impact of Writing Assignments in Business Education: Toward a Competitive Advantage in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Melvin C.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century organizations are increasingly becoming global information networks where the emphasis on written communication is growing exponentially. Effective writing skills are becoming more essential to workplace success and thus a central focus in business programs across the country. This article addresses writing issues in business…

  5. Dual Zinc Transporter Systems in Vibrio cholerae Promote Competitive Advantages over Gut Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Ying; Fan, Fenxia; Jensen, Owen; Zhong, Zengtao; Kan, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace metal required for numerous cellular processes in all forms of life. In order to maintain zinc homeostasis, bacteria have developed several transport systems to regulate its uptake. In this study, we investigated zinc transport systems in the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. Bioinformatic analysis predicts that two gene clusters, VC2081 to VC2083 (annotated as zinc utilization genes znuABC) and VC2551 to VC2555 (annotated as zinc-regulated genes zrgABCDE), are regulated by the putative zinc uptake regulator Zur. Using promoter reporter and biochemical assays, we confirmed that Zur represses znuABC and zrgABCDE promoters in a Zn2+-dependent manner. Under Zn2+-limiting conditions, we found that mutations in either the znuABC or zrgABCDE gene cluster affect bacterial growth, with znuABC mutants displaying a more severe growth defect, suggesting that both ZnuABC and ZrgABCDE are involved in Zn2+ uptake and that ZnuABC plays the predominant role. Furthermore, we reveal that ZnuABC and ZrgABCDE are important for V. cholerae colonization in both infant and adult mouse models, particularly in the presence of other intestinal microbiota. Collectively, our studies indicate that these two zinc transporter systems play vital roles in maintaining zinc homeostasis during V. cholerae growth and pathogenesis. PMID:26195552

  6. Ohio's Economic Advantage. Enhancing Workforce Performance. Improving Business Results. Increasing Global Competitiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    This booklet contains 36 one-page "success stories" that reveal how the two-year colleges and the vocational and adult education system in Ohio are responding to business and industry needs with innovative problem solving and effective partnerships. Each profile includes a challenge, a solution, results, and comments from business persons that…

  7. Impact of Business Intelligence and IT Infrastructure Flexibility on Competitive Advantage: An Organizational Agility Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    There is growing use of business intelligence (BI) for better management decisions in industry. However, empirical studies on BI are still scarce in academic research. This research investigates BI from an organizational agility perspective. Organizational agility is the ability to sense and respond to market opportunities and threats with speed,…

  8. Career Conversations in Small- to Medium-Sized Businesses: A Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, William A.; Butterfield, Lee D.; Lalande, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Career conversations are career-related dialogues between managers and employees that are intended to facilitate the development of specific goals and a plan for employee development that is mutually beneficial--to align the career goals of the employee with the organization's goals. The aim of these conversations is to address the turnover,…

  9. Transnational Corporations and Strategic Challenges: An Analysis of Knowledge Flows and Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse knowledge transfers in transnational corporations. Design/methodology/approach: The paper develops a conceptual framework for the analysis of knowledge flow transfers in transnationals. Based on this theoretical framework, the paper propose's research hypotheses and builds a causal model that links…

  10. Web Consulting for Non-Academic Educational Missions: How Instructional Design Offers a Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Ward Mitchell; Mattke, Paige Hawkins

    2013-01-01

    Based on a recently completed study of education directors at science museums, this article addresses how design-and-development consultants might use those findings to enhance the way in which they propose and deliver Website services to non-academic organizations with either primary or complementary educational missions. After a very brief…

  11. Middle-Class Childhood: Building a Competitive Advantage or Early Burn-Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlage, Gai Ingham

    Since the 1950s, parenting and childhood in America have changed dramatically. Childhood as a period in which to grow at one's own pace in a protected environment largely removed from adult supervision has given way to a new era in which the parent acts as supervisor and director of the child's development. Such involvement, especially by middle…

  12. A genomic island provides Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 additional copper resistance: a possible competitive advantage.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Luis H; Jerez, Carlos A

    2011-11-01

    There is great interest in understanding how extremophilic biomining bacteria adapt to exceptionally high copper concentrations in their environment. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 genome possesses the same copper resistance determinants as strain ATCC 23270. However, the former strain contains in its genome a 160-kb genomic island (GI), which is absent in ATCC 23270. This GI contains, amongst other genes, several genes coding for an additional putative copper ATPase and a Cus system. A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 showed a much higher resistance to CuSO(4) (>100 mM) than that of strain ATCC 23270 (<25 mM). When a similar number of bacteria from each strain were mixed and allowed to grow in the absence of copper, their respective final numbers remained approximately equal. However, in the presence of copper, there was a clear overgrowth of strain ATCC 53993 compared to ATCC 23270. This behavior is most likely explained by the presence of the additional copper-resistance genes in the GI of strain ATCC 53993. As determined by qRT-PCR, it was demonstrated that these genes are upregulated when A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 is grown in the presence of copper and were shown to be functional when expressed in copper-sensitive Escherichia coli mutants. Thus, the reason for resistance to copper of two strains of the same acidophilic microorganism could be determined by slight differences in their genomes, which may not only lead to changes in their capacities to adapt to their environment, but may also help to select the more fit microorganisms for industrial biomining operations. PMID:21789491

  13. Dual Zinc Transporter Systems in Vibrio cholerae Promote Competitive Advantages over Gut Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ying; Fan, Fenxia; Jensen, Owen; Zhong, Zengtao; Kan, Biao; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Zinc is an essential trace metal required for numerous cellular processes in all forms of life. In order to maintain zinc homeostasis, bacteria have developed several transport systems to regulate its uptake. In this study, we investigated zinc transport systems in the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. Bioinformatic analysis predicts that two gene clusters, VC2081 to VC2083 (annotated as zinc utilization genes znuABC) and VC2551 to VC2555 (annotated as zinc-regulated genes zrgABCDE), are regulated by the putative zinc uptake regulator Zur. Using promoter reporter and biochemical assays, we confirmed that Zur represses znuABC and zrgABCDE promoters in a Zn(2+)-dependent manner. Under Zn(2+)-limiting conditions, we found that mutations in either the znuABC or zrgABCDE gene cluster affect bacterial growth, with znuABC mutants displaying a more severe growth defect, suggesting that both ZnuABC and ZrgABCDE are involved in Zn(2+) uptake and that ZnuABC plays the predominant role. Furthermore, we reveal that ZnuABC and ZrgABCDE are important for V. cholerae colonization in both infant and adult mouse models, particularly in the presence of other intestinal microbiota. Collectively, our studies indicate that these two zinc transporter systems play vital roles in maintaining zinc homeostasis during V. cholerae growth and pathogenesis. PMID:26195552

  14. Energizing corporate culture and creating competitive advantage: a new look at workforce programs.

    PubMed

    O'Daniell, E E

    1999-01-01

    Beliefs about the best ways to attract and retain employees--and keep them continuously motivated and productive--have shifted considerably in recent years. Structural changes wrought by the "3 Rs"--restructuring, rightsizing and reengineering--have given way to organizational changes caused by the "3 Cs"--culture, communication and competencies. PMID:10557894

  15. Competitive Advantage: 21st-Century Skills Contest Inspires Collaboration and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    In today's struggle for recognition of the importance of school libraries, it is especially important to make it known that school libraries are essential components of education. In Henrico County (Virginia) Public School libraries, the American Association of School Librarian's National Library Program of the Year, school librarians have taken a…

  16. Strategic Planning Imperatives for Educators: Creating Advantage in an Emerging Competition-Based Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, Joseph A.; Schaid, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the impact of four elements of strategic planning: strategic positioning, external and internal analysis, measurable objectives, and evaluation with corrective action. By examining both the literature that guides districts in the development of strategic plans and actual district plans, identifies areas of weakness and suggests ways…

  17. Merit and Competition in Selective College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killgore, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    Using interview data from 34 admissions officers at 17 elite colleges, this paper compares two perspectives shaping admissions policy. Admissions officers apply a "merit" perspective that relies on indicators of student academic and nonacademic achievement. They also employ a "competition" perspective that evaluates student characteristics…

  18. Cooperative Learning versus Competition: Which Is Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Most educators advocate cooperative learning in the curriculum. Heterogeneous grouping is also recommended so that students with mixed achievement levels work in a committee setting. Cooperative endeavors stress democracy as a way of life, according to many educators, as compared to competition in the classroom. This paper examines the philosophy…

  19. Fostering Self-Directed Learners through Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafrenz, Lu Ann; Murray, Bernadine

    2005-01-01

    Educational programs are continually seeking ways to encourage students' independence, personal growth, and self-directed learning. Graduates should enter the fashion industry with the ability to engage in lifelong learning in order to ensure competence in professional practice. Competition experiences help students to achieve these goals. The…

  20. Curveball strategies to fool the competition.

    PubMed

    Stalk, George

    2006-09-01

    In this follow-on piece to his article "Hardball: Five Killer Strategies for Trouncing the Competition" (HBR April 2004), George Stalk of the Boston Consulting Group offers another approach for prevailing over rivals. Strategic hardball is about playing rough and tough with competitors; strategic curveball is about outfoxing them. It involves getting rivals to do something dumb that they otherwise wouldn't (that is, swing at a pitch that appears to be in the strike zone but isn't) or not do something smart that they otherwise would (that is, fail to swing at a pitch that's in the strike zone but appears not to be). Stalk describes four types of curveball: Draw your rival out of the profit zone. Lure competitors into disadvantageous areas--for example, by competing for, but intentionally failing to win, the business of less profitable customers. Borrow techniques from unexpected places. Using the hardball tactic of plagiarizing good ideas, put rivals off balance by importing techniques from other industries--for example, employing the retailer's hard sell in the stodgy world of retail financial services. Disguise how you attain your success. Veil your methods by achieving an advantage through unlikely means--for example, generating product sales through your service operations. Let rivals misinterpret the reasons for your success. Allow them to act on conventional but incomplete explanations for your success--for example, squeezing costs rather than aggressively utilizing assets. The author provides extended examples of these curveball strategies in action, at companies such as the industrial-cleaning chemical supplier Ecolab and the Australian airline Jetstar. PMID:16967625

  1. Essays on competition in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Salvagno, Ricardo Javier

    The first chapter shows how technology decisions affect entry in commodity markets with oligopolistic competition, like the electricity market. I demonstrate an entry deterrence effect that works through cost uncertainty. Technology's cost uncertainty affects spot market expected profits through forward market trades. Therefore, incentives to engage in forward trading shape firms' decisions on production technologies. I show that high-cost but low-risk technologies are adopted by risk-averse incumbents to deter entry. Strategic technology adoption can end in a equilibrium where high-cost technologies prevail over low-cost but riskier ones. In the case of incumbents who are less risk-averse than entrants, entry deterrence is achieved by choosing riskier technologies. The main results do not depend on who chooses their technology first. Chapter two examines the Chilean experience on auctions for long-term supply contracts in electricity markets from 2006 to 2011. Using a divisible-good auction model, I provide a theoretical framework that explains bidding behavior in terms of expected spot prices and contracting positions. The model is extended to include potential strategic behavior on contracting decisions. Empirical estimations confirm the main determinants of bidding behavior and show heterogeneity in the marginal cost of over-contracting depending on size and incumbency. Chapter three analyzes the lag in capacity expansion in the Chilean electricity market from 2000 to 2004. Regarded as a result of regulatory uncertainty, the role of delays in the construction of a large hydro-power plant has been overlooked by the literature. We argue that those delays postponed projected investment and gave small windows of opportunity that only incumbents could take advantage of. We are able to retrace the history of investments through real-time information from the regulator's reports and a simple model enables us to explain the effect of those delays on suggested and under

  2. The advantage of first mention in Spanish

    PubMed Central

    CARREIRAS, MANUEL; GERNSBACHER, MORTON ANN; VILLA, VICTOR

    2015-01-01

    An advantage of first mention—that is, faster access to participants mentioned first in a sentence—has previously been demonstrated only in English. We report three experiments demonstrating that the advantage of first mention occurs also in Spanish sentences, regardless of whether the first-mentioned participants are syntactic subjects, and regardless, too, of whether they are proper names or inanimate objects. Because greater word-order flexibility is allowed in Spanish than in English (e.g., nonpassive object-verb-subject constructions exist in Spanish), these findings provide additional evidence that the advantage of first mention is a general cognitive phenomenon. PMID:24203596

  3. The relative importance of seed competition, resource competition and perturbations on community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, K.; Dyke, J. G.; Pavlick, R.; Reineking, B.; Reu, B.; Kleidon, A.

    2011-05-01

    While the regional climate is the primary selection pressure for whether a plant strategy can survive, however, competitive interactions strongly affect the relative abundances of plant strategies within communities. Here, we investigate the relative importance of competition and perturbations on the development of vegetation community structure. To do so, we develop DIVE (Dynamics and Interactions of VEgetation), a simple general model that links plant strategies to their competitive dynamics, using growth and reproduction characteristics that emerge from climatic constraints. The model calculates population dynamics based on establishment, mortality, invasion and exclusion in the presence of different strengths of perturbations, seed and resource competition. The highest levels of diversity were found in simulations without competition as long as mortality is not too high. However, reasonable successional dynamics were only achieved when resource competition is considered. Under high levels of competition, intermediate levels of perturbations were required to obtain coexistence. Since succession and coexistence are observed in plant communities, we conclude that the DIVE model with competition and intermediate levels of perturbation represents an adequate way to model population dynamics. Because of the simplicity and generality of DIVE, it could be used to understand vegetation structure and functioning at the global scale and the response of vegetation to global change.

  4. Competitiveness and Quality of Higher Education: Graduates' Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bikse, Veronika; Rivza, Baiba; Brence, Ieva

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to find the competitiveness of Latvian university graduates in Latvia and the European Union labour market concerning aspects of entrepreneurship education. To achieve the purpose of this study to determine the competitive and qualitative levels of Latvian universities and necessary improvements that need to be made, a…

  5. 76 FR 56262 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Community Advantage Pilot Program (``CA Pilot Program'') (76 FR 9626). Pursuant to the authority provided to... small businesses and entrepreneurs in underserved markets, SBA is issuing this notice to revise...

  6. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered. PMID:26654988

  7. Electronic Recruiting: An Alternative with Many Advantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Mary J.; Woo, Tony Chi-Hung

    1989-01-01

    Discusses electronic recruiting, a process which enables employers to directly access computerized college student resume information via modem. Addresses such advantages as providing up-to-date student information and alleviating paperwork. Provides an example of this system. (BHK)

  8. Unique aspects of competitive weightlifting: performance, training and physiology.

    PubMed

    Storey, Adam; Smith, Heather K

    2012-09-01

    Weightlifting is a dynamic strength and power sport in which two, multijoint, whole-body lifts are performed in competition; the snatch and clean and jerk. During the performance of these lifts, weightlifters have achieved some of the highest absolute and relative peak power outputs reported in the literature. The training structure of competitive weightlifters is characterized by the frequent use of high-intensity resistance exercise movements. Varied coaching and training philosophies currently exist around the world and further research is required to substantiate the best type of training programme for male and female weightlifters of various age groups. As competitive weightlifting is contested over eight male and seven female body weight categories, the anthropometric characteristics of the athletes widely ranges. The body compositions of weightlifters are similar to that of athletes of comparable body mass in other strength and power sports. However, the shorter height and limb lengths of weightlifters provide mechanical advantages when lifting heavy loads by reducing the mechanical torque and the vertical distance that the barbell must be displaced. Furthermore, the shorter body dimensions coincide with a greater mean skeletal muscle cross-sectional area that is advantageous to weightlifting performance. Weightlifting training induces a high metabolic cost. Although dietary records demonstrate that weightlifters typically meet their required daily energy intake, weightlifters have been shown to over consume protein and fat at the expense of adequate carbohydrate. The resulting macronutrient imbalance may not yield optimal performance gains. Cross-sectional data suggest that weightlifting training induces type IIX to IIA fibre-type transformation. Furthermore, weightlifters exhibit hypertrophy of type II fibres that is advantageous to weightlifting performance and maximal force production. As such, the isometric peak force and contractile rate of force

  9. Achieving strategic cost advantages by focusing on back-office efficiency.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Jim

    2010-06-01

    A study of more than 270 hospitals over a four-year period highlighted a number of investments that can reduce hospitals' costs and improve efficiency, including the following: E-procurement systems. Electronic exchange of invoices and payments (and electronic receipt of payments). Human resources IT systems that reduce the need for manual entry of data. Shared services deployment. PMID:20533684

  10. Quasi-independence, fitness, and advantageousness.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    I argue that the idea of 'quasi-independence' [Lewontin, R. C. (1978). Adaptation. Scientific American, 239(3), 212-230] cannot be understood without attending to the distinction between fitness and advantageousness [Sober, E. (1993). Philosophy of biology. Boulder: Westview Press]. Natural selection increases the frequency of fitter traits, not necessarily of advantageous ones. A positive correlation between an advantageous trait and a disadvantageous one may prevent the advantageous trait from evolving. The quasi-independence criterion is aimed at specifying the conditions under which advantageous traits will evolve by natural selection in this type of situation. Contrary to what others have argued [Sterelny, K. (1992). Evolutionary explanations of human behavior. Australian Journal of Philosophy, 70(2), 156-172, and Sterelny, K., & Griffiths, P. (1999). Sex and death. Chicago: University of Chicago Press], these conditions must involve a precise quantitative measure of (a) the extent to which advantageous traits are beneficial, and (b) the degree to which they are correlated with other traits. Driscoll (2004) [Driscoll, C. (2004). Can behaviors be adaptations? Philosophy of Science, 71, 16-35] recognizes the need for such a measure, but I argue that she does not provide the correct formulation. The account of quasi-independence that I offer clarifies this point. PMID:19720331

  11. The Oilheat Manufacturers Associations Oilheat Advantages Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hedden, R.; Bately, J.E.

    1995-04-01

    The Oilheat Advantages Project is the Oilheat Manufacturers Association`s first project. It involves the creation and disseminaiton of the unified, well documented, compellingly packaged oilheat story. The project invovles three steps: the first step is to pull together all the existing data on the advantages of oilheat into a single, well documented engineering report. The second step will be to rewrite and package the technical document into a consumer piece and a scripted presentation supported with overheads, and to disseminate the information throughout the industry. The third step will be to fund new research to update existing information and discover new advantages of oilheat. This step will begin next year. The inforamtion will be packaged in the following formats: The Engineering Document. This will include all the technical information including the creditable third party sources for all the findings on the many advantages of oilheat; the Consumer Booklet. This summarizes all the findings in the Engineering Document in simple language with easy to understand illustrations and graphs; a series of single topic Statement Stuffers on each of the advantages; an Overhead Transparency-Supported Scripted Show that can be used by industry representatives for presentations to the general public, schools, civic groups, and service clubs; and the Periodic publication of updates to the Oilheat Advantages Study.

  12. The Role of Within-Host Competition for Coexistence in Multiparasitoid-Host Systems.

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Ellen; Pérez-Vila, Saleta; Etienne, Rampal S

    2016-01-01

    Multiparasitism (females of multiple species parasitizing the same host) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in parasitoids, yet the role of within-host competition has been mostly ignored in multiparasitoid-host models. Here we study the effect of varying the degree of competition at different life stages: competition over oviposition sites (between-adult competition) and larval competition over resources within the host (within-host competition). We adapt a Nicholson-Bailey model to allow for varying levels of between-adult competition (varying the overlap in species distributions) and within-host competition (varying the number of offspring that can successfully emerge from a host). Surprisingly, while stronger between-adult competition reduces coexistence, stronger within-host competition promotes it. Asymmetric between-adult competition (a fecundity difference between the two species) reduces coexistence when compared to symmetric competition; this can be counteracted by asymmetric within-host competition (within-host competitive advantage of the lower-fecundity species), but only when within-host competition is strong and the correlation between the parasitoids' distributions is intermediate. We discuss our results in the context of the interaction between two parasitoid species, Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti, which have strongly correlated distributions and high levels of multiparasitism in the field. We conclude that either low or asymmetric within-host competition is unlikely to explain their coexistence. PMID:27277402

  13. 2000 FIRST Robotics Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purman, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2000 FIRST Robotics competition. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  14. Competition for land

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

  15. The Relationship between Birth Order and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews some selected literature that reports higher academic achievement for first-borns and findings that large enough age gaps between siblings can offset first-born advantages in achievement. (Editor/SJL)

  16. Using Sustainable Development as a Competitive Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spearman, Pat

    Sustainable development reduces construction waste by 43%, generating 50% cost savings. Residential construction executives lacking adequate knowledge regarding the benefits of sustainable development practices are at a competitive disadvantage. Drawing from the diffusion of innovation theory, the purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore knowledge acquisition within the bounds of sustainable residential construction. The purposive sample size of 11 executive decision makers fulfilled the sample size requirements and enabled the extraction of meaningful data. Participants were members of the National Home Builders Association and had experience of a minimum of 5 years in residential construction. The research question addressed how to improve knowledge acquisition relating to the cost benefits of building green homes and increase the adoption rate of sustainable development among residential builders. Data were collected via semistructured telephone interviews, field observation, and document analysis. Transcribed data were validated via respondent validation, coded into 5 initial categories aligned to the focus of the research, then reduced to 3 interlocking themes of environment, competitive advantage, and marketing. Recommendations include developing comprehensive public policies, horizontal and vertical communications networks, and green banks to capitalize sustainable development programs to improve the diffusion of green innovation as a competitive advantage strategy. Business leaders could benefit from this data by integrating sustainable development practices into their business processes. Sustainable development reduces operational costs, increases competitive advantage for builders, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Implications for social change increase energy independence through conservation and developing a legislative policy template for comprehensive energy strategies. A comprehensive energy strategy promotes economic development

  17. Some problems with pro-competition reforms.

    PubMed

    Agich, G J; Begley, C E

    1985-01-01

    As the search for effective cost-containment policies continues, health care reform along pro-competition lines has gained considerable backing in the United States. By offering market competition to achieve allocational efficiency and vouchers and tax credits to achieve distributional equity, pro-competition reforms appear to satisfy what many believed were incommensurable goals. A critical review of this strategy reveals two practical difficulties, however. The first concerns the ambiguity arising from the proposals' reliance on the concept of equal access to some basic level of health care as its distributional objective and the second concerns the ethical dilemma arising from the proposals' reliance on physicians as rationers of health care. In considering the distributional goal of guaranteeing access to a basic minimum of health care, we argue that, despite its theoretical attractiveness, there exists no acceptable way of determining or justifying its content, and without a clear definition of the basic minimum there is no guarantee that any equity objective will be achieved under the pro-competition strategy. With regard to the use of physicians and other providers as society's gatekeepers, we point out that this role is in direct conflict with traditional responsibilities that patients expect providers to assume. Requiring doctors to ration services in response to market incentives may further erode the trust relationship between physicians and patients, and clearly puts the more seriously ill at a disadvantage. PMID:4059946

  18. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  19. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  20. Is There an Islamist Political Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Cammett, Melani; Luong, Pauline Jones

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread presumption that Islamists have an advantage over their opponents when it comes to generating mass appeal and winning elections. The question remains, however, as to whether these advantages—or, what we refer to collectively as an Islamist political advantage—actually exist. We argue that—to the extent that Islamists have a political advantage—the primary source of this advantage is reputation rather than the provision of social services, organizational capacity, or ideological hegemony. Our purpose is not to dismiss the main sources of the Islamist governance advantage identified in scholarly literature and media accounts, but to suggest a different causal path whereby each of these factors individually and sometimes jointly promotes a reputation for Islamists as competent, trustworthy, and pure. It is this reputation for good governance that enables Islamists to distinguish themselves in the streets and at the ballot box. PMID:25767370

  1. MIS silicon solar cells: potential advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Cheek, G.; Mertens, R.

    1981-05-01

    Recent progress with silicon solar cells based on the MIS or SIS structure is reviewed. To be competitive with pn junction technology in the near term, these cells must be much cheaper or have a higher efficiency in a production environment. Apparently, the minority carrier MIS cells have the greatest potential for large-scale applications. The data currently indicate that all types of MIS/SIS cells have some inherent instability problems.

  2. Supporting elderly homecare with smartwatches: advantages and drawbacks.

    PubMed

    Ehrler, Frederic; Lovis, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The demographic transition in industrialized countries leads to a growth of elderly population. This population is more prone to chronic diseases and puts an increasing pressure on the healthcare system. One way to reduce the cost associated to the support of this population is to improve its autonomy to keep it independent as long as possible. Many assistive technologies and environmental interventions can be implemented to achieve this goal. In this paper, we are looking at the advantages and drawbacks of smartwatches as a platform to support elderly at home. By doing a literature search and by performing expert interview, we have identified the advantages of this technology to insure the success of promising applications as well as the obstacles that should be gone beyond. Among the advantages, the ubiquity of smartwatches makes possible a continuous medical surveillance, harder to achieve with other devices. Moreover, the versatility of smartwatches provides an appropriate ground to implement a centralized platform providing multiples services facilitating elderly homecare. However, the physical constraints of the watches such as the tiny screen size, the small connectors and the limited power autonomy can be significant barriers to the adoption of these tools. In conclusion, beside the actual homecare system, improving the autonomy and the independence of elderly at home can be leveraged by a combination of environmental and assistive technologies. Smartwatches have definitively the potential to become close assistants to help elderly in their daily life. However, this will not be achieved without dedicating a significant effort in designing appropriate user interfaces and certainly dedicated hardware to respond to the constraints associated with potential physical and cognitive impairments. PMID:25160270

  3. Costs and benefits of competitive traits in females: aggression, maternal care and reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Cain, Kristal E; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that female expression of competitive traits can be advantageous, providing greater access to limited reproductive resources. In males increased competitive trait expression often comes at a cost, e.g. trading off with parental effort. However, it is currently unclear whether, and to what extent, females also face such tradeoffs, whether the costs associated with that tradeoff overwhelm the potential benefits of resource acquisition, and how environmental factors might alter those relationships. To address this gap, we examine the relationships between aggression, maternal effort, offspring quality and reproductive success in a common songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), over two breeding seasons. We found that compared to less aggressive females, more aggressive females spent less time brooding nestlings, but fed nestlings more frequently. In the year with better breeding conditions, more aggressive females produced smaller eggs and lighter hatchlings, but in the year with poorer breeding conditions they produced larger eggs and achieved greater nest success. There was no relationship between aggression and nestling mass after hatch day in either year. These findings suggest that though females appear to tradeoff competitive ability with some forms of maternal care, the costs may be less than previously thought. Further, the observed year effects suggest that costs and benefits vary according to environmental variables, which may help to account for variation in the level of trait expression. PMID:24204980

  4. Costs and Benefits of Competitive Traits in Females: Aggression, Maternal Care and Reproductive Success

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Kristal E.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that female expression of competitive traits can be advantageous, providing greater access to limited reproductive resources. In males increased competitive trait expression often comes at a cost, e.g. trading off with parental effort. However, it is currently unclear whether, and to what extent, females also face such tradeoffs, whether the costs associated with that tradeoff overwhelm the potential benefits of resource acquisition, and how environmental factors might alter those relationships. To address this gap, we examine the relationships between aggression, maternal effort, offspring quality and reproductive success in a common songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), over two breeding seasons. We found that compared to less aggressive females, more aggressive females spent less time brooding nestlings, but fed nestlings more frequently. In the year with better breeding conditions, more aggressive females produced smaller eggs and lighter hatchlings, but in the year with poorer breeding conditions they produced larger eggs and achieved greater nest success. There was no relationship between aggression and nestling mass after hatch day in either year. These findings suggest that though females appear to tradeoff competitive ability with some forms of maternal care, the costs may be less than previously thought. Further, the observed year effects suggest that costs and benefits vary according to environmental variables, which may help to account for variation in the level of trait expression. PMID:24204980

  5. 76 FR 9626 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... and members of the military community. The Community Advantage Pilot Program will allow mission... military community. This new pilot program will replace the current Community Express Pilot Loan Program, which has been extended through April 30, 2011. (75 FR 80561, December 22, 2010) No new...

  6. Advantages of Studying Processes in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    It is argued that learning and instruction could be conceptualized from a process-analytic perspective. Important questions from the field of learning and instruction are presented which can be answered using our approach of process analyses. A classification system of process concepts and methods is given. One main advantage of this kind of…

  7. Advancing Manufacturing Research Through Competitions

    SciTech Connect

    Balakirsky, Stephen; Madhavan, Raj

    2009-01-01

    Competitions provide a technique for building interest and collaboration in targeted research areas. This paper will present a new competition that aims to increase collaboration amongst Universities, automation end-users, and automation manufacturers through a virtual competition. The virtual nature of the competition allows for reduced infrastructure requirements while maintaining realism in both the robotic equipment deployed and the scenarios. Details of the virtual environment as well as the competitions objectives, rules, and scoring metrics will be presented.

  8. Utility competition and residential customers

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    Residential customers have found themselves either ignored or ill-used by the major participants in the struggle over utility competition. No group is seeking to secure them the benefits of competition, and those who oppose competition have curried their favor by conjuring up misleading horror stories about how competition would harm them. Yet residential customers ultimately stand to gain as much from competition as larger customers.

  9. Demography and language competition.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Anne

    2009-04-01

    Attempts to describe language competition and extinction in a mathematical way have enjoyed increased popularity recently. In this paper I review recent modeling approaches and, based on these findings, propose a model of reaction-diffusion type. I analyze the dynamics of interactions of a population with two monolingual groups and a group that is bilingual in these two languages. The results show that demographic factors, such as population growth or population dispersal, play an important role in the competition dynamic. Furthermore, I consider the impact of two strategies for language maintenance: adjusting the status of the endangered language and adjusting the availability of monolingual and bilingual educational resources. PMID:19943743

  10. Aboveground insect herbivory increases plant competitive asymmetry, while belowground herbivory mitigates the effect

    PubMed Central

    Strengbom, Joachim; Viketoft, Maria; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivores can shift the composition of a plant community, but the mechanism underlying such shifts remains largely unexplored. A possibility is that insects alter the competitive symmetry between plant species. The effect of herbivory on competition likely depends on whether the plants are subjected to aboveground or belowground herbivory or both, and also depends on soil nitrogen levels. It is unclear how these biotic and abiotic factors interactively affect competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we measured competition between two coexisting grass species that respond differently to nitrogen deposition: Dactylis glomerata L., which is competitively favoured by nitrogen addition, and Festuca rubra L., which is competitively favoured on nitrogen-poor soils. We predicted: (1) that aboveground herbivory would reduce competitive asymmetry at high soil nitrogen by reducing the competitive advantage of D. glomerata; and (2), that belowground herbivory would relax competition at low soil nitrogen, by reducing the competitive advantage of F. rubra. Aboveground herbivory caused a 46% decrease in the competitive ability of F. rubra, and a 23% increase in that of D. glomerata, thus increasing competitive asymmetry, independently of soil nitrogen level. Belowground herbivory did not affect competitive symmetry, but the combined influence of above- and belowground herbivory was weaker than predicted from their individual effects. Belowground herbivory thus mitigated the increased competitive asymmetry caused by aboveground herbivory. D. glomerata remained competitively dominant after the cessation of aboveground herbivory, showing that the influence of herbivory continued beyond the feeding period. We showed that insect herbivory can strongly influence plant competitive interactions. In our experimental plant community, aboveground insect herbivory increased the risk of competitive exclusion of F. rubra. Belowground herbivory appeared to mitigate the influence of

  11. Aboveground insect herbivory increases plant competitive asymmetry, while belowground herbivory mitigates the effect.

    PubMed

    Borgström, Pernilla; Strengbom, Joachim; Viketoft, Maria; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivores can shift the composition of a plant community, but the mechanism underlying such shifts remains largely unexplored. A possibility is that insects alter the competitive symmetry between plant species. The effect of herbivory on competition likely depends on whether the plants are subjected to aboveground or belowground herbivory or both, and also depends on soil nitrogen levels. It is unclear how these biotic and abiotic factors interactively affect competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we measured competition between two coexisting grass species that respond differently to nitrogen deposition: Dactylis glomerata L., which is competitively favoured by nitrogen addition, and Festuca rubra L., which is competitively favoured on nitrogen-poor soils. We predicted: (1) that aboveground herbivory would reduce competitive asymmetry at high soil nitrogen by reducing the competitive advantage of D. glomerata; and (2), that belowground herbivory would relax competition at low soil nitrogen, by reducing the competitive advantage of F. rubra. Aboveground herbivory caused a 46% decrease in the competitive ability of F. rubra, and a 23% increase in that of D. glomerata, thus increasing competitive asymmetry, independently of soil nitrogen level. Belowground herbivory did not affect competitive symmetry, but the combined influence of above- and belowground herbivory was weaker than predicted from their individual effects. Belowground herbivory thus mitigated the increased competitive asymmetry caused by aboveground herbivory. D. glomerata remained competitively dominant after the cessation of aboveground herbivory, showing that the influence of herbivory continued beyond the feeding period. We showed that insect herbivory can strongly influence plant competitive interactions. In our experimental plant community, aboveground insect herbivory increased the risk of competitive exclusion of F. rubra. Belowground herbivory appeared to mitigate the influence of

  12. A competition model for two CPU vendors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yinan; Zhang, J. W.

    2005-03-01

    In a severely competing economic environment, the competing ability of a company must be improved continuously as the reaction to the outer competition pressure. We propose a model developed from Lotka-Volterra competition model with time dependent parameters other than the equilibrium theory so as to describe some characteristics of the technology innovation. The time-dependent parameters comprise carrying capacities and competitive effects. We assume that the technological index is represented, in some degree, by the highest CPU clock frequency. We have quantitatively studied quarterly revenues of AMD and Intel, two chief vendors of the central processing unit (CPU). Moreover, we give the empirical values of the basic parameter set according to theoretical analysis and our simulation results fit the revenue data with reasonable agreement. It demonstrates that the model is capable of describing some important commercial phenomena in certain technology-leading industries. The technology innovation but not the strategy, is the crucial factor of competition, and the first-mover advantage will not be always unbroken. Furthermore, we have found that the unwilling mutualism appeared in the present model cannot be explained by the strategic behavior theory.

  13. "Perceived" Competition and Performance in Italian Secondary Schools: New Evidence from OECD-PISA 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Murtinu, Samuele

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of competition on the performance of Italian secondary schools as measured by maths achievement scores (PISA 2006 dataset). Competition is measured by an indicator of "perceived" competition (generated from an answer provided by the schools' principals). The methodology employed is a propensity score…

  14. Revising the Competitiveness Index using factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Houston, John; Harris, Paul; McIntire, Sandra; Francis, Dientje

    2002-02-01

    The Competitiveness Index is a 20-item true-false measure designed to assess the desire to win in interpersonal situations. To develop a more psychometrically sound form of the scale, 213 undergraduates were administered the original form and a modified version containing a 5-point Likert-type scale. An initial principal component analysis using a varimax rotation of the modified version yielded a four-factor solution accounting for 54.5% of the explained variance. Based on a subsequent reliability analysis. six items were dropped from the modified scale. A second analysis produced a two-factor solution accounting for 54.1% of the explained variance. Both factors (Enjoyment of Competition and Contentiousness) formed reliable subscales. The 14-item Revised Competitiveness Index had high internal consistency and was positively correlated with the original Competitiveness Index, the competitiveness subscales of the Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire, the Sports Orientation Questionnaire, and the Nach Naff measure of Need for Achievement. PMID:11899003

  15. Competition in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Daphne

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the strategy she adopted to even out the participation among her multicultural students during their classroom discussions. The author realized that her students had different concepts about the classroom and different philosophies about competition. For the Americans and Indians, the classroom was a site of…

  16. Human Resources Competitiveness Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    This report distills hundreds of indicators from both domestic and international sources to determine how the United States compares to other countries and to its own past performance in competitiveness. It attempts to establish a baseline of some key education and training indicators that, taken together, show where the nation stands and where it…

  17. Cost and competition

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.

    1994-11-01

    The growth of private power is part of the movement away from administrative regulation and toward competitive control of prices for electricity. Despite the substantial success of the private power industry, this process is far from complete. Utility regulators, who preside over the power purchase contracting process, are responsible for assuring that the prices which are presented to them for approval are reasonable.

  18. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  19. Building Camaraderie from Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Educational institutions have adopted athletics programs to promote character building. Sports help people feel comfortable in their skins and provide unique opportunities to develop qualities such as cooperation, perseverance, and the ability to cope with fear. But the arena can be a hothouse for more primal feelings that emerge in competition.…

  20. Television and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Roger G.

    The television industry is characterized by numerous imperfections in market competition. The spectrum allocation policy of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assures that there will be only three national television networks; consequently in nearly all markets these stations account for 75% to 100% of revenues. These networks in turn…

  1. Competitiveness and Campaign '88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan-Schloss, Adam, Ed.; And Others

    This report profiles the positions of the six Democratic and six Republican 1988 presidential candidates on policy issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in the global economy. Candidate profiles are provided for: Bruce Babbitt, Michael Dukakis, Richard Gephardt, Albert Gore, Jr., Jesse Jackson, and Paul Simon (Democrats); and George Bush, Robert…

  2. Competitiveness Index 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    The United States' economic performance in the world economy is compared with that of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom (the Summit 7 countries). Competitiveness is assessed by four economic indicators: standard of living, trade, manufacturing productivity, and investment. The United States continues to outinvest the…

  3. Competition in Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Discusses five ways (high school newspaper and yearbook advertising, summer jobs, internships, contests, and student-run advertising agencies) students can start to prepare for a career in the competitive field of advertising while still in high school and college. (SR)

  4. A Winning Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Kim; Franchini, Elease

    2012-01-01

    As a high school physics teacher, Kim Geddes is constantly searching for new experiences to challenge, motivate, and engage students. Last year, she incorporated ExploraVision into the energy unit of her school's physics curriculum with the help of their media specialist (Elease Franchini). ExploraVision is a competition offered through a…

  5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Cross Grade Level Collaboration to Improve Collegial Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Fidelia

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have connected student achievement to teacher collaboration; however, there is a paucity of studies conducted on how teachers use identified advantages and disadvantages of cross grade level collaboration to improve collegial interactions to achieve better student performance, professional development, teacher effectiveness, and job…

  6. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  7. What factors contribute to an ownership advantage?

    PubMed

    Fayed, S A; Jennions, M D; Backwell, P R Y

    2008-04-23

    In most taxa, owners win fights when defending a territory against intruders. We calculated effect sizes for four factors that potentially contribute to an 'owner advantage'. We studied male fiddler crabs Uca mjoebergi, where owners won 92% of natural fights. Owners were not more successful because they were inherently better fighters (r=0.02). There was a small effect (r=0.18) of the owner's knowledge of territory quality (food availability) and a medium effect (r=0.29) of his having established relations with neighbours (duration of active tenure), but neither was statistically significant. There was, however, a significant effect due to the mechanical advantage the owner gained through access to the burrow during fights (r=0.48, p<0.005). PMID:18089521

  8. Coating-removal techniques: Advantages and disadvantages

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, W.E.

    1994-07-01

    The removal of radioactive and nonradioactive coatings from various surfaces is a subject of increasing interest for a variety of reasons, including remaining life assessment, nondestructive evaluation of structural integrity, and life extension through the adoption of new surface-modification methods. This review summarizes the state of the art in coating-removal technologies, presenting their advantages and limitations. The methods covered include laser ablation, microwaves, flashlamps, ice, CO2, and plastic blast media.

  9. The oblique mastectomy incision: advantages and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gronet, Edward M; Halvorson, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Mastectomy has traditionally been performed using a transverse elliptical incision. The disadvantages of this approach are a potentially visible scar medially and poor subincisional soft-tissue coverage of implants laterally. A more natural and aesthetic result is obtained with an oblique incision running parallel to the pectoralis major muscle fibers. This approach offers women more freedom of choice in clothing as well as the potential for complete subincisional muscle coverage in alloplastic breast reconstruction, in addition to other functional advantages. PMID:24835870

  10. Sinus pericranii: advantages of MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Bigot, J L; Iacona, C; Lepreux, A; Dhellemmes, P; Motte, J; Gomes, H

    2000-10-01

    Sinus pericranii is a rare vascular anomaly involving an abnormal communication between the extracranial and intracranial circulations. A 3-year-old girl presented with a 2 x 2-cm, midline soft-tissue mass at the vertex. Plain skull films and CT using bone windows showed erosion of the parietal bones. MRI confirmed the clinical diagnosis by identifying communication of the vascular mass with the intracranial dural venous sinus. The advantages of MRI are discussed. PMID:11075608

  11. Advantages of polarization experiments at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    We point out various spin experiments that could be done if the polarized beam option is pursued at RHIC. The advantages of RHIC for investigating several current and future physics problems are discussed. In particular, the gluon spin dependent structure function of the nucleon could be measured cleanly and systematically. Relevant experience developed in conjunction with the Fermilab Polarized Beam program is also presented. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Detection advantages of spatial oversampling in imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jerry A.; Caulfield, John T.; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2013-09-01

    Cyan Systems has recently developed an approach to focal plane assembly (FPA) architecture which represent a significant advancement in information extraction from the data as it is being collected. This approach utilizes sub-pixels which achieve a high degree of oversampling of the sensors Point Spread Function (PSF), well beyond the Nyquist limit for a critically sampled sensor. The data contained in an oversampled image has the obvious advantage of readily discriminating between focal plane and object generated artifacts as the first step in false alarm rejection. This effect is particularly useful at identification of radiation events. However there are further advantages that can be exploited through nearest neighbor subpixel correlation, and pooling that achieves significant noise reduction and therefore improved sensitivity. In Cyan's architecture these processes are accomplished for the first time at the input to the preamp in the ROIC. This approach not only allows improved fidelity in imaging, but further reduces false alarm rates, improves detection ranges, and demonstrates an improved ability to track closely spaced objects. The small pixels that enable this approach also ensure improved radiation hardness reducing the capture cross section. The architecture has been modeled and simulations run which illustrate the dramatic improvements possible.

  13. Advantageous effect of theanine intake on cognition.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairment of recognition memory, the advantageous effect of theanine intake on recognition memory was examined in young rats, which were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning. The rats were subjected to object recognition test. Object recognition memory was maintained in theanine-administered rats 48 hours after the training, but not in the control rats. When in vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced, it was more greatly induced in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and nerve growth factor in the hippocampus were significantly higher in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The present study indicates the advantageous effect of theanine intake after weaning on recognition memory. It is likely that theanine intake is of advantage to the development of hippocampal function after weaning. PMID:24621060

  14. Strategic focus. A game plan for collaboration in a competitive marketplace.

    PubMed

    Tweed, S C

    1993-10-01

    How can home care agencies brace for the coming changes and not only survive health care reform, but thrive in it? Collaboration is an effective tool for gaining competitive advantage in the marketplace. PMID:10129037

  15. Control of innovation activity in a competitive metallurgical business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, S. V.

    2010-12-01

    Certain competitive advantages of a manufacturer on a goods market can be provided if one creates conditions for bifurcation development of an innovation process in metallurgical business under conditions of market uncertainty of a demand for goods of a specified consumer quality and determines the technical-and-economic versions of stable operation of a production system for performing orders of metal product consumers.

  16. The half-truth of first-mover advantage.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Fernando; Lanzolla, Gianvito

    2005-04-01

    Many executives take for granted that the first company in a new product category gets an unbeatable head start and reaps long-lasting benefits. But that doesn't always happen. The authors of this article discovered that much depends on the pace at which the category's technology is changing and the speed at which the market is evolving. By analyzing these two factors, companies can improve their odds of succeeding as first movers with the resources they possess. Gradual evolution in both the technology and the market provides a first mover with the best conditions for creating a dominant position that is long lasting (Hoover in the vacuum cleaner industry is a good example). In such calm waters, a company can defend its advantages even without exceptional skills or extensive financial resources. When the market is changing rapidly and the product isn't, a first entrant with extensive resources can obtain a long-lasting advantage (as Sony did with its Walkman personal stereo); a company with only limited resources probably must settle for a short-term benefit. When the market is static but the product is changing constantly, first-mover advantages of either kind--durable or short-lived--are unlikely. Only companies with very deep pockets can survive (think of Sony and the digital cameras it pioneered). Rapid churn in both the technology and the market creates the worst conditions. But if companies have an acute sense of when to exit-as Netscape demonstrated when it agreed to be acquired by AOL-a worthwhile short-term gain is possible. Before venturing into a newly forming market, you need to analyze the environment, assess your resources, then determine which type offirst-mover advantage is most achievable. Once you've gone into the water, you have no choice but to swim. PMID:15807045

  17. Strengths and limitations of competitive versus non-competitive models of integrated capitated fundholding.

    PubMed

    Segal, Leonie; Donato, Ron; Richardson, Jeffrey; Peacock, Stuart

    2002-07-01

    Integrated budget-holding (fundholding) based on risk-adjusted capitation is commonly proposed as a central element of health system reform. Two contrasting models have been developed: the competitive model where fundholders or health plans compete for enrollees; and the non-competitive model, where plan membership is determined according to an objective attribute such as place of residence. Under the competitive model, efficiency is sought through consumer choice of plan. A range of regulatory elements may also be introduced to moderate undesirable elements of competition. Under the non-competitive model, efficiency is achieved through government regulation and the fact that the fundholder has continuing responsibility for the health of a defined population, supported by micro-management tools (such as quality assurance and selective payment arrangements). In theory, the non-competitive model encourages population-based health services planning. While both models assume risk-adjusted capitated funding, the requirements of any formula are more stringent under the competitive model. Economic theory, as well as documented health system experience, can help identify the relative strengths and limitations of each model. Concerns with the competitive model relate primarily to the capacity to develop robust risk adjusters for capitation sufficient to reduce the incentives for patient risk selection. Possible reductions in the quality of care are also a concern, compounded by difficulties for consumers in discriminating between plans. Efficiency under the non-competitive model requires a strong and appropriate regulatory/policy framework and effective use of micro-management tools. Funding equity objectives can be met through either model by the adoption of income-related contributions, but under the competitive model this may be compromised by incentives for the fundholders to select low-risk patients. Evidence drawn from regional fundholding in New South Wales (NSW

  18. Sequence of host contact influences the outcome of competition among Aspergillus flavus isolates during host tissue invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus is achieved by competitive exclusion of aflatoxin producers by atoxigenic strains. However, factors dictating the extent to which competitive displacement occurs during host infection are unknown. The role of preemptive exclusion in...

  19. Demolishing the competition: the longitudinal link between competitive video games, competitive gambling, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-07-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship between video game competition and aggression. In addition, if competition in video games is a significant reason for the link between video game play and aggression, then other competitive activities, such as competitive gambling, also may predict aggression over time. In the current study, we directly assessed the socialization (competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8 % female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play, gambling, and aggressive behaviors. Greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. The selection hypothesis also was supported, as aggression predicted greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time, after controlling for previous competitive video game play and competitive gambling. Our findings, taken together with the fact that millions of adolescents play competitive video games every day and that competitive gambling may increase as adolescents transition into adulthood, highlight the need for a greater understanding of the relationship between competition and aggression. PMID:23595418

  20. Lunabotics Mining Competition: Inspiration Through Accomplishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Lunabotics Mining Competition is designed to promote the development of interest in space activities and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields. The competition uses excavation, a necessary first step towards extracting resources from the regolith and building bases on the moon. The unique physical properties of lunar regolith and the reduced 1/6th gravity, vacuum environment make excavation a difficult technical challenge. Advances in lunar regolith mining have the potential to significantly contribute to our nation's space vision and NASA space exploration operations. The competition is conducted annually by NASA at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The teams that can use telerobotic or autonomous operation to excavate a lunar regolith geotechnical simulant, herein after referred to as Black Point-1 (or BP-1) and score the most points (calculated as an average of two separate 10-minute timed competition attempts) will eam points towards the Joe Kosmo Award for Excellence and the scores will reflect ranking in the on-site mining category of the competition. The minimum excavation requirement is 10.0 kg during each competition attempt and the robotic excavator, referred to as the "Lunabot", must meet all specifications. This paper will review the achievements of the Lunabotics Mining Competition in 2010 and 2011, and present the new rules for 2012. By providing a framework for robotic design and fabrication, which culminates in a live competition event, university students have been able to produce sophisticated lunabots which are tele-operated. Multi-disciplinary teams are encouraged and the extreme sense of accomplishment provides a unique source of inspiration to the participating students, which has been shown to translate into increased interest in STEM careers. Our industrial sponsors (Caterpillar, Newmont Mining, Harris, Honeybee Robotics) have all stated that there is a strong need for skills in the workforce related

  1. Cost reduction advantages of CAD/CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, G. T.

    1983-05-01

    Features of the CAD/CAM system implemented at the General Dynamics Convair division are summarized. CAD/CAM was initiated in 1976 to enhance engineering, manufacturing and quality assurance and thereby the company's competitive bidding position. Numerical models are substituted for hardware models wherever possible and numerical criteria are defined in design for guiding computer-controlled parts manufacturing machines. The system comprises multiple terminals, a data base, digitizer, printers, disk and tape drives, and graphics displays. The applications include the design and manufacture of parts and components for avionics, structures, scientific investigations, and aircraft structural components. Interfaces with other computers allow structural analyses by finite element codes. Although time savings have not been gained compared to manual drafting, components of greater complexity than could have been designed by hand have been designed and manufactured.

  2. Single elimination competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, T. M. A.; Coe, J. B.; Ahnert, S. E.

    2008-09-01

    We study a simple model of competition in which each player has a fixed strength: randomly selected pairs of players compete, the stronger one wins and the loser is eliminated. We show that the best indicator of future success is not the number of wins but a player's wealth: the accumulated wealth of all defeated players. We calculate the distributions of strength and wealth for two versions of the problem: in the first, the loser is replaced; in the second, the loser is not. The probability of attaining a given wealth is shown to be path-independent. We illustrate our model with the popular game of conkers and discuss an extension to round-robin sports competition.

  3. Designing Competitive Service Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Veronica; Turner, Trevor

    The explosives developed in Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth ­century by the famous Swede and patron of the world peace prize, Alfred Nobel, were extremely durable and, apart from the introduction of the electric detonator, have remained in use with minor modifications for almost a century (Fig. 5.1a). In the 1970s a new invention started a process of change that has transformed the explosives business from being a supplier of products to a provider of a service. Survival very much depended on the agility of ICI Explosives UK, hereinafter referred to as "ICI Explosives," in adapting to the new competitive environment. Manufacturing excellence was not a solution. Innovative thinking was required to sustain the ­business as changes in technology reduced the complexity that had ­protected the business from serious competition for over a century.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of the Use of Competitive Intelligence Tools in a Multinational Corporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breese-Vitelli, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    With the growth of the global economy, organizations large and small are increasingly recognizing that competitive intelligence (CI) is essential to compete in industry. Competitive intelligence is used to gain an advantage in commerce and is useful for analyzing a company's strategic industry position. To remain current and profitable,…

  5. MIMO transmit scheme based on morphological perceptron with competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Valente, Raul Ambrozio; Abrão, Taufik

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a new multi-input multi-output (MIMO) transmit scheme aided by artificial neural network (ANN). The morphological perceptron with competitive learning (MP/CL) concept is deployed as a decision rule in the MIMO detection stage. The proposed MIMO transmission scheme is able to achieve double spectral efficiency; hence, in each time-slot the receiver decodes two symbols at a time instead one as Alamouti scheme. Other advantage of the proposed transmit scheme with MP/CL-aided detector is its polynomial complexity according to modulation order, while it becomes linear when the data stream length is greater than modulation order. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared to the traditional MIMO schemes, namely Alamouti scheme and maximum-likelihood MIMO (ML-MIMO) detector. Also, the proposed scheme is evaluated in a scenario with variable channel information along the frame. Numerical results have shown that the diversity gain under space-time coding Alamouti scheme is partially lost, which slightly reduces the bit-error rate (BER) performance of the proposed MP/CL-NN MIMO scheme. PMID:27135805

  6. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  7. Competition for finite resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, L. Jonathan; Zia, R. K. P.

    2012-05-01

    The resources in a cell are finite, which implies that the various components of the cell must compete for resources. One such resource is the ribosomes used during translation to create proteins. Motivated by this example, we explore this competition by connecting two totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) to a finite pool of particles. Expanding on our previous work, we focus on the effects on the density and current of having different entry and exit rates.

  8. Enforced Clonality Confers a Fitness Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Martínková, Jana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    In largely clonal plants, splitting of a maternal plant into potentially independent plants (ramets) is usually spontaneous; however, such fragmentation also occurs in otherwise non-clonal species due to application of external force. This process might play an important yet largely overlooked role for otherwise non-clonal plants by providing a mechanism to regenerate after disturbance. Here, in a 5-year garden experiment on two short-lived, otherwise non-clonal species, Barbarea vulgaris and Barbarea stricta, we compared the fitness of plants fragmented by simulated disturbance (“enforced ramets”) both with plants that contemporaneously originate in seed and with individuals unscathed by the disturbance event. Because the ability to regrow from fragments is related to plant age and stored reserves, we compared the effects of disturbance applied during three different ontogenetic stages of the plants. In B. vulgaris, enforced ramet fitness was higher than the measured fitness values of both uninjured plants and plants established from seed after the disturbance. This advantage decreased with increasing plant age at the time of fragmentation. In B. stricta, enforced ramet fitness was lower than or similar to fitness of uninjured plants and plants grown from seed. Our results likely reflect the habitat preferences of the study species, as B. vulgaris occurs in anthropogenic, disturbed habitats where body fragmentation is more probable and enforced clonality thus more advantageous than in the more natural habitats preferred by B. stricta. Generalizing from our results, we see that increased fitness yielded by enforced clonality would confer an evolutionary advantage in the face of disturbance, especially in habitats where a seed bank has not been formed, e.g., during invasion or colonization. Our results thus imply that enforced clonality should be taken into account when studying population dynamics and life strategies of otherwise non-clonal species in disturbed

  9. Advantages of semiconductor CZT for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Parnham, Kevin; Sundal, Bjorn; Maehlum, Gunnar; Chowdhury, Samir; Meier, Dirk; Vandehei, Thor; Szawlowski, Marek; Patt, Bradley E.

    2007-09-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, or CZT) is a room-temperature semiconductor radiation detector that has been developed in recent years for a variety of applications. CZT has been investigated for many potential uses in medical imaging, especially in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). CZT can also be used in positron emission tomography (PET) as well as photon-counting and integration-mode x-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT). The principal advantages of CZT are 1) direct conversion of x-ray or gamma-ray energy into electron-hole pairs; 2) energy resolution; 3) high spatial resolution and hence high space-bandwidth product; 4) room temperature operation, stable performance, high density, and small volume; 5) depth-of-interaction (DOI) available through signal processing. These advantages will be described in detail with examples from our own CZT systems. The ability to operate at room temperature, combined with DOI and very small pixels, make the use of multiple, stationary CZT "mini-gamma cameras" a realistic alternative to today's large Anger-type cameras that require motion to obtain tomographic sampling. The compatibility of CZT with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-fields is demonstrated for a new type of multi-modality medical imaging, namely SPECT/MRI. For pre-clinical (i.e., laboratory animal) imaging, the advantages of CZT lie in spatial and energy resolution, small volume, automated quality control, and the potential for DOI for parallax removal in pinhole imaging. For clinical imaging, the imaging of radiographically dense breasts with CZT enables scatter rejection and hence improved contrast. Examples of clinical breast images with a dual-head CZT system are shown.

  10. Ghost ileostomy: real and potential advantages.

    PubMed

    Miccini, Michelangelo; Amore Bonapasta, Stefano; Gregori, Matteo; Barillari, Paolo; Tocchi, Adriano

    2010-10-01

    Loop ileostomy is created to minimize the clinical impact of colorectal anastomotic leak. However, a lot of complications may be associated with ileostomy presence and with its reversal. Moreover, patients hardly accept the quality of life resulting from ileostomy. We describe a simple technique (ghost ileostomy) to combine all the advantages of a disposable ileostomy without entailing its complications in patients submitted to low rectal resection. In case of uneventful postoperative course, the ghost ileostomy prevents all complications related to defunctioning ileostomy. At the same time, in case of anastomotic leakage, the ghost ileostomy is easily and safely converted into a defunctioning ileostomy. PMID:20887836

  11. A nonlinear competitive model of the prostate tumor growth under intermittent androgen suppression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Tong-Jun; Yuan, Chang-Qing; Xie, Jing-Hui; Hao, Fang-Fang

    2016-09-01

    Hormone suppression has been the primary modality of treatment for prostate cancer. However long-term androgen deprivation may induce androgen-independent (AI) recurrence. Intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) is a potential way to delay or avoid the AI relapse. Mathematical models of tumor growth and treatment are simple while they are capable of capturing the essence of complicated interactions. Game theory models have analyzed that tumor cells can enhance their fitness by adopting genetically determined survival strategies. In this paper, we consider the survival strategies as the competitive advantage of tumor cells and propose a new model to mimic the prostate tumor growth in IAS therapy. Then we investigate the competition effect in tumor development by numerical simulations. The results indicate that successfully IAS-controlled states can be achieved even though the net growth rate of AI cells is positive for any androgen level. There is crucial difference between the previous models and the new one in the phase diagram of successful and unsuccessful tumor control by IAS administration, which means that the suggestions from the models for medication can be different. Furthermore we introduce quadratic logistic terms to the competition model to simulate the tumor growth in the environment with a finite carrying capacity considering the nutrients or inhibitors. The simulations show that the tumor growth can reach an equilibrium state or an oscillatory state with the net growth rate of AI cells being androgen independent. Our results suggest that the competition and the restraint of a limited environment can enhance the possibility of relapse prevention. PMID:27259386

  12. Competitive market for multiple firms and economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yong

    2010-09-01

    The origin of economic crises is a key problem for economics. We present a model of long-run competitive markets to show that the multiplicity of behaviors in an economic system, over a long time scale, emerge as statistical regularities (perfectly competitive markets obey Bose-Einstein statistics and purely monopolistic-competitive markets obey Boltzmann statistics) and that how interaction among firms influences the evolutionary of competitive markets. It has been widely accepted that perfect competition is most efficient. Our study shows that the perfectly competitive system, as an extreme case of competitive markets, is most efficient but not stable, and gives rise to economic crises as society reaches full employment. In the economic crisis revealed by our model, many firms condense (collapse) into the lowest supply level (zero supply, namely, bankruptcy status), in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. This curious phenomenon arises because perfect competition (homogeneous competitions) equals symmetric (indistinguishable) investment direction, a fact abhorred by nature. Therefore, we urge the promotion of monopolistic competition (heterogeneous competitions) rather than perfect competition. To provide early warning of economic crises, we introduce a resolving index of investment, which approaches zero in the run-up to an economic crisis. On the other hand, our model discloses, as a profound conclusion, that the technological level for a long-run social or economic system is proportional to the freedom (disorder) of this system; in other words, technology equals the entropy of system. As an application of this concept, we give a possible answer to the Needham question: “Why was it that despite the immense achievements of traditional China it had been in Europe and not in China that the scientific and industrial revolutions occurred?”

  13. Competitive market for multiple firms and economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong

    2010-09-01

    The origin of economic crises is a key problem for economics. We present a model of long-run competitive markets to show that the multiplicity of behaviors in an economic system, over a long time scale, emerge as statistical regularities (perfectly competitive markets obey Bose-Einstein statistics and purely monopolistic-competitive markets obey Boltzmann statistics) and that how interaction among firms influences the evolutionary of competitive markets. It has been widely accepted that perfect competition is most efficient. Our study shows that the perfectly competitive system, as an extreme case of competitive markets, is most efficient but not stable, and gives rise to economic crises as society reaches full employment. In the economic crisis revealed by our model, many firms condense (collapse) into the lowest supply level (zero supply, namely, bankruptcy status), in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. This curious phenomenon arises because perfect competition (homogeneous competitions) equals symmetric (indistinguishable) investment direction, a fact abhorred by nature. Therefore, we urge the promotion of monopolistic competition (heterogeneous competitions) rather than perfect competition. To provide early warning of economic crises, we introduce a resolving index of investment, which approaches zero in the run-up to an economic crisis. On the other hand, our model discloses, as a profound conclusion, that the technological level for a long-run social or economic system is proportional to the freedom (disorder) of this system; in other words, technology equals the entropy of system. As an application of this concept, we give a possible answer to the Needham question: "Why was it that despite the immense achievements of traditional China it had been in Europe and not in China that the scientific and industrial revolutions occurred?" PMID:21230150

  14. Advantages and limitations of common testing methods for antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Amorati, R; Valgimigli, L

    2015-05-01

    Owing to the importance of antioxidants in the protection of both natural and man-made materials, a large variety of testing methods have been proposed and applied. These include methods based on inhibited autoxidation studies, which are better followed by monitoring the kinetics of oxygen consumption or of the formation of hydroperoxides, the primary oxidation products. Analytical determination of secondary oxidation products (e.g. carbonyl compounds) has also been used. The majority of testing methods, however, do not involve substrate autoxidation. They are based on the competitive bleaching of a probe (e.g. ORAC assay, β-carotene, crocin bleaching assays, and luminol assay), on reaction with a different probe (e.g. spin-trapping and TOSC assay), or they are indirect methods based on the reduction of persistent radicals (e.g. galvinoxyl, DPPH and TEAC assays), or of inorganic oxidizing species (e.g. FRAP, CUPRAC and Folin-Ciocalteu assays). Yet other methods are specific for preventive antioxidants. The relevance, advantages, and limitations of these methods are critically discussed, with respect to their chemistry and the mechanisms of antioxidant activity. A variety of cell-based assays have also been proposed, to investigate the biological activity of antioxidants. Their importance and critical aspects are discussed, along with arguments for the selection of the appropriate testing methods according to the different needs. PMID:25511471

  15. 2015: Rural Medicare Advantage Enrollment Update.

    PubMed

    Finegan, Chance; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2015-07-01

    Key Findings. (1) Rural enrollment in Medicare Advantage (MA) and other prepaid plans increased by 6.8 percent between March 2014 and March 2015 to 2.1 million members, or 21.2 percent of all rural residents eligible for Medicare. This compares to a national enrollment in MA and other prepaid plans of 31.1 percent (16.7 million) of enrollees. (2) Rural enrollment in Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) plans (including point-of-service, or POS, plans), Preferred Provider Organization (PP0) plans, and other pre-paid plans (including Medicare Cost and Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly Plans) all increased by 5-13 percent. (3) Enrollment in private fee-for-service (PFFS) plans continued to decline (decreasing nationally by 15.8 percent and 12.1 percent in rural counties over the period March 2014-2015). Only eight states showed an increase in PFFS plan enrollment. Five states experienced decreases of 50 percent or more. (4) The five states with the highest percentages of rural beneficiaries enrolled in a Medicare Advantage plan are Minnesota (51.8 percent), Hawaii (39.4 percent), Pennsylvania (36.2 percent), Wisconsin (35.5 percent), and New York (31.5 percent). PMID:26793818

  16. The fitness advantage of commercial wine yeasts in relation to the nitrogen concentration, temperature, and ethanol content under microvinification conditions.

    PubMed

    García-Ríos, Estéfani; Gutiérrez, Alicia; Salvadó, Zoel; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé; Guillamon, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the main environmental factors governing wine fermentation on the fitness of industrial yeast strains has barely received attention. In this study, we used the concept of fitness advantage to measure how increasing nitrogen concentrations (0 to 200 mg N/liter), ethanol (0 to 20%), and temperature (4 to 45°C) affects competition among four commercial wine yeast strains (PDM, ARM, RVA, and TTA). We used a mathematical approach to model the hypothetical time needed for the control strain (PDM) to out-compete the other three strains in a theoretical mixed population. The theoretical values obtained were subsequently verified by competitive mixed fermentations in both synthetic and natural musts, which showed a good fit between the theoretical and experimental data. Specifically, the data show that the increase in nitrogen concentration and temperature values improved the fitness advantage of the PDM strain, whereas the presence of ethanol significantly reduced its competitiveness. However, the RVA strain proved to be the most competitive yeast for the three enological parameters assayed. The study of the fitness of these industrial strains is of paramount interest for the wine industry, which uses them as starters of their fermentations. Here, we propose a very simple method to model the fitness advantage, which allows the prediction of the competitiveness of one strain with respect to different abiotic factors. PMID:24242239

  17. The Fitness Advantage of Commercial Wine Yeasts in Relation to the Nitrogen Concentration, Temperature, and Ethanol Content under Microvinification Conditions

    PubMed Central

    García-Ríos, Estéfani; Gutiérrez, Alicia; Salvadó, Zoel; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the main environmental factors governing wine fermentation on the fitness of industrial yeast strains has barely received attention. In this study, we used the concept of fitness advantage to measure how increasing nitrogen concentrations (0 to 200 mg N/liter), ethanol (0 to 20%), and temperature (4 to 45°C) affects competition among four commercial wine yeast strains (PDM, ARM, RVA, and TTA). We used a mathematical approach to model the hypothetical time needed for the control strain (PDM) to out-compete the other three strains in a theoretical mixed population. The theoretical values obtained were subsequently verified by competitive mixed fermentations in both synthetic and natural musts, which showed a good fit between the theoretical and experimental data. Specifically, the data show that the increase in nitrogen concentration and temperature values improved the fitness advantage of the PDM strain, whereas the presence of ethanol significantly reduced its competitiveness. However, the RVA strain proved to be the most competitive yeast for the three enological parameters assayed. The study of the fitness of these industrial strains is of paramount interest for the wine industry, which uses them as starters of their fermentations. Here, we propose a very simple method to model the fitness advantage, which allows the prediction of the competitiveness of one strain with respect to different abiotic factors. PMID:24242239

  18. DNA fingerprinting to determine paternity in laboratory rat sperm competition experiments.

    PubMed

    Shimmin, G A; Sofronidis, G; Bowden, D K; Temple-Smith, P D

    1995-09-01

    Prior to this study a significant amount of research had been undertaken in the field of sperm competition in mammals. However, males of different strains have been required in each of these studies to enable paternity assignment through gene expression, which has consequently resulted in problems with differential fertilising capacity being encountered. In this study paternity assignment of progeny from sperm competition experiments with Sprague Dawley rats was achieved by multilocus DNA fingerprinting using band locus matching of individual specific banding patterns between progeny and parents. Trials with 4 restriction enzymes and 5 digoxygenin labelled probes (4 oligonucleotide and 1 cloned) achieved the highest levels of DNA fingerprint heterozygosity using AluI(CAC)5 and HinfI(CAC)5 combinations; however, paternity could not be determined in all offspring, due to a higher than expected degree of inbreeding within the rat population used in this study. This was demonstrated in subsequent comparisons of genetic diversity of three laboratory rat breeding populations from two different animal breeding facilities. Data from the rat mating study showed that, under conditions of direct sperm competition, second males given access to a mated oestrus female either 0.5 or 6.0 h after the first mating consistently required less time than the first to ejaculate: 7.6 min vs. 19.5 min (0.5 h delay ); 7.8 min vs. 19.5 min (6.0 h delay). A second males siring advantage was identified using DNA fingerprinting in both delay groups for those offspring on which paternity could be determined: 0.5 h delay, 1st = 39%, 2nd = 61%; 6 h delay, 1st = 34%, 2nd = 66%. PMID:8582346

  19. Closing the Achievement Gap: Four States' Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixom, Micah Ann

    2015-01-01

    The achievement gap separating economically disadvantaged students from their more advantaged peers disproportionately affects students of color and has been the focus of discussion, research and controversy for more than 40 years. While the gap between black and white students narrowed considerably from the 1950s to the 1980s, that gap has…

  20. Educational Opportunity Is Achievable and Affordable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebell, Michael A.; Wolff, Jessica R.

    2012-01-01

    Raising academic standards while eliminating achievement gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged students are among America's primary national educational goals. According to a growing body of research, America will attain its goals of equity and preparing students to function effectively as citizens and productive workers only through a…

  1. Within-host competition determines reproductive success of temperate bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Refardt, Dominik

    2011-09-01

    Within-host competition between parasites is frequently invoked as a major force for parasite evolution, yet quantitative studies on its extent in an organismal group are lacking. Temperate bacteriophages are diverse and abundant parasites of bacteria, distinguished by their ability to enter a facultative dormant state in their host. Bacteria can accumulate multiple phages that may eventually abandon dormancy in response to host stress. Host resources are then converted into phage particles, whose release requires cell death. To study within-host competition between phages, I used the bacterium Escherichia coli and 11 lambdoid phages to construct single and double lysogens. Lysogenic bacterial cultures were then induced and time to host cell lysis and productivity of phages was measured. In double lysogens, this revealed strong competitive interactions as in all cases productivity of at least one phage declined. The outcome of within-host competition was often asymmetrical, and phages were found to vary hierarchically in within-host competitive ability. In double infections, the phage with the shorter lysis time determined the timing of cell lysis, which was associated with a competitive advantage when time differences were large. The results emphasize that within-host competition greatly affects phage fitness and that multiple infections should be considered an integral part of bacteriophage ecology. PMID:21412345

  2. Gender verification in competitive sports.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J L; Ljungqvist, A; de la Chapelle, A; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Genel, M; Carlson, A S; Ehrhardt, A A; Ferris, E

    1993-11-01

    The possibility that men might masquerade as women and be unfair competitors in women's sports is accepted as outrageous by athletes and the public alike. Since the 1930s, media reports have fuelled claims that individuals who once competed as female athletes subsequently appeared to be men. In most of these cases there was probably ambiguity of the external genitalia, possibly as a result of male pseudohermaphroditism. Nonetheless, beginning at the Rome Olympic Games in 1960, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) began establishing rules of eligibility for women athletes. Initially, physical examination was used as a method for gender verification, but this plan was widely resented. Thus, sex chromatin testing (buccal smear) was introduced at the Mexico City Olympic Games in 1968. The principle was that genetic females (46,XX) show a single X-chromatic mass, whereas males (46,XY) do not. Unfortunately, sex chromatin analysis fell out of common diagnostic use by geneticists shortly after the International Olympic Committee (IOC) began its implementation for gender verification. The lack of laboratories routinely performing the test aggravated the problem of errors in interpretation by inexperienced workers, yielding false-positive and false-negative results. However, an even greater problem is that there exist phenotypic females with male sex chromatin patterns (e.g. androgen insensitivity, XY gonadal dysgenesis). These individuals have no athletic advantage as a result of their congenital abnormality and reasonably should not be excluded from competition. That is, only the chromosomal (genetic) sex is analysed by sex chromatin testing, not the anatomical or psychosocial status. For all the above reasons sex chromatin testing unfairly excludes many athletes. Although the IOC offered follow-up physical examinations that could have restored eligibility for those 'failing' sex chromatin tests, most affected athletes seemed to prefer to 'retire'. All

  3. Practices of Weight Regulation Among Elite Athletes in Combat Sports: A Matter of Mental Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Context The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. Objective To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Design Qualitative study. Setting With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Patients or Other Participants Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Data Collection and Analysis Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Results Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete.” Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Conclusions Weight regulation has mentally important functions

  4. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  5. The Advantages of a Tapered Whisker

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher M.; Kramer, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers) in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker), and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals. PMID:20098714

  6. Provable quantum advantage in randomness processing.

    PubMed

    Dale, Howard; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Quantum advantage is notoriously hard to find and even harder to prove. For example the class of functions computable with classical physics exactly coincides with the class computable quantum mechanically. It is strongly believed, but not proven, that quantum computing provides exponential speed-up for a range of problems, such as factoring. Here we address a computational scenario of randomness processing in which quantum theory provably yields, not only resource reduction over classical stochastic physics, but a strictly larger class of problems which can be solved. Beyond new foundational insights into the nature and malleability of randomness, and the distinction between quantum and classical information, these results also offer the potential of developing classically intractable simulations with currently accessible quantum technologies. PMID:26381816

  7. The advantages of a tapered whisker.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher M; Kramer, Eric M

    2010-01-01

    The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers) in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker), and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals. PMID:20098714

  8. Advantages and Challenges of Superconducting Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischel, Detlef

    After a short review of the history toward high-energy superconducting (SC) accelerators for ion beam therapy (IBT), an overview is given on material properties and technical developments enabling to use SC components in a medical accelerator for full body cancer treatment. The design concept and the assembly of a commercially available SC cyclotron for proton therapy (PT) are described and the potential advantages for applying superconductivity are assessed. The discussion includes the first years of operation experience with regard to cryogenic and magnetic performance, automated beam control, and maintenance aspects. An outlook is given on alternative machine concepts for protons-only or for heavier ions. Finally, it is discussed whether the application of superconductivity might be expanded in the future to a broader range of subsystems of clinical IBT accelerators such as SC magnets for transfer beam lines or gantries.

  9. Ultraspectral imaging and the snapshot advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Gupta Roy, Subharup; Pantalone, Brett; Maione, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    Ultraspectral sensing has been investigated as a way to resolve terrestrial chemical fluorescence within solar Fraunhofer lines. Referred to as Fraunhofer Line Discriminators (FLDs), these sensors attempt to measure "band filling" of terrestrial fluorescence within these naturally dark regions of the spectrum. However, the method has challenging signal to noise ratio limitations due to the low fluorescence emission signal of the target, which is exacerbated by the high spectral resolution required by the sensor (<0.1 nm). To now, many Fraunhofer line discriminators have been scanning sensors; either pushbroom or whiskbroom, which require temporal and/or spatial scanning to acquire an image. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the snapshot throughput advantage in ultraspectral imaging for FLD. This is followed by preliminary results of our snapshot FLD sensor. The system has a spatial resolution of 280x280 pixels and a spectral resolving power of approximately 10,000 at a 658 nm operating wavelength.

  10. Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity.

    PubMed

    Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns. PMID:22701414

  11. Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity

    PubMed Central

    Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B.; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E.; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns. PMID:22701414

  12. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  13. The mechanical defence advantage of small seeds.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Evan C; Wright, S Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Seed size and toughness affect seed predators, and size-dependent investment in mechanical defence could affect relationships between seed size and predation. We tested how seed toughness and mechanical defence traits (tissue density and protective tissue content) are related to seed size among tropical forest species. Absolute toughness increased with seed size. However, smaller seeds had higher specific toughness both within and among species, with the smallest seeds requiring over 2000 times more energy per gram to break than the largest seeds. Investment in mechanical defence traits varied widely but independently of the toughness-mass allometry. Instead, a physical scaling relationship confers a toughness advantage on small seeds independent of selection on defence traits and without a direct cost. This scaling relationship may contribute to seed size diversity by decreasing fitness differences among large and small seeds. Allometric scaling of toughness reconciles predictions and conflicting empirical relationships between seed size and predation. PMID:27324185

  14. [Risks and advantages of the vegetarian diet].

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A

    1997-12-01

    The authors summarize the health risks and advantages of alternative nutrition-lactovegetarian, lactoovovegetarian and vegan. These dietary patterns involve risk in particular during pregnancy, lactation and for the growing organism. Veganism excluding all foods of animal origin involves the greatest risk. General nutritional principles for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, oncological diseases and diabetes are fully met by the vegetarian diet. Vegetarians and vegans have low risk factors of atherosclerosis and conversely higher levels of antisclerotic substances. Overthreshold values of essential antioxidants in vegetarians imply a protective action against reactive metabolic oxygen products and toxic products of lipid peroxidation and may reduce the incidence of free radical diseases. The authors also draw attention to some still open problems of vegetarianism (higher n-3 fatty acids, taurine, carnitine). In the conclusion semivegetarianism is evaluated. PMID:9476373

  15. Steel monoleg design tries for concrete advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    The conceptual design of a fixed steel monoleg structure designed for North Sea water depths of 80-250 meters is described. The design was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and funded in part by the European Economic Community. The design aims to give a steel structure some of the advantages of concrete condeeps. Maintenance should be minimized by enclosing the risers inside a monopod. The single-shell, variable geometry of the column structure should also serve to equalize stresses, unlike a conventional space frame where stresses tend to concentrate around the nodes. Construction and installation could be vertical, as in condeep style, or horizontal, as in steel jackets. Thus the fixed steel platform could be either barge-towed and upended with ballast tanks or floated out vertically as built and towed, like a condeep, to a mating with an integrated deck before final tow and installation by simple ballasting.

  16. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  17. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  18. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  19. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  20. Rowing competitions and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Alfinio; Bernhardt, Stephen A.; Shipman, Henry L.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is about integrating the use of graphing technology (specifically, GeoGebra) with principles of motion, principles of perspective, and the concept of vanishing points to model a dynamic event. Students were asked to analyse video images of a rowing competition filmed with a single camera positioned perpendicular to the race. The fixed position of the camera in such races makes it difficult to determine whether a scull closer to the camera is actually overtaking another, more distant scull. The paper illustrates how students in their first year at the university can integrate the use of technology, science, mathematics, and writing to solve a real world problem involving motion.

  1. Attention competition with advertisement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  2. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant. PMID:25314476

  3. Advantages of a polycentric approach to climate change policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Daniel H.

    2015-02-01

    Lack of progress in global climate negotiations has led scholars to reconsider polycentric approaches to climate policy. Several examples of subglobal mechanisms to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions have been touted, but it remains unclear why they might achieve better climate outcomes than global negotiations alone. Decades of work conducted by researchers associated with the Vincent and Elinor Ostrom Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University have emphasized two chief advantages of polycentric approaches over monocentric ones: they provide more opportunities for experimentation and learning to improve policies over time, and they increase communications and interactions -- formal and informal, bilateral and multilateral -- among parties to help build the mutual trust needed for increased cooperation. A wealth of theoretical, empirical and experimental evidence supports the polycentric approach.

  4. Size matters: problems and advantages associated with highly miniaturized sensors.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Andreas B

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the recent advances in nanotechnology have made it possible to realize a great variety of new sensors with signal transduction mechanisms utilizing physical phenomena at the nanoscale. Some examples are conductivity measurements in nanowires, deflection of cantilevers and spectroscopy of plasmonic nanoparticles. The fact that these techniques are based on the special properties of nanostructural entities provides for extreme sensor miniaturization since a single structural unit often can be used as transducer. This review discusses the advantages and problems with such small sensors, with focus on biosensing applications and label-free real-time analysis of liquid samples. Many aspects of sensor design are considered, such as thermodynamic and diffusion aspects on binding kinetics as well as multiplexing and noise issues. Still, all issues discussed are generic in the sense that the conclusions apply to practically all types of surface sensitive techniques. As a counterweight to the current research trend, it is argued that in many real world applications, better performance is achieved if the active sensor is larger than that in typical nanosensors. Although there are certain specific sensing applications where nanoscale transducers are necessary, it is argued herein that this represents a relatively rare situation. Instead, it is suggested that sensing on the microscale often offers a good compromise between utilizing some possible advantages of miniaturization while avoiding the complications. This means that ensemble measurements on multiple nanoscale sensors are preferable instead of utilizing a single transducer entity. PMID:22736990

  5. Football supporters' perceptions of their role in the home advantage.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Sandy; Wakelin, Delia; Lewis, Matthew

    2005-04-01

    Football fans' views on their role in the home advantage were obtained by placing links to an internet questionnaire on supporters' websites. Altogether, 461 fans from clubs which had been promoted, relegated or unchanged in the past season of the English football leagues rated crowd support as significantly more influential than familiarity, travel, territoriality and referee bias in contributing to the home advantage. Fans felt responsible for inspiring their team to victory, took credit for distracting opponents, and believed that they could influence officials into making decisions in their team's favour. However, they did not accept personal blame for poor results. No effects for gender, age or the team's outcome in the promotion/relegation battle emerged, though season ticket holders were more extreme in their feelings of responsibility overall. Furthermore, it was suggested that mechanisms such as the perception of being superior to rivals can encourage fans to retain their allegiance to their teams, even when outcomes are disappointing. Indeed, affiliation may become so incorporated into self-identity that supporters may not have the option of abandoning their team, but instead perceive a reciprocal relationship in which both they and the team are expected to do their best to achieve success. PMID:16089181

  6. Competitive release and facilitation of drug-resistant parasites after therapeutic chemotherapy in a rodent malaria model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wargo, A.R.; Huijben, S.; De Roode, J. C.; Shepherd, J.; Read, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    Malaria infections frequently consist of mixtures of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive parasites. If crowding occurs, where clonal population densities are suppressed by the presence of coinfecting clones, removal of susceptible clones by drug treatment could allow resistant clones to expand into the newly vacated niche space within a host. Theoretical models show that, if such competitive release occurs, it can be a potent contributor to the strength of selection, greatly accelerating the rate at which resistance spreads in a population. A variety of correlational field data suggest that competitive release could occur in human malaria populations, but direct evidence cannot be ethically obtained from human infections. Here we show competitive release after pyrimethamine curative chemotherapy of acute infections of the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi in laboratory mice. The expansion of resistant parasite numbers after treatment resulted in enhanced transmission-stage densities. After the elimination or near-elimination of sensitive parasites, the number of resistant parasites increased beyond that achieved when a competitor had never been present. Thus, a substantial competitive release occurred, markedly elevating the fitness advantages of drug resistance above those arising from survival alone. This finding may explain the rapid spread of drug resistance and the subsequently brief useful lifespans of some antimalarial drugs. In a second experiment, where subcurative chemotherapy was administered, the resistant clone was only partly released from competitive suppression and experienced a restriction in the size of its expansion after treatment. This finding raises the prospect of harnessing in-host ecology to slow the spread of drug resistance. ?? 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  7. Bayesian sperm competition estimates.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Beatrix; Clark, Andrew G

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a Bayesian method for estimating parameters for a model of multiple mating and sperm displacement from genotype counts of brood-structured data. The model is initially targeted for Drosophila melanogaster, but is easily adapted to other organisms. The method is appropriate for use with field studies where the number of mates and the genotypes of the mates cannot be controlled, but where unlinked markers have been collected for a set of females and a sample of their offspring. Advantages over previous approaches include full use of multilocus information and the ability to cope appropriately with missing data and ambiguities about which alleles are maternally vs. paternally inherited. The advantages of including X-linked markers are also demonstrated. PMID:12663555

  8. The effects of competition and competitiveness on cardiovascular activity.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L K; Denning, S; Easton, H L; Hall, J C; Burns, V E; Ring, C; Carroll, D

    2001-07-01

    Cardiovascular activity was measured at resting baseline and in response to a car racing game, undertaken in competition or in cooperation with an experimenter, or individually. Competitiveness and win and goal orientations were assessed by questionnaire. Competition provoked increases in blood pressure and heart rate, and a significant shortening of the preejection period, an index of enhanced beta-adrenergic influences on the heart. The cooperation task was largely without effect, and although the solo task affected cardiovascular activity, it did so to a lesser extent and much less consistently than did the competition task. The three task conditions, then, were largely distinguishable by their capacity to activate beta-adrenergic processes. Participants high in competitiveness and desire to win showed higher blood pressure reactions and greater shortening of the preejection period to competition than those low in these characteristics. PMID:11446573

  9. Survival advantages of obesity in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Abbott, Kevin C; Salahudeen, Abdulla K; Kilpatrick, Ryan D; Horwich, Tamara B

    2005-03-01

    In the general population, a high body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. However, the effect of overweight (BMI: 25-30) or obesity (BMI: >30) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) is paradoxically in the opposite direction; ie, a high BMI is associated with improved survival. Although this "reverse epidemiology" of obesity or dialysis-risk-paradox is relatively consistent in MHD patients, studies in CKD patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis have yielded mixed results. Growing confusion has developed among physicians, some of whom are no longer confident about whether to treat obesity in CKD patients. A similar reverse epidemiology of obesity has been described in geriatric populations and in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Possible causes of the reverse epidemiology of obesity include a more stable hemodynamic status, alterations in circulating cytokines, unique neurohormonal constellations, endotoxin-lipoprotein interaction, reverse causation, survival bias, time discrepancies among competitive risk factors, and malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome. Reverse epidemiology may have significant clinical implications in the management of dialysis, CHF, and geriatric patients, ie, populations with extraordinarily high mortality. Exploring the causes and consequences of the reverse epidemiology of obesity in dialysis patients can enhance our insights into similar paradoxes observed for other conventional risk factors, such as blood pressure and serum cholesterol and homocysteine concentrations, and in other populations such as those with CHF, advanced age, cancer, or AIDS. Weight-gaining interventional studies in dialysis patients are urgently needed to ascertain whether they can improve survival and quality of life. PMID:15755821

  10. Competition, Speculative Risks, and IT Security Outsourcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cezar, Asunur; Cavusoglu, Huseyin; Raghunathan, Srinivasan

    Information security management is becoming a more critical and, simultaneously, a challenging function for many firms. Even though many security managers are skeptical about outsourcing of IT security, others have cited reasons that are used for outsourcing of traditional IT functions for why security outsourcing is likely to increase. Our research offers a novel explanation, based on competitive externalities associated with IT security, for firms' decisions to outsource IT security. We show that if competitive externalities are ignored, then a firm will outsource security if and only if the MSSP offers a quality (or a cost) advantage over in-house operations, which is consistent with the traditional explanation for security outsourcing. However, a higher quality is neither a prerequisite nor a guarantee for a firm to outsource security. The competitive risk environment and the nature of the security function outsourced, in addition to quality, determine firms' outsourcing decisions. If the reward from the competitor's breach is higher than the loss from own breach, then even if the likelihood of a breach is higher under the MSSP the expected benefit from the competitive demand externality may offset the loss from the higher likelihood of breaches, resulting in one or both firms outsourcing security. The incentive to outsource security monitoring is higher than that of infrastructure management because the MSSP can reduce the likelihood of breach on both firms and thus enhance the demand externality effect. The incentive to outsource security monitoring (infrastructure management) is higher (lower) if either the likelihood of breach on both firms is lower (higher) when security is outsourced or the benefit (relative to loss) from the externality is higher (lower). The benefit from the demand externality arising out of a security breach is higher when more of the customers that leave the breached firm switch to the non-breached firm.

  11. Pharyngeal Packing during Rhinoplasty: Advantages and Disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Majid; Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar; Bameshki, Ali Reza; Behdani, Reza; Khadivi, Ehsan; Bakhshaee, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Controversy remains as to the advantages and disadvantages of pharyngeal packing during septorhinoplasty. Our study investigated the effect of pharyngeal packing on postoperative nausea and vomiting and sore throat following this type of surgery or septorhinoplasty. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I or II patients who were candidates for septorhinoplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the study group had received pharyngeal packing while those in the control group had not. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat based on the visual analog scale (VAS) was evaluated postoperatively in the recovery room as well as at 2, 6 and 24 hours. Results: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was 12.3%, with no significant difference between the study and control groups. Sore throat was reported in 50.5% of cases overall (56.8% on pack group and 44.4% on control). Although the severity of pain was higher in the study group at all times, the incidence in the two groups did not differ significantly. Conclusion: The use of pharyngeal packing has no effect in reducing the incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat after surgery. Given that induced hypotension is used as the routine method of anesthesia in septorhinoplasty surgery, with a low incidence of hemorrhage and a high risk of unintended retention of pharyngeal packing, its routine use is not recommended for this procedure. PMID:26788486

  12. Clinical advantages of carbon-ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Baba, Masayuki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotoshi; Kato, Shingo; Yamada, Shigeru; Yasuda, Shigeo; Yanagi, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Ryusuke; Yamamoto, Naotaka; Mizoe, Junetsu

    2008-07-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) possesses physical and biological advantages. It was started at NIRS in 1994 using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC); since then more than 50 protocol studies have been conducted on almost 4000 patients with a variety of tumors. Clinical experiences have demonstrated that C-ion RT is effective in such regions as the head and neck, skull base, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissues, and pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer, as well as for histological types including adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, malignant melanoma and various types of sarcomas, against which photon therapy could be less effective. Furthermore, when compared with photon and proton RT, a significant reduction of overall treatment time and fractions has been accomplished without enhancing toxicities. Currently, the number of irradiation sessions per patient averages 13 fractions spread over approximately three weeks. This means that in a carbon therapy facility a larger number of patients than is possible with other modalities can be treated over the same period of time.

  13. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  14. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women’s patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women—and in particular academic women—contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  15. Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries—the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (θGB) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (BaFe2As2:Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (JcBGB) remained high (>1 MA cm−2) and nearly constant up to a critical angle θc of ∼9°, which is substantially larger than the θc of ∼5° for YBa2Cu3O7–δ. Even at θGB>θc, the decay of JcBGB was much slower than that of YBa2Cu3O7–δ. PMID:21811238

  16. Prochlorococcus: Advantages and Limits of Minimalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology.

  17. Prochlorococcus: advantages and limits of minimalism.

    PubMed

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology. PMID:21141667

  18. Airtraq optical laryngoscope: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

    2013-06-01

    Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience. PMID:24180160

  19. Advantages of a leveled commitment contracting protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandholm, T.W.; Lesser, V.R.

    1996-12-31

    In automated negotiation systems consisting of self-interested agents, contracts have traditionally been binding. Such contracts do not allow agents to efficiently accommodate future events. Game theory has proposed contingency contracts to solve this problem. Among computational agents, contingency contracts are often impractical due to large numbers of interdependent and unanticipated future events to be conditioned on, and because some events are not mutually observable. This paper proposes a leveled commitment contracting protocol that allows self-interested agents to efficiently accommodate future events by having the possibility of unilaterally decommitting from a contract based on local reasoning. A decommitment penalty is assigned to both agents in a contract: to be freed from the contract, an agent only pays this penalty to the other party. It is shown through formal analysis of several contracting settings that this leveled commitment feature in a contracting protocol increases Pareto efficiency of deals and can make contracts individually rational when no full commitment contract can. This advantage holds even if the agents decommit manipulatively.

  20. [Competition among health insurance funds: the position of the PKV].

    PubMed

    Leienbach, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Competition between private health insurers (PKV) and statutory health insurance funds (GKV) in Germany is far from being perfect, but the advantages resulting from the duality between PKV and GKV for the insured outweigh its disadvantages. Germany is the only country in the world where two systems compete for the best health insurance services and offer actual alternatives. They represent two different ways of funding leading into one common healthcare system. The dual structure stabilizes and enhances the medical infrastructure for all insured individuals alike. The rules of competition however can only take effect if the particularities of the two system are maintained and not mixed up. PMID:20120193

  1. Managed competition in health care and the unfinished agenda

    PubMed Central

    Enthoven, Alain C.

    1986-01-01

    A market made up of health care financing and delivery plans and individual consumers, without a carefully drawn set of rules to mitigate market failures, and without mediation by collective action on the demand side, cannot produce efficiency and equity. The concept of competition that can achieve these goals, at least to a satisfactory approximation, is managed competition, with intelligent active agents on the demand side, called sponsors, that contract with the competing health care plans and continuously structure and adjust the market to overcome its tendencies to failure. A great deal remains to be done to achieve the goals envisioned by the “procompetition reformers.” PMID:10311922

  2. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G PMID:18159791

  3. Searching for the Advantages of Virus Sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Paul E.

    2003-02-01

    Sex (genetic exchange) is a nearly universal phenomenon in biological populations. But this is surprising given the costs associated with sex. For example, sex tends to break apart co-adapted genes, and sex causes a female to inefficiently contribute only half the genes to her offspring. Why then did sex evolve? One famous model poses that sex evolved to combat Muller's ratchet, the mutational load that accrues when harmful mutations drift to high frequencies in populations of small size. In contrast, the Fisher-Muller Hypothesis predicts that sex evolved to promote genetic variation that speeds adaptation in novel environments. Sexual mechanisms occur in viruses, which feature high rates of deleterious mutation and frequent exposure to novel or changing environments. Thus, confirmation of one or both hypotheses would shed light on the selective advantages of virus sex. Experimental evolution has been used to test these classic models in the RNA bacteriophage φ6, a virus that experiences sex via reassortment of its chromosomal segments. Empirical data suggest that sex might have originated in φ6 to assist in purging deleterious mutations from the genome. However, results do not support the idea that sex evolved because it provides beneficial variation in novel environments. Rather, experiments show that too much sex can be bad for φ6 promiscuity allows selfish viruses to evolve and spread their inferior genes to subsequent generations. Here I discuss various explanations for the evolution of segmentation in RNA viruses, and the added cost of sex when large numbers of viruses co-infect the same cell.

  4. Fluorescence advantages with microscopic spatiotemporal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Debabrata; Roy, Debjit; De, Arijit K.

    2013-03-01

    We present a clever design concept of using femtosecond laser pulses in microscopy by selective excitation or de-excitation of one fluorophore over the other overlapping one. Using either a simple pair of femtosecond pulses with variable delay or using a train of laser pulses at 20-50 Giga-Hertz excitation, we show controlled fluorescence excitation or suppression of one of the fluorophores with respect to the other through wave-packet interference, an effect that prevails even after the fluorophore coherence timescale. Such an approach can be used both under the single-photon excitation as well as in the multi-photon excitation conditions resulting in effective higher spatial resolution. Such high spatial resolution advantage with broadband-pulsed excitation is of immense benefit to multi-photon microscopy and can also be an effective detection scheme for trapped nanoparticles with near-infrared light. Such sub-diffraction limit trapping of nanoparticles is challenging and a two-photon fluorescence diagnostics allows a direct observation of a single nanoparticle in a femtosecond high-repetition rate laser trap, which promises new directions to spectroscopy at the single molecule level in solution. The gigantic peak power of femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rate, even at low average powers, provide huge instantaneous gradient force that most effectively result in a stable optical trap for spatial control at sub-diffraction limit. Such studies have also enabled us to explore simultaneous control of internal and external degrees of freedom that require coupling of various control parameters to result in spatiotemporal control, which promises to be a versatile tool for the microscopic world.

  5. Organic foods: health and environmental advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Forman, Joel; Silverstein, Janet

    2012-11-01

    The US market for organic foods has grown from $3.5 billion in 1996 to $28.6 billion in 2010, according to the Organic Trade Association. Organic products are now sold in specialty stores and conventional supermarkets. Organic products contain numerous marketing claims and terms, only some of which are standardized and regulated. In terms of health advantages, organic diets have been convincingly demonstrated to expose consumers to fewer pesticides associated with human disease. Organic farming has been demonstrated to have less environmental impact than conventional approaches. However, current evidence does not support any meaningful nutritional benefits or deficits from eating organic compared with conventionally grown foods, and there are no well-powered human studies that directly demonstrate health benefits or disease protection as a result of consuming an organic diet. Studies also have not demonstrated any detrimental or disease-promoting effects from an organic diet. Although organic foods regularly command a significant price premium, well-designed farming studies demonstrate that costs can be competitive and yields comparable to those of conventional farming techniques. Pediatricians should incorporate this evidence when discussing the health and environmental impact of organic foods and organic farming while continuing to encourage all patients and their families to attain optimal nutrition and dietary variety consistent with the US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate recommendations. This clinical report reviews the health and environmental issues related to organic food production and consumption. It defines the term "organic," reviews organic food-labeling standards, describes organic and conventional farming practices, and explores the cost and environmental implications of organic production techniques. It examines the evidence available on nutritional quality and production contaminants in conventionally produced and organic foods. Finally, this

  6. Comparison of Home Advantage in College and Professional Team Sports in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Richard; Gómez, Miguel A

    2015-09-01

    Home advantage in seven American college team sports (baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse, soccer and women's basketball) was compared with professional leagues in the United States for the same sports and for the same time period. A total of 81,063 college games and 22,477 professional games were analyzed for the four seasons 2006-07 to 2009-10. There was a significant home advantage, as measured by home winning percentage, in all sports, both college and professional. The overall home advantage in college sports was significantly greater than in professional sports (p<0.015). The mean difference was 3.73 home winning percentage points, being greatest for baseball, basketball, and hockey (all p<0.001). Plausible explanations for these results include differences in college and professional competition in terms of familiarity with local conditions, referee bias, territoriality and psychological factors. However, the influence of travel fatigue was inconclusive. Only for soccer was the home advantage greater for professionals. This was the only sport where crowd size appeared to be having an effect. In addition the rules of college soccer allow more substitution and hence greater coach intervention than in professional soccer, a factor that could also be reducing home advantage. PMID:26898053

  7. Comparison of the home advantage in nine different professional team sports in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel A; Pollard, Richard; Luis-Pascual, Juan-Carlos

    2011-08-01

    Home advantage is a well-established phenomenon in many sports. The present study is unique in that it includes different sports analysed in the same country, at the same level of competition, and over the same time period. Nine team sports from Spain were included: baseball, basketball, handball, indoor soccer, roller hockey, rugby, soccer, volleyball, and water polo. Data for five seasons (2005-2006 to 2009-2010) were obtained, totaling 9,472 games. The results confirmed the existence of home advantage in all nine sports. There was a statistically significant difference between the sports; home advantage was highest in rugby (67.0%), and lowest in volleyball (55.7%), water polo (56.2%), and roller hockey (58.3%). The design of the study controlled for some of the likely causes of home advantage, and the results suggested that the high home advantage for rugby was likely a reflection of the continuous, aggressive, and intense nature of the sport. PMID:21987916

  8. Folk Belief Theory, the Rigor Gap, and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torff, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Folk belief theory is suggested as a primary cause for the persistence of the achievement gap. In this research-supported theory, culturally specified folk beliefs about learning and teaching prompt educators to direct more rigorous curriculum to high-advantage students but not to low-advantage students, resulting in impoverished pedagogy in…

  9. Experimental measures of pathogen competition and relative fitness.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jiasui; McDonald, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    Competition among pathogen strains for limited host resources can have a profound effect on pathogen evolution. A better understanding of the principles and consequences of competition can be useful in designing more sustainable disease management strategies. The competitive ability and relative fitness of a pathogen strain are determined by its intrinsic biological properties, the resistance and heterogeneity of the corresponding host population, the population density and genetic relatedness of the competing strains, and the physical environment. Competitive ability can be inferred indirectly from fitness components, such as basic reproduction rate or transmission rate. However, pathogen strains that exhibit higher fitness components when they infect a host alone may not exhibit a competitive advantage when they co-infect the same host. The most comprehensive measures of competitive ability and relative fitness come from calculating selection coefficients in a mixed infection in a field setting. Mark-release-recapture experiments can be used to estimate fitness costs associated with unnecessary virulence and fungicide resistance. PMID:23767846

  10. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  11. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  12. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  13. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  14. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  15. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  9. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  10. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  11. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  14. Building and Accessing Clausal Representations: The Advantage of First Mention versus the Advantage of Clause Recency

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Hargreaves, David J.; Beeman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We investigated two seemingly contradictory phenomena: the Advantage of the First-Mentioned Participant (participants mentioned first in a sentence are more accessible than participants mentioned second) and the Advantage of the Most Recent Clause (concepts mentioned in the most recent clause are more accessible than concepts mentioned in an earlier clause). We resolved this contradiction by measuring how quickly comprehenders accessed participants mentioned in the first versus second clauses of two-clause sentences. Our data supported the following hypotheses: Comprehenders represent each clause of a two-clause sentence in its own mental substructure. Comprehenders have greatest access to information in the substructure that they are currently developing; that is, they have greatest access to the most recent clause. However, at some point, the first clause becomes more accessible because the substructure representing the first clause of a two-clause sentence serves as a foundation for the whole sentence-level representation. PMID:25505819

  15. Optimal control for competitive-cooperative systems: Modeling flexible coalitions in tomorrow`s competitive world

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhart, S. |; Protopopescu, V.

    1994-09-01

    The last years have witnessed a dramatic shift of the world`s military, political, and economic paradigm from a bi-polar competitive gridlock to a more fluid, multi-player environment. This change has necessarily been followed by a re-evaluation of the strategic thinking and by a reassessment of mutual positions, options, and decisions. The essential attributes of the new situation are modeled by a system of nonlinear evolution equations with competitive/cooperative interactions. The mathematical setting is quite general to accommodate models related to military confrontation, arms control, economic competition, political negotiations, etc. Irrespective of the specific details, all these situations share a common denominator, namely the presence of various players with different and often changing interests and goals. The interests, ranging from conflicting to consensual, are defined in a context of interactions between the players that vary from competitive to cooperative. Players with converging interests tend to build up cooperative coalitions while coalitions with diverging interests usually compete among themselves, but this is not an absolute requirement (namely, one may have groups with converging interests and competitive interactions, and vice-versa). Appurtenance to a coalition may change in time according to the shift in one`s perceptions, interests, or obligations. During the time evolution, the players try to modify their strategies as to best achieve their respective goals. An objective functional quantifying the rate of success (payoff) vs. effort (cost) measures the degree of goal attainment for all players involved, thus selecting an optimal strategy based on optimal controls. While the technical details may vary from problem to problem, the general approach described here establishes a standard framework for a host of concrete situations that may arise from tomorrow`s {open_quotes}next competition{close_quotes}.

  16. Distinct trajectories in the transition to adulthood: are children of immigrants advantaged?

    PubMed

    Hao, Lingxin; Woo, Han S

    2012-01-01

    Studies on children of immigrants have generally ignored distinct developmental trajectories during adolescence and their role in the transition to adulthood. This study identifies distinct trajectories in cognitive, sociobehavioral, and psychological domains and estimates their consequences for young adults. Drawing data from a nationally representative sample of 10,795 adolescents aged 13-17 who were followed up to ages 25-32, the study uses growth mixture modeling to test advantages for children of immigrants. The analysis shows a 1.5-generation advantage in academic achievement and school engagement, as well as a weaker second-generation advantage in academic achievement, but no disadvantage in depression for children of immigrants. In addition, these results hold for children of Hispanic origin. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:22966927

  17. Distinct Trajectories in the Transition to Adulthood: Are Children of Immigrants Advantaged?

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lingxin; Woo, Han Soo

    2015-01-01

    Studies on children of immigrants have generally ignored distinct developmental trajectories during adolescence and their role in the transition to adulthood. This study identifies distinct trajectories in cognitive, socio-behavioral, and psychological domains and estimates their consequences for young-adult. Drawing data from a nationally representative sample of 10,795 adolescents aged 13-17 who were followed up to ages 25-32, we use growth mixture modeling to test advantages for children of immigrants. The analysis shows a 1.5 generation advantage in academic achievement and school engagement, as well as a weaker second-generation advantage in academic achievement, but no disadvantage in depression for children of immigrants. In addition, we found that these results hold for children of Hispanic origin. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:22966927

  18. Uneven Playing Field? Assessing the Teacher Quality Gap between Advantaged and Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Lavery, Lesley; Theobald, Roddy

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers aiming to close the well-documented achievement gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students have increasingly turned their attention to issues of teacher quality. A number of studies have demonstrated that teachers are inequitably distributed across student subgroups by input measures, like experience and qualifications, as well…

  19. A Discursive Formation that Undermined Integration at a Historically Advantaged School in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Devika

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the extent of integration at a historically advantaged school. A qualitative multi-method case study allowed for in-depth analysis of integration in the school. Bernstein's theory of code, classification, boundary and power framed the study. Data analysis showed that: racial desegregation was achieved at student…

  20. Feature Discovery by Competitive Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumelhart, David E.; Zipser, David

    1985-01-01

    Reports results of studies with an unsupervised learning paradigm called competitive learning which is examined using computer simulation and formal analysis. When competitive learning is applied to parallel networks of neuron-like elements, many potentially useful learning tasks can be accomplished. (Author)

  1. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  2. An Approach to Competitive Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Petrina M.

    1994-01-01

    Offers a detailed discussion of competitive assessment, an efficient and cost-effective method to evaluate competitive products. Describes its three phases: numerical scoring, building a best-of-breed model, and determining the gap between the best-of-breed model and another product. (SR)

  3. A Learning Software Design Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Simon; Hokanson, Brad; Bernhardt, Paul; Johnson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the University of Minnesota Learning Software Design Competition, focusing on its goals and emphasis on innovation. Describes the review process to evaluate and judge the software, lists the winners, identifies a new class of educational software, and outlines plans for future competitions. (Author/LRW)

  4. Neurocognitive Performance: Returning to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; McIntire, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Athletes who suffer from concussions under report their symptoms in order to expedite their return to competition. Athletic trainers and coaches must be aware of what is going on with athletes, even if it means requiring them to refrain from competition. Ninety percent of concussions are minor and can be difficult to diagnosis. There is a lack of…

  5. Competitive Grading Sabotages Good Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumboltz, John D.; Yeh, Christine J.

    1996-01-01

    Competitive grading stresses judging over learning. Assigning competitive grades adversely affects teachers by turning them into students' opponents, justifying inadequate teaching methods, trivializing course content, encouraging evaluation methods that misdirect and inhibit student learning, and rewarding teachers for punishing students. High…

  6. The 2005 Australian Informatics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…

  7. Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a third impact of the move to competitive generation pricing -- the narrowing of the range of prices across regions of the country. This feature article updates information in Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing of Generation Services and Financial Status of Electric Utilities.

  8. Mathematics + Competitions = A Winning Formula!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracy L.; Karnes, Frances A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how teachers of the gifted can make the study of mathematics dynamic, innovative, and creative through the exploration of problem-solving skills and real-life applications. Math competitions and general academic competitions that include mathematics for elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools are highlighted. (CR)

  9. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  10. The need for competitive intelligence.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-01-01

    Often associated with marketing warfare, competitive intelligence has become an essential part of health-care organizations' strategic planning efforts. Without overstepping ethical boundaries, providers can gather a vast array of "intelligence" about their competition from public sources, from the marketplace and from competitors themselves. PMID:10303102

  11. How to use competitive intelligence.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-02-01

    Keeping tabs on the competition is a necessity, not a luxury, for organizations operating in today's health-care marketplace. This article, the second of two, explores various strategies for using competitive intelligence and suggests ways to ensure organization-wide commitment to gathering and using this information as part of an overall strategic plan. PMID:10291747

  12. Competitive strategy a new era.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Alan M

    2007-11-01

    By adopting five basic practices, your organization will be ready to advance to the next level of competitive fitness: Develop a reliable financial baseline. Insist on development of a competitive intelligence database system. Employ rigorous business planning. Advocate for focus and discipline. Really commit to competing. PMID:18018789

  13. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  14. [University clinics in the competitive hospital market].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C E; Möller, J; Hesslau, U; Bauer, M; Gabbert, T; Kremer, B

    2005-07-01

    In recent years Germany has faced a growing economization and competition among hospitals. To protect their interests hospitals have to operate similarly to other commercial businesses. Academic hospitals face difficult circumstances in this competition. They have to facilitate research and education activities which require additional financial and personnel resources but also provide maximum acute care treatment at all times. This causes additional disadvantages in terms of financial resources, compared to private hospital chains. Such examples of financial shortcomings have led to the privatization of academic research centres in Germany. An alternative strategy to privatization of academic acute care hospitals is the change of their legal status into a capital company or into a foundation, according to US experiences. Public private partnerships (PPPs) may also represent a potential alternative, as they have already produced a growing number of successful examples in the public sector in Germany. Academic acute care hospitals can also choose a strategic reorganization of their targets, similar to their privately held competitors in the market. Potential economies in scale may be achieved in areas such as medical treatment, research and personnel planning.However, it is vital that academic acute care hospitals start to act productively and also individually. This article provides a number of managerial pathways and options to maintain and strengthen operational competitiveness. PMID:15942750

  15. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. Methods This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. Results The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an

  16. How competition affects evolutionary rescue

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, Matthew Miles; de Mazancourt, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Populations facing novel environments can persist by adapting. In nature, the ability to adapt and persist will depend on interactions between coexisting individuals. Here we use an adaptive dynamic model to assess how the potential for evolutionary rescue is affected by intra- and interspecific competition. Intraspecific competition (negative density-dependence) lowers abundance, which decreases the supply rate of beneficial mutations, hindering evolutionary rescue. On the other hand, interspecific competition can aid evolutionary rescue when it speeds adaptation by increasing the strength of selection. Our results clarify this point and give an additional requirement: competition must increase selection pressure enough to overcome the negative effect of reduced abundance. We therefore expect evolutionary rescue to be most likely in communities which facilitate rapid niche displacement. Our model, which aligns to previous quantitative and population genetic models in the absence of competition, provides a first analysis of when competitors should help or hinder evolutionary rescue. PMID:23209167

  17. Better to be red than blue in virtual competition.

    PubMed

    Ilie, Andrei; Ioan, Silvia; Zagrean, Leon; Moldovan, Mihai

    2008-06-01

    In the 2004 Olympic Games, opponents wearing red athletic uniforms were more likely to win against opponents wearing blue uniforms. To investigate whether this color bias extends to the world of virtual competition, we compared the performance of red and blue teams in a popular multiplayer first-person-shooter (FPS) computer game. For 3 consecutive months, we collected data from a publicly available global statistics server. Outcomes from 1,347 matches played by the top 10 players on the same virtual arena were included. Red teams won 54.9% of matches, and this effect was highly significant. Our data suggest that joining the red team may offer a slight advantage over the blue team in virtual competition, and this should be accounted for when designing FPS games. It is likely that "seeing red" may trigger a powerful psychological distractor signal in human aggressive competition that can affect the outcome of sports and virtual contests alike. PMID:18537513

  18. Sperm competitiveness in frogs: slow and steady wins the race.

    PubMed

    Dziminski, Martin A; Roberts, J Dale; Beveridge, Maxine; Simmons, Leigh W

    2009-11-22

    When sperm compete to fertilize available ova, selection is expected to favour ejaculate traits that contribute to a male's fertilization success. While there is much evidence to show that selection favours increased numbers of sperm, only a handful of empirical studies have examined how variation in sperm form and function contributes to competitive fertilization success. Here, we examine selection acting on sperm form and function in the externally fertilizing myobatrachid frog, Crinia georgiana. Using in vitro fertilization techniques and controlling for variation in the number of sperm contributed by males in competitive situations, we show that males with a greater proportion of motile sperm, and motile sperm with slower swimming velocities, have an advantage when competing for fertilizations. Sperm morphology and the degree of genetic similarity between putative sires and the female had no influence on competitive fertilization success. These unusual patterns of selection might explain why frog sperm typically exhibit relatively slow swimming speeds and sustained longevity. PMID:19710059

  19. Multistate Health Plans: Agents for Competition or Consolidation?

    PubMed

    Moffit, Robert E; Meredith, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    We discuss and evaluate the Multi-State Plan (MSP) Program, a provision of the Affordable Care Act that has not been the subject of much debate as yet. The MSP Program provides the Office of Personnel Management with new authority to negotiate and implement multistate insurance plans on all health insurance exchanges within the United States. We raise the concern that the MSP Program may lead to further consolidation of the health insurance industry despite the program's stated goal of increasing competition by means of health insurance exchanges. The MSP Program arguably gives a competitive advantage to large insurers, which already dominate health insurance markets. We also contend that the MSP Program's failure to produce increased competition may motivate a new effort for a public health insurance option. PMID:26350387

  20. Randomness in Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Hengartner, N. W.; Redner, S.; Vazquez, F.

    2013-05-01

    We study the effects of randomness on competitions based on an elementary random process in which there is a finite probability that a weaker team upsets a stronger team. We apply this model to sports leagues and sports tournaments, and compare the theoretical results with empirical data. Our model shows that single-elimination tournaments are efficient but unfair: the number of games is proportional to the number of teams N, but the probability that the weakest team wins decays only algebraically with N. In contrast, leagues, where every team plays every other team, are fair but inefficient: the top √{N} of teams remain in contention for the championship, while the probability that the weakest team becomes champion is exponentially small. We also propose a gradual elimination schedule that consists of a preliminary round and a championship round. Initially, teams play a small number of preliminary games, and subsequently, a few teams qualify for the championship round. This algorithm is fair and efficient: the best team wins with a high probability and the number of games scales as N 9/5, whereas traditional leagues require N 3 games to fairly determine a champion.

  1. Female competition in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Pusey, Anne E; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission-fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  2. Foreign launch competition growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, R. F.; Wolfe, M. G.; Pryke, I. W.

    1986-07-01

    A survey is given of progress made by other nations in providing or preparing to provide satellite launch services. The European Space Agency has four generations of Ariane vehicles, with a fifth recently approved; a second launch facility in French Guiana that has become operational has raised the possible Ariane launch rate to 10 per year, although a May failure of an Ariane 2 put launches on hold. The French Hermes spaceplane and the British HOTOL are discussed. Under the auspices of the Italian National Space Plane, the Iris orbital transfer vehicle is developed and China's Long March vehicles and the Soviet Protons and SL-4 vehicles are discussed; the Soviets moreover are apparently developing not only a Saturn V-class heavy lift vehicle with a 150,000-kg capacity (about five times the largest U.S. capacity) but also a space shuttle and a spaceplane. Four Japanese launch vehicles and some vehicles in an Indian program are also ready to provide launch services. In this new, tough market for launch services, the customers barely outnumber the suppliers. The competition develops just as the Challenger and Titan disasters place the U.S. at a disadvantage and underline the hard work ahead to recoup its heretofore leading position in launch services.

  3. Female competition in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Pusey, Anne E.; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission–fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  4. Ni++ as a competitive inhibitor of calcium transport in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bragadin, M; Viola, E R

    1997-06-01

    The kinetics of Ca++ uptake in rat liver mitochondria have been studied using the potassium diffusion potential. The advantage of this approach is that in this condition, the mitochondrial respiratory rate is not the limiting step, and therefore the effects of Ni++ on the Ca++ carrier can be studied. Our results suggest that Ni++ is a competitive inhibitor of the Ca++ carrier, but it is not transported into the mitochondria. PMID:9161009

  5. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  6. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  7. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  8. Competitive assessment of aerospace systems using system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaender, Jens Holger

    Aircraft design has recently experienced a trend away from performance centric design towards a more balanced approach with increased emphasis on engineering an economically successful system. This approach focuses on bringing forward a comprehensive economic and life-cycle cost analysis. Since the success of any system also depends on many external factors outside of the control of the designer, this traditionally has been modeled as noise affecting the uncertainty of the design. However, this approach is currently lacking a strategic treatment of necessary early decisions affecting the probability of success of a given concept in a dynamic environment. This suggests that the introduction of a dynamic method into a life-cycle cost analysis should allow the analysis of the future attractiveness of such a concept in the presence of uncertainty. One way of addressing this is through the use of a competitive market model. However, existing market models do not focus on the dynamics of the market. Instead, they focus on modeling and predicting market share through logit regression models. The resulting models exhibit relatively poor predictive capabilities. The method proposed here focuses on a top-down approach that integrates a competitive model based on work in the field of system dynamics into the aircraft design process. Demonstrating such integration is one of the primary contributions of this work, which previously has not been demonstrated. This integration is achieved through the use of surrogate models, in this case neural networks. This enabled not only the practical integration of analysis techniques, but also reduced the computational requirements so that interactive exploration as envisioned was actually possible. The example demonstration of this integration is built on the competition in the 250 seat large commercial aircraft market exemplified by the Boeing 767-400ER and the Airbus A330-200. Both aircraft models were calibrated to existing performance

  9. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive level. 351.403 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive levels consisting of all positions in a competitive area which are in the same grade (or...

  10. Intellectual Competition and the Female Student. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanna, Mark P.

    Recent attention has been focused on the possibility that some women may fear success in competitive achievement situations. The present research suggested that fear of success might be mediated by an anxiety process of a self-presentational process. Experiments were conducted which attempted to distinguish between the two. In addition, studies…

  11. What Drives US Competitiveness in Mathematics and Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2008-01-01

    The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) shows that US school students have a lower level of achievement than students from many East Asian countries. Therefore, media, researchers and policy-makers in the United States have often argued that US competitiveness in mathematics and science will decline. This paper aims at…

  12. International Evidence on School Competition, Autonomy, and Accountability: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WoBmann, Ludger

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews evidence from four international student achievement tests on the effects on student performance of competition from privately managed schools, schools' freedom to make autonomous decisions, and accountability introduced by external exit exams. The multivariate cross-country regressions are performed at the level of individual…

  13. An Australian Science Curriculum: Competition, Advances and Retreats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubusson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Science schooling enjoys high status. Scientific capability is perceived as critical in underpinning economic success in advanced societies. Science achievement, at all levels, has become a global competition in which nations want to be seen to triumph. Governments periodically pay close attention to science education with a view to ensuring it…

  14. Get Ready, Get Set, Go Read! Motivation through Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sybilla

    1997-01-01

    Illustrates how teachers and librarians can use competitive activities to motivate children to read and to encourage personal achievement and group cooperation. Discusses computer games and the group-oriented bees, bowls, circles and quiz contests. Notes the benefits in terms of social interaction, communication, resource-center use, and…

  15. Global University Alliances and the Creation of Collaborative Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Andrew; Mintrom, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have seen the development of many global university alliances. Some alliances have taken a bilateral form, others are multilateral. In a period of increasing competition among universities, such alliances represent a curious form of cooperation. They have become more common just as global competition for academic talent has…

  16. The role of materials in global competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    A symposium on global competitiveness was sponsored by ASM`s Advisory Technical Awareness Council during Materials Week in Cleveland last October. Carpenter Technology`s approach to internationalization and diversification involves three steps: internationalization of core businesses, diversification into engineered products, and focused research and development. Aluminum`s potential was the basis of the Audi-Alcoa relationship, and the result was a true breakthrough: a spaceframe structure designed to integrate every component surface as a structural entity, featuring straight and curved extruded sections joined by complex diecast nodes at key intersections and connection points. Through the support of research and development, many federal departments and agencies have long been involved directly or indirectly in the support of civilian as well as defense industries. New copper alloys and fabrication techniques are enhancing global competitiveness, based largely on copper`s natural advantages of conductivity and corrosion resistance. The heavy equipment industry is a major transformer and user of steel, rubber, aluminum, welding consumables and equipment; glass, plastics, microprocessors and electronics; machine tools, and energy. It comprises the construction, farming, mining, and powertrain equipment manufacturers.

  17. Back to Basics: A Bilingual Advantage in Infant Visual Habituation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S. L.; Rahman, Aishah A.; Hameed, Waseem B.; Sanmugam, Shamini; Agarwal, Pratibha; Jiang, Binyan; Chong, Yap Seng; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals have revealed a bilingual advantage in inhibitory control. Recent studies have demonstrated advantages associated with exposure to two languages in infancy. However, the domain specificity and scope of the infant bilingual advantage in infancy remains unclear. In the present study,…

  18. Did Babe Ruth Have a Comparative Advantage as a Pitcher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Advocates using baseball statistics to illustrate the advantages of specialization in production. Using Babe Ruth's record as an analogy, suggests a methodology for determining a player's comparative advantage as a teaching illustration. Includes the team's statistical profile in five tables to explain comparative advantage and profit maximizing.…

  19. The new Medicare Advantage a disadvantage for providers?

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Patrick K

    2004-03-01

    The Medicare Advantage program, a provision of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, encourages providers to think about dealing with Medicare Advantage plans the way they now deal with commercial payers. Consequently, the Medicare Advantage program could either benefit or harm providers. PMID:15029797

  20. Gaining the Competitive Edge: Design for Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batill, Stephen M.; Pinkelman, Jim; Sellar, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The successful design of a commercial aircraft which is intended to be in direct competition with existing aircraft requires a market analysis to establish design requirements, the development of a concept to achieve those goals. and the ability to economically manufacture the aircraft. It is often the case that an engineer designs system components with only the perspective of a particular discipline. The relationship of that component to the entire system is often a minor consideration. In an effort to highlight the interaction that is necessary during the design process, the students were organized into design/build teams and required to integrate aspects of market analysis, engineering design, production and economics into their concepts. In order to facilitate this process a hypothetical "Aeroworld" was established. Having been furnished relevant demographic and economic data for "Aeroworld". students were given the task of designing and building an aircraft for a specific market while achieving an economically competitive design. Involvement of the team in the evolution of the design from market definition to technical development to manufacturing allowed the students to identify critical issues in the design process and to encounter many of the conflicting requirements which arise in an aerospace systems design.

  1. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research. PMID:27103058

  2. FIRST 2002, 2003, 2004 Robotics Competition(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2002, 2003, and 2004 FIRST Robotics Competitions. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  3. Distributional preferences and competitive behavior☆

    PubMed Central

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    We study experimentally the relationship between distributional preferences and competitive behavior. We find that spiteful subjects react strongest to competitive pressure and win in a tournament significantly more often than efficiency-minded and inequality averse subjects. However, when given the choice between a tournament and a piece rate scheme, efficiency-minded subjects choose the tournament most often, while spiteful and inequality averse subjects avoid it. When controlling for distributional preferences, risk attitudes and past performance, the gender gap in the willingness to compete is no longer significant, indicating that gender-related variables explain why twice as many men as women self-select into competition. PMID:23576829

  4. Making Medicare Advantage a Middle-Class Program

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Jacob; McGuire, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the role of Medicare's premium policy in sorting beneficiaries between traditional Medicare (TM) and managed care plans in the Medicare Advantage (MA) program. Beneficiaries vary in their demand for care. TM fully accommodates demand but creates a moral hazard inefficiency. MA rations care but disregards some elements of the demand. We describe an efficient assignment of beneficiaries to these two options, and argue that efficiency requires an MA program oriented to serve the large middle part of the distribution of demand: the “middle class.” Current Medicare policy of a “single premium” for MA plans cannot achieve efficient sorting. We characterize the demand-based premium policy that can implement the efficient assignment of enrollees to plans. If only a single premium is feasible, the second-best policy involves too many of the low-demand individuals in MA and a too low level of services relative to the first best. We identify approaches to using premium policy to revitalize MA and improve the efficiency of Medicare. PMID:23454916

  5. Inertial Fusion Target Physics Advantages with the Krypton Fluoride Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenschain, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    The krypton fluoride (KrF) laser's short wavelength, broad bandwidth and capability to provide extremely uniform target illumination are advantages towards obtaining high gain direct drive implosions. The short wavelength helps suppress deleterious laser-plasma instabilities, and allows one to employ higher ablation pressures. In addition, the KrF architecture allows one to zoom down the focal diameter to follow the size of the imploding pellet, thereby improving the coupling efficiency. The NRL researchers have been conducting theoretical and experimental studies to quantify the beneficial effects of utilizing KrF light. Experiments using the Nike facility have confirmed that KrF light significantly increases the threshold for laser-plasma instability. This presentation will discuss the observed target physics with KrF light and its effects towards facilitating the high gains needed for power production with inertial fusion. Simulations indicate that shock ignited designs can achieve gains above 200 with KrF energies as low a 1 megajoule. For fusion energy a laser driver must be capable of high repetition rates (5-10 Hz) along with adequate efficiency and durability. The Electra KrF 30-cm aperture electron-beam-pumped amplifier has demonstrated long duration continuous operation at high-repetition rates. This and other advances show that the KrF laser should be able to meet the requirements.

  6. Making Medicare advantage a middle-class program.

    PubMed

    Glazer, Jacob; McGuire, Thomas G

    2013-03-01

    This paper studies the role of Medicare's premium policy in sorting beneficiaries between traditional Medicare (TM) and managed care plans in the Medicare advantage (MA) program. Beneficiaries vary in their demand for care. TM fully accommodates demand but creates a moral hazard inefficiency. MA rations care but disregards some elements of the demand. We describe an efficient assignment of beneficiaries to these two options, and argue that efficiency requires an MA program oriented to serve the large middle part of the distribution of demand: the "middle class." Current Medicare policy of a "single premium" for MA plans cannot achieve efficient sorting. We characterize the demand-based premium policy that can implement the efficient assignment of enrollees to plans. If only a single premium is feasible, the second-best policy involves too many of the low-demand individuals in MA and a too low level of services relative to the first best. We identify approaches to using premium policy to revitalize MA and improve the efficiency of Medicare. PMID:23454916

  7. Enduring Advantages of Early Cochlear Implantation for Spoken Language Development

    PubMed Central

    Geers, Ann E.; Nicholas, Johanna G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the precise age of implantation (AOI) remains an important predictor of spoken language outcomes in later childhood for those who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 12–38 months of age. Relative advantages of receiving a bilateral CI after age 4.5, better pre-CI aided hearing, and longer CI experience were also examined. Method Sixty children participated in a prospective longitudinal study of outcomes at 4.5 and 10.5 years of age. Twenty-nine children received a sequential second CI. Test scores were compared to normative samples of hearing age-mates and predictors of outcomes identified. Results Standard scores on language tests at 10.5 years of age remained significantly correlated with age of first cochlear implantation. Scores were not associated with receipt of a second, sequentially-acquired CI. Significantly higher scores were achieved for vocabulary as compared with overall language, a finding not evident when the children were tested at younger ages. Conclusion Age-appropriate spoken language skills continued to be more likely with younger AOI, even after an average of 8.6 years of additional CI use. Receipt of a second implant between ages 4–10 years and longer duration of device use did not provide significant added benefit. PMID:23275406

  8. Advantage of four-electrode over two-electrode defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Bragard, J; Šimić, A; Laroze, D; Elorza, J

    2015-12-01

    Defibrillation is the standard clinical treatment used to stop ventricular fibrillation. An electrical device delivers a controlled amount of electrical energy via a pair of electrodes in order to reestablish a normal heart rate. We propose a technique that is a combination of biphasic shocks applied with a four-electrode system rather than the standard two-electrode system. We use a numerical model of a one-dimensional ring of cardiac tissue in order to test and evaluate the benefit of this technique. We compare three different shock protocols, namely a monophasic and two types of biphasic shocks. The results obtained by using a four-electrode system are compared quantitatively with those obtained with the standard two-electrode system. We find that a huge reduction in defibrillation threshold is achieved with the four-electrode system. For the most efficient protocol (asymmetric biphasic), we obtain a reduction in excess of 80% in the energy required for a defibrillation success rate of 90%. The mechanisms of successful defibrillation are also analyzed. This reveals that the advantage of asymmetric biphasic shocks with four electrodes lies in the duration of the cathodal and anodal phase of the shock. PMID:26764786

  9. Advantage of four-electrode over two-electrode defibrillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragard, J.; Šimić, A.; Laroze, D.; Elorza, J.

    2015-12-01

    Defibrillation is the standard clinical treatment used to stop ventricular fibrillation. An electrical device delivers a controlled amount of electrical energy via a pair of electrodes in order to reestablish a normal heart rate. We propose a technique that is a combination of biphasic shocks applied with a four-electrode system rather than the standard two-electrode system. We use a numerical model of a one-dimensional ring of cardiac tissue in order to test and evaluate the benefit of this technique. We compare three different shock protocols, namely a monophasic and two types of biphasic shocks. The results obtained by using a four-electrode system are compared quantitatively with those obtained with the standard two-electrode system. We find that a huge reduction in defibrillation threshold is achieved with the four-electrode system. For the most efficient protocol (asymmetric biphasic), we obtain a reduction in excess of 80% in the energy required for a defibrillation success rate of 90%. The mechanisms of successful defibrillation are also analyzed. This reveals that the advantage of asymmetric biphasic shocks with four electrodes lies in the duration of the cathodal and anodal phase of the shock.

  10. Gender and competitive preferences: The role of competition size.

    PubMed

    Hanek, Kathrin J; Garcia, Stephen M; Tor, Avishalom

    2016-08-01

    In a series of 8 studies, we examine whether gender differences in competition entry preferences are moderated by the size of the competition. Drawing on theories of gender roles and stereotypes, we show that women, relative to men, prefer to enter smaller compared with larger competitions. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrate this effect in observational data on preferences for working in differently sized firms and applying to differently sized colleges. Studies 2a and 2b replicate the effect with real behavioral decisions in different domains. We also find empirical evidence that prescriptive gender norms and stereotypes underlie this effect. In Study 3, we find experimental evidence that women and men differ in their preferences for differently sized groups under competition, but not in noncompetitive settings. Three additional experimental studies (Studies 4, 5a, and 5b) show that perceptions of comfort in small versus larger competitions underlie women's preferences. These findings suggest that women's preferences for smaller competitions may be driven by an adherence to prescriptive gender norms. We discuss the implications of the current findings for gender inequalities in organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27176148

  11. Evidence that Smaller Schools Do Not Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard; Zwerling, Harris L.

    2006-01-01

    If more small schools than "expected" are among the high achievers, then creating more small schools would raise achievement across the board, many proponents of small schools have argued. In this article, the authors challenge the faulty logic of such inferences. Many claims have been made about the advantages of smaller schools. One is that,…

  12. Appearance- and Competition-Focused Performance Goals: Examining Their Links with Performance in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Victoria; Spray, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We examined the utility of distinguishing between appearance- and competition-focused approach and avoidance performance goals to our understanding of motivation in physical education. Four achievement goals were tested composed of approach-avoidance and appearance-competition components. Three hundred and two pupils, aged 11-14 years, completed…

  13. Competitive hybridization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepinsky, Vera; Hashmi, Ghazala; Mishra, Bud

    2010-11-01

    Microarray technology, in its simplest form, allows one to gather abundance data for target DNA molecules, associated with genomes or gene-expressions, and relies on hybridizing the target to many short probe oligonucleotides arrayed on a surface. While for such multiplexed reactions conditions are optimized to make the most of each individual probe-target interaction, subsequent analysis of these experiments is based on the implicit assumption that a given experiment yields the same result regardless of whether it was conducted in isolation or in parallel with many others. It has been discussed in the literature that this assumption is frequently false, and its validity depends on the types of probes and their interactions with each other. We present a detailed physical model of hybridization as a means of understanding probe interactions in a multiplexed reaction. Ultimately, the model can be derived from a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE’s) describing kinetic mass action with conservation-of-mass equations completing the system. We examine pairwise probe interactions in detail and present a model of “competition” between the probes for the target—especially, when the target is effectively in short supply. These effects are shown to be predictable from the affinity constants for each of the four probe sequences involved, namely, the match and mismatch sequences for both probes. These affinity constants are calculated from the thermodynamic parameters such as the free energy of hybridization, which are in turn computed according to the nearest neighbor (NN) model for each probe and target sequence. Simulations based on the competitive hybridization model explain the observed variability in the signal of a given probe when measured in parallel with different groupings of other probes or individually. The results of the simulations can be used for experiment design and pooling strategies, based on which probes have been shown to have a strong

  14. Exposure-Based Cat Modeling, Available data, Advantages, & Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Gero; Hosoe, Taro; Schrah, Mike; Saito, Keiko

    2010-05-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of exposure data for cat-modeling and considers concepts of scale as well as the completeness of data and data scoring using field/model examples. Catastrophe modeling based on exposure data has been considered the panacea for insurance-related cat modeling since the late 1980's. Reasons for this include: • The ability to extend risk modeling to consider data beyond historical losses, • Usability across many relevant scales, • Flexibility in addressing complex structures and policy conditions, and • Ability to assess dependence of risk results on exposure-attributes and exposure-modifiers, such as lines of business, occupancy types, and mitigation features, at any given scale. In order to calculate related risk, monetary exposure is correlated to vulnerabilities that have been calibrated with historical results, plausibility concepts, and/or physical modeling. While exposure based modeling is widely adopted, we also need to be aware of its limitations which include: • Boundaries in our understanding of the distribution of exposure, • Spatial interdependence of exposure patterns and the time-dependence of exposure, • Incomplete availability of loss information to calibrate relevant exposure attributes/structure with related vulnerabilities and losses, • The scale-dependence of vulnerability, • Potential for missing or incomplete communication of assumptions made during model calibration, • Inefficiencies in the aggregation or disaggregation of vulnerabilities, and • Factors which can influence losses other than exposure, vulnerability, and hazard. Although we might assume that the higher the resolution the better, regional model calibration is often limited to lower than street level resolution with higher resolution being achieved by disaggregating results using topographic/roughness features with often loosely constrained and/or varying effects on losses. This suggests that higher accuracy

  15. Multifaceted Interfaces of Bacterial Competition.

    PubMed

    Stubbendieck, Reed M; Straight, Paul D

    2016-08-15

    Microbial communities span many orders of magnitude, ranging in scale from hundreds of cells on a single particle of soil to billions of cells within the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. Bacterial cells in all habitats are members of densely populated local environments that facilitate competition between neighboring cells. Accordingly, bacteria require dynamic systems to respond to the competitive challenges and the fluctuations in environmental circumstances that tax their fitness. The assemblage of bacteria into communities provides an environment where competitive mechanisms are developed into new strategies for survival. In this minireview, we highlight a number of mechanisms used by bacteria to compete between species. We focus on recent discoveries that illustrate the dynamic and multifaceted functions used in bacterial competition and discuss how specific mechanisms provide a foundation for understanding bacterial community development and function. PMID:27246570

  16. 1986 Honeywell Futurist Awards Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Bryan J.

    1986-01-01

    Consists of three essays from the 1986 Honeywell Futurist Award competition. Discusses the use of the Molecular Matrix Chip to make computer communication more accessible, and thus to promote citizenship. (CH)

  17. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  18. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  19. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  20. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  1. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  2. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  3. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  4. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  5. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  6. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  7. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  8. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  9. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  10. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  11. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  12. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  13. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  14. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  15. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  16. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  17. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Shearer, Heather; Su Choung, Young

    2005-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%), followed by upper extremity (18%), back (10%), and head (3.6%). The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%), followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention. PMID:15921510

  18. Organizational Dimensions of Climate and the Impact on School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Randy J.; Harris, Lonnie G.

    1998-01-01

    Examines selected factors associated with classroom climate (satisfaction, friction, competition, difficulty, cohesiveness) as perceived by fourth-grade students and explores the relationship between those factors and student academic achievement in the areas of reading, math, and language. Findings indicate that climate plays a relatively minor…

  19. The Advantages of Fixed Facilities in Characterizing TRU Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    FRENCH, M.S.

    2000-02-08

    In May 1998 the Hanford Site started developing a program for characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. After less than two years, Hanford will have a program certified by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). By picking a simple waste stream, taking advantage of lessons learned at the other sites, as well as communicating effectively with the CAO, Hanford was able to achieve certification in record time. This effort was further simplified by having a centralized program centered on the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility that contains most of the equipment required to characterize TRU waste. The use of fixed facilities for the characterization of TRU waste at sites with a long-term clean-up mission can be cost effective for several reasons. These include the ability to control the environment in which sensitive instrumentation is required to operate and ensuring that calibrations and maintenance activities are scheduled and performed as an operating routine. Other factors contributing to cost effectiveness include providing approved procedures and facilities for handling hazardous materials and anticipated contingencies and performing essential evolutions, and regulating and smoothing the work load and environmental conditions to provide maximal efficiency and productivity. Another advantage is the ability to efficiently provide characterization services to other sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex that do not have the same capabilities. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is a state-of-the-art facility designed to consolidate the operations necessary to inspect, process and ship waste to facilitate verification of contents for certification to established waste acceptance criteria. The WRAP facility inspects, characterizes, treats, and certifies transuranic (TRU), low-level and mixed waste at the Hanford Site in Washington state. Fluor Hanford operates the $89

  20. A Competitive Advantage by Neonatally Engrafted Human Glial Progenitors Yields Mice Whose Brains Are Chimeric for Human Glia

    PubMed Central

    Schanz, Steven J.; Morrow, Carolyn; Munir, Jared; Chandler-Militello, Devin; Wang, Su

    2014-01-01

    Neonatally transplanted human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) densely engraft and myelinate the hypomyelinated shiverer mouse. We found that, in hGPC-xenografted mice, the human donor cells continue to expand throughout the forebrain, systematically replacing the host murine glia. The differentiation of the donor cells is influenced by the host environment, such that more donor cells differentiated as oligodendrocytes in the hypomyelinated shiverer brain than in myelin wild-types, in which hGPCs were more likely to remain as progenitors. Yet in each recipient, both the number and relative proportion of mouse GPCs fell as a function of time, concomitant with the mitotic expansion and spread of donor hGPCs. By a year after neonatal xenograft, the forebrain GPC populations of implanted mice were largely, and often entirely, of human origin. Thus, neonatally implanted hGPCs outcompeted and ultimately replaced the host population of mouse GPCs, ultimately generating mice with a humanized glial progenitor population. These human glial chimeric mice should permit us to define the specific contributions of glia to a broad variety of neurological disorders, using human cells in vivo. PMID:25429155