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Sample records for achieve competitive performance

  1. The effects of training and competition on achievement goals, motivational responses, and performance in a golf-putting task.

    PubMed

    van de Pol P, K C; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships between goals and effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance. Participants (32 males, 28 females; M age = 19.12 years) performed a golf-putting task in a training condition and a competition condition and completed measures of goal involvement, effort, enjoyment, and tension; putting performance was also measured. Both task and ego involvement varied across training and competition, and variation in ego involvement explained variation in effort and enjoyment between these conditions. Ego involvement positively predicted effort in training and performance in competition, and interacted positively with task involvement to predict effort and enjoyment in competition. Our findings suggest that the distinction between training and competition is a valuable one when examining individuals' achievement motivation.

  2. The impact of nursing students' chemistry learning performance assessment in Taiwan: competitive versus non-competitive student team achievement division approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior college in northern Taiwan during the first semester (totaling 18 weeks) of the 2008 academic year. Results: The findings reveal that both a heterogeneous group with external pressure (involving competitive STAD) and a friendship group with affective pressure (involving traditional learning) enhance group cohesion and assist students' meaningful learning; the heterogeneous group without extra pressure (involving non-competitive STAD), by contrast, fails because of apathy and lassitude. Moreover, learning effectiveness will obviously predominate until the learning strategy continues for a long period or at least one semester. Conclusions: This study revealed that the learning performance level of the competitive STAD group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group; and the learning performance level of the traditional group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group. Both the competitive STAD group and traditional group of medium ability students are significantly different from the non-competitive STAD group. Low-ability students from the competitive STAD group are significantly different from those of the non-competitive STAD, though no significant differences were found in learning perception. However, both a lack of friendship and a lack of ability in using algorithms may affect students' chemistry learning. Furthermore, gender imbalance, educational culture, and group emotions are factors that may influence student learning performance. Further study should focus on the use of grouping, improve responsibility in group discussion, and investigate group interaction

  3. The Impact of Nursing Students' Chemistry Learning Performance Assessment in Taiwan: Competitive versus Non-Competitive Student Team Achievement Division Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior…

  4. Achieving a competitive advantage in managed care.

    PubMed

    Stahl, D A

    1998-02-01

    When building a competitive advantage to thrive in the managed care arena, subacute care providers are urged to be revolutionary rather than reactionary, proactive rather than passive, optimistic rather than pessimistic and growth-oriented rather than cost-reduction oriented. Weaknesses must be addressed aggressively. To achieve a competitive edge, assess the facility's strengths, understand the marketplace and comprehend key payment methods.

  5. Competitive Overdrive Stalls High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, Debra

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses findings by pediatric psychologists studying destructive stress responses and other psychological costs of overdriven competitiveness in gifted students. Warning signs indicative of depression or antisocial withdrawal are described, as are contributing factors such as parental expectations. Suggestions for avoiding…

  6. Improving competitiveness through performance-measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L J; Lockamy, A

    2001-12-01

    Parallels exist between the competitive pressures felt by U.S. manufacturers over the past 30 years and those experienced by healthcare providers today. Increasing market deregulation, changing government policies, and growing consumerism have altered the healthcare arena. Responding to similar pressures, manufacturers adopted a strategic orientation driven by customer needs and expectations that led them to achieve high performance levels and surpass their competition. The adoption of integrated performance-measurement systems was instrumental in these firms' success. An integrated performance-measurement model for healthcare organizations can help to blend the organization's strategy with the demands of the contemporary healthcare environment. Performance-measurement systems encourage healthcare organizations to focus on their mission and vision by aligning their strategic objectives and resource-allocation decisions with customer requirements.

  7. Schizophrenic Performance During Interpersonal Competitive Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brent L.

    1977-01-01

    By assessing the competitive performance of schizophrenics on different types of tasks and by using nonschizophrenic groups, an attempt was made to determine more accurately whether schizophrenics respond differently to competition than nonschizophrenics, and if the effects of competition tend to be task-specific with schizophrenics. (Author/RK)

  8. Neurocognitive Performance: Returning to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; McIntire, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Athletes who suffer from concussions under report their symptoms in order to expedite their return to competition. Athletic trainers and coaches must be aware of what is going on with athletes, even if it means requiring them to refrain from competition. Ninety percent of concussions are minor and can be difficult to diagnosis. There is a lack of…

  9. Electric vehicle performance in 1994 DOE competitions

    SciTech Connect

    Quong, S.; Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.; LeBlanc, N.; Gonzales, R.; Buitrago, C.

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) through Argonne National Laboratory sponsored and recorded energy data of electric vehicles (EVs) at five competitions in 1994. Each competition provided different test conditions (closed-track, on-road, and dynamometer). The data gathered at these competitions includes energy efficiency, range, acceleration, and vehicle characteristics. The results of the analysis show that the vehicles performed as expected. Some of the EVs were also tested on dynamometers and compared to gasoline vehicles, including production vehicles with advanced battery systems. Although the EVs performed well at these competitions, the results show that only the vehicles with advanced technologies perform as well or better than conventional gasoline vehicles.

  10. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  11. Appearance- and Competition-Focused Performance Goals: Examining Their Links with Performance in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Victoria; Spray, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We examined the utility of distinguishing between appearance- and competition-focused approach and avoidance performance goals to our understanding of motivation in physical education. Four achievement goals were tested composed of approach-avoidance and appearance-competition components. Three hundred and two pupils, aged 11-14 years, completed…

  12. The Integration Role of European Defense Procurement in Achieving a More Competitive and Stronger European Defense Equipment Market

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    DEFENSE PROCUREMENT IN ACHIEVING A MORE COMPETITIVE AND STRONGER EUROPEAN DEFENSE EQUIPMENT MARKET by Kiril O. Angelov June 2015 Thesis Advisor...COMPETITIVE AND STRONGER EUROPEAN DEFENSE EQUIPMENT MARKET 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Kiril O. Angelov 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...creation of a strong and competitive European defense equipment market out of the 28 fragmented markets of the EU member states remains an important

  13. Charter School Competition, Organization, and Achievement in Traditional Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tomeka M.

    2013-01-01

    Market models of education reform predict that the growth of charter schools will infuse competition into the public school sector, forcing traditional public schools to improve the practices they engage in to educate students. Some scholars have criticized these models, arguing that competition from charter schools is unlikely to produce…

  14. Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

  15. Improving University Ranking to Achieve University Competitiveness by Management Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachyar, M.; Dewi, F.

    2015-05-01

    One way to increase university competitiveness is through information system management. A literature review was done to find information system factors that affect university performance in Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) University Ranking: Asia evaluation. Information system factors were then eliminated using Delphi method through consensus of 7 experts. Result from Delphi method was used as measured variables in PLS-SEM. Estimation with PLS-SEM method through 72 respondents shows that the latent variable academic reputation and citation per paper have significant correlation to university competitiveness. In University of Indonesia (UI) the priority to increase university competitiveness as follow: (i) network building in international conference, (ii) availability of research data to public, (iii) international conference information, (iv) information on achievements and accreditations of each major, (v) ease of employment for alumni.

  16. Effects of Performance Objectives on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Napoleon, Jr.; Anderson, Hans A.

    1972-01-01

    Effects of performance objectives on achievement of black inner city pupils were studied. Two groups of trained and untrained teachers in preparing performance objectives were formed. Results showed positive effects of teachers trained in the use of performance objectives. (PS)

  17. "Perceived" Competition and Performance in Italian Secondary Schools: New Evidence from OECD-PISA 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Murtinu, Samuele

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of competition on the performance of Italian secondary schools as measured by maths achievement scores (PISA 2006 dataset). Competition is measured by an indicator of "perceived" competition (generated from an answer provided by the schools' principals). The methodology employed is a propensity…

  18. 75 FR 4788 - FY 2010 Grant Competition Announcement; Promoting Student Achievement at Schools Impacted by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... of the Secretary FY 2010 Grant Competition Announcement; Promoting Student Achievement at Schools...: Grant competition announcement; amendment. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA... grant competition announcement, which published in the Federal Register on November 24, 2009 (74...

  19. The Impact of Competitive Trait Anxiety on Collegiate Powerlifting Performance.

    PubMed

    Judge, Lawrence W; Urbina, Leslie J; Hoover, Donald L; Craig, Bruce W; Judge, Lani M; Leitzelar, Brianna M; Pearson, David R; Holtzclaw, Kara A; Bellar, David M

    2016-09-01

    Judge, LW, Urbina, LJ, Hoover, DL, Craig, BW, Judge, LM, Leitzelar, BM, Pearson, DR, Holtzclaw, KA, and Bellar, DM. The impact of competitive trait anxiety on collegiate powerlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2399-2405, 2016-The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between competitive trait anxiety measures and powerlifting (PL) performance. Thirty-six collegiate powerlifters on club teams from 3 universities were recruited during a competition (men = 26, women = 10; age = 19.9 ± 1.5 years; height = 172.5 ± 8.6 cm; weight = 81.4 ± 21.0 kg). The athletes were distributed across weight classes for collegiate PL (47.6 kg: 1; 51.7 kg: 1; 54.9 kg: 1; 59.8 kg: 3; 67.1 kg: 2; 74.8 kg: 7; 82.1 kg: 4; 89.8 kg: 9; 99.8 kg: 5; super heavyweight: 3). A survey containing questions about PL performance history and the 15-item Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) were administered to the participants before competing. The SCAT total was negatively correlated (r = -0.397; p = 0.02) to the athletes' percentage of best total achieved in the competition (actual performance total/best comp total × 100). Of the individual lifts, the SCAT score was negatively correlated to the personal best for bench press (r = -0.368; p = 0.03) and deadlift (r = -0.317, p = 0.05), but did not significantly correlate for squat (r = -0.182, p = 0.27). These results indicate a negative correlation between the SCAT score and athletes' personal best totals in PL. Increased SCAT scores were associated with decreased personal best PL totals. The results suggest that competitive trait anxiety may have negatively impacted performance and that some PL athletes may benefit from interventions aimed at decreasing anxiety before and during performance.

  20. Competition, Choice and Pupil Achievement. CEE DP 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Machin, Stephen; Silva, Olmo

    2006-01-01

    The expansion of school choice and greater competition between schools is currently the centrepiece of government educational policy in the UK. There is an increasing emphasis on parents' right to choose their preferred schools, and whilst many parents may value choice itself, the advocates of these market oriented reforms usually argue that the…

  1. The nature and dimensions of achievement goals: mastery, evaluation, competition, and self-presentation goals.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Marina S; Gonçalves, Teresa; Lens, Willy; Rodrigues, Luís P

    2014-10-28

    The present study aimed to clarify the nature and dimensions of achievement goals and to examine structural differences in students' goals across school levels. Participants were 134 students from 5th and 6th grades, and 423 students from 7th to 9th grades. A variety of achievement goals were assessed, including mastery goals and several performance-related goals representing three main dimensions: competition, self-presentation, and valence. Two alternative models were tested, using confirmatory factor analysis. For middle-school students a three factor model with presentation, competition, and simple evaluation/mastery goals, was found χ²(132, N = 134) = 160.9, p < .001; CFI = .94; RMSEA = .04, 95%CI [.02 - .06]. In the junior-high sample, one avoidance factor, one competition factor, and a simple evaluation/mastery factor, best fitted the data χ²(114, N = 423) = 269.8638 p < .001; CFI = .93; RMSEA = .06, 95%CI [.05 - .07] thus suggesting that distinct dimensions organize younger and older students' motivation. However, common to both grade levels was the existence of (a) separate but low incidence competition goals, and (b) simple evaluation goals, which encompass neither self-presentation nor competition, and are closely linked to mastery goals. Moreover, significant differences were found in the relative importance attached by students to the different types of goals (p < .001 for all comparisons), both at middle-school F(2, 266) = 220.98; p < .001; η2 = .624) and at junior-high school F(2, 820) = 464.4; p < .001; η2 = .531.

  2. Succession Planning and Financial Performance: Does Competition Matter?

    PubMed

    Patidar, Nitish; Gupta, Shivani; Azbik, Ginger; Weech-Maldonado, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Succession planning has been defined as the process by which one or more successors are identified for key positions, development activities are planned for identified successors, or both. Limited research exists pertaining to the relationship between hospital succession planning and financial performance, particularly in the context of market competition. We used the resource-based view framework to analyze the differential effect of succession planning on hospitals' financial performance based on market competition. According to RBV, organizations can achieve higher performance by using their superior resources and capabilities. We used a panel design consisting of a national sample of hospitals in the United States for 2006-2010. We analyzed data using multivariate linear regression with facility random effects and year and state fixed effects. The sample included 22,717 hospital-year observations; more than one half of the hospitals (55.4%) had a succession planning program. The study found a positive relationship between the presence of succession planning and financial performance (β = 1.41, p < .01), which was stronger in competitive markets (β = 2.31, p = .03) than in monopolistic markets (β = 1.06, p = .01). Hospitals can use these results to make informed decisions about investing in succession planning programs on the basis of competition in their market.

  3. Achieving competitive advantage through strategic human resource management.

    PubMed

    Fottler, M D; Phillips, R L; Blair, J D; Duran, C A

    1990-01-01

    The framework presented here challenges health care executives to manage human resources strategically as an integral part of the strategic planning process. Health care executives should consciously formulate human resource strategies and practices that are linked to and reinforce the broader strategic posture of the organization. This article provides a framework for (1) determining and focusing on desired strategic outcomes, (2) identifying and implementing essential human resource management actions, and (3) maintaining or enhancing competitive advantage. The strategic approach to human resource management includes assessing the organization's environment and mission; formulating the organization's business strategy; assessing the human resources requirements based on the intended strategy; comparing the current inventory of human resources in terms of numbers, characteristics, and human resource management practices with respect to the strategic requirements of the organization and its services or product lines; formulating the human resource strategy based on the differences between the assessed requirements and the current inventory; and implementing the appropriate human resource practices to reinforce the strategy and attain competitive advantage.

  4. Preschoolers' Perceptions of Performance and Satisfaction under Competitive and Non-Competitive Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiakara, Angeliki A.; Digelidis, Nikolaos M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore preschool children's perceptions of their performance under competitive and non-competitive conditions (NCC) and their satisfaction. Eighty preschool children (40 boys, 40 girls) aged 4-6 years (M age?=?5.48, SD?=?0.57) took part in this study. Preschool children built a tower under competitive and NCC and…

  5. Achieving acoustical performance with fire safe products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    Recent serious fires in North and South America have pointed out potential problems with attempts to improve acoustical performance in building spaces at the expense of using acoustical treatments that may have poor performance in fire situations. Foam plastic products, sometimes not designed for exposed use in buildings, can ignite quickly and spread fire rapidly throughout a building space, resulting in fire victims being trapped within the building or not being afforded the needed safe egress time. There are ways of achieving equivalent and even superior acoustical performance without sacrificing fire safety. Acoustical products are available which can add comparable or superior acoustical treatment without the fire hazard associated with exposed foam plastic materials. This presentation is a review of the U.S. code requirements of interior finish materials, the various types of fire tests that are applied to these products, and a discussion of the achievable fire and acoustical performance.

  6. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Instrumental Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2008-01-01

    The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers…

  7. Achieving real-time performance in FIESTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, William; Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Quillin, Robert; Carlisle, Candace

    1988-01-01

    The Fault Isolation Expert System for TDRSS Applications (FIESTA) is targeted for operation in a real-time online environment. Initial stages of the prototype development concentrated on acquisition and representation of the knowledge necessary to isolate faults in the TDRSS Network. Recent efforts focused on achieving real-time performance including: a discussion of the meaning of FIESTA real-time requirements, determination of performance levels (benchmarking) and techniques for optimization. Optimization techniques presented include redesign of critical relations, filtering of redundant data and optimization of patterns used in rules. Results are summarized.

  8. Competition and the Performance of English Secondary Schools: Further Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levacic, Rosalind

    2004-01-01

    Both advocates of competition as a means to better school performance and economics-based research on this issue assume a direct relationship between a more competitive market structure (in terms of the number and concentration of schools in a local market) and better school performance. This is an application to schools of the…

  9. Contribution to hospital performance: market orientation vs. marketing effort and lack of competition.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Marketing is still viewed with some skepticism by some hospital administrators who wonder if marketing is needed when the hospital is in a benign competitive environment. This research seeks to investigate the contribution of a marketing orientation to hospital performance beyond what can be achieved by merely spending money on promotion or not facing stiff competition. Findings reveal that having an authentic market orientation makes a significant contribution to a hospital's success above what can be achieved through promotional budgets and lack of competition.

  10. Peer relationships in adolescent competitive soccer: associations to perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Yngvar; Roberts, Glyn C; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas; Miller, Blake W

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the perceived motivational climate, achievement goals, perfectionism and indices of peer relationships in a sample of young male and female Norwegian soccer players. The sample consisted of 1719 experienced soccer players (1231 males, 488 females) aged 12-19 years (mean = 14.9 years) participating in the Norway Cup international youth soccer competition. The players responded to a questionnaire measuring perceived peer acceptance and quality of friendship in soccer, perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism in soccer. Canonical correlation analyses revealed that young female players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly mastery oriented, and who were moderately task oriented and scored negatively on maladaptive perfectionism, reported better relations with their peers in soccer. Constructive peer relations were evident in that they scored positively on companionship with their best friend in soccer; they perceived this friend as being loyal and allowing of free discussion, and they reported being socially accepted by their peers in soccer. Mirroring these findings, young male players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly performance oriented, who had a moderately negative score on task orientation but a quite strong positive score on maladaptive perfectionism, reported negative relationships with peers in terms of these aspects. They also reported being in conflict with their best soccer friend. The findings suggest that the qualities of motivation have a systematic relationship with peer acceptance and the quality of friendship in male and female youth soccer.

  11. Achievement goals, competition appraisals, and the psychological and emotional welfare of sport participants.

    PubMed

    Adie, James W; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2008-06-01

    Grounded in the 2x2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), a model was tested examining the hypothesized relationships between approach and avoidance (mastery and performance) goals, challenge and threat appraisals of sport competition, and positive and negative indices of well-being (i.e., self-esteem, positive, and negative affect). A further aim was to determine the degree to which the cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between the four achievement goals and the indicators of athletes' welfare. Finally, measurement and structural invariance was tested with respect to gender in the hypothesized model. An alternative model was also estimated specifying self-esteem as an antecedent of the four goals and cognitive appraisals. Four hundred and twenty-four team sport participants (Mage=24.25) responded to a multisection questionnaire. Structural equation modeling analyses provided support for the hypothesized model only. Challenge and threat appraisals partially mediated the relationships observed between mastery-based goals and the well-being indicators. Lastly, the hypothesized model was found to be invariant across gender.

  12. Achieving Competitive Advantage in Human Resource Management in General School District of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al dakeel, Taghreed M.; Almannie, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    The general school district of Riyadh is one of largest in the country of (45) school districts in Saudi Arabia. The school districts play an important roles in the development of education, therefore the objective of the study is to examine the roles of the management in the school districts to see if it is achieving competitive advantage. After…

  13. Unique aspects of competitive weightlifting: performance, training and physiology.

    PubMed

    Storey, Adam; Smith, Heather K

    2012-09-01

    Weightlifting is a dynamic strength and power sport in which two, multijoint, whole-body lifts are performed in competition; the snatch and clean and jerk. During the performance of these lifts, weightlifters have achieved some of the highest absolute and relative peak power outputs reported in the literature. The training structure of competitive weightlifters is characterized by the frequent use of high-intensity resistance exercise movements. Varied coaching and training philosophies currently exist around the world and further research is required to substantiate the best type of training programme for male and female weightlifters of various age groups. As competitive weightlifting is contested over eight male and seven female body weight categories, the anthropometric characteristics of the athletes widely ranges. The body compositions of weightlifters are similar to that of athletes of comparable body mass in other strength and power sports. However, the shorter height and limb lengths of weightlifters provide mechanical advantages when lifting heavy loads by reducing the mechanical torque and the vertical distance that the barbell must be displaced. Furthermore, the shorter body dimensions coincide with a greater mean skeletal muscle cross-sectional area that is advantageous to weightlifting performance. Weightlifting training induces a high metabolic cost. Although dietary records demonstrate that weightlifters typically meet their required daily energy intake, weightlifters have been shown to over consume protein and fat at the expense of adequate carbohydrate. The resulting macronutrient imbalance may not yield optimal performance gains. Cross-sectional data suggest that weightlifting training induces type IIX to IIA fibre-type transformation. Furthermore, weightlifters exhibit hypertrophy of type II fibres that is advantageous to weightlifting performance and maximal force production. As such, the isometric peak force and contractile rate of force

  14. Competitiveness and the Process of Co-adaptation in Team Sport Performance

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2016-01-01

    An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete’s behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals toward different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs. PMID:27777565

  15. Progression and variability of competitive performance of Olympic swimmers.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David; Trewin, Cassie; Hopkins, William

    2004-07-01

    Estimates of progression and variability of athletic performance in competitions are useful for researchers and practitioners interested in factors that affect performance. We used repeated-measures mixed modelling to analyse 676 official race times of 26 US and 25 Australian Olympic swimmers in the 12-month period leading up to the 2000 Olympic Games. Progression was expressed as percent changes in mean performance; variability was expressed as the coefficient of variation in performance of an individual swimmer between races. Within competitions, both nations showed similar improvements in mean time from heats through finals (overall 1.2%; 95% confidence limits 1.1 to 1.3%). Mean competition time also improved over 12 months by a similar amount in both nations (0.9%; 95% confidence limits 0.6 to 1.2%). The US swimmers showed a greater improvement between the finals (a difference of 0.5%; 95% confidence limits -0.2 to 1.1%), which paralleled changes in the medal haul of the two nations. The coefficient of variation in performance time for a swimmer between races was 0.60% (95% confidence limits 0.56 to 0.65%) within a competition and 0.80% (95% confidence limits 0.73 to 0.86%) between competitions. Our results show that: (a) to stay in contention for a medal, an Olympic swimmer should improve his or her performance by approximately 1% within a competition and by approximately 1% within the year leading up to the Olympics; (b) an additional enhancement of approximately 0.4% (one-half the between-competition variability) would substantially increase the swimmer's chances of a medal.

  16. Plasma performance in JET: Achievements and projections

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, A.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of recent experimental advances on JET, especially as they relate to fusion performance. Scaling relations are used to identify the critical parameters which need to be optimized to secure the best fusion performance. Finally the established best performance of JET is used as a base to project the performance to be expected in future D-T operation. 13 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Achievement Components of Stanford-Binet Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Ernest D.; And Others

    A curriculum was devised by working backward from Stanford-Binet items to specification of a universe of content for which the Stanford-Binet could serve as a content-valid achievement test. It was reasoned that this curriculum should home. This curriculum was tested on 20 4-year-old disadvantaged children in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. The…

  18. Psychological Preparation for Peak Performance in Sports Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohuruogu, Ben; Jonathan, Ugwuanyi I.; Ikechukwu, Ugwu Jude

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to make an overview of various techniques, sport psychologist adopt in psychological preparation of athletes for peak performance. To attain peak performance in sports competitions, coaches and athletes should not base their prospect on physical training on sport skills alone rather should integrate both the mental and physical…

  19. Performance Strategies of US Olympians in Practice and Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marcus K.; Gould, Daniel; Rolo, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, no self-report instruments have examined psychological skills use in both practice and competition. In light of the significant role of practice in sport performance outcomes, a need exists to measure these skills in both domains. This study was designed to investigate differences in performance strategies of US Olympians in both…

  20. Competition, Cream-Skimming and Department Performance within Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter; Telhaj, Shqiponje; Hutton, David; Adnett, Nick; Coe, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The performance of departments has been largely neglected in previous studies of subject choice in secondary schools. This is a significant omission because analysis at departmental level enables a fuller assessment of the effects of competition and specialisation on pupil performance. This paper examines relationships between both absolute and…

  1. Achieve Maximum Band Performance from Minimal Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudgers, Gregory B.

    1984-01-01

    Suggestions are made to help music teachers with limited resources, such as a low budget, poor quality instruments, and small amounts of rehearsal time, develop a band that provides quality performance. Suggestions include properly maintaining student-model instruments and designing a lesson format for a private lesson and using it in group…

  2. Influence of occlusal splint on competitive athletes performances

    PubMed Central

    D’Ermes, Vittorio; Basile, Mario; Rampello, Alessandro; Di Paolo, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of an orthopedic oral device on the performance of competitive athletes. Seven athletes from different sports have been examined during athletic tests with and without an oral device. The athletes were examined by two calibrated gnathologic operators and with specific radiography. All of the subjects were submitted to a postural exam on an electronic platform with and without the oral device applied. All subjects underwent objective tests, performed by federal trainers in specialized centers, to evaluate the athletic performance with and without the occlusal splint. The results showed an improvement of all the tests carried out. Our findings lead us to believe that the use of a costumed oral device, it is able to optimize neuro-muscular coordination and to improve the competitive performance of athletes, while the muscular strength not respond significantly. PMID:23386932

  3. Analysis of competition performance in dressage and show jumping of Dutch Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Rovere, G; Ducro, B J; van Arendonk, J A M; Norberg, E; Madsen, P

    2016-12-01

    Most Warmblood horse studbooks aim to improve the performance in dressage and show jumping. The Dutch Royal Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) includes the highest score achieved in competition by a horse to evaluate its genetic ability of performance. However, the records collected during competition are associated with some aspects that might affect the quality of the genetic evaluation based on these records. These aspects include the influence of rider, censoring and preselection of the data. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of rider effect, censoring and preselection on the genetic analysis of competition data of dressage and show jumping of KWPN. Different models including rider effect were evaluated. To assess the impact of censoring, genetic parameters were estimated in data sets that differed in the degree of censoring. The effect of preselection on variance components was analysed by defining a binary trait (sport-status) depending on whether the horse has a competition record or not. This trait was included in a bivariate model with the competition trait and used all horses registered by KWPN since 1984. Results showed that performance in competition for dressage and show jumping is a heritable trait (h(2) ~ 0.11-0.13) and that it is important to account for the effect of rider in the genetic analysis. Censoring had a small effect on the genetic parameter for highest performance achieved by the horse. A moderate heritability obtained for sport-status indicates that preselection has a genetic basis, but the effect on genetic parameters was relatively small.

  4. The effect of achievement goals on enjoyment, effort, satisfaction and performance.

    PubMed

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of achievement goals and achievement emotions on sport satisfaction, performance and effort among competitive athletes. Participants were 200 athletes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of mastery-approach goals on satisfaction with sport experience and performance, the direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and effort, the direct effect of performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals on performance, and the direct effect of mastery-avoidance goals on effort. Results showed a positive direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and an indirect effect, through enjoyment, on satisfaction, performance, and effort. We did not find support for the hypothesized effect of performance-approach or performance-avoidance goals on performance. The applied implications of endorsing mastery-approach goals are discussed.

  5. The Role of Culture, Competitiveness and Economic Performance in Explaining Academic Performance: A Global Market Analysis for International Student Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Chris; Hamin

    2011-01-01

    A nation's culture, competitiveness and economic performance explain academic performance. Partial Least Squares (PLS) testing of 2252 students shows culture affects competitiveness and academic performance. Culture and economic performance each explain 32%; competitiveness 36%. The model predicts academic performance when culture, competitiveness…

  6. Quiet eye training facilitates competitive putting performance in elite golfers.

    PubMed

    Vine, Samuel J; Moore, Lee J; Wilson, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a brief quiet eye (QE) training intervention aimed at optimizing visuomotor control and putting performance of elite golfers under pressure, and in real competition. Twenty-two elite golfers (mean handicap 2.7) recorded putting statistics over 10 rounds of competitive golf before attending training individually. Having been randomly assigned to either a QE training or Control group, participants were fitted with an Applied Science Laboratories Mobile Eye tracker and performed 20 baseline (pre-test) putts from 10 ft. Training consisted of video feedback of their gaze behavior while they completed 20 putts; however the QE-trained group received additional instructions related to maintaining a longer QE period. Participants then recorded their putting statistics over a further 10 competitive rounds and re-visited the laboratory for retention and pressure tests of their visuomotor control and putting performance. Overall, the results were supportive of the efficacy of the QE training intervention. QE duration predicted 43% of the variance in putting performance, underlying its critical role in the visuomotor control of putting. The QE-trained group maintained their optimal QE under pressure conditions, whereas the Control group experienced reductions in QE when anxious, with subsequent effects on performance. Although their performance was similar in the pre-test, the QE-trained group holed more putts and left the ball closer to the hole on missed putts than their Control group counterparts in the pressure test. Importantly, these advantages transferred to the golf course, where QE-trained golfers made 1.9 fewer putts per round, compared to pre-training, whereas the Control group showed no change in their putting statistics. These results reveal that QE training, incorporated into a pre-shot routine, is an effective intervention to help golfers maintain control when anxious.

  7. A fuzzy model for achieving lean attributes for competitive advantages development using AHP-QFD-PROMETHEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roghanian, E.; Alipour, Mohammad

    2014-06-01

    Lean production has become an integral part of the manufacturing landscape as its link with superior performance and its ability to provide competitive advantage is well accepted among academics and practitioners. Lean production helps producers in overcoming the challenges organizations face through using powerful tools and enablers. However, most companies are faced with restricted resources such as financial and human resources, time, etc., in using these enablers, and are not capable of implementing all these techniques. Therefore, identifying and selecting the most appropriate and efficient tool can be a significant challenge for many companies. Hence, this literature seeks to combine competitive advantages, lean attributes, and lean enablers to determine the most appropriate enablers for improvement of lean attributes. Quality function deployment in fuzzy environment and house of quality matrix are implemented. Throughout the methodology, fuzzy logic is the basis for translating linguistic judgments required for the relationships and correlation matrix to numerical values. Moreover, for final ranking of lean enablers, a multi-criteria decision-making method (PROMETHEE) is adopted. Finally, a case study in automotive industry is presented to illustrate the implementation of the proposed methodology.

  8. Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was…

  9. Competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1997-01-01

    Our ambivalence toward competition can be traced to an unspoken preference for certain types of competition which give us an advantage over the types we value less. Four types are defined (a) pure (same rules, same objectives), (b) collaborative (same rules, shared objective), (c) market share (different rules, same objectives), and (d) market growth (different rules, value added orientation). The defining characteristics of the four types of competition are respectively: needing a referee, arguing over the spoils, differentiation and substitutability, and customer focus. Dentistry has features of all four types of competition, thus making it difficult to have a meaningful discussion or frame a coherent policy on this topic.

  10. Pre-performance psychological states and performance in an elite climbing competition.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, X; Boschker, M S J; Llewellyn, D J

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between pre-performance psychological states and expert performance in non-traditional sport competition. Nineteen elite male sport climbers (M=24.6, SD=4.0 years of age) completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule before an international rock climbing competition. Climbing performances were video-recorded to calculate movement fluency (entropy) and obtain ascent times. Official route scores were also obtained. Successful climbers reported higher pre-performance levels of somatic anxiety and climbed the most difficult part of the route more slowly than their unsuccessful counterparts. The psychological states preceding elite climbing competition appeared to be an important factor in determining success, even when differences in baseline ability were taken into account.

  11. Performance under Competitive and Self-Competitive Fixed-Interval Schedules of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saville, Bryan K.

    2009-01-01

    Participants completed blocks of trials under simple (i.e., work-alone), competitive, and self-competitive fixed-interval 20-s schedules of reinforcement. In general, response rates were highest during competition and lowest while working alone. In addition, whereas participants emitted responses at a constant rate while working alone, competitive…

  12. Achievement Test Performance of Intellectually Advanced Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorr, David N.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study assessed the feasibility of using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) with 24 intellectually precocious preschoolers. Ss' performances suggested that the PIAT is an appropriate instrument for assessing the academic skills of intellectually advanced preschoolers. (SBH)

  13. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agencies are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.

  14. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    DOE PAGES

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agenciesmore » are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.« less

  15. Warm-up and performance in competitive swimming.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marinho, Daniel A

    2014-03-01

    Warm-up before physical activity is commonly accepted to be fundamental, and any priming practices are usually thought to optimize performance. However, specifically in swimming, studies on the effects of warm-up are scarce, which may be due to the swimming pool environment, which has a high temperature and humidity, and to the complexity of warm-up procedures. The purpose of this study is to review and summarize the different studies on how warming up affects swimming performance, and to develop recommendations for improving the efficiency of warm-up before competition. Most of the main proposed effects of warm-up, such as elevated core and muscular temperatures, increased blood flow and oxygen delivery to muscle cells and higher efficiency of muscle contractions, support the hypothesis that warm-up enhances performance. However, while many researchers have reported improvements in performance after warm-up, others have found no benefits to warm-up. This lack of consensus emphasizes the need to evaluate the real effects of warm-up and optimize its design. Little is known about the effectiveness of warm-up in competitive swimming, and the variety of warm-up methods and swimming events studied makes it difficult to compare the published conclusions about the role of warm-up in swimming. Recent findings have shown that warm-up has a positive effect on the swimmer's performance, especially for distances greater than 200 m. We recommend that swimmers warm-up for a relatively moderate distance (between 1,000 and 1,500 m) with a proper intensity (a brief approach to race pace velocity) and recovery time sufficient to prevent the early onset of fatigue and to allow the restoration of energy reserves (8-20 min).

  16. Competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihan, Charles E.

    1991-03-01

    Competition is defined as a spirited, sometimes ruthless, engagement of rivals such as in a race, a match, or an effort by one person to sell goods or services to customers in the marketplace of another. Sound familiar? If you will bear with me for a few minutes, I would like to examine competitiveness on a more global basis with emphasis on the rules of the game. You may be thinking that more often than not the competitive arena is relatively small and far from global, and its consequences are singularly influential on a trivial document called the P & L. However, with the newly established freedom of a major segment of the world population and with the industrial capability formerly known as Communist moving into what has heretofore been "our" limited arena, the competition could get very brisk. Brisk, and perhaps ruthless, unless we work together to try to establish an international industrial policy that is truly based on equality of competitive opportunity for all.

  17. The Competition-Performance Relation: A Meta-Analytic Review and Test of the Opposing Processes Model of Competition and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Elliot, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    What is the relation between competition and performance? The present research addresses this important multidisciplinary question by conducting a meta-analysis of existing empirical work and by proposing a new conceptual model--the opposing processes model of competition and performance. This model was tested by conducting an additional…

  18. Competition and Performance: More Facts, More Understanding? Comment on Murayama and Elliot (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Roseth, Cary J.

    2012-01-01

    Murayama and Elliot (2012) made a significant contribution to the literature on competition by presenting the results of 2 meta-analyses and 3 primary studies on the relation between competition and performance. Murayama and Elliot established that in general, there is no relationship between competition and performance. They then made the case…

  19. The student-institution fit at university: interactive effects of academic competition and social class on achievement goals

    PubMed Central

    Sommet, Nicolas; Quiamzade, Alain; Jury, Mickaël; Mugny, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    As compared to continuing-generation students, first-generation students are struggling more at university. In the present article, we question the unconditional nature of such a phenomenon and argue that it depends on structural competition. Indeed, most academic departments use harsh selection procedure all throughout the curriculum, fostering between-student competition. In these departments, first-generation students tend to suffer from a lack of student-institution fit, that is, inconsistencies with the competitive institution’s culture, practices, and identity. However, one might contend that in less competitive academic departments continuing-generation students might be the ones experiencing a lack of fit. Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the consequences of such a context- and category-dependent lack of fit on the endorsement of scholastically adaptive goals. We surveyed N = 378 first- and continuing-generation students from either a more competitive or a less competitive department in their first or final year of bachelor’s study. In the more competitive department, first-to-third year decrease of mastery goals (i.e., the desire to learn) was found to be steeper for first- than for continuing-generation students. In the less competitive department, the reversed pattern was found. Moreover, first-to-third year decrease of performance goals (i.e., the desire to outperform others) was found to be steeper within the less competitive department but did not depend on social class. This single-site preliminary research highlights the need to take the academic context into account when studying the social class graduation gap. PMID:26124732

  20. Achieving High Performance on the i860 Microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, King; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The i860 is a high performance microprocessor used in the Intel Touchstone project. This paper proposes a paradigm for programming the i860 that is modelled on the vector instructions of the Cray computers. Fortran callable assembler subroutines were written that mimic the concurrent vector instructions of the Cray. Cache takes the place of vector registers. Using this paradigm we have achieved twice the performance of compiled code on a traditional solve.

  1. Reasoning Dimensions Underlying Science Achievement: The Case of Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Carlos Cuauhtemoc; Shavelson, Richard J.; Yin, Yue; Schultz, Susan E.

    2002-01-01

    Studied reasoning dimensions underlying science achievement in a test made of items from three national and international examinations and items from only one of the tests (National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988; NELS:88) and in performance test results for 35 students from the larger study. Findings provide tentative support for three…

  2. The Effect of Contiguity on Informational Achievement and Psychomotor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Donald W.

    Using a randomized block design and involving the participation of 73 fifth, sixth, and seventh grade pupils, this study sought to ascertain the relative effects of traditional, varied and integrated contiguity on the achievement of information content and the performance of a psychomotor task. The informational content selected for the study…

  3. Academic Performance Related to Achievement Motive and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuensch, Karl L.; Lao, Rosina C.

    Nine groups of undergraduate students were formed on the basis of one-third splits of the distributions of their scores on an internality-externality measure and on an achievement motive measure. Academic performance was measured by obtaining grade point averages for all subjects. Analysis of variance showed that internal students made higher…

  4. Equity and Competitiveness: Contradictions between the Identification of Educational Skills and Educational Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Amelia Molina

    2013-01-01

    As a starting point, this paper raises various questions to explain the teaching conditions that exist in rural communities and the learning conditions faced by children assigned to the rural community education mode. Equity and competitiveness are the conceptual axis used in the descriptive construction a documentary analysis and my personal…

  5. 31 CFR 515.567 - Public performances, clinics, workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions. 515.567 Section 515.567 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 515.567 Public performances, clinics, workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions. (a) Amateur and semi-professional international sports federation competitions. Specific...

  6. 31 CFR 515.567 - Public performances, clinics, workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions. 515.567 Section 515.567 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 515.567 Public performances, clinics, workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions. (a) Amateur and semi-professional international sports federation competitions. Specific...

  7. 31 CFR 515.567 - Public performances, clinics, workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions. 515.567 Section 515.567 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 515.567 Public performances, clinics, workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions. (a) Amateur and semi-professional international sports federation competitions. Specific...

  8. Metrics help rural hospitals achieve world-class performance.

    PubMed

    Goodspeed, Scott W

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the emerging trend of using metrics in rural hospitals to achieve world-class performance. This trend is a response to the fact that rural hospitals have small patient volumes yet must maintain a profit margin in order to fulfill their mission to the community. The conceptual idea for this article is based largely on Robert Kaplan and David Norton's Balanced Scorecard articles in the Harvard Business Review. The ideas also come from the experiences of the 60-plus rural hospitals that are using the Balanced Scorecard and their implementation of metrics to influence performance and behavior. It is indeed possible for rural hospitals to meet and exceed the unique needs of patients and physicians (customers), to achieve healthy profit margins, and to be the rural hospital of choice that employees are proud to work for.

  9. Achieving optimum sports performance during Ramadan: some practical recommendations.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J; Zerguini, Yacine; Chalabi, Hakim; Dvorak, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Muslim athletes should fast from sunrise to sunset each day throughout the 30 days of Ramadan. Most athletes will continue to train throughout Ramadan, and they may also be required to compete at this time, but they will also engage in the religious, cultural, and social activities that Ramadan represents. The available evidence indicates that high-level athletes can maintain performance during Ramadan if physical training, food and fluid intake, and sleep are appropriate and well controlled. Individualized monitoring of athletes may help to prevent fatigue and overtraining and to reduce the risk of consequent illness and injury. The timing and intensity of training may require adjustment to optimize the training response, and training close to or after sunset may have advantages, but this will vary between individual and team sports and between environments that are predominantly Muslim and those that are predominantly non-Muslim. Training late in the day allows nutrition interventions after training to promote adaptations to the training stimulus, to promote recovery, and might help to reduce muscle damage. Sleep deficits have a number of adverse effects on well-being and performance, and athletes should ensure adequate sleep throughout Ramadan. In non-Muslim majority environments, especially in team sports, coaches and athletes should be sensitive to the needs of their team-mates who may be fasting. Event organizers should take account of the needs of Muslim athletes when scheduling the dates and timings of sports competitions.

  10. Achieving Mental Health Care Parity Might Require Changes In Payments And Competition

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most prominent features of the Affordable Care Act has been the promotion of individual health plans chosen by consumers in the Marketplaces. These plans are subject to regulation and paid by risk-adjusted capitation, a set of policies known as managed competition. Individual health insurance markets, however, are vulnerable to what economists describe as efficiency problems stemming from adverse selection, and Marketplaces are no exception. Health plans have incentives to discriminate against services used by people with certain chronic illnesses, including mental health conditions. Parity regulations, which dictate coverage for mental health benefits on par with medical and surgical benefits, can eliminate discrimination in coverage but redirect discrimination toward hard-to-regulate tactics from managed care such as restrictive network design and provider payment. This article reviews policy options to contend with ongoing selection issues. “Better enforcement” of parity has less chance of success than more fundamental but feasible changes in the way plans are paid or in the way competition among plans is structured. PMID:27269019

  11. Game Performance Versus Competitive Performance in the World Championship of Handball 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Óscar; Ruiz, José L.

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the game performance of the teams participating in the Men’s World Championship of Handball of 2011 by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the cross-efficiency evaluation. DEA uses Linear Programming to yield a measure of the overall performance of the game of particular teams, and allows us to identify relative strengths and weaknesses by means of benchmarking analysis. The cross-efficiency evaluation provides a peer-appraisal of the teams with different patterns of game, and makes it possible to rank them. Comparisons between this ranking and the final classification in the championship provide an insight into the game performance of the teams versus their competitive performance. We highlight the fact that France, which is the world champion, is also identified as an “all-round” performer in our game performance assessment. PMID:23717363

  12. Promoting Early Adolescents' Achievement and Peer Relationships: The Effects of Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Goal Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseth, Cary J.; Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    2008-01-01

    Emphasizing the developmental need for positive peer relationships, in this study the authors tested a social-contextual view of the mechanisms and processes by which early adolescents' achievement and peer relationships may be promoted simultaneously. Meta-analysis was used to review 148 independent studies comparing the relative effectiveness of…

  13. Achieving Gender Equity in Science Class: Shift from Competition to Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esiobu, G. O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to verify the impact of cooperative learning as an intervention strategy towards the achievement of peace, equality and equity in the science classroom as part of the democratic process necessary for sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach: The study sample comprised 56 SSS 2 students in one public…

  14. Competitive Research Grants and Their Impact on Career Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Carter; Graversen, Ebbe Krogh; Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    The role of competitive funds as a source of funding for academic research has increased in many countries. For the individual researcher, the receipt of a grant can influence both scientific production and career paths. This paper focuses on the importance of the receipt of a research grant for researchers' academic career paths utilizing a…

  15. Musculoskeletal performance testing and profiling of elite competitive fencers.

    PubMed

    Sapega, A A; Minkoff, J; Valsamis, M; Nicholas, J A

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-four male members of the 1976 United States Olympic Fencing Squad were profiled. Data were collected on anthropometry; flexibility; and muscular strength, endurance, and power. Five of the physical variables measured in the laboratory were shown to have a significant relationship to competitive success.

  16. Achieving breakthrough performance in an integrated delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kelliher, M

    1995-01-01

    The challenges facing Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Massachusetts were considerable. Its products were largely indemnity-oriented. Its cost structure was high compared to the newer managed care industry. Its service culture was more internally directed than the competition. Its financing and payment systems were not well integrated into the delivery system. The ultimate challenge in the face of an increasingly competitive environment was to reengineer the company.

  17. Salivary concentrations of cortisol and testosterone and prediction of performance in a professional triathlon competition.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, Cláudio Heitor; Garcia, Marcia Carvalho; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Celia

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations in professional male athletes during a short triathlon competition using non-invasive methods, and to determine whether these hormone concentrations could be accurate predictors of performance. Eight adult male athletes (age, mean ± SEM: 27.8 ± 3.2 years; body mass index: 21.66 ± 0.42) in a professional triathlon team volunteered to participate in this study. Saliva samples were taken on the competition day and 7 days after competition on a rest day. The performance of the athletes was assessed by their rank order in the competition. Salivary cortisol concentrations were greater on the competition day than on the rest day in the early morning, immediately after waking up, 30 min later, immediately before the start of the competition, and later in the evening. Testosterone concentrations were greater on the competition day in the morning and in the evening. The diurnal rhythm of both cortisol and testosterone concentrations was maintained on both days and the testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C ratio) was similar between days. The performance of the athletes was positively correlated with salivary cortisol concentration in the early morning of the competition day, but was not correlated with testosterone concentrations at any of the time points. In conclusion, early morning salivary cortisol concentration, but not T/C ratio, could be used to predict performance in athletes during a professional triathlon competition.

  18. Modelling the multidimensional niche by linking functional traits to competitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Daniel S.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Drake, John M.; Hall, David W.; Crowther, Thomas W.; Bradford, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Linking competitive outcomes to environmental conditions is necessary for understanding species' distributions and responses to environmental change. Despite this importance, generalizable approaches for predicting competitive outcomes across abiotic gradients are lacking, driven largely by the highly complex and context-dependent nature of biotic interactions. Here, we present and empirically test a novel niche model that uses functional traits to model the niche space of organisms and predict competitive outcomes of co-occurring populations across multiple resource gradients. The model makes no assumptions about the underlying mode of competition and instead applies to those settings where relative competitive ability across environments correlates with a quantifiable performance metric. To test the model, a series of controlled microcosm experiments were conducted using genetically related strains of a widespread microbe. The model identified trait microevolution and performance differences among strains, with the predicted competitive ability of each organism mapped across a two-dimensional carbon and nitrogen resource space. Areas of coexistence and competitive dominance between strains were identified, and the predicted competitive outcomes were validated in approximately 95% of the pairings. By linking trait variation to competitive ability, our work demonstrates a generalizable approach for predicting and modelling competitive outcomes across changing environmental contexts. PMID:26136444

  19. Competitive exclusion among fig wasps achieved via entrainment of host plant flowering phenology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Zhao, Rui; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Compton, Stephen G; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Molecular techniques are revealing increasing numbers of morphologically similar but co-existing cryptic species, challenging the niche theory. To understand the co-existence mechanism, we studied phenologies of morphologically similar species of fig wasps that pollinate the creeping fig (F. pumila) in eastern China. We compared phenologies of fig wasp emergence and host flowering at sites where one or both pollinators were present. At the site where both pollinators were present, we used sticky traps to capture the emerged fig wasps and identified species identity using mitochondrial DNA COI gene. We also genotyped F. pumila individuals of the three sites using polymorphic microsatellites to detect whether the host populations were differentiated. Male F. pumila produced two major crops annually, with figs receptive in spring and summer. A small partial third crop of receptive figs occurred in the autumn, but few of the second crop figs matured at that time. Hence, few pollinators were available to enter third crop figs and they mostly aborted, resulting in two generations of pollinating wasps each year, plus a partial third generation. Receptive figs were produced on male plants in spring and summer, timed to coincide with the release of short-lived adult pollinators from the same individual plants. Most plants were pollinated by a single species. Plants pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 1 released wasps earlier than those pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 3, with little overlap. Plants occupied by different pollinators were not spatially separated, nor genetically distinct. Our findings show that these differences created mismatches with the flight periods of the other Wiebesia species, largely 'reserving' individual plants for the resident pollinator species. This pre-emptive competitive displacement may prevent long term co-existence of the two pollinators.

  20. Reliability of 5-km Running Performance in a Competitive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Philip; Board, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of a 5-km time-trial during a competitive outdoor running event. Fifteen endurance runners (age = 29.5 ± 4.3 years, height = 1.75 ± 0.08 m, body mass = 71.0 ± 7.1 kg, 5-km lifetime personal best = 19:13 ± 1:13 minutes) completed two competitive 5-km time-trials over 2 weeks. No systematic…

  1. Strategies for Filling a Performance Gap between Practice and High-Level Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jin

    2010-01-01

    Many athletes display great sport skills in noncompetitive situations such as during practice, but fail to successfully execute these same skills in competition. Coaches often wonder (1) from a technical perspective, why is the good performance of athletes during practice sessions not transferred to actual competition; (2) what are the flaws of…

  2. Performance-Based Funding as an Instrument of Competition in German Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Dominic; Jaeger, Michael; Schwarzenberger, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    A central theme of approaches to new public management is the emulation of the market through state-induced competition. Basing state funding allocations on comparative performance is one way of setting an incentive for competitive practice amongst universities. Reforms in funding allocation have occurred in Germany at both state and university…

  3. Does Private School Competition Improve Public School Performance? The Case of Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Amrit

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for school leaving certificate (SLC) exam, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of private school competition on public school performance for the case of Nepal. The study uses the number of private schools in the neighborhood as a measure of competition. The identification…

  4. Information Systems, Competitive Dynamics, and Firm Performance: An Interpretive and Centering Resonance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannoy, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines, from a managerial interpretive perspective, how information systems contribute to firms' specific competitive actions and responses, and the resultant impacts upon firm performance. The findings from this research suggest that the answer may well lie within the role of information systems in firms' competitive dynamics…

  5. Competition and performance: more facts, more understanding? Comment on Murayama and Elliot (2012).

    PubMed

    Johnson, David W; Johnson, Roger T; Roseth, Cary J

    2012-11-01

    Murayama and Elliot (2012) made a significant contribution to the literature on competition by presenting the results of 2 meta-analyses and 3 primary studies on the relation between competition and performance. Murayama and Elliot established that in general, there is no relationship between competition and performance. They then made the case that the lack of relationship is due to 2 opposing processes (performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals) that cancel each other out. The meta-analyses made a significant contribution to the literature on competition but had problems with the way in which the types of competition were defined and the clarity of the control condition. Their opposing processes model suffers from the relatively high relationship between performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals, their failure to include likelihood of success or failure in their model, and the lack of specification of the process through which competition prompts one type of goal or the other. Their results do highlight the need for further research on competition focusing on the combination of personality traits and situational variables.

  6. Achieving fast timing performance with multiplexed SiPMs.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, M F; Cates, J W; Levin, C S

    2016-04-07

    Using time of flight (ToF) measurements for positron emission tomography (PET) is an attractive avenue for increasing the signal to noise (SNR) ratio of PET images. However, achieving excellent time resolution required for high SNR gain using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) requires many resource heavy high bandwidth readout channels. A method of multiplexing many SiPM signals into a single electronic channel would greatly simplify ToF PET systems. However, multiplexing SiPMs degrades time resolution because of added dark counts and signal shaping. In this work the relative contribution of dark counts and signal shaping to timing degradation is simulated and a baseline correction technique to mitigate the effect of multiplexing on the time resolution of analog SiPMs is simulated and experimentally verified. A charge sharing network for multiplexing is proposed and tested. Results show a full width at half maximum (FWHM) coincidence time resolution of [Formula: see text] ps for a single 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LYSO scintillation crystals coupled to an array of sixteen 3 mm  ×  3 mm SiPMs that are multiplexed to a single timing channel (in addition to 4 position channels). A [Formula: see text] array of 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LFS crystals showed an average FWHM coincidence time resolution of [Formula: see text] ps using the same timing scheme. All experiments were performed at room temperature with no thermal regulation. These results show that excellent time resolution for ToF can be achieved with a highly multiplexed analog SiPM readout.

  7. The Relationship between Coaches’ and Athletes’ Competitive Anxiety,and their Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mottaghi, Mahmoodreza; Atarodi, Alireza; Rohani, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to survey the relationship between coaches’ and athletes’ competitive anxiety, and their performance. Methods: This is a descriptive correlational study performed using a demographic questionnaire, an athletic performance checklist, and sport competition anxiety test designed by Martens consisting of 15 questions. The study population consisted of 540 players and 60 coaches from 60 futsal teams (5 main players, 4 reserves, and 1 coach for each team). All of the players and the coaches were surveyed in a census method and no sampling was done. The data were analyzed by SPSS software, using chi-square, and Pearson correlation coefficient test. Results: The results showed a positive significant relationship between the coaches’ anxiety level and sport competition anxiety level in the athletes (p = 0.019, r = 0.56). It also showed that there was a negative significant relationship between the coaches’ anxiety level and performance level of the athletes (p = 0.012, r = -0.80). A negative significant relationship was also demonstrated between the athletes’ competitive anxiety level, and their athletic experiences (p < 0.001, r = -0.45) and age (p = 0.001, r = -0.37). Conclusions: Coaches and officials should consider sport competition anxiety among athletes before and during competitions. Formal and planned competitions, training sessions, and preparation practices can be a major factor assisting to decrease athletes' anxiety. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24644512

  8. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood.

  9. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-11-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included purposeful planning, inquiry science instruction, and contextually rich academic science vocabulary development. In combination, these instructional practices rapidly improved student-science learning outcomes and narrowed achievement gaps across diverse student populations.

  10. No Student Left Behind: A Collaborative and Competitive Game-Based Learning Environment to Reduce the Achievement Gap of EFL Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hui-Chun; Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching; Lin, Chiu-Pin

    2015-01-01

    How to close the achievement gap in the classroom so that no student is left behind becomes one of the most important issues nowadays. This study aims to construct a collaborative and competitive game-based learning environment to improve English proficiencies and reduce the achievement gap for disadvantaged students. The Wireless Crossword…

  11. Competitive Game Play Attenuates Self-Other Integration during Joint Task Performance.

    PubMed

    Ruissen, Margit I; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2016-01-01

    Joint task performance is facilitated by sharing and integrating each other's action representations. Research has shown that the amount of this so-called self-other integration depends on situational aspects related to the social context, including differences in the social relationship between co-acting individuals. There are indications that a cooperative relationship facilitates self-other integration while a competitive relationship results in more individualistic task performance. However, findings from previous studies in which the cooperative or competitive element was manipulated during task performance are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study aimed to manipulate the social relationship between two individuals prior to performing a social Simon task. This task is frequently used to measure self-other integration and distinction processes. A mixed-within-and-between-subjects design was used in which three groups of participants performed both a standard Simon task and a social Simon task after having played a Tetris game either individually, in cooperation with a co-actor, or in competition against another participant. Performance on the standard Simon task was not affected by the Tetris manipulation. However, a sustained effect of the induced cooperative versus competitive relationship was found on the social Simon Task. Less self-other integration was found in participants who had first played a competitive Tetris game compared to participants who had played a cooperative or solo version of the game. The current study thus demonstrates that an established cooperative or competitive relationship is sufficient to modulate the degree of self-other integration on subsequent joint task performance. Importantly, by using Tetris, attention to others' actions was beneficial both during cooperative and competitive game play and can thus not explain the competition-induced reduction of self-other integration.

  12. Test Anxiety, Test Comfort and Student Achievement Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyans, Leslie J., Jr.

    The Illinois Inventory of Educational Progress (IIEP) Test Comfort Scale was administered and test results were studied in terms of student achievement and correlates of achievement. Using the revised, seven-item scale, it was determined that: in grade 4, there was no main significant effect for sex or ethnic differences, although Orientals and…

  13. Perceived ability and social support as mediators of achievement motivation and performance anxiety.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, F E; Roberts, G C; Pensgaard, A M; Ronglan, L T

    2008-12-01

    The present study is founded on achievement goal theory (AGT) and examines the relationship between motivation, social support and performance anxiety with team handball players (n=143) from 10 elite teams. Based on these theories and previous findings, the study has three purposes. First, it was predicted that the female athletes (n=69) would report more performance worries and more social support use than males (n=74). The findings support the hypothesis for anxiety, but not for social support use. However, females report that they felt social support was more available than males. Second, we predicted and found a positive relationship between the interaction of ego orientation and perceptions of a performance climate on performance anxiety, but only for females. As predicted, perceived ability mediated this relationship. Finally, we predicted that perceptions of a performance climate were related to the view that social support was less available especially for the male athletes. Simple correlation supports this prediction, but the regression analyses did not reach significance. Thus, we could not test for mediation of social support between motivational variables and anxiety. The results illustrate that fostering a mastery climate helps elite athletes tackle competitive pressure.

  14. The Role of Achievement Goals in the Development of Interest: Reciprocal Relations between Achievement Goals, Interest, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Durik, Amanda M.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Tauer, John M.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of individual and situational interest and academic performance were examined in the college classroom and 7 semesters later in conjunction with achievement goals. At the beginning of an introductory psychology course, participants reported their initial interest in psychology, achievement goals, and situational interest in course…

  15. The Effect of Performer Gender, Performer Skill Level, and Opponent Gender on Self-Confidence in a Competitive Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Evelyn G.

    1990-01-01

    Studies relationships among sex difference, performance expectation, and actual performance in video game competition between female and male subjects. Finds that self-confidence of females is not lower than that of males after competing against a good opponent, indicating that performance expectancies may be more related to skill level than to…

  16. Academic Performance as a Function of Achievement Motivation, Achievement Beliefs, and Affect States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, James J.; Plecha, Michelle D.

    Three pilot studies are used to examine the relationships between academic performance, student ability, and motivation among community college students. The first study analyzed the association between motivation and academic performance in order to test the hypothesis that students who are highly motivated will earn higher grades. Results…

  17. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  18. Differences in gender performance on competitive physics selection tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Kate; Low, David; Verdon, Matthew; Verdon, Alix

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics, which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the Asian and International Physics Olympiads. Students taking the exam are generally in their penultimate year of school and selected by teachers as being high performing in physics. Together with the overall differences in facility, we have investigated how the content and presentation of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) affects the particular answers selected by male and female students. Differences in the patterns of responses by male and female students indicate that males and females might be modeling situations in different ways. Some strong patterns were found in the gender gaps when the questions were categorized in five broad dimensions: content, process required, difficulty, presentation, and context. Almost all questions saw male students performing better, although gender differences were relatively small for questions with a more abstract context. Male students performed significantly better on most questions with a concrete context, although notable exceptions were found, including two such questions where female students performed better. Other categories that showed consistently large gaps favoring male students include questions with projectile motion and other two-dimensional motion or forces content, and processes involving interpreting diagrams. Our results have important implications, suggesting that we should be able to reduce the gender gaps in performance on MCQ tests by changing the way information is presented and setting questions in contexts that are less likely to favor males over females. This is important as MCQ tests are

  19. Muscular power, neuromuscular activation, and performance in shot put athletes at preseason and at competition period.

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Thomas A; Terzis, Gerasimos; Boudolos, Konstantinos; Georgiadis, Georgios

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in shot put performance, muscular power, and neuromuscular activation of the lower extremities, between the preseason and the competition period, in skilled shot put athletes using the rotational technique. Shot put performance was assessed at the start of the pre-season period as well as after 12 weeks, at the competition period, in nine shot putters. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right vastus lateralis muscle was recorded during all shot put trials. Maximum squat strength (1RM) and mechanical parameters during the countermovement jump (CMJ) on a force platform were also determined at pre-season and at competition period. Shot put performance increased 4.7% (p < 0.05), while 1RM squat increased 6.5% (p < 0.025). EMG activity during the delivery phase was increased significantly (p < 0.025) after the training period. Shot put performance was significantly related with muscular power and takeoff velocity during the CMJ, at competition period (r = 0.66, p < 0.05 and 0.70, p < 0.05), but not with maximum vertical force. One RM squat was not related significantly with shot put performance. These results suggest that muscular power of the lower extremities is a better predictor of rotational shot put performance than absolute muscular strength in skilled athletes, at least during the competition period.

  20. High performance computing and communications: Investment in American competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study performed by Gartner Group, Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through a contract with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of the study is to estimate the economic impact of the Federal High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program which was proposed by the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Executive Office of the President, on September 8, 1989. That Program is an implementation of the Research and Development Strategy for High Performance Computing, which was transmitted to Congress by OSTP on November 20, 1988. The objective of this Gartner Group study to provide an assessment of the likely economic impact and benefits of the Federal HPCC Program and the risks of non-support of this program. The goals of the HPCC Program are to: support computational advances through R and D effort; Reduce uncertainties to industry through increased cooperation and continued use of government as a market for High Performance Computing (HPC) prototypes; Support underlying research, network, and computational infrastructures; and support the U.S. human resource base.

  1. Differences in Gender Performance on Competitive Physics Selection Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kate; Low, David; Verdon, Matthew; Verdon, Alix

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics,which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the…

  2. Creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Mujika, I; Chatard, J C; Lacoste, L; Barale, F; Geyssant, A

    1996-11-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on sprint swimming performance and energy metabolism. Twenty highly trained swimmers (9 female, 11 male) were tested for blood ammonia and for blood lactate after the 25-, 50-, and 100-m performance in their best stroke on two occasions 7 d apart. After the first trial, subjects were evenly and randomly assigned to either a creatine (5 g creatine monohydrate 4 times per day for 5 d) or a placebo group (same dosage of a lactose placebo) in a double-blind research design. No significant differences in performance times were observed between trials. Post-exercise blood ammonia concentration decreased in the 50- and 100-m trials in the creatine group and in the 50-m trial in the placebo group. The supplementation period had no effect on post-exercise blood lactate. Therefore, creatine supplementation cannot be considered as an ergogenic aid for sprint performance in highly trained swimmers although adenine nucleotide degradation may be reduced during sprint exercise after 5 d of creatine ingestion.

  3. Competitive Learning Neural Network Ensemble Weighted by Predicted Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Ensemble approaches have been shown to enhance classification by combining the outputs from a set of voting classifiers. Diversity in error patterns among base classifiers promotes ensemble performance. Multi-task learning is an important characteristic for Neural Network classifiers. Introducing a secondary output unit that receives different…

  4. Relationships to skating performance in competitive hockey players.

    PubMed

    Farlinger, Chris M; Kruisselbrink, L Darren; Fowles, Jonathon R

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify off-ice variables that would correlate to on-ice skating sprint performance and cornering ability. Previous literature has not reported any off-ice testing variables that strongly correlate to on-ice cornering ability in ice hockey players. Thirty-six male hockey players aged 15-22 years (mean +/- SD: 16.3 +/- 1.7 years; weight = 70.8 +/- 10.4 kg; height = 175.6 +/- 4.1 cm) with an average of 10.3 +/- 3.0 years hockey playing experience (most at AA and AAA levels) participated in the study. The on-ice tests included a 35-m sprint and the cornering S test. The off-ice tests included the following: 30-m sprint, vertical jump, broad jump, 3 hop jump, Edgren side shuffle, Hexagon agility, side support, push-ups, and 15-second modified Wingate. The on-ice sprint test and cornering S test were strongly correlated (r = 0.70; p < 0.001). While many off-ice tests correlated with on-ice skating, measures of horizontal leg power (off-ice sprint and 3 hop jump) were the best predictors of on-ice skating performance, once weight and playing level were accounted for. These 4 variables accounted for a total of 78% (p < 0.0001) of the variance in on-ice sprint performance. No off-ice test accounted for unique variance in S-cornering performance beyond weight, playing level, and skating sprint performance. These data indicate that coaches should include horizontal power tests of off-ice sprint and 3 hop jump to adequately assess skating ability. To improve on-ice skating performance and cornering ability, coaches should also focus on the development of horizontal power through specific off-ice training, although future research will determine whether off-ice improvements in horizontal power directly transfer to improvements in on-ice skating.

  5. Student Achievement and Education System Performance in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Hok, Ung Ngo; Tinon, Souer; Veasna, Meung; Nissay, Put

    2012-01-01

    The global spread of national assessment testing activities, and the growing pressure to move beyond basic measures of participation in educational monitoring, means that student achievement measures are likely to become increasingly relevant indicators of systemic progress in the developing world. Using data from the CESSP project in Cambodia,…

  6. Mirror Analysis: How To Achieve Customer-Driven Human Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mourier, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Presents an evaluation/development method for achieving customer-driven improvement in organizations. Describes the steps to external and internal "mirror analysis," a process for determining if the organization functions as a mirror of customers' needs and expectations. Twelve figures illustrate factors in the process. (AEF)

  7. A Performance Model for Academic Achievement in Early Adolescent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBaryshe, Barbara D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study followed 206 adolescent boys and their families from the fourth through eighth grade to test a model for conduct-related school failure. Results indicated that low parental academic achievement was associated with ineffective discipline practices and child antisocial behavior in the sixth grade and that ineffective discipline had a…

  8. Pacing and Performance in Competitive Middle-Distance Speed Skating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Schindler, Christian; Panzer, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Data from speed skating during World Cup 1,500-m middle-distance races were analyzed to (a) determine the time/velocity distribution during the race and (b) assess the impact of time spent in several race sectors on performance outcome. Absolute and relative sector times for the first 300 m (S1) and the following three 400-m laps (S2-S4) and their…

  9. Acute Effect of Countermovement Jumping on Throwing Performance in Track and Field Athletes During Competition.

    PubMed

    Karampatsos, Giorgos P; Korfiatis, Panagiotis G; Zaras, Nikolaos D; Georgiadis, Giorgos V; Terzis, Gerasimos D

    2017-02-01

    Karampatsos, GP, Korfiatis, PG, Zaras, ND, Georgiadis, GV, and Terzis, GD. Acute effect of countermovement jumping on throwing performance in track and field athletes during competition. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 359-364, 2017-The purpose of the study was to investigate whether performing 3 consecutive countermovement jumps (CMJs) just before an attempt enhances performance in track and field throwers during competition. Twelve shot putters, 8 hammer throwers, 9 discus throwers, and 3 javelin throwers of both sexes participated in the study. They performed 3 maximal CMJs 85 ± 12 seconds before the second, fourth, and sixth attempt during 3 different official competitions of national level. Maximal strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM]) in squat and bench press was measured 1 week after the competition. Mean throwing performance was significantly higher after the CMJs intervention (2.66 ± 4.3%, range of increase 0.02-18.98%, p = 0.0001). Similarly, maximum throwing performance was significantly higher after the CMJs (2.76 ± 3.29%, range of increase 0.09-13.93%, p = 0.0009). All but 2 athletes increased their best performance after the CMJs. The percentage increase in performance was similar between sexes (male athletes 2.56 ± 3.01%; female athletes 3.06 ± 3.76%, p = 0.677), but it was higher for the "lighter throws" (discus and javelin throw: 4.66 ± 4.11%) compared with the "heavier throws" (shot and hammer throw: 1.62 ± 2.04%, p = 0.008). The percentage increase in performance was not significantly correlated with 1RM squat or bench press, anthropometric characteristics, and personal best performance. These results suggest that performing 3 CMJs approximately 1 minute before an attempt may increase track and field throwing performance during competition.

  10. Effects of Video-Based Cooperative, Competitive and Individualized Instructional Strategies on the Performance of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Daramola, Florence Olutunu; James, Moses

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of video-based cooperative, competitive and individualized instructional strategies on the performance of senior secondary schools' students in geometry in Nigeria. It also examined the influence of gender on students' achievement. Pretest, posttest, experimental control group design was adopted for this study.…

  11. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  12. Further Clarifying the Competition-Performance Relation: Reply to D. W. Johnson et al. (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Elliot, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    In their commentary, D. W. Johnson, Johnson, and Roseth (2012) provided some laudatory statements about our article, but they also expressed a number of concerns. The concerns focus on the following issues: types and definitions of competition, our choice of control group, the nature of performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals, the…

  13. Using Game Theory and Competition-Based Learning to Stimulate Student Motivation and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burguillo, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for using Game Theory tournaments as a base to implement Competition-based Learning (CnBL), together with other classical learning techniques, to motivate the students and increase their learning performance. The paper also presents a description of the learning activities performed along the past ten years of a…

  14. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches.

  15. Effect of 10 week beta-alanine supplementation on competition and training performance in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Chung, Weiliang; Shaw, Greg; Anderson, Megan E; Pyne, David B; Saunders, Philo U; Bishop, David J; Burke, Louise M

    2012-10-09

    Although some laboratory-based studies show an ergogenic effect with beta-alanine supplementation, there is a lack of field-based research in training and competition settings. Elite/Sub-elite swimmers (n = 23 males and 18 females, age = 21.7 ± 2.8 years; mean ± SD) were supplemented with either beta-alanine (4 weeks loading phase of 4.8 g/day and 3.2 g/day thereafter) or placebo for 10 weeks. Competition performance times were log-transformed, then evaluated before (National Championships) and after (international or national selection meet) supplementation. Swimmers also completed three standardized training sets at baseline, 4 and 10 weeks of supplementation. Capillary blood was analyzed for pH, bicarbonate and lactate concentration in both competition and training. There was an unclear effect (0.4%; ± 0.8%, mean, ± 90% confidence limits) of beta-alanine on competition performance compared to placebo with no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. While there was a transient improvement on training performance after 4 weeks with beta-alanine (-1.3%; ± 1.0%), there was an unclear effect at ten weeks (-0.2%; ± 1.5%) and no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. Beta-alanine supplementation appears to have minimal effect on swimming performance in non-laboratory controlled real-world training and competition settings.

  16. Orchestrating ACO success: how top performers achieve shared savings.

    PubMed

    Harris, John M; Elizondo, Idette; Brown, Amanda M

    2016-03-01

    Leaders of the top-performing accountable care organizations in the Medicare Shared Savings Program attribute the success of their organizations in large part to seven strategies: Seek action-oriented leadership. Transform primary care physician practices. Keep patients out of the emergency department. Ensure all transitions are smooth. Make effective use of available data. Share information on physician performance. Keep patients engaged.

  17. Some methods for achieving more efficient performance of fuel assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltenko, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    More efficient operation of reactor plant fuel assemblies can be achieved through the use of new technical solutions aimed at obtaining more uniform distribution of coolant over the fuel assembly section, more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces, and higher values of departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR). Technical solutions using which it is possible to obtain more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces and higher DNBR values in reactor plant fuel assemblies are considered. An alternative heat removal arrangement is described using which it is possible to obtain a significantly higher power density in a reactor plant and essentially lower maximal fuel rod temperature.

  18. Student Achievement Data Systems in High and Low Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowiak, Jeannie E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in how high and low performing elementary school districts use and analyze data to differentiate instruction, make changes to district/grade level curriculum, determine professional development needs, determine teacher effectiveness, and determine the use of school district…

  19. Blue judogi may bias competitive performance when seeding system is not used: sex, age, and level of competition effects.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Miarka, Bianca; Rosa, João P P; Lima, Giscard H O; Takito, Monica Y; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated whether the judogi colour (blue or white) could influence a combat outcome (victory or defeat) in 1,233 judo official combats. Sex, age group, and level of competition were also considered in the analysis. Binomial probability tests showed a higher probability of an athlete's winning a combat wearing blue judogi for both sexes, levels of competition (regional and state), and for the athletes of the junior and senior categories. Thus, blue judogi may bias competitive outcome for both sexes in regional and state level competitions and for athletes above junior age.

  20. Achieving Transformational Materials Performance in a New Era of Science

    ScienceCinema

    John Sarrao

    2016-07-12

    The inability of current materials to meet performance requirements is a key stumbling block for addressing grand challenges in energy and national security. Fortunately, materials research is on the brink of a new era - a transition from observation and validation of materials properties to prediction and control of materials performance. In this talk, I describe the nature of the current challenge, the prospects for success, and a specific facility concept, MaRIE, that will provide the needed capabilities to meet these challenges, especially for materials in extreme environments. MaRIE, for Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes, is Los Alamos' concept to realize this vision of 21st century materials research. This vision will be realized through enhancements to the current LANSCE accelerator, development of a fourth-generation x-ray light source co-located with the proton accelerator, and a comprehensive synthesis and characterization facility focused on controlling complex materials and the defect/structure link to materials performance.

  1. Six Challenges Are Key for High-Performing Schools that Aim to Achieve More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray-Taylor, Rossi; Baskerville, Sharon; Bruder, Shelley; Bennett, Elaine; Schulte, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Across the US, some schools are hallmarks of high academic performance. These schools display consistently high test performance, and their students are sought after by competitive colleges and universities. These schools are successful, with consistently above-average test scores, low dropout rates, high percentages of children attending college,…

  2. Acute effect of counter movement jumping on throwing performance in track and field athletes during competition.

    PubMed

    Karampatsos, Giorgos; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Zaras, Nikolaos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2016-05-25

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether performing three consecutive countermovement jumps (CMJs) just before an attempt enhances performance in track and field throwers during competition. Twelve shot putters, eight hammer throwers, nine discus throwers, and three javelin throwers of both genders participated in the study. They performed three maximal CMJs 85 ± 12 sec before the 2nd, 4th, and 6th attempt during three different official competitions of national level. Maximal strength (1-RM) in squat and bench press was measured one week after the competition. Mean throwing performance was significantly higher after the CMJs intervention (2.66 ± 4.3 %, range of increase 0.02 - 18.98 %, P = 0.0001). Similarly, maximum throwing performance was significantly higher after the CMJs (2.76 ± 3.29 %, range of increase 0.09 - 13.93 %, P = 0.0009). All but two athletes increased their best performance after the CMJs. The percentage increase in performance was similar between genders (male athletes 2.56 ± 3.01 %; female athletes 3.06 ± 3.76 %, P = 0.677) but it was higher for the "lighter throws" (discus and javelin throw: 4.66 ± 4.11 %) compared to the "heavier throws" (shot and hammer throw: 1.62 ± 2.04 %, P = 0.008). The percentage increase in performance was not significantly correlated with 1-RM squat or bench press, anthropometric characteristics, and personal best performance. These results suggest that performing three countermovement jumps approximately 1 minute before an attempt may increase track and field throwing performance during competition.

  3. Does Competition Affect Schools' Performance? Evidence from Italy through OECD-PISA Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso

    2011-01-01

    This article evaluates the impact of competition on the performance of Italian schools. The study is based on policy experiments developed in 2000 by the Lombardy Regional government which introduced a voucher plan to encourage families to enrol their children in private schools. After this intervention, many other Regions launched similar…

  4. Does Private School Competition Improve Public School Performance? The Case of Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Amrit

    2011-01-01

    In developed countries, the evidence on the impact of school type on student performance is mixed. Researchers are also interested in finding out the effect of private school competition on educational outcomes. The evidence on this for developed countries is mixed as well. What is the effect in developing countries? There are not sufficient…

  5. Effects of Competitive and Cooperative Learning Strategies on Academic Performance of Nigerian Students in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolawole, E. B.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the cooperative and competitive learning on academic performance of students in mathematics in order to find out which one of them is the more effective learning strategy. The sample of the study was 400 Senior Secondary Schools III, Mathematics students made up of 240 boys and 160 girls randomly selected…

  6. The Impact of Individual, Competitive, and Collaborative Mathematics Game Play on Learning, Performance, and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plass, Jan L.; O'Keefe, Paul A.; Homer, Bruce D.; Case, Jennifer; Hayward, Elizabeth O.; Stein, Murphy; Perlin, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The present research examined how mode of play in an educational mathematics video game impacts learning, performance, and motivation. The game was designed for the practice and automation of arithmetic skills to increase fluency and was adapted to allow for individual, competitive, or collaborative game play. Participants (N = 58) from urban…

  7. Theorizing Strategic Human Resource Development: Linking Financial Performance and Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Po

    2007-01-01

    This paper is to explore potential new underlying theory of strategic human resource development based on critiques of current theoretical foundations of HRD. It offers a new definition and model of Strategic HRD based on resource-based view of firm and human resource, with linkage to financial performance and competitiveness. Proposed new model…

  8. Interactive effects of herbivory and competition intensity determine invasive plant performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Carrillo, Juli; Ding, Jianqing; Siemann, Evan

    2012-10-01

    Herbivory can reduce plant fitness, and its effects can be increased by competition. Though numerous studies have examined the joint effects of herbivores and competitors on plant performance, these interactive effects are seldom considered in the context of plant invasions. Here, we examined variation in plant performance within a competitive environment in response to both specialist and generalist herbivores using Chinese tallow as a model species. We combined tallow plants from native and invasive populations to form all possible pairwise combinations, and designated invasive populations as stronger neighbours and native populations as weaker neighbours. We found that when no herbivory was imposed, invasive populations always had higher total biomass than natives, regardless of their neighbours, which is consistent with our assumption of increased competitive ability. Defoliation by either generalist or specialist herbivores suppressed plant growth but the effects of specialists were generally stronger for invasive populations. Invasive populations had their lowest biomass when fed upon by specialists while simultaneously competing with stronger neighbours. The root/shoot ratios of invasive populations were lower than those of native populations under almost all conditions, and invasive plants were taller than native plants overall, especially when herbivores were present, suggesting that invasive populations may adopt an "aboveground first" strategy to cope with herbivory and competition. These results suggest that release from herbivores, especially specialists, improves an invader's performance and helps to increase its competitive ability. Therefore, increasing interspecific competition intensity by planting a stronger neighbour while simultaneously releasing a specialist herbivore may be an especially effective method of managing invasive plants.

  9. Predicting Performance Achievement and Retention of Fifth-Grade Instrumental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinedinst, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a study of the ability of 11 variables to predict performance, achievement, teacher evaluation, and retention of fifth grade beginning instrumentalists. Reports that scholastic ability and academic achievement tests were leading predictors of performance achievement. Concludes that socioeconomic status and self-concept played prominent…

  10. Physiological responses and performance in a simulated trampoline gymnastics competition in elite male gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Peter; Scott, Suzanne; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2013-01-01

    Physiological responses and performance were examined during and after a simulated trampoline competition (STC). Fifteen elite trampoline gymnasts participated, of which eight completed two routines (EX1 and EX2) and a competition final (EX3). Trampoline-specific activities were quantified by video-analysis. Countermovement jump (CMJ) and 20 maximal trampoline jump (20-MTJ) performances were assessed. Heart rate (HR) and quadriceps muscle temperature (Tm) were recorded and venous blood was drawn. A total of 252 ± 16 jumps were performed during the STC. CMJ performance declined (P < 0.05) by 3.8, 5.2 and 4.2% after EX1, EX2 and EX3, respectively, and was 4.8% lower (P < 0.05) than baseline 24 h post-competition. 20-MTJ flight time was ~1% shorter (P < 0.05) for jump 1-10 after EX2 and 24 h post STC. Tm increased (P < 0.05) to ~39°C after the warm-up, but declined (P < 0.05) 1.0 and 0.6ºC before EX2 and EX3, respectively. Peak HR was 95-97% HRmax during EX1-3. Peak blood lactate, plasma K(+) and NH3 were 6.5 ± 0.5, 6.0 ± 0.2 mmol · l(-1) and 92 ± 10 µmol · l(-1), respectively. Plasma CK increased (P < 0.05) by ~50 and 65% 0 and 24 h after STC. In conclusion, a trampoline gymnastic competition includes a high number of repeated explosive and energy demanding jumps, which impairs jump performance during and 24 h post-competition.

  11. Achieving high sustained performance in an unstructured mesh CFD application

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D E; Anderson, W K; Gropp, W D; Kaushik, D K; Smith, B F

    1999-12-10

    This paper highlights a three-year project by an interdisciplinary team on a legacy F77 computational fluid dynamics code, with the aim of demonstrating that implicit unstructured grid simulations can execute at rates not far from those of explicit structured grid codes, provided attention is paid to data motion complexity and the reuse of data positioned at the levels of the memory hierarchy closest to the processor, in addition to traditional operation count complexity. The demonstration code is from NASA and the enabling parallel hardware and (freely available) software toolkit are from DOE, but the resulting methodology should be broadly applicable, and the hardware limitations exposed should allow programmers and vendors of parallel platforms to focus with greater encouragement on sparse codes with indirect addressing. This snapshot of ongoing work shows a performance of 15 microseconds per degree of freedom to steady-state convergence of Euler flow on a mesh with 2.8 million vertices using 3072 dual-processor nodes of ASCI Red, corresponding to a sustained floating-point rate of 0.227 Tflop/s.

  12. High-intensity interval training improves VO(2peak), maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9-11-year-old swimmers.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-11-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9-11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000 m time (T(100 m) and T(2,000 m)), VO(2peak) and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (Lac(max)). In a 5-week crossover study, 26 competitive swimmers with a mean (SD) age of 11.5 ± 1.4 years performed a training period of HIIT and HVT. Competition (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.48) and T(2,000 m) (P = 0.04; effect size = 0.21) performance increased following HIIT. No changes were found in T(100 m) (P = 0.20). Lac(max) increased following HIIT (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.43) and decreased after HVT (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.51). VO(2peak) increased following both interventions (P < 0.05; effect sizes = 0.46-0.57). The increases in competition performance, T(2,000 m), Lac(max) and VO(2peak) following HIIT were achieved in significantly less training time (~2 h/week).

  13. Effect of competitiveness on forty-yard dash performance in college men and women.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ashley N; Decker, Aaron J; Baarts, Jennifer N; Dupont, Andrea M; Epema, John S; Reuther, Michael C; Houser, Jeremy J; Mayhew, Jerry L

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine performance differences between individual and competitive trials of the 40-yard dash. Physically active college men (n = 25) and women (n = 29) performed an individual 40-yard dash, followed by completion of the Sports Competition Trait Inventory (SCTI) before performing a paired 40-yard dash against a time-matched competitor. All sprints were performed on an indoor rubberized track using photoelectric gates to start and stop a digital timer. In addition, 3 timers used hand-held stopwatches to record the individual sprint time. There was no significant difference (p = 0.10) between men (120.3 +/- 16.6) and women (111.7 +/- 20.3) on the SCTI. There was no significant difference between individual and competitive 40-yard dash times for either men (5.21 +/- 0.24 and 5.19 +/- 0.23 seconds, respectively) or women (6.12 +/- 0.31 and 6.11 +/- 0.32 seconds, respectively). The correlation between SCTI and both individual and competitive 40-yard dashes was significant (p < 0.05) for women (r = -0.45 and -0.44, respectively) but not for men (r = -0.10 and 0.10, respectively). Electronic times (5.70 +/- 0.54 seconds) were not significantly different from 1 hand-timer (5.71 +/- 0.56 seconds) but were significantly faster than the other 2 timers (5.80 +/- 0.58 and 5.82 +/- 0.57 seconds). Averaging the 3 hand times (5.78 +/- 0.56 seconds) for comparison with the electronic timing (5.70 +/- 0.54 seconds) produced a high correlation (r = 0.96) but a significantly slower time (p < 0.05). A competitive environment does not appear to improve short sprint times in either men or women. In addition, hand timing may not always produce faster times compared to electronic timing.

  14. Performance of Planted Herbaceous Species in Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) Plantations: Overstory Effects of Competition and Needlefall

    SciTech Connect

    Dagley, C.M.

    2001-07-03

    Research to determine the separate effects of above-ground and below-ground competition and needlefall of over-story pines on under-story plant performance. Periodic monitoring of over-story crown closure, soil water content, temperature, and nutrients were conducted. Results indicate competition for light had a more determental effect on performance of herbaceous species in longleaf pine plantations than that resulting from competition for below-ground resources.

  15. Increased energy and nutrient intake during training and competition improves elite triathletes' endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T

    1997-03-01

    Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance.

  16. Comparison of body composition, heart rate variability, aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Erşan; Aras, Dicle

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the body composition, heart rate variability, and aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes. [Subjects] Six cyclists and eight triathletes with experience in competitions voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects’ body composition was measured with an anthropometric tape and skinfold caliper. Maximal oxygen consumption and maximum heart rate were determined using the incremental treadmill test. Heart rate variability was measured by 7 min electrocardiographic recording. The Wingate test was conducted to determine anaerobic physical performance. [Results] There were significant differences in minimum power and relative minimum power between the triathletes and cyclists. Anthropometric characteristics and heart rate variability responses were similar among the triathletes and cyclists. However, triathletes had higher maximal oxygen consumption and lower resting heart rates. This study demonstrated that athletes in both sports have similar body composition and aerobic performance characteristics. PMID:27190476

  17. Seating Arrangement, Group Composition and Competition-driven Interaction: Effects on Students' Performance in Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Roxas, R. M.; Monterola, C.; Carreon-Monterola, S. L.

    2010-07-28

    We probe the effect of seating arrangement, group composition and group-based competition on students' performance in Physics using a teaching technique adopted from Mazur's peer instruction method. Ninety eight lectures, involving 2339 students, were conducted across nine learning institutions from February 2006 to June 2009. All the lectures were interspersed with student interaction opportunities (SIO), in which students work in groups to discuss and answer concept tests. Two individual assessments were administered before and after the SIO. The ratio of the post-assessment score to the pre-assessment score and the Hake factor were calculated to establish the improvement in student performance. Using actual assessment results and neural network (NN) modeling, an optimal seating arrangement for a class was determined based on student seating location. The NN model also provided a quantifiable method for sectioning students. Lastly, the study revealed that competition-driven interactions increase within-group cooperation and lead to higher improvement on the students' performance.

  18. Nutrition and interference competition have interactive effects on the behavior and performance of Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Kay, Adam D; Zumbusch, Taylor; Heinen, Justa L; Marsh, Tom C; Holway, David A

    2010-01-01

    Food availability often influences competitive outcomes through effects on consumer growth. Although it has received less attention, food availability may also affect competition through nutritional effects on behavior. One hypothesis linking nutrition and competition in ants posits that increased access to carbohydrates favors greater investment in worker traits that underlie behavioral dominance. We tested this hypothesis by varying dietary protein:carbohydrate (P:C) ratios and levels of interspecific interference for Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), a widespread invasive species. As predicted, colonies facing interference increased patrolling more when reared on low P:C diets; this result is the first demonstration of an interactive effect of nutrition and interference on ant colonies. Several results suggest that this dietary effect on patrolling was due primarily to changes in colony size rather than worker behavior. Colonies on lower P:C diets had lower worker mortality and larger final colony sizes. Diet had little effect on per capita patrolling, and worker behavior in performance assays depended more on previous exposure to interference than on diet. Our findings indicate that dietary P:C ratios can influence Argentine ant performance in a competitive environment and suggest a mechanism by which monopolization of carbohydrate-rich resources can help invasive ants displace native ant competitors.

  19. 39 CFR 3055.1 - Annual reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual reporting of service performance achievements. 3055.1 Section 3055.1 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  20. 39 CFR 3055.2 - Contents of the annual report of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contents of the annual report of service performance achievements. 3055.2 Section 3055.2 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  1. 39 CFR 3055.30 - Periodic reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodic reporting of service performance achievements. 3055.30 Section 3055.30 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  2. Performance score variation between days at Australian national and Olympic women's artistic gymnastics competition.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth Jane; Hume, Patria Anne; Aisbett, Brad

    2012-01-01

    We determined the inter-day variability in elite-standard women's artistic gymnastics competition scores. National (50 gymnasts for up to three days) and Olympic (24 gymnasts for up to five days) competition scores published in the public domain ('Giant poster pull-out', 2010 ; Gymnastics Australia, 2008 ) were evaluated using three statistical measures. Analyses of the inter-day differences in the mean scores as a percentage (MDiff%), coefficient of variation percentages for the mean score across both days (CV%), and Pearson correlation coefficients for the inter-day score (r) were interpreted using thresholds from trivial to large. National-class gymnasts' two-day performance variation was trivial for vault, small for floor and beam, and moderate for bars. When senior gymnasts competed for a third day the performance variation increased to moderate for vault. Across five days of Olympic competition there were trivial (e.g. CV%: vault = 0.8) to small (e.g. CV%: bars = 2.0) variations in performances between days on all apparatus. Olympians' performance score consistency is superior to senior, national-class competitors. The performance score consistency required for gymnasts who aspire to participate at the Olympics as a top-24 competitor is better than 3%.

  3. Physiological Demands of Competitive Sprint and Distance Performance in Elite Female Cross-Country Skiing.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Magnus; Carlsson, Tomas; Wedholm, Lars; Nilsson, Mattias; Malm, Christer; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2016-08-01

    Carlsson, M, Carlsson, T, Wedholm, L, Nilsson, M, Malm, C, and Tonkonogi, M. Physiological demands of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2138-2144, 2016-The purpose was to investigate the relationship between elite females' competitive performance capability in sprint and distance cross-country skiing and the variables of gross efficiency (GE), work rate at the onset of blood-lactate accumulation (OBLA4mmol), maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), maximal speed (Vmax), and peak upper-body oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age 24.5 ± 2.8 years) completed treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, OBLA4mmol, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max using the diagonal-stride technique as well as Vmax and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak using the double-poling technique. International Ski Federations ranking points for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races were used as competitive performance data. There were correlations between the FISsprint and the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max expressed absolutely (p = 0.0040), Vmax (p = 0.012), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak expressed absolutely (p < 0.001) and as a simple ratio-standard (p = 0.049). The FISdist were correlated with OBLA4mmol (p = 0.048), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max expressed absolutely (L·min) (p = 0.015) and as a simple ratio-standard (p = 0.046), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak expressed absolutely (p = 0.036) and as a simple ratio-standard (ml·min·kg) (p = 0.040). The results demonstrate that the physiological abilities reflected by V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak are indicators of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. In addition, the ability to generate a high Vmax indicates the performance in sprint races, whereas the skier's OBLA4mmol reflects the performance capability in distance races

  4. Attitudes and Motivations of Competitive Cyclists Regarding Use of Banned and Legal Performance Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Kisaalita, Nkaku R.; Robinson, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Drug ‘doping’ and the use of banned performance enhancing products (PEPs) remains an issue in virtually all competitive sports despite penal consequences and known health risks. The lines distinguishing “fair” and “unfair” performance enhancement have become increasingly blurred. Few studies have explored how attitudes towards legal performance enhancers (drugs/substances, diet, and equipment modifications) may influence motivations to use banned PEPs. In the present study, 68 competitive cyclists completed a survey examining the importance of choosing banned and non-banned PEPs using World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) criteria. Results showed that over 60 percent of cyclists used non-banned PEPs while 8 percent used banned PEPs. Health was overall the most important factor in choosing a PEP while apprehension by a doping agency was least important. Mixed- model ANOVA analyses revealed that motivations to use banned PEPs were complex, as the importance of health, violating the sprit of the sport, performance improvement, and getting caught were differentially influenced by PEP legality (p < 0.001) and whether a cyclist endorsed non-banned PEP use (p < 0.001). The importance of winning, sponsorship, and maintaining competitiveness did not influence non-banned PEP use (p > 0.05). Our findings illustrate the multifactorial nature of PEP use/doping attitudes and highlight the unique role that “legal” performance enhancement may plays in influencing banned and/or unethical sports behaviors. Key Points Use of performance enhancers is high even among non-professional athletes Cyclists overall rated “risk to health” as the most important factor in choosing to use a performance enhancing product. Motivations to use banned performance enhancer are complex and are significantly influenced by whether an athlete utilizes “legal” performance enhancers. PMID:24570604

  5. Relations among Motivation, Performance Achievement, and Music Experience Variables in Secondary Instrumental Music Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Charles P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) reexamine academic achievement motivation orientations within the context of instrumental music, and (2) examine relations among achievement motivation orientations, self-concept in instrumental music, and attitude to band in relation to teachers' ratings of performance achievement and effort, and students'…

  6. Rate allocation protocol using competitive pricing for improving performance of multicast sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Zohar; Dolev, Danny

    1998-10-01

    Rate allocation using the Max-Min fairness criterion may highly discriminate against multicast and long unicast sessions and may lead to sever network underutilization. In this paper, we present a solution for rate allocation that is based on competitive pricing. The resultant allocation increases fairness towards multicast sessions and improves network utilization considerably. The solution requires no re-routing of sessions. The economy on which we base our solution is simple enough, enabling its implementation for practical use. We present a distributed asynchronous protocol suitable for the ATM ABR service, which achieves the economy's allocation efficiently and with short convergence time.

  7. Match physical performance of elite female soccer players during international competition.

    PubMed

    Datson, Naomi; Drust, Barry; Weston, Matthew; Jarman, Ian; Lisboa, Paulo; Gregson, Warren

    2016-07-26

    The purpose of the present study was to provide a detailed analysis of the physical demands of competitive international female soccer match-play. A total of 148 individual match observations were undertaken on 107 outfield players competing in competitive international matches during the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons, using a computerized tracking system (Prozone Sports Ltd., Leeds, England). Total distance (TD) and total high-speed running distances (THSR) were influenced by playing position, with central midfielders (CM) completing the highest (10985±706 m and 2882±500 m) and central defenders (CD) the lowest (9489±562 m and 1901±268 m) distances, respectively. Greater total very high-speed running (TVHSR) distances were completed when a team was without (399±143 m) compared to with (313±210 m) possession of the ball. The majority of sprints were over short distances with 76 % and 95 % being less than 5 m and 10 m, respectively. Between half reductions in physical performance were present for all variables, independent of playing position. The current study provides novel findings regarding the physical demands of different playing positions in competitive international female match-play and provides important insights for physical coaches preparing elite female players for competition.

  8. Above- and belowground competition from longleaf pine plantations limits performance of reintroduced herbaceous species.

    SciTech Connect

    T.B. Harrington; C.M. Dagley; M.B. Edwards.

    2003-10-01

    Although overstory trees limit the abundance and species richness of herbaceous vegetation in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations, the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood because of confounding among limiting factors. In fall 1998, research was initiated to determine the separate effects of above- and belowground competition and needlefall from overstory pines on understory plant performance. Three 13- to 15-yr-old plantations near Aiken, SC, were thinned to 0, 25, 50, or 100% of nonthinned basal area (19.5 m2 ha-1). Combinations of trenching (to eliminate root competition) and needlefall were applied to areas within each plot, and containerized seedlings of 14 perennial herbaceous species and longleaf pine were planted within each. Overstory crown closure ranged from 0 to 81%, and soil water and available nitrogen varied consistently with pine stocking, trenching, or their combination. Cover of planted species decreased an average of 16.5 and 14.1% as a result of above- and below-ground competition, respectively. Depending on species, needlefall effects were positive, negative, or negligible. Results indicate that understory restoration will be most successful when herbaceous species are established within canopy openings (0.1-0.2 ha) managed to minimize negative effects from above- and belowground competition and needlefall.

  9. Knowledge-Based Parallel Performance Technology for Scientific Application Competitiveness Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Malony, Allen D; Shende, Sameer

    2011-08-15

    The primary goal of the University of Oregon's DOE "œcompetitiveness" project was to create performance technology that embodies and supports knowledge of performance data, analysis, and diagnosis in parallel performance problem solving. The target of our development activities was the TAU Performance System and the technology accomplishments reported in this and prior reports have all been incorporated in the TAU open software distribution. In addition, the project has been committed to maintaining strong interactions with the DOE SciDAC Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI) and Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS). This collaboration has proved valuable for translation of our knowledge-based performance techniques to parallel application development and performance engineering practice. Our outreach has also extended to the DOE Advanced CompuTational Software (ACTS) collection and project. Throughout the project we have participated in the PERI and TASCS meetings, as well as the ACTS annual workshops.

  10. Athlete Characteristics and Team Competitive Performance as Moderators for the Relationship Between Coach Transformational Leadership and Athlete Performance.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Kai C; Schulte-Coerne, Paul; Diebig, Mathias; Rowold, Jens

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the effects of coaches' transformational leadership on player performance. To advance existing research, we examine (a) effects on individual and team performance and (b) consider joint moderating effects of players' win orientation and teams' competitive performance on the leadership- individual performance link. In a three-source sample from German handball teams, we collected data on 336 players and 30 coaches and teams. Results showed positive main effects of transformational leadership's facet of articulating a vision (AV) on team and individual performance and negative main effects of providing an appropriate model (PAM) on team performance. With regard to moderating effects, AV increased and PAM decreased individual performance when both moderators were low, and intellectual stimulation had a positive effect when both were high. This study expands insights into the potential and limitation of transformational leadership with a strong focus on the role of situational contingencies.

  11. Does the GNB3 C825T Polymorphism Influence Swimming Performance in Competitive Swimmers?

    PubMed

    Grenda, Agata; Sawczuk, Marek; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Umiastowska, Danuta; Łubkowska, Wioletta; Żmijewski, Piotr; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-09-29

    Single nucleotide polymorphism C825T located within the GNB3 gene has been proposed in the literature as the performance enhancing polymorphism in highly trained athletes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to verify the hypothesis assuming an association between the C825T polymorphic site and performance of competitive swimmers. The frequencies of C/T alleles and distribution of CC, CT and TT genotypes of the C825T GNB3 polymorphism were compared between athletes and nonathletic controls as well as between sprint and endurance swimmers. Genomic DNA was extracted from 197 competitive swimmers (50 long distance swimmers (LDS) and 147 short distance swimmers (SDS)) and 379 sedentary volunteers. The allele frequencies and genotype distribution of the C825T polymorphic site were not significantly different when LDS and SDS were compared to sedentary controls. Gender-specific analysis did not reveal any significant differences in allele and genotype distribution, neither between female controls and female swimmers nor between male controls and male swimmers. No significant differences in allele frequencies and genotype distribution were observed when LDS and SDS as well as groups of swimmers stratified by gender were compared. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that the C825T polymorphism of the GNB3 gene is associated with swimming performance in competitive swimmers.

  12. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions are explored. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement made by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  13. Core temperature responses and match running performance during intermittent-sprint exercise competition in warm conditions.

    PubMed

    Duffield, Rob; Coutts, Aaron J; Quinn, John

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the thermoregulatory responses and match running performance of elite team sport competitors (Australian Rules football) during preseason games in a warm environment. During 2 games in dry bulb temperatures above 29 degrees C (>27 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature), 10 players were monitored for core temperature (Tcore) via a telemetric capsule, in-game motion patterns, blood lactate ([La]), body mass changes, urine specific gravity, and pre- and postgame vertical jump performance. The results showed that peak Tcore was achieved during the final quarter at 39.3 +/- 0.7 degrees C and that several players reached values near 40.0 degrees C. Further, the largest proportion of the total rise in Tcore (2.1 +/- 0.7 degrees C) occurred during the first quarter of the match, with only small increases during the remainder of the game. The game distance covered was 9.4 +/- 1.5 km, of which 2.7 +/- 0.9 km was at high-intensity speeds (>14.4 km x h(-1)). The rise in Tcore was correlated with first-quarter high-intensity running velocity (r = 0.72) and moderate-intensity velocity (r = 0.68), second-quarter Tcore and low-intensity activity velocity (r = -0.90), second-quarter Tcore and moderate-intensity velocity (r = 0.88), fourth-quarter rise in Tcore and very-high-intensity running distance (r = 0.70), and fourth-quarter Tcore and moderate-intensity velocity (r = 0.73). Additional results included mean game [La-] values of 8.7 +/- 0.1 mmol x L(-1), change in body mass of 2.1 +/- 0.8 kg, and no change (p > 0.05) in pre- to postgame vertical jump. These findings indicate that the plateau in Tcore may be regulated by the reduction in low-intensity activity and that pacing strategies may be employed during competitive team sports in the heat to ensure control of the internal heat load.

  14. Students' Achievement Goals, Emotion Perception Ability and Affect and Performance in the Classroom: A Multilevel Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassiou, Aikaterini; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Andreou, Eleni; Kafetsios, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Performance at school is affected not only by students' achievement goals but also by emotional exchanges among classmates and their teacher. In this study, we investigated relationships between students' achievement goals and emotion perception ability and class affect and performance. Participants were 949 Greek adolescent students in 49 classes…

  15. A Comparison of Low Performing Students' Achievements in Factoring Cubic Polynomials Using Three Different Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbonnaya, Ugorji I.; Mogari, David L.; Machisi, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In this study, repeated measures design was employed to compare low performing students' achievements in factoring cubic polynomials using three strategies. Twenty-five low-performing Grade 12 students from a secondary school in Limpopo province took part in the study. Data was collected using achievement test and was analysed using repeated…

  16. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  17. The effect of badminton-specific exercise on badminton short-serve performance in competition and practice climates.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Chan, Cheryl K Y; Clarke, Neil D; Cox, Martin; Smith, Mike

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the effects of changes in physiological and psychological arousal on badminton short-serve performance in competitive and practice climates. Twenty competitive badminton players (10 males and 10 females) volunteered to participate in the study following ethics approval. After familiarisation, badminton short-serve performance was measured at rest, mid-way through and at the end of a badminton-specific exercise protocol in two conditions; competition vs. practice. Ratings of cognitive and somatic anxiety were assessed at three time points prior to badminton short-serve performance using the Mental Readiness Form 3. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed during the exercise protocol. Results indicated that better short-serve performance was evident in practice compared to competition (P = .034). RPE values were significantly higher in the competition condition compared to practice (P = .007). Cognitive anxiety intensity was significantly lower post-exercise in the practice condition compared to competition (P = .001). Cognitive anxiety direction showed greater debilitation post-exercise in the competition condition compared to practice (P = .01). Somatic anxiety intensity increased from pre-, to mid- to post-exercise (P = .001) irrespective of condition. This study suggests that badminton serve performance is negatively affected when physiological arousal, via badminton-specific exercise, and cognitive anxiety, via perceived competition, are high.

  18. Effects of subliminal activation of Oedipal fantasies on competitive performance. A replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, R; Gillman, I

    1984-12-01

    A subliminal psychodynamic activation experiment was conducted in which the effects of five subliminal stimuli were sought on the dart-throwing performance of male subjects. The stimuli consisted of the following messages, each accompanied by a congruent picture: BEATING DAD IS OK, BEATING DAD IS WRONG, BEATING HIM IS OK, BEATING HIM IS WRONG, and PEOPLE ARE WALKING. The first two stimuli were intended to activate competitive motives within the context of the Oedipus complex; the next two, competitive motives outside that context; and the last was intended as a control stimulus. BEATING DAD IS OK led to greater dart-throwing accuracy than each of the other four conditions, which in turn did not differ from each other. This finding replicated a result reported by Silverman, L. H., Ross, D., Adler, J., and Lustig, D. (J. Abnorm. Psychol., 87: 341-357, 1978) and is in keeping with the formulation that the activation of oedipal motives can affect competitive performance. Neither a subject variable (fear of success) nor the differential effects of two experimenters was found to interact with stimulus conditions in affecting dart scores.

  19. Data-driven battery product development: Turn battery performance into a competitive advantage.

    SciTech Connect

    Sholklapper, Tal

    2016-04-19

    Poor battery performance is a primary source of user dissatisfaction across a broad range of applications, and is a key bottleneck hindering the growth of mobile technology, wearables, electric vehicles, and grid energy storage. Engineering battery systems is difficult, requiring extensive testing for vendor selection, BMS programming, and application-specific lifetime testing. This work also generates huge quantities of data. This presentation will explain how to leverage this data to help ship quality products faster using fewer resources while ensuring safety and reliability in the field, ultimately turning battery performance into a competitive advantage.

  20. Sex differences in intellectual performance: analysis of a large cohort of competitive chess players.

    PubMed

    Chabris, Christopher F; Glickman, Mark E

    2006-12-01

    Only 1% of the world's chess grandmasters are women. This underrepresentation is unlikely to be caused by discrimination, because chess ratings objectively reflect competitive results. Using data on the ratings of more than 250,000 tournament players over 13 years, we investigated several potential explanations for the male domination of elite chess. We found that (a) the ratings of men are higher on average than those of women, but no more variable; (b) matched boys and girls improve and drop out at equal rates, but boys begin chess competition in greater numbers and at higher performance levels than girls; and (c) in locales where at least 50% of the new young players are girls, their initial ratings are not lower than those of boys. We conclude that the greater number of men at the highest levels in chess can be explained by the greater number of boys who enter chess at the lowest levels.

  1. Physiological Responses in Relation to Performance during Competition in Elite Synchronized Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara; Iglesias, Xavier; Barrero, Anna; Chaverri, Diego; Erola, Pau; Rodríguez, Ferran A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to characterize the cardiovascular, lactate and perceived exertion responses in relation to performance during competition in junior and senior elite synchronized swimmers. Methods 34 high level senior (21.4±3.6 years) and junior (15.9±1.0) synchronized swimmers were monitored while performing a total of 96 routines during an official national championship in the technical and free solo, duet and team competitive programs. Heart rate was continuously monitored. Peak blood lactate was obtained from serial capillary samples during recovery. Post-exercise rate of perceived exertion was assessed using the Borg CR-10 scale. Total competition scores were obtained from official records. Results Data collection was complete in 54 cases. Pre-exercise mean heart rate (beats·min−1) was 129.1±13.1, and quickly increased during the exercise to attain mean peak values of 191.7±8.7, with interspersed bradycardic events down to 88.8±28.5. Mean peak blood lactate (mmol·L−1) was highest in the free solo (8.5±1.8) and free duet (7.6±1.8) and lowest at the free team (6.2±1.9). Mean RPE (0–10+) was higher in juniors (7.8±0.9) than in seniors (7.1±1.4). Multivariate analysis revealed that heart rate before and minimum heart rate during the routine predicted 26% of variability in final total score. Conclusions Cardiovascular responses during competition are characterized by intense anticipatory pre-activation and rapidly developing tachycardia up to maximal levels with interspersed periods of marked bradycardia during the exercise bouts performed in apnea. Moderate blood lactate accumulation suggests an adaptive metabolic response as a result of the specific training adaptations attributed to influence of the diving response in synchronized swimmers. Competitive routines are perceived as very to extremely intense, particularly in the free solo and duets. The magnitude of anticipatory heart rate activation and bradycardic response appear to be related to

  2. Hormonal responses to training and its tapering off in competitive swimmers: relationships with performance.

    PubMed

    Mujika, I; Chatard, J C; Padilla, S; Guezennec, C Y; Geyssant, A

    1996-01-01

    During a winter training season, the effects of 12 weeks of intense training and 4 weeks of tapering off (taper) on plasma hormone concentrations and competition performance were investigated in a group of highly trained swimmers (n = 8). Blood samples were collected and the swimmers performed their speciality in competition at weeks 10 (mid-season), 22 (pre-taper) and 26 (post-taper). No statistically significant changes were observed in the concentrations of total testosterone (TT), non-sex hormone binding globulin-bound-testosterone (NSBT), cortisol (C), luteinising hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine plasma catecholamines, creatine kinase and ammonia during training and taper. Mid-season NSBT: C ratio and the amount of training were statistically related (r = 0.82, P < 0.05). Competition performance slightly declined during intense training [0.52 (SD 2.51)%, NS] and improved during taper [2.32 (SD 1.69)%, P < 0.01]. Changes in performance during training and taper correlated with changes in ratios TT: C (r = 0.86, P < 0.01 and r = 0.81, P < 0.05, respectively) and NSBT: C (r = 0.77, P < 0.05 and r = 0.76, P < 0.05, respectively). In summary, these results showed that the monitored plasma hormones and metabolic indices were unaltered by 12 weeks of intense training and 4 weeks of taper. The TT: C and NSBT: C ratios, however, appeared to be effective markers of the swimmers' performance capacities throughout the training season.

  3. Test Anxiety and Academic Performance among Undergraduates: The Moderating Role of Achievement Motivation.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Anthony Gbenro; Balogun, Shyngle Kolawole; Onyencho, Chidi Victor

    2017-02-13

    This study investigated the moderating role of achievement motivation in the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Three hundred and ninety three participants (192 males and 201 females) selected from a public university in Ondo State, Nigeria using a purposive sampling technique, participated in the study. They responded to measures of test anxiety and achievement motivation. Three hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results showed that test anxiety had a negative impact on academic performance (β = -.23; p < .05). Achievement motivation had a positive impact on academic performance (β = .38; p < .05). Also, achievement motivation significantly moderated the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance (β = .10; p < .01). These findings suggest that university management should design appropriate psycho-educational interventions that would enhance students' achievement motivation.

  4. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves sprint performance during an international rugby sevens competition.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, Juan; Portillo, Javier; Muñoz, Gloria; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on physical performance during a rugby sevens competition. A second purpose was to investigate the post-competition urinary caffeine concentration derived from the energy drink intake. On two non-consecutive days of a friendly tournament, 16 women from the Spanish National rugby sevens Team (mean age and body mass = 23 ± 2 years and 66 ± 7 kg) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure(®), ProEnergetics) or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min for caffeine absorption, participants performed a 15-s maximal jump test, a 6 × 30 m sprint test, and then played three rugby sevens games against another national team. Individual running pace and instantaneous speed during the games were assessed using global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Urine samples were obtained pre and post-competition. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the energy drink increased muscle power output during the jump series (23.5 ± 10.1 vs. 25.6 ± 11.8 kW, P = 0.05), running pace during the games (87.5 ± 8.3 vs. 95.4 ± 12.7 m/min, P < 0.05), and pace at sprint velocity (4.6 ± 3.3 vs. 6.1 ± 3.4 m/min, P < 0.05). However, the energy drink did not affect maximal running speed during the repeated sprint test (25.0 ± 1.5 vs. 25.0 ± 1.7 km/h). The ingestion of the energy drink resulted in a higher post-competition urine caffeine concentration than the placebo (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL; P < 0.05). In summary, 3 mg/kg of caffeine in the form of a commercially available energy drink considerably enhanced physical performance during a women's rugby sevens competition.

  5. Maximal Strength Training Improves Surfboard Sprint and Endurance Paddling Performance in Competitive and Recreational Surfers.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Joseph O C; Tran, Tai T; Secomb, Josh L; Lundgren, Lina E; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Coyne, JOC, Tran, TT, Secomb, JL, Lundgren, LE, Farley, ORL, Newton, RU, and Sheppard, JM. Maximal strength training improves surfboard sprint and endurance paddling performance in competitive and recreational surfers. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 244-253, 2017-Upper-body (UB) strength has very high correlations with faster surfboard paddling speeds. However, there is no research examining the effects of improving UB strength has on surfboard paddling ability. This study aimed to determine the influence that improvements in UB closed-kinetic chain maximal strength have on surfboard paddling in both competitive and recreational surfers. Seventeen competitive and recreational male surfers (29.7 ± 7.7 years, 177.4 ± 7.4 cm, 76.7 ± 9.9 kg) participated in a repeated-measures, parallel control study design. Anthropometry; 5-, 10-, and 15-m sprint; and 400-m endurance surfboard paddling tests along with pull-up and dip 1 repetition maximum strength tests were assessed pre- and postintervention. Subjects in the training group performed 5 weeks of maximal strength training in the pull-up and dip. Differences between the training and control groups were examined postintervention. The training group increased their speed over the 5-, 10-, and 15-m sprint, whereas the control group became slower (d = 0.71, 0.51, and 0.4, respectively). The training group also displayed faster endurance paddling performance compared with the control group (d = 0.72). Short-term exposure to maximal strength training elicits improvements in paddling performance measures. However, the magnitude of performance increases seems to be dependent on initial strength levels with differential responses between strong and weaker athletes. Although a longer maximal strength training period may have produced more significant paddling improvements in stronger subjects, practitioners are unlikely to have any more than 5 weeks in an uninterrupted block with competitive surfing athletes. This study reveals

  6. Effects of creatine supplementation on repetitive sprint performance and body composition in competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Grindstaff, P D; Kreider, R; Bishop, R; Wilson, M; Wood, L; Alexander, C; Almada, A

    1997-12-01

    In a double-blind and randomized manner, 18 male and female junior competitive swimmers supplemented their diets with 21 g.day-1 of creatine monohydrate (Cr) or a maltodextrin placebo (P) for 9 days during training. Prior to and following supplementation, subjects performed three 100-m freestyle sprint swims (long course) with 60 s rest/recovery between heats. In addition, subjects performed three 20-s arm ergometer maximal-effort sprint tests in the prone position with 60 s rest/recovery between sprint tests. Significant differences were observed among swim times, with Cr subjects swimming significantly faster than P subjects following supplementation in Heat 1 and significantly decreasing swim time in the second 100-m sprint. There was also some evidence that cumulative time to perform the three 100-m swims was decreased in the Cr group. Results indicate that 9 days of Cr supplementation during swim training may provide some ergogenic value to competitive junior swimmers during repetitive sprint performance.

  7. Note on evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure to motivate safety competition.

    PubMed

    Han, Sangjin

    2016-01-01

    Road infrastructures are usually developed and maintained by governments or public sectors. There is no competitor in the market of their jurisdiction. This monopolic feature discourages road authorities from improving the level of safety with proactive motivation. This study suggests how to apply a principle of competition for roads, in particular by means of performance evaluation. It first discusses why road infrastructure has been slow in safety oriented development and management in respect of its business model. Then it suggests some practical ways of how to promote road safety between road authorities, particularly by evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure. These are summarized as decision of safety performance indicators, classification of spatial boundaries, data collection, evaluation, and reporting. Some consideration points are also discussed to make safety performance evaluation on road infrastructure lead to better road safety management.

  8. Achievement-related expectancies, academic self-concept, and mathematics performance of academically underprepared adolescent students.

    PubMed

    House, J D

    1993-03-01

    The relationship between achievement-related expectancies, academic self-concept, and mathematics performance of 191 academically underprepared adolescent students was examined. After the effects of prior academic achievement were controlled for, a significant main effect for academic self-concept was found; as expected, students with higher academic self-concept earned significantly higher mathematics grades. In addition, after the effects of prior achievement were controlled for, female students were found to earn significantly higher mathematics grades than did male students. A significant three-way (Sex x Ethnic Group x Achievement-Related Expectancies) interaction was also noted. Unlike in several previous studies, no significant racial differences in mathematics performance were found. These students had a similar socioeconomic status (SES), and the effects of prior academic achievement were controlled for, suggesting that racial and gender differences in mathematics achievement may be partially explained by prior schooling and SES background, as posited by Reyes and Stanic (1988).

  9. Achievement goals and interpersonal behavior: how mastery and performance goals shape information exchange.

    PubMed

    Poortvliet, P Marijn; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W; Van de Vliert, Evert

    2007-10-01

    The present research examines the impact of achievement goals on task-related information exchange. Studies 1 and 2 reveal that relative to those with mastery goals or no goal, individuals pursuing performance goals were less open in their information giving to exchange partners. Study 2 further clarifies this effect of achievement goals by showing that performance goals generate an exploitation orientation toward information exchange. Furthermore, relative to individuals with mastery goals or no goal, people pursuing performance goals enhanced their task performance by utilizing more high-quality information obtained from their exchange partner (Study 1) and protected their task performance by more rigorously disregarding received low-quality information (Study 2).

  10. Combined carbohydrate-protein supplementation improves competitive endurance exercise performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Andrew J; Murgatroyd, Scott R; McNab, Alison; Whyte, Laura J; Easton, Chris

    2011-09-01

    Laboratory-based studies have demonstrated that adding protein (PRO) to a carbohydrate (CHO) supplement can improve thermoregulatory capacity, exercise performance and recovery. However, no study has investigated these effects in a competitive sporting context. This study assessed the effects of combined CHO-PRO supplementation on physiological responses and exercise performance during 8 days of strenuous competition in a hot environment. Twenty-eight cyclists participating in the TransAlp mountain bike race were randomly assigned to fitness-matched placebo (PLA 76 g L(-1) CHO) or CHO-PRO (18 g L(-1) PRO, 72 g L(-1) CHO) groups. Participants were given enough supplements to allow ad libitum consumption. Physiological and anthropometric variables were recorded pre- and post-exercise. Body mass decreased significantly from race stage 1 to 8 in the PLA group (-0.75 ± 0.22 kg, P = 0.01) but did not change in the CHO-PRO group (0.42 ± 0.42 kg, P = 0.35). Creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were substantially elevated during the race, but were not different between groups (P = 0.82, P = 0.44, respectively). Urine osmolality was significantly higher in the CHO-PRO versus the PLA group (P = 0.04) and the rise in tympanic temperature from pre- to post-exercise was significantly less in CHO-PRO versus PLA (P = 0.01). The CHO-PRO group also completed the 8 stages significantly quicker than the PLA group (2,277 ± 127 vs. 2,592 ± 68 min, respectively, P = 0.02). CHO-PRO supplementation therefore appears to prevent body mass loss, enhance thermoregulatory capacity and improve competitive exercise performance despite no effect on muscle damage.

  11. Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

    1998-01-01

    Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

  12. Do Performance Goals Promote Learning? A Pattern Analysis of Singapore Students' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Paris, Scott G.; Hogan, David; Luo, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how achievement goals are combined to affect students' learning. We used a multiple goals perspective, based on mastery (i.e., mastery approach) and performance (including both approach and avoidance components) goals, to examine the achievement goal patterns of 1697 Singapore Secondary 3 students in their math study. Four…

  13. Construct Validity of the Computerized Continuous Performance Test with Measures of Intelligence, Achievement, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janice Whitten; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Administered Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and reading comprehension subtest of Peabody Individual Achievement Test to 54 school-aged children and adolescents referred for evaluation of learning disabilities. Parents…

  14. Relationship of Achievement Test Scores and State Board Performance in a Diploma Nursing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Gail

    The relationship between the National League for Nursing (NLN) achievement test scores and performance on the State Board Test Pool Examination (SBTPE) was studied with 166 graduates of a diploma degree school of nursing between 1976 and 1978. It was found that NLN achievement test scores had a highly significant correlation with SBTPE results.…

  15. The Effects of Gender and Attributions on Achievement Motivation and Subsequent Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Sibylle J.; Latta, R. Michael

    One attributional model of achievement proposes that individuals attribute their own and others' performance outcomes to one or more of four causes, i.e., ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck, and that such attributions have motivational significance for subsequent achievement-related behavior. The effects of gender, level of resultant…

  16. Competitor calibration and analysis of competitive amplified PCR products by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

    PubMed

    Köhler, T

    1999-01-01

    To assay gene expression or virus genomes in tissues or body fluids, competitive polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) is now performed in many laboratories. cPCR is a quantitative adaption of the PCR method in which a known number of copies of a synthetic RNA (1) or DNA (2-4) is coamplified with the target sample and therefore compete for the common primers and reagents in the same reaction tube. After coamplification, both products are distinguished by characteristic features, e.g., size, mostly by electrophoretic methods, or by probe-specific hybridization, e.g., PCR-ELISA (4,5).

  17. Neuropsychological and Academic Achievement Correlates of Abnormal WISC-R Verbal-Performance Discrepancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueger, Robert J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…

  18. 39 CFR 3055.1 - Annual reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.1... Mail Classification Schedule in part 3020, appendix A to subpart A of part 3020 of this chapter,...

  19. 39 CFR 3055.30 - Periodic reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.30... Mail Classification Schedule in part 3020, appendix A to subpart A of part 3020 of this chapter,...

  20. 39 CFR 3055.1 - Annual reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.1... Mail Classification Schedule in part 3020, appendix A to subpart A of part 3020 of this chapter,...

  1. 39 CFR 3055.1 - Annual reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.1... Mail Classification Schedule in part 3020, appendix A to subpart A of part 3020 of this chapter,...

  2. 39 CFR 3055.30 - Periodic reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.30... Mail Classification Schedule in part 3020, appendix A to subpart A of part 3020 of this chapter,...

  3. 39 CFR 3055.30 - Periodic reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.30... Mail Classification Schedule in part 3020, appendix A to subpart A of part 3020 of this chapter,...

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Self-Reported Achievement Goals and Nonself-Report Performance across Three Achievement Domains (Work, Sports, and Education)

    PubMed Central

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual’s drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that – overall – approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of

  5. A meta-analysis of self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance across three achievement domains (work, sports, and education).

    PubMed

    Van Yperen, Nico W; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that - overall - approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of performance

  6. Can achievement emotions be used to better understand motivation, learning, and performance in medical education?

    PubMed

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider an emergent theory of human emotion. The overarching purpose of the article is to introduce medical education researchers to the notion of achievement emotions and provide a brief overview of how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. First, we define achievement emotions and describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun R. 2006. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educ Psychol Rev 18:315-341.). Next, we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal causes, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance, and we discuss several implications for educational practice. Finally, we end with a call for more research on achievement emotions in medical education to facilitate our understanding of emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  7. Vertical and Horizontal Jump Tests Are Strongly Associated With Competitive Performance in 100-m Dash Events.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas A; Cal Abad, Cesar C; DʼAngelo, Ricardo A; Fernandes, Victor; Kitamura, Katia; Kobal, Ronaldo; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2015-07-01

    Fourteen male elite sprinters performed short-distance sprints and jump tests until 18 days before 100-m dash competitions in track and field to determine if these tests are associated with 100-m sprint times. Testing comprised of squat jumps (SJ), countermovement jumps (CMJ), horizontal jumps (HJ), maximum mean propulsive power relative to body mass in loaded jump squats, and a flying start 50-m sprint. Moderate associations were found between speed tests and competitive 100-m times (r = 0.54, r = 0.61, and r = 0.66 for 10-, 30-, and 50-m, respectively, p ≤ 0.05). In addition, the maximum mean propulsive power relative to body mass was very largely correlated with 100-m sprinting performance (r = 0.75, p < 0.01). The correlations of SJ, CMJ, and HJ with actual 100-m sprinting times amounted to -0.82, -0.85, and -0.81, respectively. Because of their practicality, safeness, and relationship with the actual times obtained by top-level athletes in 100-m dash events, it is highly recommended that SJ, CMJ, and HJ be regularly incorporated into elite sprint-testing routines.

  8. Brief Online Training Enhances Competitive Performance: Findings of the BBC Lab UK Psychological Skills Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Andrew M.; Totterdell, Peter; MacDonald, Ian; Devonport, Tracey J.; Friesen, Andrew P.; Beedie, Christopher J.; Stanley, Damian; Nevill, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In conjunction with BBC Lab UK, the present study developed 12 brief psychological skill interventions for online delivery. A protocol was designed that captured data via self-report measures, used video recordings to deliver interventions, involved a competitive concentration task against an individually matched computer opponent, and provided feedback on the effects of the interventions. Three psychological skills were used; imagery, self-talk, and if-then planning, with each skill directed to one of four different foci: outcome goal, process goal, instruction, or arousal-control. This resulted in 12 different intervention participant groups (randomly assigned) with a 13th group acting as a control. Participants (n = 44,742) completed a competitive task four times—practice, baseline, following an intervention, and again after repeating the intervention. Results revealed performance improved following practice with incremental effects for imagery-outcome, imagery-process, and self-talk-outcome and self-talk-process over the control group, with the same interventions increasing the intensity of effort invested, arousal and pleasant emotion. Arousal-control interventions associated with pleasant emotions, low arousal, and low effort invested in performance. Instructional interventions were not effective. Results offer support for the utility of online interventions in teaching psychological skills and suggest brief interventions that focus on increasing motivation, increased arousal, effort invested, and pleasant emotions were the most effective. PMID:27065904

  9. Changes in task self-efficacy and emotion across competitive performances in golf.

    PubMed

    Boardley, Ian D; Jackson, Ben; Simmons, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    This research aimed to investigate (a) the effect of golfers' perceptions of coach motivation efficacy on golfers' precompetition task self-efficacy, (b) the effect of performance on pre-to-postround changes in self-efficacy, (c) the effect of pre-to-postround changes in self-efficacy on pre-to-postround changes in affect and emotion, and (d) whether any effects of performance on pre-to-postcompetition changes in affect and emotion were mediated by pre-to-postcompetition changes in self-efficacy. In Study 1, a scale measuring golf self-efficacy was developed and validated using data from 197 golfers. In Study 2, 200 golfers completed this measure alongside measures of coach motivation efficacy, and positive and negative affect before a golf competition; all measures (except coach motivation efficacy) were again completed following the competition. Structural equation modeling showed that coach motivation efficacy positively predicted precompetition self-efficacy, performance positively predicted pre-to-postcompetition changes in self-efficacy, which had positive and negative effects, respectively, on pre-to-postcompetition changes in positive and negative affect; mediation analyses demonstrated that pre-to-postcompetition changes in self-efficacy mediated effects of performance on pre-to-postcompetition changes in positive and negative affect. In Study 3, the Study-2 procedures were replicated with a separate sample of 212 golfers, except measures of excitement, concentration disruption, somatic anxiety, and worry replaced those for positive and negative affect. Structural analyses showed the findings from Study 2 were largely replicated when specific emotions were investigated in place of general indices of affect. This investigation makes novel contributions regarding the potential importance of perceptions of coach efficacy for golfers' own efficacy beliefs, and the role personal efficacy beliefs may play in facilitating the effects of performance on affective

  10. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Peter M.; Latham, Keziah; Mann, David L.; Ravensbergen, Rianne H. J. C.; Myint, Joy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, toward a regulation target placed at the end of a 10 m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of VI. Visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual’s average score in every level of simulated VI and normalizing this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving ‘expected’ or ‘below expected’ shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR) is conservative, maximizing the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not actually have an impairment that impacts performance in the

  11. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter M; Latham, Keziah; Mann, David L; Ravensbergen, Rianne H J C; Myint, Joy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, toward a regulation target placed at the end of a 10 m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of VI. Visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual's average score in every level of simulated VI and normalizing this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving 'expected' or 'below expected' shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR) is conservative, maximizing the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not actually have an impairment that impacts performance in the sport. An

  12. Prediction of intrinsic motivation and sports performance using 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly.

  13. Changes in Body Composition and Physical Performance in Wheelchair Basketball Players During a Competitive Season

    PubMed Central

    Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina; Yanci, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyzed the changes in body composition and physical performance in wheelchair basketball (WB) players during one competitive season. Players from a WB team competing in the first division of the Spanish League (n = 8, age: 26.5 ± 2.9 years, body mass: 79.8 ± 12.6 kg, sitting height: 91.4 ± 4.4 cm) participated in this research. The upper limbs showed a decrease in subcutaneous adipose tissue and there was an improvement in physical abilities such as sprinting with the ball (5 and 20 m), handgrip and aerobic capacity. However, the changes in physical fitness concerning sprinting without the ball and agility tests were low. It would be interesting to study the effects of implementing specific programs to improve physical performance in WB and to establish more test sessions to monitor the effects of the programs followed. PMID:26834884

  14. The effect of environmental regulation on firms' competitive performance: the case of the building & construction sector in some EU regions.

    PubMed

    Testa, Francesco; Iraldo, Fabio; Frey, Marco

    2011-09-01

    There is a considerable debate on the effects of environmental regulation on competitive performance. Based on survey data, this paper analyzes the two main research questions, derived from literature, on the links between environmental regulation and competitiveness, by focusing on firms operating in the building and construction sector, i.e.: 1) whether environmental policy stringency affects the competitive performance of firms in the building and construction sector 2) and how a specific form of environmental regulation (direct regulation, economic instruments and soft instruments) affects this performance? By applying a regression analysis, we find that a more stringent environmental regulation, measured by inspection frequency, provides a positive impulse for increasing investments in advanced technological equipment and innovative products and on business performance. Moreover, a well-designed "direct regulation" appears to be the most effective policy instrument for prompting the positive impact of environmental policies on innovation and intangible performance while economic instruments do negatively affect business performance.

  15. 39 CFR 3055.31 - Contents of the Quarterly Report of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contents of the Quarterly Report of service performance achievements. 3055.31 Section 3055.31 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service...

  16. The Effects of the Classroom Performance System on Student Participation, Attendance, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2013-01-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology that increases student performance and promotes active learning. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes, where students' first spoken language is not English.…

  17. How to achieve and prove performance improvement - 15 years of experience in German wastewater benchmarking.

    PubMed

    Bertzbach, F; Franz, T; Möller, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the results of performance improvement, which have been achieved in benchmarking projects in the wastewater industry in Germany over the last 15 years. A huge number of changes in operational practice and also in achieved annual savings can be shown, induced in particular by benchmarking at process level. Investigation of this question produces some general findings for the inclusion of performance improvement in a benchmarking project and for the communication of its results. Thus, we elaborate on the concept of benchmarking at both utility and process level, which is still a necessary distinction for the integration of performance improvement into our benchmarking approach. To achieve performance improvement via benchmarking it should be made quite clear that this outcome depends, on one hand, on a well conducted benchmarking programme and, on the other, on the individual situation within each participating utility.

  18. The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent.

  19. The Joint Commission: hospitals make strides on core measures with more achieving "top performer" status.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Performance on key quality measures continues to improve at more than 3,300 accredited hospitals, according to new data from The Joint Commission (TJC). In its 2014 annual report, the Oakbrook Terrace, IL, accrediting agency, said that more than a third of the country's accredited hospitals are now top performers in TJC's core measures program. This is a marked increase from 2002 when the top performer program was first initiated and just 7% of hospitals achieved top performer status on a much smaller range of quality metrics. To be recognized as a top performer, TJC stipulates that hospitals must achieve a cumulative performance of 95% or greater on all reported accountability measures, achieve a performance of 95% or greater on every accountability measure where there are at least 30 denominator cases, and have at least one core measure set that has a composite rate of at least 95%--and all metrics within that measure set must rank at 95% or above as well. The number of academic medical centers recognized as top performers grew from 24, recognized in last year's annual report, to 35 in the 2014 report, now representing 29% of all accredited academic medical centers. Only 11% of the top performing hospitals were public hospitals, designated as "government owned" in the annual report. The TJC suggests that this indicates that performance improvement needs to be prioritized at these hospitals. TJC is providing special recognition to 44 top performing hospitals that went beyond the minimum requirements, reporting on five or more sets of measures, and achieved top performer recognition on that expanded set of measures.

  20. Effects of concurrent inspiratory and expiratory muscle training on respiratory and exercise performance in competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Wells, Gregory D; Plyley, Michael; Thomas, Scott; Goodman, Len; Duffin, James

    2005-08-01

    The efficiency of the respiratory system presents significant limitations on the body's ability to perform exercise due to the effects of the increased work of breathing, respiratory muscle fatigue, and dyspnoea. Respiratory muscle training is an intervention that may be able to address these limitations, but the impact of respiratory muscle training on exercise performance remains controversial. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the effects of a 12-week (10 sessions week(-1)) concurrent inspiratory and expiratory muscle training (CRMT) program in 34 adolescent competitive swimmers. The CRMT program consisted of 6 weeks during which the experimental group (E, n = 17) performed CRMT and the sham group (S, n = 17) performed sham CRMT, followed by 6 weeks when the E and S groups performed CRMT of differing intensities. CRMT training resulted in a significant improvement in forced inspiratory volume in 1 s (FIV1.0) (P = 0.050) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) (P = 0.045) in the E group, which exceeded the S group's results. Significant improvements in pulmonary function, breathing power, and chemoreflex ventilation threshold were observed in both groups, and there was a trend toward an improvement in swimming critical speed after 12 weeks of training (P = 0.08). We concluded that although swim training results in attenuation of the ventilatory response to hypercapnia and in improvements in pulmonary function and sustainable breathing power, supplemental respiratory muscle training has no additional effect except on dynamic pulmonary function variables.

  1. Effects of body temperature on righting performance of native and invasive freshwater turtles: consequences for competition.

    PubMed

    Polo-Cavia, Nuria; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2012-12-25

    Righting behavior of aquatic turtles might be subject to coadaptation pressures between preferred basking temperature and locomotion, given that it is mainly performed on land and may critically determine the survival of turtles. We analyzed the effect of body temperature (T(b)) on righting performance of two species of freshwater turtles, the endangered native Spanish terrapin (Mauremys leprosa), and the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans), an introduced invasive species that is displacing native turtles in the Iberian Peninsula. Interspecific differences in morphology, basking requirements and behavioral responses have been found between Spanish terrapins and introduced sliders. Therefore, we hypothesized that T(b) might differentially affect righting behavior of these two turtle species. We found a clear effect of T(b) on righting response of both M. leprosa and T. scripta, with the performance enhanced at the preferred basking temperature of each turtle species. These results suggest that righting might be coadapted to preferred basking temperature in freshwater turtles. Also, M. leprosa required longer times to right on average than T. scripta, which denotes a higher efficiency of introduced sliders at righting performance. These interspecific behavioral asymmetries in righting performance between native and exotic turtles might contribute to the greater competitive ability of introduced T. scripta, favoring the expansion of exotic sliders in the new environments in which they are introduced, in detriment to native Spanish terrapins.

  2. Judging complex movement performances for excellence: a principal components analysis-based technique applied to competitive diving.

    PubMed

    Young, Cole; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2014-08-01

    Athletes rely on subjective assessment of complex movements from coaches and judges to improve their motor skills. In some sports, such as diving, snowboard half pipe, gymnastics, and figure skating, subjective scoring forms the basis for competition. It is currently unclear whether this scoring process can be mathematically modeled; doing so could provide insight into what motor skill is. Principal components analysis has been proposed as a motion analysis method for identifying fundamental units of coordination. We used PCA to analyze movement quality of dives taken from USA Diving's 2009 World Team Selection Camp, first identifying eigenpostures associated with dives, and then using the eigenpostures and their temporal weighting coefficients, as well as elements commonly assumed to affect scoring - gross body path, splash area, and board tip motion - to identify eigendives. Within this eigendive space we predicted actual judges' scores using linear regression. This technique rated dives with accuracy comparable to the human judges. The temporal weighting of the eigenpostures, body center path, splash area, and board tip motion affected the score, but not the eigenpostures themselves. These results illustrate that (1) subjective scoring in a competitive diving event can be mathematically modeled; (2) the elements commonly assumed to affect dive scoring actually do affect scoring (3) skill in elite diving is more associated with the gross body path and the effect of the movement on the board and water than the units of coordination that PCA extracts, which might reflect the high level of technique these divers had achieved. We also illustrate how eigendives can be used to produce dive animations that an observer can distort continuously from poor to excellent, which is a novel approach to performance visualization.

  3. Team performance and collective efficacy in the dynamic psychology of competitive team: a Bayesian network analysis.

    PubMed

    Fuster-Parra, P; García-Mas, A; Ponseti, F J; Leo, F M

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this paper was to discover the relationships among 22 relevant psychological features in semi-professional football players in order to study team's performance and collective efficacy via a Bayesian network (BN). The paper includes optimization of team's performance and collective efficacy using intercausal reasoning pattern which constitutes a very common pattern in human reasoning. The BN is used to make inferences regarding our problem, and therefore we obtain some conclusions; among them: maximizing the team's performance causes a decrease in collective efficacy and when team's performance achieves the minimum value it causes an increase in moderate/high values of collective efficacy. Similarly, we may reason optimizing team collective efficacy instead. It also allows us to determine the features that have the strongest influence on performance and which on collective efficacy. From the BN two different coaching styles were differentiated taking into account the local Markov property: training leadership and autocratic leadership.

  4. Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college.

  5. Elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and soil nutrients alter competitive performance of California annual grassland species

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, H.L.; Chapin, F.S. III; Field, C.B.

    1995-06-01

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} and soil nutrients altered interspecific competitive performance of three grassland annuals, all exhibiting the C{sub 3} metabolic pathway. Plantago erecta, an herbaceous dicot dominant in low-fertility serpentine grassland, was the superior interspecific competitor at low soil nutrients. Bromus hordeaceus, an introduced grass dominant in higher fertility sandstone grassland, was the superior interspecific competitor at high soil nutrients. Interspecific competitive ability of Plantago was slightly enhanced under elevated CO{sub 2}, but only at high soil nutrients, whereas interspecific competitive ability of Bromus was stimulated under elevated CO{sub 2} at both low and high soil nutrients. Interspecific competitive ability of Lasthenia californica, another herbaceous dicot common in serpentine grassland, was low in all treatments, and tended to decrease with elevated CO{sub 2} at low soil nutrients. Our results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2} may shift plant species abundance of serpentine grassland in favor of Bromus hordeaceus.

  6. Competitive adsorption desulfurization performance over K - Doped NiY zeolite.

    PubMed

    Li, Haizheng; Han, Xiaona; Huang, Haokai; Wang, Yuxian; Zhao, Liang; Cao, Liyuan; Shen, Baojian; Gao, Jinsen; Xu, Chunming

    2016-12-01

    NiY and KNiY were successfully prepared by impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 sorption (BET), scanning electron microscope (SEM), infrared spectrum (IR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The competitive adsorption mechanisms of adsorbents were studied by in situ FTIR to explain different desulfurization performance which was evaluated in a miniature fixed-bed flow by gasoline model compounds with 1-hexene or toluene. NiY and KNiY adsorbents showed better desulfurization performance than HY zeolite due to the high selectivity of loaded active metals. Especially, KNiY adsorbent showed its advantages in desulfurization performance with 5vol% olefins or 5vol% aromatics involvement. It could be assigned that introduced K cation enhanced dispersion and content of active Ni species on the surface which made Ni species reduce easily. On the other hand, adsorption mechanisms showed that the protonation reactions of thiophene and 1-hexene occurred on the Brönsted acid sites of NiY, which resulted in pore blockage and the coverage of adsorption active centers. By doping K cation on NiY, the amount of the Brönsted acid sites of NiY was decreased and protonation reactions were weaken. Therefore, the negative effects of Brönsted acid sites were reduced.

  7. Underachievers: From Whose Perspective? A Commentary on "Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Learner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique on "Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Learner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students". The authors of the article titled "Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Learner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students" investigated…

  8. Quantitative Guidance for Stove Usage and Performance to Achieve Health and Environmental Targets

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ranyee A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Displacing the use of polluting and inefficient cookstoves in developing countries is necessary to achieve the potential health and environmental benefits sought through clean cooking solutions. Yet little quantitative context has been provided on how much displacement of traditional technologies is needed to achieve targets for household air pollutant concentrations or fuel savings. Objectives This paper provides instructive guidance on the usage of cooking technologies required to achieve health and environmental improvements. Methods We evaluated different scenarios of displacement of traditional stoves with use of higher performing technologies. The air quality and fuel consumption impacts were estimated for these scenarios using a single-zone box model of indoor air quality and ratios of thermal efficiency. Results Stove performance and usage should be considered together, as lower performing stoves can result in similar or greater benefits than a higher performing stove if the lower performing stove has considerably higher displacement of the baseline stove. Based on the indoor air quality model, there are multiple performance–usage scenarios for achieving modest indoor air quality improvements. To meet World Health Organization guidance levels, however, three-stone fire and basic charcoal stove usage must be nearly eliminated to achieve the particulate matter target (< 1–3 hr/week), and substantially limited to meet the carbon monoxide guideline (< 7–9 hr/week). Conclusions Moderate health gains may be achieved with various performance–usage scenarios. The greatest benefits are estimated to be achieved by near-complete displacement of traditional stoves with clean technologies, emphasizing the need to shift in the long term to near exclusive use of clean fuels and stoves. The performance–usage scenarios are also provided as a tool to guide technology selection and prioritize behavior change opportunities to maximize impact. Citation

  9. Performance changes in NBA basketball players vary in starters vs. nonstarters over a competitive season.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Hoffman, Jay R; Rogowski, Joseph P; Burgos, William; Manalo, Edwin; Weise, Keon; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare starters (S) with nonstarters (NS), on their ability to maintain strength, power, and quickness during a competitive National Basketball Association (NBA) season. Twelve NBA players were assessed at the beginning and end of the competitive season. However, because of trades and injury, only 7 (S = 4, NS = 3) players (28.2 ± 3.4 years; 200.9 ± 9.4 cm; 104.7 ± 13.9 kg; 7.2 ± 1.9% body fat) participated in both testing sessions and underwent analysis. Anthropometric performance (repetitive vertical jump power [VJP], squat power [SQT power], and reaction time) and subjective feelings of energy, focus, alertness, and fatigue were recorded during each testing session. Results were interpreted using magnitude-based statistics to make inferences on true differences between starters and nonstarters using the unequal variances t-statistic. Starters played an average of 27.8 ± 6.9 minutes per game and nonstarters played an average of 11.3 ± 7.0 minutes per game. During the course of the season, changes in VJP indicated that starters were likely to increase VJP (Δ = 77.3 ± 78.1 W) compared to nonstarters (Δ= -160.0 ± 151.0 W). There also appeared to be a possible beneficial effect on maintaining reaction time in starters (Δ = 0.005 ± 0.074 seconds) compared with nonstarters (Δ = 0.047 ± 0.073 seconds). In addition, no clear differences in ΔSQT power were seen between starters (Δ = 110.8 ± 141.4 W) and nonstarters (Δ = 143.5 ± 24.7 W). Changes in subjective feelings of energy indicated that starters were very likely to maintain their energy over the course of a season. It also appeared possible that starters were able to have a more positive response to subjective measures of fatigue and alertness than nonstarters, with only trivial differences between starters and nonstarters in regards to maintaining focus. Results of this study suggest that NBA players may enhance lower-body power, repetitive jump ability, and

  10. Achievement Motivation: Conceptions of Ability, Subjective Experience, Task Choice, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, John G.

    1984-01-01

    Achievement behavior is defined as behavior directed at demonstrating high ability. Ability is conceived as relative to one's own past performance, or relative to that of others. Conditions under which these conceptions of ability function as individual's goals and the nature of subjective experience in each case are specified. (Author/BW)

  11. Improving Achievement in Low-Performing Schools: Key Results for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Randolph E.; Burke, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    As accountability in schools becomes more crucial, educators are looking for comprehensive and innovative management practices that respond to challenges and realities of student academic achievement. In order to improve academic performance and the quality of instruction, the entire school community needs to be involved. This book provides six…

  12. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  13. Four Language Skills Performance, Academic Achievement, and Learning Strategy Use in Preservice Teacher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the differences in language learning strategies (LLS) use between preservice teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and Arabic as a second language (ASL). It also examines the relationship between LLS use and language performance (academic achievement and four language skills) among ASL students. The study made use…

  14. Immigrant Children's Educational Achievement in Western Countries: Origin, Destination, and Community Effects on Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levels, Mark; Dronkers, Jaap; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which macro-level characteristics of destination countries, origin countries, and immigrant communities help explain differences in immigrant children's educational achievement. Using data from the 2003 PISA survey, we analyze the mathematical performance of 7,403 pupils from 35 different origin countries in 13…

  15. Making Employee Recognition a Tool for Achieving Improved Performance: Implication for Ghanaian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoatemaa, Abena Serwaa; Kyeremeh, Dorcas Darkoah

    2016-01-01

    Many organisations are increasingly making use of employee recognition to motivate employees to achieve high performance and productivity. Research has shown that effective recognition occurs in organisations that have strong supportive culture, understand the psychology of praising employees for their good work, and apply the principles of…

  16. Factors Influencing Student Achievement at a High-Performing Title I Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeier, Charlann K.

    2012-01-01

    Schools in America are required to provide all students with a quality education regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background, demonstrated through test scores mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act. Knowledge about factors that influence students' academic performance and serve to reduce the achievement gap between Hispanic…

  17. Performance in Reading from Content Area Text as an Indicator of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espin, Christine A.; Deno, Stanley L.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the validity of a measure of reading proficiency in content areas with 121 grade-10 students. Correlational analyses revealed low-moderate to moderate correlations between reading measures and scores on a classroom study task, grade point average, and achievement test performance. Recommendations are made for implementation…

  18. Classroom Environment, Instructional Resources, and Teaching Differences in High-Performing Kentucky Schools with Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Schumacher, Debbie; Hauser, Brenda; Croom, Nona D. M.

    This study examined differences at the classroom level between Kentucky schools with minimum versus large gaps in academic achievement between particular groups of students. Data were gathered via observations of 213 classrooms at 18 elementary, middle, and high schools. Although all the schools were identified as high-performing in terms of…

  19. Reading Achievement, Mastery, and Performance Goal Structures among Students with Learning Disabilities: A Nonlinear Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Antoniou, Faye

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that a nonlinear relationship exists between a performance-classroom climate and the reading achievement of adolescent students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants were 62 students with LD (Grades 5-9) from public elementary schools in northern Greece. Classroom climate was…

  20. Marked for Success: Secondary School Performance and University Achievement in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Keith; Broght, Erik; Sampson, Kaylene

    2011-01-01

    Building on Shulruf, Hattie and Tumen (2008), this work examines the capacity of various National Certificate in Educational Achievement (NCEA)-derived models to predict first-year performance in Biological Sciences at a New Zealand university. We compared three models: (1) the "best-80" indicator as used by several New Zealand…

  1. Teaching to the Tails: Teacher Performance Pay and the Distribution of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyalka, Prashant; Sylvia, Sean; Liu, Chengfang; Chu, James; Rozelle, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that teachers in developing countries often have weak or misaligned incentives for improving student outcomes. In response, policymakers and researchers have proposed performance pay as a way to improve student outcomes by tying concrete measures like achievement scores to teacher pay. While evidence from randomized…

  2. The whole relationship between environmental variables and firm performance: competitive advantage and firm resources as mediator variables.

    PubMed

    López-Gamero, María D; Molina-Azorín, José F; Claver-Cortés, Enrique

    2009-07-01

    The examination of the possible direct link between environmental protection and firm performance in the literature has generally produced mixed results. The present paper contributes to the literature by using the resource-based view as a mediating process in this relationship. The study specifically tests whether or not the resource-based view of the firm mediates the positive relationships of proactive environmental management and improved environmental performance with competitive advantage, which also has consequences for financial performance. We also check the possible link between the adoption of a pioneering approach and good environmental management practices. Our findings support that early investment timing and intensity in environmental issues impact on the adoption of a proactive environmental management, which in turn helps to improve environmental performance. The findings also show that a firm's resources and competitive advantage act as mediator variables for a positive relationship between environmental protection and financial performance. This contribution is original because the present paper develops a comprehensive whole picture of this path process, which has previously only been partially discussed in the literature. In addition, this study clarifies a relevant point in the literature, namely that the effect of environmental protection on firm performance is not direct and can vary depending on the sector considered. Whereas competitive advantage in relation to costs influences financial performance in the IPPC law sector, the relevant influence in the hotel sector comes from competitive advantage through differentiation.

  3. Physical Performance During Water-Polo Matches: The Effect of the Players’ Competitive Level

    PubMed Central

    Toubekis, Argyris G.; Platanou, Theodoros I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the study was to compare playing intensity and performance changes within a water-polo match in players of different competitive levels. High-level (n = 7) and lower-level (n = 7) players performed a progressively increasing speed test of 5 x 200 m swimming and speed corresponding to lactate concentration of 4.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol•l-1 was calculated. Repeated sprint ability (8 x 20 m) was tested at pre-, the middle and post-match and a 400 m swimming test was completed at pre and post in five water-polo matches. A t-test and a two-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. High-level compared to lower-level players presented higher speed corresponding to lactate concentration of 4.0 and 5.0 mmol•l-1 (p < 0.05). Regardless of the sports level, the mean heart rate was reduced towards the end of the match. High-level players completed a shorter amount of match time with the heart rate lower than 85% of the peak heart rate (p < 0.05). However, when the speed corresponding to lactate concentration of 4.0 mmol•l-1 was used as a covariate, no differences were observed in the heart rate between groups. Both groups decreased repeated sprint and 400 m performance at post- compared to pre-match by 7 ± 3% and 7 ± 4%, respectively. High-level compared to lower-level players showed better performance in repeated sprints at the middle (p < 0.01) and in pre-, post-match 400 m tests (p < 0.01). It was concluded that high-level compared to lower-level players completed the match at a higher playing intensity and presented a lower performance decrement across the match as a result of their higher aerobic endurance. PMID:28031765

  4. Physical Performance During Water-Polo Matches: The Effect of the Players' Competitive Level.

    PubMed

    Botonis, Petros G; Toubekis, Argyris G; Platanou, Theodoros I

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare playing intensity and performance changes within a water-polo match in players of different competitive levels. High-level (n = 7) and lower-level (n = 7) players performed a progressively increasing speed test of 5 x 200 m swimming and speed corresponding to lactate concentration of 4.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol•l-1 was calculated. Repeated sprint ability (8 x 20 m) was tested at pre-, the middle and post-match and a 400 m swimming test was completed at pre and post in five water-polo matches. A t-test and a two-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. High-level compared to lower-level players presented higher speed corresponding to lactate concentration of 4.0 and 5.0 mmol•l-1 (p < 0.05). Regardless of the sports level, the mean heart rate was reduced towards the end of the match. High-level players completed a shorter amount of match time with the heart rate lower than 85% of the peak heart rate (p < 0.05). However, when the speed corresponding to lactate concentration of 4.0 mmol•l-1 was used as a covariate, no differences were observed in the heart rate between groups. Both groups decreased repeated sprint and 400 m performance at post- compared to pre-match by 7 ± 3% and 7 ± 4%, respectively. High-level compared to lower-level players showed better performance in repeated sprints at the middle (p < 0.01) and in pre-, post-match 400 m tests (p < 0.01). It was concluded that high-level compared to lower-level players completed the match at a higher playing intensity and presented a lower performance decrement across the match as a result of their higher aerobic endurance.

  5. Influence of Cognitive Interferences and Self-Talk Functions on Performance During Competition in Elite Female Field Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Encinas, Cristina; Fernández-Campos, Francisco J; Rodas, Gil; Barrios, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Pérez-Encinas, C, Fernández-Campos, FJ, Rodas, G, and Barrios, C. Influence of cognitive interferences and self-talk functions on performance during competition in elite female field hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3339-3346, 2016-Cognitive interferences in the form of distracting thoughts and self-talk functions may play an important role in athletes' performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the types of interfering thoughts and the concomitant use of self-talk functions occurring in a sample of elite female field hockey players. The variation in these interferences in relation to athletes' performance level in competition was also investigated. Thirty-two female players of the first and the Under-21 National Team completed the Thought Occurrence Questionnaire for Sport and the Self-Talk Questionnaire after an international competition. The trainer rated the players' performance during competition in 3 different categories according to his expectancies based on the athletes' conditioning: Low (n = 6), Normal (n = 15), and High Performance (n = 11). Those players classified as low performing had increased the occurrence of irrelevant thoughts as compared with other groups. These athletes also showed the highest scores on the thoughts of escape subscale. Athletes with high performance during tournaments exhibited the lowest scores on all subscales, especially in thoughts of escape. The S-TQ subscales showed no differences among the 3 performance groups. Under-21 players had higher scores on the occurrence of performance worries and thoughts of escape subscales than first national team players. Interfering thoughts are common in female field hockey players during world-class competitions. The occurrence of irrelevant thoughts and thoughts of escape was related to players exhibiting low performance. The use of self-talk functions was relatively low in these athletes and could explain the enhanced occurrence of interfering thoughts.

  6. Reading Achievement, Mastery, and Performance Goal Structures Among Students With Learning Disabilities: A Nonlinear Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sideridis, Georgios D; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Antoniou, Faye

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that a nonlinear relationship exists between a performance-classroom climate and the reading achievement of adolescent students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants were 62 students with LD (Grades 5-9) from public elementary schools in northern Greece. Classroom climate was assessed using the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Styles. Achievement in reading was assessed using a normative reading assessment. Data were analyzed by means of catastrophe theory in which the behavior is predicted as a function of two control variables, the asymmetry factor and the bifurcation factor. Reading achievement (word identification) was predicted by students' ability to decode pseudowords (asymmetry variable) and by a mastery or performance motivational discourse (bifurcation factor). Results indicated that in classrooms with a performance goal structure, the cusp model fit the data and accounted for 54% of the variance in real word identification. In this condition, the association between pseudoword reading and real word reading was nonlinear. When a mastery climate was tested as a bifurcation variable, results indicated that its effect was nonsignificant and that instead the linear model fitted the data more adequately. Thus, increases in a classroom's performance motivational discourse are associated with sudden, unpredictable, and discontinued changes in students' reading performance.

  7. The honeymoon effect in job performance - Temporal increases in the predictive power of achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Sawin, Linda L.; Carsrud, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    Correlations between a job performance criterion and personality measures reflecting achievement motivation and an interpersonal orientation were examined at three points in time after completion of job training for a sample of airline reservations agents. Although correlations between the personality predictors and performance were small and nonsignificant for the 3-month period after beginning the job, by the end of six and eight months a number of significant relationships had emerged. Implications for the utility of personality measures in selection and performance prediction are discussed.

  8. Application of regression and neural models to predict competitive swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Maszczyk, Adam; Roczniok, Robert; Waśkiewicz, Zbigniew; Czuba, Miłosz; Mikołajec, Kazimierz; Zajac, Adam; Stanula, Arkadiusz

    2012-04-01

    This research problem was indirectly but closely connected with the optimization of an athlete-selection process, based on predictions viewed as determinants of future successes. The research project involved a group of 249 competitive swimmers (age 12 yr., SD = 0.5) who trained and competed for four years. Measures involving fitness (e.g., lung capacity), strength (e.g., standing long jump), swimming technique (turn, glide, distance per stroke cycle), anthropometric variables (e.g., hand and foot size), as well as specific swimming measures (speeds in particular distances), were used. The participants (n = 189) trained from May 2008 to May 2009, which involved five days of swimming workouts per week, and three additional 45-min. sessions devoted to measurements necessary for this study. In June 2009, data from two groups of 30 swimmers each (n = 60) were used to identify predictor variables. Models were then constructed from these variables to predict final swimming performance in the 50 meter and 800 meter crawl events. Nonlinear regression models and neural models were built for the dependent variable of sport results (performance at 50m and 800m). In May 2010, the swimmers' actual race times for these events were compared to the predictions created a year prior to the beginning of the experiment. Results for the nonlinear regression models and perceptron networks structured as 8-4-1 and 4-3-1 indicated that the neural models overall more accurately predicted final swimming performance from initial training, strength, fitness, and body measurements. Differences in the sum of absolute error values were 4:11.96 (n = 30 for 800m) and 20.39 (n = 30 for 50m), for models structured as 8-4-1 and 4-3-1, respectively, with the neural models being more accurate. It seems possible that such models can be used to predict future performance, as well as in the process of recruiting athletes for specific styles and distances in swimming.

  9. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  10. Selection by mating competitiveness improves the performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the genetic sexing strain Tapachula-7.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Fong, L; Toledo, J; Ruiz, L; Rendón, P; Orozco-Dávila, D; Cruz, L; Liedo, P

    2016-10-01

    The sexual performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the Tapachula-7 genetic sexing strain, produced via selection based on mating success, was compared with that of males produced without selection in competition with wild males. Mating competition, development time, survival, mass-rearing quality parameters and pheromone production were compared. The results showed that selection based on mating competitiveness significantly improved the sexual performance of offspring. Development time, survival of larvae, pupae and adults, and weights of larvae and pupae increased with each selection cycle. Differences in the relative quantity of the pheromone compounds (Z)-3-nonenol and anastrephin were observed when comparing the parental males with the F4 and wild males. The implications of this colony management method on the sterile insect technique are discussed.

  11. Training load, immune system, upper respiratory symptoms and performance in well-trained cyclists throughout a competitive season.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, H G; Gobatto, C A; Manchado-Gobatto, F B

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the leukocyte subset counts, serum immunoglobulin A, performance and upper respiratory symptoms (URS), as well as their interrelationships, of well-trained cyclists for a 29-week training season using monitored loads. The season was divided into three phases: preparatory (nine weeks), first competitive phase (nine weeks) and second competitive phase (11 weeks). The sample consisted of eight well-trained cyclists, aged 18 ± 2 years. Immunological parameters and performance were evaluated during weeks 1 (baseline), 10 (early first competitive phase), 19 (early second competitive phase) and 29 (end of the second competitive phase). The training loads (volume x rating of perceived exertion) were monitored daily while the monitoring of URS was performed every 15 days using the WURSS-44 questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and a Pearson correlation test with the significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. No significant differences were found for training load, leukocyte subset counts or serum immunoglobulin A among the three phases. However, serum immunoglobulin A was 50.9% below the control group values. URS were significantly higher during the preparatory period, and there were significant correlations between URS and training load (strain) in the preparatory period (r = 0.72, p = 0.032) and second competitive phase (r = 0.73, p = 0.036). In conclusion, indicators of training load without a significant change throughout the season did not significantly affect immune parameters measured; however, the increase of strain can cause an increase of upper respiratory symptoms throughout the season, but without loss of performance.

  12. Competition and performance in OCS oil and gas lease sales and lease development, 1954-1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mead, Walter J.; Sorensen, Philip Edward

    1980-01-01

    The oil and gas resources of the Outer Continental Shelf represent one of America's largest publicly-owned assets. Through 1978, OCS oil and gas leases had yielded \\$40.5 billion in gross production value and produced over \\$28.3 billion in direct revenue to the federal government.Policies and procedures for managing the oil and gas resources of the OCS were established by Congress in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act of 1953. The Department of Interior was given the central responsibility for carrying out this management role in the 1953 Act; this responsibility has been re-established in the 1978 Amendments to the OCS Lands Act. As stated in the 1978 legislation, the goals of OCS management are to:...preserve, protect and develop oil and natural gas resources in a manner which is consistent with the need (A) to make such resources available to meet the Nation's energy needs as rapidly as possible... (C) to insure the public a fair and equitable return on the resources of the Outer Continental Shelf, and (D) to preserve and maintain free enterprise competition.As part of its continuing effort to monitor the effectiveness of federal policies relating to OCS oil and gas resources, the Conservation Division of U.S. Geological Survey, Department of Interior, has sponsored the research which is the basis for the present report. The objectives of the research have been to determine the extent to which the historical policies of OCS management have resulted in achievement of the goals set forth by Congress in the section quoted above.

  13. Daily online testing in large classes: boosting college performance while reducing achievement gaps.

    PubMed

    Pennebaker, James W; Gosling, Samuel D; Ferrell, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    An in-class computer-based system, that included daily online testing, was introduced to two large university classes. We examined subsequent improvements in academic performance and reductions in the achievement gaps between lower- and upper-middle class students in academic performance. Students (N = 901) brought laptop computers to classes and took daily quizzes that provided immediate and personalized feedback. Student performance was compared with the same data for traditional classes taught previously by the same instructors (N = 935). Exam performance was approximately half a letter grade above previous semesters, based on comparisons of identical questions asked from earlier years. Students in the experimental classes performed better in other classes, both in the semester they took the course and in subsequent semester classes. The new system resulted in a 50% reduction in the achievement gap as measured by grades among students of different social classes. These findings suggest that frequent consequential quizzing should be used routinely in large lecture courses to improve performance in class and in other concurrent and subsequent courses.

  14. High-Intensity Training Improves Exercise Performance in Elite Women Volleyball Players During a Competitive Season.

    PubMed

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-11-01

    Purkhús, E, Krustrup, P, and Mohr, M. High-intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3066-3072, 2016-Elite women volleyball players (n = 25; mean ± SD: age, 19 ± 5 years; height, 171 ± 7 cm; weight, 63 ± 10 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high-intensity training (HIT; n = 13) group and a control (CON; n = 12) group. In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT performed 6-10 × 30-seconds all-out running intervals separated by 3-minute recovery periods 3 times per week during a 4-week in-season period whereas CON only completed the team training sessions and games. Preintervention and postintervention, all players completed the arrowhead agility test (AAT), a repeated sprint test (RST; 5 × 30 meters separated by 25 seconds of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 minute rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT in week 1 was 152 ± 4 m and increased (p ≤ 0.05) by 4.6% (159 ± 3 m) in week 4. The AAT performance improved (p ≤ 0.05) by 2.3% (18.87 ± 0.97-18.44 ± 1.06 seconds) and RST by 4.3% postintervention in the HIT group only. Baseline RST fatigue index was 7.0 ± 2.9 and 6.2 ± 5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (p ≤ 0.05) to 2.7 ± 3.0% posttraining in HIT and remained unaltered in CON (5.5 ± 5.0%). In HIT, Yo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance improved by 12.6 and 18.3% postintervention, respectively, with greater (p ≤ 0.05) Yo-yo IR1 change scores than in CON. In conclusion, additional high-intensity in-season training performed as interval running improved agility, repeated sprint ability, and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in elite women volleyball players.

  15. [Characteristics of Nutrition in Competitive Sports, Ranging from Leisure Activities to High-Performance Athletics].

    PubMed

    Braun, H

    2016-08-01

    Nutrition has a crucial influence on physical and mental performance ability and is an important measure along sidetraining in high-performance athletes. However, this form of nutritionis not applicable for every athlete and in every situation. The question of optimal nutrition requires involvement with the particular type of sports, an athlete's current training stage, and athletes' individual requirements and objectives. Implementation takes time and individual motivation on the part of athletes and the specialist staff who engage intensively with the nutritional needs of athletes. In addition to adequate energy provision, it is important to divide the energy sensibly among the energy sources carbohydrates, fats, and protein. Performance athletes' higher need for protein can usually be covered in their regular diet; supplements are needed only in exceptional cases. Studies have shown that small amounts of 15 - 25 g protein are sensible after weight training, in order to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. The need for carbohydrates increases dynamically with the intensity and duration of physical exertion. A sufficient supply is crucial for achieving maximum performance. Low carb diets are unsuitable for performance athletes. So called low-glycogen training, however, can lead to better adjustment/adaptation processes in selected training stages and can increase performance ability.

  16. The influence of social evaluation on cerebral cortical activity and motor performance: a study of "Real-Life" competition.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Bradley D; Costanzo, Michelle E; Goodman, Ronald N; Lo, Li-Chuan; Oh, Hyuk; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Saffer, Mark; Bradberry, Trent; Contreras-Vidal, Jose; Haufler, Amy

    2013-11-01

    Motor performance in a social evaluative environment was examined in participants (N = 19) who completed a pistol shooting task under both performance-alone (PA) and competitive (C) conditions. Electroencephalographic (EEG), autonomic, and psychoendocrine activity were recorded in addition to kinematic measures of the aiming behavior. State anxiety, heart rate, and cortisol were modestly elevated during C and accompanied by relative desynchrony of high-alpha power, increased cortico-cortical communication between motor and non-motor regions, and degradation of the fluency of aiming trajectory, but maintenance of performance outcome (i.e., score). The findings reveal that performance in a complex social-evaluative environment characterized by competition results in elevated cortical activity beyond that essentially required for motor performance that translated as less efficient motor behavior.

  17. Fundamental performance limits of carbon nanotube thin-film transistors achieved using hybrid molecular dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Vinod K; Ortiz, Rocio Ponce; Alaboson, Justice M P; Emery, Jonathan D; Bedzyk, Michael J; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2012-08-28

    In the past decade, semiconducting carbon nanotube thin films have been recognized as contending materials for wide-ranging applications in electronics, energy, and sensing. In particular, improvements in large-area flexible electronics have been achieved through independent advances in postgrowth processing to resolve metallic versus semiconducting carbon nanotube heterogeneity, in improved gate dielectrics, and in self-assembly processes. Moreover, controlled tuning of specific device components has afforded fundamental probes of the trade-offs between materials properties and device performance metrics. Nevertheless, carbon nanotube transistor performance suitable for real-world applications awaits understanding-based progress in the integration of independently pioneered device components. We achieve this here by integrating high-purity semiconducting carbon nanotube films with a custom-designed hybrid inorganic-organic gate dielectric. This synergistic combination of materials circumvents conventional design trade-offs, resulting in concurrent advances in several transistor performance metrics such as transconductance (6.5 μS/μm), intrinsic field-effect mobility (147 cm(2)/(V s)), subthreshold swing (150 mV/decade), and on/off ratio (5 × 10(5)), while also achieving hysteresis-free operation in ambient conditions.

  18. Maximising performance in triathlon: applied physiological and nutritional aspects of elite and non-elite competitions.

    PubMed

    Bentley, David J; Cox, Gregory R; Green, Daniel; Laursen, Paul B

    2008-07-01

    Triathlon is a sport consisting of sequential swimming, cycling and running. The main diversity within the sport of triathlon resides in the varying event distances, which creates specific technical, physiological and nutritional considerations for athlete and practitioner alike. The purpose of this article is to review physiological as well as nutritional aspects of triathlon and to make recommendations on ways to enhance performance. Aside from progressive conditioning and training, areas that have shown potential to improve triathlon performance include drafting when possible during both the swim and cycle phase, wearing a wetsuit, and selecting a lower cadence (60-80 rpm) in the final stages of the cycle phase. Adoption of a more even racing pace during cycling may optimise cycling performance and induce a "metabolic reserve" necessary for elevated running performance in longer distance triathlon events. In contrast, drafting in swimming and cycling may result a better tactical approach to increase overall performance in elite Olympic distance triathlons. Daily energy intake should be modified to reflect daily training demands to assist triathletes in achieving body weight and body composition targets. Carbohydrate loading strategies and within exercise carbohydrate intake should reflect the specific requirements of the triathlon event contested. Development of an individualised fluid plan based on previous fluid balance observations may assist to avoid both dehydration and hyponatremia during prolonged triathlon racing.

  19. Impact of a competition with two consecutive matches in a day on physical performance in young tennis players.

    PubMed

    Gallo-Salazar, Cesar; Del Coso, Juan; Barbado, David; Lopez-Valenciano, Alejandro; Santos-Rosa, Francisco Javier; Sanz-Rivas, David; Moya, Manuel; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime

    2017-02-23

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of playing two tennis matches on the same day on physical performance in young tennis players. Twelve well-trained young tennis players took part in a simulated tennis competition consisting of two tennis matches on the same day (morning and afternoon sessions). Before and the day after the competition, physical performance was measured using a battery of countermovement jumps (CMJ), a 10-m sprint, the 5-0-5 agility test, hip, grip and shoulder maximal isometric strength, shoulder range of motion (ROM) and a serve velocity test. Post-competition results showed reduced performance in 10-m (-3.3%, effect size (ES)= small), dominant-and-non-dominant 5-0-5 agility test (-4.6%, ES=moderate; -4.2%, ES=moderate, respectively), bilateral (-5.2%, ES=small) and unilateral CMJ (dominant leg: -7.2%, ES=small; non-dominant leg: -9.1%, ES=small). Both dominant and non-dominant shoulder external rotation (ER) ROM increased (12.2%, ES=moderate; 5.6%, ES=small) while internal rotation (IR) decreased (-4.2%, ES=small; -3.3%, ES=small) in the post-competition tests, together with the dominant-shoulder ER (-10.7%, ES=moderate) and IR (-9.3%, ES=small) strength. Physical impairments occurred in neuromuscular performance variables involving lower (e.g. jumping, sprinting and change of direction) and upper (e.g. isometric strength and range of motion) limbs the day after playing a competition with two consecutive matches on the same day. These alterations in neuromuscular and sport-specific performance need to be taken into consideration when planning tournament schedules for young tennis players, as well as preparing match and recovery strategies.

  20. The effect of workshop groups on achievement goals and performance in biology: An outcome evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Wendi Kay

    This two-year quasi-experiment evaluated the effect of peer-led workshop groups on performance of minority and majority undergraduate biology students in a three-course series and investigated motivational explanations for performance differences. The workshop intervention used was modeled after a program pioneered by Treisman (1992) at the University of California. Majority volunteers randomly assigned to workshops (n = 61) performed between 1/2 and 1 standard deviation better than those assigned to the control group (n = 60; p < .05) in each quarter without spending more time studying. During Quarter 1, workshop minority students (n = 25) showed a pattern of increasing exam performance in comparison to historic control minority students (n = 21), who showed a decreasing pattern (p < .05). Although sex differences in biology performance were a focus of investigation, none were detected. Motivational predictions derived from the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation (Elliot & Church, 1997) were partially supported. Self-report survey measures of achievement goals, modeled after those used by Elliot and colleagues, were requested from all enrolled students. Volunteers (n = 121) reported higher average levels of approach and avoidance goals than nonvolunteers (n = 439; p < .05) and the relationship of goals to performance was moderated by volunteer status. Performance of volunteers was negatively related to avoidance of failure goals (r = .41, p < .01) and unrelated to performance approach goals. Performance of nonvolunteers was unrelated to avoidance of failure goals and positively related to performance approach goals (r = .28, p < .01). Mastery goals were unrelated to performance for all students. Results were inconsistent with Dweck and Leggett's (1988) theory of mastery vs. performance orientation, but were similar to results found by Elliot and colleagues. Contrary to hypotheses, motivational goals did not mediate performance for

  1. Physical Performance of Brazilian Rugby Players From Different Age Categories and Competitive Levels.

    PubMed

    Kobal, Ronaldo; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Moraes, José E; Coelho, Maurício; Kitamura, Katia; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Pereira, Lucas A; Loturco, Irineu

    2016-09-01

    Kobal, R, Nakamura, FY, Moraes, JE, Coelho, M, Kitamura, K, Cal Abad, CC, Pereira, LA, and Loturco, I. Physical performance of Brazilian rugby players from different age categories and competitive levels. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2433-2439, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometric characteristics and physical capacities (vertical jumping, speed, agility, and endurance abilities) among different age categories of Brazilian rugby players from the same high-level club and to compare their respective data with those obtained from the national team players. Eighty-eight men Brazilian rugby players from 4 different age categories were divided into 4 different groups (i.e., under-15 [U-15], under-17 [U-17], under-19 [U-19], and professional senior team [PRO]) and a group composed of players from the Brazilian national team (NAT). Anthropometric measures (i.e., height and body mass), squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests , 2 agility tests (change of direction [COD] and proagility), 40-m sprinting, and the Yo-Yo endurance test (level 1) were compared among the groups using an analysis of covariance (multivariable multivariate analysis of covariance) with the body mass as a covariate. The NAT group demonstrated significantly greater performances in all variables compared with the U-15, U-17, U-19, and PRO groups (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the PRO group demonstrated better performances in vertical jumping assessments (i.e., SJs and CMJs) and agility tests (i.e., COD and proagility) than the younger categories (p ≤ 0.05). Finally, except for the U-15 group, no significant differences were found between the young age-categories in sprint and endurance capacities. These findings show that, throughout the maturation process, rugby players improve their muscle power and agility abilities without presenting significant increases in endurance and sprinting capacities. Importantly, this does not hold true for players from the NAT group, who

  2. The Influence of Hospital Market Competition on Patient Mortality and Total Performance Score.

    PubMed

    Haley, Donald Robert; Zhao, Mei; Spaulding, Aaron; Hamadi, Hanadi; Xu, Jing; Yeomans, Katelyn

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act of 2010 launch of Medicare Value-Based Purchasing has become the platform for payment reform. It is a mechanism by which buyers of health care services hold providers accountable for high-quality and cost-effective care. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between quality of hospital care and hospital competition using the quality-quantity behavioral model of hospital behavior. The quality-quantity behavioral model of hospital behavior was used as the conceptual framework for this study. Data from the American Hospital Association database, the Hospital Compare database, and the Area Health Resources Files database were used. Multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the effect of hospital competition on patient mortality. Hospital market competition was significantly and negatively related to the 3 mortality rates. Consistent with the literature, hospitals located in more competitive markets had lower mortality rates for patients with acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The results suggest that hospitals may be more readily to compete on quality of care and patient outcomes. The findings are important because policies that seek to control and negatively influence a competitive hospital environment, such as Certificate of Need legislation, may negatively affect patient mortality rates. Therefore, policymakers should encourage the development of policies that facilitate a more competitive and transparent health care marketplace to potentially and significantly improve patient mortality.

  3. Performance of Rodent Spermatozoa Over Time Is Enhanced by Increased ATP Concentrations: The Role of Sperm Competition.

    PubMed

    Tourmente, Maximiliano; Villar-Moya, Pilar; Varea-Sánchez, María; Luque-Larena, Juan J; Rial, Eduardo; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2015-09-01

    Sperm viability, acrosome integrity, motility, and swimming velocity are determinants of male fertility and exhibit an extreme degree of variation among closely related species. Many of these sperm parameters are associated with sperm ATP content, which has led to predictions of trade-offs between ATP content and sperm motility and velocity. Selective pressures imposed by sperm competition have been proposed as evolutionary causes of this pattern of diversity in sperm traits. Here, we examine variation in sperm viability, acrosome integrity, motility, swimming velocity, and ATP content over time, among 18 species of closely related muroid rodents, to address the following questions: (a) Do sperm from closely related species vary in ATP content after a period of incubation? (b) Are these differences in ATP levels related to differences in other sperm traits? (c) Are differences in ATP content and sperm performance over time explained by the levels of sperm competition in these species? Our results revealed a high degree of interspecific variability in changes in sperm ATP content, acrosome integrity, sperm motility and swimming velocity over time. Additionally, species with high sperm competition levels were able to maintain higher levels of sperm motility and faster sperm swimming velocity when they were incubated under conditions that support sperm survival. Furthermore, we show that the maintenance of such levels of sperm performance is correlated with the ability of sperm to sustain high concentrations of intracellular ATP over time. Thus, sperm competition may have an important role maximizing sperm metabolism and performance and, ultimately, the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa.

  4. Social jetlag, academic achievement and cognitive performance: Understanding gender/sex differences.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA.

  5. Achieving optimum mechanical performance in metallic nanolayered Cu/X (X = Zr, Cr) micropillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Li, J.; Liang, X. Q.; Liu, G.; Sun, J.

    2014-03-01

    The selection and design of modern high-performance structural engineering materials such as nanostructured metallic multilayers (NMMs) is driven by optimizing combinations of mechanical properties and requirements for predictable and noncatastrophic failure in service. Here, the Cu/X (X = Zr, Cr) nanolayered micropillars with equal layer thickness (h) spanning from 5-125 nm are uniaxially compressed and it is found that these NMMs exhibit a maximum strain hardening capability and simultaneously display a transition from bulk-like to small-volume materials behavior associated with the strength at a critical intrinsic size h ~ 20 nm. We develop a deformation mode-map to bridge the gap between the interface characteristics of NMMs and their failure phenomena, which, as shrinking the intrinsic size, transit from localized interface debonding/extrusion to interface shearing. Our findings demonstrate that the optimum robust performance can be achieved in NMMs and provide guidance for their microstructure sensitive design for performance optimization.

  6. Comparison of Mental Toughness and Power Test Performances in High-Level Kickboxers by Competitive Success

    PubMed Central

    Slimani, Maamer; Miarka, Bianca; Briki, Walid; Cheour, Foued

    2016-01-01

    Background Kickboxing is a high-intensity intermittent striking combat sport, which is characterized by complex skills and tactical key actions with short duration. Objectives The present study compared and verified the relationship between mental toughness (MT), countermovement jump (CMJ) and medicine ball throw (MBT) power tests by outcomes of high-level kickboxers during National Championship. Materials and Methods Thirty two high-level male kickboxers (winner = 16 and loser = 16: 21.2 ± 3.1 years, 1.73 ± 0.07 m, and 70.2 ± 9.4 kg) were analyzed using the CMJ, MBT tests and sports mental toughness questionnaire (SMTQ; based in confidence, constancy and control subscales), before the fights of the 2015 national championship (16 bouts). In statistical analysis, Mann-Withney test and a multiple linear regression were used to compare groups and to observe relationships, respectively, P ≤ 0.05. Results The present results showed significant differences between losers vs. winners, respectively, of total MT (7(7;8) vs. 11(10.2;11), confidence (3(3;3) vs. 4(4;4)), constancy (2(2;2) vs. 3(3;3)), control (2(2;3) vs. 4(4;4)) subscales and MBT (4.1(4;4.3) vs. 4.6(4.4;4.8)). The multiple linear regression showed a strong associations between MT results and outcome (r = 0.89), MBT (r = 0.84) and CMJ (r = 0.73). Conclusions The findings suggest that MT will be more predictive of performance in those sports and in the outcome of competition. PMID:27625755

  7. Modelling the Progression of Competitive Performance of an Academy's Soccer Teams.

    PubMed

    Malcata, Rita M; Hopkins, Will G; Richardson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Progression of a team's performance is a key issue in competitive sport, but there appears to have been no published research on team progression for periods longer than a season. In this study we report the game-score progression of three teams of a youth talent-development academy over five seasons using a novel analytic approach based on generalised mixed modelling. The teams consisted of players born in 1991, 1992 and 1993; they played totals of 115, 107 and 122 games in Asia and Europe between 2005 and 2010 against teams differing in age by up to 3 years. Game scores predicted by the mixed model were assumed to have an over-dispersed Poisson distribution. The fixed effects in the model estimated an annual linear pro-gression for Aspire and for the other teams (grouped as a single opponent) with adjustment for home-ground advantage and for a linear effect of age difference between competing teams. A random effect allowed for different mean scores for Aspire and opposition teams. All effects were estimated as factors via log-transformation and presented as percent differences in scores. Inferences were based on the span of 90% confidence intervals in relation to thresholds for small factor effects of x/÷1.10 (+10%/-9%). Most effects were clear only when data for the three teams were combined. Older teams showed a small 27% increase in goals scored per year of age difference (90% confidence interval 13 to 42%). Aspire experienced a small home-ground advantage of 16% (-5 to 41%), whereas opposition teams experienced 31% (7 to 60%) on their own ground. After adjustment for these effects, the Aspire teams scored on average 1.5 goals per match, with little change in the five years of their existence, whereas their opponents' scores fell from 1.4 in their first year to 1.0 in their last. The difference in progression was trivial over one year (7%, -4 to 20%), small over two years (15%, -8 to 44%), but unclear over >2 years. In conclusion, the generalized mixed model

  8. High performances CNTFETs achieved using CNT networks for selective gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorintin, Louis; Bondavalli, Paolo; Legagneux, Pierre; Pribat, Didier

    2009-08-01

    Our study deals with the utilization of carbon nanotubes networks based transistors with different metal electrodes for highly selective gas sensing. Indeed, carbon nanotubes networks can be used as semi conducting materials to achieve good performances transistors. These devices are extremely sensitive to the change of the Schottky barrier heights between Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) and drain/source metal electrodes: the gas adsorption creates an interfacial dipole that modifies the metal work function and so the bending and the height of the Schottky barrier at the contacts. Moreover each gas interacts specifically with each metal identifying a sort of electronic fingerprinting. Using airbrush technique for deposition, we have been able to achieve uniform random networks of carbon nanotubes suitable for large area applications and mass production such as fabrication of CNT based gas sensors. These networks enable us to achieve transistors with on/off ratio of more than 5 orders of magnitude. To reach these characteristics, the density of the CNT network has been adjusted in order to reach the percolation threshold only for semi-conducting nanotubes. These optimized devices have allowed us to tune the sensitivity (improving it) of our sensors for highly selective detection of DiMethyl-Methyl-Phosphonate (DMMP, a sarin stimulant), and even volatile drug precursors using Pd, Au and Mo electrodes.

  9. Effects of Low-Volume, High-Intensity Training on Performance in Competitive Swimmers: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Frank J; Comyns, Thomas M; Burrows, Emma; Warrington, Giles D

    2017-03-01

    Nugent, FJ, Comyns, TM, Burrows, E, and Warrington, GD. Effects of low-volume, high-intensity training on performance in competitive swimmers: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 837-847, 2017-The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the extent and quality of the current research literature to determine the effects of low-volume, high-intensity training (HIT) on physiological performance and swimming performance in competitive swimmers. The methodology followed the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. A search of relevant databases and conference proceedings was performed until December 2015. The inclusion criteria were (a) competitive swimmers, (b) ≥4 weeks HIT intervention, (c) comparison group had to involve a higher training volume, (d) outcome measures of physiological and swimming performance, and (e) all experimental study designs. Quality assessment was performed using the Quality Index checklist. Results indicate that of the 538 studies retrieved, 7 studies met the inclusion criteria. Six of the 7 studies found that an HIT intervention resulted in significant improvements in physiological performance. Four of the 7 studies found that HIT resulted in significant improvements in swimming performance, whereas none of the 7 studies resulted in a reduction in physiological or swimming performance. Despite the positive findings of this review, the short study duration is a limitation to a number of studies. The current evidence on the effects of HIT on performance is promising; however, it is difficult to draw accurate conclusions until further research has been conducted.

  10. Performance Achievements and Challenges for FELs based on Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2006-08-27

    During the past decade several groups have assembled free electron lasers based on energy recovered linacs (ERLs). Such arrangements have been built to obtain high average power electron and photon beams, by using high repetition rate beam pulses driving FEL oscillators. In this paper the performance of many existing and several proposed facilities from around the world are reviewed. Going forward, many questions must be addressed to achieve still better performance including: higher average current injectors, better optimized accelerating cavities, higher energy acceptance and lower loss beam recirculation systems, and better optical cavity designs for dealing with the optical beam power circulating in the ERL FELs. This paper presents some of the current thinking on each of these issues.

  11. Wind/tornado design criteria, development to achieve required probabilistic performance goals

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, D.S.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes the strategy for developing new design criteria for a critical facility to withstand loading induced by the wind/tornado hazard. The proposed design requirements for resisting wind/tornado loads are based on probabilistic performance goals. The proposed design criteria were prepared by a Working Group consisting of six experts in wind/tornado engineering and meteorology. Utilizing their best technical knowledge and judgment in the wind/tornado field, they met and discussed the methodologies and reviewed available data. A review of the available wind/tornado hazard model for the site, structural response evaluation methods, and conservative acceptance criteria lead to proposed design criteria that has a high probability of achieving the required performance goals.

  12. Improving Student Achievement through Technology. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (March 15, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    The Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness, Committee on Education and the Workforce to met on Thursday, March 15, 2001 at 10:06 a.m., in Room 2175, Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Howard P. "Buck" McKeon, Chairman of the Subcommittee presiding, to hear testimony on the use of technology to improve student achievement.Under…

  13. Neuroanatomical correlates of performance in a state-wide test of math achievement.

    PubMed

    Wilkey, Eric D; Cutting, Laurie E; Price, Gavin R

    2017-03-03

    The development of math skills is a critical component of early education and a strong indicator of later school and economic success. Recent research utilizing population-normed, standardized measures of math achievement suggest that structural and functional integrity of parietal regions, especially the intraparietal sulcus, are closely related to the development of math skills. However, it is unknown how these findings relate to in-school math learning. The present study is the first to address this issue by investigating the relationship between regional differences in grey matter (GM) volume and performance in grade-level mathematics as measured by a state-wide, school-based test of math achievement (TCAP math) in children from 3rd to 8th grade. Results show that increased GM volume in the bilateral hippocampal formation and the right inferior frontal gyrus, regions associated with learning and memory, is associated with higher TCAP math scores. Secondary analyses revealed that GM volume in the left angular gyrus had a stronger relationship to TCAP math in grades 3-4 than in grades 5-8 while the relationship between GM volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus and TCAP math was stronger for grades 5-8. These results suggest that the neuroanatomical architecture related to in-school math achievement differs from that related to math achievement measured by standardized tests, and that the most related neural structures differ as a function of grade level. We suggest, therefore, that the use of school-relevant outcome measures is critical if neuroscience is to bridge the gap to education.

  14. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  15. When nursing takes ownership of financial outcomes: achieving exceptional financial performance through leadership, strategy, and execution.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Kristopher; Janney, Michelle; Ramsey, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    With nurses and unlicensed supportive personnel composing the greatest percentage of the workforce at any hospital, it is not surprising nursing leadership plays an increasing role in the attainment of financial goals. The nursing leadership team at one academic medical center reduced costs by more than $10 million over 4 years while outperforming national benchmarks on nurse-sensitive quality indicators. The most critical success factor in attaining exceptional financial performance is a personal and collective accountability to achieving outcomes. Whether it is financial improvement, advancing patient safety, or ensuring a highly engaged workforce, success will not be attained without thoughtful, focused leadership. The accountability model ensures there is a culture built around financial performance where nurses and leaders think and act, on a daily basis, in a manner necessary to understand opportunities, find answers, and overcome obstacles. While structures, processes, and tools may serve as the means to achieve a target, it is leadership's responsibility to set the right goal and motivate others.

  16. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance. PMID:27063414

  17. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-04-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance.

  18. A Comparison of Performance in Solving Arithmetical Word Problems by Children with Different Levels of Achievement in Mathematics and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikeras, Elin K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Performance in consistent arithmetical word problems was assessed in 941 pupils aged eight (N = 415), ten (N = 274), and thirteen (N = 252) classified in four achievement groups by standardised achievement tests: low achievement in both mathematics and reading (MLRL), in mathematics only (ML-only), in reading only (RL-only), and normal achievement…

  19. Relative Performance of Non-Local Cultivars and Local, Wild Populations of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) in Competition Experiments.

    PubMed

    Palik, D J; Snow, A A; Stottlemyer, A L; Miriti, M N; Heaton, E A

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of increased invasiveness in cultivated varieties of native perennial species is a question of interest in biofuel risk assessment. Competitive success is a key factor in the fitness and invasive potential of perennial plants, and thus the large-scale release of high-yielding biomass cultivars warrants empirical comparisons with local conspecifics in the presence of competitors. We evaluated the performance of non-local cultivars and local wild biotypes of the tallgrass species Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) in competition experiments during two growing seasons in Ohio and Iowa. At each location, we measured growth and reproductive traits (plant height, tiller number, flowering time, aboveground biomass, and seed production) of four non-locally sourced cultivars and two locally collected wild biotypes. Plants were grown in common garden experiments under three types of competition, referred to as none, moderate (with Schizachyrium scoparium), and high (with Bromus inermis). In both states, the two "lowland" cultivars grew taller, flowered later, and produced between 2x and 7.5x more biomass and between 3x and 34x more seeds per plant than local wild biotypes, while the other two cultivars were comparable to wild biotypes in these traits. Competition did not affect relative differences among biotypes, with the exception of shoot number, which was more similar among biotypes under high competition. Insights into functional differences between cultivars and wild biotypes are crucial for developing biomass crops while mitigating the potential for invasiveness. Here, two of the four cultivars generally performed better than wild biotypes, indicating that these biotypes may pose more of a risk in terms of their ability to establish vigorous feral populations in new regions outside of their area of origin. Our results support an ongoing assessment of switchgrass cultivars developed for large-scale planting for biofuels.

  20. Relative Performance of Non-Local Cultivars and Local, Wild Populations of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) in Competition Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Palik, D. J.; Snow, A. A.; Stottlemyer, A. L.; Miriti, M. N.; Heaton, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of increased invasiveness in cultivated varieties of native perennial species is a question of interest in biofuel risk assessment. Competitive success is a key factor in the fitness and invasive potential of perennial plants, and thus the large-scale release of high-yielding biomass cultivars warrants empirical comparisons with local conspecifics in the presence of competitors. We evaluated the performance of non-local cultivars and local wild biotypes of the tallgrass species Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) in competition experiments during two growing seasons in Ohio and Iowa. At each location, we measured growth and reproductive traits (plant height, tiller number, flowering time, aboveground biomass, and seed production) of four non-locally sourced cultivars and two locally collected wild biotypes. Plants were grown in common garden experiments under three types of competition, referred to as none, moderate (with Schizachyrium scoparium), and high (with Bromus inermis). In both states, the two “lowland” cultivars grew taller, flowered later, and produced between 2x and 7.5x more biomass and between 3x and 34x more seeds per plant than local wild biotypes, while the other two cultivars were comparable to wild biotypes in these traits. Competition did not affect relative differences among biotypes, with the exception of shoot number, which was more similar among biotypes under high competition. Insights into functional differences between cultivars and wild biotypes are crucial for developing biomass crops while mitigating the potential for invasiveness. Here, two of the four cultivars generally performed better than wild biotypes, indicating that these biotypes may pose more of a risk in terms of their ability to establish vigorous feral populations in new regions outside of their area of origin. Our results support an ongoing assessment of switchgrass cultivars developed for large-scale planting for biofuels. PMID:27120201

  1. SiNG-PCRseq: Accurate inter-sequence quantification achieved by spiking-in a neighbor genome for competitive PCR amplicon sequencing.

    PubMed

    Oh, Soo A; Yang, Inchul; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Kang, Yong-Kook; Chung, Sun-Ku; Jeong, Sangkyun

    2015-07-06

    Despite the recent technological advances in DNA quantitation by sequencing, accurate delineation of the quantitative relationship among different DNA sequences is yet to be elaborated due to difficulties in correcting the sequence-specific quantitation biases. We here developed a novel DNA quantitation method via spiking-in a neighbor genome for competitive PCR amplicon sequencing (SiNG-PCRseq). This method utilizes genome-wide chemically equivalent but easily discriminable homologous sequences with a known copy arrangement in the neighbor genome. By comparing the amounts of selected human DNA sequences simultaneously to those of matched sequences in the orangutan genome, we could accurately draw the quantitative relationships for those sequences in the human genome (root-mean-square deviations <0.05). Technical replications of cDNA quantitation performed using different reagents at different time points also resulted in excellent correlations (R(2) > 0.95). The cDNA quantitation using SiNG-PCRseq was highly concordant with the RNA-seq-derived version in inter-sample comparisons (R(2) = 0.88), but relatively discordant in inter-sequence quantitation (R(2) < 0.44), indicating considerable level of sequence-dependent quantitative biases in RNA-seq. Considering the measurement structure explicitly relating the amount of different sequences within a sample, SiNG-PCRseq will facilitate sharing and comparing the quantitation data generated under different spatio-temporal settings.

  2. The relationship between hospital market competition, evidence-based performance measures, and mortality for chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Jared Lane K; Lo Sasso, Anthony T

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Joint Commission's ORYX initiative and the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review file from 2003 to 2006, this study employed a fixed-effects approach to examine the relationship between hospital market competition, evidence-based performance measures, and short-term mortality at seven days, 30 days, 90 days, and one year for patients with chronic heart failure. We found that, on average, higher adherence with most of the Joint Commission's heart failure performance measures was not associated with lower mortality; the level of market competition also was not associated with any differences in mortality. However, higher adherence with the discharge instructions and left ventricular function assessment indicators at the 80th and 90th percentiles of the mortality distribution was associated with incrementally lower mortality rates. These findings suggest that targeting evidence-based processes of care might have a stronger impact in improving patient outcomes.

  3. Evaluation of dialyzer jacket structure and hollow-fiber dialysis membranes to achieve high dialysis performance.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ayaka; Yamamoto, Ken-ichiro; Matsuda, Masato; Ogawa, Takehito; Yakushiji, Taiji; Miyasaka, Takehiro; Sakai, Kiyotaka

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimum dialyzer jacket structure and hollow-fiber dialysis membrane, both of which are indispensable factors for achieving high dialysis performance, by clarifying the relationship between the dialysis performance and the flow of dialysate and blood in a hollow-fiber dialyzer. We evaluated the clearance, dialysate, and blood flow for four commercially available hollow-fiber dialyzers, namely, the APS-15S, APS-15SA, TS-1.6UL, and CX-1.6U. To evaluate dialysate and blood flow, we measured the residence-time distribution of dialysate and blood flow of these dialyzers by the pulse-response method. We also determined the clearances of urea, creatinine, vitamin B(12), and lysozyme to evaluate the dialysis performance of these dialyzers. While the baffle and taper structures allow effective supply of dialysate into the dialyzer jacket, the hollow-fiber shape, inner diameter, and packing density significantly influence the dialysate flow. In dialyzers with long taper-holding slits, the slit area is a key design parameter for achieving optimum dialysate flow. Similarly, the blood flow is significantly influenced by the structure of the inflowing and outflowing blood ports at the header of a dialyzer, and the shape and inner diameter of the hollow fibers. Hollow fibers with smaller inner diameters cause an increase in blood pressure, which causes blood to enter the hollow fibers more easily. The hollow-fiber shape hardly affects the blood flow. While improved dialysate and blood flow cause higher clearance of low molecular-weight substances, higher membrane area and pure-water permeability accelerate internal filtration, thereby causing an increase in the clearance of large molecular-weight substances.

  4. An initial assessment of the performance achieved by the Seasat-1 radar altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an initial on-orbit engineering assessment of the performance achieved by the radar altimeter system flown on SEASAT-1 are presented. Additionally, the general design characteristics of this system are discussed and illustrations of altimeter data product are provided. The instrument consists of a 13.5 GHz monostatic radar system that tracks in range only using a one meter parabolic antenna pointed at the satellite nadir. Two of its unique features are a linear FM transmitter with 320 MHz bandwidth which yields a 3.125 nanosecond time delay resolution, and microprocessor implemented closed loop range tracking, automatic gain control (AGC), and real time estimation of significant wave height (SWH). Results presented show that the altimeter generally performed in accordance with its orginal performance requirments of measuring altitude to a precision of less the 10 cm RMS, significant wave height to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 m or 10%, whichever is greater, and ocean backscatter coefficient to an accuracy of + or - 1 db, all over an SWH range of 1 to 20 meters.

  5. Achieving optimum mechanical performance in metallic nanolayered Cu/X (X = Zr, Cr) micropillars

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J. Y.; Li, J.; Liang, X. Q.; Liu, G.; Sun, J.

    2014-01-01

    The selection and design of modern high-performance structural engineering materials such as nanostructured metallic multilayers (NMMs) is driven by optimizing combinations of mechanical properties and requirements for predictable and noncatastrophic failure in service. Here, the Cu/X (X = Zr, Cr) nanolayered micropillars with equal layer thickness (h) spanning from 5–125 nm are uniaxially compressed and it is found that these NMMs exhibit a maximum strain hardening capability and simultaneously display a transition from bulk-like to small-volume materials behavior associated with the strength at a critical intrinsic size h ~ 20 nm. We develop a deformation mode-map to bridge the gap between the interface characteristics of NMMs and their failure phenomena, which, as shrinking the intrinsic size, transit from localized interface debonding/extrusion to interface shearing. Our findings demonstrate that the optimum robust performance can be achieved in NMMs and provide guidance for their microstructure sensitive design for performance optimization. PMID:24667702

  6. Mice and rats achieve similar levels of performance in an adaptive decision-making task.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Santiago; Zador, Anthony M

    2014-01-01

    Two opposing constraints exist when choosing a model organism for studying the neural basis of adaptive decision-making: (1) experimental access and (2) behavioral complexity. Available molecular and genetic approaches for studying neural circuits in the mouse fulfill the first requirement. In contrast, it is still under debate if mice can perform cognitive tasks of sufficient complexity. Here we compare learning and performance of mice and rats, the preferred behavioral rodent model, during an acoustic flexible categorization two-alternative choice task. The task required animals to switch between two categorization definitions several times within a behavioral session. We found that both species achieved similarly high performance levels. On average, rats learned the task faster than mice, although some mice were as fast as the average rat. No major differences in subjective categorization boundaries or the speed of adaptation between the two species were found. Our results demonstrate that mice are an appropriate model for the study of the neural mechanisms underlying adaptive decision-making, and suggest they might be suitable for other cognitive tasks as well.

  7. A comprehensive approach to decipher biological computation to achieve next generation high-performance exascale computing.

    SciTech Connect

    James, Conrad D.; Schiess, Adrian B.; Howell, Jamie; Baca, Michael J.; Partridge, L. Donald; Finnegan, Patrick Sean; Wolfley, Steven L.; Dagel, Daryl James; Spahn, Olga Blum; Harper, Jason C.; Pohl, Kenneth Roy; Mickel, Patrick R.; Lohn, Andrew; Marinella, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    The human brain (volume=1200cm3) consumes 20W and is capable of performing > 10^16 operations/s. Current supercomputer technology has reached 1015 operations/s, yet it requires 1500m^3 and 3MW, giving the brain a 10^12 advantage in operations/s/W/cm^3. Thus, to reach exascale computation, two achievements are required: 1) improved understanding of computation in biological tissue, and 2) a paradigm shift towards neuromorphic computing where hardware circuits mimic properties of neural tissue. To address 1), we will interrogate corticostriatal networks in mouse brain tissue slices, specifically with regard to their frequency filtering capabilities as a function of input stimulus. To address 2), we will instantiate biological computing characteristics such as multi-bit storage into hardware devices with future computational and memory applications. Resistive memory devices will be modeled, designed, and fabricated in the MESA facility in consultation with our internal and external collaborators.

  8. Two ways related to performance in elite sport: the path of self-confidence and competitive anxiety and the path of group cohesion and group goal-clarity.

    PubMed

    Kjørmo, Odd; Halvari, Hallgeir

    2002-06-01

    A model tested among 136 Norwegian Olympic-level athletes yielded two paths related to performance. The first path indicated that self-confidence, modeled as an antecedent of competitive anxiety, is negatively correlated with anxiety. Competitive anxiety in turn is negatively correlated with performance. The second path indicated that group cohesion is positively correlated with group goal-clarity, which in turn is positively correlated with performance. Competitive anxiety mediates the relation between self-confidence and performance, whereas group goal-clarity mediates the relation between group cohesion and performance. Results from multiple regression analyses supported the model in the total sample and among individual sport athletes organized in training groups (n = 100). Among team sport athletes (n = 36), personality and group measures are more strongly intercorrelated than among individual sport athletes, and the relation with performance is more complex for the former group. The interaction of self-confidence and competitive anxiety is related to performance among team sport athletes.

  9. The Impact of Supply Chain Business Processes on Competitive Advantage and Organizational Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    organization, but supply chain management ( SCM ) has broadened this scope to incorporate all organizations along the supply chain. This shifted the notion of...competition from that of between individual organizations to between supply chains. Supply chain management is an ever growing field; multiple SCM ...industry to industry. Firms have limited resources and a desire to know if the development and implementation of SCM within their firm is, in fact

  10. Improving Service Quality: Achieving High Performance in the Public and Private Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milakovich, Michael E.

    Quality-improvement principles are a sound means to respond to customer needs. However, when various quality and productivity theories and methods are applied, it is very difficult to consistently deliver quality results, especially in quasi-monopolistic, non-competitive, and regulated environments. This book focuses on quality-improvement methods…

  11. Effects of plyometric training on endurance and explosive strength performance in competitive middle- and long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Alvarez, Cristian; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Baez, Eduardo B; Martínez, Cristian; Andrade, David C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a short-term plyometric training program on explosive strength and endurance performance in highly competitive middle- and long-distance runners. Athletes were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 18, 12 men) and an explosive strength training group (TG, n = 18, 10 men). Drop jump (DJ) from 20 (DJ20) and 40 cm (DJ40), countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 20-m sprint time, and 2.4-km endurance run time test were carried out before and after 6 weeks of explosive strength training. Also, the combined standardized performance (CSP) in the endurance and explosive strength test was analyzed. After intervention, the CG did not show any significant change in performance, whereas the TG showed a significant reduction in 2.4-km endurance run time (-3.9%) and 20-m sprint time (-2.3%) and an increase in CMJA (+8.9%), DJ20 (+12.7%), and DJ40 (16.7%) explosive performance. Strength training group also exhibited a significant increase in CSP, although the CG showed significant reduction. We conclude that properly programmed concurrent explosive strength and endurance training could be advantageous for middle- and long-distance runners in their competitive performance, especially in events characterized by sprinting actions with small time differences at the end of the race.

  12. Achieving high performance polymer tandem solar cells via novel materials design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Letian

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices show great promise in low-cost, flexible, lightweight, and large-area energy-generation applications. Nonetheless, most of the materials designed today always suffer from the inherent disadvantage of not having a broad absorption range, and relatively low mobility, which limit the utilization of the full solar spectrum. Tandem solar cells provide an effective way to harvest a broader spectrum of solar radiation by combining two or more solar cells with different absorption bands. However, for polymer solar cells, the performance of tandem devices lags behind single-layer solar cells mainly due to the lack of suitable low-bandgap polymers (near-IR absorbing polymers). In this dissertation, in order to achieve high performance, we focus on design and synthesis of novel low bandgap polymers specifically for tandem solar cells. In Chapter 3, I demonstrate highly efficient single junction and tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap conjugated polymer (PBDTT-DPP: bandgap, ˜1.44 eV). The polymer has a backbone based on alternating benzodithiophene and diketopyrrolopyrrole units. A single-layer device based on the polymer provides a power conversion efficiency of ˜6%. When the polymer is applied to tandem solar cells, a power conversion efficiency of 8.62% is achieved, which was the highest certified efficiency for a polymer solar cell. To further improve this material system, in Chapter 4, I show that the reduction of the bandgap and the enhancement of the charge transport properties of the low bandgap polymer PBDTT-DPP can be accomplished simultaneously by substituting the sulfur atoms on the DPP unit with selenium atoms. The newly designed polymer PBDTT-SeDPP (Eg = 1.38 eV) shows excellent photovoltaic performance in single junction devices with PCEs over 7% and photo-response up to 900 nm. Tandem polymer solar cells based on PBDTT-SeDPP are also demonstrated with a 9.5% PCE, which are more than 10

  13. Investigation of the Impact of the Uniform Colors of Sportsmen Who Participated in Turkish Youth Boxing Championship on Their Performance during the Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gülle, Mahmut; Beyleroglu, Malik; Hazar, Muhsin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the relationship between performance impacts of red and blue colors on uniforms of young boxers and competition results. The study universe was consisted of 650 competitions organized in the scope of 2005-2006 Sakarya City Young Men Boxing Championship by the Turkey Boxing Federation. Sampling of…

  14. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions. MDRC Working Papers on Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  15. Measuring Emotions in Students' Learning and Performance: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Barchfeld, Petra; Perry, Raymond P.

    2011-01-01

    Aside from test anxiety scales, measurement instruments assessing students' achievement emotions are largely lacking. This article reports on the construction, reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) which is designed to assess various achievement emotions experienced by students in…

  16. Effects of biomotor structures on performance of competitive gymnastics elements in elementary school female sixth-graders.

    PubMed

    Delas, Suncica; Babin, Josip; Katić, Ratko

    2007-12-01

    In order to identify biomotor systems that determine performance of competitive gymnastics elements in elementary school female sixth-graders, factor structures of morphological characteristics and basic motor abilities were determined first, followed by relations of the morphological-motor system factors obtained with a set of criterion variables evaluating specific motor skills in competitive gymnastics in 126 female children aged 12 years +/- 3 months. Factor analysis of 17 morphological measures yielded three morphological factors: factor of mesoendomorphy and/or adipose body voluminosity; factor of longitudinal body dimensionality; and factor of transverse arm dimensionality. Factor analysis of 16 motor variables produced four motor factors: general motoricity factor (motor system); general speed factor; factor of explosive strength of throwing type (arm explosiveness); and factor of arm and leg flexibility. Three significant canonical correlations, i.e. linear combinations, explained the association between the set of seven latent variables of the morphological and basic motor system, and five variables evaluating the knowledge in competitive gymnastics. The first canonical linear combination was based on a favorable and predominant impact of the general motor factor (a system integrating whole body coordination, leg explosiveness, relative arm strength, arm movement frequency and body flexibility) on performance of gymnastics elements, cartwheel, handstand and backward pullover mount in particular, and to a lesser extent front scale and double leg pirouette for 180 degrees. The relation of the second pair of canonical factors additionally explained the role of transverse dimensionality of arm skeleton, arm flexibility and explosiveness in performing cartwheel and squat vault, whereas the relation of the third pair of canonical factors explained the unfavorable impact of adipose voluminosity on the performance of squat vault and backward pullover mount.

  17. Effects of biomotor structures on performance of competitive gymnastics elements in elementary school male sixth-graders.

    PubMed

    Delas, Suncica; Zagorac, Nebojsa; Katić, Ratko

    2008-06-01

    In order to identify the biomotor systems that determine performance of competitive gymnastics elements in elementary school male sixth-graders, factor structures of morphological characteristics and basic motor abilities were determined first, followed by relations of the morphological-motor system factors obtained with a set of criterion variables evaluating specific motor skills in competitive gymnastics in 110 male children aged 12 years +/- 3 months. Factor analysis of 17 morphological measures produced three morphological factors: factor of mesoectoendomorphy (general morphological factor) and factor of pronounced endomorphy, i.e. excessive adipose tissue, along with low skeleton longitudinality. Factor analysis of 16 motor variables yielded four motor factors: factor of general motoricity; factor integrating leg flexibility and arm explosiveness; factor juxtaposing body flexibility and repetitive leg strength; and factor predominantly defining leg movement frequency. Three significant canonical correlations, i.e. linear combinations, explained the association between the set of six latent variables of the morphological and basic motor system, and five variables assessing the knowledge in competitive gymnastics. The first canonical linear combination was based on the favorable and predominant impact of the general motor factor (a system integrating leg explosiveness, whole body coordination, relative arm and trunk strength, and arm movement frequency), along with unfavorable effect of morphological factors on the gymnastics elements performance, squat vault and handstand in particular The relation of the second pair of canonical factors pointed to the effects of leg flexibility and arm explosiveness on the cartwheel and backward pullover mount performance, whereas the relation of the third pair of canonical factors showed a favorable impact of the general morphological factor and leg movement frequency regulator on the forward shoulderkip from increase

  18. Monitoring the performance of community forestry to achieve REDD+ goals through geospatial methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, H.; Krishna Gautam, S.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Koju, U. A.; Uddin, K.; Karky, B.

    2014-11-01

    Measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) is included in the Cancun, Mexico, in 2010 under climate change agreements, as one of the most critical elements necessary for the successful implementation of any reducing of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) mechanism. Community forestry is recognised as a successful model for conserving forests, raising awareness among local people and decentralising the forest governance practices. In the world, Nepal is considered as a leader in community-based forest management. This study conducted in 16 community forests (2384.76 ha) of Kayar Khola watershed (8002 ha) of Chitwan district, Nepal. In this paper, satellite images IKONOS-2 (2002) and GeoEye-1 (2009 & 2012) were used which have 1 m and 0.5 m ground spatial distance (GSD) respectively. Geographic information system (GIS) participatory approach was embraced for the boundaries delineation of community forests. Geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) classification technique was performed and overall accuracy 94 % with 92.91 % producer's and 96.2 % user's accuracies. Through change matrix method, 25.49 ha and 1.08 ha area deforested while 179.84 ha and 33.24 ha reforested in two time periods 2002-2009 and 2009-2012 respectively. Overall within 16 community forests, "Close broadleaved to Open broadleaved" 4.42 ha and 4 ha area is transferred between 2002-2009 and 2009-2012 respectively. While "Open broadleaved to Close broadleaved" 29.25 ha and 31.1 ha area is converted in seven years (2002-2009) and in three years (2009-2012) respectively. Coefficient of determination (R2) 0.833 achieved through a line-intercept transect between number of segmented and observed tree crowns. Maximum numbers of the counted trees exist below 20 m2, which show the forest of the study area is not mature and has capacity to

  19. Competition and Intrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripathi, Kailas Nath

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study of competition, motivation, and performance among 60 adolescents in India. Finds that direct competition with another person led to higher levels of immediate performance. Also finds that indirect competition against a pre-set standard resulted in greater intrinsic motivation. (CFR)

  20. High and Low Reading Comprehension Achievers' Strategic Behaviors and Their Relation to Performance in a Reading Comprehension Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dermitzaki, Irini; Andreou, Georgia; Paraskeva, Violetta

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the actual strategic behaviors of high and low achievers in reading comprehension and their relation with respective performance. The participants were 45 individually examined third graders, 20 high and 25 low reading comprehension achievers. Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational aspects of the participants'…

  1. Measuring Metacognition and Reaction Time: Further Findings on the Performances of General Education, Low-Achieving, and Institutionally Raised Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Abdullah, Ahmad A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the picture format to examine in depth the metacognitive performances and reaction time in general education, low-achieving, and institutionally raised students. Results revealed that institutionally raised students, unlike low-achieving students, took significantly the longest reaction time to finish the test…

  2. A hydrological modeling framework for defining achievable performance standards for pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Alain N; Lafrance, Pierre; Lavigne, Martin-Pierre; Savary, Stéphane; Konan, Brou; Quilbé, Renaud; Jiapizian, Paul; Amrani, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a hydrological modeling framework to define achievable performance standards (APSs) for pesticides that could be attained after implementation of recommended management actions, agricultural practices, and available technologies (i.e., beneficial management practices [BMPs]). An integrated hydrological modeling system, Gestion Intégrée des Bassins versants à l'aide d'un Système Informatisé, was used to quantify APSs for six Canadian watersheds for eight pesticides: atrazine, carbofuran, dicamba, glyphosate, MCPB, MCPA, metolachlor, and 2,4-D. Outputs from simulation runs to predict pesticide concentration under current conditions and in response to implementation of two types of beneficial management practices (reduced pesticide application rate and 1- to 10-m-wide edge-of-field and/or riparian buffer strips, implemented singly or in combination) showed that APS values for scenarios with BMPs were less than those for current conditions. Moreover, APS values at the outlet of watersheds were usually less than ecological thresholds of good condition, when available. Upstream river reaches were at greater risk of having concentrations above a given ecological thresholds because of limited stream flows and overland loads of pesticides. Our integrated approach of "hydrological modeling-APS estimation-ecotoxicological significance" provides the most effective interpretation possible, for management and education purposes, of the potential biological impact of predicted pesticide concentrations in rivers.

  3. Modeling the impact of interspecies competition on performance of a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Merkey, Brian V; Chopp, David L

    2014-06-01

    Previous models of biofilms growing in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) have primarily focused on modeling a single growth mechanism: growth via a conductive biofilm matrix, or growth utilizing diffusible electron shuttles or mediators. In this work, we implement both flavors of models in order to explore the competition for space and nutrients in a MFC biofilm populated by both species types. We find that the optimal growth conditions are for bacteria that utilize conductive EPS provided a minimal energy used to create the EPS matrix. Mediator-utilizing bacteria do have favorable niche regions, most notably close to the anode and where exposed to the bulk inflow, where oxidized mediator is readily available.

  4. The CryoSat Interferometer after 6 years in orbit: calibration and achievable performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; De Bartolomei, Maurizio; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulse width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. In fact, the across-track echo direction can be derived by exploiting the precise knowledge of the baseline vector (i.e. the vector between the two antennas centers of phase) and simple geometry. The end-to-end calibration strategy for the CryoSat interferometer consists on in-orbit calibration campaigns following the approach described in [1]. From the beginning of the CryoSat mission, about once a year the interferometer calibration campaigns have been periodically performed by rolling left and right the spacecraft of about ±0.4 deg. This abstract is aimed at presenting our analysis of the calibration parameters and of the achievable performance of the CryoSat interferometer over the 6 years of mission. Additionally, some further studies have been performed to assess the accuracy of the roll angle computed on ground as function of the aberration (the apparent displacement of a celestial object from its true position, caused by the relative motion of the observer and the object) correction applied to the attitude quaternions, provided by the Star Tracker mounted on-board. In fact, being the roll information crucial to obtain an accurate estimate of the angle of arrival, the data from interferometer calibration campaigns have been used to verify how the application of the aberration correction affects the roll information and, in turns, the measured angle of arrival. [1] Galin, N.; Wingham, D.J.; Cullen, R.; Fornari, M.; Smith, W.H.F.; Abdalla, S., "Calibration of the CryoSat-2 Interferometer and Measurement of Across

  5. Changes in Muscle Architecture, Explosive Ability, and Track and Field Throwing Performance Throughout a Competitive Season and Following a Taper.

    PubMed

    Bazyler, Caleb D; Mizuguchi, Satoshi; Harrison, Alex P; Sato, Kimitake; Kavanaugh, Ashley A; DeWeese, Brad H; Stone, Michael H

    2016-08-26

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an overreach and taper on measures of muscle architecture, jumping, and throwing performance in Division I collegiate throwers preparing for conference championships. Six collegiate track and field throwers (3 hammer, 2 discus, 1 javelin) trained for 12 weeks using a block-periodization model culminating with a one week overreach followed by a 3 week taper (ORT). Session rating of perceived exertion training load (RPETL) and strength training volume-load times bar displacement (VLd) were recorded weekly. Athletes were tested pre- and post-ORT on measures of vastus lateralis architecture, unloaded and loaded squat and countermovement jump performance, underhand and overhead throwing performance, and competition throwing performance. There was a statistical reduction in weight training VLd/session (d=1.21, p<0.05) and RPETL/session (d=0.9, p<0.05) between the in-season and ORT training phases. Five of six athletes improved overhead throw and competition throwing performance following the ORT (d=0.50, p<0.05). Vastus lateralis muscle thickness statistically increased following the in-season training phase (d=0.28, p<0.05), but did not change following the ORT. Unloaded countermovement jump peak force and relative peak power improved significantly following the ORT (d=0.59, p<0.05, d=0.31, p<0.05, respectively). These findings demonstrate that an overreaching week followed by a 3-week taper is an effective means of improving explosive ability and throwing performance in collegiate track and field throwers despite the absence of detectable changes in muscle architecture.

  6. Performance-Based Music Ensembles' Effects on Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Timothy Francis

    2013-01-01

    As increasing student achievement levels for all learners continues to drive the focus of education, identifying strategies and opportunities to accomplish this goal becomes progressively more important. This study explored the concepts of self-efficacy, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, and self-efficacy for academic achievement in…

  7. To Master or Perform? Exploring Relations between Achievement Goals and Conceptual Change Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. Aims: To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Sample and Method:…

  8. Academic Achievement Performance of University Students with Disability: Exploring the Influence of Non-Academic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryer, Rachel; Henning, Marcus A.; Tyson, Graham A.; Shaw, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether: (1) the non-academic constructs of psychological well-being, motivation to learn and quality of life (QOL) explained the variance in the academic achievement of students with disability; and (2) students with a mental health disability (MHD) differed from students with other disability on academic achievement and on…

  9. Tracking Student Achievement in Music Performance: Developing Student Learning Objectives for Growth Model Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesolowski, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Student achievement growth data are increasingly used for assessing teacher effectiveness and tracking student achievement in the classroom. Guided by the student learning objective (SLO) framework, music teachers are now responsible for collecting, tracking, and reporting student growth data. Often, the reported data do not accurately reflect the…

  10. Achievement First: Developing a Teacher Performance Management System That Recognizes Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are the single most important school-related factor in students' learning, and improving student learning is the single most important goal at Achievement First (AF), a fast-growing public charter school network in the Northeast. To achieve this goal, the AF team has worked to establish a common understanding of effective instructional…

  11. How Do Relationships Influence Student Achievement? Understanding Student Performance from a General, Social Psychological Standpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspelin, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the influence of relationships on student achievement by examining empirical evidence and by adopting a social psychological theory. Initially, the issue is addressed from a national, Swedish context. Thereafter, two general questions are raised: (1) What is the influence of relationships on student achievement, according to…

  12. Cohort versus Non-Cohort High School Students' Math Performance: Achievement Test Scores and Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.; Keener, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare multiple measures of mathematics achievement for 1,378 cohort students who attended the same high school in a district from 9th to 12th grade with non-cohort students in each grade level. Results show that mobility had an impact on math achievement. After accounting for gender, ethnicity, and SES, adjusted…

  13. Relationships of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies to mathematics achievement in four high-performing East Asian education systems.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education systems, memorization strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement, whereas control strategies were positively associated with mathematics achievement. However, the association between elaboration strategies and mathematics achievement was a mixed bag. In Shanghai-China and Korea, elaboration strategies were not associated with mathematics achievement. In Hong Kong-China and Singapore, on the other hand, elaboration strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  14. Catalytic performance and thermostability of chloroperoxidase in reverse micelle: achievement of a catalytically favorable enzyme conformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yali; Wu, Jinyue; Ru, Xuejiao; Jiang, Yucheng; Hu, Mancheng; Li, Shuni; Zhai, Quanguo

    2011-06-01

    The catalytic performance of chloroperoxidase (CPO) in peroxidation of 2, 2'-azinobis-(-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfononic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and oxidation of indole in a reverse micelle composed of surfactant-water-isooctane-pentanol was investigated and optimized in this work. Some positive results were obtained as follows: the peroxidation activity of CPO was enhanced 248% and 263%, while oxidation activity was enhanced 215% and 222% in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) reverse micelle medium and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTABr) medium, respectively. Thermostability was also greatly improved in reverse micelle: at 40 °C, CPO essentially lost all its activity after 5 h incubation, while 58-76% catalytic activity was retained for both reactions in the two reverse micelle media. At 50 °C, about 44-75% catalytic activity remained for both reactions in reverse micelle after 2 h compared with no observed activity in pure buffer under the same conditions. The enhancement of CPO activity was dependent mainly on the surfactant concentration and structure, organic solvent ratio (V(pentanol)/V(isooctane)), and water content in the reverse micelle. The obtained kinetic parameters showed that the catalytic turnover frequency (k(cat)) was increased in reverse micelle. Moreover, the lower K(m) and higher k(cat)/K(m) demonstrated that both the affinity and specificity of CPO to substrates were improved in reverse micelle media. Fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and UV-vis spectra assays indicated that a catalytically favorable conformation of enzyme was achieved in reverse micelle, including the strengthening of the protein α-helix structure, and greater exposure of the heme prosthetic group for easy access of the substrate in bulk solution. These results are promising in view of the industrial applications of this versatile biological catalyst.

  15. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of current generation tags limits the performance in a cluttered sensing environment. That is, as more SAW-based sensors are added to the environment, numerous tag responses are superimposed at the receiver and decoding all or even a subset of the telemetry becomes increasingly difficult. Background clutter generated by reflectors other than the sensors themselves is also a problem, as is multipath interference and signal distortion, but the limiting factor in many remote sensing applications can be expected to be tag mutual interference. This problem may be greatly mitigated by proper design of the SAW tag waveform, but that remains an open research problem, and in the meantime, several other related questions remain to be answered including: What are the fundamental relationships between tag parameters such as bit-rate, time-bandwidth-product, SNR, and achievable collision resolution? What are the

  16. Performance evaluation of iterative reconstruction algorithms for achieving CT radiation dose reduction - a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Cristina T; Tamm, Eric P; Cody, Dianna D; Liu, Xinming; Jensen, Corey T; Wei, Wei; Kundra, Vikas; Rong, X John

    2016-03-08

    The purpose of this study was to characterize image quality and dose performance with GE CT iterative reconstruction techniques, adaptive statistical iterative recontruction (ASiR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), over a range of typical to low-dose intervals using the Catphan 600 and the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantoms. The scope of the project was to quantitatively describe the advantages and limitations of these approaches. The Catphan 600 phantom, supplemented with a fat-equivalent oval ring, was scanned using a GE Discovery HD750 scanner at 120 kVp, 0.8 s rotation time, and pitch factors of 0.516, 0.984, and 1.375. The mA was selected for each pitch factor to achieve CTDIvol values of 24, 18, 12, 6, 3, 2, and 1 mGy. Images were reconstructed at 2.5 mm thickness with filtered back-projection (FBP); 20%, 40%, and 70% ASiR; and MBIR. The potential for dose reduction and low-contrast detectability were evaluated from noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements in the CTP 404 module of the Catphan. Hounsfield units (HUs) of several materials were evaluated from the cylinder inserts in the CTP 404 module, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated from the air insert. The results were con-firmed in the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantom at 6, 3, 2, and 1mGy. MBIR reduced noise levels five-fold and increased CNR by a factor of five compared to FBP below 6mGy CTDIvol, resulting in a substantial improvement in image quality. Compared to ASiR and FBP, HU in images reconstructed with MBIR were consistently lower, and this discrepancy was reversed by higher pitch factors in some materials. MBIR improved the conspicuity of the high-contrast spatial resolution bar pattern, and MTF quantification confirmed the superior spatial resolution performance of MBIR versus FBP and ASiR at higher dose levels. While ASiR and FBP were relatively insensitive to changes in dose and pitch, the spatial resolution for MBIR

  17. Anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and technical performance of under-19 soccer players by competitive level and field position.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, A; Brito, J; Maia, J; Coelho-e-Silva, M J; Figueiredo, A J; Bangsbo, J; Malina, R M; Seabra, A

    2013-04-01

    Anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and technical skills of under-19 (U19) soccer players were compared by competitive level (elite, n=95; non-elite, n=85) and playing position (goalkeeper, central defender, fullback, midfield, forward). Fitness tests included 5- and 30-m sprints, agility, squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ), strength and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2). Soccer-specific skills included ball control and dribbling. Independent of position, elite players presented more hours of training per year than non-elite players (d>1.2). Stature and body mass discriminated elite from non-elite players among goalkeepers and central defenders (d>0.6). Major differences were noted between elite and non-elite goalkeepers for SJ, CMJ, Yo-Yo IE2, and ball control (d>1.2). Elite central defenders performed better than their non-elite counterparts in SJ and ball control tests (d>1.2). Elite players presented better agility and Yo-Yo IE2 performances than non-elite players within all positional roles (d>0.6). In conclusion, U19 players differed in anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and technical skills by competitive level within field positions.

  18. Effect of competitive interactions between ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi on Castanea sativa performance.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Eric; Coelho, Valentim; Tavares, Rui Manuel; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Baptista, Paula

    2012-01-01

    In Northeast of Portugal, the macrofungal community associated to chestnut tree (Castanea sativa Mill.) is rich and diversified. Among fungal species, the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus tinctorius and the saprotroph Hypholoma fasciculare are common in this habitat. The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of the interaction between both fungi on growth, nutritional status, and physiology of C. sativa seedlings. In pot experiments, C. sativa seedlings were inoculated with P. tinctorius and H. fasciculare individually or in combination. Inoculation with P. tinctorius stimulated the plant growth and resulted in increased foliar-N, foliar-P, and photosynthetic pigment contents. These effects were suppressed when H. fasciculare was simultaneously applied with P. tinctorius. This result could be related to the inhibition of ectomycorrhizal fungus root colonization as a result of antagonism or to the competition for nutrient sources. If chestnut seedlings have been previously inoculated with P. tinctorius, the subsequent inoculation of H. fasciculare 30 days later did not affect root colonization, and mycorrhization benefits were observed. This work confirms an antagonistic interaction between ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi with consequences on the ectomycorrhizal host physiology. Although P. tinctorius is effective in promoting growth of host trees by establishing mycorrhizae, in the presence of other fungi, it may not always be able to interact with host roots due to an inability to compete with certain fungi.

  19. Aerobic power and lean mass are indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Tomas; Tonkonogi, Michail; Carlsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal allometric models to predict International Ski Federation's ski-ranking points for sprint competitions (FISsprint) among elite female cross-country skiers based on maximal oxygen uptake ( [Formula: see text]) and lean mass (LM). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age: 24.5±2.8 years [mean ± SD]) completed a treadmill roller-skiing test to determine [Formula: see text] (ie, aerobic power) using the diagonal stride technique, whereas LM (ie, a surrogate indicator of anaerobic capacity) was determined by dual-emission X-ray anthropometry. The subjects' FISsprint were used as competitive performance measures. Power function modeling was used to predict the skiers' FISsprint based on [Formula: see text], LM, and body mass. The subjects' test and performance data were as follows: [Formula: see text], 4.0±0.3 L min(-1); LM, 48.9±4.4 kg; body mass, 64.0±5.2 kg; and FISsprint, 116.4±59.6 points. The following power function models were established for the prediction of FISsprint: [Formula: see text] and 6.95 × 10(10) · LM(-5.25); these models explained 66% (P=0.0043) and 52% (P=0.019), respectively, of the variance in the FISsprint. Body mass failed to contribute to both models; hence, the models are based on [Formula: see text] and LM expressed absolutely. The results demonstrate that the physiological variables that reflect aerobic power and anaerobic capacity are important indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female skiers. To accurately indicate performance capability among elite female skiers, the presented power function models should be used. Skiers whose [Formula: see text] differs by 1% will differ in their FISsprint by 5.8%, whereas the corresponding 1% difference in LM is related to an FISsprint difference of 5.1%, where both differences are in favor of the skier with higher [Formula: see text] or LM. It is recommended that coaches use the absolute expression of these variables

  20. Aerobic power and lean mass are indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female cross-country skiers

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Tomas; Tonkonogi, Michail; Carlsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal allometric models to predict International Ski Federation’s ski-ranking points for sprint competitions (FISsprint) among elite female cross-country skiers based on maximal oxygen uptake ( V˙O2max) and lean mass (LM). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age: 24.5±2.8 years [mean ± SD]) completed a treadmill roller-skiing test to determine V˙O2max (ie, aerobic power) using the diagonal stride technique, whereas LM (ie, a surrogate indicator of anaerobic capacity) was determined by dual-emission X-ray anthropometry. The subjects’ FISsprint were used as competitive performance measures. Power function modeling was used to predict the skiers’ FISsprint based on V˙O2max, LM, and body mass. The subjects’ test and performance data were as follows: V˙O2max, 4.0±0.3 L min−1; LM, 48.9±4.4 kg; body mass, 64.0±5.2 kg; and FISsprint, 116.4±59.6 points. The following power function models were established for the prediction of FISsprint: 3.91×105⋅V˙O2max−6.00 and 6.95 × 1010 · LM−5.25; these models explained 66% (P=0.0043) and 52% (P=0.019), respectively, of the variance in the FISsprint. Body mass failed to contribute to both models; hence, the models are based on V˙O2max and LM expressed absolutely. The results demonstrate that the physiological variables that reflect aerobic power and anaerobic capacity are important indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female skiers. To accurately indicate performance capability among elite female skiers, the presented power function models should be used. Skiers whose V˙O2max differs by 1% will differ in their FISsprint by 5.8%, whereas the corresponding 1% difference in LM is related to an FISsprint difference of 5.1%, where both differences are in favor of the skier with higher V˙O2max or LM. It is recommended that coaches use the absolute expression of these variables to monitor skiers’ performance-related training adaptations

  1. A Comprehensive Review of the Literature on the Effects of Breakfast on Mental Performance and Scholastic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, James P.

    A review of the literature on the effects of breakfast on mental performance and scholastic achievement reveals a dichotomy between the theoretical and the empirical literature. Whereas theoretical considerations maintain that breakfast makes a significant difference in mental performance in the late morning hours, empirical evidence can be…

  2. Using Performance Management To Achieve Quality Program Results. A Technical Assistance Guide. Research Report 89-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laventhol & Horwath, Philadelphia, PA.

    This guide provides assistance in using two primary management tools--the performance standards and performance-based, fixed unit price contracts--to achieve satisfactory results in Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) programs. The guide is organized in six chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the original purpose of the JTPA and introduces the investment…

  3. The Influence of the Antecedent Variable on the Teachers' Performance through Achievement Motivation in Senior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewi, Erni R.; Bundu, Patta; Tahmir, Suradi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at analysing whether the antecedent variable directly affects the performance of the high school teachers or not. In addition, this research strives to find out whether the antecedent variable indirectly affects the teachers' performance through the achievement motivation of the high school teachers. It was a quantitative research…

  4. Expert-novice differences in performance skills and problem representations of youth and adults during tennis competition.

    PubMed

    McPherson, S L

    1999-09-01

    Expert and novice tennis players selected from three different age groups (i.e., 10-11 years, 12-13 years, and collegiate adults) were examined for differences in performance skills (i.e., behavioral analyses of video recordings) and problem representations (i.e., verbal report analyses of tape recordings) during matched competition. Factorial analyses of variance on behavioral measures indicated that experts' performances exhibited higher levels of decision and execution than novices, regardless of age. Kruskal-Wallis tests on verbal report measures indicated that experts generated more total, varied, and sophisticated condition and action concepts than novices. Within experts, adults accessed more sophisticated problem representations than youth. Both current event and action plan profiles guided and mediated adult experts' response selections and executions, respectively. Youth experts primarily used action plan profiles to guide their response selections. Novices, regardless of age, accessed weak problem representations.

  5. Effects of a competitive wrestling season on body composition, endocrine markers, and anaerobic exercise performance in NCAA collegiate wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Hoffman, Jay R; Kraemer, William J; Ross, Ryan E; Tranchina, Christopher P; Rashti, Stefanie L; Kelly, Neil A; Vingren, Jakob L; Kang, Jie; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2013-05-01

    Few data exist examining the body composition, endocrine, and anaerobic exercise performance changes over a competitive wrestling season. Eighteen NCAA wrestlers were tested for endocrine markers, body composition, hydration, grip strength, and power on four occasions: prior to pre-season training (T1); after pre-season training 3 days prior to the first seasonal meet (T2); mid-season one day prior to a meet (T3); and at the end of the season 2-3 days following the last meet (T4). Body mass, percent body fat (BF %), and fat mass were significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) at T2 and T3 compared to T1 but were not different between T1 and T4. Lean body mass was significantly reduced at T2 only. Urine specific gravity was significantly elevated at T3 compared to T1, T2, and T4. Resting cortisol concentrations did not change but resting testosterone concentrations were significantly reduced at T2, T3, and T4. Maximal grip strength was significantly reduced at T2. Vertical jump peak power was significantly reduced at T2, T3, and T4. Wingate peak power was significantly reduced at T2 and T3. However, Wingate average power and total work did not significantly change. Fatigue rate during the Wingate test was significantly improved at T2, T3, and T4 compared to T1. In conclusion, body mass, BF %, and measures of peak force and power were reduced for most of the competitive wrestling season. Competitive wrestling reduces resting total testosterone concentrations throughout the entire season.

  6. Factors influencing performance of competitive and amateur rhythmic gymnastics--gender differences.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Alessandra; Baldari, Carlo; Battaglia, Claudia; Monteiro, Maria Dolores; Pappalardo, Alessandra; Piazza, Marina; Guidetti, Laura

    2009-05-01

    During last decade, male athletes were involved in official rhythmic gymnastics (RG) competitions. Aim of this study was to examine anthropometric characteristics and motor skills of male rhythmic gymnasts to identify guidelines in talent identification, selection and development training plans. Twenty-four gymnasts (age range 22+/-4 years), 12 male athletes and 12 female athletes, underwent two testing sessions: the previous session to assess anthropometric measures, and the second one to evaluate jumping ability using Optojump. Three vertical jumps: squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), hopping test (HT) and three different technical jumps (Split Leap with stretched legs (SL); Cossack with 180 degrees of rotation (CK); Jeté with turn (JWT)) were evaluated. Male gymnasts had significant higher values in each anthropometric measure than females (p<0.01) except for sitting height/stature ratio, sitting height and fat mass (no significant differences). Female athletes were selected for their lowest fat mass. Height and ground contact time of technical leaps, squat jump and counter-movement jump, were significantly higher in male athletes than females. Height of hopping test (evaluating stiffness), and of difference between CMJ and squat jump (evaluating elastic properties of muscles) were no different between genders. Ground contact time of hopping test was significantly correlated (p<0.05) with ground contact time of technical leaps. Results of the present study suggest that similar anthropometric characteristics have to be researched for both gymnasts' gender. Reactivity and elastic muscle properties of the legs have to be research both in male and female athletes.

  7. Additional studies of competition and performance in OCS oil and gas sales, 1954-1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mead, Walter J.; Sorensen, Philip Edward

    1980-01-01

    Economic rent is commonly defined in economics as any payment to a factor of production in excess of the minimum necessary to engage it in production. In the case of OCS lands owned by the federal government, the minimum supply price necessary to induce the federal government to lease production rights would be the costs of establishing and administering lease contracts. Assuming, for the sake of simplicity, that these costs are small enough to be ignored in the analysis, all payments to the federal government for use of OCS lands are forms of economic rent. An ideal leasing system should transfer the full amount of economic rent implicit in OCS resources to the federal government. Whether such a complete transfer of economic rent occurs depends upon the conditions of competition in the market for OCS leases. The principal means for capturing economic rent under the bidding system employed by the federal government over the years 1954-1969 are the bonus paid by the highest bidder and a royalty payment which has historically been fixed at 16 2/3 percent of gross production value. Of less importance is an annual rental payment, usually about \\$3.00 per acre, which is paid as long as a tract under lease is not producing.In the sections which follow, major factors affecting the capture of economic rent by the federal government are discussed and data are presented which demonstrate the importance of the different means used. In computing the amounts of economic rent captured by the federal government, the discounted cash flow technique is employed. This requires selection of an appropriate discount rate, in contrast to the internal rate of return analysis used in Part I, above.

  8. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    current generation tags limits the performance in a cluttered sensing environment. That is, as more SAW-based sensors are added to the environment, numerous tag responses are superimposed at the receiver and decoding all or even a subset of the telemetry becomes increasingly difficult. Background clutter generated by reflectors other than the sensors themselves is also a problem, as is multipath interference and signal distortion, but the limiting factor in many remote sensing applications can be expected to be tag mutual interference. This problem may be greatly mitigated by proper design of the SAW tag waveform, but that remains an open research problem, and in the meantime, several other related questions remain to be answered including: (1) What are the fundamental relationships between tag parameters such as bit-rate, time-bandwidth-product, SNR, and achievable collision resolution? (2) What are the differences in optimal or near-optimal interrogator designs between noise-limited environments and interference-limited environments? (3) What are the performance characteristics of different interrogator designs in term of parameters such as transmitter power level, range, and number of interfering tags? In this paper, we will present the results of a research effort aimed at providing at least partial answers to all of these questions.

  9. Competition between pressure effects and airflow influence for the performance of plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegseis, J.; Barckmann, K.; Grundmann, S.; Frey, J.; Tropea, C.

    2014-05-15

    The present work addresses the combined influence of pressure variations and different airflow velocities on the discharge intensity of plasma actuators. Power consumption, plasma length, and discharge capacitance were investigated systematically for varying pressure levels (p = 0.1–1 bar) and airflow velocities (U{sub ∞}=0−100 m/s) to characterize and quantify the favorable and adverse effects on the discharge intensity. In accordance with previous reports, an increasing plasma actuator discharge intensity is observed for decreasing pressure levels. At constant pressure levels, an adverse airflow influence on the electric actuator performance is demonstrated. Despite the improved discharge intensity at lower pressure levels, the seemingly improved performance of the plasma actuators is accompanied with a more pronounced drop of the relative performance. These findings demonstrate the dependency of the (kinematic and thermodynamic) environmental conditions on the electric performance of plasma actuators, which in turn affects the control authority of plasma actuators for flow control applications.

  10. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  11. The Relationship of Laboratory Performance Ratings, Information Achievement and Pencil-Paper Performance Test Scores in College-Level Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Charles E.

    In this study, a pencil paper performance test (PPPT) was developed and administered to an experimental group of 46 students and a control group of 48 students to determine: (1) the difference between laboratory performance and the successful completion of a laboratory course in electricity, (2) the relationship between laboratory performance as…

  12. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    students are allowed to use any method they like, are coached by teachers, and are encouraged to ask for help from experts at research centres or universities. Finally, they must prepare a 12-minute presentation. A tournament consists of different contests. In each contest, three teams are involved: the reporting team is challenged by an opponent team to present a task. This presentation is then criticized by the opponent, pointing out merits and possible weak parts. The discussion between the two representatives of the teams is a central element of a contest. The third team acts as reviewer, giving final comments on the performances of the contesting teams. At the end, a jury grades the performances of all three teams. Then, the different roles of the teams rotate, and the students also rotate roles within the teams. The competition started in the former Soviet Union in 1988 and became international for the first time in 1994 when it was organized in Groningen, The Netherlands. In the 2008 tournament in Trogir, Croatia, teams from 24 countries participated [5]. Since this tournament is younger and less known, the national pre-selections are not as well established and numerous as for the Olympiad. Also, the training is different: in addition to developing experimental skills and physical understanding of the problems, the students must organize their performances, share work and responsibilities, and must train in the techniques of presentation and debate (in English). The winner of the tournament in Croatia was the team from Germany. Their presentation in the finals was an experimental and theoretical investigation into the Kaye effect. The students wrote up their presentation, and it is reproduced here as the second paper in this special section. Again, different in spirit and aim is 'First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics' [6]. This competition started in 1991 in Poland and encourages students to take their first steps in physics research. Students of 20 years old or

  13. Effects of creatine supplementation on the performance and body composition of competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Renata Rebello; Pires, Ivanir; Oliveira, Althair; Tirapegui, Julio

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of creatine supplementation on performance and body composition of swimmers. Eighteen swimmers were evaluated in terms of post-performance lactate accumulation, body composition, creatine and creatinine excretion, and serum creatinine concentrations before and after creatine or placebo supplementation. No significant differences were observed in the marks obtained in swimming tests after supplementation, although lactate concentrations were higher in placebo group during this period. In the creatine-supplemented group, urinary creatine, creatinine, and body mass, lean mass and body water were significantly increased, but no significant difference in muscle or bone mass was observed. These results suggest that creatine supplementation cannot be considered to be an ergogenic supplement ensuring improved performance and muscle mass gain in swimmers.

  14. Performance Report for Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xue-mei

    Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), a federally-funded program, introduced the study of Chinese language and culture at Queen Ka'ahumanu Elementary School (Hawaii), forming the foundation of an instructional program to be continued through middle and high school, to meet state foreign language standards. In its…

  15. Relationship between Grade One Achievement and Academic Performance through High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simner, Marvin L.; Barnes, Michael J.

    The major purpose of this study was to determine what relationship currently exists between grade 1 marks and later school achievement. Complete academic records were obtained on two samples of students from rural towns in Southwestern Ontario. Each sample contained all the children born between 1964 and 1971 who attended their town's major public…

  16. Improving Low Achievers' Academic Performance at University by Changing the Social Value of Mastery Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Meier, Emanuele; Brandner, Catherine; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in a university context, mastery goals are highly valued and that students may endorse these goals either because they believe in their utility (i.e., social utility), in which case mastery goals are positively linked to achievement, or to create a positive image of themselves (i.e., social desirability), in which…

  17. Faculty Sense of Academic Optimism and Its Relationship to Students' Achievement in Well Performing High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, Michael Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the organizational characteristics and behaviors that contribute to sustaining a culture of academic optimism as a mechanism of student achievement. While there is a developing research base identifying both the individual elements of academic optimism as well as the academic optimism construct itself as…

  18. Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Learner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figg, Stephanie D.; Rogers, Karen B.; McCormick, John; Low, Renae

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to empirically verify findings from qualitative studies that showed selective consumers could be distinguished from underachievers with regard to academic self-perception and thinking style preference. Participants, gifted males from an independent secondary boys' school in Sydney, Australia, were categorized as achieving,…

  19. Quality After-School Programming and Its Relationship to Achievement-Related Behaviors and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassi, Annemarie M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between quality social support networks developed through high quality afterschool programming and achievement amongst middle school and high school aged youth. This study seeks to develop a deeper understanding of how quality after-school programs influence a youth's developmental…

  20. Do Children in Montessori Schools Perform Better in the Achievement Test? A Taiwanese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Hsin-Hui; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2014-01-01

    The study examines whether elementary school students in Taiwan who had received Montessori education achieved significantly higher scores on tests of language arts, math, and social studies than students who attended non-Montessori elementary programs. One hundred ninety six children in first, second, and third grade participated in the study.…

  1. Predicting End-of-Year Achievement Test Performance: A Comparison of Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kurz, Alexander; Zigmond, Naomi; Lemons, Christopher J.; Kloo, Amanda; Shrago, Jacqueline; Beddow, Peter A.; Williams, Leila; Bruen, Charles; Lupp, Lynda; Farmer, Jeanie; Mosiman, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the multiple-measures clause of recent federal policy regarding student eligibility for alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MASs), this study examined how scores or combinations of scores from a diverse set of assessments predicted students' end-of-year proficiency status on statewide achievement…

  2. "Standards"-Based Mathematics Curricula and Middle-Grades Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Thomas R.; Harwell, Michael R.; Davis, Jon D.; Maeda, Yukiko; Cutler, Arnie; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.; Norman, Ke Wu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined achievement patterns of middle school students enrolled in Standards-based curricula, in particular those curricula that were funded from a solicitation of proposals through the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the early 1990s (NSF RFP 91-100). Approximately 1400 middle-grades students who had used either the Connected…

  3. Understanding Student Goal Orientation Tendencies to Predict Student Performance: A 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark Alan

    2013-01-01

    The study tested the 2X2 model of the Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO) theory in a military technical training environment while using the Air Force Officers Qualifying Test's academic aptitude score to control for the differences in the students' academic aptitude. The study method was quantitative and the design was correlational.…

  4. The Validity of Seven Easily Obtainable Economic and Demographic Predictors of Achievement Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Seven easily obtainable background variables, such as number of persons, rooms, or cars per family dwelling; kindergarten attendance; and sex were found to have a multiple correlation of .52 with a standard achievement test for a large sample of fourth grade pupils in a metropolitan school district. (JKS)

  5. Confidence, Concentration, and Competitive Performance of Elite Athletes: A Natural Experiment in Olympic Gymnastics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandjean, Burke D.; Taylor, Patricia A.; Weiner, Jay

    2002-01-01

    During the women's all-around gymnastics final at the 2000 Olympics, the vault was inadvertently set 5 cm too low for a random half of the gymnasts. The error was widely viewed as undermining their confidence and subsequent performance. However, data from pretest and posttest scores on the vault, bars, beam, and floor indicated that the vault…

  6. Nursing to achieve organizational performance: Consider the role of nursing intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    The success and performance of healthcare organizations relies on the strategic management of knowledge. Nursing Intellectual Capital (NIC) has emerged as a concept involving nursing knowledge resources that create value in healthcare organizations. This article aims to discuss the importance of considering knowledge resources in the context of healthcare performance, with specific reference to NIC. Reflections are then provided on how leaders can look to advance NIC for improved performance.

  7. Vertical jump performance of professional male and female volleyball players: effects of playing position and competition level.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Tine; Hadžić, Vedran; Dervišević, Edvin; Markovic, Goran

    2015-06-01

    Vertical jump (VJ) performance is an important element for successful volleyball practice. The aims of the study were (a) to explore the overall VJ performance of elite volleyball players of both sexes, (b) to explore the differences in VJ performance among different competition levels and different playing positions, and (c) to evaluate the sex-related differences in the role of the arm swing and 3-step approach with arm swing on the jump height. We assessed the VJ capacity in 253 volleyball players (113 males and 140 females) from Slovenian first and second Volleyball Division. The height of squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump, block jump, and attack jump was tested using an Optojump system. We observed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in VJ height between different levels of play that were most pronounced in the SJ. Position-related differences in VJ performance were observed in male players between receivers and setters (p ≤ 0.05), whereas in females, VJ performance across different playing positions seems equal. Finally, we found that male players significantly better use the arm swing during VJ than females (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the use of eccentric part of the jump and approach before the spike to improve VJ performance seem to be equally mastered activity in both sexes. These results could assist coaches in the development of jumping performance in volleyball players. Furthermore, presented normative data for jump heights of elite male and female volleyball players could be useful in selection and profiling of young volleyball players.

  8. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery Shelly; Calamaio, Caprice; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne; Farritor, Shane

    2003-01-01

    This 15-year evaluation serves as a summary document highlighting the numerous and complete successes of the Nebraska Space Grant Program. Innovation has been highlighted through significant new endeavors during this 5-year period, such as placement of students and faculty at NASA Centers and the expansion of NSGC Native American Outreach Programs. While the last national program evaluation resulted in Nebraska s ranking as the top Capability Enhancement Consortium, and 5th best overall, Nebraska felt there was room for significant growth and development. This has been validated through the recent competitive attainment of Designated Grant status and has allowed for the exploration of new initiatives, as well as the expansion of already successful programs. A comprehensive strategic planning effort has involved all Nebraska representative entities and has guided Nebraska Space Grant through the evaluation period, providing a basis for continual advancement. Nebraska rigorously employs evaluation techniques to ensure that stated outcomes and metrics are achieved and that weaknesses are identified and corrected. With this coordinated approach, Nebraska expects that the next 5 years will yield new opportunities for significant achievement. Nebraska Space Grant will embrace new national endeavors, including the integration of Pender Public Schools -Nebraska s NASA Explorer School, geospatial initiatives, and the National Student Satellite Program.

  9. The Effect of Performance Pay in Little Rock, Arkansas on Student Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Marcus; Greene, Jay; Ritter, Gary; Marsh, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines evidence from a performance-pay program implemented in five Little Rock, Arkansas elementary schools between 2004 and 2007. Using a differences-in-differences approach, the evidence shows that students whose teachers were eligible for performance pay made substantially larger test score gains in math, reading, and language than…

  10. Provider performance measures in private and public programs: achieving meaningful alignment with flexibility to innovate.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Aparna; Veselovskiy, German; McKown, Lauren

    2013-08-01

    In recent years there has been a significant expansion in the use of provider performance measures for quality improvement, payment, and public reporting. Using data from a survey of health plans, we characterize the use of such performance measures by private payers. We also compare the use of these measures among selected private and public programs. We studied twenty-three health plans with 121 million commercial enrollees--66 percent of the national commercial enrollment. The health plans reported using 546 distinct performance measures. There was much variation in the use of performance measures in both private and public payment and care delivery programs, despite common areas of focus that included cardiovascular conditions, diabetes, and preventive services. We conclude that policy makers and stakeholders who seek less variability in the use of performance measures to increase consistency should balance this goal with the need for flexibility to meet the needs of specific populations and promote innovation.

  11. Swine herds achieve high performance by culling low lifetime efficiency sows in early parity.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Ariko; McTaggart, Iain; Koketsu, Yuzo

    2011-11-01

    Sow lifetime performance and by-parity performance were analyzed using a 3 by 3 factorial design, comprising 3 herd productivity groups and 3 sow efficiency groups. Data was obtained from 101 Japanese herds, totaling 173,526 parity records of 34,929 sows, for the years 2001 to 2006. Sows were categorized into 3 groups based on the lower and upper 25th percentiles of the annualized lifetime pigs born alive: low lifetime efficiency sows (LE sows), intermediate lifetime efficiency sows or high lifetime efficiency sows. Herds were grouped on the basis of the upper and lower 25th percentiles of pigs weaned per mated female per year, averaged over 6 years: high-, intermediate- or low-performing herds. Mixed-effects models were used for comparisons. LE sows in high-performing herds had 57.8 fewer lifetime nonproductive days and 0.5 earlier parity at removal than those in low-performing herds (P<0.05). The number of pigs born alive of LE sows continuously decreased from parity 1 to 5, whereas those of high lifetime efficiency sows gradually increased from parity 1 to 4 before decreasing up to parity ≥ 6 (P<0.05). In conclusion, the LE sows have a performance pattern of decreasing number of pigs born alive across parity. The present study also indicates that high-performing herds culled potential LE sows earlier than the other herds.

  12. Patterns and Predictors of Adolescent Academic Achievement and Performance in a Sample of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mn = 16.8) who met diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Combined type in early childhood (Mn age = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also…

  13. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma I.

    This study examined the assumption that language expression and reading performance are related processes. Subjects included a total of 676 nine-year-old children of heterogeneous socioeconomic status, intelligence, and achievement levels. Verbal fluency was defined as being a measure of associative verbal encoding (a/v/e), wherein children give…

  14. Conscientiousness, Achievement Striving, and Intelligence as Performance Predictors in a Sample of German Psychology Students: Always a Linear Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Knogler, Maximilian; Buhner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the interface between cognitive ability (intelligence) and personality in the prediction of academic performance have yielded mixed results so far. Especially an interaction between conscientiousness (and its facet achievement striving) and intelligence has been investigated. The hypothesis is that conscientiousness enhances the impact…

  15. The Relationship between Students' Reading Performance on Diagnostic Assessments and the Third Grade Reading Achievement Test in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinger, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was twofold: to examine the relationship of students' reading performance on six different diagnostic reading assessments and the third grade Ohio Reading Achievement Test; and to assist educators in choosing the diagnostic assessments that best identify students at risk of failing the third grade Ohio…

  16. Relationships of Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategies to Mathematics Achievement in Four High-Performing East Asian Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education…

  17. The Black-White-Other Achievement Gap: Testing Theories of Academic Performance among Multiracial and Monoracial Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Melissa R.

    2009-01-01

    The study presented here tested three theories of racial differences in academic performance among monoracial and multiracial high school students. These theories (status attainment, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes) were developed to explain differences in achievement among monoracial groups, but the study tested how the theories…

  18. "Author's" Response to Commentaries on "Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Leaner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figg, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to commentaries on "Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Leaner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students." The commentaries have focused on two issues: (1) the merits of distinguishing selective consumers from other students; and (2) the quality of the study's methodology.…

  19. Prior Mathematics Achievement, Cognitive Appraisals and Anxiety as Predictors of Finnish Students' Later Mathematics Performance and Career Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttala, Minna; Bjorn, Piia Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this two-year longitudinal study was to investigate the role and impact of prior mathematics performance, cognitive appraisals and mathematics-specific, affective anxiety in determining later mathematics achievement and future career orientation among Finnish adolescents. The basic ideas of the control-value theory, assumed to be…

  20. Participation and Performance Reporting for the Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS). Technical Report 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Deb; Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines publicly reported participation and performance data for the alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). The authors' analysis of these data included all states publicly reporting AA-MAS data, regardless of whether they had received approval to use the results for Title I accountability calculations.…

  1. Why IEP Teams Assign Low Performers with Mild Disabilities to the Alternate Assessment Based on Alternate Achievement Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Kingston, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine teachers' rationales for assigning students with mild disabilities to alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). In interviews, special educators stated that their primary considerations in making the assignments were low academic performance, student use of extended…

  2. Pilot Study: EatFit Impacts Sixth Graders' Academic Performance on Achievement of Mathematics and English Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Design: Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. Setting: California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). Participants: All sixth-grade…

  3. Gamed by the System: Adequate Yearly Progress as an Indicator of Persistently Low-Achieving School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochbein, Craig; Mitchell, Amanda M.; Pollio, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The recent policy focus on the turnaround of persistently low-achieving schools has generated considerable debate about the reforms needed to dramatically and quickly increase school performance. The purpose of this article is not to focus on specific turnaround interventions, but rather on the identification of schools slated to receive these…

  4. The Relationship of Selected Measures of Proprioception to Physical Growth, Motor Performance, and Academic Achievement in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubenstricker, John L.; Milne, D. Conrad

    This study investigates the relationship of selected measures of proprioception to measures of physical growth, motor performance, and academic achievement in young children. Measures were obtained from 321 boys and girls attending kindergarten and first and second grade. Sample correlation matrices were computed on all variables at each grade…

  5. A University Engagement Model for Achieving Technology Adoption and Performance Improvement Impacts in Healthcare, Manufacturing, and Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnis, David R.; Sloan, Mary Anne; Snow, L. David; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-01-01

    The Purdue Technical Assistance Program (TAP) offers a model of university engagement and service that is achieving technology adoption and performance improvement impacts in healthcare, manufacturing, government, and other sectors. The TAP model focuses on understanding and meeting the changing and challenging needs of those served, always…

  6. An Investigation of World Language Teachers' Use of Student Performance Data to Inform Teaching and to Help Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffi, Bruno N.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the types of content-based student performance data World Language teachers used to improve instruction and student academic achievement, the purposes for which they used data, the issues they encountered, and the suggestions they made for more effective use of data. The Standards for Foreign Language Learning…

  7. Children's Achievement Expectations and Performance as a Function of Two Consecutive Reinforcement Experiences, Sex of Subject, and Sex of Experimenter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanelli, Dale Soderman; Hill, Kennedy T.

    1969-01-01

    Presents research patterned on two earlier studies by the Crandalls 1963, 1964 on the effects of praise, criticism, and nonreaction on 10-year-old children involved in a marble-dropping task. The subjects tended to increase in performance and decrease in achievement expectancy when criticized. Table, graphs, and bibliography. (RW)

  8. Factors Associated with Performance on the Educational Testing Service (ETS) Major Field Achievement Test in Business (MFAT-B)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bycio, Peter; Allen, Joyce S.

    2007-01-01

    Accrediting bodies, including Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-International (AACSB), require evidence that business schools fulfill their stated missions. This often involves using the Major Field Achievement Test in Business (MFAT-B). In this article, the authors studied MFAT-B performance for its relationship to grade point…

  9. Mixed-Ligand Uranyl Polyrotaxanes Incorporating a Sulfate/Oxalate Coligand: Achieving Structural Diversity via pH-Dependent Competitive Effect.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhen-Ni; Mei, Lei; Hu, Kong-Qiu; Xia, Liang-Shu; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2017-03-20

    A mixed-ligand system provides an alternative route to tune the structures and properties of metal-organic compounds by introducing functional organic or inorganic coligands. In this work, five new uranyl-based polyrotaxane compounds incorporating a sulfate or oxalate coligand have been hydrothermally synthesized via a mixed-ligand method. Based on C6BPCA@CB6 (C6BPCA = 1,1'-(hexane-1,6-diyl)bis(4-(carbonyl)pyridin-1-ium), CB6 = cucurbit[6]uril) ligand, UPS1 (UO2(L)0.5(SO4)(H2O)·2H2O, L = C6BPCA@CB6) is formed by the alteration of initial aqueous solution pH to a higher acidity. The resulting 2D uranyl polyrotaxane sheet structure of UPS1 is based on uranyl-sulfate ribbons connected by the C6BPCA@CB6 pseudorotaxane linkers. By using oxalate ligand instead of sulfate, four oxalate-containing uranyl polyrotaxane compounds, UPO1-UPO4, have been acquired by tuning reaction pH and ligand concentration: UPO1 (UO2(L)0.5(C2O4)0.5(NO3)·3H2O) in one-dimensional chain was obtained at a low pH value range (1.47-1.89) and UPO2 (UO2(L)(C2O4)(H2O)·7H2O)obtained at a higher pH value range (4.31-7.21). By lowering the amount of oxalate, another two uranyl polyrotaxane network UPO3 ((UO2)2(L)0.5(C2O4)2(H2O)) and UPO4 ((UO2)2O(OH)(L)0.5(C2O4)0.5(H2O)) could be acquired at a low pH value of 1.98 and a higher pH value over 6, respectively. The UPO1-UPO4 compounds, which display structural diversity via pH-dependent competitive effect of oxalate, represent the first series of mixed-ligand uranyl polyrotaxanes with organic ligand as the coligand. Moreover, the self-assembly process and its internal mechanism concerning pH-dependent competitive effect and other related factors such as concentration of the reagents and coordination behaviors of the coligands were discussed in detail.

  10. A novel approach to achieving significant reverberation control in performance halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conant, David A.; Chu, William

    2005-09-01

    Conventional methods for achieving broadband, variable sound absorption in large halls normally include heavy application of sound-absorptive drapery and/or thick fibrous panels, applied near available surfaces below, at, and in volumes above the catwalk plane. Occasionally, direct adjustments to room air volume are also provided to effect double-sloped decays. The novel method described here combines carefully located, broad scattering and absorption in singular architectural elements and was applied to a new, 1200-seat concert hall. A change of 0.70 s RT60 in midfrequency is achieved in a visually dramatic manner while neither materially changing room volume nor introducing often-maligned drapery. The aggregate of reverberation control methodologies employed reduces the unoccupied RT60 at midfrequencies from about 3.2 to 1.7 s in this space programed principally for music, including pipe organ. Results of MLS measurements including binaural measurements and binaural recordings of anechoic material and CATT-acoustic modeling and auralizations are discussed.

  11. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students—that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status—a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals—as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison—the higher the students’ WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  12. Competitive-level differences in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery and twelve minute run test performance in soccer referees.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Carlo; Abt, Grant; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine yo-yo intermittent recovery test (Yo-Yo test) and 12-minute run test (12MRT) performances in experienced soccer referees of different competitive levels. Three groups (n = 14 each) of experienced Italian soccer referees officiating in the first (series AB, top-level), third (series C, medium-level), and fourth (series D, low-level) division, were randomly submitted to the 12MRT and the Yo-Yo test during 2 testing sessions, 48-hours apart. 12MRT performances were 3,000 +/- 112 m; 2,894 +/- 99 m; and 2,896 +/- 171 m for top-level, medium-level and low-level referees, respectively (p > 0.05). In the Yo-Yo test, the top-level, medium-level, and low-level referees covered 1,874 +/- 431 m; 1,360 +/- 172 m; and 1,272 +/- 215 m, respectively. The test performances of top-level referees in the Yo-Yo test was significantly different from those scored by medium-level and low-level referees (p < 0.05). After the Yo-Yo test, blood lactate concentrations (BLC) were higher in the medium-level and low-level referees compared with the top-level referees (p < 0.05). The results of the present study show that the Yo-Yo test and not the 12MRT can discriminate endurance performance in experienced elite level soccer referees. With respect to its discriminative and match performance validity, the Yo-Yo test may be considered a relevant field test to assess endurance preparedness for experienced soccer referees and a useful tool in talent selection.

  13. 1024 x 768 XGA uncooled camera core achieves new levels of performance in a small package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alicandro, C. J.; DeMarco, R. W.

    2011-06-01

    An uncooled XGA camera core has been developed for multiple thermal imaging applications that require longer detection range and wider fields of view. The design challenge is to maintain high performance while optimizing for size, weight, and power (SWAP). Utilizing a combination of low power electronic designs, proprietary calibration methods, and a new 17μm pitch high performance amorphous silicon (ASi) microbolometer, a rugged multi-purpose SWAP-optimized XGA camera core has been designed. The result is a camera core that has been shown to deliver far better detection range and angle-of-view performance than previous uncooled solutions with frame rates of 30 Hz in XGA mode and 60 Hz in VGA mode.

  14. Cost/Performance Ratio Achieved by Using a Commodity-Based Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center acquired a commodity cluster based on Intel Corporation processors to compare its performance with a traditional UNIX cluster in the execution of aeropropulsion applications. Since the cost differential of the clusters was significant, a cost/performance ratio was calculated. After executing a propulsion application on both clusters, the researchers demonstrated a 9.4 cost/performance ratio in favor of the Intel-based cluster. These researchers utilize the Aeroshark cluster as one of the primary testbeds for developing NPSS parallel application codes and system software. The Aero-shark cluster provides 64 Intel Pentium II 400-MHz processors, housed in 32 nodes. Recently, APNASA - a code developed by a Government/industry team for the design and analysis of turbomachinery systems was used for a simulation on Glenn's Aeroshark cluster.

  15. Modified surface loading process for achieving improved performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongxiu; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Yafeng; Zhou, Li; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    Achieving high surface coverage of the colloidal quantum dots (QDs) on TiO2 films has been challenging for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Herein, a general surface engineering approach was proposed to increase the loading of these QDs. It was found that S2- treatment/QD re-uptake process can significantly improve the attachment of the QDs on TiO2 films. Surface concentration of the QDs was improved by ∼60%, which in turn greatly enhances light absorption and decreases carrier recombination in QDSCs. Ensuing QDSCs with optimized QD loading exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.66%, 83% higher than those fabricated with standard procedures.

  16. Teacher Performance Pay Signals and Student Achievement: Are Signals Accurate, and How well Do They Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzeske, David; Garland, Marshall; Williams, Ryan; West, Benjamin; Kistner, Alexandra Manzella; Rapaport, Amie

    2016-01-01

    High-performing teachers tend to seek out positions at more affluent or academically challenging schools, which tend to hire more experienced, effective educators. Consequently, low-income and minority students are more likely to attend schools with less experienced and less effective educators (see, for example, DeMonte & Hanna, 2014; Office…

  17. Mayoral Governance and Student Achievement: How Mayor-Led Districts Are Improving School and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.; Shen, Francis X.

    2013-01-01

    Mayoral control and accountability is one of very few major education reforms that aim at governance coherence in this nation's highly fragmented urban school systems. A primary feature of mayoral governance is that it holds the office of the mayor accountable for school performance. As an institutional redesign, mayoral governance integrates…

  18. "High" Achievers? Cannabis Access and Student Performance. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1340

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marie, Olivier; Zölitz, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how legal cannabis access affects student performance. Identification comes from an exceptional policy introduced in the city of Maastricht which discriminated legal access based on individuals' nationality. We apply a difference-in-difference approach using administrative panel data on over 54,000 course grades of local…

  19. Aural Dictation Affects High Achievement in Sight Singing, Performance and Composition Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The nature of skill acquisition has long been of interest to music educators. This study considers the research context for relationships between aural dictation, sight singing, performance and composition skills. Then, relationships between these skill areas are quantitatively investigated using data from the Australian New South Wales Music 2…

  20. Short Circuits or Superconductors? Effects of Group Composition on High-Achieving Students' Science Assessment Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Noreen M.; Nemer, Kariane Mari; Zuniga, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Studied the effects of group ability composition (homogeneous versus heterogeneous) on group processes and outcomes for high-ability students completing science assessments. Results for 83 high ability students show the quality of group functioning serves as the strongest predictor of high-ability students' performance and explained much of the…

  1. A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Student Achievement Using Standardized and Performance-Based Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinter, Brad; Matchock, Robert L.; Charles, Eric P.; Balch, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Three groups of undergraduates (42 senior graduating psychology majors, 27 first-year premajors taking introductory psychology, and 24 first-year, high-performing nonmajors taking introductory psychology) completed the Psychology Major Field Test (MFT) and a short-answer (SA) essay test on reasoning about core knowledge in psychology. Graduating…

  2. Ethnicity and Educational Performance in the United Kingdom: Racism, Ethnicity, and Variability in Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines recent research on the variability of educational performance in the United Kingdom, discussing differences in educational attainment. Some of the social processes behind the statistics are explored, and the possibilities for improvement at the school level are considered in the context of national educational reforms that prioritize…

  3. Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions regarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillier, James

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to correct for perceived deficiencies in the No Child Left Behind Act, value-added models were proposed as a way to find out how much students learned in schools and classrooms throughout the school year. What has garnered much controversy regarding the value-added model, however, is the attempt to link pay and tenure to performance.…

  4. Initial Teacher Education: Does Self-Efficacy Influence Candidate Teacher Academic Achievement and Future Career Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad F.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative investigation examined the influence of low and high self-efficacy on candidate teacher academic performance in a foreign language teaching methodology course through testing the speculation that high self-efficacy levels would improve pedagogical-content knowledge (PCK). Positivism guided the research design at the levels of…

  5. Relationships among Reading Performance, Locus of Control and Achievement for Marginal Admission Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Roger S.; Drexler, John A., Jr.

    The first phase of the study was a 2 x 2 factorial design, with locus of control and instructional method (lecture and demonstration) as independent variables and honor point average (HPA) as the dependent variable. The second phase used correlational techniques to test the extent to which reading performance and traditional predictors of…

  6. How chimpanzees cooperate in a competitive world

    PubMed Central

    Suchak, Malini; Eppley, Timothy M.; Campbell, Matthew W.; Feldman, Rebecca A.; Quarles, Luke F.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2016-01-01

    Our species is routinely depicted as unique in its ability to achieve cooperation, whereas our closest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), is often characterized as overly competitive. Human cooperation is assisted by the cost attached to competitive tendencies through enforcement mechanisms, such as punishment and partner choice. To examine if chimpanzees possess the same ability to mitigate competition, we set up a cooperative task in the presence of the entire group of 11 adults, which required two or three individuals to pull jointly to receive rewards. This open-group set-up provided ample opportunity for competition (e.g., freeloading, displacements) and aggression. Despite this unique set-up and initial competitiveness, cooperation prevailed in the end, being at least five times as common as competition. The chimpanzees performed 3,565 cooperative acts while using a variety of enforcement mechanisms to overcome competition and freeloading, as measured by (attempted) thefts of rewards. These mechanisms included direct protest by the target, third-party punishment in which dominant individuals intervened against freeloaders, and partner choice. There was a marked difference between freeloading and displacement; freeloading tended to elicit withdrawal and third-party interventions, whereas displacements were met with a higher rate of direct retaliation. Humans have shown similar responses in controlled experiments, suggesting shared mechanisms across the primates to mitigate competition for the sake of cooperation. PMID:27551075

  7. Market competition, ownership, payment systems and the performance of health care providers - a panel study among Finnish occupational health services providers.

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, Eila; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Valtonen, Hannu

    2013-10-01

    Many health care reforms rely on competition although health care differs in many respects from the assumptions of perfect competition. Finnish occupational health services provide an opportunity to study empirically competition, ownership and payment systems and the performance of providers. In these markets employers (purchasers) choose the provider and prices are market determined. The price regulation of public providers was abolished in 1995. We had data on providers from 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000 and 2004. The unbalanced panel consisted of 1145 providers and 4059 observations. Our results show that in more competitive markets providers in general offered a higher share of medical care compared to preventive services. The association between unit prices and revenues and market environment varied according to the provider type. For-profit providers had lower prices and revenues in markets with numerous providers. The public providers in more competitive regions were more sensitive to react to the abolishment of their price regulation by raising their prices. Employer governed providers had weaker association between unit prices or revenues and competition. The market share of for-profit providers was negatively associated with productivity, which was the only sign of market spillovers we found in our study.

  8. An HLA-Based Approach to Quantify Achievable Performance for Tactical Edge Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Network Models, High Performance Computing, OPNET ABSTRACT: The DoD is pursuing an end-to-end, seamless, network-centric enterprise communications...APG). High-fidelity OPNET models are used to represent the SRW and WNaN waveforms. Situational Awareness (SA) multicast traffic is delivered among...Network after Next (WNaN) federate is developed and executed within an HPC environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG). High-fidelity OPNET models

  9. Achieving supercomputer performance for neural net simulation with an array of digital signal processors

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, U.A.; Baumle, B.; Kohler, P.; Gunzinger, A.; Guggenbuhl, W.

    1992-10-01

    Music, a DSP-based system with a parallel distributed-memory architecture, provides enormous computing power yet retains the flexibility of a general-purpose computer. Reaching a peak performance of 2.7 Gflops at a significantly lower cost, power consumption, and space requirement than conventional supercomputers, Music is well suited to computationally intensive applications such as neural network simulation. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Tailoring the structure of thin film nanocomposite membranes to achieve seawater RO membrane performance.

    PubMed

    Lind, Mary Laura; Eumine Suk, Daniel; Nguyen, The-Vinh; Hoek, Eric M V

    2010-11-01

    Herein we report on the formation and characterization of pure polyamide thin film composite (TFC) and zeolite-polyamide thin film nanocomposite (TFN) reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Four different physical-chemical post-treatment combinations were applied after the interfacial polymerization reaction to change the molecular structure of polyamide and zeolite-polyamide thin films. Both TFC and TFN hand-cast membranes were more permeable, hydrophilic, and rough than a commercial seawater RO membrane. Salt rejection by TFN membranes was consistently below that of hand-cast TFC membranes; however, two TFN membranes exhibited 32 g/L NaCl rejections above 99.4%, which was better than the commercial membrane under the test conditions employed. The nearly defect-free TFN films that produced such high rejections were achieved only with wet curing, regardless of other post-treatments. Polyamide films formed in the presence of zeolite nanoparticles were less cross-linked than similarly cast pure polyamide films. At the very low nanoparticle loadings evaluated, differences between pure polyamide and zeolite-polyamide membrane water and salt permeability correlated weakly with extent of cross-linking of the polyamide film, which suggests that defects and molecular-sieving largely govern transport through zeolite-polyamide thin film nanocomposite membranes.

  11. Physical performance changes after unsupervised training during the autumn/spring semester break in competitive tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Mark S; Pritchett, Robert; Wickwire, P Jason; Green, J Matthew; Bishop, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Background All competitive tennis players take time away from coaches throughout the year; however, little information is available as to the short‐term physiological effect of these breaks. Objective The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of a 5 week off‐campus structured, yet unsupervised, break from regular training in top collegiate tennis players. Methods A nationally ranked collegiate NCAA Division I male tennis team (n = 8) performed a test battery in December and again in January after a 5 week period of recommended, yet unsupervised, training. The tests performed were 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, spider agility test, medicine ball power throws, standing long jump, Wingate anaerobic power test, VO2max, push‐up and sit‐up test, grip strength and range of motion (ROM) measures (goniometer) of the shoulder, hip, hamstring and quadriceps. Results Paired t tests (p<0.05) showed significant decreases in mean (SEM) Wingate power measurements in Watts/kg (pre: 8.35 (0.19) w/kg ; post: 7.80 (0.24) w/kg ), minimum Wingate power (pre: 5.89 (0.27) w/kg; post: 5.10 (0.38) w/kg) and VO2max values (pre: 53.90 (1.11) ml/kg/min; post: 47.86 (1.54) ml/kg/min). A significant increase was seen in the athlete's fatigue index (pre: 44.26 (2.85)%; post: 51.41 (3.53)%), fastest 5 m (pre: 1.07 (0.03) s; post: 1.12 (0.02) s), 10 m (pre: 1.79 (0.03) s; post: 1.84 (0.04) s) and 20 m (pre: 3.07 (0.05) s; post: 3.13 (0.05) s) sprint times. No significant differences were seen for the other variables tested. Conclusions These results suggest that a 5 week interruption of normal training can result in significant reductions in speed, power and aerobic capacity in competitive tennis players, likely owing to poor compliance with the prescribed training regimen. Therefore, coaches and trainers might benefit from techniques (eg, pre‐ and post‐testing) requiring athletes' to have accountability for unsupervised workouts

  12. Physical performance and cardiovascular and metabolic adaptation of elite female wheelchair basketball players in wheelchair ergometry and in competition.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Huonker, M; Stober, P; Barturen, J M; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Dürr, H; Völpel, H J; Keul, J

    1998-01-01

    Spinal cord injury leads to a pronounced reduction of cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic ability. Physical activity, up to and including high-performance sports, has obtained importance in the course of rehabilitation and the postclinical phase. Thirteen elite female wheelchair basketball players from the German National Basketball Team and 10 female sedentary spinal cord-injured persons were examined in the study. Heart volume was measured by an echocardiography. All subjects underwent a graded exercise test on a wheelchair ergometer. Additionally, heart rate, lactate, and player points were measured during a competitive basketball game in wheelchair basketball players. Cardiac dimensions were larger for spinal cord-injured wheelchair basketball players (620.3 ml; 9.6 ml x kg(-1)) in comparison with spinal cord-injured persons (477.4 ml; 8.2 ml x kg(-1)) but did not exceed the heart volume of untrained nonhandicapped persons. In contrast, athletes with amputations or those having had poliomyelitis reached training-induced cardiac hypertrophy in relation to body mass (713.7 ml; 13.2 ml x kg(-1)), as observed in nonhandicapped athletes. During graded wheelchair ergometry, wheelchair basketball players showed a higher maximal work rate (59.9 v 45.5 W), maximal oxygen consumption (33.7 v 18.3 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1)), and maximal lactate (9.1 v 5.47 mmol x l(-1)) without a difference in maximal heart rate and workload at AT4 than did spinal cord-injured persons. The average heart rate during the wheelchair basketball game was 151 x min(-1), and the lactate concentration was 1.92 mmol x l(-1). Female athletes with a less severe handicap and higher maximal oxygen consumption during the graded exercise test reached a higher game level in the evaluation. During the competitive basketball game, high cardiovascular stress was observed, indicating a fast aerobic metabolism; the anaerobic lactic acid capacity played a subordinate role. Wheelchair basketball is an

  13. When performance-approach goals predict academic achievement and when they do not: a social value approach.

    PubMed

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    Research on achievement goal promotion at University has shown that performance-approach goals are perceived as a means to succeed at University (high social utility) but are not appreciated (low social desirability). We argue that such a paradox could explain why research has detected that performance-approach goals consistently predict academic grades. First-year psychology students answered a performance-approach goal scale with standard, social desirability and social utility instructions. Participants' grades were recorded at the end of the semester. Results showed that the relationship between performance-approach goals and grades was inhibited by the increase of these goals' social desirability and facilitated by the increase of their social utility, revealing that the predictive validity of performance-approach goals depends on social value.

  14. The Rapid Transit System That Achieves Higher Performance with Lower Life-Cycle Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Satoru; Takagi, Ryo

    In the age of traction system made of inverter and ac traction motors, distributed traction system with pure electric brake of regenerative mode has been recognised very advantageous. This paper proposes a new system as the lowest life-cycle cost system for high performance rapid transit, a new architecture and optimum parameters of power feeding system, and a new running method of trains. In Japan, these components of this proposal, i.e. pure electric brake and various countermeasures of reducing loss of regeneration have been already popular but not as yet the new running method for better utilisation of the equipment and for lower life-cycle cost. One example of what are proposed in this paper will be made as Tsukuba Express, which is under construction as the most modern commuter railway in Greater Tokyo area.

  15. Tuning interactions between zeolite and supported metal by physical-sputtering to achieve higher catalytic performances

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Gang; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Jian; Xian, Hui; Tan, Yi-Sheng; Jiang, Zheng; Taguchi, Akira; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Yoneyama, Yoshiharu; Abe, Takayuki; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2013-01-01

    To substitute for petroleum, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is an environmentally benign process to produce synthetic diesel (n-paraffin) from syngas. Industrially, the synthetic gasoline (iso-paraffin) can be produced with a FTS process followed by isomerization and hydrocracking processes over solid-acid catalysts. Herein, we demonstrate a cobalt nano-catalyst synthesized by physical-sputtering method that the metallic cobalt nano-particles homogeneously disperse on the H-ZSM5 zeolite support with weak Metal-Support Interactions (MSI). This catalyst performed the high gasoline-range iso-paraffin productivity through the combined FTS, isomerization and hydrocracking reactions. The weak MSI results in the easy reducibility of the cobalt nano-particles; the high cobalt dispersion accelerates n-paraffin diffusion to the neighboring acidic sites on the H-ZSM5 support for isomerization and hydrocracking. Both factors guarantee its high CO conversion and iso-paraffin selectivity. This physical-sputtering technique to synthesize the supported metallic nano-catalyst is a promising way to solve the critical problems caused by strong MSI for various processes. PMID:24085106

  16. The Effect of Altitude and Travel on Rugby Union Performance: Analysis of the 2012 Super Rugby Competition.

    PubMed

    George, Tina M; Olsen, Peter D; Kimber, Nick E; Shearman, Jeremy P; Hamilton, Jamie G; Hamlin, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether playing rugby at altitude or after travel (domestic and international) disadvantaged teams. In a retrospective longitudinal study, all matches (N = 125) played in the 2012 Super Rugby Competition were analyzed for key performance indicators (KPI) from coded game data provided by OPTA sports data company. Matches were played in a home-away format in New Zealand, South Africa, and Australia. Teams based at sea level but playing at altitude (1,271-1,753 m) were more likely to miss tackles (mean ± 90% confidence interval, 1.4 ± 1.7) and score fewer points in the first half compared with games at sea level. In the second half of games, sea level teams at altitude were very likely to make fewer gain lines (-4.0 ± 2.7) compared with the second half of games at sea level. The decreased ability to break the defensive line, which may be the result of altitude-induced fatigue, could reduce the likelihood of scoring points and winning a game. Travel also had an effect on KPI, where international travel resulted in more missed tackles (1.7 ± 1.3) and less frequent gain lines (-3.0 ± 1.9) in the first half relative to matches at home; overall, away teams (domestic and international) scored 4 less points in the second half compared with home teams. In conclusion, playing away from home in another country, particularly at altitude, can have a detrimental effect on KPI, which may affect the overall performance and the chances of winning matches.

  17. High-performance partially aligned semiconductive single-walled carbon nanotube transistors achieved with a parallel technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilei; Pillai, Suresh Kumar Raman; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2013-09-09

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are widely thought to be a strong contender for next-generation printed electronic transistor materials. However, large-scale solution-based parallel assembly of SWNTs to obtain high-performance transistor devices is challenging. SWNTs have anisotropic properties and, although partial alignment of the nanotubes has been theoretically predicted to achieve optimum transistor device performance, thus far no parallel solution-based technique can achieve this. Herein a novel solution-based technique, the immersion-cum-shake method, is reported to achieve partially aligned SWNT networks using semiconductive (99% enriched) SWNTs (s-SWNTs). By immersing an aminosilane-treated wafer into a solution of nanotubes placed on a rotary shaker, the repetitive flow of the nanotube solution over the wafer surface during the deposition process orients the nanotubes toward the fluid flow direction. By adjusting the nanotube concentration in the solution, the nanotube density of the partially aligned network can be controlled; linear densities ranging from 5 to 45 SWNTs/μm are observed. Through control of the linear SWNT density and channel length, the optimum SWNT-based field-effect transistor devices achieve outstanding performance metrics (with an on/off ratio of ~3.2 × 10(4) and mobility 46.5 cm(2) /Vs). Atomic force microscopy shows that the partial alignment is uniform over an area of 20 × 20 mm(2) and confirms that the orientation of the nanotubes is mostly along the fluid flow direction, with a narrow orientation scatter characterized by a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of <15° for all but the densest film, which is 35°. This parallel process is large-scale applicable and exploits the anisotropic properties of the SWNTs, presenting a viable path forward for industrial adoption of SWNTs in printed, flexible, and large-area electronics.

  18. Effect of intra- and interspecific competition on the performance of native and invasive species of Impatiens under varying levels of shade and moisture.

    PubMed

    Skálová, Hana; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Dvořáčková, Śárka; Pyšek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Many alien plants are thought to be invasive because of unique traits and greater phenotypic plasticity relative to resident species. However, many studies of invasive species are unable to quantify the importance of particular traits and phenotypic plasticity in conferring invasive behavior because traits used in comparative studies are often measured in a single environment and by using plants from a single population. To obtain a deeper insight into the role of environmental factors, local differences and competition in plant invasions, we compared species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of different origin and invasion status that occur in central Europe: native I. noli-tangere and three alien species (highly invasive I. glandulifera, less invasive I. parviflora and potentially invasive I. capensis). In two experiments we harvested late-stage reproductive plants to estimate performance. The first experiment quantified how populations differed in performance under varying light and moisture levels in the absence of competition. The second experiment quantified performance across these environments in the presence of intra- and inter-specific competition. The highly invasive I. glandulifera was the strongest competitor, was the tallest and produced the greatest biomass. Small size and high plasticity were characteristic for I. parviflora. This species appeared to be the second strongest competitor, especially under low soil moisture. The performance of I. capensis was within the range of the other Impatiens species studied, but sometimes limited by alien competitors. Our results suggest that invasion success within the genus Impatiens depends on the ability to grow large under a range of environmental conditions, including competition. The invasive species also exhibited greater phenotypic plasticity across environmental conditions than the native species. Finally, the decreased performance of the native I. noli-tangere in competition with other species studied

  19. Percent utilization of VO2 max at 5-km competition velocity does not determine time performance at 5 km among elite distance runners.

    PubMed

    Støa, Eva Maria; Støren, Øyvind; Enoksen, Eystein; Ingjer, Frank

    2010-05-01

    The present study investigated to what extent maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and fractional utilization (%VO2 max) in 5-km competition speed correlate with 5-km performance times among elite long distance runners. Eight elite long distance runners with 5-km performance times of 15.10 minutes ( +/- 32 seconds) were tested for VO2 max during an incremental protocol and for %VO2 max during an 8-minute treadmill test at the velocity representing their 5-km seasonal best performance time. There was no correlation between fractional utilization and 5-km performance. The study showed no significant difference between VO2 max obtained during an incremental VO2 max test and %VO2 max when running for 8 minutes at the runner's individual 5-km competition speed. The 5-km time was related to the runner's VO2 max even in a homogenous high-level performance group. In conclusion, the present study found no relationship between fractional utilization and 5-km performance time. Training aiming to increase %VO2 max may thus be of little or no importance in performance enhancement for competitions lasting up to approximately 20 minutes.

  20. Laboratory- and field-based testing as predictors of skating performance in competitive-level female ice hockey

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Tommy; Vescovi, Jason D; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine; Gilenstam, Kajsa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-based and/or laboratory-based assessments are valid tools for predicting key performance characteristics of skating in competitive-level female hockey players. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Twenty-three female ice hockey players aged 15–25 years (body mass: 66.1±6.3 kg; height: 169.5±5.5 cm), with 10.6±3.2 years playing experience volunteered to participate in the study. The field-based assessments included 20 m sprint, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30-second repeated jump test, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, 20 m shuttle run test, isometric leg pull, one-repetition maximum bench press, and one-repetition maximum squats. The laboratory-based assessments included body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), maximal aerobic power, and isokinetic strength (Biodex). The on-ice tests included agility cornering s-turn, cone agility skate, transition agility skate, and modified repeat skate sprint. Data were analyzed using stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to establish the relationship between key performance characteristics of skating and the predictor variables. Results Regression models (adj R2) for the on-ice variables ranged from 0.244 to 0.663 for the field-based assessments and from 0.136 to 0.420 for the laboratory-based assessments. Single-leg tests were the strongest predictors for key performance characteristics of skating. Single leg standing long jump alone explained 57.1%, 38.1%, and 29.1% of the variance in skating time during transition agility skate, agility cornering s-turn, and modified repeat skate sprint, respectively. Isokinetic peak torque in the quadriceps at 90° explained 42.0% and 32.2% of the variance in skating time during agility cornering s-turn and modified repeat skate sprint, respectively. Conclusion Field-based assessments, particularly single-leg tests, are an adequate

  1. Diet and density dependent competition affect larval performance and oviposition site selection in the mosquito species Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oviposition-site choice is an essential component of the life history of all mosquito species. According to the oviposition-preference offspring-performance (P-P) hypothesis, if optimizing offspring performance and fitness ensures high overall reproductive fitness for a given species, the female should accurately assess details of the heterogeneous environment and lay her eggs preferentially in sites with conditions more suitable to offspring. Methods We empirically tested the P-P hypothesis using the mosquito species Aedes albopictus by artificially manipulating two habitat conditions: diet (measured as mg of food added to a container) and conspecific density (CD; number of pre-existing larvae of the same species). Immature development (larval mortality, development time to pupation and time to emergence) and fitness (measured as wing length) were monitored from first instar through adult emergence using a factorial experimental design over two ascending gradients of diet (2.0, 3.6, 7.2 and 20 mg food/300 ml water) and CD (0, 20, 40 and 80 larvae/300 ml water). Treatments that exerted the most contrasting values of larval performance were recreated in a second experiment consisting of single-female oviposition site selection assay. Results Development time decreased as food concentration increased, except from 7.2 mg to 20.0 mg (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P > 0.1). Development time decreased also as conspecific density increased from zero to 80 larvae (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P < 0.5). Combined, these results support the role of density-dependent competition for resources as a limiting factor for mosquito larval performance. Oviposition assays indicated that female mosquitoes select for larval habitats with conspecifics and that larval density was more important than diet in driving selection for oviposition sites. Conclusions This study supports predictions of the P-P hypothesis and provides a mechanistic understanding of the

  2. Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  3. Competitiveness, Technology and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lall, Sanjaya

    This document examines competitiveness in the developing world. Chapters 1 through 3, which are largely conceptual, examine the following topics: the concept of competitiveness and why it is important; market-stimulating technology policies in developing countries, and the relationship between import liberalization and industrial performance.…

  4. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7-11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Faber, Irene R; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Faber, Niels R; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players' potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player's future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7-11 years). Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05). Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items 'aiming at target', 'throwing a ball', and 'eye-hand coordination' in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%). Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment's outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%). This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be included in a talent

  5. Evidence-based surgical training in orthopaedics: how many arthroscopies of the knee are needed to achieve consultant level performance?

    PubMed

    Price, A J; Erturan, G; Akhtar, K; Judge, A; Alvand, A; Rees, J L

    2015-10-01

    Despite being one of the most common orthopaedic operations, it is still not known how many arthroscopies of the knee must be performed during training in order to develop the skills required to become a Consultant. A total of 54 subjects were divided into five groups according to clinical experience: Novices (n = 10), Junior trainees (n = 10), Registrars (n = 18), Fellows (n = 10) and Consultants (n = 6). After viewing an instructional presentation, each subject performed a simple diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee on a simulator with visualisation and probing of ten anatomical landmarks. Performance was assessed using a validated global rating scale (GRS). Comparisons were made against clinical experience measured by the number of arthroscopies which had been undertaken, and ROC curve analysis was used to determine the number of procedures needed to perform at the level of the Consultants. There were marked differences between the groups. There was significant improvement in performance with increasing experience (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis identified that approximately 170 procedures were required to achieve the level of skills of a Consultant. We suggest that this approach to identify what represents the level of surgical skills of a Consultant should be used more widely so that standards of training are maintained through the development of an evidenced-based curriculum.

  6. Maternal Competition in Women.

    PubMed

    Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne

    2017-03-01

    We examined maternal competition, an unexplored form of competition between women. Given women's high investment in offspring and mothers' key role in shaping their reproductive, social, and cultural success as adults, we might expect to see maternal competition between women as well as mate competition. Predictions about the effect of maternal characteristics (age, relationship status, educational background, number of children, investment in the mothering role) and child variables (age, sex) were drawn from evolutionary theory and sociological research. Mothers of primary school children (in two samples: N = 210 and 169) completed a series of questionnaires. A novel nine-item measure of maternal competitive behavior (MCQ) and two subscales assessing Covert (MCQ-C) and Face-to-Face (MCQ-FF) forms of competition were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Competitiveness (MCQ score) was predicted by maternal investment, single motherhood, fewer children, and (marginally) child's older age. The effect of single motherhood (but not other predictors) was partially mediated by greater maternal investment. In response to a scenario of their child underperforming relative to their peers, a mother's competitive distress was a positive function of the importance she ascribed to their success and her estimation of her child's ability. Her competitive distress was highly correlated with the distress she attributed to a female friend, hinting at bidirectional dyadic effects. Qualitative responses indicated that nonspecific bragging and boasting about academic achievements were the most common irritants. Although 40% of women were angered or annoyed by such comments, less than 5% endorsed a direct hostile response. Instead, competitive mothers were conversationally shunned and rejected as friends. We suggest that the interdependence of mothers based on reciprocal childcare has supported a culture of egalitarianism that is violated by explicit competitiveness.

  7. Quality of Education Predicts Performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading Subtest

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Dean, Andy C.; Thames, April D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004

  8. Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlick, Katherine

    "The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the

  9. Achievement of VO2max criteria during a continuous graded exercise test and a verification stage performed by college athletes.

    PubMed

    Mier, Constance M; Alexander, Ryan P; Mageean, Amanda L

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of meeting specific VO2max criteria and to test the effectiveness of a VO2max verification stage in college athletes. Thirty-five subjects completed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) to volitional exhaustion. The frequency of achieving various respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and age-predicted maximum heart rate (HRmax) criteria and a VO2 plateau within 2 and 2.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (<2SD of the expected increase in VO2) were measured and tested against expected frequencies. After 10 minutes of active recovery, 10 subjects who did not demonstrate a plateau completed a verification stage performed at supramaximal intensity. From the GXT, the number of subjects meeting VO2max plateau was 5 (≤2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and 7 (≤2.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), RER criteria 34 (≥1.05), 32 (≥1.10), and 24 (≥1.15), HRmax criteria, 35 (<85%), 29 (<10 b·min(-1)) and 9 (HRmax). The VO2max and HRmax did not differ between GXT and the verification stage (53.6 ± 5.6 vs. 55.5 ± 5.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 187 ± 7 vs. 187 ± 6 b·min(-1)); however, the RER was lower during the verification stage (1.15 ± 0.06 vs. 1.07 ± 0.07, p = 0.004). Six subjects achieved a similar VO2 (within 2.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), whereas 4 achieved a higher VO2 compared with the GXT. These data demonstrate that a continuous GXT limits the college athlete's ability to achieve VO2max plateau and certain RER and HR criteria. The use of a verification stage increases the frequency of VO2max achievement and may be an effective method to improve the accuracy of VO2max measurements in college athletes.

  10. The Effects of Performance Objectives on the Achievement Level of Selected Eighth-Grade Science Pupils in Four Predominantly Black Inner City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Napoleon, Jr.

    Reported is a study to determine the effects of performance objectives on the achievement level of low achieving science pupils in four predominantly black inner city schools. Six teachers and 210 pupils were involved in the study. Three teachers were trained to develop and use performance objectives as an instructional technique. Pedagogical…

  11. Functional Organosulfide Electrolyte Promotes an Alternate Reaction Pathway to Achieve High Performance in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuru; Dai, Fang; Gordin, Mikhail L; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gao, Yue; Song, Jiangxuan; Wang, Donghai

    2016-03-18

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have recently received great attention because they promise to provide energy density far beyond current lithium ion batteries. Typically, Li-S batteries operate by conversion of sulfur to reversibly form different soluble lithium polysulfide intermediates and insoluble lithium sulfides through multistep redox reactions. Herein, we report a functional electrolyte system incorporating dimethyl disulfide as a co-solvent that enables a new electrochemical reduction pathway for sulfur cathodes. This pathway uses soluble dimethyl polysulfides and lithium organosulfides as intermediates and products, which can boost cell capacity and lead to improved discharge-charge reversibility and cycling performance of sulfur cathodes. This electrolyte system can potentially enable Li-S batteries to achieve high energy density.

  12. The effects of an interactive dissection simulation on the performance and achievement of high school biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzie, Mable B.; Strauss, Richard; Foss, Jean

    Educators, administrators, and students are reevaluating the value of animal dissection in the classroom and are taking a careful look at instructional alternatives. This research is an attempt to examine the performance, achievement, and attitudinal effects of a dissection alternative, an interactive videodiscbased (IVD) simulation, in two ways: as a substitute for dissection and as a preparatory tool used prior to dissection. Sixty-one high school students enrolled in three general-ability high school biology classes participated in this research over a 4-day period. On the substitution issue, findings suggest that the IVD simulation was at least as effective as actual dissection in promoting student learning of frog anatomy and dissection procedures. On the preparation issue, it was found that students using the IVD simulation as a preparation performed a subsequent dissection more effectively than students receiving no preparation and more effectively than students viewing a videotape as preparation. Students using the IVD simulation as preparation also learned more about frog anatomy and dissection procedures than those who dissected without preparation. Students in all groups evidenced little change in attitudes toward dissection. All students reported a significant gain in dissection self-efficacy, but no between-group differences were found. Findings are discussed relative to their implications for educational practice and future research.

  13. Friendly competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    Competition that is characterized by rules, often informal, agreed among mutually accepted participants, and that gives the competitors a special, advantageous status with others is called friendly competition. Dentists have engaged in it deeply and it is good for the profession. Friendly competition offers the advantages of spillover of commonly useful information and technologies, stimulation of innovation, a united and convenient face to customers and suppliers, and standards that promote growth. Friendly competition increases the size of the pie, regardless of market share. Paradoxically, this is even true for the little guy in the shadow of the giant. If carried to extremes, unfriendly competition leads to destroying competitors, the confusion of multiple rules, and encouragement of disruptive change.

  14. Sex differences on the competitive place task in the water maze: The influence of peripheral pool time on spatial navigation performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Devan, Bryan D; Tobin, Elizabeth L; Dunn, Emily N; Magalis, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated sex differences on the competitive place version of the Morris water maze task to determine whether potential strategy differences would emerge during any phase of the study but in particular on the competitive place phase. Previous findings indicate that this version of the task is highly sensitive to measures that disrupt NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity within the hippocampus during memory consolidation (McDonald et al., 2005). The present findings revealed significant sex differences during all phases of the study, including Phase I with standard place training to located a hidden platform/goal, Phase II mass training to a new place with the platform/goal relocated to the diagonally opposite quadrant and Phase III, competitive place probe test with the platform removed to measure spatial behaviour directed at either location. The findings showed no sex difference in escape latency and other standard performance measures during the first two phases, initial place acquisition and mass training to a new location. A very subtle male advantage in visiting both Old and New place locations during the third phase place competition test was observed, however, in the time spent swimming in the periphery of the pool, the pool wall (Zone C - outer third radial distance) was increased for females during all phases of the study, suggesting a general effect may have influenced place location search behaviour of the females. Increased peripheral pool time may represent a female preference for approaching the wall, a local cue. Alternatively, the possibility that increased peripheral swimming/thigmotaxis may represent hormonal influences interacting with strategic preferences were discussed, though no definitive conclusions about sex differences in cognitive-spatial performance or memory consolidation were inferred from the present findings. The findings suggest that mixed results reported in the literature by others may be due in part to an

  15. Ewe lambs with higher breeding values for growth achieve higher reproductive performance when mated at age 8 months.

    PubMed

    Nieto, C A Rosales; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-09-15

    We studied the relationships among growth, body composition and reproductive performance in ewe lambs with known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning live weight (PWT) and depth of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). To detect estrus, vasectomized rams were placed with 190 Merino ewe lambs when on average they were 157 days old. The vasectomized rams were replaced with entire rams when the ewe lambs were, on average, 226 days old. Lambs were weighed every week and blood was sampled on four occasions for assay of ghrelin, leptin and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Almost 90% of the lambs attained puberty during the experiment, at an average live weight of 41.4 kg and average age of 197 days. Ewe lambs with higher values for EMD (P < 0.001), FAT (P < 0.01), PWT (P < 0.001), PEMD (P < 0.05) and PFAT (P < 0.05) were more likely to achieve puberty by 251 days of age. Thirty-six percent of the lambs conceived and, at the estimated date of conception, the average live weight was 46.9 ± 0.6 kg and average age was 273 days. Fertility, fecundity and reproductive rate were positively related to PWT (P < 0.05) and thus live weight at the start of mating (P < 0.001). Reproductive performance was not correlated with blood concentrations of ghrelin, leptin or ß-hydroxybutyrate. Many ewe lambs attained puberty, as detected by vasectomized rams, but then failed to become pregnant after mating with entire rams. Nevertheless, we can conclude that in ewe lambs mated at 8 months of age, higher breeding values for growth, muscle and fat are positively correlated with reproductive performance, although the effects of breeding values and responses to live weight are highly variable.

  16. Competition in Individualized CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the effects of competition and cooperation on learning through computer-assisted instruction (CAI). A questionnaire was administered to 457 Israeli fourth graders who used two CAI arithmetic systems. The characteristics of the systems are discussed, and the results of the survey are correlated to students' gender and achievement levels.…

  17. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7–11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players’ potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player’s future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7–11 years). Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05). Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items ‘aiming at target’, ‘throwing a ball’, and ‘eye-hand coordination’ in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%). Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment’s outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%). This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be

  18. Is the pro-competition policy an effective solution for China's public hospital reform?

    PubMed

    Pan, Jay; Qin, Xuezheng; Hsieh, Chee-Ruey

    2016-10-01

    The new round of health care reforms in China achieved significant initial results. New and emerging problems coinciding with the deepening of the reforms, however, require further institutional changes to strengthen the competition mechanism and promote public hospital efficiency. This paper provides a conceptual framework and preliminary assessment of public hospital competition in China. Specifically, we distinguish between two closely related concepts - competition and privatization, and identify several critical conditions under which hospital competition can be used as a policy instrument to improve health care delivery in China. We also investigate the current performance and identify several unintended consequences of public hospital competition - mainly, medical arms race, drug over-prescription and the erosion of a trusting relationship between patients and physicians. Finally, we discuss the policy options for enhancing the internal competition in China's hospital market, and conclude that public investment on information provision is key to reaping the positive outcomes of pro-competition policies.

  19. Gender Differences in Achievement Goals and Performances in English Language and Mathematics of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…

  20. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate…

  1. Sex Differences in Performance Attributions, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement in Mathematics: If I'm So Smart, Why Don't I Know It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Jennifer E. V.; Walsh, John; Yailagh, Manizheh Shehni

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we tested the claim that sex differences in mathematics achievement are related to boys' and girls' differing achievement-related beliefs. We compared the mathematics report card grades, 2001 Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) Numeracy subtest scores, performance attributions, and self-efficacy of 161 British Columbian public school…

  2. Impression management and achievement motivation: Investigating substantive links.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Aldhobaiban, Nawal; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Gocłowska, Małgorzata A; Khyat, Aber

    2016-01-24

    In this research, we investigate impression management (IM) as a substantive personality variable by linking it to differentiated achievement motivation constructs, namely achievement motives (workmastery, competitiveness, fear of failure) and achievement goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance). Study 1 revealed that IM was a positive predictor of workmastery and a negative predictor of competitiveness (with and without self-deceptive enhancement (SDE) controlled). Studies 2a and 2b revealed that IM was a positive predictor of mastery-approach goals and mastery-avoidance goals (without and, in Study 2b, with SDE controlled). These findings highlight the value of conceptualising and utilising IM as a personality variable in its own right and shed light on the nature of the achievement motive and achievement goal constructs.

  3. How does a servant leader fuel the service fire? A multilevel model of servant leadership, individual self identity, group competition climate, and customer service performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijun; Zhu, Jing; Zhou, Mingjian

    2015-03-01

    Building on a social identity framework, our cross-level process model explains how a manager's servant leadership affects frontline employees' service performance, measured as service quality, customer-focused citizenship behavior, and customer-oriented prosocial behavior. Among a sample of 238 hairstylists in 30 salons and 470 of their customers, we found that hair stylists' self-identity embedded in the group, namely, self-efficacy and group identification, partially mediated the positive effect of salon managers' servant leadership on stylists' service performance as rated by the customers, after taking into account the positive influence of transformational leadership. Moreover, group competition climate strengthened the positive relationship between self-efficacy and service performance.

  4. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  5. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma Irene

    After establishing reliability for an associative verbal encoding (a/v/e) test, the relationship between children's a/v/e and their reading achievement was investigated. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) a/v/e will improve with training, and (2) associated with improved a/v/e will be concomitant improvement in reading achievement. The subjects…

  6. Development and Validation of a Physics Achievement Test to Identify Instructor Variables Associated with Students' Physics Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacambra, Wilfredo T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common ways of detecting whether an improvement is achieved by an education institution is through measuring the students' achievement in a test. Testing is generally thought of as a means of assessing the knowledge and skills students have acquired through learning (Du-chastel and Nungester, 1998). Test results, besides assisting…

  7. Quantifying Faculty Productivity in Japan: Development and Application of the Achievement-Motivated Key Performance Indicator. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.8.16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aida, Misako; Watanabe, Satoshi P.

    2016-01-01

    Universities throughout the world are trending toward more performance based methods to capture their strengths, weaknesses and productivity. Hiroshima University has developed an integrated objective measure for quantifying multifaceted faculty activities, namely the "Achievement-Motivated Key Performance Indicator" (A-KPI), in order to…

  8. Correlations among Six Learner Variables and the Performance of a Sample of Jamaican Eleventh-Graders on an Achievement Test on Respiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Pinnock, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at establishing if the level of performance of 500 Jamaican Grade 11 students on an achievement test on the concept of respiration was satisfactory (mean = 28 or 70% and above) or not (less than 70%); if there were statistically significant differences in their performance on the concept linked to their gender, cognitive abilities…

  9. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Liedo, P.; Salgado, S.; Oropeza, A.; Toledo, J.

    2007-03-15

    with wild flies. As colonization progressed, life expectancy and fecundity rates increased in the 3 rearing systems. There was no significant difference in standard quality control parameters among the 3 rearing systems. Wild males always achieved more matings than any of the mass reared males. Mating competitiveness of males from the IS, although surprisingly not from the SS, was significantly greater than that of males from the MS. Our results indicate that these slight changes in the adult holding conditions can significantly reduce the harmful effects of mass rearing on the mating performance of sterile flies. (author) [Spanish] Se ha demostrado que las condiciones de cria masiva afectan el comportamiento de apareamiento de la mosca del Mediterraneo Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Nosotros evaluamos el efecto de ligeros cambios en las condiciones en las que los adultos son mantenidos para la produccion de huevos, en el desempeno de apareamiento de las moscas esteriles. La colonizacion se inicio con moscas silvestres colectadas como larvas en cerezas de cafe (Coffea arabica L.) infestadas. Cuando las pupas estuvieron cerca de la emergencia de los adultos, se dividieron en tres grupos al azar y los adultos recien emergidos fueron criados en las siguientes condiciones: (1) Sistema Metapa (MS, testigo), consistente en jaulas con marco de aluminio de 70 x 45 x 15 cm, cubiertas con malla, con una densidad de 2,200 moscas por jaula y una relacion de sexos inicial de 1:1; (2); Sistema Insertos (IS), con el mismo tipo de jaula, densidad de moscas, y relacion de sexos que en el MS, pero conteniendo 12 piezas de plexiglas (23 x 8.5 cm) para proporcionar superficie horizontal al interior de la jaula; y (3) Sistema de Relacion de Sexos (SS), igual que el IS, pero en este caso la relacion inicial macho: hembra fue de 4:1, tres dias despues se introdujeron hembras recien emergidas para tener una relacion de 3:1 y en el 6 dia se anadio otro grupo de hembras para tener una relacion

  10. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  11. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  12. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  13. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  14. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  15. Effect of an intense period of competition on race performance and self-reported illness in elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, I S; Gleeson, M; Haugen, T A; Tønnessen, E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether participating in a cross-country skiing stage race (Tour de Ski; TDS) affects subsequent illness incidence, training, and race performance. Self-reported training and illness data from 44 male and female elite cross-country skiers were included. In total, 127 years of data were collected (2-3 seasons per athlete). Illness incidence, training load, and performance in international competitions were calculated for athletes who did and did not participate in TDS. Forty-eight percent of athletes reported becoming ill during or in the days immediately after taking part in TDS vs 16% of athletes who did not participate. In both groups, illness incidence was somewhat lower for female athletes. For male athletes, race performance was significantly worse for 6 weeks following TDS vs 6 weeks before TDS. Furthermore, while female athletes who participated in TDS performed relatively better than controls in Olympics/World Championships, male athletes who participated in TDS typically performed worse in subsequent major championships. Participating in TDS appears to result in ∼ 3-fold increase in risk of illness in this period. Male athletes appear more prone to illness and also see a drop in race performance following TDS, possibly linked to differences in training load before and after the event.

  16. Tough Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Roland

    1994-01-01

    College and university public relations specialists find that, to get competitive coverage for their institutions, they must provide the media with instant access to information and understand the way the media operate. Although the computer is useful in expanding contacts, responsiveness and information of real interest are foremost…

  17. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M.; Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery, Shelly; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farritor, Shane; Joyce, James; Rebrovich, Barb

    2003-01-01

    Condensing five years of significant work into a brief narrative fitting PPR requirements gave the affiliates of the Nebraska Space Grant a valuable chance for reflection. Achievements of Space Grant in Nebraska were judiciously chosen for this document that best illustrate the resultant synergism of this consortium, keeping in mind that these examples are only a representation of greater activity throughout the state. Following are highlights of many of the finer and personal achievements for Nebraska Space Grant. The Consortium welcomes inquiries to elaborate on any of these accomplishments.

  18. Absence of population asymmetry in the American Quarter Horse (Equus ferus caballus) performing skilled left and right manoeuvres in reining competition.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, Ian Q

    2015-01-01

    Use of the right hand by humans for speech-related hand gestures, writing and throwing exemplifies motoric asymmetry. There are reports of asymmetry in many other animal species, including reports of left preference in emotional responsivity, spontaneous behaviour and the trained performance of the horse, Equus ferus caballus. The present study used the novel approach of using judges' scores to examine asymmetry in an equestrian event. The study analysed the scores of five judges evaluating the reining performance of 482, three-year-old American Quarter Horses competing in a major competition. Reining requires that the horses perform the manoeuvres of spin, circle and stop directed to either the left or right and symmetrical performance is featured in the judging criteria. The scores were sensitive to performance level, sex and manoeuvre, but there was no evidence of a population asymmetry in the left vs. right direction of the manoeuvres. The results are discussed in relation to need of using a large number of subjects in measuring asymmetry, the expression of individual vs. population asymmetry as a function of morphological and behavioural measures, and the influence of behavioural training on asymmetry.

  19. Students' Accounts of School-Performance Stress: A Qualitative Analysis of a High-Achieving Setting in Stockholm, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Almquist, Ylva B.; Östberg, Viveca

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine students' experiences of school performance as a stressor. Accounts of school-performance stress at both the individual level and in relation to group mechanisms are studied through qualitative interviews with eighth-grade students in a high-performing school in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 49). Using qualitative…

  20. What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Thomas Allen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

  1. Examining the Contribution of Teacher Graduate Degrees on Student Achievement as Measured by District Level TAKS Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badgett, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    In a time of limited means and continued calls for higher student achievement, school leaders need to be wise in their use of resources. Earlier research has called for greater levels of teacher preparation, and, while many school districts provide greater compensation for teachers with graduate degrees, some districts have begun phasing out this…

  2. Student Achievement in Algebraic Thinking: A Comparison of 3rd Graders' Performance on a State 4th Grade Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaput, James J.; Blanton, Maria L.

    As a part of a long term district-wide study, we report on achievement test results involving students in a third-grade classroom taught by a teacher in a professional development program led by the authors and directed towards the integration of algebraic reasoning with elementary school mathematics. The teacher's practice, reported upon…

  3. Academic Achievement and Personality Traits of Faculty Members of Indian Agricultural Universities: Their Effect on Teaching and Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramesh, P.; Reddy, K. M.; Rao, R. V. S.; Dhandapani, A.; Siva, G. Samba; Ramakrishna, A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was undertaken to assess academic achievement, teaching aptitude and research attitude of Indian agricultural universities' faculty, to predict indicators for successful teachers and researchers, and thereby enhancing the quality of higher agricultural education. Methodology: Five hundred faculty members were selected to…

  4. Predicting Performance on State Achievement Tests Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading: A Multilevel Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Seungsoo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the relationship between Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) and statewide achievement tests in reading. A multilevel meta-analysis was used to calculate the correlation coefficient of the population for 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Results showed an overall large correlation coefficient…

  5. Closing the Achievement Gap: A Summer School Program to Accelerate the Academic Performance of Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Ramon Michael

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing disparity in educational outcomes among economically and racially different groups of students, summer school has received attention from school reformers as a means to close the achievement gap. Given the interest in this topic by educators, researchers, and policymakers, there is little research on the impact of summer school…

  6. A Study on the Impact of Military Parent Deployment on Student Performance; Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, Discipline, and Counselor Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Hilda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if parents' military deployment had an impact on the academic achievement of their children. The study examined if there were a parallel between parental military deployment and absenteeism, parental deployment and discipline, and parental deployment and counselor visits. The study also examined if…

  7. Five Social Disadvantages That Depress Student Performance: Why Schools Alone Can't Close Achievement Gaps. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Leila; Rothstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    That students' social and economic characteristics shape their cognitive and behavioral outcomes is well established, yet policymakers typically resist accepting that non-school disadvantages necessarily depress outcomes. Rather, they look to better schools and teachers to close achievement gaps, and consistently come up short. This report…

  8. The Implementation of a Focused School Renewal Plan to Increase Student Achievement in a Low Performing Rural School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    The following study was conducted using a mixed-methodology study design. The purpose of this study was to determine if a focused school renewal plan would increase student achievement at Rural Elementary. In order to accomplish this goal, baseline research data was gathered using the What Works in Schools Online Survey (Marzano, 2003) to…

  9. Surmounting the Challenges of Improving Academic Performance: Closing the Achievement Gap through Social-Emotional and Character Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; White, Gwyne; Stepney, Cesalie

    2014-01-01

    While educators and policy makers have an intuitive understanding of the influence of socioeconomic factors and race on student achievement, these factors make the current emphasis on standardized test scores as a primary criterion for evaluating schools and teachers indefensible and ineffective. The research presented illustrates the limits of…

  10. The Impact of AP® Achievement Institute I on Students' AP Performance. Research Report No. 2012-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; Laitusis, Vytas

    2012-01-01

    The AP Achievement Institute I (APAI I) is a four-day professional development program offered to teachers and administrators by EXCELerator™, a district reform program operated by the College Board. The APAI I program is designed to help teachers develop effective AP instructional strategies for a diverse student body and to help district,…

  11. Test Drive: Six States Pilot Better Ways to Measure and Compare Community College Performance. An Achieving the Dream Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Increasing demand for at least some postsecondary education in today's labor market has met with stagnating college completion rates. As a result, states have a growing interest in better understanding the challenges to improving graduation rates and in tracking student progress and success. Six states in the "Achieving the Dream: Community…

  12. The Effects of School Climate on Student Achievement in Lower and Higher Performing Public and Charter Elementary Schools in Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Aszure Emond

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the number of charter schools that exist has occurred due, in part, to expectations that are aimed toward producing better results through student achievement, as compared to traditional public schools. An abundance of professional literature has supported the concept that school climate is important in the effort to improve student…

  13. Technology-Enhanced Assessment of Math Fact Automaticity: Patterns of Performance for Low- and Typically Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Eric M.; Sharp, Lindsay B.; Kenyon, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Because math fact automaticity has been identified as a key barrier for students struggling with mathematics, we examined how initial math achievement levels influenced the path to automaticity (e.g., variation in number of attempts, speed of retrieval, and skill maintenance over time) and the relation between attainment of automaticity and gains…

  14. Effect of active and passive recovery on blood lactate and performance during simulated competition in high level gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Jemni, Monèm; Sands, William A; Friemel, Françoise; Delamarche, Paul

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two recovery strategies between men's gymnastics events on blood lactate removal (BL) and performance as rated by expert "blind" judges. Twelve male gymnasts (21.8 +/- 2.4 years) participated. The sessions were composed of routine performances in the six Olympic events, which were separated by 10 min of recovery. All gymnasts performed two recovery protocols between events on separate days: Rest protocol, 10 min rest in a sitting position; Combined protocol, 5 min rest and 5 min self-selected active recovery. Three blood samples were taken at 2, 5, and 10 min following each event. Gymnasts produced moderate values of BL following each of the six events (2.2 to 11.6 mmol.L-1). There was moderate variability in BL values between events that could not be accounted for by the athlete's event performance. Gymnasts showed higher BL concentration (p > .05) and significantly (p < .05) higher scoring performances (as rated by a panel of certified judges) when they used a combined recovery between gymnastics events rather than a passive recovery (delta BL = 40.51% vs. 28.76% of maximal BL, p < .05, and total score = 47.28 +/- 6.82 vs. 38.39 +/- 7.55, p < .05, respectively).

  15. Dissolution performance of binary amorphous drug combinations--Impact of a second drug on the maximum achievable supersaturation.

    PubMed

    Trasi, Niraj S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-12-30

    An increased number of amorphous formulations of poorly water soluble drugs are being introduced into the market due to their higher transient solubility and thus faster absorption and higher bioavailability. While most amorphous drug products contain a single drug substance, there is a growing trend towards co-formulating compounds in the same dosage form to improve patient compliance. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the dissolution behavior and maximum achievable solution concentrations of amorphous solid dispersions of co-formulated ritonavir and lopinavir, and to compare the results with individual amorphous solid dispersion formulations. Dispersions of ritonavir and lopinavir were prepared in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) at a 20% (w/w) total drug loading, both alone and in combination, at three different lopinavir:ritonavir weight ratios. Amorphous films containing both drugs, but no polymer, were also prepared. The dissolution behavior of the dispersions and the amorphous films in non-sink conditions was evaluated, using ultracentrifugation to separate any colloidal material from molecularly dissolved drug. Nanoparticle tracking analysis was used to characterize colloidal material formed during the dissolution process. Results from the dissolution study revealed that, although supersaturated solutions resulted following dissolution, the maximum achievable concentration of each drug, when present in combination, was dramatically lower than when the individual dispersions were dissolved. The maximum achievable solution concentration for systems containing both drugs was found to decrease as the mole fraction of the drug in the amorphous phase decreased. The type of polymer used to formulate the dispersion also appeared to influence the dissolution behavior whereby the HPMCAS dispersions dissolved rapidly, resulting in the generation of a nanodroplets, while the PVP dispersions did not

  16. Competitiveness Index 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    The United States' economic performance in the world economy is compared with that of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom (the Summit 7 countries). Competitiveness is assessed by four economic indicators: standard of living, trade, manufacturing productivity, and investment. The United States continues to outinvest the…

  17. Human Resources Competitiveness Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    This report distills hundreds of indicators from both domestic and international sources to determine how the United States compares to other countries and to its own past performance in competitiveness. It attempts to establish a baseline of some key education and training indicators that, taken together, show where the nation stands and where it…

  18. The effect of retesting on end-of-semester performance in high school chemistry at three levels of previous science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deboer, George E.

    To determine the effect of retesting on student learning in chemistry, three questions were addressed by means of a 3 × 2 (achievement level X treatment) factorial design: (1) Does retesting affect differently the end-of-semester mastery of course objectives of students who are grouped according to their previous achievement in science? (2) Do students who are given an opportunity to take retests merely delay their studying and perform at a lower level on initial tests than nonretested students? (3) Is the procrastination of retested students (if it exists) affected by their achievement level? The results showed that for one of four units low ability students who were retested demonstrated greater learning gains than low ability students who were not retested, and that procrastination, if it was present, did not have significant effects on student learning at any achievement level. Results were discussed in terms of the students' room for improvement, motivation to improve, and ability to improve.

  19. Making Performance Accountability Work: English Lessons for U.S. Community Colleges: An Achieving the Dream Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaquette, Ozan

    2006-01-01

    Most states have experimented with performance accountability as a way to drive improvement in public higher education institutions and systems. However, efforts to implement performance funding in the United States have yielded mixed results. This policy brief describes the reforms that dramatically changed the policy landscape in England and…

  20. The Effects of Intercollegiate Athletic Participation on Student Academic Achievement and Leadership Performance in a Selective Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunker, Craig Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of various intensity levels of athletic participation on academic and leadership performance in a selective institution. For the purpose of this study a retrospective analysis of existing admissions and student performance data was conducted. The continuous dependent variables were academic…

  1. Measuring hospital competition.

    PubMed

    White, S L; Chirikos, T N

    1988-03-01

    This paper appraises the use of the Herfindahl market share index as an exogenous competition variable in empirical studies of the hospital sector. An analysis of cross-sectional Florida data shows that this index itself is significantly influenced by the demand and supply factors commonly included in econometric models of hospital performance. The analysis then illustrates that biased inferences about the effects of market competition on the costs of hospital care may result unless the values of the Herfindahl Index are treated endogenously in hospital cost models.

  2. Long-term costs of inflated self-estimate on academic performance among adolescent students: a case of second-language achievements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu-Li; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2009-12-01

    Past studies suggest that the adaptive or maladaptive consequences of inflated self-estimate, one form of positive illusions, require further investigation. 308 freshmen at a junior college (164 women, 144 men; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.1) participated in a longitudinal study during a 2-yr. period. There were three assessments of short- and long-term effects of overly positive self-estimates on second-language achievement. Students' overestimation of subsequent performance appears to be associated with lower achievement. Those students with apparently inflated self-estimates performed marginally better on the first assessment but worse in the second and final assessments. Students with more accurate self-estimates showed improvement on all assessments. The findings suggested that overinflated self-estimates, i.e., positive illusions, among adolescent students might lead to a lower achievement over the long-term.

  3. Summary of Research on the Association between State Interventions in Chronically Low-Performing Schools and Student Achievement. REL 2016-138

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klute, Mary; Cherasaro, Trudy; Apthorp, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the research on the association between state interventions in chronically low-performing schools and student achievement. Most of the research focused on one type of state intervention: working with a turnaround partner. Few studies were identified that examined other types of interventions, such as school closure, charter…

  4. The Impact of Classroom Performance System-Based Instruction with Peer Instruction upon Student Achievement and Motivation in Eighth Grade Math Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Tracy Michelle Hunter

    2012-01-01

    The researcher employed two designs to address the research question for this particular study. This quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group study compared the math achievement of 92 eighth grade students who received Classroom Performance System (CPS)-based instruction using Peer Instruction (PI) to 76 eighth grade students who received…

  5. The Impact of a State Takeover on Academic Achievement, School Performance, and School Leadership in a Rural South Carolina School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Janice Zissette

    2009-01-01

    This case study on the impact of a state takeover in one of South Carolina's most rural school districts ("referred to as the County School District") was completed using a quasi-experimental mixed methods design to examine the impact on academic achievement, school performance, and school leadership as a result of the South Carolina…

  6. Effects of Visual and Auditory Background on Reading Achievement Test Performance of Brain-Injured and Non Brain-Injured Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, John L.

    Forty-two brain injured boys and 42 non brain injured boys (aged 11-6 to 12-6) were tested to determine the effects of increasing amounts of visual and auditory distraction on reading performance. The Stanford Achievement Reading Comprehension Test was administered with three degrees of distraction. The visual distraction consisted of either very…

  7. The Effect of Performance Assessment-Driven Instruction on the Attitude and Achievement of Senior High School Students in Mathematics in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arhin, Ato Kwamina

    2015-01-01

    The study was a quasi-experimental research project conducted to investigate the effect of performance assessment-driven instructions on the attitude and achievement in mathematics of senior high school students in Ghana at Ghana National College in Cape Coast. Two Form 1 science classes were used for the study and were assigned as experimental…

  8. The Relationship between Students' Performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the Fourth and Fifth Grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnimont, Chad S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the fourth and fifth grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio. The sample utilized students from a suburban school district in Northwest Ohio. Third grade CogAT scores (2006-2007 school year), 4th…

  9. How Does the Science Writing Heuristic Approach Affect Students' Performances of Different Academic Achievement Levels? A Case for High School Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer; Gunel, Murat

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH), known as an argumentation-based science inquiry approach, on Grade 9 students' performance on a post-test in relation to their academic achievement levels. Four intact classes taught by 2 chemistry teachers from a Turkish public high school were selected for the study; one…

  10. Immunological impact of Taekwondo competitions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y W; Shin, K W; Paik, I-Y; Jung, W M; Cho, S-Y; Choi, S T; Kim, H D; Kim, J Y

    2012-01-01

    Immunological changes in elite adolescent female athletes during Taekwondo competitions were investigated on-field. 6 female athletes (16.7 ± 0.8 year-old) volunteered and performed 5 bouts of demonstration Taekwondo competitions simulating real tournaments in intensity, duration, and break-time intervals on the same day. Blood samples were taken before, after the competitions and during the recovery, respectively. Immunological changes and oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were evaluated by flow-cytometry. During the competitions, exercise intensity was 92.2 ± 3.8% (86.1~95.7) of the maximal heart rate. Blood lactate increased immediately after the competitions (p=0.0165) and decreased to baseline during recovery. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the peripheral blood increased continuously during recovery (p<0.05, respectively). Natural killer cells increased immediately after the competitions (p=0.0006), and decreased during recovery. B and T cells increased immediately after the competitions and remained elevated throughout recovery (p<0.05, respectively). CD4/CD8 ratio after the competitions was decreased (p=0.0091) and returned to baseline during recovery. These results suggest that the immunological function of the elite female adolescent athletes could be attenuated after Taekwondo competitions. Further large-scaled Taekwondo studies on immunologic and apoptotic changes related to oxidative stress should be performed for improving and protecting the health of adolescent athletes.

  11. Implications of saline concentrations for the performance and competitive interactions of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopictus).

    PubMed

    Yee, D A; Himel, E; Reiskind, M H; Vamosi, S M

    2014-03-01

    Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae) has probably supplanted Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) throughout most of its historical range in the U.S.A., although Ae. aegypti still exists in large coastal cities in southern Florida. We measured salt concentrations in field containers along an axis perpendicular to the coast and examined intraspecific outcomes in these species under different salt concentrations in a factorial study using varying intra- and interspecific densities in different conditions of salinity to order to determine if salt could mitigate the documented competitive superiority of Ae. albopictus. Salt in field containers declined away from the coast, with maximal values similar to our lower salt concentrations. Egg hatching and short-term survival of pupae and late instars were not affected by salt concentrations; survival of early instars of both species decreased at higher concentrations. In high salt conditions, Ae. aegypti achieved higher survival. In the longterm experiment, both species displayed longer development times. Salt did not affect interactions for either species; Ae. aegypti survived in the highest salt conditions, regardless of density. The tolerance of Ae. aegypti to high salt concentrations may allow it to use coastal containers, although because salt did not mediate interspecific interactions between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, the ultimate effects of salt on the coexistence of these species or exclusion of either species remain unknown.

  12. Final LDRD report : science-based solutions to achieve high-performance deep-UV laser diodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Alessi, Leonard J.; Smith, Michael L.; Henry, Tanya A.; Westlake, Karl R.; Cross, Karen Charlene; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Lee, Stephen Roger

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that has focused on overcoming major materials roadblocks to achieving AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes. We describe our growth approach to achieving AlGaN templates with greater than ten times reduction of threading dislocations which resulted in greater than seven times enhancement of AlGaN quantum well photoluminescence and 15 times increase in electroluminescence from LED test structures. We describe the application of deep-level optical spectroscopy to AlGaN epilayers to quantify deep level energies and densities and further correlate defect properties with AlGaN luminescence efficiency. We further review our development of p-type short period superlattice structures as an approach to mitigate the high acceptor activation energies in AlGaN alloys. Finally, we describe our laser diode fabrication process, highlighting the development of highly vertical and smooth etched laser facets, as well as characterization of resulting laser heterostructures.

  13. Students' perceptions of rewards for academic performance by parents and teachers: relations with achievement and motivation in college.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly D; Winsler, Adam; Middleton, Michael

    2006-06-01

    In the present study, the authors examined college students' (N= 136) perceptions of the provision of extrinsic rewards given by parents and teachers for academic performance from elementary school through high school. They also examined the relations between reward history and present student motivational orientation. External rewards for students' grades were common at all levels of schooling. Reward history related significantly to students' motivational orientation and performance in college, and these relations were generally stronger for boys than for girls. The authors discuss implications of these findings.

  14. A Descriptive-Comparative Study of Teacher Performance Evaluation on Student Achievement in a Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, William Howard

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the federal government increased accountability expectations by placing more emphasis on monitoring teacher performance. Using a model that focuses on the New York State teacher evaluation system, that is comprised of a rubric for observation, local student assessment scores, and student state assessment scores, this…

  15. The Turnaround Challenge: Why America's Best Opportunity to Dramatically Improve Student Achievement Lies in Our Worst-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Andrew; Guenther, William; Belfiore, Grace; Lash, Dave

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to produce recommendations for states and school districts seeking a flexible, systematic approach to swift and significant transformation in schools (particularly high schools) deemed chronically under-performing under No Child Left Behind or state accountability systems. This research leads the authors to believe that…

  16. Failure Is Not an Option (TM). Six Principles That Guide Student Achievement in High-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankstein, Alan M.

    2004-01-01

    The author builds upon a foundation which identifies courageous school leadership and the professional learning community as the center of effective school reform. The author offers six guiding principles steps for creating and sustaining a high-performing school: (1) Common mission, vision, values, and goals: (2) Systems for prevention and…

  17. Technology for monitoring shot-level light source performance data to achieve high-optimization of lithography processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Masato; Ochiai, Hideyuki; Watabe, Yoshinobu; Ishida, Keisuke; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Youichi; Kumazaki, Takahito; Kurosu, Akihiko; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakizaki, Kouji; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2014-03-01

    Gigaphoton has developed a new monitoring system that provides shot-level light source performance data to FDC systems during exposure time. The system provides basic monitoring data (e.g. Energy, Wavelength, Bandwidth, etc.) and beam performance data, such as Beam Profile, Pointing, Divergence, Polarization can also be monitored using a new metrology tool called the Beam Performance Monitor (BPM) module. During exposure time the system automatically identifies the start and end timing of the wafer and each shot based on the burst of firing signals from the scanner, and stores the measured data in sequence. The stored data is sorted by wafer or by shot, and sent to REDeeM Piece which in turn converts the data to the user's protocol and send it to the FDC system. The user also has the option to directly view or download the stored data using a GUI. Through this monitoring system, users can manage light sources data at the shot or reticle level to facilitate optimization of performance and running cost of the light source for each process. This monitoring system can be easily retrofitted to Gigaphoton's current ArF laser light sources. The beam splitter of the BPM was specially designed to bend only a small fraction of the source beam, so we are able to simply install the BPM without the need for special optical alignment.

  18. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research

    PubMed Central

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies. PMID:27610072

  19. A Comparison of Performance on Cloze Tests, Group Reading Inventories and Standardized Reading Achievement in Grades Seven, Eight and Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakes, Thomas A.; McWilliams, Lana J.

    A random sample of 300 seventh, eighth, and ninth grade students participated in a comparative study of performance on social studies cloze tests, social studies group reading inventories (GRI), and a popular standardized test (Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Survey E). It was found that cloze tests and GRIs constructed from social studies content…

  20. Students' Perceptions of Rewards for Academic Performance by Parents and Teachers: Relations with Achievement and Motivation in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly D.; Winsler, Adam; Middleton, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined college students' (N = 136) perceptions of the provision of extrinsic rewards given by parents and teachers for academic performance from elementary school through high school. They also examined the relations between reward history and present student motivational orientation. External rewards for…

  1. The Influence of Parenting Styles, Achievement Motivation, and Self-Efficacy on Academic Performance in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Erlanger A.; Chandler, Megan; Heffer, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting styles have consistently been shown to relate to various outcomes such as youth psychopathology, behavior problems, and academic performance. Building on the research in the parenting style literature, along with examining components of self-determination theory, the present study examined the relations among authoritative parenting…

  2. Substantial improvements in performance indicators achieved in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell cryopreservation quality assurance program using single donor samples.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Wayne B; Pett, Sarah L; Sullivan, John S; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A; Kelleher, Anthony D; Lloyd, Andrew; Lewin, Sharon R

    2007-01-01

    Storage of high-quality cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is often a requirement for multicenter clinical trials and requires a reproducibly high standard of practice. A quality assurance program (QAP) was established to assess an Australia-wide network of laboratories in the provision of high-quality PBMC (determined by yield, viability, and function), using blood taken from single donors (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and HIV negative) and shipped to each site for preparation and cryopreservation of PBMC. The aim of the QAP was to provide laboratory accreditation for participation in clinical trials and cohort studies which require preparation and cryopreservation of PBMC and to assist all laboratories to prepare PBMC with a viability of >80% and yield of >50% following thawing. Many laboratories failed to reach this standard on the initial QAP round. Interventions to improve performance included telephone interviews with the staff at each laboratory, two annual wet workshops, and direct access to a senior scientist to discuss performance following each QAP round. Performance improved substantially in the majority of sites that initially failed the QAP (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001 for viability and yield, respectively). In a minority of laboratories, there was no improvement (n = 2), while a high standard was retained at the laboratories that commenced with adequate performance (n = 3). These findings demonstrate that simple interventions and monitoring of PBMC preparation and cryopreservation from multiple laboratories can significantly improve performance and contribute to maintenance of a network of laboratories accredited for quality PBMC fractionation and cryopreservation.

  3. DANCE, BALANCE AND CORE MUSCLE PERFORMANCE MEASURES ARE IMPROVED FOLLOWING A 9-WEEK CORE STABILIZATION TRAINING PROGRAM AMONG COMPETITIVE COLLEGIATE Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Graning, Jessica; McPherson, Sue; Carter, Elizabeth; Edwards, Joshuah; Melcher, Isaac; Burgess, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Background Dance performance requires not only lower extremity muscle strength and endurance, but also sufficient core stabilization during dynamic dance movements. While previous studies have identified a link between core muscle performance and lower extremity injury risk, what has not been determined is if an extended core stabilization training program will improve specific measures of dance performance. Hypothesis/Purpose This study examined the impact of a nine-week core stabilization program on indices of dance performance, balance measures, and core muscle performance in competitive collegiate dancers. Study Design Within-subject repeated measures design. Methods A convenience sample of 24 female collegiate dance team members (age = 19.7 ± 1.1 years, height = 164.3 ± 5.3 cm, weight 60.3 ± 6.2 kg, BMI = 22.5 ± 3.0) participated. The intervention consisted of a supervised and non-supervised core (trunk musculature) exercise training program designed specifically for dance team participants performed three days/week for nine weeks in addition to routine dance practice. Prior to the program implementation and following initial testing, transversus abdominis (TrA) activation training was completed using the abdominal draw-in maneuver (ADIM) including ultrasound imaging (USI) verification and instructor feedback. Paired t tests were conducted regarding the nine-week core stabilization program on dance performance and balance measures (pirouettes, single leg balance in passe’ releve position, and star excursion balance test [SEBT]) and on tests of muscle performance. A repeated measures (RM) ANOVA examined four TrA instruction conditions of activation: resting baseline, self-selected activation, immediately following ADIM training and four days after completion of the core stabilization training program. Alpha was set at 0.05 for all analysis. Results Statistically significant improvements were seen on single leg balance in passe

  4. Inverse modeling of surface-water discharge to achieve restoration salinity performance measures in Florida Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, E.D.; James, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of numerical modeling to evaluate regional water-management practices involves the simulation of various alternative water-delivery scenarios, which typically are designed intuitively rather than analytically. These scenario simulations are used to analyze how specific water-management practices affect factors such as water levels, flows, and salinities. In lieu of testing a variety of scenario simulations in a trial-and-error manner, an optimization technique may be used to more precisely and directly define good water-management alternatives. A numerical model application in the coastal regions of Florida Bay and Everglades National Park (ENP), representing the surface- and ground-water hydrology for the region, is a good example of a tool used to evaluate restoration scenarios. The Southern Inland and Coastal System (SICS) model simulates this area with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic surface-water model and a three-dimensional ground-water model, linked to represent the interaction of the two systems with salinity transport. This coastal wetland environment is of great interest in restoration efforts, and the SICS model is used to analyze the effects of alternative water-management scenarios. The SICS model is run within an inverse modeling program called UCODE. In this application, UCODE adjusts the regulated inflows to ENP while SICS is run iteratively. UCODE creates parameters that define inflow within an allowable range for the SICS model based on SICS model output statistics, with the objective of matching user-defined target salinities that meet ecosystem restoration criteria. Preliminary results obtained using two different parameterization methods illustrate the ability of the model to achieve the goals of adjusting the range and reducing the variance of salinity values in the target area. The salinity variance in the primary zone of interest was reduced from an original value of 0.509 psu2 to values 0.418 psu2 and 0.342 psu2 using different

  5. Effects of in-competitive season power-oriented and heavy resistance lower-body training on performance of elite female water polo players.

    PubMed

    Veliz, Rafael R; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Requena, Bernardo; Haff, G Gregory; Feito, Javier; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    We examined the effect of 16 weeks of lower-body resistance and power-oriented training on key performance measures of elite female water polo players. Twenty-one players were randomly assigned to 2 groups: control group (C) who did in-water training only and a lower body strength (LBS) group, who performed resistance (full squat and split squat) and jump and power-oriented lower-body training (countermovement jump [CMJ] loaded and CMJ) sessions (twice per week) in addition to the same in-water training. In-water training was conducted 5 days per week for a total of 16 weeks. Twenty-meter maximal sprint swim (MSS), lower-body strength during 1 repetition maximum (1RM) full squat (FS), in-water boost and CMJ, and Throwing speed (ThS) were measured before and after the training. Pretraining results showed no statistically significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested. After 16 weeks, no statistically significant improvement was found in any of the variables measured in the C group, however, significant improvement was found in the LBS group: in-water boost (4.6 cm, 12.02%, effect size [ES] = 1.02), CMJ (2.4 cm, 8.66%, ES = 0.85), FS (12.7 kg, 20.99%, ES = 2.41), and ThS (3.4 km·h, 6.86%, ES = 3.44). Lower-body resistance and power-oriented training in female water polo players for 16 weeks produced significant improvements in performance qualities highly specific to water polo performance. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for female water polo players to include resistance and power-oriented training during the competitive season in this sport.

  6. Some Suggested Techniques for Achieving Required Main Ring Low Level RF Performance for the Tevatron I Program

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.E.; MacLachlan, J.

    1984-05-01

    These techniques are derived from experience with the existing low level rf system and from the results of accelerator experiments directed at the Tev I requirements which were performed using a specially modified low level rf system. The techniques suggested here are not necessarily unique and other techniques may be acceptable. It is important to realize that certain performance requirements on the Booster and Main Ring are substantially different in the Tev I program from those which have been acceptable in the fixed target program. For example, the longitudinal emittance of the bunches has been routinely and intentionally blown up by the 'bunch spreader' during acceleration to improve the smoothness of the spill. In the Tev I case, the 'bunch narrowing' procedure preceding {bar p} production and in bunch coalescing is facilitated by maintaining the smallest possible longitudinal emittance (i.e. the largest possible longitudinal phase space density). Also, during fixed target physics the Main Ring is essentially full (i.e. approx. 1090 of 1113 buckets occupied) so transient beam loading of the rf system is negligible except during injection, whereas for {bar p} production a single high intensity Booster batch (approx. 83 bunches) is to be accelerated causing substantial transient beam induced phase shift of the rf voltage during each passage. The low level phase and position error signals are normally derived from an essentially full ring during fixed target operation whereas in the Tev I program the systems must perform adequately with as few as ten adjacent buckets occupied. Because of the differences in emphasis between fixed target operation and Tevatron I operation is seems sensible to use separate low level rf systems for these two modes of operation. If a single low level system were to be used for both modes of operation some compromises may be necessary which might cause performance in either mode to be less than adequate. Because of the severe demands

  7. Competition in Healthcare: Good, Bad or Ugly?

    PubMed

    Goddard, Maria

    2015-08-01

    The role of competition in healthcare is much debated. Despite a wealth of international experience in relation to competition, evidence is mixed and contested and the debate about the potential role for competition is often polarised. This paper considers briefly some of the reasons for this, focusing on what is meant by "competition in healthcare" and why it is more valuable to think about the circumstances in which competition is more and less likely to be a good tool to achieve benefits, rather than whether or not it is "good" or "bad," per se.

  8. WEF/WERF study of BNR plants achieving very low N and P limits: evaluation of technology performance and process reliability.

    PubMed

    Bott, Charles B; Parker, Denny S; Jimenez, Jose; Miller, Mark W; Neethling, J B

    2012-01-01

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) funded a two-year comprehensive study of nutrient removal plants designed and operated to meet very low effluent total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations. WERF worked with the Water Environment Federation (WEF) to solicit participation of volunteers and provide a forum for information exchange at workshops at its annual conferences. Both existing and new technologies are being adapted to meet requirements that are as low as 3.0 mg/L TN and 0.1 mg/L TP, and there is a need to define their capabilities and reliabilities in the real world situation of wastewater treatment plants. A concern over very low daily permits for ammonia caused the work to be extended to include nitrification reliability. This effort focused on maximizing what can be learned from existing technologies in order to provide a database that will inform key decision makers about proper choices for both technologies and rationale bases for statistical permit writing. To this end, managers of 22 plants, 10 achieving low effluent TP, nine achieving low effluent TN, and three achieving low effluent NH(3)-N, provided three years of operational data that were analyzed using a consistent statistical approach. Technology Performance Statistics (TPSs) were developed as three separate values representing the ideal, median, and reliably achievable performance. Technological conclusions can be drawn from the study in terms of what can be learned by comparing the different nutrient removal and nitrification processes employed at these 22 plants.

  9. Control-value theory: using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64.

    PubMed

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the emergent theoretical and empirical work on human emotion and how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. In the Guide, we define emotion, in general, and achievement emotions, more specifically. We describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), and we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal antecedents, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance. Next, we review the empirical support for control-value theory from non-medical fields and suggest several important implications for educational practice. In this section, we highlight the importance of designing learning environments that foster a high degree of control and value for students. Finally, we end with a discussion of the need for more research on achievement emotions in medical education, and we propose several key research questions we believe will facilitate our understanding of achievement emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  10. Effects of heat exposure and 3% dehydration achieved via hot water immersion on repeated cycle sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Justin A; Green, James M; Bishop, Phillip A; Richardson, Mark T; Neggers, Yasmin H; Leeper, James D

    2011-03-01

    This study examined effects of heat exposure with and without dehydration on repeated anaerobic cycling. Males (n = 10) completed 3 trials: control (CT), water-bath heat exposure (∼39°C) to 3% dehydration (with fluid replacement) (HE), and similar heat exposure to 3% dehydration (DEHY). Hematocrit increased significantly from pre to postheat immersion in both HE and DEHY. Participants performed 6 × 15s cycle sprints (30s active recovery). Mean Power (MP) was significantly lower vs. CT (596 ± 66 W) for DEHY (569 ± 72 W), and the difference approached significance for HE (582 ± 76 W, p = 0.07). Peak Power (PP) was significantly lower vs. CT (900 ± 117 W) for HE (870 ± 128 W) and approached significance for DEHY (857 ± 145 W, p = 0.07). Postsprint ratings of perceived exertion was higher during DEHY (6.4 ± 2.0) and HE (6.3 ± 1.6) than CT (5.7 ± 2.1). Combined heat and dehydration impaired MP and PP (decrements greatest in later bouts) with HE performance intermediate to CT and DEHY.

  11. Origin of the Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction Activity of Graphene-Based Catalysts: A Roadmap to Achieve the Best Performance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mutually corroborated electrochemical measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to uncover the origin of electrocatalytic activity of graphene-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A series of graphenes doped with nonmetal elements was designed and synthesized, and their ORR performance was evaluated in terms of four electrochemical descriptors: exchange current density, on-set potential, reaction pathway selectivity and kinetic current density. It is shown that these descriptors are in good agreement with DFT calculations, allowing derivation of a volcano plot between the ORR activity and the adsorption free energy of intermediates on metal-free materials, similarly as in the case of metallic catalysts. The molecular orbital concept was used to justify this volcano plot, and to theoretically predict the ORR performance of an ideal graphene-based catalyst, the ORR activity of which is comparable to the state-of-the-art Pt catalyst. Moreover, this study may stimulate the development of metal-free electrocatalysts for other key energy conversion processes including hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reactions and largely expand the spectrum of catalysts for energy-related electrocatalysis reactions. PMID:24580116

  12. On the real performance of cation exchange resins in wastewater treatment under conditions of cation competition: the case of heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Prelot, Benedicte; Ayed, Imen; Marchandeau, Franck; Zajac, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Sorption performance of cation-exchange resins Amberlite® IRN77 and Amberlite™ IRN9652 toward Cs(I) and Sr(II) has been tested in single-component aqueous solutions and simulated waste effluents containing other monovalent (Effluent 1) or divalent (Effluent 2) metal cations, as well as nitrate, borate, or carbonate anions. The individual sorption isotherms of each main component were measured by the solution depletion method. The differential molar enthalpy changes accompanying the ion-exchange between Cs+ or Sr2+ ions and protons at the resin surface from single-component nitrate solutions were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry and they showed a higher specificity of the two resins toward cesium. Compared to the retention limits of both resins under such idealized conditions, an important depression in the maximum adsorption capacity toward each main component was observed in multication systems. The overall effect of ion exchange process appeared to be an unpredictable outcome of the individual sorption capacities of the two resins toward various cations as a function of the cation charge, size, and concentration. The cesium retention capacity of the resins was diminished to about 25% of the "ideal" value in Effluent 1 and 50% in Effluent 2; a further decrease to about 15% was observed upon concomitant strontium addition. The uptake of strontium by the resins was found to be less sensitive to the addition of other metal components: the greatest decrease in the amount adsorbed was 60% of the ideal value in the two effluents for Amberlite® IRN77 and 75% for Amberlite™ IRN9652. It was therefore demonstrated that any performance tests carried out under idealized conditions should be exploited with much caution to predict the real performance of cation exchange resins under conditions of cation competition.

  13. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  14. Measuring Competition: Inconsistent Definitions, Inconsistent Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linick, Matthew Allen

    2014-01-01

    There is a developing literature examining how charter schools, through the effects of competition, impact performance in public school districts and district-run public schools, also known as the second-level effects of competition. What follows is an examination of how competition is measured in this literature that offers a critique of existing…

  15. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  16. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  17. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  18. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  19. Competitive Advantage and its Sources in an Evolving Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaridis, Apostolos D.

    2009-08-01

    In a continuously altered and evolving Market, as is the food manufacturing market, the main and long-lasting objective of firm that is the maximization of its wealth and consequently the continuous remaining in profit regions, appears that it is possible to be achieved via the obtainment and maintenance of diachronically long-term competitive advantage, which it will render the firm unique or leader force in a inexorable competition that is continuously extended in a globalized market. Various definitions and different regards are developed in regard to the competitive advantage and the way with which a firm it is possible, acquiring it, to star in the market in which it is activated. As result of sustainable competitive advantage in a firm comes the above the average performance. Abundance of resources and competences that are proposed as sources of competitive advantage in the resource-based view literature exists, while they are added continuously new based on empiric studies. In any case, it appears to suffer hierarchy of sources of competitive advantage, with regard to sustainability of these.

  20. Response modalities and time-sharing performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment performed to investigate the role of resource competition and asymmetric transfer in dual-task performance is described. It is shown that there is an advantage to mixed manual/speech response modality configurations that cannot be accounted for by asymmetric transfer. The present results support the multiple resources approach to the application of speech technology. Once speech recognition achieves an acceptable level of operational reliability, speech controls can be used to reduce resource competition and improve performance in multitask environments.

  1. Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew JG

    2014-01-01

    Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape. PMID:24822083

  2. Effect of training judo in the competition period on the plasmatic levels of leptin and pro-inflammatory cytokines in high-performance male athletes.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Donizete Cicero Xavier; Rossano Procida, Izildinha; das Neves Borges-Silva, Cristina

    2010-06-01

    The purpose this study was to evaluate the effect of training judo in the competition period on the plasmatic levels of bioactive molecules in high-performance male athletes. The subjects were divided into two groups, a trained group with 11 judokas and a nontrained group also with 11 subjects. Blood samples obtained 60 h after training to measure plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and leptin levels. The trained group presented a significant reduction in the percentage of fat and fat mass and an increase in the lumbar and lower limbs traction forces and the maximum VO(2) when compared to the nontrained group. There was no significant difference in the serum concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-6 between the two groups. The trained group presented a lower concentration of leptin, both as absolute values as well as relative to the percentage of fat, and a higher concentration of MCP-1, in relation to the nontrained group. Our results suggest an adaptation in the capacity of synthesizing and secreting leptin in response to chronic stress in judo, what suggests a neuro-hormonal adjustment that guarantees the efficiency of metabolism. The changes of MCP-1 indicated a possible inflammatory state.

  3. Achieving High Performance With TCP Over 40 GbE on NUMA Architectures for CMS Data Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Bawej, Tomasz; et al.

    2014-01-01

    TCP and the socket abstraction have barely changed over the last two decades, but at the network layer there has been a giant leap from a few megabits to 100 gigabits in bandwidth. At the same time, CPU architectures have evolved into the multicore era and applications are expected to make full use of all available resources. Applications in the data acquisition domain based on the standard socket library running in a Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) architecture are unable to reach full efficiency and scalability without the software being adequately aware about the IRQ (Interrupt Request), CPU and memory affinities. During the first long shutdown of LHC, the CMS DAQ system is going to be upgraded for operation from 2015 onwards and a new software component has been designed and developed in the CMS online framework for transferring data with sockets. This software attempts to wrap the low-level socket library to ease higher-level programming with an API based on an asynchronous event driven model similar to the DAT uDAPL API. It is an event-based application with NUMA optimizations, that allows for a high throughput of data across a large distributed system. This paper describes the architecture, the technologies involved and the performance measurements of the software in the context of the CMS distributed event building.

  4. Autonomy Support and Its Links to Physical Activity and Competitive Performance: Mediations through Motivation, Competence, Action Orientation and Harmonious Passion, and the Moderator Role of Autonomy Support by Perceived Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvari, Hallgeir; Ulstad, Svein Olav; Bagoien, Tor Egil; Skjesol, Knut

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a Self-Determination Theory (SDT) process model in relation to involvement in physical activity and competitive performance among students (N = 190). In this model, perceived autonomy support from teachers and coaches was expected to be positively related to autonomous motivation, perceived competence,…

  5. Microstructural Modification of Sn-0.7Cu Solder Alloys by Fe/Bi-Addition for Achieving High Mechanical Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Bakhtiar; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Said, Suhana Mohd; Mahdavifard, Mohammad Hossein; Sukiman, Nazatul Liana; Jauhari, Iswadi

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we studied the Fe/Bi-bearing tin-copper (Sn-0.7Cu) solders for their microstructural and mechanical properties. The microstructure was studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with a backscattered electron (BSE) detector, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The microstructure study showed that Fe forms very few FeSn2 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and does not significantly alter the microstructure of Sn-0.7Cu, whereas Bi controls the size of inter-dendritic regions containing Cu6Sn5 and Ag3Sn IMCs of the alloy, as well as significantly refines its primary β-Sn dendrites. Moreover, Bi atoms dissolve in β-Sn matrix, which in turn strengthen the solder by the Bi solid solution strengthening mechanism. Such microstructural modification leads to significant improvements in various mechanical properties of the alloy, including shear strength, impact toughness, and hardness values. Shear tests were performed with a 0.25 mm/min shear speed. The results showed that shear strength improves from 16.57 MPa to 38.36 MPa with the addition of Fe/Bi to Sn-0.7Cu, raising by about 130%. The energy absorbed during impact tests was measured for samples with the help of a Charpy impact testing machine with a 5.4 m/s impact speed. The results revealed that the addition of Fe/Bi to Sn-0.7Cu improves its impact absorbed energy by over 35%, increasing it from 7.5 J to 10.3 J. Vickers hardness tests were carried out for the test samples with a 245.2 mN applied load and 10 s dwell time. The results showed that the hardness number improves from 9.89 to 24.13 with Fe/Bi to Sn-0.7Cu, increasing by about 140%.

  6. The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

    model. Motivation variables did account for a portion of the variance in performance, but not in the ways predicted. Increasing the number of subjects in each group and adding the following variables to the model would clarify the role that motivation plays in performance: realistic self-appraisal; perceived competition; and elaboration, organization, and rehearsal strategies. Based on results, the following interventions were recommended to increase undergraduate science performance: assessment in realistic self-appraisal of science skills; instruction in elaboration and organization strategies; and encouragement of intrinsic interest in science.

  7. Prediction of Competitive Microbial Growth.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

     Prediction of competitive microbial growth is becoming important for microbial food safety. There would be two approaches to predict competitive microbial growth with mathematical models. The first approach is the development of a growth model for competitive microbes. Among several candidates for the competition model considered, the combination of the primary growth model of the new logistic (NL) model and the competition model of the Lotka-Vorttera (LV) model showed the best performance in predicting microbial competitive growth in the mixed culture of two species. This system further successfully predicted the growth of three competitive species in mixed culture. The second approach is the application of the secondary model especially for the parameter of the maximum cell population in the primary growth model. The combination of the NL model and a polynomial model for the maximum population successfully predicted Salmonella growth in raw ground beef. This system further successfully predicted Salmonella growth in beef at various initial concentrations and temperatures. The first approach requires microbial growth data in monoculture for analysis. The second approach to the prediction of competitive growth from the viewpoint of microbial food safety would be more suitable for practical application.

  8. Competitive Science: Is Competition Ruining Science?

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. Measures to encourage collaboration and ameliorate competition in the scientific enterprise are discussed. PMID:25605760

  9. Competition Issues and Inherently Governmental Functions Performed by Contractor Employees on Contracts to Supply Fuel to U.S. Troops in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-15

    15 MAR 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Competition Issues and Inherently Governmental ...Federal Acquisition Regulation FOB Free On Board GAO Government Accountabili ty Office We - ading Company KBR Kellogg, Brown, and Root LOA Letter...Oversight and Government Reform, raised to tl1e Secretary of Defense relating to the competitions and prices paid under a series offue] supply

  10. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  11. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Presentación, M Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers' performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents' and teachers' ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  12. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Presentación, M. Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers’ performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents’ and teachers’ ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25972833

  13. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other... objective contractor performance and eliminate unfair competitive advantage, contractors that develop...

  14. Distributed Wind Competitiveness Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    2016-05-01

    The Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP) is a periodic solicitation through the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Manufacturers of small and medium wind turbines are awarded cost-shared grants via a competitive process to optimize their designs, develop advanced manufacturing processes, and perform turbine testing. The goals of the CIP are to make wind energy cost competitive with other distributed generation technology and increase the number of wind turbine designs certified to national testing standards. This fact sheet describes the CIP and funding awarded as part of the project.

  15. Competitive spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  16. 77 FR 11195 - Announcement of Competition Under the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2011: Badges for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Competition is support for the creation of digital tools to identify, recognize, measure, and account for skills, competencies, knowledge, and achievements acquired during the course of lifelong learning. The... Learning Competition'' (``Competition'') administered by the Humanities, Arts, Science, and...

  17. Competitive Procurement of Integrated Library Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reader, Evan A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the competitive bidding process used by California State University to successfully procure integrated library systems for 5 of its 19 campuses during 1 fiscal year. The procurements demonstrated that competitive bidding not only reduces overall cost of library systems, but also allows the buyer to achieve favorable contract provisions.…

  18. The Role of Lithium Conditioning in Achieving High Performance, Long Pulse H-mode Discharges in the NSTX and EAST Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Maingi, Rajesh; Mansfield, D. K.; Gong, X. Z.; Sun, Z.; Bell, M. G.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, the role of lithium wall conditioning on the achievement of high performance, long pulse discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is documented. Common observations include recycling reduction and elimination of ELMs. In NSTX, lithium conditioning typically resulted in ELM-free operation with impurity accumulation, which was ameliorated e.g. with pulsed 3D fields to trigger controlled ELMs. Active lithium conditioning in EAST discharges has overcome this problem, producing an ELM-free Hmode with controlled density and impurities.

  19. Unravelling the correlation between the aspect ratio of nanotubular structures and their electrochemical performance to achieve high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yanyan; Deng, Jiyang; Qi, Dianpeng; Leow, Wan Ru; Wei, Jiaqi; Yin, Shengyan; Dong, Zhili; Yazami, Rachid; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-12-01

    The fundamental understanding of the relationship between the nanostructure of an electrode and its electrochemical performance is crucial for achieving high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, the relationship between the nanotubular aspect ratio and electrochemical performance of LIBs is elucidated for the first time. The stirring hydrothermal method was used to control the aspect ratio of viscous titanate nanotubes, which were used to fabricate additive-free TiO2 -based electrode materials. We found that the battery performance at high charging/discharging rates is dramatically boosted when the aspect ratio is increased, due to the optimization of electronic/ionic transport properties within the electrode materials. The proof-of-concept LIBs comprising nanotubes with an aspect ratio of 265 can retain more than 86 % of their initial capacity over 6000 cycles at a high rate of 30 C. Such devices with supercapacitor-like rate performance and battery-like capacity herald a new paradigm for energy storage systems.

  20. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on completion of Phase I and Phase II activities. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. During this reporting period, optimization tests were performed to evaluate system performance and identify optimum operating conditions for the installed equipment. The overfire air system process design activities and preliminary engineering design were completed.