Science.gov

Sample records for achieve continuous operation

  1. Achieving TASAR Operational Readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept for aircraft operations featuring a NASA-developed cockpit automation tool, the Traffic Aware Planner (TAP), which computes traffic/hazard-compatible route changes to improve flight efficiency. The TAP technology is anticipated to save fuel and flight time and thereby provide immediate and pervasive benefits to the aircraft operator, as well as improving flight schedule compliance, passenger comfort, and pilot and controller workload. Previous work has indicated the potential for significant benefits for TASAR-equipped aircraft, and a flight trial of the TAP software application in the National Airspace System has demonstrated its technical viability. This paper reviews previous and ongoing activities to prepare TASAR for operational use.

  2. LANL continuity of operations plan

    SciTech Connect

    Senutovitch, Diane M

    2010-12-22

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a premier national security research institution, delivering scientific and engineering solutions for the nation's most crucial and complex problems. Our primary responsibility is to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile. LANL emphasizes worker safety, effective operational safeguards and security, and environmental stewardship, outstanding science remains the foundation of work at the Laboratory. In addition to supporting the Laboratory's core national security mission, our work advances bioscience, chemistry, computer science, earth and environmental sciences, materials science, and physics disciplines. To accomplish LANL's mission, we must ensure that the Laboratory EFs continue to be performed during a continuity event, including localized acts of nature, accidents, technological or attack-related emergencies, and pandemic or epidemic events. The LANL Continuity of Operations (COOP) Plan documents the overall LANL COOP Program and provides the operational framework to implement continuity policies, requirements, and responsibilities at LANL, as required by DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, May 2008. LANL must maintain its ability to perform the nation's PMEFs, which are: (1) maintain the safety and security of nuclear materials in the DOE Complex at fixed sites and in transit; (2) respond to a nuclear incident, both domestically and internationally, caused by terrorist activity, natural disaster, or accident, including mobilizing the resources to support these efforts; and (3) support the nation's energy infrastructure. This plan supports Continuity of Operations for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This plan issues LANL policy as directed by the DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, and provides direction for the orderly continuation of LANL EFs for 30 days of closure or 60 days for a pandemic/epidemic event. Initiation of COOP operations may be required to support an

  3. Business and Continuity of Operations

    PubMed Central

    Tosh, Pritish K.; Feldman, Henry; Christian, Michael D.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Rubinson, Lewis; Amundson, Dennis; Anderson, Michael R.; Balk, Robert; Barfield, Wanda D.; Bartz, Martha; Benditt, Josh; Beninati, William; Berkowitz, Kenneth A.; Daugherty Biddison, Lee; Braner, Dana; Branson, Richard D; Burkle, Frederick M.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Carr, Brendan G.; Courtney, Brooke; DeDecker, Lisa D.; De Jong, Marla J.; Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Dries, David; Einav, Sharon; Erstad, Brian L.; Etienne, Mill; Fagbuyi, Daniel B.; Fang, Ray; Feldman, Henry; Garzon, Hernando; Geiling, James; Gomersall, Charles D.; Grissom, Colin K.; Hanfling, Dan; Hick, John L.; Hodge, James G.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Ingbar, David; Kanter, Robert K.; King, Mary A.; Kuhnley, Robert N.; Lawler, James; Leung, Sharon; Levy, Deborah A.; Lim, Matthew L.; Livinski, Alicia; Luyckx, Valerie; Marcozzi, David; Medina, Justine; Miramontes, David A.; Mutter, Ryan; Niven, Alexander S.; Penn, Matthew S.; Pepe, Paul E.; Powell, Tia; Prezant, David; Reed, Mary Jane; Rich, Preston; Rodriquez, Dario; Roxland, Beth E.; Sarani, Babak; Shah, Umair A.; Skippen, Peter; Sprung, Charles L.; Subbarao, Italo; Talmor, Daniel; Toner, Eric S.; Tosh, Pritish K.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Weireter, Leonard J.; West, T. Eoin; Wilgis, John; Ornelas, Joe; McBride, Deborah; Reid, David; Baez, Amado; Baldisseri, Marie; Blumenstock, James S.; Cooper, Art; Ellender, Tim; Helminiak, Clare; Jimenez, Edgar; Krug, Steve; Lamana, Joe; Masur, Henry; Mathivha, L. Rudo; Osterholm, Michael T.; Reynolds, H. Neal; Sandrock, Christian; Sprecher, Armand; Tillyard, Andrew; White, Douglas; Wise, Robert; Yeskey, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During disasters, supply chain vulnerabilities, such as power, transportation, and communication, may affect the delivery of medications and medical supplies and hamper the ability to deliver critical care services. Disasters also have the potential to disrupt information technology (IT) in health-care systems, resulting in interruptions in patient care, particularly critical care, and other health-care business functions. The suggestions in this article are important for all of those involved in a large-scale pandemic or disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS: The Business and Continuity of Operations Panel followed the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Guidelines Oversight Committee’s methodology in developing key questions regarding medication and supply shortages and the impact disasters may have on healthcare IT. Task force members met in person to develop the 13 key questions believed to be most relevant for Business and Continuity of Operations. A systematic literature review was then performed for relevant articles and documents, reports, and gray literature reported since 2007. No studies of sufficient quality were identified upon which to make evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. RESULTS: Eighteen suggestions addressing mitigation strategies for supply chain vulnerabilities including medications and IT were generated. Suggestions offered to hospitals and health system leadership regarding medication and supply shortages include: (1) purchase key medications and supplies from more than one supplier, (2) substituted medications or supplies should ideally be similar to those already used by an institution’s providers, (3) inventories should be tracked electronically to monitor medication/supply levels, (4) consider

  4. Drilling tools for continuous offshore operations

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfgat, M.Y.; Surkov, D.V.; Buyanovsky, I.N.

    1995-12-31

    Offshore drilling tools are still the object of improvement aimed in achieving maximum production or scientific effect of minimum costs. One of perspective ways of improving offshore scientific drilling indices is utilization of drilling systems which provide continuous hole penetration without pulling out the drill string aboard of drill vessel for bit replacement. The report presents specific features of the drilling tools supplying Complete Coring System (CCS) operations. CCS can provide continuous coring and drilling as well as logging in any geological profiles from the soft to very hard formations. One of the basic principles in coring is slimhole pilot drilling, thus giving many advantages. Development of drilling tools for CCS is based upon vast experience in designing drilling tools, including the retractable bits. In perspective CCS can be applied in stratigraphic and scientific drilling in deep water, especially in complicated geological conditions.

  5. Intermittent versus continuous operation of biosand filters.

    PubMed

    Young-Rojanschi, Candice; Madramootoo, Chandra

    2014-02-01

    The biosand filter is a household-scale point-of-use water filtration system based on slow sand filtration, but modified for intermittent operation. Studies on slow sand filters show that intermittent operation reduces filter effectiveness. However, continuous versus intermittent operation of biosand filters has never been compared. Eight 10-cm diameter columns were constructed to represent field biosand filters. Five were operated intermittently with a 24-h residence period, while the remaining three were operated continuously. Continuous operation of the filters resulted in significantly better reduction of Escherichia coli (3.71 log10 versus 1.67 log10), bacteriophage MS2 (2.25 log10 versus 0.85 log10), and turbidity (96% versus 87%). Dissolved oxygen levels at 5 and 10 cm of media depth in intermittent filters reached an average of 0 mg/L by 24 h of residence time on day 60 of the experiment. A simple numerical model was developed to describe E. coli removal during ripening from days 0-58 for continuously operated versus intermittent filters. This research confirms that although biosand filters were developed for intermittent operation, the filters perform significantly better when operated continuously. However, both operational modes resulted in a significant reduction of microbial indicators.

  6. The GMES Land Monitoring Service: achievements and continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, R. N.; Balsamo, G.; Baret, F.; Calvet, J.; Camacho, F.; d'Andrimont, R.; Coelho y Freitas, S.; Kidd, R.; Pacholczyk, P.; Polivé, H.; Smets, B.; Tansey, K.

    2012-12-01

    The GMES Land Monitoring service provides detailed information for land monitoring at regional, national, European and global levels, including seasonal and annual changes of variables such as vegetation state or the water cycle (http://www.gmes-geoland.info). The service has a wide range of applications such as the management of forests, of water and natural resources, agriculture, and food availability in developing countries. It also helps to analyze the terrestrial carbon cycle and contribute to an even better understanding of climate change. The demonstration of the GMES Land Monitoring service is made in the framework of the FP7/geoland2 project which supplies the community with basic and advanced thematic products. In particular, it provides long time series of biophysical variables derived from medium and low resolution sensor data, covering the Europe and the whole globe which are freely available on the geoland2 portal (http://www.geoland2.eu). Beyond 2013 and for four years duration, the production of the global land service will continue in the framework of GMES Initial Operations with a specific focus on a series of biogeophysical products describing the status and the changes of land surface at global scale at one kilometer resolution. In view of service continuity, the existing retrieval methodologies will be adapted to new input data sets (e.g. Proba-V and Sentinel-3) that could be used in replacement of current sensors which reach the end of their service-lifetime. In parallel, some research and development activities, necessary to support the operations and their move to finer resolution, will be performed in the FP7/ImagineS project, starting in November 2012 for 40 months, which aims at providing some Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables (LAI, FAPAR, Surface albedo) by merging the information coming from different Sentinel sensors and other GMES contributing missions. The final objective is to develop qualified software able to process multi

  7. 77 FR 43488 - Continuity of Operations Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 376 Continuity of Operations Plan AGENCY: Federal Energy... rule allows for greater discretion regarding: the activation and deactivation of the Continuity...

  8. Achieving Operability via the Mission System Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Fred J.; Kahr, Joseph R.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, flight and ground systems have been developed largely-independently, with the flight system taking the lead, and dominating the development process. Operability issues have been addressed poorly in planning, requirements, design, I&T, and system-contracting activities. In many cases, as documented in lessons-learned, this has resulted in significant avoidable increases in cost and risk. With complex missions and systems, operability is being recognized as an important end-to-end design issue. Never-the-less, lessons-learned and operability concepts remain, in many cases, poorly understood and sporadically applied. A key to effective application of operability concepts is adopting a 'mission system' paradigm. In this paradigm, flight and ground systems are treated, from an engineering and management perspective, as inter-related elements of a larger mission system. The mission system consists of flight hardware, flight software, telecom services, ground data system, testbeds, flight teams, science teams, flight operations processes, procedures, and facilities. The system is designed in functional layers, which span flight and ground. It is designed in response to project-level requirements, mission design and an operations concept, and is developed incrementally, with early and frequent integration of flight and ground components.

  9. Challenges in Achieving Trajectory-Based Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cate, Karen Tung

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years much of the global ATM research community has proposed advanced systems based on Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO). The concept of TBO uses four-dimensional aircraft trajectories as the base information for managing safety and capacity. Both the US and European advanced ATM programs call for the sharing of trajectory data across different decision support tools for successful operations. However, the actual integration of TBO systems presents many challenges. Trajectory predictors are built to meet the specific needs of a particular system and are not always compatible with others. Two case studies are presented which examine the challenges of introducing a new concept into two legacy systems in regards to their trajectory prediction software. The first case describes the issues with integrating a new decision support tool with a legacy operational system which overlap in domain space. These tools perform similar functions but are driven by different requirements. The difference in the resulting trajectories can lead to conflicting advisories. The second case looks at integrating this same new tool with a legacy system originally developed as an integrated system, but diverged many years ago. Both cases illustrate how the lack of common architecture concepts for the trajectory predictors added cost and complexity to the integration efforts.

  10. Achieving Operational Hydrologic Monitoring of Mosquitoborne Disease

    PubMed Central

    Day, Jonathan F.

    2005-01-01

    Mosquitoes and mosquitoborne disease transmission are sensitive to hydrologic variability. If local hydrologic conditions can be monitored or modeled at the scales at which these conditions affect the population dynamics of vector mosquitoes and the diseases they transmit, a means for monitoring or modeling mosquito populations and mosquitoborne disease transmission may be realized. We review how hydrologic conditions have been associated with mosquito abundances and mosquitoborne disease transmission and discuss the advantages of different measures of hydrologic variability. We propose that the useful application of any measure of hydrologic conditions requires additional consideration of the scales for both the hydrologic measurement and the vector control interventions that will be used to mitigate an outbreak of vectorborne disease. Our efforts to establish operational monitoring of St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus transmission in Florida are also reviewed. PMID:16229760

  11. Continuous Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. A. Bruyere

    2008-09-01

    Continuous air monitors (CAMs) are used to sense radioactive particulates in room air of nuclear facilities. CAMs alert personnel of potential inhalation exposures to radionuclides and can also actuate room ventilation isolation for public and environmental protection. This paper presents the results of a CAM operating experience review of the DOE Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly reviewed. CAM location selection and operation are briefly discussed. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. Department of Energy and in other literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Power losses, human errors, and mechanical issues cause the majority of failures. The average “all modes” failure rate is 2.65E-05/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 9 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 252 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of CAMs in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER experiment.

  12. Continuity of computer-aided drafting operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, L.D.

    1987-09-01

    The operating performance, operating procedures, and equipment added are discussed for the Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) operation at UNC Nuclear Industries before consolidation of operating contracts at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities located at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington.

  13. Sustaining Continued Acceleration in Reading Comprehension Achievement Following an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Mei Kuin; McNaughton, Stuart; Timperley, Helen; Hsiao, Selena

    2009-01-01

    Schooling improvement initiatives have demonstrated that moderate but significant achievement gains are possible with well designed interventions, but there is little research into whether these gains can be sustained. The present study examines the extent to which acceleration in achievement made during a three-year literacy intervention and the…

  14. Science Achievement, Class Size, and Demographics: The Debate Continues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Whitehead, Marie

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship between school system financial and demographic data and student achievement in the science section of the 1998 Tennessee statewide Terra Nova tests. Results indicate that while many schools had science scale score achievement higher than expected based on system demographics, others should examine a variety of…

  15. Improving Literacy Achievement: An Effective Approach to Continuous Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Carolyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Billions of dollars are spent searching for programs and strategic plans that will prove to be the panacea for improving literacy achievement. With all of the experimental and researched programs implemented in school districts, the overall results are still at a minimum and many improvement gains have been short term. This book focuses on…

  16. On Lipschitz continuity of nonlinear differential operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    1987-01-01

    In connection with approximations for nonlinear evolution equations, it is standard to assume that nonlinear terms are at least locally Lipschitz continuous. However, it is shown here that f = f(X,del sub u(X)) is Lipschitz continuous from the subspace W sup 1, infinity is a subset of L sub 2 into W sup 1,2, and maps W sup 2, infinity into W sup 1, infinity, if and only if f is affine with W sup 1, infinity coefficients. In fact, a local version of this claim is proved.

  17. Continuous tokamak operation with an internal transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, C.E.; Mikkelsen, D.R.

    1982-10-01

    A large improvement in efficiency of current drive in a tokamak can be obtained using neutral beam injection to drive the current in a plasma which has low density and high resistivity. The current established under such conditions acts as the primary of a transformer to drive current in an ignited high-density plasma. In the context of a model of plasma confinement and fusion reactor costs, it is shown that such transformer action has substantial advantages over strict steady-state current drive. It is also shown that cycling plasma density and fusion power is essential for effective operation of an internal transformer cycle. Fusion power loading must be periodically reduced for intervals whose duration is comparable to the maximum of the particle confinement and thermal inertia timescales for plasma fueling and heating. The design of neutron absorption blankets which can tolerate reduced power loading for such short intervals is identified as a critical problem in the design of fusion power reactors.

  18. 43 CFR 3483.1 - Diligent development and continued operation requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diligent development and continued... AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.1 Diligent development and continued..., each Federal coal lease and LMU is required to achieve diligent development. (2) Once the...

  19. Operations Expenditures: Historical Trends and Continuing Challenges (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.

    2013-05-01

    In this presentation for the American Wind Energy Association 2013 conference, NREL's Eric Lantz examines historical trends and continuing challenges of wind power operating expenses. Lowering such expenses could increase profitability and contribute to lowering the cost of energy.

  20. 43 CFR 3483.3 - Suspension of continued operation or operations and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operations and production. 3483.3 Section 3483.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION... operations and production. (a) Applications for suspensions of continued operation must be filed...

  1. 43 CFR 3483.3 - Suspension of continued operation or operations and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operations and production. 3483.3 Section 3483.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION... operations and production. (a) Applications for suspensions of continued operation must be filed...

  2. 43 CFR 3483.3 - Suspension of continued operation or operations and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operations and production. 3483.3 Section 3483.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION... operations and production. (a) Applications for suspensions of continued operation must be filed...

  3. 43 CFR 3483.3 - Suspension of continued operation or operations and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suspension of continued operation or operations and production. 3483.3 Section 3483.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS...

  4. Recent scientific and operational achievements of D/V Chikyu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Asahiko; Toczko, Sean; Eguchi, Nobu; Kuramoto, Shin'ichi; Kubo, Yusuke; Azuma, Wataru

    2014-12-01

    The D/V Chikyu, a scientific drilling vessel, is equipped with industry-standard riser capabilities. Riser drilling technology enables remarkable drilling and downhole logging capabilities and provides unprecedented hole-stability, enabling the shipboard team to retrieve high-quality wire-line logging data as well as well-preserved core samples. The 11 March 2011 Tohoku Oki mega-earthquake and tsunami cost over 18,000 casualties in NE Japan. Chikyu, docked in the Port of Hachinohe, was damaged by the tsunami. By April 2012, the ship was back in operation; drilling the toe of the Japan Trench fault zone where topographic surveys suggested there was up to 50 m eastward motion, the largest earthquake rupture ever recorded. During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 343 and 343 T, Chikyu drilled 850 m below sea floor (mbsf) in 6,900+ m water depth and recovered core samples of a highly brecciated shear zone composed of pelagic claystone. A subseafloor observatory looking for temperature signatures caused by the fault friction during the earthquake, was installed and later successfully recovered. The recovered temperature loggers recorded data from which the level of friction during the mega-earthquake slip could be determined. Following Exp. 343, Chikyu began IODP Exp. 337, a riser drilling expedition into the Shimokita coal beds off Hachinohe, to study the deep subsurface biosphere in sedimentary units including Paleogene-Neogene coal beds. New records in scientific ocean drilling were achieved in deepest penetration (drilling reached 2,466 mbsf) and sample recovery. Currently Chikyu is conducting deep riser drilling at the Nankai Trough in the final stage of the NanTroSEIZE campaign. During the years 2011 to 2013, including drilling in the Okinawa Hydrothermal System, Chikyu's operational and scientific achievements have demonstrated that the ship's capabilities are vital for opening new frontiers in earth and biological sciences.

  5. Construct Validity of the Computerized Continuous Performance Test with Measures of Intelligence, Achievement, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janice Whitten; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Administered Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and reading comprehension subtest of Peabody Individual Achievement Test to 54 school-aged children and adolescents referred for evaluation of learning disabilities. Parents…

  6. A Multiple Regression Analysis of Factors Concerning Superintendent Longevity and Continuity Relative to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotts, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between the length of superintendent tenure, longevity, and continuity relative to student achievement as evidenced by the 2008-2009 3rd Grade New Jersey Assessment of Skills and Knowledge (NJASK) in language arts. Achievement in the study was defined as those students who…

  7. Stokes-operator-squeezed continuous-variable polarization states

    SciTech Connect

    Schnabel, Roman; Bowen, Warwick P.; Treps, Nicolas; Bachor, Hans-A.; Lam, Ping Koy; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate nonclassical Stokes-operator variances in continuous-wave polarization-squeezed laser light generated from one and two optical parametric amplifiers. A general expression of how Stokes-operator variances decompose into two-mode quadrature operator variances is given. Stokes parameter variance spectra for four different polarization-squeezed states have been measured and compared with a coherent state. Our measurement results are visualized by three-dimensional Stokes-operator noise volumes mapped on the quantum Poincare sphere. We quantitatively compare the channel capacity of the different continuous-variable polarization states for communication protocols. It is shown that squeezed polarization states provide 33% higher channel capacities than the optimum coherent beam protocol.

  8. Justification for Continued Operation for Tank 241-Z-361

    SciTech Connect

    BOGEN, D.M.

    1999-09-01

    This justification for continued operations (JCO) summarizes analyses performed to better understand and control the potential hazards associated with Tank 241-2-361. This revision to the JCO has been prepared to identify and control the hazards associated with sampling the tank using techniques developed and approved for use in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at Hanford.

  9. Continuous-mode operation of a noiseless linear amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Carvalho, André R. R.; James, Matthew R.

    2016-05-01

    We develop a dynamical model to describe the operation of the nondeterministic noiseless linear amplifier (NLA) in the regime of continuous-mode inputs. We analyze the dynamics conditioned on the detection of photons and show that the amplification gain depends on detection times and on the temporal profile of the input state and the auxiliary single-photon state required by the NLA. We also show that the output amplified state inherits the pulse shape of the ancilla photon.

  10. On the Absolutely Continuous Spectrum of Stark Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelman, Galina

    The stability of the absolutely continuous spectrum of the one-dimensional Stark operator under perturbations of the potential is discussed. The focus is on proving this stability under minimal assumptions on smoothness of the perturbation. A general criterion is presented together with some applications. These include the case of periodic perturbations where we show that any perturbation vL1()∩H-1/2() preserves the a.c. spectrum.

  11. The Influence of Motivational Orientations on Academic Achievement among Working Adults in Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-Ling; Pang, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of five motivational orientations in continuing education among working adults. The influence of motivational orientations on their academic achievement was identified. The study involved 159 working adults who enrolled into part-time programs in an Open University in Sabah. Boshier's Education Participation Scale…

  12. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Knight, Edward J.; Canova, Brent; Donley, Eric; Kvaran, Geri; Lee, Kenton; Barsi, Julia A.; Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is being developed by NASA and USGS and is currently planned for launch in January 2013 [1]. Once on-orbit and checked out, it will be operated by USGS and officially named Landsat-8. Two sensors will be on LDCM: the Operational Land Imager (OLI), which has been built and delivered by Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp (BATC) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS)[2], currently being built and tested at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with a planned delivery of Winter 2012. The OLI covers the Visible, Near-IR (NIR) and Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) parts of the spectrum; TIRS covers the Thermal Infrared (TIR). This paper discusses only the OLI instrument and its pre-launch characterization; a companion paper covers TIRS.

  13. Inspiration, Perspiration, and Time: Operations and Achievement in Edison Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Brian P.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Lockwood, J. R.; Marsh, Julie A.; Zimmer, Ron W.; Hill, Deanna; Pribesh, Shana

    2005-01-01

    New forms of governing and managing public schools have proliferated in recent years, spawning the establishment and growth of companies that operate public schools under contract. Among these education management organizations, or EMOs, the largest and most visible is Edison Schools, Inc., with a nationwide network in 2004-2005 of 103 managed…

  14. Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INL’s primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

  15. Continued cost justification of an operating room satellite pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Fiala, D; Grady, K P; Smigla, R

    1993-03-01

    Cost justification for the establishment and continued operation of an operating room satellite pharmacy is described. Establishment of an operating room satellite pharmacy can be justified based on the need to recover lost revenue, regulate controlled substances, monitor inventory, and enhance communication between operating room personnel and the department of pharmacy. At a 510-bed community hospital, an internal audit performed before the satellite pharmacy was opened revealed an average loss of $14.53 in drug charges per surgical procedure; 16 months after the pharmacy opened, changes in the way drugs are distributed to the departments of surgery and anesthesia has resulted in a decrease in this loss to $9.61, or a 34% improvement. To regulate controlled substances, the pharmacy attaches a drug-use log to each dispensing kit, which has resulted in 98% agreement between recorded administration of controlled substances and actual amounts signed out and ultimately returned. Recommendations made by the department of pharmacy regarding the use of high-cost drugs during surgery has resulted in an annual savings of more than $100,000, and improvements in drug packaging reduced, and in some cases eliminated, wastage. Direct contact between operating room personnel and pharmacists has fostered discussions regarding cost-effective application of pharmacotherapy, and the potential for cost savings is substantial. Although the remaining loss of $9.61 per case must still be addressed, considerable progress has been made in a relatively short period of time. The satellite pharmacy in the operating room has led to increased revenue recovery, improved regulation of controlled substances and monitoring of drug inventory, and better communication among the involved personnel.

  16. Perspex machine III: continuity over the Turing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2005-01-01

    The perspex machine is a continuous machine that performs perspective transformations. It is a super-Turing machine that contains the Turing machine at discrete locations in perspex space. We show that perspex spaces can be constructed so that all of the operations in a Turing program lie in a continuum of similar operations in the space, except for the Turing halt which is always a discontinuous operation. We then show how to convolve a Turing program to produce an isolinear program that it is robust to missing instructions and degrades gracefully when started incorrectly, sometimes even recovering in performance. We hypothesize that animal brains are similarly robust and graceful because animal neurons share the geometrical properties of the perspex machine. Furthermore, convolution of Turing programs makes possible the band-pass filtering and reconstruction of programs. Global processing can then be obtained by executing the broad bands before the finer ones. Hence, any existing computer program can be compiled on a perspex machine to make it global in operation, robust to damage, and degrade gracefully in the presence of error. The three "Holy Grails" of AI -- globality, robustness, and graceful degradation -- can be supplied by a compiler. They do not require specific programming in individual cases because they are geometrical properties of the perspex machine.

  17. Perspex machine III: continuity over the Turing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2004-12-01

    The perspex machine is a continuous machine that performs perspective transformations. It is a super-Turing machine that contains the Turing machine at discrete locations in perspex space. We show that perspex spaces can be constructed so that all of the operations in a Turing program lie in a continuum of similar operations in the space, except for the Turing halt which is always a discontinuous operation. We then show how to convolve a Turing program to produce an isolinear program that it is robust to missing instructions and degrades gracefully when started incorrectly, sometimes even recovering in performance. We hypothesize that animal brains are similarly robust and graceful because animal neurons share the geometrical properties of the perspex machine. Furthermore, convolution of Turing programs makes possible the band-pass filtering and reconstruction of programs. Global processing can then be obtained by executing the broad bands before the finer ones. Hence, any existing computer program can be compiled on a perspex machine to make it global in operation, robust to damage, and degrade gracefully in the presence of error. The three "Holy Grails" of AI -- globality, robustness, and graceful degradation -- can be supplied by a compiler. They do not require specific programming in individual cases because they are geometrical properties of the perspex machine.

  18. Improving teleportation of continuous variables by local operations

    SciTech Connect

    Mista, Ladislav Jr.; Filip, Radim

    2005-03-01

    We study a continuous-variable (CV) teleportation protocol based on a shared entangled state produced by the quantum-nondemolition (QND) interaction of two vacuum states. The scheme utilizes the QND interaction or an unbalanced beam splitter in the Bell measurement. It is shown that in the nonunity gain regime the signal transfer coefficient can be enhanced while the conditional variance product remains preserved by applying appropriate local squeezing operation on sender's part of the shared entangled state. In the unity gain regime, it is demonstrated that the fidelity of teleportation can be increased with the help of the local squeezing operations on parts of the shared entangled state that effectively convert our scheme to the standard CV teleportation scheme. Further, it is proved analytically that such a choice of the local symplectic operations minimizes the noise by which the mean number of photons in the input state is increased during the teleportation. Finally, our analysis reveals that the local symplectic operation on sender's side can be integrated into the Bell measurement if the interaction constant of the interaction in the Bell measurement can be adjusted properly.

  19. Current Status of Continued Operation for Kori unit 1 beyond Design Life

    SciTech Connect

    Tai-hyun Kim; Pan-sool Kim; Yeon-sang Yu

    2006-07-01

    Since the commercial operation of Kori Nuclear Power Plant unit 1 in April 1978, Korea has achieved rapid growth in its nuclear industry, and now has 20 operating nuclear power plants. As the design life of Kori unit 1 comes to an end, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.(KHNP) is preparing for the continued operation of the plant for the first time in Korea. The feasibility of continued operation beyond design life has been already proven in many countries. Developed countries, such as the USA, England, Japan and so on, are also proceeding with the continued operation of NPPs whose design life or license is due to expire, as long as the adequate safety and aging management review meet the acceptance criteria. Continued operation is absolutely needed for countries lacking in natural resources, such as Korea, in view of the efficient utilization of energy resources and reduction of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}) emission. For the continued operation beyond design life (30 yrs) of Kori unit 1, KHNP has performed Lifetime Management (PLiM) study, Periodic Safety Review (PSR), Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and Environmental Qualification (EQ), etc. and replaced main equipment, such as Steam Generators, Low Pressure Turbine Rotor, RCP Internals, Main Transformer, Main Generator, and so on. In September 2005, The Regulation of Atomic Energy Act in Korea was revised and published referring to License Renewal Rule of the USA. According to the revised regulations, KHNP is performing Life Assessment for Main Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) and Radiological Impacts on the Environment with PSR for continued operation. (authors)

  20. Osmotic membrane bioreactor for phenol biodegradation under continuous operation.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee

    2016-03-15

    Continuous phenol biodegradation was accomplished in a two-phase partitioning osmotic membrane bioreactor (TPPOMBR) system, using extractant impregnated membranes (EIM) as the partitioning phase. The EIMs alleviated substrate inhibition during prolonged operation at influent phenol concentrations of 600-2000mg/L, and also at spiked concentrations of 2500mg/L phenol restricted to 2 days. Filtration of the effluent through forward osmosis maintained high biomass concentration in the bioreactor and improved effluent quality. Steady state was reached in 5-6 days at removal rates varying between 2000 and 5500mg/L-day under various conditions. Due to biofouling and salt accumulation, the permeate flux varied from 1.2-7.2 LMH during 54 days of operation, while maintaining an average hydraulic retention time of 7.4h. A washing cycle, comprising 1h osmotic backwashing using 0.5M NaCl and 2h washing with water, facilitated biofilm removal from the membranes. Characterization of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) through FTIR showed peaks between 1700 and 1500cm(-1), 1450-1450cm(-1) and 1200-1000cm(-1), indicating the presence of proteins, phenols and polysaccharides, respectively. The carbohydrate to protein ratio in the EPS was estimated to be 0.3. These results indicate that TPPOMBR can be promising in continuous treatment of phenolic wastewater.

  1. PLATEAUING COSMIC RAY DETECTORS TO ACHIEVE OPTIMUM OPERATING VOLTAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Knoff, E.N.; Peterson, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Through QuarkNet, students across the country have access to cosmic ray detectors in their high school classrooms. These detectors operate using a scintillator material and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). A data acquisition (DAQ) board counts cosmic ray hits from the counters. Through an online e-Lab, students can analyze and share their data. In order to collect viable data, the PMTs should operate at their plateau voltages. In these plateau ranges, the number of counts per minute remains relatively constant with small changes in PMT voltage. We sought to plateau the counters in the test array and to clarify the plateauing procedure itself. In order to most effectively plateau the counters, the counters should be stacked and programmed to record the number of coincident hits as well as their singles rates. We also changed the threshold value that a signal must exceed in order to record a hit and replateaued the counters. For counter 1, counter 2, and counter 3, we found plateau voltages around 1V. The singles rate plateau was very small, while the coincidence plateau was very long. The plateau voltages corresponded to a singles rate of 700–850 counts per minute. We found very little effect of changing the threshold voltages. Our chosen plateau voltages produced good performance studies on the e-Lab. Keeping in mind the nature of the experiments conducted by the high school students, we recommend a streamlined plateauing process. Because changing the threshold did not drastically affect the plateau voltage or the performance study, students should choose a threshold value, construct plateau graphs, and analyze their data using a performance study. Even if the counters operate slightly off their plateau voltage, they should deliver good performance studies and return reliable results.

  2. Six Years Into Its Mission, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory Continues to Achieve Scientific Firsts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-08-01

    In August 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened for business. Six years later, it continues to achieve scientific firsts. "When Chandra opened its sunshade doors for the first time, it opened the possibility of studying the X-ray emission of the universe with unprecedented clarity," said Chandra project scientist Dr. Martin Weisskopf of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "Already surpassing its goal of a five-year life, Chandra continues to rewrite textbooks with discoveries about our own solar system and images of celestial objects as far as billions of light years away." Based on the observatory's outstanding results, NASA Headquarters in Washington decided in 2001 to extend Chandra s mission from five years to ten. During the observatory s sixth year of operation, auroras from Jupiter, X-rays from Saturn, and the early days of our solar system were the focus of Chandra discoveries close to home -- discoveries with the potential to better understand the dynamics of life on Earth. Jupiter's auroras are the most spectacular and active auroras in the solar system. Extended Chandra observations revealed that Jupiter s auroral X-rays are caused by highly charged particles crashing into the atmosphere above Jupiter's poles. These results gave scientists information needed to compare Jupiter's auroras with those from Earth, and determine if they are triggered by different cosmic and planetary events. Mysterious X-rays from Saturn also received attention, as Chandra completed the first observation of a solar X-ray flare reflected from Saturn's low-latitudes, the region that correlates to Earth's equator and tropics. This observation led scientists to conclude the ringed planet may act as a mirror, reflecting explosive activity from the sun. Solar-storm watchers on Earth might see a surprising benefit. The results imply scientists could use giant planets like Saturn as remote-sensing tools to help monitor X-ray flaring on portions of the sun

  3. Achieving cost reductions in EOSDIS operations through technology evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsome, Penny; Moe, Karen; Harberts, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The earth observing system (EOS) data information system (EOSDIS) mission includes the cost-effective management and distribution of large amounts of data to the earth science community. The effect of the introduction of new information system technologies on the evolution of EOSDIS is considered. One of the steps taken by NASA to enable the introduction of new information system technologies into the EOSDIS is the funding of technology development through prototyping. Recent and ongoing prototyping efforts and their potential impact on the performance and cost-effectiveness of the EOSDIS are discussed. The technology evolution process as it related to the effective operation of EOSDIS is described, and methods are identified for the support of the transfer of relevant technology to EOSDIS components.

  4. High power continuous operation of a widely tunable quantum cascade laser with an integrated amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Slivken, S.; Sengupta, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2015-12-21

    Wide electrical tuning and high continuous output power is demonstrated from a single mode quantum cascade laser emitting at a wavelength near 4.8 μm. This is achieved in a space efficient manner by integrating an asymmetric sampled grating distributed feedback tunable laser with an optical amplifier. An initial demonstration of high peak power operation in pulsed mode is demonstrated first, with >5 W output over a 270 nm (113 cm{sup −1}) spectral range. Refinement of the geometry leads to continuous operation with a single mode spectral coverage of 300 nm (120 cm{sup −1}) and a maximum continuous power of 1.25 W. The output beam is shown to be nearly diffraction-limited, even at high amplifier current.

  5. Cryogenic wind tunnels: Problems of continuous operation at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    The design of a cryogenic wind tunnel which operates continuously, and is capable of attaining transonic speeds at generating pressures of about 3 bars is described. Its stainless steel construction with inside insulation allows for very rapid temperature variations promoted by rapid changes in the liquid nitrogen flow. A comparative study of temperature measuring probes shows a good reliability of thin sheet thermocouples. To measure fluctuations, only a cold wire makes it possible to record frequencies of about 300 Hz. The use of an integral computer method makes it possible to determine the impact of the wall temperature ratio to the adiabatic wall temperature for the various parameters characterizing the boundary layer. These cases are processed with positive and negative pressure gradients.

  6. Maintaining continuity of clinical operations while implementing large-scale filmless operations.

    PubMed

    Honea, R; Mensch, B

    1999-05-01

    Texas Children's Hospital is a pediatric tertiary care facility in the Texas Medical Center with a large-scale, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-compliant picture archival and communications system (PACS) installation. As our PACS has grown from an ultrasound niche PACS into a full-scale, multimodality operation, assuring continuity of clinical operations has become the number one task of the PACS staff. As new equipment is acquired and incorporated into the PACS, workflow processes, responsibilities, and job descriptions must be revised to accommodate filmless operations. Round-the-clock clinical operations must be supported with round-the-clock service, including three shifts, weekends, and holidays. To avoid unnecessary interruptions in clinical service, this requirement includes properly trained operators and users, as well as service personnel. Redundancy is a cornerstone in assuring continuity of clinical operations. This includes all PACS components such as acquisition, network interfaces, gateways, archive, and display. Where redundancy is not feasible, spare parts must be readily available. The need for redundancy also includes trained personnel. Procedures for contingency operations in the event of equipment failures must be devised, documented, and rehearsed. Contingency operations might be required in the event of scheduled as well as unscheduled service events, power outages, network outages, or interruption of the radiology information system (RIS) interface. Methods must be developed and implemented for reporting and documenting problems. We have a Trouble Call service that records a voice message and automatically pages the PACS Console Operator on duty. We also have developed a Maintenance Module on our RIS system where service calls are recorded by technologists and service actions are recorded and monitored by PACS support personnel. In a filmless environment, responsibility for the delivery of images to the radiologist and

  7. A continuous membrane bioreactor for ester synthesis in organic media: II. Modeling Of MBR continuous operation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, C M; Aires-Barros, M R; Cabral, J M

    2001-01-20

    A model was developed to describe the conversion degree in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the synthesis of short-chain esters as a function of the flow rate. The transesterification reaction was catalyzed by a recombinant cutinase of Fusarium solani pisi microencapsulated in reversed micelles of AOT/isooctane. The differences of product concentration in permeate and retentate together with the deactivation profiles led to an enzyme distribution evaluation that describes the experimental values attained. The model considers the bioreactor design as well as its hydrodynamics and the enzyme kinetics. The approach included the analysis of the MBR operation as a CSTR, a PFR, and a series of continuous reactors. The comparative efficiency of these reactor types is discussed. The enzyme distribution was estimated for all the cases. The best description was obtained considering a series of two CSTRs. The modeling results led to a re-evaluation of cutinase operational stability. Deactivation rates correlated very well with the hydrodynamic aspects of biocatalyst location.

  8. Continuous operation of a monolithic semiconductor terahertz source at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Q. Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Slivken, S.; Bai, Y.; Razeghi, M.

    2014-06-02

    We demonstrate room temperature continuous wave THz sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers. Buried ridge, buried composite distributed-feedback waveguide with Čerenkov phase-matching scheme is used to reduce the waveguide loss and enhance the heat dissipation for continuous wave operation. Continuous emission at 3.6 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio of 20 dB and output power up to 3 μW are achieved, respectively. THz peak power is further scaled up to 1.4 mW in pulsed mode by increasing the mid-infrared power through increasing the active region doping and device area.

  9. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager: Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Dabney, Philip; Pedelty, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is one of two instruments to fly on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), which is scheduled to launch in December 2012 to become the 8th in the series of Landsat satellites. The OLI images in the solar reflective part of the spectrum, with bands similar to bands 1-5, 7 and the panchromatic band on the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument. In addition, it has a 20 nm bandpass spectral band at 443 nm for coastal and aerosol studies and a 30 nm band at 1375 nm to aid in cirrus cloud detection. Like ETM+, spatial resolution is 30 m in the all but the panchromatic band, which is 15 meters. OLI is a pushbroom radiometer with approximately 6000 detectors per 30 meter band as opposed to the 16 detectors per band on the whiskbroom ETM+. Data are quantized to 12 bits on OLI as opposed to 8 bits on ETM+ to take advantage of the improved signal to noise ratio provided by the pushbroom design. The saturation radiances are higher on OLI than ETM+ to effectively eliminate saturation issues over bright Earth targets. OLI includes dual solar diffusers for on-orbit absolute and relative (detector to detector) radiometric calibration. Additionally, OLI has 3 sets of on-board lamps that illuminate the OLI focal plane through the full optical system, providing additional checks on the OLI's response[l]. OLI has been designed and built by Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. (BATC) and is currently undergoing testing and calibration in preparation for delivery in Spring 2011. Final pre-launch performance results should be available in time for presentation at the conference. Preliminary results will be presented below. These results are based on the performance of the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) that was radiometrically tested at the integrated instrument level in 2010 and assembly level measurements made on the flight unit. Signal-to-Noise (SNR) performance: One of the advantages of a pushbroom system is the increased dwell time of the detectors

  10. An operations concept methodology to achieve low-cost mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledbetter, Kenneth W.; Wall, Stephen D.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, the Mission Operations System (MOS) for a space mission has been designed last because it is needed last. This has usually meant that the ground system must adjust to the flight vehicle design, sometimes at a significant cost. As newer missions have increasingly longer flight operations lifetimes, the MOS becomes proportionally more difficult and more resource-consuming. We can no longer afford to design the MOS last. The MOS concept may well drive the spacecraft, instrument, and mission designs, as well as the ground system. A method to help avoid these difficulties, responding to the changing nature of mission operations is presented. Proper development and use of an Operations Concept document results in a combined flight and ground system design yielding enhanced operability and producing increased flexibility for less cost.

  11. Understanding the Elements of Operational Reliability: A Key for Achieving High Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews operational reliability and its role in achieving high reliability through design and process reliability. The topics include: 1) Reliability Engineering Major Areas and interfaces; 2) Design Reliability; 3) Process Reliability; and 4) Reliability Applications.

  12. High power and high temperature continuous-wave operation of distributed Bragg reflector quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Feng Caneau, Catherine G.; LeBlanc, Herve P.; Ho, Ming-tsung; Wang, Jie; Chaparala, Satish; Hughes, Lawrence C.; Zah, Chung-en

    2014-02-17

    High temperature continuous-wave (CW) operation of a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) quantum cascade laser is demonstrated up to a heat sink temperature of 80 °C. A CW output power of 2 W and a single mode operation with side mode suppression ratio of 30 dB around wavelength of 4.48 μm were achieved at 20 °C. The maximum pulsed and CW wall-plug-efficiencies reached 14.7% and 10.3% at 20 °C, respectively. A large tuning range of 5 cm{sup −1} between mode hopping was observed and attributed to the thermal cross-talk from the gain section to the DBR section.

  13. Room temperature continuous wave operation of InAs-based quantum cascade lasers at 15 µm.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Alexei N; Bahriz, Michael; Teissier, Roland

    2016-08-01

    We report low threshold InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting near 15 µm. The devices are based on a vertical design similar to those employed previously in far infrared InAs-based QCLs, whereas the doping level of the active core is considerably decreased. The lasers exhibit a threshold current density as low as 730 A/cm2 in pulsed mode at room temperature and can operate in this regime up to 410K. The continuous wave regime of operation has been achieved in these devices at temperatures up to 20°C. The cw regime is demonstrated for InAs-based QCLs for the first time at room temperature.

  14. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices - A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency Release 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-01

    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Best Practices Guide was developed under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The mission of FEMP is to facilitate the Federal Government’s implementation of sound, cost effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation’s energy security and environmental stewardship.

  15. On Volterra quadratic stochastic operators with continual state space

    SciTech Connect

    Ganikhodjaev, Nasir; Hamzah, Nur Zatul Akmar

    2015-05-15

    Let (X,F) be a measurable space, and S(X,F) be the set of all probability measures on (X,F) where X is a state space and F is σ - algebraon X. We consider a nonlinear transformation (quadratic stochastic operator) defined by (Vλ)(A) = ∫{sub X}∫{sub X}P(x,y,A)dλ(x)dλ(y), where P(x, y, A) is regarded as a function of two variables x and y with fixed A ∈ F . A quadratic stochastic operator V is called a regular, if for any initial measure the strong limit lim{sub n→∞} V{sup n }(λ) is exists. In this paper, we construct a family of quadratic stochastic operators defined on the segment X = [0,1] with Borel σ - algebra F on X , prove their regularity and show that the limit measure is a Dirac measure.

  16. Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van

    2011-12-15

    Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

  17. [Characteristics and operation of enhanced continuous bio-hydrogen production reactor using support carrier].

    PubMed

    Ren, Nan-qi; Tang, Jing; Gong, Man-li

    2006-06-01

    A kind of granular activated carbon, whose granular size is no more than 2mm and specific gravity is 1.54g/cm3, was used as the support carrier to allow retention of activated sludge within a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) using molasses wastewater as substrate for bio-hydrogen production. Continuous operation characteristics and operational controlling strategy of the enhanced continuous bio-hydrogen production system were investigated. It was indicated that, support carriers could expand the activity scope of hydrogen production bacteria, make the system fairly stable in response to organic load impact and low pH value (pH <3.8), and maintain high biomass concentration in the reactor at low HRT. The reactor with ethanol-type fermentation achieved an optimal hydrogen production rate of 0.37L/(g x d), while the pH value ranged from 3.8 to 4.4, and the hydrogen content was approximately 40% approximately 57% of biogas. It is effective to inhibit the methanogens by reducing the pH value of the bio-hydrogen production system, consequently accelerate the start-up of the reactor.

  18. Flow lasers. [fluid mechanics of high power continuous output operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, W. H.; Russell, D. A.; Hertzberg, A.

    1975-01-01

    The present work reviews the fluid-mechanical aspects of high-power continuous-wave (CW) lasers. The flow characteristics of these devices appear as classical fluid-mechanical phenomena recast in a complicated interactive environment. The fundamentals of high-power lasers are reviewed, followed by a discussion of the N2-CO2 gas dynamic laser. Next, the HF/DF supersonic diffusion laser is described, and finally the CO electrical-discharge laser is discussed.

  19. Operation Breakthrough for Continuous Self-Systems Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Given, Barbara K.

    1994-01-01

    Operation Breakthrough, in which graduate student interns teach life skills to adolescents with learning disabilities, provided an impetus for identifying a profile of learning and work habits necessary for production of an agile workforce. Agile learning for self-systems improvement calls for self-empowered learning, collaborative learning,…

  20. Achieving reliable operation of a PSG-5000 delivery-water heater's tube system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilenko, G. V.; Meshcheryakov, I. M.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze factors due to which damage occurred in the first period of operation in the 12Kh18N1 austenitic-steel tube system of the delivery-water heater used as part of a T-180/210-130 turbine unit operating in a couple with a high-pressure drum boiler. Technical solutions undertaken for achieving reliable operation of the heater are considered.

  1. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices - A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency (Release 3)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Greg; Pugh, Ray; Melendez, Aldo P.; Hunt, W. D.

    2010-08-04

    This guide highlights operations and maintenance programs targeting energy and water efficiency that are estimated to save 5% to 20% on energy bills without a significant capital investment. The purpose of this guide is to provide you, the Operations and Maintenance (O&M)/Energy manager and practitioner, with useful information about O&M management, technologies, energy and water efficiency, and cost-reduction approaches. To make this guide useful and to reflect your needs and concerns, the authors met with O&M and Energy managers via Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) workshops. In addition, the authors conducted extensive literature searches and contacted numerous vendors and industry experts. The information and case studies that appear in this guide resulted from these activities. It needs to be stated at the outset that this guide is designed to provide information on effective O&M as it applies to systems and equipment typically found at Federal facilities. This guide is not designed to provide the reader with step-by-step procedures for performing O&M on any specific piece of equipment. Rather, this guide first directs the user to the manufacturer's specifications and recommendations. In no way should the recommendations in this guide be used in place of manufacturer's recommendations. The recommendations in this guide are designed to supplement those of the manufacturer, or, as is all too often the case, provide guidance for systems and equipment for which all technical documentation has been lost. As a rule, this guide will first defer to the manufacturer's recommendations on equipment operation and maintenance.

  2. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Lllll of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits a 5 Table 5 to Subpart LLLLL of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National...

  3. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Lllll of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits a 5 Table 5 to Subpart LLLLL of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National...

  4. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Lllll of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits a 5 Table 5 to Subpart LLLLL of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National...

  5. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Yyyy of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limitations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... oxidation catalyst continuously monitoring the inlet temperature to the catalyst and maintaining the 4-hour.... without the use of an oxidation catalyst continuously monitoring the operating limitations that have...

  6. On the continuity of spectra for families of magnetic pseudodifferential operators

    SciTech Connect

    Athmouni, Nassim; Mantoiu, Marius; Purice, Radu

    2010-08-15

    For families of magnetic pseudodifferential operators defined by symbols and magnetic fields depending continuously on a real parameter {epsilon}, we show that the corresponding family of spectra also varies continuously with {epsilon}.

  7. Computer-aided monitoring and operation of continuous measuring devices.

    PubMed

    Rieger, L; Thomann, M; Joss, A; Gujer, W; Siegrist, H

    2004-01-01

    Extended studies of measuring and control systems in activated sludge plants at EAWAG revealed that the measuring devices remain the weakest point in control applications. To overcome this problem, a software package was developed which analyses and evaluates the residuals between a reference measurement and the sensor and collects the information in a database. The underlying monitoring concept is based on a two-step evaluation of the residuals by means of statistical evaluations using control charts with two different sets of criteria. The first step is a warning phase in which hints on probable errors trigger an increase in the monitoring frequency. In the second step, the alarm phase, the error hypothesis has to be validated and should allow immediate and targeted reactions from the operator. This procedure enables an optimized and flexible monitoring effort combined with an increased probability of early detection of systematic measuring errors. Beside the monitoring concept, information about the measuring device, the performed servicing actions and the responsibilities is stored. Statistical values for the quantitative characterization of the measuring system during operation will be given. They are needed to parameterise controllers or to guarantee the accuracy of the instrument in order to allow reliable calculations of effluent tax. In contrast to other concepts, not only is the measuring device examined under standard conditions, but so is the entire measuring chain from the liquid to be analysed to the value stored in the database of the supervisory system. The knowledge of the response time of the measuring system is then required in order to allow a comparison of the corresponding values.

  8. Continuous Assessment Improved Academic Achievement and Satisfaction of Psychology Students in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrillo-de-la-Pena, Maria T.; Perez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The authors present the experience of a continuous assessment procedure carried out in the second term of a physiological psychology course during 3 consecutive academic years at a Spanish university. Each year, the academic outcomes of students under continuous assessment (the experimental group) were compared with those of students under…

  9. Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of an external-cavity quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Arun; Wittmann, Andreas; Hugi, Andreas; Blaser, Stéphane; Giovannini, Marcella; Faist, Jérôme

    2007-10-01

    Room-temperature, continuous-wave operation of an external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) is reported. Single-mode tuning range of 120 cm(-1) was achieved, from 7.96 to 8.84 microm. The gain chips utilized are based on the bound to continuum design and were fabricated as buried heterostructure lasers. Gap-free tuning (mode hops only on the external-cavity modes) is demonstrated for an antireflection-coated laser, just by grating rotation. The EC-QCL was implemented in a Littrow setup and an average power of 1.5 mW was obtained at 20 degrees C, while a peak power of 20 mW was obtained for a modified Littrow setup with the back extraction of light.

  10. School Achievement and Personality. Description of School Achievement in Terms of Ability, Trait, Situational and Background Variables. II: Operations at the Variable Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskanen, Erkki A.

    This monograph contains the second section, operations at the variable level, of a report of studies done in Helsinki, Finland, describing school achievement in terms of ability, trait, situational, and background variables. The report (1) investigates the structure of school achievement, (2) describes school achievement in terms of selected…

  11. Evaluation of an Airborne Spacing Concept to Support Continuous Descent Arrival Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Baxley, Brian T.; Capron, William R.; Abbott, Terence S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a human-in-the-loop experiment of an airborne spacing concept designed to support Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) operations. The use of CDAs with traditional air traffic control (ATC) techniques may actually reduce an airport's arrival throughput since ATC must provide more airspace around aircraft on CDAs due to the variances in the aircraft trajectories. The intent of airborne self-spacing, where ATC delegates the speed control to the aircraft, is to maintain or even enhance an airport s landing rate during CDA operations by precisely achieving the desired time interval between aircraft at the runway threshold. This paper describes the operational concept along with the supporting airborne spacing tool and the results of a piloted evaluation of this concept, with the focus of the evaluation on pilot acceptability of the concept during off-nominal events. The results of this evaluation show a pilot acceptance of this airborne spacing concept with little negative performance impact over conventional CDAs.

  12. 43 CFR 3483.4 - Payment of advance royalty in lieu of continued operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment of advance royalty in lieu of continued operation. 3483.4 Section 3483.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...

  13. Change and Continuity in Student Achievement from Grades 3 to 5: A Policy Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Mary; Burross, Heidi Legg; Good, Thomas L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we examine student performance on mandated tests in grades 3, 4, and 5 in one state. We focus on this interval, which w e term "the fourth grade window," based on our hypothesis that students in grade four are particularly vulnerable to decrements in achievement. The national focus on the third grade as the critical benchmark in…

  14. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Yyyy of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limitations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With Operating Limitations 5 Table 5 to Subpart YYYY of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  15. 30 CFR 77.211-1 - Continuous methane monitoring device; installation and operation; automatic deenergization of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Continuous methane monitoring device... Installations § 77.211-1 Continuous methane monitoring device; installation and operation; automatic deenergization of electric equipment. Continuous methane monitoring devices shall be set to...

  16. 30 CFR 77.211-1 - Continuous methane monitoring device; installation and operation; automatic deenergization of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Continuous methane monitoring device... Installations § 77.211-1 Continuous methane monitoring device; installation and operation; automatic deenergization of electric equipment. Continuous methane monitoring devices shall be set to...

  17. 30 CFR 77.211-1 - Continuous methane monitoring device; installation and operation; automatic deenergization of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuous methane monitoring device... Installations § 77.211-1 Continuous methane monitoring device; installation and operation; automatic deenergization of electric equipment. Continuous methane monitoring devices shall be set to...

  18. Characterization of wastewater treatment by two microbial fuel cells in continuous flow operation.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Keiichi; Watanabe, Tomohide; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    A two serially connected single-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was applied to the treatment of diluted molasses wastewater in a continuous operation mode. In addition, the effect of series and parallel connection between the anodes and the cathode on power generation was investigated experimentally. The two serially connected MFC process achieved 79.8% of chemical oxygen demand removal and 11.6% of Coulombic efficiency when the hydraulic retention time of the whole process was 26 h. The power densities were 0.54, 0.34 and 0.40 W m(-3) when electrodes were in individual connection, serial connection and parallel connection modes, respectively. A high open circuit voltage was obtained in the serial connection. Power density decreased at low organic loading rates (OLR) due to the shortage of organic matter. Power generation efficiency tended to decrease as a result of enhancement of methane fermentation at high OLRs. Therefore, high power density and efficiency can be achieved by using a suitable OLR range. PMID:26109271

  19. Removal of triazine herbicides from aqueous systems by a biofilm reactor continuously or intermittently operated.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, R; Ahuatzi-Chacón, D; Galíndez-Mayer, J; Ruiz-Ordaz, N; Salmerón-Alcocer, A

    2013-10-15

    The impact of pesticide movement via overland flow or tile drainage water on the quality of receiving water bodies has been a serious concern in the last decades; thus, for remediation of water contaminated with herbicides, bioreaction systems designed to retain biomass have been proposed. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the atrazine and terbutryn biodegradation capacity of a microbial consortium, immobilized in a biofilm reactor (PBR), packed with fragments of porous volcanic stone. The microbial consortium, constituted by four predominant bacterial strains, was used to degrade a commercial formulation of atrazine and terbutryn in the biofilm reactor, intermittently or continuously operated at volumetric loading rates ranging from 44 to 306 mg L(-1) d(-1). The complete removal of both herbicides was achieved in both systems; however, higher volumetric removal rates were obtained in the continuous system. It was demonstrated that the adjuvants of the commercial formulation of the herbicide significantly enhanced the removal of atrazine and terbutryn.

  20. Planning in the Continuous Operations Environment of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Theresa; Hagopian, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    The continuous operation planning approach developed for the operations planning of the International Space Station (ISS) is reported on. The approach was designed to be a robust and cost-effective method. It separates ISS planning into two planning functions: long-range planning for a fixed length planning horizon which continually moves forward as ISS operations progress, and short-range planning which takes a small segment of the long-range plan and develops a detailed operations schedule. The continuous approach is compared with the incremental approach, the short and long-range planning functions are described, and the benefits and challenges of implementing a continuous operations planning approach for the ISS are summarized.

  1. Data storage for managing the health enterprise and achieving business continuity.

    PubMed

    Hinegardner, Sam

    2003-01-01

    As organizations move away from a silo mentality to a vision of enterprise-level information, more healthcare IT departments are rejecting the idea of information storage as an isolated, system-by-system solution. IT executives want storage solutions that act as a strategic element of an IT infrastructure, centralizing storage management activities to effectively reduce operational overhead and costs. This article focuses on three areas of enterprise storage: tape, disk, and disaster avoidance.

  2. Efficient salt removal in a continuously operated upflow microbial desalination cell with an air cathode.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Kyle S; Drew, David M; He, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) hold great promise for drinking water production because of potential energy savings during the desalination process. In this study, we developed a continuously operated MDC--upflow microbial desalination cell (UMDC) for the purpose of salt removal. During the 4-month operation, the UMDC constantly removed salts and generated bio-electricity. At a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days (salt solution) and current production of ∼62 mA, the UMDC was able to remove more than 99% of NaCl from the salt solution that had an initial salt concentration of 30 g total dissolved solids (TDS)/L. In addition, the TDS removal rate was 7.50 g TDSL(-1)d(-1) (salt solution volume) or 5.25 g TDSL(-1)d(-1) (wastewater volume), and the desalinated water met the drinking water standard, in terms of TDS concentration. A high charge transfer efficiency of 98.6% or 81% was achieved at HRT 1 or 4d. The UMDC produced a maximum power density of 30.8 W/m(3). The phenomena of bipolar electrodialysis and proton transport in the UMDC were discussed. These results demonstrated the potential of the UMDC as either a sole desalination process or a pre-desalination reactor for downstream desalination processes.

  3. Pre-operative Thresholds for Achieving Meaningful Clinical Improvement after Arthroscopic Treatment of Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U.; Fields, Kara G.; Nawabi, Danyal H.; Kelly, Bryan T.; Ranawat, Anil S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge of the thresholds and determinants for successful femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) treatment is evolving. The primary purpose of this study was to define pre-operative outcome score thresholds that can be used to predict patients most likely to achieve meaningful clinically important difference (MCID) after arthroscopic FAI treatment. Secondarily determinants of achieving MCID were evaluated. Methods: A prospective institutional hip arthroscopy registry was reviewed to identify patients with FAI treated with arthroscopic labral surgery, acetabular rim trimming, and femoral osteochondroplasty. The modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) and the international Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33) tools were administered at baseline and at one year post-operatively. MCID was calculated using a distribution-based method. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to calculate cohort-based threshold values predictive of achieving MCID. Area under the curve (AUC) was used to define predictive ability (strength of association) with AUC >0.7 considered acceptably predictive. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to analyze demographic, radiographic and intra-operative factors associated with achieving MCID. Results: There were 374 patients (mean + SD age, 32.9 + 10.5) and 56.4% were female. The MCID for mHHS, HOS activities of daily living (HOS-ADL), HOS Sports, and iHOT-33 was 8.2, 8.4,14.5, and 12.0 respectively. ROC analysis (threshold, % achieving MCID, strength of association) for these tools in our population was: mHHS (61.6, 78%, 0.68), HOS-ADL (83.8, 68%, 0.84), HOS-Sports (63.9, 64%, 0.74), and iHOT-33 (54.3, 82%, 0.65). Likelihood for achieving MCID declined above and increased below these thresholds. In univariate analysis female sex, femoral version, lower acetabular outerbridge score and increasing CT sagittal center edge angle (CEA) were predictive of achieving MCID. In multivariable analysis

  4. Lipase-catalysed transesterification of soya bean oil for biodiesel production during continuous batch operation.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei; Xu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Dehua

    2003-10-01

    The effects of temperature, oil/alcohol molar ratio and by-product glycerol were studied during Lipozyme TL IM-catalysed continuous batch operation when short-chain alcohols were used as the acyl acceptor. In non-continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:4 and 40-50 degrees C; however, during the continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:1 and 30 degrees C; 95% of enzymic activity remained after 10 batches when isopropanol was adopted to remove by-product glycerol during repeated use of the lipase.

  5. A theoretical model of continuity in anxiety and links to academic achievement in disaster-exposed school children.

    PubMed

    Weems, Carl F; Scott, Brandon G; Taylor, Leslie K; Cannon, Melinda F; Romano, Dawn M; Perry, Andre M

    2013-08-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of continuity in anxious emotion and its links to academic achievement in disaster-exposed youth. An urban school based sample of youths (n = 191; Grades 4-8) exposed to Hurricane Katrina were assessed at 24 months (Time 1) and then again at 30 months (Time 2) postdisaster. Academic achievement was assessed through end of the school year standardized test scores (~31 months after Katrina). The results suggest that the association of traumatic stress to academic achievement was indirect via linkages from earlier (Time 1) posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms that predicted later (Time 2) test anxiety. Time 2 test anxiety was then negatively associated with academic achievement. Age and gender invariance testing suggested strong consistency across gender and minor developmental variation in the age range examined. The model presented advances the developmental understanding of the expression of anxious emotion and its links to student achievement among disaster-exposed urban school children. The findings highlight the importance of identifying heterotypic continuity in anxiety and suggest potential applied and policy directions for disaster-exposed youth. Avenues for future theoretical refinement are also discussed.

  6. A theoretical model of continuity in anxiety and links to academic achievement in disaster-exposed school children.

    PubMed

    Weems, Carl F; Scott, Brandon G; Taylor, Leslie K; Cannon, Melinda F; Romano, Dawn M; Perry, Andre M

    2013-08-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of continuity in anxious emotion and its links to academic achievement in disaster-exposed youth. An urban school based sample of youths (n = 191; Grades 4-8) exposed to Hurricane Katrina were assessed at 24 months (Time 1) and then again at 30 months (Time 2) postdisaster. Academic achievement was assessed through end of the school year standardized test scores (~31 months after Katrina). The results suggest that the association of traumatic stress to academic achievement was indirect via linkages from earlier (Time 1) posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms that predicted later (Time 2) test anxiety. Time 2 test anxiety was then negatively associated with academic achievement. Age and gender invariance testing suggested strong consistency across gender and minor developmental variation in the age range examined. The model presented advances the developmental understanding of the expression of anxious emotion and its links to student achievement among disaster-exposed urban school children. The findings highlight the importance of identifying heterotypic continuity in anxiety and suggest potential applied and policy directions for disaster-exposed youth. Avenues for future theoretical refinement are also discussed. PMID:23880388

  7. Evaluating student's academic achievement by a non-additive aggregation operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Siti Rohana Goh; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Sakib, Elyana

    2014-07-01

    In the context of multi-criteria decision making (MCDM), the average method used in Integrated Students Information System (ISIS) can be classified as an additive measure where the students' academic achievement are aggregated based on the assumption that there is no interaction among the evaluation criteria or the criteria are independent. This method is not suitable to be used if the schools look for equilibrium in their students' achievement. Thus, the non-additive aggregation operator is chosen to analyze students' academic achievements by further taking into accounts the interactions between the subjects. The measures of interaction were represented as λ-fuzzy measures. The effectiveness and success of this non-additive measures can be recognized by comparing the results of the new ranking which was obtained by nonadditive aggregation operator with the current approach of ranking that were based on the global scores using average score method. Throughout this study, it could be postulated that employing the non-additive aggregation operators to obtain an overall evaluation is more suitable because this method able to deal with interactions among subjects whereas the average method only assumes that there is no interaction between subjects or the subjects must be independent.

  8. Continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a diode-end-pumped Nd:GGG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, G. C.; Li, Y. D.; Zhao, M.; Jin, G. Y.; Wang, J. B.

    2011-08-01

    A diode-end-pumped continuous-wave (CW) simultaneous dual-wavelength laser operation at 1062 and 1331 nm in a single Nd:GGG was demonstrated. A total output power of 1.08 W at the two fundamental wavelengths was achieved at the incident pump power of 18.2 W. The optical-to-optical conversion is up to 5.9% with respect to the incident pump power. To the best of our knowledge, this is first work on CW simultaneous dual-wavelength operation of a diode pumped Nd:GGG laser. The article is published in the original.)

  9. Achieving continuous manufacturing: technologies and approaches for synthesis, workup, and isolation of drug substance. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Ian R; Braatz, Richard D; Hodnett, Benjamin K; Jensen, Klavs F; Johnson, Martin D; Sharratt, Paul; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Florence, Alastair J

    2015-03-01

    This whitepaper highlights current challenges and opportunities associated with continuous synthesis, workup, and crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (drug substances). We describe the technologies and requirements at each stage and emphasize the different considerations for developing continuous processes compared with batch. In addition to the specific sequence of operations required to deliver the necessary chemical and physical transformations for continuous drug substance manufacture, consideration is also given to how adoption of continuous technologies may impact different manufacturing stages in development from discovery, process development, through scale-up and into full scale production. The impact of continuous manufacture on drug substance quality and the associated challenges for control and for process safety are also emphasized. In addition to the technology and operational considerations necessary for the adoption of continuous manufacturing (CM), this whitepaper also addresses the cultural, as well as skills and training, challenges that will need to be met by support from organizations in order to accommodate the new work flows. Specific action items for industry leaders are: Develop flow chemistry toolboxes, exploiting the advantages of flow processing and including highly selective chemistries that allow use of simple and effective continuous workup technologies. Availability of modular or plug and play type equipment especially for workup to assist in straightforward deployment in the laboratory. As with learning from other industries, standardization is highly desirable and will require cooperation across industry and academia to develop and implement. Implement and exploit process analytical technologies (PAT) for real-time dynamic control of continuous processes. Develop modeling and simulation techniques to support continuous process development and control. Progress is required in multiphase systems such as

  10. Achieving continuous manufacturing: technologies and approaches for synthesis, workup, and isolation of drug substance. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Ian R; Braatz, Richard D; Hodnett, Benjamin K; Jensen, Klavs F; Johnson, Martin D; Sharratt, Paul; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Florence, Alastair J

    2015-03-01

    This whitepaper highlights current challenges and opportunities associated with continuous synthesis, workup, and crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (drug substances). We describe the technologies and requirements at each stage and emphasize the different considerations for developing continuous processes compared with batch. In addition to the specific sequence of operations required to deliver the necessary chemical and physical transformations for continuous drug substance manufacture, consideration is also given to how adoption of continuous technologies may impact different manufacturing stages in development from discovery, process development, through scale-up and into full scale production. The impact of continuous manufacture on drug substance quality and the associated challenges for control and for process safety are also emphasized. In addition to the technology and operational considerations necessary for the adoption of continuous manufacturing (CM), this whitepaper also addresses the cultural, as well as skills and training, challenges that will need to be met by support from organizations in order to accommodate the new work flows. Specific action items for industry leaders are: Develop flow chemistry toolboxes, exploiting the advantages of flow processing and including highly selective chemistries that allow use of simple and effective continuous workup technologies. Availability of modular or plug and play type equipment especially for workup to assist in straightforward deployment in the laboratory. As with learning from other industries, standardization is highly desirable and will require cooperation across industry and academia to develop and implement. Implement and exploit process analytical technologies (PAT) for real-time dynamic control of continuous processes. Develop modeling and simulation techniques to support continuous process development and control. Progress is required in multiphase systems such as

  11. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This radiological performance assessment for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US DOE. The analysis of SWSA 6 required the use of assumptions to supplement the available site data when the available data were incomplete for the purpose of analysis. Results indicate that SWSA 6 does not presently meet the performance objectives of DOE Order 5820.2A. Changes in operations and continued work on the performance assessment are expected to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for continuing operations at the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF). All other disposal operations in SWSA 6 are to be discontinued as of January 1, 1994. The disposal units at which disposal operations are discontinued will be subject to CERCLA remediation, which will result in acceptable protection of the public health and safety.

  12. Space Operations Training Concepts Benchmark Study (Training in a Continuous Operations Environment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan E.; Gilchrist, Michael; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/USAF Benchmark Space Operations Training Concepts Study will perform a comparative analysis of the space operations training programs utilized by the United States Air Force Space Command with those utilized by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The concentration of the study will be focused on Ground Controller/Flight Controller Training for the International Space Station Payload Program. The duration of the study is expected to be five months with report completion by 30 June 2002. The U.S. Air Force Space Command was chosen as the most likely candidate for this benchmark study because their experience in payload operations controller training and user interfaces compares favorably with the Payload Operations Integration Center's training and user interfaces. These similarities can be seen in the dynamics of missions/payloads, controller on-console requirements, and currency/proficiency challenges to name a few. It is expected that the report will look at the respective programs and investigate goals of each training program, unique training challenges posed by space operations ground controller environments, processes of setting up controller training programs, phases of controller training, methods of controller training, techniques to evaluate adequacy of controller knowledge and the training received, and approaches to training administration. The report will provide recommendations to the respective agencies based on the findings. Attached is a preliminary outline of the study. Following selection of participants and an approval to proceed, initial contact will be made with U.S. Air Force Space Command Directorate of Training to discuss steps to accomplish the study.

  13. Toward demonstrating controlled-X operation based on continuous-variable four-partite cluster states and quantum teleporters

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yu; Su Xiaolong; Shen Heng; Tan Aihong; Xie Changde; Peng Kunchi

    2010-02-15

    One-way quantum computation based on measurement and multipartite cluster entanglement offers the ability to perform a variety of unitary operations only through different choices of measurement bases. Here we present an experimental study toward demonstrating the controlled-X operation, a two-mode gate in which continuous variable (CV) four-partite cluster states of optical modes are utilized. Two quantum teleportation elements are used for achieving the gate operation of the quantum state transformation from input target and control states to output states. By means of the optical cluster state prepared off-line, the homodyne detection and electronic feeding forward, the information carried by the input control state is transformed to the output target state. The presented scheme of the controlled-X operation based on teleportation can be implemented nonlocally and deterministically. The distortion of the quantum information resulting from the imperfect cluster entanglement is estimated with the fidelity.

  14. Continuous bind-and-elute protein A capture chromatography: Optimization under process scale column constraints and comparison to batch operation.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbrunner, Oliver; Diaz, Luis; Hu, Xiaochun; Shearer, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Recently, continuous downstream processing has become a topic of discussion and analysis at conferences while no industrial applications of continuous downstream processing for biopharmaceutical manufacturing have been reported. There is significant potential to increase the productivity of a Protein A capture step by converting the operation to simulated moving bed (SMB) mode. In this mode, shorter columns are operated at higher process flow and corresponding short residence times. The ability to significantly shorten the product residence time during loading without appreciable capacity loss can dramatically increase productivity of the capture step and consequently reduce the amount of Protein A resin required in the process. Previous studies have not considered the physical limitations of how short columns can be packed and the flow rate limitations due to pressure drop of stacked columns. In this study, we are evaluating the process behavior of a continuous Protein A capture column cycling operation under the known pressure drop constraints of a compressible media. The results are compared to the same resin operated under traditional batch operating conditions. We analyze the optimum system design point for a range of feed concentrations, bed heights, and load residence times and determine achievable productivity for any feed concentration and any column bed height. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:938-948, 2016. PMID:27111828

  15. 76 FR 49463 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Project Operation On June 16, 2009, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, licensee for the McCloud-Pit... Commission's regulations thereunder. The McCloud-Pit Hydroelectric Project is located on the McCloud and Pit... authorized to continue operation of the McCloud-Pit Hydroelectric Project, until such time as the...

  16. 78 FR 29365 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Project Operation On April 12, 2011, the Pacific Gas and Electric Company, licensee for the Drum-Spaulding... Commission's regulations thereunder. The Drum-Spaulding Hydroelectric Project is located on South Yuba River... authorized to continue operation of the Drum-Spaulding Hydroelectric Project, until such time as...

  17. Design considerations in achieving 1 MW CW operation with a whispering-gallery-mode gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Felch, K.; Feinstein, J.; Hess, C.; Huey, H.; Jongewaard, E.; Jory, H.; Neilson, J.; Pendleton, R.; Pirkle, D.; Zitelli, L. )

    1989-09-01

    Varian is developing high-power, CW gyrotrons at frequencies in the range 100 GHz to 150 GHz, for use in electron cyclotron heating applications. Early test vehicles have utilized a TE{sub 15,2,1} interaction cavity, have achieved short-pulse power levels of 820 kW and average power levels of 80 kW at 140 GHz. Present tests are aimed at reaching 400 kW under CW operating conditions and up to 1 MW for short pulse durations. Work is also underway on modifications to the present design that will enable power levels of up to 1 MW CW to be achieved. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Beck, Mattias; Hofstetter, Daniel; Aellen, Thierry; Faist, Jérôme; Oesterle, Ursula; Ilegems, Marc; Gini, Emilio; Melchior, Hans

    2002-01-11

    Continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers is reported up to a temperature of 312 kelvin. The devices were fabricated as buried heterostructure lasers with high-reflection coatings on both laser facets, resulting in continuous wave operation with optical output power ranging from 17 milliwatts at 292 kelvin to 3 milliwatts at 312 kelvin, at an emission wavelength of 9.1 micrometers. The results demonstrate the potential of quantum cascade lasers as continuous wave mid-infrared light sources for high-resolution spectroscopy, chemical sensing applications, and free-space optical communication systems.

  19. Achieving a robust drug release from extended release tablets using an integrated continuous mixing and direct compression line.

    PubMed

    Lakio, Satu; Tajarobi, Pirjo; Wikström, Håkan; Fransson, Magnus; Arnehed, Johan; Ervasti, Tuomas; Simonaho, Simo-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Folestad, Staffan; Abrahmsén-Alami, Susanna

    2016-09-10

    In the present work the viability of integrated continuous mixing and compression processes for manufacturing of extended release (ER) matrix tablets was investigated in terms of dissolution behavior. The purpose was also to evaluate the combined effect of processing variables and compositional variables on the release robustness. The continuous process was provoked by a challenging formulation design, including variable powder characteristics and compositions of high and low amount of poorly soluble and poorly flowing drug substance (ibuprofen). Additionally a relatively low amount of two different ER matrix former grades (standard granulation grade CR and direct compression grade DC2 of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC) was used to challenge the system. Robust ibuprofen release was obtained faster when HPMC CR was used. However, robust release was also achieved when using HPMC DC2 at high ibuprofen content, even though it took slightly longer time to reach the steady state of the process. Due to its poor flow properties, HPMC CR would be very challenging to use in traditional direct compression. The results showed that by using continuous processing it is possible to manufacture and achieve robust performance of compositions that would not be possible with traditional batch processing due to for instance poorly flowability. PMID:27469074

  20. Effect of fed-batch vs. continuous mode of operation on microbial fuel cell performance treating biorefinery wastewater

    DOE PAGES

    Pannell, Tyler C.; Goud, R. Kannaiah; Schell, Daniel J.; Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2016-05-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems have been shown to treat low-value biorefinery streams while recovering energy, however, low current densities and anode conversion efficiencies (ACE) limit their application. A bioanode was developed via enrichment of electroactive biofilm under fed-batch and continuous feeding conditions using corn stover-derived waste stream. The continuously-fed MFC exhibited a current density of 5.8±0.06 A/m2 and an ACE of 39%±4. The fed-batch MFC achieved a similar current density and an ACE of 19.2%, however, its performance dropped after 36 days of operation to 1.1 A/m2 and 0.5%, respectively. In comparison, the ACE of the continuously-fed MFC remained stable achieving anmore » ACE of 30% ± 3 after 48 days of operation. An MFC treating a biorefinery stream post fuel separation achieved a current density of 10.7±0.1 A/m2 and an ACE of 57% ± 9 at an organic loading of 12.5 g COD/L-day. Characterization of the microbial communities indicate higher abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and lower abundance of Bacteriodetes and a higher level of Geobacter spp. (1.4% vs. 0.2%) in continuously-fed MFC vs. fed-batch MFC. Finally, the results demonstrate that limiting substrate to the equivalent maximum current that the anode can generate, maintains MFC performance over a long term for high strength wastewaters, such as those generated in the biorefinery.« less

  1. Continuity of operations planning in college athletic programs: The case for incorporating Federal Emergency Management Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hall, Stacey A; Allen, Brandon L; Phillips, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    College athletic departments have a responsibility to provide a safe environment for student-athletes; however, most colleges do not have a crisis management plan that includes procedures for displaced student-athletes or alternate facilities to perform athletic events. Continuity of operations planning ensures athletic programs are equipped to maintain essential functions during, or shortly after, a disruption of operations due to possible hazards. Previous studies have identified a lack of emergency preparedness and continuity planning in college athletic departments. The purpose of this article is to illustrate in detail one approach to disaster planning for college athletic departments, namely the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) continuity of operations framework. By adhering to FEMA guidelines and promoting a best practices model, athletic programs can effectively plan to address potential hazards, as well as protect the organization's brand, image, and financial sustainability after a crisis event.

  2. Continuity of operations planning in college athletic programs: The case for incorporating Federal Emergency Management Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hall, Stacey A; Allen, Brandon L; Phillips, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    College athletic departments have a responsibility to provide a safe environment for student-athletes; however, most colleges do not have a crisis management plan that includes procedures for displaced student-athletes or alternate facilities to perform athletic events. Continuity of operations planning ensures athletic programs are equipped to maintain essential functions during, or shortly after, a disruption of operations due to possible hazards. Previous studies have identified a lack of emergency preparedness and continuity planning in college athletic departments. The purpose of this article is to illustrate in detail one approach to disaster planning for college athletic departments, namely the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) continuity of operations framework. By adhering to FEMA guidelines and promoting a best practices model, athletic programs can effectively plan to address potential hazards, as well as protect the organization's brand, image, and financial sustainability after a crisis event. PMID:26963231

  3. An intelligent factory-wide optimal operation system for continuous production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jinliang; Chai, Tianyou; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Junwei; Zheng, Xiuping

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a novel intelligent factory-wide operation system for a continuous production process is designed to optimise the entire production process, which consists of multiple units; furthermore, this system is developed using process operational data to avoid the complexity of mathematical modelling of the continuous production process. The data-driven approach aims to specify the structure of the optimal operation system; in particular, the operational data of the process are used to formulate each part of the system. In this context, the domain knowledge of process engineers is utilised, and a closed-loop dynamic optimisation strategy, which combines feedback, performance prediction, feed-forward, and dynamic tuning schemes into a framework, is employed. The effectiveness of the proposed system has been verified using industrial experimental results.

  4. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This revised performance assessment (PA) for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal contained in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. This revised PA considers disposal operations conducted from September 26, 1988, through the projects lifetime of the disposal facility.

  5. Spectra of random operators with absolutely continuous integrated density of states

    SciTech Connect

    Rio, Rafael del E-mail: delriomagia@gmail.com

    2014-04-15

    The structure of the spectrum of random operators is studied. It is shown that if the density of states measure of some subsets of the spectrum is zero, then these subsets are empty. In particular follows that absolute continuity of the integrated density of states implies singular spectra of ergodic operators is either empty or of positive measure. Our results apply to Anderson and alloy type models, perturbed Landau Hamiltonians, almost periodic potentials, and models which are not ergodic.

  6. 40 CFR 63.5820 - What are my options for meeting the standards for continuous lamination/casting operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for continuous lamination/casting operations? 63.5820 Section 63.5820 Protection of Environment... options for meeting the standards for continuous lamination/casting operations? You must use one or more... each continuous lamination line and each continuous casting line complies with the applicable...

  7. 40 CFR 63.5820 - What are my options for meeting the standards for continuous lamination/casting operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for continuous lamination/casting operations? 63.5820 Section 63.5820 Protection of Environment... options for meeting the standards for continuous lamination/casting operations? You must use one or more... each continuous lamination line and each continuous casting line complies with the applicable...

  8. 40 CFR 63.5820 - What are my options for meeting the standards for continuous lamination/casting operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for continuous lamination/casting operations? 63.5820 Section 63.5820 Protection of Environment... meeting the standards for continuous lamination/casting operations? You must use one or more of the... continuous lamination line and each continuous casting line complies with the applicable standard....

  9. 40 CFR 63.5820 - What are my options for meeting the standards for continuous lamination/casting operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for continuous lamination/casting operations? 63.5820 Section 63.5820 Protection of Environment... meeting the standards for continuous lamination/casting operations? You must use one or more of the... continuous lamination line and each continuous casting line complies with the applicable standard....

  10. Cryosat: ESA'S Ice Explorer Mission, 6 years in operations: status and achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrinello, Tommaso; Maestroni, Elia; Krassenburg, Mike; Badessi, Stefano; Bouffard, Jerome; Frommknecht, Bjorn; Davidson, Malcolm; Fornari, Marco; Scagliola, Michele

    2016-04-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. CryoSat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Initial results have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. The CryoSat mission reached its 6th years of operational life in April 2016. Since its launch has delivered high quality products to the worldwide cryospheric and marine community that is increasing every year. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and its main scientific achievements. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on the next scientific development of the mission in its extended period of operations.

  11. 77 FR 56637 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On August 30, 2007, the FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, licensee for the Scotland... annual license for Project No. 2662 ] is issued to the FirstLight Hydro Generating Company for a...

  12. Operational Limits. Continuation Education System Development Project. Technical Report 1.6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Martin

    Financed by a grant under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, the La Puente Union High School District (California) operates a Continuation Education System Development Project. The first project year (1967-68) has been spent identifying available resources of instructional staff and physical facilities and identifying…

  13. Continued advancement of the programming language HAL to an operational status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The continued advancement of the programming language HAL to operational status is reported. It is demonstrated that the compiler itself can be written in HAL. A HAL-in-HAL experiment proves conclusively that HAL can be used successfully as a compiler implementation tool.

  14. 78 FR 38022 - Alabama Power Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alabama Power Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On June 5, 2008, the Alabama Power Company, licensee for the Martin Dam Hydroelectric...

  15. Justification for Continued Operation of the SRS Saltstone Facility (Z-Area)

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, W.A.

    1999-01-20

    Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (Z-Area) are a part of the Defense Waste Processing Facilities (DWPF). Z-Area facilities are just one segment of an integrated waste management and disposal system located at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The bases for the Justification of Continuing Operations (JCO) of the Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (Z-Area) at SRS are provided.

  16. 75 FR 45107 - Idaho Power Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... July 23, 2010. On June 26, 2008, Idaho Power Company, licensee for the Swan Falls Hydroelectric Project... regulations thereunder. The Swan Falls Hydroelectric Project is on the Snake River in Ada and Owyhee counties..., notice is hereby given that Idaho Power Company is authorized to continue operation of the Swan...

  17. 76 FR 28968 - MeadWestvaco; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission MeadWestvaco; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On April 14, 2006 MeadWestvaco, licensee for the Willow Mill Hydroelectric Project, filed an... license for Project No. 2985 is issued to MeadWestvaco for a period effective May 1, 2011 through April...

  18. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Murphy-Morris, Jeanine E.; Knight, Edward J.; Kvaran, Geir; Barsi, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) has a comprehensive radiometric characterization and calibration program beginning with the instrument design, and extending through integration and test, on-orbit operations and science data processing. Key instrument design features for radiometric calibration include dual solar diffusers and multi-lamped on-board calibrators. The radiometric calibration transfer procedure from NIST standards has multiple checks on the radiometric scale throughout the process and uses a heliostat as part of the transfer to orbit of the radiometric calibration. On-orbit lunar imaging will be used to track the instruments stability and side slither maneuvers will be used in addition to the solar diffuser to flat field across the thousands of detectors per band. A Calibration Validation Team is continuously involved in the process from design to operations. This team uses an Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the ground system to characterize and calibrate the on-orbit data.

  19. Treatment of landfill leachate using microbial fuel cells: alternative anodes and semi-continuous operation.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Krishnadas; Jambeck, Jenna R

    2013-07-01

    Microbial fuel cells were designed and operated to treat landfill leachate while continuously producing power. Two different anodes were tested in batch cycles using landfill leachate as a substrate without inoculation: an activated carbon anode and biochar anode. In addition, a semi-continuous serpentine design was evaluated. No significant difference of the mean was found for the peak voltage, current density or power densities between the batch cell with activated carbon or biochar. Similar COD reduction occurred at both the batch (with biochar) and semi-continuous scale (28% ± 8.8% and 21.7% ± 12.2%, respectively). The batch MFC with activated carbon anode had significantly higher COD removal (74.7% ± 5.5%). BOD was removed by the semi-continuous MFC, but ammonia was not removed in four of the five cycles. The results provide further information on the possibility of using MFCs in landfill leachate treatment systems.

  20. Continuous-wave simultaneous dual-wavelength operation at 912 nm and 1063 nm in Nd:GdVO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lünstedt, K.; Pavel, N.; Petermann, K.; Huber, G.

    2007-01-01

    A continuous-wave, diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 thin disk laser with simultaneous dual-wavelength emission at the 912 nm 4 F 3/2→4 I 9/2 quasi-three-level transition and the 1063 nm 4 F 3/2→4 I 11/2 four-level transition is demonstrated and analyzed. Output powers of 1.7 W at 912 nm and of 1.6 W at 1063 nm were achieved simultaneously from a 0.3-at.%, 300-μm thick Nd:GdVO4 crystal that was multi-pass excited with 26.8 W of available diode pump power. Second harmonic generation to 456 nm with LiB3O5 yielded 0.96 W in 912 nm single-wavelength operation and 0.73 W in 912 nm/1063 nm dual-wavelength operation.

  1. Enhancing the longevity of microparticle-based glucose sensors towards one month continuous operation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Saurabh; McShane, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Luminescent microspheres encapsulating glucose oxidase have recently been reported as potential implantable sensors, but the operational lifetime of these systems has been limited by enzyme degradation. We report here that the longevity of these enzymatic microparticle-based sensors has been extended by the coimmobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) and catalase (CAT) into the sensor matrix. A mathematical model was used to compare the response and longevity of the sensors with and without catalase. To experimentally test the longevity, sensors were continuously operated under normoglycemic dermal substrate concentrations and physiological conditions (5.5 mM glucose and 140 µM O2, 37°C and pH 7.4). The sensors incorporating CAT were experimentally shown to be ~5 times more stable than those without CAT; nevertheless, the response of sensors with CAT still changed by approximately 20%, when operated continuously for seven days. The experimentally-determined trends obtained for the variation in sensor response due to enzyme deactivation were in close agreement with modeling predictions, which also revealed a significant apparent loss in enzyme activity upon immobilization. It was further predicted via modeling that by incorporating 0.1 mM each of active GOx and CAT, the sensors will exhibit less than 2% variation in response over one month of continuous operation. PMID:19926464

  2. Fluid dynamic characterization of operating conditions for continuous flow blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z J; Antaki, J F; Burgreen, G W; Butler, K C; Thomas, D C; Griffith, B P

    1999-01-01

    As continuous flow pumps become more prominent as long-term ventricular assist devices, the wide range of conditions under which they must be operated has become evident. Designed to operate at a single, best-efficiency, operating point, continuous flow pumps are required to perform at off-design conditions quite frequently. The present study investigated the internal fluid dynamics within two representative rotary fluid pumps to characterize the quality of the flow field over a full range of operating conditions. A Nimbus/UoP axial flow blood pump and a small centrifugal pump were used as the study models. Full field visualization of flow features in the two pumps was conducted using a laser based fluorescent particle imaging technique. Experiments were performed under steady flow conditions. Flow patterns at inlet and outlet sections were visualized over a series of operating points. Flow features specific to each pump design were observed to exist under all operating conditions. At off-design conditions, an annular region of reverse flow was commonly observed within the inlet of the axial pump, while a small annulus of backflow in the inlet duct and a strong disturbed flow at the outlet tongue were observed for the centrifugal pump. These observations were correlated to a critical nondimensional flow coefficient. The creation of a "map" of flow behavior provides an additional, important criterion for determining favorable operating speed for rotary blood pumps. Many unfavorable flow features may be avoided by maintaining the flow coefficient above a characteristic critical coefficient for a particular pump, whereas the intrinsic deleterious flow features can only be minimized by design improvement. Broadening the operating range by raising the band between the critical flow coefficient and the designed flow coefficient, is also a worthy goal for design improvement.

  3. Treatment of dairy manure using the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process under a continuous mode operation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Lo, Ing W; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2010-11-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used to treat dairy manure for solubilization of nutrients and organic matters. This study investigated the effectiveness of the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP under a continuous mode of operation, and compared the results to those of batch operations. The main factors affecting solubilization by the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP were heating temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased with an increase of microwave (MW) heating temperature; very high concentrations were obtained at 90°C. Insignificant amounts of ammonia and reducing sugars were released in all runs. An acidic pH condition was required for phosphorus solubilisation from dairy manure. The best yield was obtained at 90°C with an acid dosage of 1.0 %; about 92 % of total phosphorus and 90 % of total chemical oxygen demand were in the soluble forms. The MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP operated in a continuous operation mode showed pronounced synergistic effects between hydrogen peroxide and microwave irradiation when compared to a batch system under similar operating conditions, resulting in much better yields.

  4. The continuous spectrum and the effect of parametric resonance. The case of bounded operators

    SciTech Connect

    Skazka, V V

    2014-05-31

    The paper is concerned with the Mathieu-type differential equation u{sup ″}=−A{sup 2}u+εB(t)u in a Hilbert space H. It is assumed that A is a bounded self-adjoint operator which only has an absolutely continuous spectrum and B(t) is almost periodic operator-valued function. Sufficient conditions are obtained under which the Cauchy problem for this equation is stable for small ε and hence free of parametric resonance. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  5. A framework for autonomous and continuous aerial intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korpela, Christopher; Root, Philip; Kim, Jinho; Wilkerson, Stephen; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    We propose a framework for intelligence, reconnaissance, and surveillance using an aerial vehicle with multiple sensor payloads to provide autonomous and continuous security operations at a fixed location. A control scheme and a graphical user interface between the vehicle and operator is strictly mandated for tasks requiring remote and unattended inspection. By leveraging existing navigation and path planning algorithms, the system can autonomously patrol large areas, automatically recharge when required, and relay on-demand data back to the user. This paper presents recent validation results of the system and its sensors using the proposed framework.

  6. Continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with frequency-shifted feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyakh, A.; Barron-Jimenez, R.; Dunayevskiy, I.; Go, R.; Tsvid, G.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2016-01-01

    Operation of continuous wave quantum cascade lasers with a frequency-shifted feedback provided by an acousto-optic modulator is reported. Measured linewidth of 1.7 cm-1 for these devices, under CW operating conditions, was in a good agreement with predictions of a model based on frequency-shifted feedback seeded by spontaneous emission. Linewidth broadening was observed for short sweep times, consistent with sound wave grating period variation across the illuminated area on the acousto-optic modulator. Standoff detection capability of the AOM-based QCL setup was demonstrated for several solid materials.

  7. Continuous high-repetition-rate operation of collisional soft-x-ray lasers with solid targets.

    PubMed

    Weith, A; Larotonda, M A; Wang, Y; Luther, B M; Alessi, D; Marconi, M C; Rocca, J J; Dunn, J

    2006-07-01

    We have generated a laser average output power of 2 microW at a wavelength of 13.9 nm by operating a tabletop laser-pumped Ni-like Ag laser at a 5 Hz repetition rate, using a solid helicoidal target that is continuously rotated and advanced to renew the target surface between shots. More than 2 x 10(4) soft-x-ray laser shots were obtained by using a single target. Similar results were obtained at 13.2 nm in Ni-like Cd with a Cd-coated target. This scheme will allow uninterrupted operation of laser-pumped tabletop collisional soft-x-ray lasers at a repetition rate of 10 Hz for a period of hours, enabling the generation of continuous high average soft-x-ray powers for applications. PMID:16770410

  8. On the absence of absolutely continuous spectra for Schroedinger operators on radial tree graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Exner, Pavel; Lipovsky, Jiri

    2010-12-15

    The subject of the paper is Schroedinger operators on tree graphs which are radial, having the branching number b{sub n} at all the vertices at the distance t{sub n} from the root. We consider a family of coupling conditions at the vertices characterized by (b{sub n}-1){sup 2}+4 real parameters. We prove that if the graph is sparse so that there is a subsequence of {l_brace}t{sub n+1}-t{sub n{r_brace}} growing to infinity, in the absence of the potential the absolutely continuous spectrum is empty for a large subset of these vertex couplings, but on the the other hand, there are cases when the spectrum of such a Schroedinger operator can be purely absolutely continuous.

  9. Spectra of geometric operators in three-dimensional loop quantum gravity: From discrete to continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achour, Jibril Ben; Geiller, Marc; Noui, Karim; Yu, Chao

    2014-03-01

    We study and compare the spectra of geometric operators (length and area) in the quantum kinematics of two formulations of three-dimensional Lorentzian loop quantum gravity. In the SU(2) Ashtekar-Barbero framework, the spectra are discrete and depend on the Barbero-Immirzi parameter γ exactly like in the four-dimensional case. However, we show that when working with the self-dual variables and imposing the reality conditions the spectra become continuous and γ independent.

  10. Exemplary Care and Learning Sites: A Model for Achieving Continual Improvement in Care and Learning in the Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ogrinc, Greg; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Stevenson, Katherine M.; Shalaby, Marc; Beard, Albertine S.; Thörne, Karin E.; Coleman, Mary T.; Baum, Karyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Problem Current models of health care quality improvement do not explicitly describe the role of health professions education. The authors propose the Exemplary Care and Learning Site (ECLS) model as an approach to achieving continual improvement in care and learning in the clinical setting. Approach From 2008–2012, an iterative, interactive process was used to develop the ECLS model and its core elements—patients and families informing process changes; trainees engaging both in care and the improvement of care; leaders knowing, valuing, and practicing improvement; data transforming into useful information; and health professionals competently engaging both in care improvement and teaching about care improvement. In 2012–2013, a three-part feasibility test of the model, including a site self-assessment, an independent review of each site’s ratings, and implementation case stories, was conducted at six clinical teaching sites (in the United States and Sweden). Outcomes Site leaders reported the ECLS model provided a systematic approach toward improving patient (and population) outcomes, system performance, and professional development. Most sites found it challenging to incorporate the patients and families element. The trainee element was strong at four sites. The leadership and data elements were self-assessed as the most fully developed. The health professionals element exhibited the greatest variability across sites. Next Steps The next test of the model should be prospective, linked to clinical and educa tional outcomes, to evaluate whether it helps care delivery teams, educators, and patients and families take action to achieve better patient (and population) outcomes, system performance, and professional development. PMID:26760058

  11. Children's effortful control and academic achievement: do relational peer victimization and classroom participation operate as mediators?

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H

    2014-08-01

    Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children. PMID:25107413

  12. Mitigation Monitoring and Reporting Program for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    A Mitigation Monitoring and Reporting Program, required by the California Environmental Quality Act, was developed by UC as part of the Final EIS/EIR process. This document describing the program is a companion to the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, Livermore). The Final EIS/EIR analyzes the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action, which for the purposes of NEPA is: continued operation, including near-term (within 5 to 1 0 years) proposed projects, of LLNL and SNL, Livermore. The proposed action for the EIR is the renewal of the contract between DOE and UC for UC`s continued operation and management of LLNL. The Mitigation Monitoring and Reporting Program is for implementing and monitoring progress of measures taken to mitigate the significant impacts of the proposed action. A complete description of the impacts and proposed mitigations is in Section 5 of Volume I of the Final EIS/EIR. This report summarizes the mitigation measures, identifies the responsible party at the Laboratory for implementing the mitigation measure, states when monitoring will be implemented, when the mitigation measure will be in place and monitoring completed, and who will verify that the mitigation measure was implemented.

  13. Absolute continuity for operator valued completely positive maps on C*-algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Gheondea, Aurelian; Kavruk, Ali Samil

    2009-02-15

    Motivated by applicability to quantum operations, quantum information, and quantum probability, we investigate the notion of absolute continuity for operator valued completely positive maps on C*-algebras, previously introduced by Parthasarathy [in Athens Conference on Applied Probability and Time Series Analysis I (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 34-54]. We obtain an intrinsic definition of absolute continuity, we show that the Lebesgue decomposition defined by Parthasarathy is the maximal one among all other Lebesgue-type decompositions and that this maximal Lebesgue decomposition does not depend on the jointly dominating completely positive map, we obtain more flexible formulas for calculating the maximal Lebesgue decomposition, and we point out the nonuniqueness of the Lebesgue decomposition as well as a sufficient condition for uniqueness. In addition, we consider Radon-Nikodym derivatives for absolutely continuous completely positive maps that, in general, are unbounded positive self-adjoint operators affiliated to a certain von Neumann algebra, and we obtain a spectral approximation by bounded Radon-Nikodym derivatives. An application to the existence of the infimum of two completely positive maps is indicated, and formulas in terms of Choi's matrices for the Lebesgue decomposition of completely positive maps in matrix algebras are obtained.

  14. Continuously-stirred anaerobic digester to convert organic wastes into biogas: system setup and basic operation.

    PubMed

    Usack, Joseph G; Spirito, Catherine M; Angenent, Largus T

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article presents a general

  15. Continuously-stirred anaerobic digester to convert organic wastes into biogas: system setup and basic operation.

    PubMed

    Usack, Joseph G; Spirito, Catherine M; Angenent, Largus T

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article presents a general

  16. Room-Temperature Continuous-Wave Operation of a Tunable External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Wan-Feng; Liu, Feng-Qi; Yin, Wen; Liu, Jun-Qi; Li, Lu; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2011-07-01

    A room-temperature cw operation of a tunable external cavity (EC) quantum cascade laser (QCL) at an emitting wavelength of 4.6 μm is presented. Strain-compensation combined with two-phonon resonance in an active region design promises low threshold current density. A very low threshold current density of 1.47kA/cm2 for an EC-QCL operated in cw mode is realized. Single-mode cw operation with a side-mode suppression ratio of 20 dB and a wide tuning range of over 110cm-1 are achieved. Moreover, an even wider tuning range of over 135cm-1 is obtained in pulsed mode at room temperature.

  17. Environmental impact report addendum for the continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, R. F.

    1996-10-01

    An environmental impact statement/environmental impact report (ES/EIR) for the continued operation and management of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was prepared jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the University of California (UC). The scope of the document included near-term (within 5-10 years) proposed projects. The UC Board of Regents, as state lead agency under the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), certified and adopted the EIR by issuing a Notice of Determination on November 20, 1992. The DOE, as the lead federal agency under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), adopted a Record of Decision for the ES on January 27, 1993 (58 Federal Register [FR] 6268). The DOE proposed action was to continue operation of the facility, including near-term proposed projects. The specific project evaluated by UC was extension of the contract between UC and DOE for UC`s continued operation and management of LLNL (both sites) from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1997. The 1992 ES/EIR analyzed impacts through the year 2002. The 1992 ES/EIR comprehensively evaluated the potential environmental impacts of operation and management of LLNL within the near-term future. Activities evaluated included programmatic enhancements and modifications of facilities and programs at the LLNL Livermore site and at LLNL`s Experimental Test Site (Site 300) in support of research and development missions 2048 established for LLNL by Congress and the President. The evaluation also considered the impacts of infrastructure and building maintenance, minor modifications to buildings, general landscaping, road maintenance, and similar routine support activities.

  18. Spatial Memory Activity Distributions Indicate the Hippocampus Operates in a Continuous Manner.

    PubMed

    Jeye, Brittany M; Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2016-08-26

    There is a long-standing debate as to whether recollection is a continuous/graded process or a threshold/all-or-none process. In the current spatial memory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined the hippocampal activity distributions-the magnitude of activity as a function of memory strength-to determine the nature of processing in this region. During encoding, participants viewed abstract shapes in the left or right visual field. During retrieval, old shapes were presented at fixation and participants classified each shape as previously in the "left" or "right" visual field followed by an "unsure"-"sure"-"very sure" confidence rating. The contrast of left-hits and left-misses produced two activations in the hippocampus. The hippocampal activity distributions for left shapes and right shapes were completely overlapping. Critically, the magnitude of activity associated with right-miss-very sure responses was significantly greater than zero. These results support the continuous model of recollection, which predicts overlapping activity distributions, and contradict the threshold model of recollection, which predicts a threshold above which only one distribution exists. Receiver operating characteristic analysis did not distinguish between models. The present results demonstrate that the hippocampus operates in a continuous manner during recollection and highlight the utility of analyzing activity distributions to determine the nature of neural processing.

  19. Spatial Memory Activity Distributions Indicate the Hippocampus Operates in a Continuous Manner.

    PubMed

    Jeye, Brittany M; Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to whether recollection is a continuous/graded process or a threshold/all-or-none process. In the current spatial memory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined the hippocampal activity distributions-the magnitude of activity as a function of memory strength-to determine the nature of processing in this region. During encoding, participants viewed abstract shapes in the left or right visual field. During retrieval, old shapes were presented at fixation and participants classified each shape as previously in the "left" or "right" visual field followed by an "unsure"-"sure"-"very sure" confidence rating. The contrast of left-hits and left-misses produced two activations in the hippocampus. The hippocampal activity distributions for left shapes and right shapes were completely overlapping. Critically, the magnitude of activity associated with right-miss-very sure responses was significantly greater than zero. These results support the continuous model of recollection, which predicts overlapping activity distributions, and contradict the threshold model of recollection, which predicts a threshold above which only one distribution exists. Receiver operating characteristic analysis did not distinguish between models. The present results demonstrate that the hippocampus operates in a continuous manner during recollection and highlight the utility of analyzing activity distributions to determine the nature of neural processing. PMID:27571109

  20. Spatial Memory Activity Distributions Indicate the Hippocampus Operates in a Continuous Manner

    PubMed Central

    Jeye, Brittany M.; Karanian, Jessica M.; Slotnick, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to whether recollection is a continuous/graded process or a threshold/all-or-none process. In the current spatial memory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined the hippocampal activity distributions—the magnitude of activity as a function of memory strength—to determine the nature of processing in this region. During encoding, participants viewed abstract shapes in the left or right visual field. During retrieval, old shapes were presented at fixation and participants classified each shape as previously in the “left” or “right” visual field followed by an “unsure”–“sure”–“very sure” confidence rating. The contrast of left-hits and left-misses produced two activations in the hippocampus. The hippocampal activity distributions for left shapes and right shapes were completely overlapping. Critically, the magnitude of activity associated with right-miss-very sure responses was significantly greater than zero. These results support the continuous model of recollection, which predicts overlapping activity distributions, and contradict the threshold model of recollection, which predicts a threshold above which only one distribution exists. Receiver operating characteristic analysis did not distinguish between models. The present results demonstrate that the hippocampus operates in a continuous manner during recollection and highlight the utility of analyzing activity distributions to determine the nature of neural processing. PMID:27571109

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of PEM Dehydration and Gas Manifold Flooding During Continuous Fuel Cell Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Minard, Kevin R.; Vishwanathan, Vilanyur V.; Majors, Paul D.; Wang, Li Q.; Rieke, Peter C.

    2006-10-27

    The methods, apparatus, and results are reported for in-situ, near real time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of MEA dehydration and gas manifold flooding in an operating PEM fuel cell. To acquire high-resolution, artifact-free images for visualizing water distribution, acquisition parameters for a standard, two-dimensional (2D), spin-echo sequence were first optimized for the measured magnetic field heterogeneity induced by fuel cell components. 2D images of water inside the fuel cell were then acquired every 128 seconds during 11.4 hours of continuous operation under constant load. Collected images revealed that MEA dehydration proceeded non-uniformly across its plane, starting from gas inlets and ending at gas outlets, and that upon completion of this dehydration process manifold flooding began. To understand these observations, acquired images were correlated to the current output and operating characteristics of the fuel cell. Results demonstrate the power of MRI for in-situ, near real-time imaging of water distribution and non-uniformity in operating PEM fuel cells, and highlight its utility for understanding PEM fuel cell operation, the causes of cell failure, and for developing new strategies of water management.

  2. Design of 95 GHz gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid with water cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Borodin, Dmitri; Ben-Moshe, Roey; Einat, Moshe

    2014-07-15

    The design work for 2nd harmonic 95 GHz, 50 kW gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid is presented. Thermionic magnetron injection gun specifications were calculated according to the linear trade off equation, and simulated with CST program. Numerical code is used for cavity design using the non-uniform string equation as well as particle motion in the “cold” cavity field. The mode TE02 with low Ohmic losses in the cavity walls was chosen as the operating mode. The Solenoid is designed to induce magnetic field of 1.8 T over a length of 40 mm in the interaction region with homogeneity of ±0.34%. The solenoid has six concentric cylindrical segments (and two correction segments) of copper foil windings separated by water channels for cooling. The predicted temperature in continuous operation is below 93 °C. The parameters of the design together with simulation results of the electromagnetic cavity field, magnetic field, electron trajectories, and thermal analyses are presented.

  3. Achieving continuous manufacturing for final dosage formation: challenges and how to meet them. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Byrn, Stephen; Futran, Maricio; Thomas, Hayden; Jayjock, Eric; Maron, Nicola; Meyer, Robert F; Myerson, Allan S; Thien, Michael P; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2015-03-01

    We describe the key issues and possibilities for continuous final dosage formation, otherwise known as downstream processing or drug product manufacturing. A distinction is made between heterogeneous processing and homogeneous processing, the latter of which is expected to add more value to continuous manufacturing. We also give the key motivations for moving to continuous manufacturing, some of the exciting new technologies, and the barriers to implementation of continuous manufacturing. Continuous processing of heterogeneous blends is the natural first step in converting existing batch processes to continuous. In heterogeneous processing, there are discrete particles that can segregate, versus in homogeneous processing, components are blended and homogenized such that they do not segregate. Heterogeneous processing can incorporate technologies that are closer to existing technologies, where homogeneous processing necessitates the development and incorporation of new technologies. Homogeneous processing has the greatest potential for reaping the full rewards of continuous manufacturing, but it takes long-term vision and a more significant change in process development than heterogeneous processing. Heterogeneous processing has the detriment that, as the technologies are adopted rather than developed, there is a strong tendency to incorporate correction steps, what we call below "The Rube Goldberg Problem." Thus, although heterogeneous processing will likely play a major role in the near-term transformation of heterogeneous to continuous processing, it is expected that homogeneous processing is the next step that will follow. Specific action items for industry leaders are: Form precompetitive partnerships, including industry (pharmaceutical companies and equipment manufacturers), government, and universities. These precompetitive partnerships would develop case studies of continuous manufacturing and ideally perform joint-technology development, including

  4. Achieving continuous manufacturing for final dosage formation: challenges and how to meet them. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Byrn, Stephen; Futran, Maricio; Thomas, Hayden; Jayjock, Eric; Maron, Nicola; Meyer, Robert F; Myerson, Allan S; Thien, Michael P; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2015-03-01

    We describe the key issues and possibilities for continuous final dosage formation, otherwise known as downstream processing or drug product manufacturing. A distinction is made between heterogeneous processing and homogeneous processing, the latter of which is expected to add more value to continuous manufacturing. We also give the key motivations for moving to continuous manufacturing, some of the exciting new technologies, and the barriers to implementation of continuous manufacturing. Continuous processing of heterogeneous blends is the natural first step in converting existing batch processes to continuous. In heterogeneous processing, there are discrete particles that can segregate, versus in homogeneous processing, components are blended and homogenized such that they do not segregate. Heterogeneous processing can incorporate technologies that are closer to existing technologies, where homogeneous processing necessitates the development and incorporation of new technologies. Homogeneous processing has the greatest potential for reaping the full rewards of continuous manufacturing, but it takes long-term vision and a more significant change in process development than heterogeneous processing. Heterogeneous processing has the detriment that, as the technologies are adopted rather than developed, there is a strong tendency to incorporate correction steps, what we call below "The Rube Goldberg Problem." Thus, although heterogeneous processing will likely play a major role in the near-term transformation of heterogeneous to continuous processing, it is expected that homogeneous processing is the next step that will follow. Specific action items for industry leaders are: Form precompetitive partnerships, including industry (pharmaceutical companies and equipment manufacturers), government, and universities. These precompetitive partnerships would develop case studies of continuous manufacturing and ideally perform joint-technology development, including

  5. Recollection is a continuous process: Evidence from plurality memory receiver operating characteristics.

    PubMed

    Slotnick, Scott D; Jeye, Brittany M; Dodson, Chad S

    2016-01-01

    Is recollection a continuous/graded process or a threshold/all-or-none process? Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis can answer this question as the continuous model and the threshold model predict curved and linear recollection ROCs, respectively. As memory for plurality, an item's previous singular or plural form, is assumed to rely on recollection, the nature of recollection can be investigated by evaluating plurality memory ROCs. The present study consisted of four experiments. During encoding, words (singular or plural) or objects (single/singular or duplicate/plural) were presented. During retrieval, old items with the same plurality or different plurality were presented. For each item, participants made a confidence rating ranging from "very sure old", which was correct for same plurality items, to "very sure new", which was correct for different plurality items. Each plurality memory ROC was the proportion of same versus different plurality items classified as "old" (i.e., hits versus false alarms). Chi-squared analysis revealed that all of the plurality memory ROCs were adequately fit by the continuous unequal variance model, whereas none of the ROCs were adequately fit by the two-high threshold model. These plurality memory ROC results indicate recollection is a continuous process, which complements previous source memory and associative memory ROC findings.

  6. Fast pulsed operation of a small non-radioactive electron source with continuous emission current control.

    PubMed

    Cochems, P; Kirk, A T; Bunert, E; Runge, M; Goncalves, P; Zimmermann, S

    2015-06-01

    Non-radioactive electron sources are of great interest in any application requiring the emission of electrons at atmospheric pressure, as they offer better control over emission parameters than radioactive electron sources and are not subject to legal restrictions. Recently, we published a simple electron source consisting only of a vacuum housing, a filament, and a single control grid. In this paper, we present improved control electronics that utilize this control grid in order to focus and defocus the electron beam, thus pulsing the electron emission at atmospheric pressure. This allows short emission pulses and excellent stability of the emitted electron current due to continuous control, both during pulsed and continuous operations. As an application example, this electron source is coupled to an ion mobility spectrometer. Here, the pulsed electron source allows experiments on gas phase ion chemistry (e.g., ion generation and recombination kinetics) and can even remove the need for a traditional ion shutter.

  7. Fast pulsed operation of a small non-radioactive electron source with continuous emission current control

    SciTech Connect

    Cochems, P.; Kirk, A. T.; Bunert, E.; Runge, M.; Goncalves, P.; Zimmermann, S.

    2015-06-15

    Non-radioactive electron sources are of great interest in any application requiring the emission of electrons at atmospheric pressure, as they offer better control over emission parameters than radioactive electron sources and are not subject to legal restrictions. Recently, we published a simple electron source consisting only of a vacuum housing, a filament, and a single control grid. In this paper, we present improved control electronics that utilize this control grid in order to focus and defocus the electron beam, thus pulsing the electron emission at atmospheric pressure. This allows short emission pulses and excellent stability of the emitted electron current due to continuous control, both during pulsed and continuous operations. As an application example, this electron source is coupled to an ion mobility spectrometer. Here, the pulsed electron source allows experiments on gas phase ion chemistry (e.g., ion generation and recombination kinetics) and can even remove the need for a traditional ion shutter.

  8. Use of a single miniplate to achieve intra operative intermaxillary fixation.

    PubMed

    Rai, Anshul; Arora, Aakash; Bhradwaj, Vikrant

    2015-06-01

    There are different treatment modalities mentioned in the literature for achieving intermaxillary fixation (IMF). Arch bars are time consuming, can cause damage to the periodontium, maintenance of oral hygiene is poor. Eyelets are not suitable for dentitions that carry extensive crown and bridge work. IMF screw causes root damage. To avoid all these complications we recommended the use of single miniplate for achieving IMF. PMID:26028877

  9. Continuous and reversible operation of Bi2212 based THz emitters just below Tc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Hidetoshi; Orita, Naoki; Koike, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    2010-12-01

    Continuous and reversible operation of the THz-light emitters comprised of the intrinsic Josephson junction (iJJ) system of high-Tc superconductor BiSrCaCuO (Bi2212) is reported. This reversible emission is observed in samples made of lightly underdoped crystals when a part of the mesa device is so overheated by Joule heating that the temperature reaches Tm near but still below Tc, while the irreversible type of emission occurs at less overheated condition. The large temperature gradient in the mesa due to overheating under high bias currents seems to be responsible for the new observed reversible emission.

  10. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager: Pre-Launch Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Knight, Edward J.; Canova, Brent; Donley, Eric; Kvaran, Geir; Lee, Kenton

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager(OLI) will be the main instrument on Landsat-8 when it launches in 2012. OLI represents a generational change from heritage Landsat instruments in its design but must maintain data continuity with the 30+ year Landsat data archive. As a result, OLI has undergone a stringent calibration and characterization campaign to ensure its characteristics are understood and consistent with past instruments. This paper presents an overview of the OLI design, its major differences from previous Landsat instruments, and a summary of its expected performance.

  11. Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Y.; Slivken, S.; Darvish, S. R.; Razeghi, M.

    2008-07-14

    An InP based quantum cascade laser heterostructure emitting at 4.6 {mu}m was grown with gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The wafer was processed into a conventional double-channel ridge waveguide geometry with ridge widths of 19.7 and 10.6 {mu}m without semi-insulating InP regrowth. An uncoated, narrow ridge device with a 4.8 mm cavity length was epilayer down bonded to a diamond submount and exhibits 2.5 W maximum output power with a wall plug efficiency of 12.5% at room temperature in continuous wave operation.

  12. High-fidelity continuous-variable quantum teleportation toward multistep quantum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Yukawa, Mitsuyoshi; Furusawa, Akira; Benichi, Hugo

    2008-02-15

    The progress in quantum operations of continuous-variable (CV) schemes can be reduced to that in CV quantum teleportation. The fidelity of quantum teleportation of an optical setup is limited by the finite degree of quantum correlation that can be prepared with a pair of finitely squeezed states. Reports of improvement of squeezing level have appeared recently, and we adopted the improved methods in our experimental system of quantum teleportation. As a result, we teleported a coherent state with a fidelity F=0.83{+-}0.01, which is better than any other figures reported to date, to our knowledge. In this paper, we introduce a measure n{sub s}, the number of teleportations expected to be carried out sequentially. Our result corresponds to n{sub s}=5.0{+-}0.4. It suggests that our improvement would enable us to proceed toward more advanced quantum operations involving multiple steps.

  13. Continuous back extraction operation by a single liquid-liquid centrifugal extractor

    SciTech Connect

    Nakase, M.; Takeshita, K.

    2013-07-01

    We have developed a small, high-performance liquid-liquid countercurrent centrifugal extractor for the nuclear fuel cycle. The single extractor allows extraction with many multiple theoretical stages due to the formation of Taylor vortices. We have previously demonstrated multistage extraction for a forward extraction system. In this study, we have applied the centrifugal extractor to a continuous back extraction system with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid. We examined the performance of our concept of the centrifugal extractor by varying the rotational speeds of the inner rotor and the nitric acid concentration in the stripping solution. The dispersion behavior, flow characteristics were determined and the back extraction performance was examined for a single chemical species and for multiple species. Complete back extraction by continuous process was achieved and it showed the possibility to minimize the volume and nitric acid concentration of the stripping solution. Our centrifugal extractors may provide a more effective separation system than the conventional separation process that uses many continuously connected extractors. (authors)

  14. Frequency doubled high-power disk lasers in pulsed and continuous-wave operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Sascha; Hangst, Alexander; Stolzenburg, Christian; Zawischa, Ivo; Sutter, Dirk; Killi, Alexander; Kalfhues, Steffen; Kriegshaeuser, Uwe; Holzer, Marco; Havrilla, David

    2012-03-01

    The disk laser with multi-kW output power in infrared cw operation is widely used in today's manufacturing, primarily in the automotive industry. The disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Additionally, the disk laser is ideally suited for frequency conversion due to its polarized output with negligible depolarization losses. Laser light in the green spectral range (~515 nm) can be created with a nonlinear crystal. Pulsed disk lasers with green output of well above 50 W (extracavity doubling) in the ps regime and several hundreds of Watts in the ns regime with intracavity doubling are already commercially available whereas intracavity doubled disk lasers in continuous wave operation with greater than 250 W output are in test phase. In both operating modes (pulsed and cw) the frequency doubled disk laser offers advantages in existing and new applications. Copper welding for example is said to show much higher process reliability with green laser light due to its higher absorption in comparison to the infrared. This improvement has the potential to be very beneficial for the automotive industry's move to electrical vehicles which requires reliable high-volume welding of copper as a major task for electro motors, batteries, etc.

  15. On the choice of the optimal periodic operation for a continuous fermentation process.

    PubMed

    D'Avino, G; Crescitelli, S; Maffettone, P L; Grosso, M

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we investigate the impact of the forcing waveform on the productivity of a continuous bioreactor governed by an unstructured, nonlinear kinetic model. The (periodic) forcing is applied on the substrate concentration in the feed. To this end, some alternative waveforms commonly encountered in practice are evaluated and their performance is compared. An analytical/numerical approach is used. The preliminary analytical step is based on the π-criterion that gives useful information for small amplitudes. The extension to larger amplitudes, when significant improvements are expected, is then performed through a continuation-optimization procedure. It is found that the choice of the specific waveform has an impact on the performance of the process and there is no unique best forcing for any process condition, but its choice depends on the operating parameters and the forcing amplitude and frequency values. Further, the influence of the waveform functions on the wash-out conditions are extensively examined. The analysis shows that all the waveforms examined in this work may lead to significant enlargement of the nontrivial regime with respect to a steady state operation. In particular, square-wave forcing leads in practice to the extinction of the wash-out conditions for any feed substrate concentration and for a well defined choice of the forcing parameters.

  16. Improvements of PKU PMECRIS for continuous hundred hours CW proton beam operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, S. X.; Zhang, A. L.; Ren, H. T.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, J. F.; Xu, Y.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E.

    2016-02-01

    In order to improve the source stability, a long term continuous wave (CW) proton beam experiment has been carried out with Peking University compact permanent magnet 2.45 GHz ECR ion source (PKU PMECRIS). Before such an experiment a lot of improvements and modifications were completed on the source body, the Faraday cup and the PKU ion source test bench. At the beginning of 2015, a continuous operation of PKU PMECRIS for 306 h with more than 50 mA CW beam was carried out after success of many short term tests. No plasma generator failure or high voltage breakdown was observed during that running period and the proton source reliability is near 100%. Total beam availability, which is defined as 35-keV beam-on time divided by elapsed time, was higher than 99% [S. X. Peng et al., Chin. Phys. B 24(7), 075203 (2015)]. A re-inspection was performed after another additional 100 h operation (counting time) and no obvious sign of component failure was observed. Counting the previous source testing time together, this PMECRs longevity is now demonstrated to be greater than 460 h. This paper is mainly concentrated on the improvements for this long term experiment.

  17. 40 CFR 63.8242 - What are the installation, operation, and maintenance requirements for my continuous monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Continuous Compliance... monitoring systems? (a) If you choose the continuous mercury monitoring option under § 63.8240(a), you must install, operate, and maintain each mercury continuous emissions monitor according to paragraphs...

  18. 40 CFR 63.8242 - What are the installation, operation, and maintenance requirements for my continuous monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Continuous Compliance... monitoring systems? (a) If you choose the continuous mercury monitoring option under § 63.8240(a), you must install, operate, and maintain each mercury continuous emissions monitor according to paragraphs...

  19. 40 CFR 63.8242 - What are the installation, operation, and maintenance requirements for my continuous monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Continuous Compliance... monitoring systems? (a) If you choose the continuous mercury monitoring option under § 63.8240(a), you must install, operate, and maintain each mercury continuous emissions monitor according to paragraphs...

  20. 40 CFR 63.8242 - What are the installation, operation, and maintenance requirements for my continuous monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Continuous Compliance... monitoring systems? (a) If you choose the continuous mercury monitoring option under § 63.8240(a), you must install, operate, and maintain each mercury continuous emissions monitor according to paragraphs...

  1. 40 CFR 63.2378 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations, operating limits, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations, operating limits, and work practice standards? 63.2378 Section 63.2378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  2. 40 CFR 62.14670 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and the operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and the operating limits? 62.14670 Section 62.14670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED...

  3. 40 CFR 63.8242 - What are the installation, operation, and maintenance requirements for my continuous monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Continuous Compliance... monitoring systems? (a) If you choose the continuous mercury monitoring option under § 63.8240(a), you must install, operate, and maintain each mercury continuous emissions monitor according to paragraphs...

  4. Achieving Lights-Out Operation of SMAP Using Ground Data System Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The approach used in the SMAP ground data system to provide reliable, automated capabilities to conduct unattended operations has been presented. The impacts of automation on the ground data system architecture were discussed, including the three major automation patterns identified for SMAP and how these patterns address the operations use cases. The architecture and approaches used by SMAP will set the baseline for future JPL Earth Science missions.

  5. On the Intractability of the Achievement Gap in Urban Schools and the Discursive Practice of Continuing Racial Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.

    2002-01-01

    Achievement gaps between minority and white students may never be resolved because they are an artifact of a measurement process that uses flawed tests to assess student progress. IQ and achievement testing have always shown that socioeconomic status (SES) is critical in explaining test score variance. SES is part of the concept of cultural…

  6. [Continuous operation of hydrogen bio-production reactor with ethanol-type fermentation].

    PubMed

    Ren, Nan-qi; Gong, Man-li; Xing, De-feng

    2004-11-01

    The natural response of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for hydrogen bio-production using molasses wastewater as substrate was investigated. Emphasis was placed on assessing the operational controlling strategy on the stable operation of CSTR with high efficiency. It was found that at an initial biomass of 15g/L, an equilibrial microbial community in the ethanol-type fermentation and efficient stable operation of CSTR could be established with following conditions: temperature of 35 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C, COD organic loading rate (OLR) of 40kg/(m3 x d), hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4h, pH value of 4.6 - 4.9 and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) of -450 - -470mV. Following that, hydrogen production in the reactor was relatively stable. The observed maximal hydrogen bio-production rate was 7.63m3/(m3 x d). The content of hydrogen in the biogas was about 40% - 58%. COD removal rate was between 22% - 26%. The total content of ethanol and acetic acid in the fermentative end products was above 80%.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Continuous Lumbar Paravertebral Versus Continuous Epidural Block for Post-Operative Pain Relief in Hip Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Surange, Pankaj N; Venkata Rama Mohan, Brig Chadalavada

    2012-01-01

    Background: Effective control of postoperative pain remains one of the most important and pressing issues in the field of surgery and has a significant impact on our health care system. In too many patients, pain is treated inadequately, causing them needless suffering and they can develop complications as an indirect consequence of pain. Analgesic modalities, if properly applied, can prevent or at least minimize this needless suffering and these complications. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of continuous infusions of local anesthetic drugs by paravertebral and epidural routes in controlling postoperative pain in patients undergoing hip surgeries. Patients and Methods: The study involved 60 patients who were undergoing hip surgery under the subarachnoid block. They were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 patients. Group I (paravertebral group) received a single dose of spinal anesthesia with 2.5 mL 0.5% bupivacaine (heavy) + a continuous infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine at 5 mL/h in the paravertebral space. Group II (epidural group) received a single dose of spinal anesthesia with 0.5% bupivacaine (heavy) + a continuous infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine at a rate of 5 mL/hr in the epidural space for 48 hours in the postoperative period. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score, vital statistics, rescue analgesia, and procedure time were compared with the corresponding times between the 2 groups by student’s t-test and repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni. P < 0.05 was considered significant. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups regarding mean pain score in the first 48 hours. Results: Mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in the epidural group compared with the paravertebral group from 2 hours after start of the infusion until 48 hrs. Regional anesthesia procedure time was significantly longer in the epidural group (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups

  8. FEMP's O & M Best Practices Guide: A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Gregory P. ); Melendez, Aldo P. ); Pugh, Ray )

    2002-10-01

    FEMP's O & M Best Practices Guide (O & M BPG) highlights O & M programs targeting energy efficiency that are estimated to save between 5% and 20% on energy bills without a significant capital investment. Depending on the Federal site, these savings can represent thousands to hundreds-of-thousands of dollars each year, and many can be achieved with minimal cash outlays. In addition to energy/resource savings, a well-run O & M program will (1)increase the safety of all staff because properly maintained equipment is safer equipment; (2)ensure the comfort, health and safety of building occupants through properly functioning equipment providing a healthy indoor environment; (3)confirm the design life expectancy of equipment is achieved; and (4)facilitate the compliance with Federal legislation such as the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act. The focus of this guide is to provide the Federal O & M/Energy manager and practitioner with information and actions aimed at achieving these savings and benefits. The O & M BPG was developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP).

  9. Removal of sulfur dioxide from a continuously operated binary fluidized bed reactor using inert solids and hydrated lime.

    PubMed

    Pisani, R; de Moraes, D

    2004-06-18

    Sulfur dioxide pollutant was treated in the laboratory with hydrated lime particles having a mean diameter of 9.1 microm in a continuously operating binary fluidized bed reactor also containing inert sand particles with sizes varying from 500 to 590 microm. The influence of temperature (500, 600, 700 and 800 degrees C) on the reaction medium, of the superficial velocity of the gas (0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 m/s), and of the Ca/S molar ratio (1, 2 and 3) on the SO2 removal efficiency were investigated for an inflow gas concentration of 1000 ppm and an initially static bed height of 10.0 cm. The pollutant removal efficiency proved to depend on the temperature and the velocity of the gaseous flow and was strongly influenced by the Ca/S molar ratio. The maximum efficiency of 97.7% was achieved at a temperature of 700 degrees C, a Ca/S ratio of 3 and a velocity of 0.8 m/s. The lime particles' mean residence time was determined by an indirect method, which consisted of integrating the gas concentration curves normalized with respect to time. Based on a calculation of the critical transition velocities, it was concluded that the reactor operated in a bubbling regime under each condition investigated here. PMID:15177758

  10. Operation of a Pressurized System for Continuous Reduction of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Dufek; Tedd E. Lister; Simon Stone; Michael E. McIlwain

    2012-09-01

    A Ag-based pressurized electrochemical system equipped for continuous reduction of CO2 is presented. At elevated pressures the quantity of CO which can be generated is 5 times that observed at ambient pressure with faradaic efficiencies as high as 92% observed at 350 mA cm-2. For operation at 225 mA cm-2 and 60 degrees C the cell voltage at 18.5 atm was 0.4 V below that observed at ambient pressure. Increasing the temperature further to 90 degrees C led to a cell voltage below 3 V (18.5 atm and 90 degrees C), which equates to an electrical efficiency of 50%.

  11. Dynamical Localization for Discrete and Continuous Random Schrödinger Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germinet, F.; De Bièvre, S.

    We show for a large class of random Schrödinger operators Ho on and on that dynamical localization holds, i.e. that, with probability one, for a suitable energy interval I and for q a positive real, Here ψ is a function of sufficiently rapid decrease, and PI(Ho) is the spectral projector of Ho corresponding to the interval I. The result is obtained through the control of the decay of the eigenfunctions of Ho and covers, in the discrete case, the Anderson tight-binding model with Bernoulli potential (dimension ν = 1) or singular potential (ν > 1), and in the continuous case Anderson as well as random Landau Hamiltonians.

  12. Summary of the operational land imager focal plane array for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, Kirk A.; Burmester, William; Malone, Kevin; Schrein, Ronald J.; Irwin, Ronda; Donley, Eric; Collins, Sandra R.

    2011-10-01

    The Landsat missions are the longest continuous record of changes in the Earth's surface as seen from space. The next follow-on activity is the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The LDCM objective is to extend the ability to detect and quantitatively characterize changes on the global land surface at a scale where natural and man-made causes of change can be detected and differentiated. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is one of two instruments on the LDCM spacecraft. OLI will produce science data for the reflective bands, which include 6 visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and 3 short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands. The OLI instrument utilizes a pushbroom design with 15.5 degree field of view. As a result, the OLI Focal Plane Array (FPA) cross track dimension is large, and the FPA is a critical technology for the success of the mission. The FPA contains 14 critically aligned Focal Plane Modules (FPM) and consists of 6916 imaging pixels in each of the 8 multi-spectral bands, and 13,832 imaging pixels in the panchromatic band. Prior to integration into the FPA, the FPMs were characterized for radiometric, spectral, and spatial performance. The Flight FPA has been built and its performance has also been characterized. In this paper, the critical attributes of the FPMs and FPA are highlighted. Detailed description of the FPM and FPA test sets are provided. The performance results that demonstrate compliance to the science mission requirements are presented.

  13. [Synthesis of diacylglycerol using immoblized regiospecific lipase in continuously operated fixed bed reactors].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-He; Sun, Pei-Long; Yang, Kai; He, Rong-Jun; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2005-05-01

    Diacylglycerol, DAG, because of its multifunctional and nutritional properties, attracted considerable attention recently. Enzymatic synthesis of diacylglycerols from linoleic acid was investigated in a solvent-free reaction in a continuously operated fixed bed reactors containing Lipozyme RM IM. By appropriate manipulation of the fluid-residence time, the relative proportions of the various acylglycerols in the effluent stream can be controlled. In addition, the presence of excess glycerol is effective for the removal of water produced during the esterification reactions. Under the conditions of molar ratio of linoleic acid to glycerol of 0.5, the immoblized enzyme maintained high stability and allowed the reaction to continue for 10 days without significant deterioration in enzyme activity. It was determined that the conversion of fatty acid, content of 1,3-DAG and volume efficiency of reactor reached optima under the conditions: a packaged-bed reactor(with a ratio of packed length to inner diameter of 7.8), reacting temperature at 65 degrees C, molar ratio of linoleic acid to glycerol of 0.5, and feeding flow rate of 1.2 mL/min.

  14. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  15. O&M Best Practices - A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency (Release 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Pugh, Ray; Melendez, Aldo P.; Hunt, W. D.

    2004-07-31

    This guide, sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program, highlights operations and maintenance (O&M) programs targeting energy efficiency that are estimated to save 5% to 20% on energy bills without a significant capital investment. The purpose of this guide is to provide the federal O&M energy manager and practitioner with useful information about O&M management, technologies, energy efficiency and cost-reduction approaches.

  16. The use of ECDIS equipment to achieve an optimum value for energy efficiency operation index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acomi, N.; Acomi, O. C.; Stanca, C.

    2015-11-01

    To reduce air pollution produced by ships, the International Maritime Organization has developed a set of technical, operational and management measures. The subject of our research addresses the operational measures for minimizing CO2 air emissions and the way how the emission value could be influenced by external factors regardless of ship-owners’ will. This study aims to analyse the air emissions for a loaded voyage leg performed by an oil tanker. The formula that allows us to calculate the predicted Energy Efficiency Operational Index involves the estimation of distance and fuel consumption, while the quantity of cargo is known. The electronic chart display and information system, ECDIS Simulation Software, will be used for adjusting the passage plan in real time, given the predicted severe environmental conditions. The distance will be determined using ECDIS, while the prediction of the fuel consumption will consider the sea trial and the vessel experience records. That way it will be possible to compare the estimated EEOI value in the case of great circle navigation in adverse weather condition with the estimated EEOI value for weather navigation.

  17. Landsat Data Continuity Mission operational land imager and thermal infrared sensor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Reuter, Dennis; Thome, Kurtis J.; Irons, James R.; Barsi, Julia A.; Montanaro, Matt

    2011-10-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) will have two pushbroom Earth-imaging sensors: the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS). The OLI has the reflective 30-meter and panchromatic 15-meter ETM+ bands plus additional 30-meter bands at 443 nm and 1375 nm. The TIRS has two 100-meter bands that spectrally split the ETM+ thermal band. OLI has completed performance testing and is scheduled for a late summer 2011 delivery to the spacecraft. OLI radiometric performance has shown that polarization sensitivity is 1-2%; Signal-to-Noise Ratios at signal levels about 5-10% of full scale are between 6-12 times better than ETM+, e.g., 250 versus 30; radiometric stability over 16 days is better than 0.5% (2-sigma); coherent noise is not visible; detector operability is 100% (no dead or inoperable detectors), absolute radiance calibration uncertainty is ~4%, reflectance calibration uncertainty is ~2.5% and detector-to-detector radiometric uniformity is generally better than 0.5%. TIRS completed initial performance testing in March 2011 and in August 2011 will be entering its primary thermal vacuum performance testing with the integrated instrument. At this point indications are that the TIRS instrument will have noise levels roughly ¼ of the ETM+ bands and detector-to-detector radiometric uniformity of better than 0.5%.

  18. Technology development for remote, computer-assisted operation of a continuous mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Schnakenberg, G.H.

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines was created to conduct research to improve the health, safety, and efficiency of the coal and metal mining industries. In 1986, the Bureau embarked on a new, major research effort to develop the technology that would enable the relocation of workers from hazardous areas to areas of relative safety. This effort is in contrast to historical efforts by the Bureau of controlling or reducing the hazardous agent or providing protection to the worker. The technologies associated with automation, robotics, and computer software and hardware systems had progressed to the point that their use to develop computer-assisted operation of mobile mining equipment appeared to be a cost-effective and accomplishable task. At the first International Symposium of Mine Mechanization and Automation, an overview of the Bureau`s computer-assisted mining program for underground coal mining was presented. The elements included providing computer-assisted tele-remote operation of continuous mining machines, haulage systems and roof bolting machines. Areas of research included sensors for machine guidance and for coal interface detection. Additionally, the research included computer hardware and software architectures which are extremely important in developing technology that is transferable to industry and is flexible enough to accommodate the variety of machines used in coal mining today. This paper provides an update of the research under the computer-assisted mining program.

  19. Feasibility of Construction of the Continuously Operating Geodetic GPS Network of Sinaloa, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, G. E.; Jacobo, C.

    2011-12-01

    This research is based on the study and analysis of feasibility for the construction of the geodetic network for GPS continuous operation for Sinaloa, hereafter called (RGOCSIN). A GPS network of continuous operation is defined as that materialized structure physically through permanent monuments where measurements to the systems of Global Positioning (GPS) is performed continuously throughout a region. The GPS measurements in this network are measurements of accuracy according to international standards to define its coordinates, thus constituting the basic structure of geodetic referencing for a country. In this context is that in the near future the RGOCSIN constitutes a system state only accurate and reliable georeferencing in real-time (continuous and permanent operation) and will be used for different purposes; i.e., in addition to being fundamental basis for any lifting topographic or geodetic survey, and other areas such as: (1) Different construction processes (control and monitoring of engineering works); (2) Studies of deformation of the Earth's crust (before and after a seismic event); (3) GPS meteorology (weather forecasting); (4) Demarcation projects (natural and political); (5) Establishment of bases to generate mapping (necessary for the economic and social development of the state); (6) Precision agriculture (optimization of economic resources to the various crops); (7) Geographic information systems (Organization and planning activities associated with the design and construction of public services); (8) Urban growth (possible settlements in the appropriate form and taking care of the environmental aspect), among others. However there are criteria and regulations according to the INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, http://www.inegi.org.mx/) that must be met; even for this stage of feasibility of construction that sees this project as a first phase. The fundamental criterion to be taken into account according to INEGI is a

  20. Conceptual design study of advanced acoustic composite nacelle. [for achieving reductions in community noise and operating expense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodall, R. G.; Painter, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual nacelle designs for wide-bodied and for advanced-technology transports were studied with the objective of achieving significant reductions in community noise with minimum penalties in airplane weight, cost, and in operating expense by the application of advanced composite materials to nacelle structure and sound suppression elements. Nacelle concepts using advanced liners, annular splitters, radial splitters, translating centerbody inlets, and mixed-flow nozzles were evaluated and a preferred concept selected. A preliminary design study of the selected concept, a mixed flow nacelle with extended inlet and no splitters, was conducted and the effects on noise, direct operating cost, and return on investment determined.

  1. High-Stakes Tests: Comparative Study Examining the Impact on the Achievement Gap that Causes Minority Students Continued Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Smith, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative qualitative study examined the impact of the achievement gap on the lack of highly qualified teachers instructing African American students consistently from K-12th grades and its effects on high-stakes testing. In addition, the study examined teacher perceptions that could also be contributing factors of the…

  2. The Continued Evaluation of Voucher Impact on the Achievement of Elementary Students in a Majority African American Public School District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Kim K.; Boone, William J.; Legan, Natalie A.; Paul, Kelli M.

    Vouchers for students in urban school districts may promote the increased participation of underrepresented groups in the fields of science and engineering in at least two ways: (a) by optimizing the achievement of students who use vouchers and (b) by expanding the scope of educational and curricular options available to students. Presently, nearly 5,000 children in Cleveland, Ohio, attend private schools with publicly funded vouchers. This study presents the results of evaluating the achievement of a cohort of these students from the fall of first grade to the spring of fourth grade. For public school students, first grade seems to be a time during which they catch up with peers who attend private schools with vouchers. The analysis of data using adjusted measures suggests no differences in achievement from first grade to fourth grade with respect to achievement in many content areas. The use of unadjusted measures suggests possible differences with respect to fourth grade reading (with voucher students performing at a statistically higher level than their peers). The present data set neither clearly supports nor refutes the use of vouchers.

  3. Longitudinal Analysis of the Role of Perceived Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning in Academic Continuance and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Fida, Roberta; Vecchione, Michele; Del Bove, Giannetta; Vecchio, Giovanni Maria; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Bandura, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the developmental course of perceived efficacy for self-regulated learning and its contribution to academic achievement and likelihood of remaining in school in a sample of 412 Italian students (48% males and 52% females ranging in age from 12 to 22 years). Latent growth curve analysis revealed a progressive decline in…

  4. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Yyyy of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limitations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compliance by . . . 1. with an oxidation catalyst continuously monitoring the inlet temperature to the... the catalyst manufacturer. 2. without the use of an oxidation catalyst continuously monitoring...

  5. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Yyyy of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limitations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compliance by . . . 1. with an oxidation catalyst continuously monitoring the inlet temperature to the... the catalyst manufacturer. 2. without the use of an oxidation catalyst continuously monitoring...

  6. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Yyyy of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limitations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance by . . . 1. with an oxidation catalyst continuously monitoring the inlet temperature to the... the catalyst manufacturer. 2. without the use of an oxidation catalyst continuously monitoring...

  7. Practical strategies for stable operation of HFF-QCM in continuous air flow.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Alexander; Klöckner, Bernhard; Siering, Carsten; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2013-09-09

    Currently there are a few fields of application using quartz crystal microbalances (QCM). Because of environmental conditions and insufficient resolution of the microbalance, chemical sensing of volatile organic compounds in an open system was as yet not possible. In this study we present strategies on how to use 195 MHz fundamental quartz resonators for a mobile sensor platform to detect airborne analytes. Commonly the use of devices with a resonant frequency of about 10 MHz is standard. By increasing the frequency to 195 MHz the frequency shift increases by a factor of almost 400. Unfortunately, such kinds of quartz crystals tend to exhibit some challenges to obtain a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. It was possible to reduce the noise in frequency in a continuous air flow of 7.5 m/s to 0.4 Hz [i.e., σ(τ) = 2 × 10-9] by elucidating the major source of noise. The air flow in the vicinity of the quartz was analyzed to reduce turbulences. Furthermore, we found a dependency between the acceleration sensitivity and mechanical stress induced by an internal thermal gradient. By reducing this gradient, we achieved reduction of the sensitivity to acceleration by more than one decade. Hence, the resulting sensor is more robust to environmental conditions such as temperature, acceleration and air flow.

  8. Practical Strategies for Stable Operation of HFF-QCM in Continuous Air Flow

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Alexander; Klöckner, Bernhard; Siering, Carsten; Waldvogel, Siegfried R.

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are a few fields of application using quartz crystal microbalances (QCM). Because of environmental conditions and insufficient resolution of the microbalance, chemical sensing of volatile organic compounds in an open system was as yet not possible. In this study we present strategies on how to use 195 MHz fundamental quartz resonators for a mobile sensor platform to detect airborne analytes. Commonly the use of devices with a resonant frequency of about 10 MHz is standard. By increasing the frequency to 195 MHz the frequency shift increases by a factor of almost 400. Unfortunately, such kinds of quartz crystals tend to exhibit some challenges to obtain a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. It was possible to reduce the noise in frequency in a continuous air flow of 7.5 m/s to 0.4 Hz [i.e., σ(τ) = 2 × 10−9] by elucidating the major source of noise. The air flow in the vicinity of the quartz was analyzed to reduce turbulences. Furthermore, we found a dependency between the acceleration sensitivity and mechanical stress induced by an internal thermal gradient. By reducing this gradient, we achieved reduction of the sensitivity to acceleration by more than one decade. Hence, the resulting sensor is more robust to environmental conditions such as temperature, acceleration and air flow. PMID:24021970

  9. Development and Field Testing of a Continuously Operating CO2 Lidar Profiling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, S.; Refaat, T.; Koch, G. J.; Davis, K.; Abedin, N. M.; Rubio, M. A.; Singh, U. N.

    2009-05-01

    A ground-based 2-micron DIAL system for profiling atmospheric CO2 was developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program. This system leverages 2-micron laser technology developed under a number of NASA programs to develop new solid-state YLF laser technology that provides high pulse energy, tunable, wavelength-stabilized, and double-pulsed lasers that are operable over pre-selected temperature insensitive strong CO2 absorption lines suitable for profiling of lower tropospheric CO2. It also incorporates new high quantum efficiency, high gain, and relatively low noise phototransistors, and a new receiver/signal processor system to achieve high precision DIAL measurements. The DIAL system was integrated and tested at LaRC, and then incorporated in a field experiment for evaluation. The field experiment was conducted during June-July 2008, at West Branch, Iowa, which is located at the center of a domain rich in complementary CO2 measurements. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the system and its ability to distinguish contents between boundary layer and free troposphere. Therefore, the experiment was co-located with other CO2 measurement setups that aid the evaluation. These setups include NOAA WBI tower with in-situ CO2 sampling sensors at 31, 99 and 379 m altitudes; NOAA airborne CO2 profiling; and radiosondes for atmospheric temperature, pressure and relative humidity profiling at the site. The lidar operations included daytime CO2 measurements to sense the well-mixed atmospheric boundary layer and overlying troposphere; day-to-night and night-to-day transitions; and night observations to capture CO2 mixing ratio differences within the boundary layer. Measurements included atmospheric CO2 spatial and temporal profiles as well as column measurements using high altitude clouds. Examples of CO2 DIAL system capability and measurements from the field experiment will be presented.

  10. Use of Virtual Mission Operations Center Technology to Achieve JPDO's Virtual Tower Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip E.

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Program Development Office has proposed that the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) consolidate control centers. NGATS would be managed from a few strategically located facilities with virtual towers and TRACONS. This consolidation is about combining the delivery locations for these services not about decreasing service. By consolidating these locations, cost savings in the order of $500 million have been projected. Evolving to spaced-based communication, navigation, and surveillance offers the opportunity to reduce or eliminate much of the ground-based infrastructure cost. Dynamically adjusted airspace offers the opportunity to reduce the number of sectors and boundary inconsistencies; eliminate or reduce "handoffs;" and eliminate the distinction between Towers, TRACONS, and Enroute Centers. To realize a consolidation vision for air traffic management there must be investment in networking. One technology that holds great potential is the use of Virtual Mission Operations Centers to provide secure, automated, intelligent management of the NGATS. This paper provides a conceptual framework for incorporating VMOC into the NGATS.

  11. Integrated Operating Scenario to Achieve 100-Second, High Electron Temperature Discharge on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jinping; Gong, Xianzu; Wan, Baonian; Liu, Fukun; Wang, Mao; Xu, Handong; Hu, Chundong; Wang, Liang; Li, Erzhong; Zeng, Long; Ti, Ang; Shen, Biao; Lin, Shiyao; Shao, Linming; Zang, Qing; Liu, Haiqing; Zhang, Bin; Sun, Youwen; Xu, Guosheng; Liang, Yunfeng; Xiao, Bingjia; Hu, Liqun; Li, Jiangang; EAST Team

    2016-05-01

    Stationary long pulse plasma of high electron temperature was produced on EAST for the first time through an integrated control of plasma shape, divertor heat flux, particle exhaust, wall conditioning, impurity management, and the coupling of multiple heating and current drive power. A discharge with a lower single null divertor configuration was maintained for 103 s at a plasma current of 0.4 MA, q95 ≈7.0, a peak electron temperature of >4.5 keV, and a central density ne(0)˜2.5×1019 m-3. The plasma current was nearly non-inductive (Vloop <0.05 V, poloidal beta ˜ 0.9) driven by a combination of 0.6 MW lower hybrid wave at 2.45 GHz, 1.4 MW lower hybrid wave at 4.6 GHz, 0.5 MW electron cyclotron heating at 140 GHz, and 0.4 MW modulated neutral deuterium beam injected at 60 kV. This progress demonstrated strong synergy of electron cyclotron and lower hybrid electron heating, current drive, and energy confinement of stationary plasma on EAST. It further introduced an example of integrated “hybrid” operating scenario of interest to ITER and CFETR. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Foundation of China (Nos. 2015GB102000 and 2014GB103000)

  12. Achieving operational two-way laser acquisition for OPALS payload on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Sindiy, Oleg; Biswas, Abhijit

    2015-03-01

    The Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) experiment was installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in April 2014. Developed as a technology demonstration, its objective was to experiment with space-to-ground optical communications transmissions from Low Earth Orbit. More than a dozen successful optical links were established between a Wrightwood, California-based ground telescope and the OPALS flight terminal from June 2014 to September 2014. Each transmission required precise bi-directional pointing to be maintained between the space-based transmitter and ground-based receiver. This was accomplished by acquiring and tracking a laser beacon signal transmitted from the ground telescope to the OPALS flight terminal on the ISS. OPALS demonstrated the ability to nominally acquire the beacon within three seconds at 25° elevation and maintain lock within 140 μrad (3σ) for the full 150-second transmission duration while slewing at rates up to 1°/sec. Additional acquisition attempts in low elevation and weather-challenged conditions provided valuable insight on the optical link robustness under off-nominal operational conditions.

  13. Operating conditions for the continuous bioremediation of free cyanide contaminated wastewater using Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Santos, B A Q; Ntwampe, S K O; Doughari, J H; Muchatibaya, G

    2014-01-01

    Generation of cyanide-containing wastewater is a growing problem worldwide as numerous cyanide complexes are highly unstable and degrade to form free cyanide (F-CN), the most toxic form of cyanide. Agro-waste materials, such as sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) waste from the citrus industry, are rich in readily metabolisable carbohydrates that can supplement microbial activity and thus support biodegradation of toxic compounds in wastewater. This study reports on optimal operating conditions for the continuous biodegradation of F-CN in wastewater using an Aspergillus awamori isolate in a process supported solely using C. sinensis waste extract. The optimal degradation conditions were pH 8.75 and 37.02 °C with the isolate's F-CN tolerance being observed up to 430 mg F-CN/L. Furthermore, the ammonium produced as a by-product of F-CN degradation was also metabolised by the A. awamori, with negligible residual citric acid and formate being observed in the effluent post treatment. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using agricultural waste as a primary and sole carbon source for the cultivation of a cyanide-degrading A. awamori species for F-CN degradation under alkaline conditions. PMID:24622547

  14. Design and performance of an automatic regenerating adsorption aerosol dryer for continuous operation at monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuch, T. M.; Haudek, A.; Müller, T.; Nowak, A.; Wex, H.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sizes of aerosol particles depend on the relative humidity of their carrier gas. Most monitoring networks require therefore that the aerosol is dried to a relative humidity below 50% RH to ensure comparability of measurements at different sites. Commercially available aerosol dryers are often not suitable for this purpose at remote monitoring sites. Adsorption dryers need to be regenerated frequently and maintenance-free single column Nafion dryers are not designed for high aerosol flow rates. We therefore developed an automatic regenerating adsorption aerosol dryer with a design flow rate of 1 m3/h. Particle transmission efficiency of this dryer has been determined during a 3 weeks experiment. The lower 50% cut-off was found to be below 3 nm at the design flow rate of the instrument. Measured transmission efficiencies are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. One drier has been successfully deployed in the Amazonas river basin. From this monitoring site, we present data from the first 6 months of measurements (February 2008-August 2008). Apart from one unscheduled service, this dryer did not require any maintenance during this time period. The average relative humidity of the dried aerosol was 27.1+/-7.5% RH compared to an average ambient relative humidity of nearly 80% and temperatures around 30°C. This initial deployment demonstrated that these dryers are well suitable for continuous operation at remote monitoring sites under adverse ambient conditions.

  15. Political and cultural factors in achieving continuity with a primary health care provider at an Indian Health Service hospital.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, A J; Olson, A L

    1981-01-01

    A primary care system was established at Zuni-Ramah Indian Health Service Hospital and clinic in New Mexico. Continuity and coordination of care were added to a health care system that was already accountable, accessible, and comprehensive. The new system offered each patient a personal health care provider who worked as a member of a multidisciplinary team. In changing the health care system, special attention was given to its cultural and political setting, the village of Zuni. After thorough discussion with community and staff, community members' concerns about patients' privacy and free choice were better understood, and special efforts were made to safeguard them. Ongoing evaluation is essential to maintain continuity. Eight months after the primary care system was begun, 64 percent of patients who came for care had established a personal relationship with a health care provider. For 59 percent of the visits during the 1-month evaluation period, patients saw their regular provider and, for 82 percent, patients saw their provider or one of his or her team colleagues. These percentages include night and walk-in visits. The system required no extra funding or staff. The political process of planning and consultation helped anticipate and alleviate the community's concerns, but resistance from physician's assistants and some physicians was unexpected. A flexible approach has led to a gradual acceptance of this voluntary system. This experience with the people of Zuni village shows that a primary care system can be started in a rural Indian Health Service facility with minimal outside help. Apparent improvements in quality of care make the continuity of primary care worthy of further consideration in the IHS and similar health services systems.

  16. Continuous wave and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ in disordered NaLa(MoO4)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico, M.; Liu, J.; Cano-Torres, J. M.; García-Cortés, A.; Cascales, C.; Zaldo, C.; Griebner, U.; Petrov, V.

    2005-09-01

    Continuous-wave Yb3+ laser operation is studied in single crystals of disordered NaLa(MoO4)2 at room temperature. The sample used was grown by the Czochralski technique and incorporates an Yb ion density of 3.1×1020 cm-3. The effect of the Yb concentration on some of the crystal properties is described as well as the spectroscopic Yb3+ properties at 5 K. Maximum slope efficiencies of about 40% for π and 38% for σ polarization were obtained under Ti:sapphire laser pumping near 976 nm, respectively. The maximum output power for the π polarization was 400 mW at 1039.5 nm, the threshold in this case amounted to 240 mW (absorbed pump power). The laser emission was tunable between 1016 and 1064 nm with a Lyot filter. Lasing was also realized by pumping with a fiber-coupled diode laser module. Maximum output power of 900 mW at 1035 nm was achieved in this case for the π polarization and the threshold was 280 mW. The results, in terms of output power and tunability, are superior in comparison to all previous reports on Yb-doped disordered double tungstate or molybdate crystals and represent a significant improvement in comparison to earlier experiments with low-doped Yb:NaLa(MoO4)2.

  17. Biological Assessment of the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory on Federally Listed Threatened and Endangered Species

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Leslie A.

    2006-09-19

    This biological assessment considers the effects of continuing to operate Los Alamos National Laboratory on Federally listed threatened or endangered species, based on current and future operations identified in the 2006 Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS; DOE In Prep.). We reviewed 40 projects analyzed in the SWEIS as well as two aspects on ongoing operations to determine if these actions had the potential to affect Federally listed species. Eighteen projects that had not already received U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) consultation and concurrence, as well as the two aspects of ongoing operations, ecological risk from legacy contaminants and the Outfall Reduction Project, were determined to have the potential to affect threatened or endangered species. Cumulative impacts were also analyzed.

  18. High-temperature, continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides and third-order distributed feedback.

    PubMed

    Wienold, M; Röben, B; Schrottke, L; Sharma, R; Tahraoui, A; Biermann, K; Grahn, H T

    2014-02-10

    Currently, different competing waveguide and resonator concepts exist for terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (THz QCLs). We examine the continuous-wave (cw) performance of THz QCLs with single-plasmon (SP) and metal-metal (MM) waveguides fabricated from the same wafer. While SP QCLs are superior in terms of output power, the maximum operating temperature for MM QCLs is typically much higher. For SP QCLs, we observed cw operation up to 73 K as compared to 129 K for narrow (≤ 15 μm) MM QCLs. In the latter case, single-mode operation and a narrow beam profile were achieved by applying third-order distributed-feedback gratings and contact pads which are optically insulated from the intended resonators. We present a quantitative analytic model for the beam profile, which is based on experimentally accessible parameters.

  19. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Sssss of... - Continuous Compliance with Operating Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Recording the organic HAP processing rate (pounds per hour); andii. Recording the operating temperature of... block average operating temperature in the thermal oxidizer combustion chamber at or above the minimum allowable operating temperature established during the most recent performance test i. Measuring...

  20. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Sssss of... - Continuous Compliance with Operating Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Recording the organic HAP processing rate (pounds per hour); andii. Recording the operating temperature of... block average operating temperature in the thermal oxidizer combustion chamber at or above the minimum allowable operating temperature established during the most recent performance test i. Measuring...

  1. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Sssss of... - Continuous Compliance with Operating Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Recording the organic HAP processing rate (pounds per hour); andii. Recording the operating temperature of... block average operating temperature in the thermal oxidizer combustion chamber at or above the minimum allowable operating temperature established during the most recent performance test i. Measuring...

  2. Integrating an incident management system within a continuity of operations programme: case study of the Bank of Canada.

    PubMed

    Loop, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Carrying out critical business functions without interruption requires a resilient and robust business continuity framework. By embedding an industry-standard incident management system within its business continuity structure, the Bank of Canada strengthened its response plan by enabling timely response to incidents while maintaining a strong focus on business continuity. A total programme approach, integrating the two disciplines, provided for enhanced recovery capabilities. While the value of an effective and efficient response organisation is clear, as demonstrated by emergency events around the world, incident response structures based on normal operating hierarchy can experience unique challenges. The internationally-recognised Incident Command System (ICS) model addresses these issues and reflects the five primary incident management functions, each contributing to the overall strength and effectiveness of the response organisation. The paper focuses on the Bank of Canada's successful implementation of the ICS model as its incident management and continuity of operations programmes evolved to reflect current best practices. PMID:23615067

  3. Integrating an incident management system within a continuity of operations programme: case study of the Bank of Canada.

    PubMed

    Loop, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Carrying out critical business functions without interruption requires a resilient and robust business continuity framework. By embedding an industry-standard incident management system within its business continuity structure, the Bank of Canada strengthened its response plan by enabling timely response to incidents while maintaining a strong focus on business continuity. A total programme approach, integrating the two disciplines, provided for enhanced recovery capabilities. While the value of an effective and efficient response organisation is clear, as demonstrated by emergency events around the world, incident response structures based on normal operating hierarchy can experience unique challenges. The internationally-recognised Incident Command System (ICS) model addresses these issues and reflects the five primary incident management functions, each contributing to the overall strength and effectiveness of the response organisation. The paper focuses on the Bank of Canada's successful implementation of the ICS model as its incident management and continuity of operations programmes evolved to reflect current best practices.

  4. Mission Continuity Planning: Strategically Assessing and Planning for Threats to Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayoumi, Mohammad H.

    This book covers the principles of risk and risk management and offers a framework for analyzing the significant, often unforeseen threats facing higher education institutions today. It examines the critical elements of a disaster preparedness plan and addresses business continuity and mission continuity planning. The book also provides tools for…

  5. COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network): Network Status and Project Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feaux, K.; Braun, J. J.; Calais, E.; Dausz, K.; Friesen, B. T.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.; Normandeau, J.; Seider, E.; Wang, G.

    2012-12-01

    The beauty and diversity of the Caribbean region result from geological and atmospheric processes that also pose serious threats to the large population within reach of seismic faults, hurricanes tracks, or sea-level change. The capacity to understand, prepare for, adapt to, and in some cases predict these natural hazards requires Earth observations on both large and small scales. The COCONet project was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with the aim of developing a large-scale geodetic and atmospheric infrastructure in the Caribbean that will form the backbone for a broad range of geoscience and atmospheric investigations and enable research on process-oriented science questions with direct relevance to geohazards. COCONet will consist of 50 new GPS and meteorological stations throughout the Caribbean region, 15 existing stations refurbished with new receivers, antennas, and meteorological instruments, and will also incorporate data from up to 61 existing operational GPS stations. Additional funding has recently been allocated to install 2 new collocated GPS and tide gauge sites and also add GPS instruments at two existing tide gauge sites in the Caribbean region. COCONet will provide free, high-quality, low-latency, open-format data and data products for researchers, educators, students, and the private sector. Data will be used by US and international scientists to study solid earth processes such as plate kinematics and dynamics as well as plate boundary interactions and deformation, with an emphasis on the earthquake cycle. COCNet will also serve atmospheric science objectives by providing more precise estimates of tropospheric water vapor and enabling better forecast of the dynamics of airborne moisture associated with the yearly Caribbean hurricane cycle. COCONet is being installed and will be maintained by UNAVCO on behalf of the science and other user communities in the United States and abroad, thus leveraging UNAVCO's proven record of

  6. Startup and long term operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal in continuous-flow reactor with granules.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    The startup and long term operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in a continuous-flow reactor (CFR) with granules were investigated in this study. Through reducing the settling time from 9min to 3min gradually, the startup of EBPR in a CFR with granules was successfully realized in 16days. Under continuous-flow operation, the granules with good phosphorus and COD removal performance were stably operated for more than 6months. And the granules were characterized with particle size of around 960μm, loose structure and good settling ability. During the startup phase, polysaccharides (PS) was secreted excessively by microorganisms to resist the influence from the variation of operational mode. Results of relative quantitative PCR indicated that granules dominated by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) were easier accumulated in the CFR because more excellent settling ability was needed in the system.

  7. Startup and long term operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal in continuous-flow reactor with granules.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    The startup and long term operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in a continuous-flow reactor (CFR) with granules were investigated in this study. Through reducing the settling time from 9min to 3min gradually, the startup of EBPR in a CFR with granules was successfully realized in 16days. Under continuous-flow operation, the granules with good phosphorus and COD removal performance were stably operated for more than 6months. And the granules were characterized with particle size of around 960μm, loose structure and good settling ability. During the startup phase, polysaccharides (PS) was secreted excessively by microorganisms to resist the influence from the variation of operational mode. Results of relative quantitative PCR indicated that granules dominated by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) were easier accumulated in the CFR because more excellent settling ability was needed in the system. PMID:27085149

  8. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Aaaaa of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... required by 40 CFR part 63, subpart A, General Provisions and according to PS-1 of appendix B to part 60 of... equipped with an ESP or FF using a PM detector a. Maintain and operate the FF or ESP such that the bag leak... the total operating time in each 6-month period (i) Operating the FF or ESP so that the alarm on...

  9. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Aaaaa of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... required by 40 CFR part 63, subpart A, General Provisions and according to PS-1 of appendix B to part 60 of... equipped with an ESP or FF using a PM detector a. Maintain and operate the FF or ESP such that the bag leak... the total operating time in each 6-month period (i) Operating the FF or ESP so that the alarm on...

  10. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Aaaaa of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... required by 40 CFR part 63, subpart A, General Provisions and according to PS-1 of appendix B to part 60 of... equipped with an ESP or FF using a PM detector a. Maintain and operate the FF or ESP such that the bag leak... the total operating time in each 6-month period (i) Operating the FF or ESP so that the alarm on...

  11. Entering "A NEW REALM" of KIBO Payload Operations - Continuous efforts for microgravity experiment environment and lessons learned from real time experiment operations in KIBO -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakagami, K.; Goto, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Ohkuma, H.

    2011-12-01

    On January 22nd, 2011(JST), KOUNOTORI2 (H-II Transfer Vehicle: HTV2) was successfully launched from Tanegashima Space Center toward the International Space Station (ISS) and two new JAXA payload racks, Kobairo rack and MSPR (Multi-purpose Small Payload Rack) were transferred to ISS/KIBO (Japanese Experiment Module: JEM). In addition to Saibo rack and Ryutai rack which are already in operation in KIBO, in total 4 Japanese experiment payload racks start operations in KIBO. Then KIBO payload operations embark on a new realm, full utilization phase. While the number and variety of microgravity experiments become increasing, simultaneous operation constraints should be considered to achieve multitask payload operations in ISS/KIBO and ever more complicated cooperative operations between crewmember and flight control team/science team are required. Especially for g-jitter improvement in ISS/KIBO, we have greatly advanced cooperative operations with crewmember in the recent increment based on the microgravity data analysis results. In this paper, newly operating Japanese experiment payloads characteristics and some methods to improve g-jitter environment are introduced from the front line of KIBO payload operations.

  12. 40 CFR 63.9306 - What are my continuous parameter monitoring system (CPMS) installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test Cells/Stands General Compliane Requirements § 63.9306... at all times that an engine test cell/stand is operating, except during monitoring malfunctions... engine test cell/stand is operating. You must inspect the automatic shutdown system at least once...

  13. 40 CFR 63.9306 - What are my continuous parameter monitoring system (CPMS) installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test Cells/Stands General Compliane Requirements § 63.9306... at all times that an engine test cell/stand is operating, except during monitoring malfunctions... engine test cell/stand is operating. You must inspect the automatic shutdown system at least once...

  14. 40 CFR 63.9306 - What are my continuous parameter monitoring system (CPMS) installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test Cells/Stands General Compliane Requirements § 63.9306... at all times that an engine test cell/stand is operating, except during monitoring malfunctions... engine test cell/stand is operating. You must inspect the automatic shutdown system at least once...

  15. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Lllll of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in § 63.11(b) The flare pilot light must be present at all times and the flare must be operating... particulate matter emission standards a. Maintain the 3-hour c average inlet gas temperature and pressure drop... matter emission a. Maintain the monitoring parameters within the operating limits established during...

  16. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operating—PR. d e Exit specific gravity for the absorbing liquid 1. Continuous records as specified in § 63.1429. b 2. Record and report the exit specific gravity averaged over the full period of the TRE determination—NCS. 3. Record the daily average exit specific gravity for each operating day. 4. Report all...

  17. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operating value established in the NCS or operating—PR. d,e Exit specific gravity for the absorbing liquid 1. Continuous records as specified in § 63.1429. b 2. Record and report the exit specific gravity averaged over the full period of the TRE determination—NCS. 3. Record the daily average exit specific gravity...

  18. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operating value established in the NCS or operating—PR. d,e Exit specific gravity for the absorbing liquid 1. Continuous records as specified in § 63.1429. b 2. Record and report the exit specific gravity averaged over the full period of the TRE determination—NCS. 3. Record the daily average exit specific gravity...

  19. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operating value established in the NCS or operating—PR. d,e Exit specific gravity for the absorbing liquid 1. Continuous records as specified in § 63.1429. b 2. Record and report the exit specific gravity averaged over the full period of the TRE determination—NCS. 3. Record the daily average exit specific gravity...

  20. 13 CFR 124.603 - What reports regarding the continued business operations of former Participants does SBA require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What reports regarding the continued business operations of former Participants does SBA require? 124.603 Section 124.603 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL...

  1. 13 CFR 124.603 - What reports regarding the continued business operations of former Participants does SBA require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What reports regarding the continued business operations of former Participants does SBA require? 124.603 Section 124.603 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL...

  2. 13 CFR 124.603 - What reports regarding the continued business operations of former Participants does SBA require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What reports regarding the continued business operations of former Participants does SBA require? 124.603 Section 124.603 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL...

  3. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 6 Table 6 to Subpart PPP of Part 63... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart PPP of Part 63—Process Vents From Continuous Unit...

  4. 40 CFR 63.6640 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and operating limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Continuous Compliance... of operation from engine startup (engine burn-in period) are not violations. Rebuilt stationary RICE means a stationary RICE that has been rebuilt as that term is defined in 40 CFR 94.11(a). (e) You...

  5. 40 CFR 63.6640 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and operating limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Continuous Compliance... of operation from engine startup (engine burn-in period) are not violations. Rebuilt stationary RICE means a stationary RICE that has been rebuilt as that term is defined in 40 CFR 94.11(a). (e) You...

  6. 40 CFR 63.6640 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and operating limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Continuous Compliance... of operation from engine startup (engine burn-in period) are not violations. Rebuilt stationary RICE means a stationary RICE that has been rebuilt as that term is defined in 40 CFR 94.11(a). (e) You...

  7. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Dddd of... - Continuous Compliance With the Compliance Options and Operating Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuous Compliance With the Compliance Options and Operating Requirements 7 Table 7 to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart DDDD of...

  8. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Dddd of... - Continuous Compliance With the Compliance Options and Operating Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With the Compliance Options and Operating Requirements 7 Table 7 to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment... and Composite Wood Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart DDDD of Part...

  9. 40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Inorganic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... stated in § 63.1567(c)(1), you shall meet each requirement in the following table that applies to you... . . . For this operating limit . . . You shall demonstrate continuous compliance during coke burn-off and... (equally spaced in time) or every 4 hours, whichever is more frequent, using a colormetric tube...

  10. 40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Inorganic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... stated in § 63.1567(c)(1), you shall meet each requirement in the following table that applies to you... . . . For this operating limit . . . You shall demonstrate continuous compliance during coke burn-off and... (equally spaced in time) or every 4 hours, whichever is more frequent, using a colormetric tube...

  11. 40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Inorganic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....1567(c)(1), you shall meet each requirement in the following table that applies to you. For each new... operating limit . . . You shall demonstrate continuous compliance during coke burn-off and catalyst... (equally spaced in time) or every 4 hours, whichever is more frequent, using a colormetric tube...

  12. RECOMMENDED OPERATING PROCEDURE NO. 2.3: SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF TOTAL HYDROCARBONS FROM SOURCES BY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a recommended operating procedure (ROP) prepared for use in research activities conducted by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL). he described method is applicable to the continuous measurement of total hydrocarbons (THCs), also known as tot...

  13. Integrating UF6 Cylinder RF Tracking With Continuous Load Cell Monitoring for Verifying Declared UF6 Feed and Withdrawal Operations Verifying Declared UF6 Feed and Withdrawal Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Krichinsky, Alan M; Miller, Paul; Pickett, Chris A; Richardson, Dave; Rowe, Nathan C; Whitaker, J Michael; Younkin, James R

    2009-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is demonstrating the integration of UF6 cylinder tracking, using RF technology, with continuous load cell monitoring (CLCM) at mock UF6 feed and withdrawal (F&W) stations. CLCM and cylinder tracking are two of several continuous-monitoring technologies that show promise in providing integrated safeguards of F&W operations at enrichment plants. Integrating different monitoring technologies allows advanced, automated event processing to screen innocuous events thereby minimizing false alerts to independent inspectors. Traditionally, international inspectors rely on batch verification of material inputs and outputs derived from operator declarations and periodic on-site inspections at uranium enrichment plants or other nuclear processing facilities. Continuously monitoring F&W activities between inspections while providing filtered alerts of significant operational events will substantially increase the amount of valuable information available to inspectors thereby promising to enhance the effectiveness of safeguards and to improve efficiency in conducting on-site inspections especially at large plants for ensuring that all operations are declared.

  14. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Lllll of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alternative to monitoring the pressure drop across the control device, owners or operators using an ESP to... to the ESP. If this option is selected, the ESP voltage must be maintained at or above the...

  15. End of Life Operations for LEO and GEO Satellites: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremeaux, Claire; Moussi, Aurelie; Vintenat, Lionel; Moulin, Michel

    2013-08-01

    CNES is celebrating in 2013 its 40th year of satellites operations with nearly 40 satellites cared for from Symphony 1 (1973) to Pleiades 1B (2012). Half of them reached its end of mission. Although they were not designed for it, CNES imagined, prepared and executed end-of life operations for geostationary and low earth orbit satellites, in accordance with its strong involvement at international level in favour of space activity sustainability and space debris mitigation. With increasing experience, efficiency and completeness of operations have strongly improved: optimization of resources, precise orbit and eccentricity management, collision risk concern, controlled fluidic and electric passivation, concern for degraded or emergency cases… This paper presents the evolution and improvement of end of life operations handled by CNES for 30 years, with a highlight on the last evolutions in the whole process since the French Space Act came into force.

  16. Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 microns of a diode-laser-pumped, Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, T. Y.; Huber, G.; Byer, R. L.; Mitzscherlich, P.

    1987-01-01

    Room-temperature operation of a continuous-wave Tm-sensitized Ho:YAG laser at 2.0974 microns has been achieved under diode-laser pumping at 781.5 nm. Observed thresholds are as low as 4.4 mW, with a slope efficiency of 19 percent with 0.5 percent output coupling.

  17. Assessing the operational life of flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications : a case study.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin

    2011-01-01

    Through the vehicle of a case study, this paper describes in detail how the guidance found in the suite of IPC (Association Connecting Electronics Industries) publications can be applied to develop a high level of design assurance that flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications will satisfy specified lifetime requirements.

  18. 75 FR 66748 - City of Kaukauna, WI; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Kaukauna, WI; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project...-Rapide Croche Hydroelectric Project, filed an Application for a New License pursuant to the Federal...

  19. 75 FR 63166 - South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued... the Saluda Hydroelectric Project, filed an Application for a New License pursuant to the Federal...

  20. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Aaaaa of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Lime Manufacturing Plants... Maintain the 3-hour block average exhaust gas stream pressure drop across the wet scrubber greater than or... the 3-hour block average exhaust gas stream pressure drop across the wet scrubber greater than...

  1. Continuous gluconic acid production by the yeast-like Aureobasidium pullulans in a cascading operation of two bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Rehm, Hans-Jürgen

    2006-12-01

    The application of a new developed process for the continuous production of gluconic acid using a cascade of two bioreactors in a continuous process is shown reaching the highest concentration of gluconic acid described in the literature for continuous culture fermentation. Very high gluconic acid concentrations of 272-308 g/l have been achieved under continuous cultivation of free-growing cells of Aureobasidium pullulans in the first bioreactor at residence times (RT) between 19.5 and 24 h with formation rates for the generic product between 12.7 and 13.9 g/(l h). Gluconic acid, 350-370 g/l, was continuously reached in the second bioreactor at a total RT of 30.8-37 h with R (j) of 9.2-12 g/(l h). The highest specific gluconic acid production (m (p)) of 3.6 g/(g h) was found in the first bioreactor at the lowest RT of 19.5 h. The highest selectivity of 93.6% was determined in the first bioreactor as well. Complete glucose consumption was obtained at 37 h total residence time in the second bioreactor. Gluconic acid, 433 g/l, was continuously produced in the second bioreactor at a total RT of 37 h.

  2. Continuous improvement and TQM in health care: an emerging operational paradigm becomes a strategic imperative.

    PubMed

    Swinehart, K; Green, R F

    1995-01-01

    Argues that US health care is in a state of crisis. Escalating costs account for 13 per cent of GNP, making health care the third largest industry in the USA, and spending is expected to increase. Claims health-care providers need to control rising costs, improve productivity and flexibility, adopt appropriate technologies, and maintain competitive levels of quality and value. States that TQM may provide an environment that will focus on quality of patient care and continuous quality improvement at all levels of the organization including the governing body, the administrative, managerial, and clinical areas. Any new national or state health-care plan will force providers to be more efficient while maintaining quality standards. Concludes that it will be strategically imperative that health-care providers ranging from family physicians to major medical centres and suppliers ranging from laboratories to pharmaceutical firms establish methods for making rapid continuous improvement and total quality management the cornerstone of the strategic planning process.

  3. 75 FR 3219 - Richard Moss; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... January 12, 2010. On January 31, 2008, Richard Moss, licensee for the Cinnamon Ranch Hydroelectric Project... regulations thereunder. The Cinnamon Ranch Hydroelectric Project is located on the Middle, Birch, and... operation of the Cinnamon Ranch Hydroelectric Project, until such time as the Commission acts on...

  4. 40 CFR 63.9306 - What are my continuous parameter monitoring system (CPMS) installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) through (5) of this section. (1) The CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally spaced successive cycles of CPMS... manometer with a measurement sensitivity of 0.0002 inch water, check gauge calibration quarterly...

  5. 76 FR 37100 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement; Continued Operation of the Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Decision (ROD) (64 FR 69996; 12/15/99) and subsequent NEPA decisions. Three action alternatives proposed... levels as reflected in DOE Management Plans for 1998 through 2008; (2) The Expanded Operations... maintaining core mission capabilities. DOE's ROD, dated December 15, 1999, implemented the Expanded...

  6. The Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation: The Apparatus, Operations, Science Obtained, and Potential for Continued Usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurgel, R. N.; Luz, P.; Smith, G. A.; Spivey, R.; Sen, S.; Anilkumar, A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the presentation is to provide an overview of the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) hardware that is currently aboard the International Space Station and to identify European experiments could utilize it. The hardware, integration in the Glovebox, operations,-science results, and instrument performance assessment will be presented. The possibilities of adapting the optical observation system will also be reviewed.

  7. 78 FR 16490 - Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Operation On February 23, 2011, the Placer County Water Agency, licensee for the Middle Fork American River... Commission's regulations thereunder. The Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project is located on the Middle Fork American River and the Rubicon River and located in Placer and El Dorado Counties,...

  8. A discounted-cost continuous-time flexible manufacturing and operator scheduling model solved by deconvexification over time

    SciTech Connect

    Eaves, B.C.; Rothblum, U.G.

    1990-08-01

    A discounted-cost, continuous-time, infinite-horizon version of a flexible manufacturing and operator scheduling model is solved. The solution procedure is to convexify the discrete operator-assignment constraints to obtain a linear program, and then to regain the discreteness and obtain an approximate manufacturing schedule by deconvexification of the solution of the linear program over time. The strong features of the model are the accommodation of linear inequality relations among the manufacturing activities and the discrete manufacturing scheduling, whereas the weak features are intra-period relaxation of inventory availability constraints, and the absence of inventory costs, setup times, and setup charges.

  9. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Aaaaa of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... required by 40 CFR part 63, subpart A, General Provisions and according to PS-1 of appendix B to part 60 of... within ±1%). 2. Each lime kiln or lime cooler equipped with a FF and using a BLDS, and each lime kiln equipped with an ESP or FF using a PM detector a. Maintain and operate the FF or ESP such that the bag...

  10. Continuous Water Vapor Profiles from Operational Ground-Based Active and Passive Remote Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D. D.; Feltz, W. F.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, offers unique operational water vapor profiling capabilities, including active and passive remote sensors as well as traditional in situ radiosonde measurements. Remote sensing technologies include an automated Raman lidar and an automated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), which are able to retrieve water vapor profiles operationally through the lower troposphere throughout the diurnal cycle. Comparisons of these two water vapor remote sensing methods to each other and to radiosondes over an 8-month period are presented and discussed, highlighting the accuracy and limitations of each method. Additionally, the AERI is able to retrieve profiles of temperature while the Raman lidar is able to retrieve aerosol extinction profiles operationally. These data, coupled with hourly wind profiles from a 915-MHz wind profiler, provide complete specification of the state of the atmosphere in noncloudy skies. Several case studies illustrate the utility of these high temporal resolution measurements in the characterization of mesoscale features within a 3-day time period in which passage of a dryline, warm air advection, and cold front occurred.

  11. Development of a PM-10 inlet for continuous operation and with recovery of the gt 10-. mu. m fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, G.; Pauley, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) manufactured nuclear weapons' components out of plutonium (Pu) metal until 1990. The plant is now in a decontamination and disposition phase. In both the manufacturing mode and the present mode, Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Colorado have required continuous monitoring of the air to detect releases of radionuclides. The air surveillance network established around the plant in the early 1950's was replaced in 1972 with a network of high-volume (40 cfm) samplers (hivols). This network extends into the community. The hivois were patterned after the EPA total suspended particle (TSP) samplers with an approximate cutoff at 30 micrometers ({mu}m); however, the RFP version of the TSP sampler was designed to operate continuously and had to be relatively inconspicuous. After nearly 20 years of operation, the RFP air surveillance samplers are in need of updating or replacement, in part because the EPA has now established a new criterion for sampling of suspended particles; i.e., the PM-10 criterion. Only particles of less than 10-{mu}m aerodynamic diameter are considered hazardous to health through inhalation pathways. This report discusses the development of a PM-10 inlet for continuous operation.

  12. Development of a PM-10 inlet for continuous operation and with recovery of the {gt}10-{mu}m fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, G.; Pauley, B.J.

    1992-09-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) manufactured nuclear weapons` components out of plutonium (Pu) metal until 1990. The plant is now in a decontamination and disposition phase. In both the manufacturing mode and the present mode, Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Colorado have required continuous monitoring of the air to detect releases of radionuclides. The air surveillance network established around the plant in the early 1950`s was replaced in 1972 with a network of high-volume (40 cfm) samplers (hivols). This network extends into the community. The hivois were patterned after the EPA total suspended particle (TSP) samplers with an approximate cutoff at 30 micrometers ({mu}m); however, the RFP version of the TSP sampler was designed to operate continuously and had to be relatively inconspicuous. After nearly 20 years of operation, the RFP air surveillance samplers are in need of updating or replacement, in part because the EPA has now established a new criterion for sampling of suspended particles; i.e., the PM-10 criterion. Only particles of less than 10-{mu}m aerodynamic diameter are considered hazardous to health through inhalation pathways. This report discusses the development of a PM-10 inlet for continuous operation.

  13. Selective production of lactic acid in continuous anaerobic acidogenesis by extremely low pH operation.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuya; Tada, Kiyoshi; Kanno, Tohru; Horiuchi, Jun-Ichi

    2012-11-01

    The selective production of lactic acid by anaerobic acidogenesis with low pH control was examined using a chemostat culture. By decreasing culture pH to 3.5 in a chemostat culture containing mixed microbial populations for anaerobic acidogenesis, heterolactic fermentation became dominant, resulting in the selective production of lactic acid and ethanol. This phenomenon was reversible between the acidic and neutral conditions, and was not affected by the dilution rate. The extremely low pH operation was effective for selective lactic acid production in anaerobic acidogenesis.

  14. Dual-wavelength operation of continuous-wave and mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottiez, O.; Martinez-Rios, A.; Monzon-Hernandez, D.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Kuzin, E. A.; Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.

    2012-06-01

    We study numerically and experimentally multiple-wavelength operation of an erbium-doped figure-eight fiber laser including a multiple-bandpass optical filter formed by two concatenated fiber tapers. Both continuous-wave and pulsed operations are considered. In the continuous-wave regime, stable long-term operation at multiple closely spaced wavelengths is only obtained if fine adjustments of the cavity losses are performed. Under these conditions, simultaneous lasing at up to four wavelengths separated by 1.5 nm was observed experimentally. Tunable single-wavelength operation over more than 20 nm is also observed in the continuous-wave regime. In the passive mode locking regime, numerical simulations indicate that mechanisms involving the filter losses and the nonlinear transmission characteristic of the NOLM contribute in principle to stabilize dual-wavelength operation, allowing less demanding cavity loss adjustments. In this regime, the problem of synchronization between the pulse trains generated at each wavelength adds an additional dimension to the problem. In presence of cavity dispersion, the pulses at each wavelength tend to be asynchronous if the wavelength separation is large, however they can be synchronous in the case of closely spaced wavelengths, if cross-phase modulation is able to compensate for the dispersion-induced walkoff. Experimentally, fundamental and 2nd-order harmonic mode locking was observed, characterized by the generation of noise-like pulses. Finally, a regime of multi-wavelength passive Q-switching was also observed. We believe that this work will be helpful to guide the design of multiple-wavelength fiber laser sources, which are attractive for a wide range of applications including Wavelength Division Multiplexing transmissions, signal processing and sensing.

  15. Stability of the unique continuation for the wave operator via Tataru inequality and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosi, Roberta; Kurylev, Yaroslav; Lassas, Matti

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we study the stability of the unique continuation in the case of the wave equation with variable coefficients independent of time. We prove a logarithmic estimate in an arbitrary domain of R n + 1, where all the parameters are calculated explicitly in terms of the C1-norm of the coefficients and on the other geometric properties of the problem. We use the Carleman-type estimate proved by Tataru in 1995 and an iteration of the local stability. We apply the result to the case of a wave equation with data on a cylinder and we get a stable estimate for any positive time, also after the first conjugate point associated with the geodesics of the metric of the variable coefficients.

  16. Continuous Monitoring and On-line Analysis of Operational Dose Rates: Tools to Further Mitigate Radiation Risks

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Degtiarenko

    2009-07-01

    Along with passive and active engineering and administrative controls usually implemented in radiation protection programs at different facilities, continuous monitoring and on-line analysis of data measured by the radiation detectors at the workplace and in the environment can be considered as an additional tool used to further mitigate radiation risks. Many monitoring systems on the market today allow connecting radiation area monitors into a network, and reading and accumulating data continuously in a database. The point of this presentation is to bring attention to the fact that such accumulated information can be analyzed and used in many respects to improve reliability and functionality of the monitoring and control systems. A simple time history of background readings from a radiation detector can be used to evaluate the stability of the detector performance. Data recorded during normal facility operations may serve to establish a pattern of acceptable dose rates in such detector and allow to better detect off-normal and unstable modes of the facility operation before they reach hardware trip levels. Facility operators and users may utilize such monitoring systems to optimize operations and minimize their radiological impact. Implementation and examples of use of the RADMON radiation monitoring and data analysis system at Jefferson Lab is presented.

  17. Supplement analysis for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. Volume 2: Comment response document

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), prepared a draft Supplement Analysis (SA) for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL-L), in accordance with DOE`s requirements for implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (10 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 1021.314). It considers whether the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (1992 EIS/EIR) should be supplement3ed, whether a new environmental impact statement (EIS) should be prepared, or no further NEPA documentation is required. The SA examines the current project and program plans and proposals for LLNL and SNL-L, operations to identify new or modified projects or operations or new information for the period from 1998 to 2002 that was not considered in the 1992 EIS/EIR. When such changes, modifications, and information are identified, they are examined to determine whether they could be considered substantial or significant in reference to the 1992 proposed action and the 1993 Record of Decision (ROD). DOE released the draft SA to the public to obtain stakeholder comments and to consider those comments in the preparation of the final SA. DOE distributed copies of the draft SA to those who were known to have an interest in LLNL or SNL-L activities in addition to those who requested a copy. In response to comments received, DOE prepared this Comment Response Document.

  18. Continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers above liquid-nitrogen temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sushil; Williams, Benjamin S.; Kohen, Stephen; Hu, Qing; Reno, John L.

    2004-04-01

    We report cw operation of a quantum-cascade laser at 3.2 THz (λ≈94 μm) up to a heat-sink temperature of 93 K. Resonant longitudinal-optical phonon scattering is used to depopulate the lower radiative state and a low-loss metal-metal waveguide is used to provide high modal confinement. Optical powers of ˜1.8 mW at 10 K and ˜400 μW at 78 K are observed from a single facet of a 40-μm-wide and 1.35-mm-long laser device. A threshold current density of 432 A/cm2 at 10 K and 552 A/cm2 at 78 K was obtained in cw mode. The same device lased up to 129 K in pulsed mode with a threshold current density of 419 A/cm2 at 5 K.

  19. FDNS CFD Code Benchmark for RBCC Ejector Mode Operation: Continuing Toward Dual Rocket Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Jeff; Ruf, Joseph H.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis results are compared with benchmark quality test data from the Propulsion Engineering Research Center's (PERC) Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) experiments to verify fluid dynamic code and application procedures. RBCC engine flowpath development will rely on CFD applications to capture the multi -dimensional fluid dynamic interactions and to quantify their effect on the RBCC system performance. Therefore, the accuracy of these CFD codes must be determined through detailed comparisons with test data. The PERC experiments build upon the well-known 1968 rocket-ejector experiments of Odegaard and Stroup by employing advanced optical and laser based diagnostics to evaluate mixing and secondary combustion. The Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code [2] was used to model the fluid dynamics of the PERC RBCC ejector mode configuration. Analyses were performed for the Diffusion and Afterburning (DAB) test conditions at the 200-psia thruster operation point, Results with and without downstream fuel injection are presented.

  20. Comparison of subcutaneous and intravenous continuous glucose monitoring accuracy in an operating room and an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Sakaguchi, Masahiko; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Although we have used an intravenous continuous glucose monitor for blood glucose management, a previous study reported that a subcutaneous continuous glucose monitor was also reliable for use in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to compare the subcutaneous and intravenous continuous glucose monitors. This was an observational trial (UMIN-CTR, ID:000013338). We included patients who were admitted to our intensive care units (ICU) after hepato-biliary pancreatic surgery. Continuous blood glucose measurement was performed from the beginning of the operation to ICU discharge using the intravenous continuous monitor STG-55 (Nikkiso, Tokyo, Japan) and the subcutaneous continuous monitor iPro2 (Medtronic Japan, Tokyo, Japan). The STG-55 measured the glucose level in real time, and the iPro2 measured this every 5 min. We compared glucose levels obtained using the two devices every 5 min using a Bland-Altman plot and a regression analyses. A total of 3592 comparative samples in 15 cases were analyzed. The mean glucose level measured using the STG-55 was 139 ± 21 mg/dl, and that measured using the iPro2 was 144 ± 31 mg/dl. A linear regression line had the equation of the form y = 0.225x + 106. The coefficient of determination was 0.11, and the F-test significance level was set as p < 0.01. The mean of the differences was -5.2 mg/dl, with a 95 % agreement limit of -67 to + 57 mg/dL. The percent error was 44 %. In conclusion, the current study suggests that subcutaneous and intravenous continuous glucose monitoring was not highly correlated during either surgery or ICU stay. PMID:26721825

  1. Arsenic Mobilization from Historically Contaminated Mining Soils in a Continuously Operated Bioreactor: Implications for Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Rajpert, Liwia; Kolvenbach, Boris A; Ammann, Erik M; Hockmann, Kerstin; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Eiche, Elisabeth; Schäffer, Andreas; Corvini, Philippe Francois Xavier; Skłodowska, Aleksandra; Lenz, Markus

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations of soil arsenic (As) in the vicinity of the former Złoty Stok gold mine (Lower Silesia, southwest Poland) exceed 1000 μg g(-1) in the area, posing an inherent threat to neighboring bodies of water. This study investigated continuous As mobilization under reducing conditions for more than 3 months. In particular, the capacity of autochthonic microflora that live on natural organic matter as the sole carbon/electron source for mobilizing As was assessed. A biphasic mobilization of As was observed. In the first two months, As mobilization was mainly conferred by Mn dissolution despite the prevalence of Fe (0.1 wt % vs 5.4 for Mn and Fe, respectively) as indicated by multiple regression analysis. Thereafter, the sudden increase in aqueous As[III] (up to 2400 μg L(-1)) was attributed to an almost quintupling of the autochthonic dissimilatory As-reducing community (quantitative polymerase chain reaction). The aqueous speciation influenced by microbial activity led to a reduction of solid phase As species (X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy) and a change in the elemental composition of As hotspots (micro X-ray fluorescence mapping). The depletion of most natural dissolved organic matter and the fact that an extensive mobilization of As[III] occurred after two months raises concerns about the long-term stability of historically As-contaminated sites. PMID:27454004

  2. Continuous Operation of Fluidized Bed Bioreactor for Biogenic Sulfide Oxidation Using Immobilized Cells of Thiobacillus sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandra, P.; Mugeraya, Gopal; Gangagni Rao, A.; Ramakrishna, M.; Jetty, Annapurna

    In the present study, obligate autotrophic Thiobacillus sp. was isolated from aerobic sludge distillery effluent treatment plant and the experiments were conducted in a fluidized bed bioreactor for the biological oxidation of sulfide using Ca-alginate immobilized Thiobacillus sp. All the experiments were conducted in continuous mode at different sulfide loading rates 0.018, 0.02475, 0.03375, 0.03825 and 0.054 and different hydraulic retention times 5, 3.67, 2.67, 2.35 and 1.67 h by varying flow rates 2.4x10-4, 3.3x10-4, 4.5x10-4, 5.1x10-4 and 7.2x10-4. Sulfide conversions higher than 90% were obtained at almost all sulfide loading rates and hydraulic retention times. All the experiments were conducted at constant pH of around 6 and temperature of 30±5°C.

  3. Continuation of research into software for space operations support, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Mark D.; Killough, Ronnie; Martin, Nancy L.

    1990-01-01

    A prototype workstation executive called the Hardware Independent Software Development Environment (HISDE) was developed. Software technologies relevant to workstation executives were researched and evaluated and HISDE was used as a test bed for prototyping efforts. New X Windows software concepts and technology were introduced into workstation executives and related applications. The four research efforts performed included: (1) Research into the usability and efficiency of Motif (an X Windows based graphic user interface) which consisted of converting the existing Athena widget based HISDE user interface to Motif demonstrating the usability of Motif and providing insight into the level of effort required to translate an application from widget to another; (2) Prototype a real time data display widget which consisted of research methods for and prototyping the selected method of displaying textual values in an efficient manner; (3) X Windows performance evaluation which consisted of a series of performance measurements which demonstrated the ability of low level X Windows to display textural information; (4) Convert the Display Manager to X Window/Motif which is the application used by NASA for data display during operational mode.

  4. Continuous operation of membrane capacitive deionization cells assembled with dissimilar potential of zero charge electrode pairs.

    PubMed

    Omosebi, Ayokunle; Gao, Xin; Rentschler, Jeffery; Landon, James; Liu, Kunlei

    2015-05-15

    The performance of single stack membrane assisted capacitive deionization cells configured with pristine and nitric acid oxidized Zorflex (ZX) electrode pairs was evaluated. The potentials of zero charge for the pristine and oxidized electrodes were respectively -0.2V and 0.2V vs. SCE. Four cell combinations of the electrodes including a pristine anode-pristine cathode, oxidized anode-pristine cathode, pristine anode-oxidized cathode, and oxidized anode-oxidized cathode were investigated. When the PZC was located within the polarization window of the electrode, diminished performance was observed. The cells were operated at 1.2 V and based on potential distribution results, the effective working potentials were ∼0.9, 0.8, 1.2, and 1.1 V for the pristine anode-pristine cathode, oxidized anode-pristine cathode, pristine anode-oxidized cathode, and oxidized anode-oxidized cathode cells, respectively. The highest electrosorption capacity of 17 mg NaCl/g ZX was observed for the pristine anode-oxidized cathode cell, where both PZCs were outside of the polarization window. PMID:25432447

  5. Continuous operation of membrane capacitive deionization cells assembled with dissimilar potential of zero charge electrode pairs.

    PubMed

    Omosebi, Ayokunle; Gao, Xin; Rentschler, Jeffery; Landon, James; Liu, Kunlei

    2015-05-15

    The performance of single stack membrane assisted capacitive deionization cells configured with pristine and nitric acid oxidized Zorflex (ZX) electrode pairs was evaluated. The potentials of zero charge for the pristine and oxidized electrodes were respectively -0.2V and 0.2V vs. SCE. Four cell combinations of the electrodes including a pristine anode-pristine cathode, oxidized anode-pristine cathode, pristine anode-oxidized cathode, and oxidized anode-oxidized cathode were investigated. When the PZC was located within the polarization window of the electrode, diminished performance was observed. The cells were operated at 1.2 V and based on potential distribution results, the effective working potentials were ∼0.9, 0.8, 1.2, and 1.1 V for the pristine anode-pristine cathode, oxidized anode-pristine cathode, pristine anode-oxidized cathode, and oxidized anode-oxidized cathode cells, respectively. The highest electrosorption capacity of 17 mg NaCl/g ZX was observed for the pristine anode-oxidized cathode cell, where both PZCs were outside of the polarization window.

  6. The quadruple squeeze: defining the safe operating space for freshwater use to achieve a triply green revolution in the anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Rockström, Johan; Karlberg, Louise

    2010-05-01

    Humanity has entered a new phase of sustainability challenges, the Anthropocene, in which human development has reached a scale where it affects vital planetary processes. Under the pressure from a quadruple squeeze-from population and development pressures, the anthropogenic climate crisis, the anthropogenic ecosystem crisis, and the risk of deleterious tipping points in the Earth system-the degrees of freedom for sustainable human exploitation of planet Earth are severely restrained. It is in this reality that a new green revolution in world food production needs to occur, to attain food security and human development over the coming decades. Global freshwater resources are, and will increasingly be, a fundamental limiting factor in feeding the world. Current water vulnerabilities in the regions in most need of large agricultural productivity improvements are projected to increase under the pressure from global environmental change. The sustainability challenge for world agriculture has to be set within the new global sustainability context. We present new proposed sustainability criteria for world agriculture, where world food production systems are transformed in order to allow humanity to stay within the safe operating space of planetary boundaries. In order to secure global resilience and thereby raise the chances of planet Earth to remain in the current desired state, conducive for human development on the long-term, these planetary boundaries need to be respected. This calls for a triply green revolution, which not only more than doubles food production in many regions of the world, but which also is environmentally sustainable, and invests in the untapped opportunities to use green water in rainfed agriculture as a key source of future productivity enhancement. To achieve such a global transformation of agriculture, there is a need for more innovative options for water interventions at the landscape scale, accounting for both green and blue water, as well

  7. The challenge of achieving 1% operative mortality for coronary artery bypass grafting: A multi-institution Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database analysis

    PubMed Central

    LaPar, Damien J.; Filardo, Giovanni; Crosby, Ivan K.; Speir, Alan M.; Rich, Jeffrey B.; Kron, Irving L.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cardiothoracic surgical leadership recently challenged the surgical community to achieve an operative mortality rate of 1.0% for the performance of isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The possibility of achieving this goal remains unknown due to the increasing number of high-risk patients being referred for CABG. The purpose of our study was to identify a patient population in which this operative mortality goal is achievable relative to the estimated operative risk. Methods Patient records from a multi-institution (17 centers) Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) database for primary, isolated CABG operations (2001–2012) were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression modeling with spline functions for calculated STS predicted risk of mortality (PROM) was used to rigorously assess the relationship between estimated patient risk and operative mortality, adjusted for operative year and surgeon volume. Results A total of 34,416 patients (average patient age, 63.9 ± 10.7 years; 27% [n = 9190] women) incurred an operative mortality rate of 1.87%. Median STS predicted risk of mortality was 1.06% (interquartile range, 0.60% −2.13% ) and median surgeon CABG volume was 544 (interquartile range, 303–930) operations over the study period. After risk adjustment for the confounding influence of surgeon volume and operative year, the association between STS PROM and operative mortality was highly significant (P < .0001). More importantly, the adjusted spline function revealed that an STS PROM threshold value of 1.27% correlated with a 1.0% probability of death, accounting for 57.3% (n = 19,720) of the total study population. Further, the STS PROM demonstrated a limited predictive capacity for operative mortality for STS PROM > 25% as observed to expected mortality began to diverge. Conclusions Achieving the goal of 1.0% operative mortality for primary, isolated CABG is feasible in appropriately selected patients in the modern surgical era. However, this

  8. Diode-laser-pumped high efficiency continuous-wave operation at 912 nm laser in Nd:GdVO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Chen, F.; Gao, J.; Li, X. D.; Yan, R. P.; Zhang, K.; Yu, J. H.; Zhang, Z. H.

    2009-01-01

    High efficiency operation on continuous-wave (cw) 912 nm laser at room temperature in Nd:GdVO4 crystal pumped by 808 nm diode-laser is reported in this letter. The maximum output power of 8.0 W was obtained at the incident un-polarized pump power of 47.0 W, giving the corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 17.0% and the average slope efficiency of 22.9%. Further tests show that the lasing threshold is reduced and the efficiency is increased evidently when using the π-polarized 808 nm pump source. 4.8 W 912 nm laser was achieved at the polarized pump power of 21.8 W, optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is increased to 22.0% and average slope efficiency is up to 33.6%.

  9. Automated Microwave Complex on the Basis of a Continuous-Wave Gyrotron with an Operating Frequency of 263 GHz and an Output Power of 1 kW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Morozkin, M. V.; Tsvetkov, A. I.; Lubyako, L. V.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Kuftin, A. N.; Zapevalov, V. E.; V. Kholoptsev, V.; Eremeev, A. G.; Sedov, A. S.; Malygin, V. I.; Chirkov, A. V.; Fokin, A. P.; Sokolov, E. V.; Denisov, G. G.

    2016-02-01

    We study experimentally the automated microwave complex for microwave spectroscopy and diagnostics of various media, which was developed at the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in cooperation with GYCOM Ltd. on the basis of a gyrotron with a frequency of 263 GHz and operated at the first gyrofrequency harmonic. In the process of the experiments, a controllable output power of 0 .1 -1 kW was achieved with an efficiency of up to 17 % in the continuous-wave generation regime. The measured radiation spectrum with a relative width of about 10 -6 and the frequency values measured at various parameters of the device are presented. The results of measuring the parameters of the wave beam, which was formed by a built-in quasioptical converter, as well as the data obtained by measuring the heat loss in the cavity and the vacuum output window are analyzed.

  10. Submilliampere continuous-wave room-temperature lasing operation of a GaAs mushroom structure surface-emitting laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.J.; Dziura, T.G.; Wang, S.C. ); Hsin, W.; Wang, S. Electronics Research Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 )

    1990-05-07

    We report a GaAs mushroom structure surface-emitting laser at 900 nm with submilliampere (0.2--0.5 mA) threshold under room-temperature cw operation for the first time. The very low threshold current was achieved on devices which consisted of a 2--4 {mu}m diameter active region formed by chemical selective etching, and sandwiched between two Al{sub 0.05}Ga{sub 0.95} As/ Al{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47} As distributed Bragg reflectors of very high reflectivity (98--99%) grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition.

  11. Improving the action requirements of technical specifications: A risk-comparison of continued operation and plant shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Mankamo, T.

    1995-04-01

    When the systems needed to remove decay heat are inoperable or degraded, the risk of shutting down the plant may be comparable to, or even higher than, that of continuing power operation with the equipment inoperable while giving priority to repairs. This concern arises because the plant may not have sufficient capability for removing decay heat during the shutdown. However, Technical Specifications (TSs) often require {open_quotes}immediate{close_quotes} shutdown of the plant. In this paper, we present risk-based analyses of the various operational policy alternatives available in such situations, with an example application to the standby service water (SSW) system of a BWR. These analyses can be used to define risk-effective requirements for those standby safety systems under discussion.

  12. Single- and two-step hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae in a semi-continuous reactor: Effect of the operating parameters.

    PubMed

    Prapaiwatcharapan, Keerati; Sunphorka, Sasithorn; Kuchonthara, Prapan; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Hinchiranan, Napida

    2015-09-01

    This work investigated an influence of operating conditions on the biocrude yield and properties obtained from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Coelastrum sp. microalgae in a two-step sequential HTL (THTL) and a single-step HTL (SHTL) using a semi-continuous system. A higher biocrude yield with a lower nitrogen content was obtained with the THTL process than the SHTL one. The operating temperature, pressure and water flow rate were sequentially varied in a univariate analysis for a 2 h reaction time to optimize the obtained biocrude yield. Increasing the temperature improved the biocrude yield, but the second step temperature should not be higher than 320 °C to prevent the thermal cracking to gaseous compounds. The optimal conditions of THTL were preliminarily temperature of 200 and 320 °C and pressure of 7 and 20 MPa for the first and second step, respectively, both with a water flow rate of 0.50 mL/min.

  13. The Continuously Operating Caribbean Observational Network (COCONet): Supporting Regional Development of Geoscience Research Across the Circum-Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J.; Miller, M. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Wang, G.; Feaux, K.; Rowan, L.; La Femina, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Continuously Operating Caribbean Observational Network (COCONet) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded infrastructure project that stretches across the circum-Caribbean to include Central America and the northern portions of South America. Its objective is to develop a large-scale network of geodetic and atmospheric infrastructure to support a broad range of geoscience and atmospheric investigations and enable research on process-oriented science with direct relevance to geo-hazards. The network includes over 60 new and refurbished continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) and surface meterology stations. It will also include data from at least 60 existing stations that are being operated by one of our more than 40 regional partners. As COCONet approaches the completion of its build-out phase, it is appropriate to evaluate the activities associated with the project that facilitate capacity building. These activities include three workshops to solicit feedback from regional partners regarding science objectives, station location, and long-term network operation. COCONet graduate research fellowships have been used to support nine students, with seven from countries within the COCONet footprint. The establishment of three regional data and archive centers to foster access to data and promote free and open data standards. Lastly, two Pan American Advanced Studies Institute (PASI) workshops on topics that are central to the main goals of COCONet were also organized to engage early career scientists who are interested in working on topics that are directly relevant to the region. Perhaps the most significant effort on expanding capacity in the region is the recent deployment of a station in Camaguey, Cuba with full support from both the U.S. and Cuban governments. This presentation summarizes the activities of the COCONet project to enhance and support both the human resource development and technical capabilities within the region.

  14. Continuous-Wave Operation of a Frequency-Tunable 460-GHz Second-Harmonic Gyrotron for Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Torrezan, Antonio C.; Han, Seong-Tae; Mastovsky, Ivan; Shapiro, Michael A.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.; Barnes, Alexander B.

    2012-01-01

    The design, operation, and characterization of a continuous-wave (CW) tunable second-harmonic 460-GHz gyrotron are reported. The gyrotron is intended to be used as a submillimeter-wave source for 700-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with sensitivity enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization. The gyrotron operates in the whispering-gallery mode TE11,2 and has generated 16 W of output power with a 13-kV 100-mA electron beam. The start oscillation current measured over a range of magnetic field values is in good agreement with theoretical start currents obtained from linear theory for successive high-order axial modes TE11,2,q. The minimum start current is 27 mA. Power and frequency tuning measurements as a function of the electron cyclotron frequency have also been carried out. A smooth frequency tuning range of 1 GHz was obtained for the operating second-harmonic mode either by magnetic field tuning or beam voltage tuning. Long-term CW operation was evaluated during an uninterrupted period of 48 h, where the gyrotron output power and frequency were kept stable to within ±0.7% and ±6 ppm, respectively, by a computerized control system. Proper operation of an internal quasi-optical mode converter implemented to transform the operating whispering-gallery mode to a Gaussian-like beam was also verified. Based on the images of the gyrotron output beam taken with a pyroelectric camera, the Gaussian-like mode content of the output beam was computed to be 92% with an ellipticity of 12%. PMID:23761938

  15. Continuous-Wave Operation of a Frequency-Tunable 460-GHz Second-Harmonic Gyrotron for Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Torrezan, Antonio C.; Han, Seong-Tae; Mastovsky, Ivan; Shapiro, Michael A.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Temkin, Richard J.; Barnes, Alexander B.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    The design, operation, and characterization of a continuous-wave (CW) tunable second-harmonic 460-GHz gyrotron are reported. The gyrotron is intended to be used as a submillimeter-wave source for 700-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with sensitivity enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization. The gyrotron operates in the whispering-gallery mode TE11,2 and has generated 16 W of output power with a 13-kV 100-mA electron beam. The start oscillation current measured over a range of magnetic field values is in good agreement with theoretical start currents obtained from linear theory for successive high-order axial modes TE11,2,q. The minimum start current is 27 mA. Power and frequency tuning measurements as a function of the electron cyclotron frequency have also been carried out. A smooth frequency tuning range of 1 GHz was obtained for the operating second-harmonic mode either by magnetic field tuning or beam voltage tuning. Long-term CW operation was evaluated during an uninterrupted period of 48 h, where the gyrotron output power and frequency were kept stable to within ±0.7% and ±6 ppm, respectively, by a computerized control system. Proper operation of an internal quasi-optical mode converter implemented to transform the operating whispering-gallery mode to a Gaussian-like beam was also verified. Based on the images of the gyrotron output beam taken with a pyroelectric camera, the Gaussian-like mode content of the output beam was computed to be 92% with an ellipticity of 12%. PMID:21243088

  16. Flammable gas/slurry growth unreviewed safety question:justification for continued operation for the tank farms at the Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) provides a basis for continued operation in 176 high level waste tanks, double contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), catch tanks, 244-AR Vault, 242-S and 242-T Evaporators and inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs) relative to flammable gas hazards. Required controls are specified.

  17. Air humidity may influence the aerosol distribution of normal saline administered by closed or vented nebulizers operated continuously or dosimetrically.

    PubMed

    Krajnik, Malgorzata; Podolec, Zygmunt; Zylicz, Zbigniew; Jassem, Ewa

    2009-03-01

    In clinical practice the majority of inhaled agents require deposition in the most distant regions of the bronchial tree. Contrary to this, it is likely that morphine delivery in breathlessness and chronic cough should be directed to the tracheobronchial area. The aim of the present study was to assess how an environmental condition such as air humidity might influence the particle distribution of normal saline administered by closed or vented nebulizers operated continuously or dosimetrically. Aerosol generated as a saline solution was assessed for BCTSS (Bronchial Control Treatment System-Sidestream) and BCTS-MC (Bronchial Control Treatment System-Micro Cirrus), together with two pneumatic delivery systems: Pneumatic Inhalation-Sidestream (PI-S) and Pneumatic Inhalation-Micro Cirrus (PI-MC). To clarify the influence of humidity on the aerosol we introduced a fifth method, BCTS-S/C, which included a vented nebulizer operated continuously. The impact of different air humidity on the size of particles was examined. Only in the case of the vented methods (BCTS-S and BCTSS/C) of nebulization did air humidifying lead to a significant enlargement of particle size. Moreover, the mean particle size at 90% was almost twice as large with the use of BCTS-S than with BCTS-S/C. Our experiment demonstrated that ambient humidity has a greater effect on particle size with vented rather than nonvented nebulizers and the effect might be potentiated by the pulsative method of nebulization.

  18. Tunable diode laser-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser operated in continuous-wave and Q-switched modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguckin, B. T.; Hemmati, H.; Menzies, R. T.

    1992-01-01

    Tunable continuous-wave and pulsed laser output was obtained from a Tm-sensitized Ho:YLiF4 crystal at subambient temperatures when longitudinally pumped with a diode laser array. A conversion efficiency of 42 percent and slope efficiency of approximately 60 percent relative to the absorbed pumped power have been achieved at a crystal temperature of 275 K. The emission spectrum was etalon tunable over a range of 16/cm centered at 2067 nm with fine tuning capability of the transition frequency with crystal temperature at measured rate of -0.03/cm/K. Output energies of 0.22 mJ per pulse and 22 ns pulse duration were recorded at Q-switch frequencies that correspond to an effective upper laser level lifetime of 6 ms, and a pulse energy extraction efficiency of 64 percent.

  19. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis; Irons, James; Lunsford, Allen; Montanero, Matthew; Pellerano, Fernando; Richardson, Cathleen; Smith, Ramsey; Tesfaye, Zelalem; Thome, Kurtis

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), a joint NASA and United States Geological Survey (USGS) mission, is scheduled for launch in December, 2012. The LDCM instrument payload will consist of the Operational Land Imager (OLI), provided by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation (BATC) under contract to NASA and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will describe the design, capabilities and status of the OLI and TIRS instruments. The OLI will provide 8 channel multispectral images at a spatial resolution of 30 meters and panchromatic images at 15 meter spatial resolution. The TIRS is a 100 meter spatial resolution push-broom imager whose two spectral channels, centered at 10.8 and 12 microns, split the ETM+ thermal bands. The two channels allow the use of the "split-window" technique to aid in atmospheric correction. The TIRS focal plane consists of three Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) arrays to span the 185 km swath width. The OLI and TIRS instruments will be operated independently but in concert with each other. Data from both instruments will be merged into a single data stream at the (USGS)/Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) facility. The ground system, being developed by USGS, includes an Image Assessment System (lAS), similar to Landsat-7's, to operationally monitor, characterize and update the calibrations of the two sensors.

  20. Simulations of Continuous Descent Operations with Arrival-management Automation and Mixed Flight-deck Interval Management Equipage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Kupfer, Michael; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Prevot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Air traffic management simulations conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center have addressed the integration of trajectory-based arrival-management automation, controller tools, and Flight-Deck Interval Management avionics to enable Continuous Descent Operations (CDOs) during periods of sustained high traffic demand. The simulations are devoted to maturing the integrated system for field demonstration, and refining the controller tools, clearance phraseology, and procedures specified in the associated concept of operations. The results indicate a variety of factors impact the concept's safety and viability from a controller's perspective, including en-route preconditioning of arrival flows, useable clearance phraseology, and the characteristics of airspace, routes, and traffic-management methods in use at a particular site. Clear understanding of automation behavior and required shifts in roles and responsibilities is important for controller acceptance and realizing potential benefits. This paper discusses the simulations, drawing parallels with results from related European efforts. The most recent study found en-route controllers can effectively precondition arrival flows, which significantly improved route conformance during CDOs. Controllers found the tools acceptable, in line with previous studies.

  1. Continuous-wave and high repetition rate Q-switched operation of Ho:YLF laser in-band pumped by a linearly polarized Tm:fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Zendzian, Waldemar; Jabczynski, Jan Karol; Swiderski, Jacek

    2014-11-01

    A study of Ho:YLF laser in continuous-wave (CW) and Q-switched operation, single-pass end-pumped by a Tm:fiber laser is presented. The research was made for two crystals of the same length and with different Ho dopant concentrations (0.5 at%, 3×3×30 mm3 and 1.0 at%, 5×5×30 mm3). The lasers operated on π-polarization. The lasers based on both crystals were examined under the same experimental circumstances. At room temperature, for an output coupling transmission of 40%, the maximum CW output powers of 11.5 W (0.5 at%) and 14.5 W (1.0 at%) were achieved, corresponding to slope efficiencies of 40.9% and 53.4% and optical-to-optical efficiencies of 35.4% and 44.6% with respect to the incident pump power, respectively. For a Q-switched operation, in a CW pumping regime, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) was changed from 1 to 10 kHz. For this case, the maximum average output power of 14.2 W at the PRF of 10 kHz was obtained for a higher holmium-doping concentration crystal. For 1 kHz PRF, pulse energies of 5.7 mJ with a 11 ns FWHM pulse width corresponding to almost 520 kW peak power were recorded. The laser operated at the wavelength of 2050.08 nm with the FWHM line width of 0.86 nm delivering a near-diffraction-limited beam with M2 values of 1.05 and 1.09 in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively.

  2. Family MAASAI (Maintaining African-American Survival Achievement Integrity) Rites of Passage After-School Prevention Program. Operational Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jerome, Comp.; Jackson, Anthony, Comp.; James, D'Borah, Comp.; Smith, Bryce, Comp.; Robinson, Luke, Comp.; Cherry, Jennifer, Comp.; Trotter, Jennie, Comp.; Harris, Archie, Comp.; Lenior, Sheila, Comp.; Bellinger, Mary Anne, Comp.

    Family MAASAI is a multiservice substance abuse prevention and intervention program for African American at-risk urban youth. The program commemorates the Maasai people of Africa and uses MAASAI as an acronym that stands for Maintaining African American Survival, Achievement, and Integrity. Cultural awareness, pride, and respect for self, elders,…

  3. Experimental study on the all-fiberized continuous-wave ytterbium-doped laser operating near 980 nm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixing; Liu, Ying; Cao, Jianqiu; Guo, Shaofeng; Si, Lei; Chen, Jinbao

    2013-08-20

    All-fiberized continuous-wave Yb-doped fiber lasers operating near 980 nm are fabricated, and 1.73 W, 980 nm lasing is obtained. Moreover, the output properties of the 980 nm fiber laser are studied by experiment. It is demonstrated, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, that the output power curve versus the active fiber length experiences double-peak values, which are caused by the red shift of the lasing wavelength induced by the longitudinal-mode competition. It is also demonstrated that the pump threshold increases exponentially with the active fiber length. The relationship between the pump threshold and the optimum active fiber length is examined. PMID:24084992

  4. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81.

  5. Continuous-wave diode-pumped operation of an Yb:NaLa(WO 4) 2 laser at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junhai; María Cano-Torres, José; Esteban-Betegón, Fátima; Dolores Serrano, María; Cascales, Concepción; Zaldo, Carlos; Rico, Mauricio; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin

    2007-04-01

    Room-temperature continuous-wave (cw) laser operation is demonstrated with the newly developed Yb:NaLa(WO 4) 2 disordered crystal by end-pumping with a fiber-coupled diode laser. A maximum output power of 330 mW is obtained with an optical efficiency of 4.9% and a slope efficiency of 6.3% with respect to the incident pump power. The efficiencies in terms of the absorbed pump power are roughly three times higher. Sellmeier dispersion curves for the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of the NaLa(WO 4) 2 host are reported along with crystallographic and spectroscopic properties related to the Yb 3+-doping.

  6. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81. PMID:27295254

  7. Comparative technoeconomic analysis of a softwood ethanol process featuring posthydrolysis sugars concentration operations and continuous fermentation with cell recycle.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Steven J; Gurram, Raghu N; Menkhaus, Todd J; Gilcrease, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    Economical production of second generation ethanol from Ponderosa pine is of interest due to widespread mountain pine beetle infestation in the western United States and Canada. The conversion process is limited by low glucose and high inhibitor concentrations resulting from conventional low-solids dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Inhibited fermentations require larger fermentors (due to reduced volumetric productivity) and low sugars lead to low ethanol titers, increasing distillation costs. In this work, multiple effect evaporation (MEE) and nanofiltration (NF) were evaluated to concentrate the hydrolysate from 30 g/l to 100, 150, or 200 g/l glucose. To ferment this high gravity, inhibitor containing stream, traditional batch fermentation was compared with continuous stirred tank fermentation (CSTF) and continuous fermentation with cell recycle (CSTF-CR). Equivalent annual operating cost (EAOC = amortized capital + yearly operating expenses) was used to compare these potential improvements for a local-scale 5 MGY ethanol production facility. Hydrolysate concentration via evaporation increased EAOC over the base process due to the capital and energy intensive nature of evaporating a very dilute sugar stream; however, concentration via NF decreased EAOC for several of the cases (by 2 to 15%). NF concentration to 100 g/l glucose with a CSTF-CR was the most economical option, reducing EAOC by $0.15 per gallon ethanol produced. Sensitivity analyses on NF options showed that EAOC improvement over the base case could still be realized for even higher solids removal requirements (up to two times higher centrifuge requirement for the best case) or decreased NF performance.

  8. [Start-up and continuous operation of bio-hydrogen production reactor at pH 5].

    PubMed

    Gong, Man-li; Ren, Nan-qi; Tang, Jing

    2005-03-01

    A continuous stirred-tank reactor(CSTR)for bio-hydrogen production using molasses wastewater as substrate was investigated. Emphasis was placed on assessing the start-up and continuous operation characteristics when keeping pH value constant. It was found that at pH of 5, biomass of 6g/L, organic loading rate (OLR) of 7.0kg/(m3 x d) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6h, an equilibrial hydrogen-producing microbial community could be established within 30 days. Following that, oxidation redox potential (ORP) were kept within the ranges - 460mV - -480mV. Typical mixed acid type fermentation was exhibited in the reactor. Little difference was observed in the distribution of liquid end products. The liquid end products proportion of the total amount was 36% of acetic acid, 33% of ethanol, 18% of butyric acid, 13% of propionic acid and valeric acid, respectively. Hydrogen content in the biogas was about 30% - 35% . Maximal hydrogen production rate was 1.3m3/(m3 x d). The acid-producing fermentative bacteria were in the same preponderant status when the reactor showed mixed acid type fermentation. They are mostly cocci and bacilli.

  9. A continuous microwave system for prevention of invasive species during de-ballasting operation--death kinetics.

    PubMed

    Boldor, Dorin; Balasubramanian, Sundar; Purohit, Shreya; Salvi, Deepti; Gutierrez-Wing, Maria T; Rusch, Kelly A; Sabliov, Cristina M

    2008-01-01

    A continuous microwave heating system was tested for its effectiveness at removing potentially invasive organisms during deballasting operations. Four different organisms, namely Nannochloropsis oculata (microalgae), Artemia nauplii, Artemia adults and Crassosstrea virginica (oyster larvae) normally found in ballast water were investigated in a controlled study to quantify their survival after continuous microwave heating of synthetic ballast water. The experiments were performed in the microwave system using a 2 x 2 factorial design with power (2.5 and 4.5 kW) and flow rate (1.0 and 2.0 lpm) and the organisms subsequently subjected to different holding times. The control treatment was performed in a water bath using the same temperatures and holding times as in the case of the microwave treatment. Overall, the results obtained indicated that the microwave system was more effective in eliminating the organisms when compared with the control treatment. In most cases there were no survivors present after the microwave treatment at holding times above 100 s, and temperatures as low as 50 degrees C particularly for oyster larvae and Artemia adults. The results are promising, indicating that this technology has the potential to be an effective tool in controlling/preventing the introduction of invasive species into native environments. PMID:19227071

  10. Evaluation of the bioremoval of Cr(VI) and TOC in biofilters under continuous operation using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Leles, Daniela M A; Lemos, Diego A; Filho, Ubirajara C; Romanielo, Lucienne L; de Resende, Miriam M; Cardoso, Vicelma L

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, the bioremoval of Cr(VI) and the removal of total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved with a system composed by an anaerobic filter and a submerged biofilter with intermittent aeration using a mixed culture of microorganisms originating from contaminated sludge. In the aforementioned biofilters, the concentrations of chromium, carbon, and nitrogen were optimized according to response surface methodology. The initial concentration of Cr(VI) was 137.35 mg l(-1), and a bioremoval of 85.23% was attained. The optimal conditions for the removal of TOC were 4 to 8 g l(-1) of sodium acetate, >0.8 g l(-1) of ammonium chloride and 60 to 100 mg l(-1) of Cr(VI). The results revealed that ammonium chloride had the strongest effect on the TOC removal, and 120 mg l(-1) of Cr(VI) could be removed after 156 h of operation. Moreover, 100% of the Cr(VI) and the total chromium content of the aerobic reactor output were removed, and TOC removals of 80 and 87% were attained after operating the anaerobic and aerobic reactors for 130 and 142 h, respectively. The concentrations of cells in both reactors remained nearly constant over time. The residence time distribution was obtained to evaluate the flow through the bioreactors.

  11. Design of a Second Harmonic Double-Beam Continuous Wave Gyrotron with Operating Frequency of 0.79 THz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuilov, V. N.; Glyavin, M. Yu; Sedov, A. S.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu; Idehara, T.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the most essential steps of a design study of a novel second harmonic gyrotron operating in CW (continuous wave) regime at a frequency of 0.79 THz and an output power of 1-100 W. It is based on a novel idea for suppression of the parasitic modes using a double-beam electron-optical system (EOS). It includes a triode magnetron injection gun (MIG), which forms two high-quality helical electron beams (HEB). Different schemes, namely one with two generating beams and another with one generating and one absorbing beam, have been investigated and compared. It has been shown that the scheme with two generating beams is more advantageous since it allows an effective suppression of the parasitic modes and a stable single-mode operation at the second harmonic resonance. A MIG which is appropriate for the realization of the latter scheme has been optimized using numerical codes for computer-aided design (CAD). It forms beams with practically equal pitch factors and moderate velocity spread. The construction of the gun is not sensitive to small misalignments and shifts of the electrodes and the magnetic field. Among the most promising characteristics of the presented design are an improved mode selection and a stable single-mode generation at currents that are two to three times higher than the currents in the single-beam (i.e., conventional) gyrotrons.

  12. An improved characterization method for international accountancy measurements of fresh and irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel: helping achieve continual monitoring and safeguards through the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Tobin, S. J.; Menlove, H. O.; Schear, M. A.; Worrall, Andrew

    2011-01-13

    Nuclear fuel accountancy measurements are conducted at several points through the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure continuity of knowledge (CofK) of special nuclear material (SNM). Non-destructive assay (NDA) measurements are performed on fresh fuel (prior to irradiation in a reactor) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) post-irradiation. We have developed a fuel assembly characterization system, based on the novel concept of 'neutron fingerprinting' with multiplicity signatures to ensure detailed CofK of nuclear fuel through the entire fuel cycle. The neutron fingerprint in this case is determined by the measurement of the various correlated neutron signatures, specific to fuel isotopic composition, and therefore offers greater sensitivity to variations in fissile content among fuel assemblies than other techniques such as gross neutron counting. This neutron fingerprint could be measured at the point of fuel dispatch (e.g. from a fuel fabrication plant prior to irradiation, or from a reactor site post-irradiation), monitored during transportation of the fuel assembly, and measured at a subsequent receiving site (e.g. at the reactor site prior to irradiation, or reprocessing facility post-irradiation); this would confirm that no unexpected changes to the fuel composition or amount have taken place during transportation and/ or reactor operations. Changes may indicate an attempt to divert material for example. Here, we present the current state of the practice of fuel measurements for both fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and SNF (both MOX and uranium dioxide). This is presented in the framework of international safeguards perspectives from the US and UK. We also postulate as to how the neutron fingerprinting concept could lead to improved fuel characterization (both fresh MOX and SNF) resulting in: (a) assured CofK of fuel across the nuclear fuel cycle, (b) improved detection of SNM diversion, and (c) greater confidence in safeguards of SNF transportation.

  13. An improved characterization method for international accountancy measurements of fresh and irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel: helping achieve continual monitoring and safeguards through the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Tobin, S. J.; Boyer, B. D.; Menlove, H. O.; Schear, M. A.; Worrall, Andrew

    2010-11-24

    Nuclear fuel accountancy measurements are conducted at several points through the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure continuity of knowledge (CofK) of special nuclear material (SNM). Non-destructive assay (NDA) measurements are performed on fresh fuel (prior to irradiation in a reactor) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) post-irradiation. We have developed a fuel assembly characterization system, based on the novel concept of 'neutron fingerprinting' with multiplicity signatures to ensure detailed CofK of nuclear fuel through the entire fuel cycle. The neutron fingerprint in this case is determined by the measurement of the various correlated neutron signatures, specific to fuel isotopic composition, and therefore offers greater sensitivity to variations in fissile content among fuel assemblies than other techniques such as gross neutron counting. This neutron fingerprint could be measured at the point of fuel dispatch (e.g. from a fuel fabrication plant prior to irradiation, or from a reactor site post-irradiation), monitored during transportation of the fuel assembly, and measured at a subsequent receiving site (e.g. at the reactor site prior to irradiation, or reprocessing facility post-irradiation); this would confirm that no unexpected changes to the fuel composition or amount have taken place during transportation and/or reactor operations. Changes may indicate an attempt to divert material for example. Here, we present the current state of the practice of fuel measurements for both fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and SNF (both MOX and uranium dioxide). This is presented in the framework of international safeguards perspectives from the US and UK. We also postulate as to how the neutron fingerprinting concept could lead to improved fuel characterization (both fresh MOX and SNF) resulting in: (a) assured CofK of fuel across the nuclear fuel cycle, (b) improved detection of SNM diversion, and (c) greater confidence in safeguards of SNF transportation.

  14. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide... to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems,...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1275 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... continuous opacity monitoring system? Use the required span values and applicable performance specifications... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for...

  16. SWIFT2: Software for continuous ensemble short-term streamflow forecasting for use in research and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perraud, Jean-Michel; Bennett, James C.; Bridgart, Robert; Robertson, David E.

    2016-04-01

    Research undertaken through the Water Information Research and Development Alliance (WIRADA) has laid the foundations for continuous deterministic and ensemble short-term forecasting services. One output of this research is the software Short-term Water Information Forecasting Tools version 2 (SWIFT2). SWIFT2 is developed for use in research on short term streamflow forecasting techniques as well as operational forecasting services at the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The variety of uses in research and operations requires a modular software system whose components can be arranged in applications that are fit for each particular purpose, without unnecessary software duplication. SWIFT2 modelling structures consist of sub-areas of hydrologic models, nodes and links with in-stream routing and reservoirs. While this modelling structure is customary, SWIFT2 is built from the ground up for computational and data intensive applications such as ensemble forecasts necessary for the estimation of the uncertainty in forecasts. Support for parallel computation on multiple processors or on a compute cluster is a primary use case. A convention is defined to store large multi-dimensional forecasting data and its metadata using the netCDF library. SWIFT2 is written in modern C++ with state of the art software engineering techniques and practices. A salient technical feature is a well-defined application programming interface (API) to facilitate access from different applications and technologies. SWIFT2 is already seamlessly accessible on Windows and Linux via packages in R, Python, Matlab and .NET languages such as C# and F#. Command line or graphical front-end applications are also feasible. This poster gives an overview of the technology stack, and illustrates the resulting features of SWIFT2 for users. Research and operational uses share the same common core C++ modelling shell for consistency, but augmented by different software modules suitable for each context. The

  17. Hydrogen fermentation of food waste by alkali-shock pretreatment: microbial community analysis and limitation of continuous operation.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sujin; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Moon, Chungman; Kang, Won-Seok; Kwak, Seung-Shin; Kim, Mi-Sun

    2015-06-01

    In the study, at first, batch tests were performed to investigate the effect of alkali-shock on H2 production from food waste (FW). After alkali-pretreatment of FW at pH 9.0-13.0, the FW was cultivated under mesophilic condition at pH 6.0 for 30 h without external inoculum addition. The amount of H2 production from FW pretreated at pH 11.0 and 12.0 was higher than that achieved in other pretreatment pH. The main metabolite was butyrate, and Clostridium were dominant at pH 11.0 and 12.0. Meanwhile, lactate was the main metabolite with Enterococcus and Streptococcus being the dominant genus at other pretreatment pH. When the batch process was switched to a continuous mode, H2 production was significantly dropped due to the increased activity of H2-consumers. The reliability of alkali-pretreatment at pH 11.0 was proven by repeating the scale-up batch process, recording 1.57±0.11 mol H2/mol hexose(added) (17±2LH2/kg FW) and 4.39±0.32LH2/L/d.

  18. Water disinfection using silver nanoparticle impregnated activated carbon: Escherichia coli cell-killing in batch and continuous packed column operation over a long duration.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Pritam; Bandyopadhyaya, Rajdip

    2016-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) were selectively impregnated on the external surface of plasma treated activated carbon (AC) granules (referred to as Ag-AC hybrid, having 0.8 wt% of Ag), for achieving continuous disinfection of water in a single flow-column set-up. First, Ag-NPs (28 nm mean size) were synthesized by UV reduction. Subsequently, Escherichia coli cell-killing experiments were performed in both shake flask (i. e. batch-mode) and flow-column (i. e. continuous-mode) operations, using E. coli K12 (MTCC 1302) as a model organism. Batch results using 8 mg Ag-AC hybrid/ml of cell suspension showed that, 10(4) CFU/ml of cells were killed within 25 min contact time, with cell concentration decaying exponentially in time. Maintaining almost the same contact time as in the batch experiments, three columns packed with Ag-AC (all having a height of 25 cm but increasing diameters of 1, 5 and 8 cm, respectively) were used for monitoring cell-killing performance over a long duration. For all columns, inlet water having 10(4) CFU/ml E. coli could be completely disinfected to produce treated, outlet water having zero cell count. Specifically for the 8 cm diameter column, a maximum throughput of treating 1.62 L of contaminated water per hour could be maintained for at least up to 16 days. Moreover, the Ag concentration in the outlet water was only up to 29.8 μg/L at steady state, which is well within the recommended limit of 100 μg/L for drinking water. Hence, water disinfection for potable quality water (zero E. coli count and <100 μg/L Ag) can be achieved in a continuous manner over a long duration, with our packed Ag-AC column. PMID:27179597

  19. Water disinfection using silver nanoparticle impregnated activated carbon: Escherichia coli cell-killing in batch and continuous packed column operation over a long duration.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Pritam; Bandyopadhyaya, Rajdip

    2016-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) were selectively impregnated on the external surface of plasma treated activated carbon (AC) granules (referred to as Ag-AC hybrid, having 0.8 wt% of Ag), for achieving continuous disinfection of water in a single flow-column set-up. First, Ag-NPs (28 nm mean size) were synthesized by UV reduction. Subsequently, Escherichia coli cell-killing experiments were performed in both shake flask (i. e. batch-mode) and flow-column (i. e. continuous-mode) operations, using E. coli K12 (MTCC 1302) as a model organism. Batch results using 8 mg Ag-AC hybrid/ml of cell suspension showed that, 10(4) CFU/ml of cells were killed within 25 min contact time, with cell concentration decaying exponentially in time. Maintaining almost the same contact time as in the batch experiments, three columns packed with Ag-AC (all having a height of 25 cm but increasing diameters of 1, 5 and 8 cm, respectively) were used for monitoring cell-killing performance over a long duration. For all columns, inlet water having 10(4) CFU/ml E. coli could be completely disinfected to produce treated, outlet water having zero cell count. Specifically for the 8 cm diameter column, a maximum throughput of treating 1.62 L of contaminated water per hour could be maintained for at least up to 16 days. Moreover, the Ag concentration in the outlet water was only up to 29.8 μg/L at steady state, which is well within the recommended limit of 100 μg/L for drinking water. Hence, water disinfection for potable quality water (zero E. coli count and <100 μg/L Ag) can be achieved in a continuous manner over a long duration, with our packed Ag-AC column.

  20. European tendencies and co-operation in the field of ITS systems - national achievements and challenges in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenbach, Ágnes

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the role of intelligent transport systems/services related to the implementation of the essential European and Hungarian transport policy objectives. The `ITS Directive' will provide a framework for the tasks/works to be performed in the forthcoming years within the priority areas of ITS. The European Commission published regulations / specifications for the priority actions in the form of delegated acts defining the tasks/responsibilities of Member States. Regional/European co-operation for Hungary started after the EU-accession of the country. Hungary was an active partner within the European CONNECT and EasyWay projects, currently Hungary is a member of the CROCODILE consortium.

  1. Operational strategies for thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in continuously stirred tank reactors.

    PubMed

    Angelidaki, I; Cui, J; Chen, X; Kaparaju, P

    2006-08-01

    Three operational strategies to reduce inhibition due to ammonia during thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) rich in proteins were investigated. Feed was prepared by diluting SS-OFMSW (ratio of 1:4) with tap water or reactor process water with or without stripping ammonia. Three continuously stirred tank reactors were operated at 55 degrees C with 11.4 gVS d(-1) loading rate and 15 d retention time. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) level in the reactor fed with recirculated water alone was spiked to 3.5 and 5.5 g-N l(-1) through ammonium bicarbonate additions. Dilution of SS-OFMSW with fresh water showed a stable performance with volatile fatty acids of < 1g l(-1) and methane yield of 0.40 m3 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS). Use of recirculated process water after stripping ammonia showed even better performance with a methane yield of 0.43 m3 kg(-1) VS. Recirculation of process water alone on the other hand, resulted in process inhibition at both TAN levels of 3.5 and 5.5 g-N l(-1). However, after a short period, the process recovered and adapted to the tested TAN levels. Thus, use of recirculated process water after stripping ammonia would not only evade potential inhibition due to ammonia but could avoid the use of fresh water for dilution of high solids protein-rich SS-OFMSW.

  2. Effect of basic operating parameters on biological phosphorus removal in a continuous-flow anaerobic-anoxic activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Kapagiannidis, A G; Zafiriadis, I; Aivasidis, A

    2012-03-01

    A continuous-flow anaerobic-anoxic (A2) activated sludge system was operated for efficient enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Because of the system configuration with no aeration zones, phosphorus (P) uptake takes place solely under anoxic conditions with simultaneous denitrification. Basic operating conditions, namely biomass concentration, influent carbon to phosphorus ratio and anaerobic retention time were chosen as variables in order to assess their impact on the system performance. The experimental results indicated that maintenance of biomass concentration above 2,500 mg MLVSS/L resulted in the complete phosphate removal from the influent (i.e. 15 mg PO(4) (3-)-P/L) for a mean hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 15 h. Additionally, by increasing the influent COD/P ratio from 10 to 20 g/g, the system P removal efficiency was improved although the experimental results indicated a possible enhancement of the competition between phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and other microbial populations without phosphorus uptake ability. Moreover, because of the use of acetate (i.e. easily biodegradable substrate) as the sole carbon source in the system feed, application of anaerobic retention times greater than 2 h resulted in no significant release of additional P in the anaerobic zone and no further amelioration of the system P removal efficiency. The application of anoxic P removal resulted in more than 50% reduction of the organic carbon necessitated for nitrogen and phosphorus removal when compared to a conventional EBPR system incorporating aerobic phosphorus removal.

  3. Production of carbonaceous adsorbents from agricultural by-products and novolac resin under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Z; Simitzis, J

    2013-02-01

    Carbonaceous adsorbents based on novolac resin (N) and olive stone biomass (B) in a proportion of 20/80 and 40/60 w./w. N/O were produced. The specimens were cured (c) and pyrolyzed/carbonized (C) up to 1000 °C under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation (N20B-cC, N40B-cC). Commercial activated carbon (AC) was used for comparison reasons. Methylene blue adsorption from its aqueous solutions onto the adsorbents and kinetic analysis were investigated. The specific surface area of adsorbents and the gross calorific values (GCV) of cured materials were determined. The results show that N40B-cC presents lower weight loss and shrinkage but higher methylene blue adsorption than N20B-cC. Pseudo-second order mechanism describes better methylene blue adsorption onto all adsorbents. The specific surface area of carbonaceous and the gross calorific values of cured materials follow the order: AC>N20B-cC>N40B-cC and N100-c>N40B-c>N20B-c>B respectively. Olive stone biomass may constitute a suitable precursor for the production of carbonaceous materials.

  4. Pulsed and continuous-wave laser operation of TGT-grown Nd,Y-codoped :SrF2 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Michal; Kubeček, Václav; Su, Liangbi; Jiang, Dapeng; Ma, Fengkai; Zhang, Qian; Cao, Yuexin; Xu, Jun

    2014-05-01

    In this letter we present laser properties of temperature gradient technique (TGT) grown Nd,Y : SrF2 crystals with Nd3+ concentrations of 0.4, 0.65 and 0.8 at% and Y3+ concentration of 10 at%. The noncoated crystal samples, 3.1 or 5 mm long, were pumped by the 796 nm laser diode matching the Nd,Y : SrF2 absorption peak. In the pulsed pumping regime (pulse-duration 2 ms, frequency 10 Hz), maximum average output power of 75 mW (corresponding to peak power of 3.75 W) was obtained with slope efficiency as high as 51% and optical-to-optical efficiency of 42% with respect to the absorbed pump power. The output beam spatial profile was nearly Gaussian in both axes, oscillations started at the wavelength of 1057 nm. At higher pumping levels, the second emission line at 1051 nm appears corresponding to our fluorescence measurements. Wavelength tuning using a birefringent filter from 1048 to 1070 nm is probably given by the crystal-field splitting of the 4F3/2 manifold in Nd3+. True-continuous-wave laser operation was also successfully obtained at lower pumping levels with maximum output power of 380 mW and slope efficiency of 28% at the wavelength of 1057 nm.

  5. Operational calibration and validation of landsat data continuity mission (LDCM) sensors using the image assessment system (IAS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micijevic, Esad; Morfitt, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Systematic characterization and calibration of the Landsat sensors and the assessment of image data quality are performed using the Image Assessment System (IAS). The IAS was first introduced as an element of the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) ground segment and recently extended to Landsat 4 (L4) and 5 (L5) Thematic Mappers (TM) and Multispectral Sensors (MSS) on-board the Landsat 1-5 satellites. In preparation for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), the IAS was developed for the Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) with a capability to assess pushbroom sensors. This paper describes the LDCM version of the IAS and how it relates to unique calibration and validation attributes of its on-board imaging sensors. The LDCM IAS system will have to handle a significantly larger number of detectors and the associated database than the previous IAS versions. An additional challenge is that the LDCM IAS must handle data from two sensors, as the LDCM products will combine the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) spectral bands.

  6. Production of carbonaceous adsorbents from agricultural by-products and novolac resin under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Z; Simitzis, J

    2013-02-01

    Carbonaceous adsorbents based on novolac resin (N) and olive stone biomass (B) in a proportion of 20/80 and 40/60 w./w. N/O were produced. The specimens were cured (c) and pyrolyzed/carbonized (C) up to 1000 °C under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation (N20B-cC, N40B-cC). Commercial activated carbon (AC) was used for comparison reasons. Methylene blue adsorption from its aqueous solutions onto the adsorbents and kinetic analysis were investigated. The specific surface area of adsorbents and the gross calorific values (GCV) of cured materials were determined. The results show that N40B-cC presents lower weight loss and shrinkage but higher methylene blue adsorption than N20B-cC. Pseudo-second order mechanism describes better methylene blue adsorption onto all adsorbents. The specific surface area of carbonaceous and the gross calorific values of cured materials follow the order: AC>N20B-cC>N40B-cC and N100-c>N40B-c>N20B-c>B respectively. Olive stone biomass may constitute a suitable precursor for the production of carbonaceous materials. PMID:23246760

  7. Comparative Study of Vibration Stability at Operating Light Source Facilities and Lessons Learned in Achieving NSLS II Stability Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Simos,N.; Fallier, M.; Amick, H.

    2008-06-23

    In an effort to ensure that the stability goals of the NSLS II will be met once the accelerator structure is set on the selected BNL site a comprehensive evaluation of the ground vibration observed at existing light source facilities has been undertaken. The study has relied on measurement data collected and reported by the operating facilities as well as on new data collected in the course of this study. The primary goal of this comprehensive effort is to compare the green-field conditions that exist in the various sites both in terms of amplitude as well as frequency content and quantify the effect of the interaction of these accelerator facilities with the green-field vibration. The latter represents the ultimate goal of this effort where the anticipated motion of the NSLS II ring is estimated prior to its construction and compared with the required stability criteria.

  8. Compressed sensing embedded in an operational wireless sensor network to achieve energy efficiency in long-term monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, S. M.; Lynch, J. P.; Gilbert, A. C.

    2014-08-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) is a powerful new data acquisition paradigm that seeks to accurately reconstruct unknown sparse signals from very few (relative to the target signal dimension) random projections. The specific objective of this study is to save wireless sensor energy by using CS to simultaneously reduce data sampling rates, on-board storage requirements, and communication data payloads. For field-deployed low power wireless sensors that are often operated with limited energy sources, reduced communication translates directly into reduced power consumption and improved operational reliability. In this study, acceleration data from a multi-girder steel-concrete deck composite bridge are processed for the extraction of mode shapes. A wireless sensor node previously designed to perform traditional uniform, Nyquist rate sampling is modified to perform asynchronous, effectively sub-Nyquist rate sampling. The sub-Nyquist data are transmitted off-site to a computational server for reconstruction using the CoSaMP matching pursuit recovery algorithm and further processed for extraction of the structure’s mode shapes. The mode shape metric used for reconstruction quality is the modal assurance criterion (MAC), an indicator of the consistency between CS and traditional Nyquist acquired mode shapes. A comprehensive investigation of modal accuracy from a dense set of acceleration response data reveals that MAC values above 0.90 are obtained for the first four modes of a bridge structure when at least 20% of the original signal is sampled using the CS framework. Reduced data collection, storage and communication requirements are found to lead to substantial reductions in the energy requirements of wireless sensor networks at the expense of modal accuracy. Specifically, total energy reductions of 10-60% can be obtained for a sensor network with 10-100 sensor nodes, respectively. The reduced energy requirements of the CS sensor nodes are shown to directly result in

  9. Many small consumers, one growing problem: Achieving energy savings for electronic equipment operating in low power modes

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher T.; Meier, Alan K.

    2004-08-24

    An increasing amount of electricity is used by equipment that is neither fully ''on'' nor fully ''off.'' We call these equipment states low power modes, or ''lopomos.'' ''Standby'' and ''sleep'' are the most familiar lopomos, but some new products already have many modes. Lopomos are becoming common in household appliances, safety equipment, and miscellaneous products. Ross and Meier (2000) reports that several international studies have found standby power to be as much as 10 percent of residential energy consumption. Lopomo energy consumption is likely to continue growing rapidly as products with lopomos that use significant amounts of energy penetrate the market. Other sectors such as commercial buildings and industry also have lopomo energy use, perhaps totaling more in aggregate than that of households, but no comprehensive measurements have been made. In this paper, we propose a research agenda for study of lopomo energy consumption. This agenda has been developed with input from over 200 interested parties. Overall, there is consensus that lopomo energy consumption is an important area for research. Many see this as a critical time for addressing lopomo issues. As equipment designs move from the binary ''on/off'' paradigm to one that encompasses multiple power modes, there is a unique opportunity to address the issue of low power mode energy consumption while technology development paths are still flexible.

  10. Room temperature plasmonic lasing in a continuous wave operation mode from an InGaN/GaN single nanorod with a low threshold

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Y.; Renwick, P.; Liu, B.; Bai, J.; Wang, T.

    2014-01-01

    It is crucial to fabricate nano photonic devices such as nanolasers in order to meet the requirements for the integration of photonic and electronic circuits on the nanometre scale. The great difficulty is to break down a bottleneck as a result of the diffraction limit of light. Nanolasers on a subwavelength scale could potentially be fabricated based on the principle of surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (SPASER). However, a number of technological challenges will have to be overcome in order to achieve a SPASER with a low threshold, allowing for a continuous wave (cw) operation at room temperature. We report a nano-SPASER with a record low threshold at room temperature, optically pumped by using a cw diode laser. Our nano-SPASER consists of a single InGaN/GaN nanorod on a thin SiO2 spacer layer on a silver film. The nanorod containing InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-wells is fabricated by means of a cost-effective post-growth fabrication approach. The geometry of the nanorod/dielectric spacer/plasmonic metal composite allows us to have accurate control of the surface plasmon coupling, offering an opportunity to determine the optimal thickness of the dielectric spacer. This approach will open up a route for further fabrication of electrically injected plasmonic lasers. PMID:24852881

  11. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class... minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems, as appropriate, and...

  12. Power-gated 32 bit microprocessor with a power controller circuit activated by deep-sleep-mode instruction achieving ultra-low power operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Hiroki; Ohsawa, Takashi; Miura, Sadahiko; Honjo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Hanyu, Takahiro; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2015-04-01

    A spintronic-based power-gated micro-processing unit (MPU) is proposed. It includes a power control circuit activated by the newly supported power-off instruction for the deep-sleep mode. These means enable the power-off procedure for the MPU to be executed appropriately. A test chip was designed and fabricated using 90 nm CMOS and an additional 100 nm MTJ process; it was successfully operated. The guideline of the energy reduction effects for this MPU was presented, using the estimation based on the measurement results of the test chip. The result shows that a large operation energy reduction of 1/28 can be achieved when the operation duty is 10%, under the condition of a sufficient number of idle clock cycles.

  13. 40 CFR 62.15185 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide. (b) Complete your initial evaluation of the continuous emission monitoring systems... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring...

  14. 40 CFR 62.15185 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide. (b) Complete your initial evaluation of the continuous emission monitoring systems... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation of your continuous emission monitoring systems following the applicable performance specifications in appendix B of this part. table 4 of this subpart shows the performance specifications that apply... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation of your continuous emission monitoring systems following the applicable performance specifications in appendix B of this part. table 4 of this subpart shows the required span values and performance... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable performance specifications in appendix B of this part. table 7 of this subpart shows the performance specifications that apply to each continuous emission monitoring system. (d) Follow the quality... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems following the applicable performance specifications in appendix B of this part. table 3 of this subpart shows the required span values and performance specifications that... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW...

  19. Continuous treatment of non-sterile hospital wastewater by Trametes versicolor: How to increase fungal viability by means of operational strategies and pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Mir-Tutusaus, J A; Sarrà, M; Caminal, G

    2016-11-15

    Hospital wastewaters have a high load of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs). Fungal treatments could be appropriate for source treatment of such effluents but the transition to non-sterile conditions proved to be difficult due to competition with indigenous microorganisms, resulting in very short-duration operations. In this article, coagulation-flocculation and UV-radiation processes were studied as pretreatments to a fungal reactor treating non-sterile hospital wastewater in sequential batch operation and continuous operation modes. The influent was spiked with ibuprofen and ketoprofen, and both compounds were successfully degraded by over 80%. UV pretreatment did not extent the fungal activity after coagulation-flocculation measured as laccase production and pellet integrity. Sequential batch operation did not reduce bacteria competition during fungal treatment. The best strategy was the addition of a coagulation-flocculation pretreatment to a continuous reactor, which led to an operation of 28days without biomass renovation.

  20. IEEE Validation of the Continuing Education Achievement of Engineers Registry System. Procedures for Use with a CPT 8000 Word Processor and Communications Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY.

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) validation program is designed to motivate persons practicing in electrical and electronics engineering to pursue quality technical continuing education courses offered by any responsible sponsor. The rapid acceptance of the validation program necessitated the additional development of a…

  1. Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with n-type conducting AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeyama, Kazuki; Kozuka, Yugo; Matsui, Kenjo; Yoshida, Shotaro; Akagi, Takanobu; Akatsuka, Yasuto; Koide, Norikatsu; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Iwaya, Motoaki; Akasaki, Isamu

    2016-10-01

    The room-temperature continuous-wave operation of a 1.5λ-cavity GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with an n-type conducting AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) was achieved. A peak reflectivity of over 99.9% was obtained in the n-type conducting AlInN/GaN DBR so that the current was injected through the DBR for the operation. The threshold current was 2.6 mA, corresponding to the threshold current density of 5.2 kA/cm2, and the operating voltage was 4.7 V. A lasing spectrum with a peak wavelength of 405.1 nm and a full-width at half maximum of 0.08 nm was also observed.

  2. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class..., nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems, as appropriate, and...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b... sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems,...

  4. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide concentration levels, use EPA Method 10, 10A, or 10B of appendix A...

  5. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide concentration levels, use EPA Method 10, 10A, or 10B of appendix A...

  6. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide concentration levels, use EPA Method 10, 10A, or 10B of appendix A...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b) Complete your...) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide concentration levels, use EPA Method 10, 10A, or 10B of appendix A of this part. Use EPA Method...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b) Complete your...) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide concentration levels, use EPA Method 10, 10A, or 10B of appendix A of this part. Use EPA Method...

  9. Operational research in primary health care planning: a theoretical model for estimating the coverage achieved by different distributions of staff and facilities

    PubMed Central

    Kemball-Cook, D.; Vaughan, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    This report outlines a basic operational research model for estimating the coverage achieved by different distributions of primary health care staff and facilities, using antenatal home visiting as an illustrative example. Coverage is estimated in terms of the average number of patient contacts achieved per annum. The model takes into account such features as number of facilities and health workers per 10 000 population, the radius of the health facility area, the overall population density in the region, the number of working days in the year, and the health worker's travelling time and work rate. A theoretical planning situation is also presented, showing the application of the model in defining various possible strategies, using certain planning norms for new levels of staff and facilities. This theoretical model is presented as an example of the use of operational research in primary health care, but it requires to be tested and validated in known situations before its usefulness can be assessed. Some indications are given of the ways in which the model could be adapted and improved for application to a real planning situation. PMID:6602666

  10. 40 CFR 63.7745 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the operation and maintenance requirements that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Continuous Compliance Requirements § 63... the iron and steel foundry or until the iron and steel foundry is no longer subject to...

  11. 40 CFR 63.4967 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration and... complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally spaced successive cycles of CPMS operation in 1 hour. (2) You must determine...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4768 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after... CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally spaced successive cycles of CPMS operation in 1 hour. (2) You...

  13. 40 CFR 63.4168 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally spaced successive cycles of CPMS operation in 1 hour. (2) You must... add-on control device, you must monitor the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or...

  14. 40 CFR 63.4768 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after... CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally spaced successive cycles of CPMS operation in 1 hour. (2) You...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3168 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after... this section. (1) The CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally-spaced successive cycles of CPMS operation in...

  16. 40 CFR 63.4568 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration and... this section. (1) The CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally spaced successive cycles of CPMS operation in...

  17. 40 CFR 63.4967 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration and... complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally spaced successive cycles of CPMS operation in 1 hour. (2) You must determine...

  18. 40 CFR 63.4568 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this section. (1) The CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally spaced successive cycles of CPMS operation in 1... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4568 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally spaced successive cycles of CPMS operation in 1 hour. (2) You must... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration...

  20. 40 CFR 63.4967 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally spaced successive cycles of CPMS operation in 1 hour. (2) You must determine the... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration...

  1. 40 CFR 63.3968 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section. (1) The CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally spaced successive cycles of CPMS operation in 1... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration...

  2. 40 CFR 63.4168 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally spaced successive cycles of CPMS operation in 1 hour. (2) You must determine the...) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration and...

  3. 40 CFR 63.4768 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally spaced successive cycles of CPMS operation in 1 hour. (2) You must... gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature...

  4. 40 CFR 63.3168 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally-spaced successive cycles of CPMS operation in 1 hour. (2) You must... total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle,...

  5. 40 CFR 63.3168 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this section. (1) The CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally-spaced successive cycles of CPMS operation in 1... (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4168 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally spaced successive cycles of CPMS operation in 1 hour. (2) You must...) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration and...

  7. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Dddd of... - Continuous Compliance With the Compliance Options and Operating Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... parameters Collecting and recording the operating parameter monitoring system data listed in Table 2 to this... on THC CEMS data Collecting and recording the THC monitoring data listed in Table 2 to this subpart... Compliance Options and Operating Requirements 7 Table 7 to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of...

  8. 40 CFR 63.3168 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the emission capture system and add-on control device operation. (3) You must record the results of... operate the CPMS and collect emission capture system and add-on control device parameter data at all times... checks and required zero and span adjustments). (6) You must not use emission capture system or...

  9. 40 CFR 63.10021 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations, operating limits, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance with each emissions limit, operating limit, and work practice standard in Tables 1 through 4 to this subpart that applies to you, according to the monitoring specified in Tables 6 and 7 to this... you use a PM CPMS data to measure compliance with an operating limit in Table 4 to this subpart,...

  10. 40 CFR 63.10021 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations, operating limits, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compliance with each emissions limit, operating limit, and work practice standard in Tables 1 through 4 to this subpart that applies to you, according to the monitoring specified in Tables 6 and 7 to this... you use a PM CPMS data to measure compliance with an operating limit in Table 4 to this subpart,...

  11. Design and operation of a continuous 13C and 15N labeling chamber for uniform or differential, metabolic and structural, plant isotope labeling.

    PubMed

    Soong, Jennifer L; Reuss, Dan; Pinney, Colin; Boyack, Ty; Haddix, Michelle L; Stewart, Catherine E; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2014-01-16

    Tracing rare stable isotopes from plant material through the ecosystem provides the most sensitive information about ecosystem processes; from CO2 fluxes and soil organic matter formation to small-scale stable-isotope biomarker probing. Coupling multiple stable isotopes such as (13)C with (15)N, (18)O or (2)H has the potential to reveal even more information about complex stoichiometric relationships during biogeochemical transformations. Isotope labeled plant material has been used in various studies of litter decomposition and soil organic matter formation(1-4). From these and other studies, however, it has become apparent that structural components of plant material behave differently than metabolic components (i.e. leachable low molecular weight compounds) in terms of microbial utilization and long-term carbon storage(5-7). The ability to study structural and metabolic components separately provides a powerful new tool for advancing the forefront of ecosystem biogeochemical studies. Here we describe a method for producing (13)C and (15)N labeled plant material that is either uniformly labeled throughout the plant or differentially labeled in structural and metabolic plant components. Here, we present the construction and operation of a continuous (13)C and (15)N labeling chamber that can be modified to meet various research needs. Uniformly labeled plant material is produced by continuous labeling from seedling to harvest, while differential labeling is achieved by removing the growing plants from the chamber weeks prior to harvest. Representative results from growing Andropogon gerardii Kaw demonstrate the system's ability to efficiently label plant material at the targeted levels. Through this method we have produced plant material with a 4.4 atom%(13)C and 6.7 atom%(15)N uniform plant label, or material that is differentially labeled by up to 1.29 atom%(13)C and 0.56 atom%(15)N in its metabolic and structural components (hot water extractable and hot water

  12. Design and Operation of a Continuous 13C and 15N Labeling Chamber for Uniform or Differential, Metabolic and Structural, Plant Isotope Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Jennifer L; Reuss, Dan; Pinney, Colin; Boyack, Ty; Haddix, Michelle L; Stewart, Catherine E; Cotrufo, M. Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Tracing rare stable isotopes from plant material through the ecosystem provides the most sensitive information about ecosystem processes; from CO2 fluxes and soil organic matter formation to small-scale stable-isotope biomarker probing. Coupling multiple stable isotopes such as 13C with 15N, 18O or 2H has the potential to reveal even more information about complex stoichiometric relationships during biogeochemical transformations. Isotope labeled plant material has been used in various studies of litter decomposition and soil organic matter formation1-4. From these and other studies, however, it has become apparent that structural components of plant material behave differently than metabolic components (i.e. leachable low molecular weight compounds) in terms of microbial utilization and long-term carbon storage5-7. The ability to study structural and metabolic components separately provides a powerful new tool for advancing the forefront of ecosystem biogeochemical studies. Here we describe a method for producing 13C and 15N labeled plant material that is either uniformly labeled throughout the plant or differentially labeled in structural and metabolic plant components. Here, we present the construction and operation of a continuous 13C and 15N labeling chamber that can be modified to meet various research needs. Uniformly labeled plant material is produced by continuous labeling from seedling to harvest, while differential labeling is achieved by removing the growing plants from the chamber weeks prior to harvest. Representative results from growing Andropogon gerardii Kaw demonstrate the system's ability to efficiently label plant material at the targeted levels. Through this method we have produced plant material with a 4.4 atom%13C and 6.7 atom%15N uniform plant label, or material that is differentially labeled by up to 1.29 atom%13C and 0.56 atom%15N in its metabolic and structural components (hot water extractable and hot water residual components

  13. Spectroelectrochemical sensing based on multimode selectivity simultaneously achievable in a single device. 17. Improvement in detection limits using ultrathin perfluorosulfonated ionomer films in conjunction with continuous sample flow.

    PubMed

    Andria, Sara E; Richardson, John N; Kaval, Necati; Zudans, Imants; Seliskar, Carl J; Heineman, William R

    2004-06-01

    We report herein an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) absorbance-based spectroelectrochemical sensor for tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) ion [Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)] that employs ultrathin (24-50 nm) Nafion films as the charge-selective layer. This film serves to sequester and preconcentrate the analyte at the optically transparent electrode surface such that it can be efficiently detected optically via electrochemical modulation. Our studies indicate that use of ultrathin films in tandem with continuous flow of sample solution through the cell compartment leads to a 100-500-fold enhancement in detection limit (10 nM) compared to earlier absorbance-based spectroelectrochemical sensors ( approximately 1-5 microM); markedly shorter analysis times also result. We report the dependence of the measured absorbance on sample flow rate and Nafion film thickness, and also provide calibration curves that illustrate the linear range and detection limits of the sensor using a 24 nm film at a constant sample flow rate of 0.07 mL/min.

  14. Copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions in microflow: catalyst activity, high-T operation, and an integrated continuous copper scavenging unit.

    PubMed

    Varas, Alvaro Carlos; Noël, Timothy; Wang, Qi; Hessel, Volker

    2012-09-01

    AVOIDING THE COPPERS: A continuous-flow synthesis for the Cu(I) -catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction using [Cu(phenanthroline)(PPh₃)₂]NO₃ as a homogeneous catalyst is developed (up to 92 % isolated yield). Elevated temperatures allow achieving full conversions and using lower catalyst loadings. Residual copper in the triazole compound is efficiently removed via an inline extraction process, employing aqueous EDTA as a copper scavenger. PMID:22753337

  15. 40 CFR 63.7335 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the operation and maintenance requirements that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Continuous... maintenance requirements that apply to me? (a) For each by-product coke oven battery, you must demonstrate... each coke oven battery with a capture system or control device applied to pushing emissions, you...

  16. 40 CFR 63.7335 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the operation and maintenance requirements that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Continuous... maintenance requirements that apply to me? (a) For each by-product coke oven battery, you must demonstrate... each coke oven battery with a capture system or control device applied to pushing emissions, you...

  17. 40 CFR 63.7335 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the operation and maintenance requirements that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Continuous... maintenance requirements that apply to me? (a) For each by-product coke oven battery, you must demonstrate... each coke oven battery with a capture system or control device applied to pushing emissions, you...

  18. 40 CFR 63.7335 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the operation and maintenance requirements that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Continuous... maintenance requirements that apply to me? (a) For each by-product coke oven battery, you must demonstrate... each coke oven battery with a capture system or control device applied to pushing emissions, you...

  19. 40 CFR 63.7335 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the operation and maintenance requirements that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Continuous... maintenance requirements that apply to me? (a) For each by-product coke oven battery, you must demonstrate... each coke oven battery with a capture system or control device applied to pushing emissions, you...

  20. 40 CFR Table 40 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Opacity Monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... opacity monitoring system Performance specification 1 (40 CFR part 60, appendix B). 2. CO continuous emission monitoring system Performance specification 4 (40 CFR part 60, appendix B); span value of 1,000 ppm; and procedure 1 (40 CFR part 60, appendix F) except relative accuracy test audits are...

  1. 40 CFR Table 40 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Opacity Monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... opacity monitoring system Performance specification 1 (40 CFR part 60, appendix B). 2. CO continuous emission monitoring system Performance specification 4 (40 CFR part 60, appendix B); span value of 1,000 ppm; and procedure 1 (40 CFR part 60, appendix F) except relative accuracy test audits are...

  2. 40 CFR Table 40 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Opacity Monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... opacity monitoring system Performance specification 1 (40 CFR part 60, appendix B). 2. CO continuous emission monitoring system Performance specification 4 (40 CFR part 60, appendix B); span value of 1,000 ppm; and procedure 1 (40 CFR part 60, appendix F) except relative accuracy test audits are...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2145 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and the operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7 of this part. The nitrogen oxides continuous emission monitoring... nitrogen oxides, EPA Reference Method 7 or 7E at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-4 must be used. (ii) For oxygen... 12.4.1 of EPA Reference Method 19 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7 of this part. The nitrogen...

  4. 40 CFR Table 35 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Limits for HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units 35 Table 35 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63, Subpt. UUU, Table 35 Table 35 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Continuous... NSPS for sulfur oxides in paragraph 40 CFR 60.104(a)(2). Not applicable Meeting the requirements...

  5. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Eeee of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits-High Throughput Transfer Racks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... scrubbing liquid temperature less than or equal to the reference temperature established during the design... compliance with the emission limit. i. Continuously monitoring the scrubbing liquid temperature and... Pollutants: Organic Liquids Distribution (Non-Gasoline) Pt. 63, Subpt. EEEE, Table 9 Table 9 to Subpart...

  6. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Eeee of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits-High Throughput Transfer Racks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... scrubbing liquid temperature less than or equal to the reference temperature established during the design... compliance with the emission limit. i. Continuously monitoring the scrubbing liquid temperature and... Pollutants: Organic Liquids Distribution (Non-Gasoline) Pt. 63, Subpt. EEEE, Table 9 Table 9 to Subpart...

  7. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Eeee of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits-High Throughput Transfer Racks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... limit. i. Continuously monitoring the scrubbing liquid temperature and maintaining the daily average... Liquids Distribution (Non-Gasoline) Pt. 63, Subpt. EEEE, Table 9 Table 9 to Subpart EEEE of Part 63... subpart. a. Maintain the daily average fire box or combustion zone, as applicable, temperature...

  8. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Eeee of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits-High Throughput Transfer Racks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limit. i. Continuously monitoring the scrubbing liquid temperature and maintaining the daily average... Liquids Distribution (Non-Gasoline) Pt. 63, Subpt. EEEE, Table 9 Table 9 to Subpart EEEE of Part 63... subpart. a. Maintain the daily average fire box or combustion zone, as applicable, temperature...

  9. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Eeee of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits-High Throughput Transfer Racks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... scrubbing liquid temperature less than or equal to the reference temperature established during the design... compliance with the emission limit. i. Continuously monitoring the scrubbing liquid temperature and... Pollutants: Organic Liquids Distribution (Non-Gasoline) Pt. 63, Subpt. EEEE, Table 9 Table 9 to Subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2932 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and the operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....2922. (b) You must continuously monitor carbon monoxide emissions to determine compliance with the carbon monoxide emissions limitation. Twelve-hour rolling average values are used to determine compliance. A 12-hour rolling average value above the carbon monoxide emission limit in table 1 of this...

  11. 40 CFR 60.3033 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and the operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in § 60.3027. (b) You must continuously monitor carbon monoxide emissions to determine compliance with the carbon monoxide emissions limitation. Twelve-hour rolling average values are used to determine compliance. A 12-hour rolling average value above the carbon monoxide emission limit in table 2 constitutes...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2932 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and the operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... listed in table 1 of this subpart and the procedures in 60.2922. (b) You must continuously monitor carbon monoxide emissions to determine compliance with the carbon monoxide emissions limitation. Twelve-hour rolling average values are used to determine compliance. A 12-hour rolling average value above the...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b) Complete your initial evaluation... initial and annual evaluations, collect data concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide...

  14. 40 CFR 60.3033 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and the operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in § 60.3027. (b) You must continuously monitor carbon monoxide emissions to determine compliance with the carbon monoxide emissions limitation. Twelve-hour rolling average values are used to determine compliance. A 12-hour rolling average value above the carbon monoxide emission limit in table 2 constitutes...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3033 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and the operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in § 60.3027. (b) You must continuously monitor carbon monoxide emissions to determine compliance with the carbon monoxide emissions limitation. Twelve-hour rolling average values are used to determine compliance. A 12-hour rolling average value above the carbon monoxide emission limit in table 2 constitutes...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2932 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and the operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....2922. (b) You must continuously monitor carbon monoxide emissions to determine compliance with the carbon monoxide emissions limitation. Twelve-hour rolling average values are used to determine compliance. A 12-hour rolling average value above the carbon monoxide emission limit in table 1 of this...

  17. 40 CFR 62.15185 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the applicable performance specifications in appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. Table 7 of this subpart shows the performance specifications that apply to each continuous emission monitoring system. (d) Follow the quality assurance procedures in Procedure 1 of appendix F of 40 CFR part 60 for...

  18. 40 CFR 62.15185 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and... system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems... the applicable performance specifications in appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. Table 7 of this...

  19. Continual improvement plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    NASA's approach to continual improvement (CI) is a systems-oriented, agency-wide approach that builds on the past accomplishments of NASA Headquarters and its field installations and helps achieve NASA's vision, mission, and values. The NASA of the future will fully use the principles of continual improvement in every aspect of its operations. This NASA CI plan defines a systematic approach and a model for continual improvement throughout NASA, stressing systems integration and optimization. It demonstrates NASA's constancy of purpose for improvement - a consistent vision of NASA as a worldwide leader in top-quality science, technology, and management practices. The CI plan provides the rationale, structures, methods, and steps, and it defines NASA's short term (1-year) objectives for improvement. The CI plan presents the deployment strategies necessary for cascading the goals and objectives throughout the agency. It also provides guidance on implementing continual improvement with participation from top leadership and all levels of employees.

  20. Delivery times for caesarean section at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi: is a 30-minute 'informed to start of operative delivery time' achievable?

    PubMed

    O'Regan, M

    2003-08-01

    A timesheet questionnaire was used to assess the time it took from informing the anaesthetist about a case to the start of operative delivery in 78 consecutive patients undergoing caesarean section. Median (IQR [range]) times for grade-1 cases (immediate threat to the life of the mother or fetus) and grade-2 cases (fetal or maternal compromise without immediate threat to life) were 20 (17-35 [6-75]) min and 41 (27-60 [17-136]) min, respectively. Delays occurred in all the component time intervals examined. The primary avoidable delay was the patient's late arrival in theatre. Many significant delays were apparently not perceived by the anaesthetist. In nine (69%) grade-1 cases, the 30-min target decreed by the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain & Ireland and the Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association was achieved.

  1. The Academic Backbone: longitudinal continuities in educational achievement from secondary school and medical school to MRCP(UK) and the specialist register in UK medical students and doctors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Selection of medical students in the UK is still largely based on prior academic achievement, although doubts have been expressed as to whether performance in earlier life is predictive of outcomes later in medical school or post-graduate education. This study analyses data from five longitudinal studies of UK medical students and doctors from the early 1970s until the early 2000s. Two of the studies used the AH5, a group test of general intelligence (that is, intellectual aptitude). Sex and ethnic differences were also analyzed in light of the changing demographics of medical students over the past decades. Methods Data from five cohort studies were available: the Westminster Study (began clinical studies from 1975 to 1982), the 1980, 1985, and 1990 cohort studies (entered medical school in 1981, 1986, and 1991), and the University College London Medical School (UCLMS) Cohort Study (entered clinical studies in 2005 and 2006). Different studies had different outcome measures, but most had performance on basic medical sciences and clinical examinations at medical school, performance in Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians (MRCP(UK)) examinations, and being on the General Medical Council Specialist Register. Results Correlation matrices and path analyses are presented. There were robust correlations across different years at medical school, and medical school performance also predicted MRCP(UK) performance and being on the GMC Specialist Register. A-levels correlated somewhat less with undergraduate and post-graduate performance, but there was restriction of range in entrants. General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)/O-level results also predicted undergraduate and post-graduate outcomes, but less so than did A-level results, but there may be incremental validity for clinical and post-graduate performance. The AH5 had some significant correlations with outcome, but they were inconsistent. Sex and ethnicity also had predictive effects on

  2. High-power continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a diode-pumped Yb:KGW laser.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Reza; Zhao, Haitao; Major, Arkady

    2016-04-01

    High-power dual-wavelength diode-pumped Yb:KGW laser using a single birefringent filter plate was demonstrated. Two oscillating wavelengths maintained the same polarization and stable dual-wavelength operation at 1014.6 and 1041.3 nm (7.57 THz of frequency offset) with 3.4 W of average output power and a diffraction-limited beam profile was obtained. Dual-wavelength laser operation at shorter- or longer-wavelength pairs with lower average output power could also be realized for other output-coupling transmissions.

  3. Multiple-factor analysis of the first radioactive iodine therapy in post-operative patients with differentiated thyroid cancer for achieving a disease-free status

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Meng, Zhaowei; Jia, Qiang; Tan, Jian; Zhang, Guizhi; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Renfei; Li, Xue; Hu, Tianpeng; Upadhyaya, Arun; Zhou, Pingping; Wang, Sen

    2016-01-01

    131I treatment is an important management method for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Unsuccessful 131I ablation drastically affects the prognosis of the patients. This study aimed to analyze potential predictive factors influencing the achievement of a disease-free status following the first 131I therapy. This retrospective review included 315 DTC patients, and multiple factors were analyzed. Tumor size, pathological tumor stage, lymph node (LN) metastasis, distant metastasis, American Thyroid Association recommended risks, pre-ablation thyroglobulin (Tg), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) displayed significant differences between unsuccessful and successful group. Cutoff values of Tg and TSH to predict a successful outcome were 3.525 ng/mL and 99.700 uIU/ml by receiver operating characteristic curves analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that tumor stage T3 or T4, LN metastasis to N1b station, intermediate and high risks, pre-ablation Tg ≥ 3.525 ng/ml and TSH <99.700 μIU/mL were significantly associated with unsuccessful outcomes. Logistic regression equation for achieving a disease-free status could be rendered as: y (successful treatment) = −0.270–0.503 X1 (LN metastasis) −0.236 X2 (Tg) + 0.015 X3 (TSH). This study demonstrated LN metastasis, pre-ablation Tg and TSH were the most powerful predictors for achieving a disease-free status by the first 131I therapy. PMID:27721492

  4. Guidelines and standard procedures for continuous water-quality monitors : site selection, field operation, calibration, record computation, and reporting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Mattraw, H.C.; Ritz, G.F.; Smith, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey uses continuous water-quality monitors to assess variations in the quality of the Nation's surface water. A common system configuration for data collection is the four-parameter water-quality monitoring system, which collects temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH data, although systems can be configured to measure other properties such as turbidity or chlorophyll. The sensors that are used to measure these water properties require careful field observation, cleaning, and calibration procedures, as well as thorough procedures for the computation and publication of final records. Data from sensors can be used in conjunction with collected samples and chemical analyses to estimate chemical loads. This report provides guidelines for site-selection considerations, sensor test methods, field procedures, error correction, data computation, and review and publication processes. These procedures have evolved over the past three decades, and the process continues to evolve with newer technologies.

  5. Single-frequency and tunable operation of a continuous intracavity-frequency-doubled singly resonant optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    My, Thu-Hien; Drag, Cyril; Bretenaker, Fabien

    2008-07-01

    A widely tunable continuous intracavity-frequency-doubled singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal is described. The idler radiation resonating in the cavity is frequency doubled by an intracavity BBO crystal. Pumped in the green, this system can provide up to 485 mW of single-frequency orange radiation. The system is continuously temperature tunable between 1170 and 1355 nm for the idler, 876 and 975 nm for the signal, and between 585 and 678 nm for the doubled idler. The free-running power and frequency stability of the system have been observed to be better than those for a single-mode dye laser.

  6. 40 CFR 63.3557 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. (2) You... monitor the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration and cooling cycle, and comply with...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3968 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration and...) through (5) of this section. (1) The CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally spaced successive cycles of...

  8. 40 CFR 63.3557 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. (2) You must determine... monitor the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration and cooling cycle, and comply with...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2145 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and the operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A-7 of this part. The nitrogen oxides CEMS must be operated according to... 40 CFR part 63 subpart and subcategory that will be applicable after you cease combusting solid waste... Equation 19-19 in section 12.4.1 of EPA Reference Method 19 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7 of this...

  10. 40 CFR 63.3547 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration and cooling cycle, and comply with paragraphs (a)(3) through (5) and (d)(1) and (2) of this section. (1) The... complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. (2) You must...

  11. 40 CFR 63.3547 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration and cooling cycle, and comply with paragraphs (a)(3) through (5) and (d)(1... minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. (2) You must determine the...

  12. 40 CFR 63.3557 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. (2) You... monitor the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration and cooling cycle, and comply with...

  13. 40 CFR 63.3547 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration and cooling cycle, and comply with paragraphs (a)(3) through (5) and (d)(1) and (2) of this section. (1) The... complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. (2) You must...

  14. 40 CFR 63.3968 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) through (5) of this section. (1) The CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation for each successive 15-minute period. You must have a minimum of four equally spaced successive cycles of CPMS... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, the carbon bed temperature after each regeneration...

  15. 40 CFR 63.10021 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations, operating limits, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combustion engineering practice for that burner type; (3) As applicable, observe the damper operations as a... best combustion engineering practice for the applicable burner type. NOX optimization includes burners... demonstration. Notwithstanding this requirement, you may delay the first burner inspection until the...

  16. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Dddd of... - Continuous Compliance With the Compliance Options and Operating Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements in Table 2 of this subpart based on THC CEMS data Collecting and recording the THC monitoring data... Compliance Options and Operating Requirements 7 Table 7 to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart DDDD of...

  17. 40 CFR 63.4967 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... average of all recorded readings for each 3-hour period of the emission capture system and add-on control... routine repairs of the monitoring equipment. (5) You must operate the CPMS and collect emission capture... and span adjustments). (6) You must not use emission capture system or add-on control device...

  18. 40 CFR 63.3547 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of all recorded readings for each successive 3-hour period of the emission capture system and add-on... routine repairs of the monitoring equipment. (5) You must operate the CPMS and collect emission capture...). (6) You must not use emission capture system or add-on control device parameter data recorded...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4168 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... average of all recorded readings for each successive 3-hour period of the emission capture system and add... equipment. (5) You must operate the CPMS and collect emission capture system and add-on control device... applicable, calibration checks and required zero and span adjustments). (6) You must not use emission...

  20. 40 CFR 63.3557 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operation. (3) You must record the results of each inspection... emission capture system and add-on control device parameter data at all times that a controlled coating... adjustments). (6) You must not use emission capture system or add-on control device parameter data...

  1. 40 CFR 63.6640 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations, operating limitations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... THC emissions using Method 25A, reported as propane, of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A. (5) You must... that occur during the first 200 hours of operation from engine startup (engine burn-in period) are...

  2. 40 CFR 63.6640 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations, operating limitations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... THC emissions using Method 25A, reported as propane, of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A. (5) You must... that occur during the first 200 hours of operation from engine startup (engine burn-in period) are...

  3. 40 CFR 62.14670 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and the operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999..., hydrogen chloride, and opacity for each CISWI unit as required under 40 CFR 60.8 to determine compliance.... Operating limits do not apply during performance tests. (c) You must only burn the same types of waste...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14670 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and the operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999..., hydrogen chloride, and opacity for each CISWI unit as required under 40 CFR 60.8 to determine compliance.... Operating limits do not apply during performance tests. (c) You must only burn the same types of waste...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2710 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and the operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... performance test for particulate matter, hydrogen chloride, and opacity for each CISWI unit as required under... subcategory under this subpart, and any 40 CFR part 63 subpart and subcategory that will be applicable after... types of waste used to establish operating limits during the performance test. (e) For energy...

  6. Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. Volume 2, Appendices A--D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action: continued operation, including near-term (within 5 to 10 years) proposed projects, of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, Livermore). Additionally, this document analyzes a no action alternative involving continuing operations at FY 1992 funding levels without further growth, a modification of operations alternative to reduce adverse environmental impacts of operations or facilities, and a shutdown and decommissioning alternative of UC discontinuing its management of LLNL after the current contract expires on September 30, 1992. This document assesses the environmental impacts of the Laboratories` operations on air and water quality, geological and ecological systems, occupational and public health risks, prehistoric and historic resources, endangered species, floodplains and wetlands, socioeconomic resources, hazardous waste management, site contamination, and other environmental issues. The EIS/EIR is divided into five volumes and two companion reports. This volume contains the Final EIS/EIR technical appendices which provide technical support for the analyses in Volume 1 and also provide additional information and references.

  7. Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action: continued operation, including near-term (within 5 to 10 years) proposed projects, of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, Livermore). Additionally, this document analyzes a no action alternative involving continuing operations at FY 1992 funding levels without further growth, a modification of operations alternative to reduce adverse environmental impacts of operations or facilities, and a shutdown and decommissioning alternative of UC discontinuing its management of LLNL after the current contract expires on September 30, 1992. This document assesses the environmental impacts of the Laboratories` operations on air and water quality, geological and ecological systems, occupational and public health risks, prehistoric and historic resources, endangered species, floodplains and wetlands, socioeconomic resources, hazardous waste management, site contamination, and other environmental issues. The EIS/EIR is divided into five volumes and two companion reports. This volume contains the Final EIS/EIR, which in part relies on the detailed information in the appendices, and comprehensively discusses the proposed action, the alternatives, and the existing conditions and impacts of the proposed action and the alternatives.

  8. Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. Volume 3, Appendices F--M

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action: continued operation, including near-term (within 5 to 10 years) proposed projects, of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, Livermore). Additionally, this document analyzes a no action alternative involving continuing operations at FY 1992 funding levels without further growth, a modification of operations alternative to reduce adverse environmental impacts of operations or facilities, and a shutdown and decommissioning alternative of UC discontinuing its management of LLNL after the current contract expires on September 30, 1992. This document assesses the environmental impacts of the Laboratories` operations on air and water quality, geological and ecological systems, occupational and public health risks, prehistoric and historic resources, endangered species, floodplains and wetlands, socioeconomic resources, hazardous waste management, site contamination, and other environmental issues. The EIS/EIR is divided into five volumes and two companion reports. This volume contains the Final EIS/EIR technical appendices F through M. Appendix L has been revised to reflect public information activities since publication of the Draft EIS/EIR. These appendices provide technical support for the analyses in Volume 1 and also provide additional information and references.

  9. Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. Volume 4, Comments and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action: continued operation, including near-term (within 5 to 10 years) proposed projects, of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, Livermore). Additionally, this document analyzes a no action alternative involving continuing operations at FY 1992 funding levels without further growth, a modification of operations alternative to reduce adverse environmental impacts of operations or facilities, and a shutdown and decommissioning alternative of UC discontinuing its management of LLNL after the current contract expires on September 30, 1992. This document assesses the environmental impacts of the Laboratories` operations on air and water quality, geological and ecological systems, occupational and public health risks, prehistoric and historic resources, endangered species, floodplains and wetlands, socioeconomic resources, hazardous waste management, site contamination, and other environmental issues. The EIS/EIR is divided into five volumes and two companion reports. This volume contains copies of the written comments and transcripts of individual statements at the public hearing and the responses to them.

  10. Continuous-Wave Operation of GaN Based Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diode at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Qun; Zhang, Shu-Ming; Yang, Hui; Cao, Qing; Ji, Lian; Zhu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Zong-Shun; Zhao, De-Gang; Jiang, De-Sheng; Duan, Li-Hong; Wang, Hai; Shi, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Su-Ying; Chen, Liang-Hui; Liang, Jun-Wu

    2008-04-01

    Room-temperature operation of cw GaN based multi-quantum-well laser diodes (LDs) is demonstrated. The LD structure is grown on a sapphire (0001) substrate by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition. A 2.5μm × 800μm ridge waveguide structure is fabricated. The electrical and optical characteristics of the laser diode under direct current injection at room temperature are investigated. The threshold current and voltage of the LD under cw operation are 110 mA and 10.5 V, respectively. Thermal induced series resistance decrease and emission wavelength red-shift are observed as the injection current is increased. The full width at half maximum for the parallel and perpendicular far field pattern (FFP) are 12° and 32°, respectively.

  11. Room temperature continuous wave operation of InAs/GaAs quantum dot photonic crystal nanocavity laser on silicon substrate.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Katsuaki; Nomura, Masahiro; Guimard, Denis; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2009-04-27

    Room temperature, continuous-wave lasing in a quantum dot photonic crystal nanocavity on a Si substrate has been demonstrated by optical pumping. The laser was an air-bridge structure of a two-dimensional photonic crystal GaAs slab with InAs quantum dots inside on a Si substrate fabricated through wafer bonding and layer transfer. This surface-emitting laser exhibited emission at 1.3 microm with a threshold absorbed power of 2 microW, the lowest out of any type of lasers on silicon.

  12. Industry leading satellite based GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) positioning and monitoring solutions with real-time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station) networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janousek, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Real-Time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station Networks) today are typically GNSS networks for positioning and monitoring purposes. Real-Time networks can consist of a few stations for a local network up to nation- or continental wide networks with several hundred CORS stations. Such networks use wide area modeling of GNSS error sources including ionospheric, tropospheric and satellite orbit correction parameters to produce highest precision and efficiency method of positioning using GNSS. In 1998 Trimble Navigation Ltd. introduced a method of surveying with a non-physical or computed base station, called VRS (Virtual Reference Station). It is the most widely supported method of producing a network solution for precise carrier phase positioning in the industry. Surveying historically required one base as the fixed point of reference, and one or multiple rovers using that point of reference to compute their location by processing a vector result, either in real-time or in a postprocessed sense. Real-time survey is often referred to as RTK, short for real-time kinematic, and as the name suggests the results are in real time and you can move. The power of VRS is in the ability to compute a real-time wide-area solution to the factors that cause single base methods to degrade with distance. Namely, ionospheric and tropospheric modeling, and satellite orbit corrections. This is achieved by the reference network of CORS. A wide scattering of CORS across a state, typically 50-70km in mid-latitudes, creates a ground based sampling which significantly reduces the distance dependent errors that accumulate in the single base-rover relationship described early. Furthermore, GNSS networks can be used for real-time monitoring purposes at various distance range. Trimble Integrity Manager software provides a suite of motion engines designed to detect and quantify any movement in a range of scales from slow, creeping movement like subsidence, through sudden events such as

  13. Room temperature continuous wave operation in a photonic crystal microcavity laser with a single layer of InAs/InP self-assembled quantum wires.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Luis Javier; Alén, Benito; Prieto, Ivan; Fuster, David; González, Luisa; González, Yolanda; Dotor, María Luisa; Postigo, Pablo Aitor

    2009-08-17

    We present continuous wave laser emission in a photonic crystal microcavity operating at 1.5 microm at room temperature. The structures have been fabricated in an InP slab including a single layer of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wires (QWrs) as active material. Laser emission in air suspended membranes with thresholds of effective optical pump power of 22 microW and quality factors up to 55000 have been measured.

  14. Guidelines and standard procedures for continuous water-quality monitors: Station operation, record computation, and data reporting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Boulger, Robert W.; Oblinger, Carolyn J.; Smith, Brett A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey uses continuous water-quality monitors to assess the quality of the Nation's surface water. A common monitoring-system configuration for water-quality data collection is the four-parameter monitoring system, which collects temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH data. Such systems also can be configured to measure other properties, such as turbidity or fluorescence. Data from sensors can be used in conjunction with chemical analyses of samples to estimate chemical loads. The sensors that are used to measure water-quality field parameters require careful field observation, cleaning, and calibration procedures, as well as thorough procedures for the computation and publication of final records. This report provides guidelines for site- and monitor-selection considerations; sensor inspection and calibration methods; field procedures; data evaluation, correction, and computation; and record-review and data-reporting processes, which supersede the guidelines presented previously in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report WRIR 00-4252. These procedures have evolved over the past three decades, and the process continues to evolve with newer technologies.

  15. Enantioselective, continuous (R)- and (S)-2-butanol synthesis: achieving high space-time yields with recombinant E. coli cells in a micro-aqueous, solvent-free reaction system.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Vanessa; Mackfeld, Ursula; Rother, Dörte; Jakoblinnert, Andre

    2014-12-10

    The stereoselective production of (R)- or (S)-2-butanol is highly challenging. A potent synthesis strategy is the biocatalytic asymmetric reduction of 2-butanone applying alcohol dehydrogenases. However, due to a time-dependent racemisation process, high stereoselectivity is only obtained at incomplete conversion after short reaction times. Here, we present a solution to this problem: by using a continuous process, high biocatalytic selectivity can be achieved while racemisation is suppressed successfully. Furthermore, high conversion was achieved by applying recombinant, lyophilised E. coli cells hosting Lactobacillus brevis alcohol dehydrogenase in a micro-aqueous solvent-free continuous reaction system. The optimisation of residence time (τ) and 2-butanone concentration boosted both conversion (>99%) and enantiomeric excess (ee) of (R)-2-butanol (>96%). When a residence time of only τ=3.1 min was applied, productivity was extraordinary with a space-time yield of 2278±29g/(L×d), thus exceeding the highest values reported to date by a factor of more than eight. The use of E. coli cells overexpressing an ADH of complementary stereoselectivity yielded a synthesis strategy for (S)-2-butanol with an excellent ee (>98%). Although conversion was only moderate (up to 46%), excellent space-time yields of up to 461g/(L×d) were achieved. The investigated concept represents a synthesis strategy that can also be applied to other biocatalytic processes where racemisation poses a challenge.

  16. Functional Analysis in Long-Term Operation of High Power UV-LEDs in Continuous Fluoro-Sensing Systems for Hydrocarbon Pollution.

    PubMed

    Arques-Orobon, Francisco Jose; Nuñez, Neftali; Vazquez, Manuel; Gonzalez-Posadas, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the long-term functionality of HP (High-power) UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes) as the exciting light source in non-contact, continuous 24/7 real-time fluoro-sensing pollutant identification in inland water. Fluorescence is an effective alternative in the detection and identification of hydrocarbons. The HP UV-LEDs are more advantageous than classical light sources (xenon and mercury lamps) and helps in the development of a low cost, non-contact, and compact system for continuous real-time fieldwork. This work analyzes the wavelength, output optical power, and the effects of viscosity, temperature of the water pollutants, and the functional consistency for long-term HP UV-LED working operation. To accomplish the latter, an analysis of the influence of two types 365 nm HP UV-LEDs degradation under two continuous real-system working mode conditions was done, by temperature Accelerated Life Tests (ALTs). These tests estimate the mean life under continuous working conditions of 6200 h and for cycled working conditions (30 s ON & 30 s OFF) of 66,000 h, over 7 years of 24/7 operating life of hydrocarbon pollution monitoring. In addition, the durability in the face of the internal and external parameter system variations is evaluated. PMID:26927113

  17. Functional Analysis in Long-Term Operation of High Power UV-LEDs in Continuous Fluoro-Sensing Systems for Hydrocarbon Pollution.

    PubMed

    Arques-Orobon, Francisco Jose; Nuñez, Neftali; Vazquez, Manuel; Gonzalez-Posadas, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the long-term functionality of HP (High-power) UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes) as the exciting light source in non-contact, continuous 24/7 real-time fluoro-sensing pollutant identification in inland water. Fluorescence is an effective alternative in the detection and identification of hydrocarbons. The HP UV-LEDs are more advantageous than classical light sources (xenon and mercury lamps) and helps in the development of a low cost, non-contact, and compact system for continuous real-time fieldwork. This work analyzes the wavelength, output optical power, and the effects of viscosity, temperature of the water pollutants, and the functional consistency for long-term HP UV-LED working operation. To accomplish the latter, an analysis of the influence of two types 365 nm HP UV-LEDs degradation under two continuous real-system working mode conditions was done, by temperature Accelerated Life Tests (ALTs). These tests estimate the mean life under continuous working conditions of 6200 h and for cycled working conditions (30 s ON & 30 s OFF) of 66,000 h, over 7 years of 24/7 operating life of hydrocarbon pollution monitoring. In addition, the durability in the face of the internal and external parameter system variations is evaluated.

  18. Functional Analysis in Long-Term Operation of High Power UV-LEDs in Continuous Fluoro-Sensing Systems for Hydrocarbon Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Arques-Orobon, Francisco Jose; Nuñez, Neftali; Vazquez, Manuel; Gonzalez-Posadas, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the long-term functionality of HP (High-power) UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes) as the exciting light source in non-contact, continuous 24/7 real-time fluoro-sensing pollutant identification in inland water. Fluorescence is an effective alternative in the detection and identification of hydrocarbons. The HP UV-LEDs are more advantageous than classical light sources (xenon and mercury lamps) and helps in the development of a low cost, non-contact, and compact system for continuous real-time fieldwork. This work analyzes the wavelength, output optical power, and the effects of viscosity, temperature of the water pollutants, and the functional consistency for long-term HP UV-LED working operation. To accomplish the latter, an analysis of the influence of two types 365 nm HP UV-LEDs degradation under two continuous real-system working mode conditions was done, by temperature Accelerated Life Tests (ALTs). These tests estimate the mean life under continuous working conditions of 6200 h and for cycled working conditions (30 s ON & 30 s OFF) of 66,000 h, over 7 years of 24/7 operating life of hydrocarbon pollution monitoring. In addition, the durability in the face of the internal and external parameter system variations is evaluated. PMID:26927113

  19. Research on Continuous Operation of the Railway by Considering the Value of the Local Railway in Nagano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, Tatsuo; Wakui, Katsuaki; Koyama, Ken

    After revision of the Railway Business Act in 2000, the abolition of the local railway has increased in Japan. However, continuing activities by people living along local line has been focussed in recent years. Moreover, a lot of local railway's business are obtaining the subsidy from the municipality where railway route is located. When the government puts out the grant to the company, it is necessary to have the accountability for the peoples. This research is focused on the value of the local railways for residents are measured, and an economical value of that is estimate by using the Contingent Valuation Method. As for the route for analysis in Nagano, Bessho-line(Ueda), Yashiro-line(Nagano) and Kamikohchi-line(Matsumoto) were chosen. Moreover, policies of each municipality to these routes are evaluated by using these values.

  20. Enhanced cofermentation of glucose and xylose by recombinant Saccharomyces yeast strains in batch and continuous operating modes

    SciTech Connect

    Toon, S.T.; Riley, C.J.; Ho, N.W.Y.; Chen, ZhengDao

    1997-12-31

    Agricultural residues, such as grain by-products, are rich in the hydrolyzable carbohydrate polymers hemicellulose and cellulose; hence, they represent a readily available source of the fermentable sugars xylose and glucose. The biomass-to-ethanol technology is now a step closer to commercialization because a stable recombinant yeast strain has been developed that can efficiently ferment glucose and xylose simultaneously (coferment) to ethanol. This strain, LNH-ST, is a derivative of Saccharomyces yeast strain 1400 that carries the xylose-catabolism encoding genes of Pichia stipitis in its chromosome. Continuous pure sugar cofermentation studies with this organism resulted in promising steady-state ethanol yields (70.4% of theoretical based on available sugars) at a residence time of 48 h. 17 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Integrated system for temperature-controlled fast protein liquid chromatography. II. Optimized adsorbents and 'single column continuous operation'.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ping; Müller, Tobias K H; Ketterer, Benedikt; Ewert, Stephanie; Theodosiou, Eirini; Thomas, Owen R T; Franzreb, Matthias

    2015-07-17

    Continued advance of a new temperature-controlled chromatography system, comprising a column filled with thermoresponsive stationary phase and a travelling cooling zone reactor (TCZR), is described. Nine copolymer grafted thermoresponsive cation exchangers (thermoCEX) with different balances of thermoresponsive (N-isopropylacrylamide), hydrophobic (N-tert-butylacrylamide) and negatively charged (acrylic acid) units were fashioned from three cross-linked agarose media differing in particle size and pore dimensions. Marked differences in grafted copolymer composition on finished supports were sourced to base matrix hydrophobicity. In batch binding tests with lactoferrin, maximum binding capacity (qmax) increased strongly as a function of charge introduced, but became increasingly independent of temperature, as the ability of the tethered copolymer networks to switch between extended and collapsed states was lost. ThermoCEX formed from Sepharose CL-6B (A2), Superose 6 Prep Grade (B2) and Superose 12 Prep Grade (C1) under identical conditions displayed the best combination of thermoresponsiveness (qmax,50°C/qmax,10°C ratios of 3.3, 2.2 and 2.8 for supports 'A2', 'B2' and 'C1' respectively) and lactoferrin binding capacity (qmax,50°C∼56, 29 and 45mg/g for supports 'A2', 'B2' and 'C1' respectively), and were selected for TCZR chromatography. With the cooling zone in its parked position, thermoCEX filled columns were saturated with lactoferrin at a binding temperature of 35°C, washed with equilibration buffer, before initiating the first of 8 or 12 consecutive movements of the cooling zone along the column at 0.1mm/s. A reduction in particle diameter (A2→B2) enhanced lactoferrin desorption, while one in pore diameter (B2→C1) had the opposite effect. In subsequent TCZR experiments conducted with thermoCEX 'B2' columns continuously fed with lactoferrin or 'lactoferrin+bovine serum albumin' whilst simultaneously moving the cooling zone, lactoferrin was

  2. A computer module for the continuous monitoring of cardiac output in the operating theatre and the ICU.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, K H; Purschke, R; Smith, N T; Wüst, H J; de Wit, B; Weber, H A

    1976-01-01

    A new pulse contour method to determine stroke volume and cardiac output continuously in patients on a beat-to-beat basis from the aortic pressure wave has been implemented in the form of a simple, inexpensive, fully automatic computing module for a commercially available patients monitoring system (Philips Medical Systems). Its reliability has been tested and shown in a computer analog, in experimental studies in 10 dogs (not reported here), in 22 hemodynamic studies on 20 young healthy volunteers and during 41 days in 20 postsurgical patients in the ICU, the most important result being that erros figures (15 and 19% respectively in the two human studies) are of the same order as when two standard methods, Fick and dye dilution are compared. The clinical studies have further indicated the easy applicability of the module 1 degree in the monitoring of critically ill patients in ICU's, 2 degrees as a monitor of the systemic circulation during anesthesia, and 3 degrees as a tool for studying the hemodynamic effects of pharmacological agents. The instrument consitutes no burden to the patients and has, several times during the course of the evaluation, provided an early warning of a deteriorating hemodynamic status of the patient to the physician.

  3. Biodegradation of the herbicide propanil, and its 3,4-dichloroaniline by-product in a continuously operated biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Herrera-González, Víctor Emmanuel; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Juárez-Ramírez, Cleotilde; Santoyo-Tepole, Fortunata; Montiel, Erick Marrón

    2013-03-01

    The persistence of propanil in soil and aquatic environments along with the possible accumulation of toxic degradation products, such as chloroanilines, is of environmental concern. In this work, a continuous small-scale bioprocess to degrade the herbicide propanil, its main catabolic by-product, 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), and the herbicide adjuvants is carried out. A microbial consortium, constituted by nine bacterial genera, was selected. The isolated strains, identified by amplification and sequencing of their 16S rDNA, were: Acidovorax sp., Luteibacter (rhizovicinus), Xanthomonas sp., Flavobacterium sp., Variovorax sp., Acinetobacter (calcoaceticus), Pseudomonas sp., Rhodococcus sp., and Kocuria sp. The ability of the microbial consortium to degrade the herbicide was evaluated in a biofilm reactor at propanil loading rates ranging from 1.9 to 36.8 mg L(-1) h(-1). Complete removal of propanil, 3,4-DCA, chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon was obtained at propanil loading rates up to 24.9 mg L(-1) h(-1). At higher loading rates, the removal efficiencies decayed. Four of the identified strains could grow individually in propanil, and 3,4-DCA: Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Rhodococcus sp., and Xanthomonas sp. The Kokuria strain grew on 3,4-DCA, but not on propanil. The first three bacteria have been related to biodegradation of phenyl urea herbicides or chlorinated anilines. Although some strains of the genera Xanthomonas and Kocuria have a role in the biodegradation of several xenobiotic compounds, as far as we know, there are no reports about degradation of propanil by Xanthomonas or 3,4-DCA by Kocuria species.

  4. Enhanced azo dye removal in a continuously operated up-flow anaerobic filter packed with henna plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingang; Wu, Mengke; Chen, Jianjun; Liu, Xiuyan; Chen, Tingting; Wen, Yue; Tang, Junhong; Xie, Zhengmiao

    2015-12-15

    Effects of henna plant biomass (stem) packed in an up-flow anaerobic bio-filter (UAF) on an azo dye (AO7) removal were investigated. AO7 removal, sulfanilic acid (SA) formation, and pseudo first-order kinetic constants for these reactions (kAO7 and kSA) were higher in the henna-added UAF (R2) than in the control UAF without henna (R1). The maximum kAO7 in R1 and R2 were 0.0345 and 0.2024 cm(-1), respectively, on day 18; the corresponding molar ratios of SA formation to AO7 removal were 0.582 and 0.990. Adsorption and endogenous bio-reduction were the main AO7 removal pathways in R1, while in R2 bio-reduction was the dominant. Organics in henna could be released and fermented to volatile fatty acids, acting as effective electron donors for AO7 reduction, which was accelerated by soluble and/or fixed lawsone. Afterwards, the removal process weakened over time, indicating the demand of electron donation and lawsone-releasing during the long-term operation of UAF.

  5. Filter Efficiency and Leak Testing of Returned ISS Bacterial Filter Elements After 2.5 Years of Continuous Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Berger, Gordon M.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere revitalization equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provides the vital functions of maintaining a habitable environment for the crew as well as protecting the hardware from fouling by suspended particulate matter. Providing these functions are challenging in pressurized spacecraft cabins because no outside air ventilation is possible and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation in reduced gravity conditions. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each module. These filters are referred to as Bacteria Filter Elements (BFEs). As more experience has been gained with ISS operations, the BFE service life, which was initially one year, has been extended to two to five years, dependent on the location in the U.S. Segment. In previous work we developed a test facility and test protocol for leak testing the ISS BFEs. For this work, we present results of leak testing a sample set of returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years, along with particulate removal efficiency and pressure drop measurements. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS to 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  6. Draft Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Supplemental Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-02-27

    This ''Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Supplemental Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement'' (LLNL SW/SPEIS) describes the purpose and need for agency action for the continued operation of LLNL and analyzes the environmental impacts of these operations. The primary purpose of continuing operation of LLNL is to provide support for the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship missions. LLNL, located about 40 miles east of San Francisco, California, is also needed to support other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs and Federal agencies such as the U.S. Department of Defense, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the newly established U.S. Department of Homeland Security. This LLNL SW/SPEIS analyzes the environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for ongoing and foreseeable future operations, facilities, and activities at LLNL. The reasonable alternatives include the No Action Alternative, Proposed Action, and the Reduced Operation Alternative. The major decision to be made by DOE/NNSA is to select one of the alternatives for the continued operation of the LLNL. As part of the Proposed Action, DOE/NNSA is considering: using additional materials including plutonium on the National Ignition Facility (NIF); increasing the administrative limit for plutonium in the Superblock, which includes the Plutonium Facility, the Tritium Facility, and the Hardened Engineering Test Building; conducting the Integrated Technology Project, using laser isotope separation to provide material for Stockpile Stewardship experiments, in the Plutonium Facility; increasing the material-at-risk limit for the Plutonium Facility; and increasing the Tritium Facility material-at-risk. A discussion of these issues is presented in Section S.5.2, Proposed Action. The ''National

  7. Change in operating parameters of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility and Free Electron Laser, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    In this environmental assessment (EA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) reports the results of an analysis of the potential environmental impacts from a proposed change in operating parameters of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), and operation of the Free Electron Laser (FEL) facility beyond the initial demonstration period. With this proposal, DOE intends to increase CEBAF operating range from its current operating maximum beam energy of 4.0 GeV [giga-(billion) electron volts] to 8.0 GeV at a beam power of no greater than 1,000 kW [1 megawatt (MW)], its maximum attainable level, based on current technology and knowledge, without significant, costly equipment modifications. DOE has prepared an EA for this action to determine the potential for adverse impacts from operation of CEBAF and the FEL at the proposed levels. Changing the operating parameters of CEBAF would require no new major construction and minor modifications to the accelerator, its support systems, the FEL, and onsite utility systems. Modifications and performance improvements would be made to (1) the accelerator housed in the underground tunnels, (2) its support systems located in the above ground service buildings, and (3) the water and equipment cooling systems both in the tunnel and at the ground surface. All work would be performed on previously disturbed land and in, on, or adjacent to existing buildings, structures, and equipment. With the proposed action, the recently constructed FEL facility at the Jefferson Lab would operate in concert with CEBAF beyond its demonstration period and up to its maximum effective electron beam power level of 210 kW. In this EA, DOE evaluates the impacts of the no-action alternative and the proposed action alternative. Alternatives considered, but dismissed from further evaluation, were the use of another accelerator facility and the use of another technology.

  8. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2L batch reactors and 5L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L(-1) of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology's effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  9. Continuous-wave and Q-switched operation of a resonantly pumped Ho³⁺:KY₃F₁₀ laser.

    PubMed

    Schellhorn, Martin; Parisi, Daniela; Eichhorn, Marc; Tonelli, Mauro

    2014-03-01

    We report continuous-wave and repetitively Q-switched operation of a resonantly pumped Ho3+:KY3F10 laser at room temperature. End pumped by a Tm3+-doped silica fiber laser operating at 1938 nm, a maximum laser power of 7.8 W was obtained at a wavelength of ∼2041  nm for 21 W of absorbed pump power, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 60.7% with respect to absorbed power. At a repetition rate of 10 kHz up to 0.78 mJ, energy per pulse was demonstrated with pulse widths of 100 ns. The beam propagation factor (M2) was measured to be <1.26 at the maximum output power.

  10. Anaerobic co-digestion of wine/fruit-juice production waste with landfill leachate diluted municipal sludge cake under semi-continuous flow operation.

    PubMed

    Leiva, M Barrantes; Koupaie, E Hosseini; Eskicioglu, C

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of four organic waste streams; a thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and screen cake (SC) from a fruit-juice/winery wastewater treatment plant along with municipal sludge cake (MC) and landfill leachate (LL) was evaluated. A total of eight semi-continuously-fed single and co-digesters were operated side-by-side at sludge retention times (SRT) of 20 and 10 days. Co-digestion of industrial waste streams (TWAS and SC) with MC and LL resulted in increased operational stability compared to the single digestion of industrial TWAS at the higher organic loading (10 d SRT). Although digester operational temperature had no statistically significant effect on organics removal and biogas production, mesophilic digesters had consistently higher total coliform densities (8838-37,959 most probable number or MPN/g-dry weight) compared to the thermophilic digesters (41-6723 MPN/g-dry weight) at both SRTs. Coliform analysis results also proved that most of the thermophilic digestates could be classified as Class A biosolids according to regulations. Furthermore, addition of industrial TWAS to co-digesters enhanced the dewaterability of the digested streams. A cost-benefit analysis confirmed the benefits and indicated that a full-scale co-digester utilizing all four waste streams can decrease the total capital and operational cost by 22% ($10.52 million). PMID:25081853

  11. H.R. 2354: A Bill to provide for the continuance of oil and gas operations pursuant to certain existing leases in the Wayne National Forest. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This legislation pertains to elections to continue oil and gas operations under leases in the Wayne National Forest, under section 17(b)(3) of the Mineral Leasing Act. It allows for parties to elect to continue operations in several different arrangements.

  12. BeZnCdSe quantum-well ridge-waveguide laser diodes under low threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jijun; Akimoto, Ryoichi

    2015-10-01

    Low threshold current ridge-waveguide BeZnCdSe quantum-well laser diodes (LDs) have been developed by completely etching away the top p-type BeMgZnSe/ZnSe:N short-period superlattice cladding layer, which can suppress the leakage current that flows laterally outside of the electrode. The waveguide LDs are covered with a thick SiO2 layer and planarized with chemical-mechanical polishing and a reactive ion etching process. Room-temperature lasing under continuous-wave condition is achieved with the laser cavity formed by the cleaved waveguide facets coated with high-reflectivity dielectric films. For a 4 μm-wide green LD lasing around a wavelength of 535 nm, threshold current and voltage of 7.07 mA and 7.89 V are achieved for a cavity length of 300 μm, and the internal differential quantum efficiency, internal absorption loss, gain constant, and nominal transparency current density are estimated to be 27%, 4.09 cm-1, 29.92 (cm × μm)/kA and 6.35 kA/(cm2 × μm), respectively. This compact device can realize a significantly improved performance with much lower threshold power consumption, which would benefit the potential application for ZnSe-based green LDs as light sources in full-color display and projector devices installed in consumer products such as pocket projectors.

  13. Direct liquefaction of biomass: Results from operation of continuous bench scale unit in liquefaction of water slurries of Douglas fir wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaleger, L. L.; Figueroa, C.; Davis, H. G.

    1982-05-01

    A continuous liquefaction unit (CLU) is discussed. The operation was single pass, feeding water slurries of prehydrolyzed Douglas fir wood (LBL process). Significant differences from results with the oil slurry, high oil, and water recycle process (PERC process) were found. The LBL process, at practicable temperatures and residence times, makes somewhat less wood oil and considerably more water-soluble product than does PERC. Consumption of carbon monoxide in LBL, other than by water gas shift reaction, is minimal, as opposed to several tenths of a mole per 100 grams of wood in PERC. Replacement of carbon monoxide with hydrogen as reactant gas makes little or no difference in yield distribution or product analysis. Progress in characterizing the oil and water-soluble product, the overall stoichiometry of the LBL and PERC processes, and the role of formate ion are described.

  14. Frequency-stable operation of a diode-pumped continuous-wave RbTiOAsO(4) optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, M; Beier, B; Boller, K J; Wallenstein, R

    1997-09-01

    Frequency-stable operation of a diode-pumped continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (OPO) of RbTiOAsO(4) is demonstrated. Piezoelectric and fast electro-optic control of the optical length of the two-mirror OPO cavity (resonant for the pump and the idler waves) compensates for thermal changes in the refractive index of the OPO crystal (induced by absorption of pump light) and acoustic perturbations of the cavity length. Pumped by 405mW of the 810-nm output of a GaAlAs masterf-oscillator-tapered-amplifier diode laser system, the OPO generates a power-stable single-frequency signal wave at 1.24microm with an output of 84mW and a spectral bandwidth of less than 10MHz. PMID:18188215

  15. Continuous operation of 2.45-GHz microwave proton source for 306 hours with more than 50 mA DC beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shi-Xiang; Zhang, Ai-Lin; Ren, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Feng; Gong, Jian-Hua; Guo, Zhi-Yu; Chen, Jia-Er

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a long-term operation of the 2.45-GHz microwave proton source at Peking University. The DC proton beam of 50-55 mA with energy of 35 keV has been run for 306 hours continuously. Total beam availability, defined as 35-keV beam-on time divided by elapsed time, is higher than 99%. Water cooling machine failures cause all the downtime, and no plasma generator failure or high voltage breakdown is observed. The longest uninterrupted run time is 122 hours. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB845502) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91126004).

  16. Room-temperature continuous operation of InAsSb quantum-dot lasers near 2 mu m based on (100) InP substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qui, Y.; Uhl, D.; Keo, S.

    2003-01-01

    Single-stack InAsSb self-assembled quantum-dot lasers based on (001) InP substrate have been grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. The narrow ridge waveguide lasers lased at wavelengths near 2 mu m up to 25 degrees C in continuous-wave operation. At room temperature, a differential quantum efficiency of 13 percent is obtained and the maximum output optical power reaches 3 mW per facet with a threshold current density of 730 A/cm(sup 2). With increasing temperature the emission wavelength is extremely temperature stable, and a very low wavelength temperature sensitivity of 0.05 nm/degrees C is measured, which is even lower than that caused by the refractive index change.

  17. Plate Boundary Observatory East Region Update and Status: Supporting New Science Through Enhanced Telemetry, Monument Evaluation, and Continued Operations and Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, S. T.

    2012-12-01

    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) - East Region consists of 280 continuously operating GPS sites in a region that extends from the western border of California to the East Coast of the U.S. We present a number of highlights from the operations and maintenance (O&M) of the network in FY2012. One goal for 2012 was to replace poorly performing stations and another was to fill in some of the gaps in the eastern region of PBO. Accordingly, new GPS sites were installed at several locations across the mid-west, including in Wisconsin and South Dakota. CAYU, a GPS station at Cayuga College, New York also was incorporated into the PBO data flow to replace the poorly performing PBO station, LOZ1. UNAVCO now manages over 20 PBO GPS stations east of the Rocky Mountains, including 2 GPS stations installed in November 2011 as part of an NSF-funded RAPID project to the study of the post-rupture crustal relaxation resulting from the M5.8 Mineral, VA earthquake. PBO engineers also are constructing two additional monuments at five existing PBO sites to compare the performance of different monument types in different geological and tectonic settings. In addition, PBO engineers are upgrading GPS stations in Colorado and New Mexico, which comprise the semi-permanent Rio Grande Rift GPS network, and which have been downloaded manually for over 6 years, to cellular data communications. Lastly, engineers from the PBO-East region continued to support special projects from EarthScope-funded PIs, including Dr. Kristine Larson, who is advancing the use of GPS multipath observations to estimate snow depth (PBO H20) and vegetation growth. In summary, the PBO East Region sub-network state of health remained consistently above 97% throughout 2012, a testament to network hardening completed during the last three years of PBO O&M.

  18. Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped high-power continuous-wave 912 nm Nd:GdVO 4 laser operation at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Yu, Xin; Li, Xudong; Yan, Renpeng; Wang, Cheng; Luo, Ming; Peng, Jiangbo; Zhang, Zhonghua; Yu, Junhua

    2010-10-01

    Based on the rate equation of Nd 3+-doped quasi-three-level lasers, a theoretical model of diode-end-pumped continuous-wave 912 nm Nd:GdVO 4 laser is presented. Lasing threshold and slope efficiency considering reabsorption effect are calculated and analyzed. It is found that the output performance of 912 nm laser operating at room temperature is influenced remarkably by the reabsorption loss and spatial distribution of the pump beam and laser beam. In experiments, the output power and average slope efficiency of 912 nm laser were investigated under different conditions. After optimization at the parameters of laser medium, working temperature and spatial distribution of the pump beam, up to 16.2 W continuous-wave 912 nm laser output was obtained at incident pump power of 67.0 W, with an average slope efficiency of 41.7%, to the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of diode-pumped 912 nm Nd:GdVO 4 laser by far.

  19. High Power Continuous-Wave and Acousto-Optic Q-Switched Nd:GdVO4 Laser Operated at 912 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jing; Yu, Xin; Chen, Fei; Li, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Zhen; Yu, Jun-Hua; Wang, Yue-Zhu

    2008-01-01

    We present a high power and efficient operation of the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 transition in Nd:GdVO4 at 912nm. In the cw mode, the maximum output power of 8.6 W is achieved when the incident pump power is 40.3 W, leading to a slope efficiency of 33.3% and an optical-optical efficiency of 21.3%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest cw laser power at 912 nm obtained with the conventional Nd:GdVO4 crystal. Pulsed operation of 912 nm laser has also been realized by inserting a small acousto-optic (A-O) Q-Switch inside the resonator. As a result, the minimal pulse width of 20 ns and the average laser power 1.43 W at the repetition rate of 10 kHz are obtained, corresponding to 7.1 kW peak power. We believe that this is the highest laser peak power at 912nm. Furthermore, duration of 65ns has also been acquired when the repetition rate is 100kHz.

  20. Neutron radiation embrittlement studies in support of continued operation, and validation by sampling of Magnox reactor steel pressure vessels and components

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.B.; Bolton, C.J.

    1997-02-01

    Magnox steel reactor pressure vessels differ significantly from US LWR vessels in terms of the type of steel used, as well as their operating environment (dose level, exposure temperature range, and neutron spectra). The large diameter ferritic steel vessels are constructed from C-Mn steel plates and forgings joined together with manual metal and submerged-arc welds which are stress-relieved. All Magnox vessels are now at least thirty years old and their continued operation is being vigorously pursued. Vessel surveillance and other programmes are summarized which support this objective. The current understanding of the roles of matrix irradiation damage, irradiation-enhanced copper impurity precipitation and intergranular embrittlement effects is described in so far as these influence the form of the embrittlement and hardening trend curves for each material. An update is given on the influence of high temperature exposure, and on the role of differing neutron spectra. Finally, the validation offered by the results of an initial vessel sampling exercise is summarized together with the objectives of a more extensive future sampling programme.

  1. Dark current studies on a normal-conducting high-brightness very-high-frequency electron gun operating in continuous wave mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R.; Filippetto, D.; Papadopoulos, C. F.; Qian, H.; Sannibale, F.; Zolotorev, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report on measurements and analysis of a field-emitted electron current in the very-high-frequency (VHF) gun, a room temperature rf gun operating at high field and continuous wave (CW) mode at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The VHF gun is the core of the Advanced Photo-injector Experiment (APEX) at LBNL, geared toward the development of an injector for driving the next generation of high average power x-ray free electron lasers. High accelerating fields at the cathode are necessary for the high-brightness performance of an electron gun. When coupled with CW operation, such fields can generate a significant amount of field-emitted electrons that can be transported downstream the accelerator forming the so-called "dark current." Elevated levels of a dark current can cause radiation damage, increase the heat load in the downstream cryogenic systems, and ultimately limit the overall performance and reliability of the facility. We performed systematic measurements that allowed us to characterize the field emission from the VHF gun, determine the location of the main emitters, and define an effective strategy to reduce and control the level of dark current at APEX. Furthermore, the energy spectra of isolated sources have been measured. A simple model for energy data analysis was developed that allows one to extract information on the emitter from a single energy distribution measurement.

  2. Laser diode end-pumped continuous-wave laser operation at 1339 nm in Nd : GGG with nearly diffraction-limited beam quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhi; Wang, Yi; Xu, Bin; Cheng, Yongjie; Chen, Nan; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping

    2015-08-01

    We report on the laser diode end-pumped continuous-wave laser operation of a Nd : GGG single crystal at 1339 nm in a plane parallel laser cavity configuration, for the first time to our knowledge. A simultaneous tri-wavelength laser at 1324, 1331 and 1337 nm is obtained at first with a maximum output power up to 1.66 W in a free-running laser operation with a slope efficiency of about 27.6% with respect to the absorbed pump power. By inserting a 0.1 mm glass etalon into the laser cavity and finely tilting it to a suitable angle, a single wavelength lasing at 1339 nm can be realized with a maximum output power of 0.58 W and slope efficiency of about 12.9%. The output power stability is simply estimated to be about 4.1% and the output beam quality is measured to be as near the diffraction limit as 1.33 and 1.16 in x and y directions, respectively.

  3. COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) - A multihazard GPS/Met observatory: Enhancing geodetic infrastructure and the scientific community in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feaux, K.; Braun, J. J.; Calais, E.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.; Normandeau, J.; Sandru, J.; Wang, G.

    2013-05-01

    The COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) project was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with the aim of developing a large-scale geodetic and atmospheric infrastructure in the Caribbean that will form the backbone for a broad range of geoscience, atmospheric, and sea-level investigations and enable research on process-oriented science questions with direct relevance to geohazards. The current COCONet network construction plan consists of the installation of 47 new GPS and meteorological stations throughout the Caribbean region, 21 existing stations refurbished with new receivers, antennas, and meteorological instruments, and will also incorporate data from at least 61 existing operational GPS stations. COCONet engineers will also install 2 new collocated GPS and tide gauge sites and GPS instruments at two existing tide gauge sites in the Caribbean region. In October 2012, the third COCONet workshop was held in Tulum, Mexico in which a number of recommendations were made concerning capacity building in the region, network sustainability, high-rate data, and developing a data center in the Caribbean region. We present the status of the construction phase of the project to date, as well as the status of some of the recommendations from the third COCONet workshop focusing on capacity building and outreach elements of the project.

  4. BeZnCdSe quantum-well ridge-waveguide laser diodes under low threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jijun; Akimoto, Ryoichi

    2015-10-19

    Low threshold current ridge-waveguide BeZnCdSe quantum-well laser diodes (LDs) have been developed by completely etching away the top p-type BeMgZnSe/ZnSe:N short-period superlattice cladding layer, which can suppress the leakage current that flows laterally outside of the electrode. The waveguide LDs are covered with a thick SiO{sub 2} layer and planarized with chemical-mechanical polishing and a reactive ion etching process. Room-temperature lasing under continuous-wave condition is achieved with the laser cavity formed by the cleaved waveguide facets coated with high-reflectivity dielectric films. For a 4 μm-wide green LD lasing around a wavelength of 535 nm, threshold current and voltage of 7.07 mA and 7.89 V are achieved for a cavity length of 300 μm, and the internal differential quantum efficiency, internal absorption loss, gain constant, and nominal transparency current density are estimated to be 27%, 4.09 cm{sup −1}, 29.92 (cm × μm)/kA and 6.35 kA/(cm{sup 2 }× μm), respectively. This compact device can realize a significantly improved performance with much lower threshold power consumption, which would benefit the potential application for ZnSe-based green LDs as light sources in full-color display and projector devices installed in consumer products such as pocket projectors.

  5. Broad Negative Thermal Expansion Operation-Temperature Window Achieved by Adjusting Fe-Fe Magnetic Exchange Coupling in La(Fe,Si)13 Compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaopeng; Huang, Rongjin; Zhao, Yuqiang; Li, Wen; Wang, Wei; Huang, Chuanjun; Gong, Pifu; Lin, Zheshuai; Li, Laifeng

    2015-08-17

    Cubic La(Fe,Si)13-based compounds have been recently developed as promising negative thermal expansion(NTE) materials, but the narrow NTE operation-temperature window(∼110 K) restricts their actual applications. In this work, we demonstrate that the NTE operation-temperature window of LaFe(13-x)Si(x) can be significantly broadened by adjusting Fe-Fe magnetic exchange coupling as x ranges from 2.8 to 3.1. In particular, the NTE operation-temperature window of LaFe10.1Si2.9 is extended to 220 K. More attractively, the coefficients of thermal expansion of LaFe10.0Si3.0 and LaFe9.9Si3.1 are homogeneous in the NTE operation-temperature range of about 200 K, which is much valuable for the stability of fabricating devices. The further experimental characterizations combined with first-principles studies reveal that the tetragonal phase is gradually introduced into the cubic phase as the Si content increases, hence modifies the Fe-Fe interatomic distance. The reduction of the overall Fe-Fe magnetic exchange interactions contributes to the broadness of NTE operation-temperature window for LaFe(13-x)Si(x). PMID:26196377

  6. Mode-locking operation of quasi-continuous diode pumped TGT-grown Nd,Y-codoped:SrF2 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Michal; Kubeček, Václav; Su, Liangbi; Jiang, Dapeng; Ma, Fengkai; Zhang, Qian; Cao, Yuexin; Xu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride-type crystals (CaF2, SrF2) doped with neodymium Nd3+ present interesting alternative as a laser active media for the diode-pumped mode-locked laser systems mainly because of their broad emission spectra as well as longer fluorescence lifetime in comparison with well-known materials as Nd:YAG or Nd:YVO4. In comparison with Nd:glass active material, SrF2 and CaF2 have better thermal conductivity. In spite of the thermal conductivity decreases with doping concentration, these crystal might be interesting alternative for the Nd:glass mode-locked laser systems. In this contribution we present the first results of the Nd,Y:SrF2 mode-locked laser diode-pumped at 796nm. Mode-locking operation using SESAM was successfully achieved in the pulsed pumping regime (pulse-duration 1.5 ms, frequency 10 Hz) with the overall average output power of 2.3 mW (corresponding to the power amplitude of 153 mW) in one output beam at the wavelength of ~1055 nm. The actual pulse-duration was 87 ps.

  7. The experience of the FERMI@Elettra photon beam transport and diagnostics system (PADReS) during three years of continuous support of machine and user experiments: achievements, lessons learned, and future upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrando, Marco; Fava, Claudio; Gerusina, Simone; Gobessi, Riccardo; Mahne, Nicola; Mazzucco, Eric; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rumiz, Luca; Svetina, Cristian

    2014-09-01

    The FERMI FEL facility has begun delivering photons in 2011, becoming in late 2012 the first seeded facility open to external users worldwide. Since then, several tens of experiments have been carried out on the three operative endstations LDM, DiProI, and EIS-TIMEX. Starting from the commissioning phase, the transport and diagnostics system (PADReS) has been continuously developed and upgraded, becoming the indispensable interface between the machine and the experimental chambers. Moreover, PADReS itself has served as an active player for several machine studies as well as for various state-of-the-art experiments. In particular, some elements of PADReS have become key features to perform cutting edge experiments: the online energy spectrometer, the active optics refocusing systems, the split and delay line, and so on. For each of them the peculiar advantages will be described showing the actual implementation in the experiments. The experience gathered so far in fulfilling the needs of both machine and experimental physicists will be discussed, with particular emphasis on the solutions adopted in different scenarios. Recurrent requests and major difficulties will be reported so to give a glimpse about the standard tasks to be solved when preparing new and demanding experiments. Finally, some ideas and near-future improvements will be presented and discussed.

  8. Supplement Analysis to the 1999 Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Proposed Disposition of Certain Large Containment Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-02-12

    This Supplement Analysis (SA) has been prepared to determine if the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operations of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS) (DOE/EIS-0238) (DOE 1999a) adequately addresses the environmental effects of introducing a proposed project for the clean-out and decontamination (DECON) of certain large containment vessels into the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area (TA) 3, or if the SWEIS needs to be supplemented. After undergoing the clean-out and DECON steps, the subject containment vessels would be disposed of at LANL's TA-54 low-level waste (LLW) disposal site or, as appropriate, at a DOE or commercial offsite permitted LLW-regulated landfill; after actinides were recovered from the DECON solution within the CMR Building, they would be moved to LANL's TA-55 Plutonium Facility and undergo subsequent processing at that facility for reuse. Council on Environmental Quality regulations at Title 40, Section 1502.9(c) of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 1502.9[c]) require federal agencies to prepare a supplement to an environmental impact statement (EIS) when an agency makes substantial changes in the proposed action that are relevant to environmental concerns, or there are changed circumstances or new or changed information relevant to concerns and bearing on the proposed action or its impacts. This SA is prepared in accordance with Section 10 CFR 10211.314(c) of the DOE's regulations for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) implementation that states: ''When it is unclear whether or not an EIS supplement is required, DOE shall prepare a Supplement Analysis''. This SA specifically compares key impact assessment parameters of the proposed project action with the LANL operations capabilities evaluated in the 1999 SWEIS in support DOE's long-term hydrodynamic testing program at LANL, as well as the waste disposal capabilities evaluated in

  9. Electrochemical and impedance characterization of Microbial Fuel Cells based on 2D and 3D anodic electrodes working with seawater microorganisms under continuous operation.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, D; Sacco, A; Hernández, S; Tommasi, T

    2015-11-01

    A mixed microbial population naturally presents in seawater was used as active anodic biofilm of two Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs), employing either a 2D commercial carbon felt or 3D carbon-coated Berl saddles as anode electrodes, with the aim to compare their electrochemical behavior under continuous operation. After an initial increase of the maximum power density, the felt-based cell reduced its performance at 5 months (from 7 to 4 μW cm(-2)), while the saddle-based MFC exceeds 9 μW cm(-2) (after 2 months) and maintained such performance for all the tests. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to identify the MFCs controlling losses and indicates that the mass-transport limitations at the biofilm-electrolyte interface have the main contribution (>95%) to their internal resistance. The activation resistance was one order of magnitude lower with the Berl saddles than with carbon felt, suggesting an enhanced charge-transfer in the high surface-area 3D electrode, due to an increase in bacteria population growth.

  10. Electrochemical and impedance characterization of Microbial Fuel Cells based on 2D and 3D anodic electrodes working with seawater microorganisms under continuous operation.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, D; Sacco, A; Hernández, S; Tommasi, T

    2015-11-01

    A mixed microbial population naturally presents in seawater was used as active anodic biofilm of two Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs), employing either a 2D commercial carbon felt or 3D carbon-coated Berl saddles as anode electrodes, with the aim to compare their electrochemical behavior under continuous operation. After an initial increase of the maximum power density, the felt-based cell reduced its performance at 5 months (from 7 to 4 μW cm(-2)), while the saddle-based MFC exceeds 9 μW cm(-2) (after 2 months) and maintained such performance for all the tests. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to identify the MFCs controlling losses and indicates that the mass-transport limitations at the biofilm-electrolyte interface have the main contribution (>95%) to their internal resistance. The activation resistance was one order of magnitude lower with the Berl saddles than with carbon felt, suggesting an enhanced charge-transfer in the high surface-area 3D electrode, due to an increase in bacteria population growth. PMID:26166463

  11. Operability of the Ventilation Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock Analysis of Proposed Upgrade to the 241AW Farm Primary Exhauster CAM System

    SciTech Connect

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2002-06-19

    The Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis (FSAR) assumes that a ventilation stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) interlock system detects high radiation in the exhaust stream and shuts off the associated ventilation system within 10 minutes of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter system failure (CHG, 2002). Previous analysis of the as-built CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster (stack 296-A-27) showed that this system potentially required significantly longer than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure and initiate shutdown of the ventilation system (Short, 2002). The purpose of this report is to determine the CAM interlock system response time for a proposed upgrade of the 296-A-27 CAM system. The approach to be used in this analysis is essentially the same as used in RPP-10799, Rev. 0 (Short, 2002), which is to conservatively estimate the time required by the proposed upgraded CAM sampling/monitoring system to detect a FSAR-defined HEPA filter failure and automatically shutdown the exhaust fan. For the HEPA filter failure over-temperature accident scenario in the FSAR, the upgraded CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster will require significantly less than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure, actuate the CAM Interlock, and shutdown the exhauster fan. Therefore, the analyzed system is adequate to meet the operability requirements specified in the FSAR and the Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (CHG, 2001; CHG, 2002).

  12. Direct electrochemistry of Megasphaera elsdenii iron hydrogenase. Definition of the enzyme's catalytic operating potential and quantitation of the catalytic behaviour over a continuous potential range.

    PubMed

    Butt, J N; Filipiak, M; Hagen, W R

    1997-04-01

    The Fe-hydrogenase from Megasphaera elsdenii undergoes direct electron exchange with glassy carbon electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry defines the catalytic-performance of the enzyme over a continuous but precisely defined range of potentials. In the presence of H2 and protons the bias of the enzyme towards H2 production is readily visualised. Variation of the response with pH indicates that protein ionisations with pK of approximately 6.7 and 8.3 regulate the catalytic activity. Possible origins for these observations in the chemistry of the H2-activating site are discussed. The mid-wave potential of the catalytic response, Emid, is defined as the catalytic operating potential of the enzyme. Under an atmosphere of hydrogen Emid = -421 +/- 10 mV, pH 7 with a variation of -21 +/- 4 mV pH-1, 22 degrees C. Deviation of Emid from the thermodynamic potential of the hydrogen/proton couple reflects the enzyme's influence over the catalysed reaction. Emid is the reduction potential of the H2-activating centre (H-cluster) in the absence of kinetic bottle-necks at other steps in the reaction mechanism.

  13. Room-temperature low-threshold low-loss continuous-wave operation of 2.26 μm GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb quantum-well laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermelstein, C.; Simanowski, S.; Mayer, M.; Kiefer, R.; Schmitz, J.; Walther, M.; Wagner, J.

    2000-09-01

    Strained single- and triple-quantum-well (SQW and TQW), large optical cavity GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb/GaSb laser diodes emitting at 2.26 μm are investigated. Internal loss coefficients as low as 5 and 7.7 cm-1 for the SQW and TQW, respectively, and relatively high internal quantum efficiencies of 65% (SQW) and 69% (TQW) were obtained. Extrapolated threshold current densities for infinite cavity lengths of 55 and 150 A/cm2 have been deduced for the SQW and TQW, respectively. These values scale very well with the number of QWs and are among the lowest reported for diode lasers in this wavelength range. A differential quantum efficiency as high as 50% and a total power efficiency of 23% were achieved at 280 K. The temperature dependence of the threshold current density revealed a high characteristic temperature of 110 K. Single-ended output powers of 240 mW in continuous-wave mode and exceeding 0.5 W in pulsed operation were obtained for a TQW laser with high-reflection/antireflection coated facets at 280 K, mounted substrate-side down.

  14. Enzymatic synthesis of farnesyl laurate in organic solvent: initial water activity, kinetics mechanism, optimization of continuous operation using packed bed reactor and mass transfer studies.

    PubMed

    Rahman, N K; Kamaruddin, A H; Uzir, M H

    2011-08-01

    The influence of water activity and water content was investigated with farnesyl laurate synthesis catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM. Lipozyme RM IM activity depended strongly on initial water activity value. The best results were achieved for a reaction medium with an initial water activity of 0.11 since it gives the best conversion value of 96.80%. The rate constants obtained in the kinetics study using Ping-Pong-Bi-Bi and Ordered-Bi-Bi mechanisms with dead-end complex inhibition of lauric acid were compared. The corresponding parameters were found to obey the Ordered-Bi-Bi mechanism with dead-end complex inhibition of lauric acid. Kinetic parameters were calculated based on this model as follows: V (max) = 5.80 mmol l(-1) min(-1) g enzyme(-1), K (m,A) = 0.70 mmol l(-1) g enzyme(-1), K (m,B) = 115.48 mmol l(-1) g enzyme(-1), K (i) = 11.25 mmol l(-1) g enzyme(-1). The optimum conditions for the esterification of farnesol with lauric acid in a continuous packed bed reactor were found as the following: 18.18 cm packed bed height and 0.9 ml/min substrate flow rate. The optimum molar conversion of lauric acid to farnesyl laurate was 98.07 ± 0.82%. The effect of mass transfer in the packed bed reactor has also been studied using two models for cases of reaction limited and mass transfer limited. A very good agreement between the mass transfer limited model and the experimental data obtained indicating that the esterification in a packed bed reactor was mass transfer limited.

  15. Synaptic plasticity and memory functions achieved in a WO3-x-based nanoionics device by using the principle of atomic switch operation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Terabe, Kazuya; Yao, Yiping; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Gimzewski, James K; Aono, Masakazu

    2013-09-27

    A compact neuromorphic nanodevice with inherent learning and memory properties emulating those of biological synapses is the key to developing artificial neural networks rivaling their biological counterparts. Experimental results showed that memorization with a wide time scale from volatile to permanent can be achieved in a WO3-x-based nanoionics device and can be precisely and cumulatively controlled by adjusting the device's resistance state and input pulse parameters such as the amplitude, interval, and number. This control is analogous to biological synaptic plasticity including short-term plasticity, long-term potentiation, transition from short-term memory to long-term memory, forgetting processes for short- and long-term memory, learning speed, and learning history. A compact WO3-x-based nanoionics device with a simple stacked layer structure should thus be a promising candidate for use as an inorganic synapse in artificial neural networks due to its striking resemblance to the biological synapse. PMID:23999098

  16. Synaptic plasticity and memory functions achieved in a WO3-x-based nanoionics device by using the principle of atomic switch operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Terabe, Kazuya; Yao, Yiping; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Gimzewski, James K.; Aono, Masakazu

    2013-09-01

    A compact neuromorphic nanodevice with inherent learning and memory properties emulating those of biological synapses is the key to developing artificial neural networks rivaling their biological counterparts. Experimental results showed that memorization with a wide time scale from volatile to permanent can be achieved in a WO3-x-based nanoionics device and can be precisely and cumulatively controlled by adjusting the device’s resistance state and input pulse parameters such as the amplitude, interval, and number. This control is analogous to biological synaptic plasticity including short-term plasticity, long-term potentiation, transition from short-term memory to long-term memory, forgetting processes for short- and long-term memory, learning speed, and learning history. A compact WO3-x-based nanoionics device with a simple stacked layer structure should thus be a promising candidate for use as an inorganic synapse in artificial neural networks due to its striking resemblance to the biological synapse.

  17. 40 CFR 62.14470 - When must I comply with this subpart if I plan to continue operation of my HMIWI?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... plan by May 13, 2016. Your final control plan must, at a minimum, include a description of the air... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE...

  18. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall demonstrate continuous compliance by . . . 1. Subject to NSPS for PM in 40 CFR 60.102. Continuous... not subject to the NSPS for PM in 40 CFR 60.102. Continuous opacity monitoring system. Not applicable. Complying with Table 6 of this subpart. 3. Option 2: PM limit not subject to the NSPS for PM in 40 CFR...

  19. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shall demonstrate continuous compliance by . . . 1. Subject to NSPS for PM in 40 CFR 60.102. Continuous... not subject to the NSPS for PM in 40 CFR 60.102. Continuous opacity monitoring system. Not applicable. Complying with Table 6 of this subpart. 3. Option 2: PM limit not subject to the NSPS for PM in 40 CFR...

  20. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall demonstrate continuous compliance by . . . 1. Subject to NSPS for PM in 40 CFR 60.102. Continuous... not subject to the NSPS for PM in 40 CFR 60.102. Continuous opacity monitoring system. Not applicable. Complying with Table 6 of this subpart. 3. Option 2: PM limit not subject to the NSPS for PM in 40 CFR...

  1. Multipass pumped Nd-based thin-disk lasers: continuous-wave laser operation at 1.06 and 0.9 microm with intracavity frequency doubling.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Nicolaie; Lünstedt, Kai; Petermann, Klaus; Huber, Günter

    2007-12-01

    The laser performances of the 1.06 microm (4)F(3/2) --> (4)I(11/2) four-level transition and of the 0.9 microm (4)F(3/2) --> I(9/2)4 quasi-three-level transition were investigated using multipass pumped Nd-based media in thin-disk geometry. When pumping at 0.81 microm into the (4)F(5/2) level, continuous-wave laser operation was obtained with powers in excess of 10 W at 1.06 microm, in the multiwatt region at 0.91 microm in Nd:YVO(4) and Nd:GdVO(4), and at 0.95 microm in Nd:YAG. Intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YVO(4) thin-disk lasers with output powers of 6.4 W at 532 nm and of 1.6 W at 457 nm were realized at this pumping wavelength. The pumping at 0.88 microm, which is directed into the (4)F(3/2) emitting level, was also employed, and Nd:YVO(4) and Nd:GdVO(4) thin-disk lasers with ~9 W output power at 1.06 microm and visible laser radiation at 0.53 microm with output power in excess of 4 W were realized. Frequency-doubled Nd:vanadate thin-disk lasers with deep blue emission at 0.46 microm were obtained under pumping directly into the (4)F(3/2) emitting level.

  2. A Novel Hybridization of Applied Mathematical, Operations Research and Risk-based Methods to Achieve an Optimal Solution to a Challenging Subsurface Contamination Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. D.; Pinder, G. F.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the project is the creation of a new, computationally based, approach to the collection, evaluation and use of data for the purpose of determining optimal strategies for investment in the solution of remediation of contaminant source areas and similar environmental problems. The research focuses on the use of existing mathematical tools assembled in a unique fashion. The area of application of this new capability is optimal (least-cost) groundwater contamination source identification; we wish to identify the physical environments wherein it may be cost-prohibitive to identify a contaminant source, the optimal strategy to protect the environment from additional insult and formulate strategies for cost-effective environmental restoration. The computational underpinnings of the proposed approach encompass the integration into a unique of several known applied-mathematical tools. The resulting tool integration achieves the following: 1) simulate groundwater flow and contaminant transport under uncertainty, that is when the physical parameters such as hydraulic conductivity are known to be described by a random field; 2) define such a random field from available field data or be able to provide insight into the sampling strategy needed to create such a field; 3) incorporate subjective information, such as the opinions of experts on the importance of factors such as locations of waste landfills; 4) optimize a search strategy for finding a potential source location and to optimally combine field information with model results to provide the best possible representation of the mean contaminant field and its geostatistics. Our approach combines in a symbiotic manner methodologies found in numerical simulation, random field analysis, Kalman filtering, fuzzy set theory and search theory. Testing the algorithm for this stage of the work, we will focus on fabricated field situations wherein we can a priori specify the degree of uncertainty associated with the

  3. Long-Term (Six Years) Clinical Outcome Discrimination of Patients in the Vegetative State Could be Achieved Based on the Operational Architectonics EEG Analysis: A Pilot Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are increasingly used to evaluate patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) or assess their prognosis outcome in the short-term perspective. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effectiveness of EEG in classifying long-term (many years) outcome in chronic DOC patients. Here we tested whether EEG operational architectonics parameters (geared towards consciousness phenomenon detection rather than neurophysiological processes) could be useful for distinguishing a very long-term (6 years) clinical outcome of DOC patients whose EEGs were registered within 3 months post-injury. The obtained results suggest that EEG recorded at third month after sustaining brain damage, may contain useful information on the long-term outcome of patients in vegetative state: it could discriminate patients who remain in a persistent vegetative state from patients who reach a minimally conscious state or even recover a full consciousness in a long-term perspective (6 years) post-injury. These findings, if confirmed in further studies, may be pivotal for long-term planning of clinical care, rehabilitative programs, medical-legal decisions concerning the patients, and policy makers. PMID:27347266

  4. Long-Term (Six Years) Clinical Outcome Discrimination of Patients in the Vegetative State Could be Achieved Based on the Operational Architectonics EEG Analysis: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are increasingly used to evaluate patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) or assess their prognosis outcome in the short-term perspective. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effectiveness of EEG in classifying long-term (many years) outcome in chronic DOC patients. Here we tested whether EEG operational architectonics parameters (geared towards consciousness phenomenon detection rather than neurophysiological processes) could be useful for distinguishing a very long-term (6 years) clinical outcome of DOC patients whose EEGs were registered within 3 months post-injury. The obtained results suggest that EEG recorded at third month after sustaining brain damage, may contain useful information on the long-term outcome of patients in vegetative state: it could discriminate patients who remain in a persistent vegetative state from patients who reach a minimally conscious state or even recover a full consciousness in a long-term perspective (6 years) post-injury. These findings, if confirmed in further studies, may be pivotal for long-term planning of clinical care, rehabilitative programs, medical-legal decisions concerning the patients, and policy makers. PMID:27347266

  5. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  6. STS payloads mission control study continuation phase A-1. Volume 2-B: Task 2. Evaluation and refinement of implementation guidelines for the selected STS payload operator concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The functions of Payload Operations Control Centers (POCC) at JSC, GSFC, JPL, and non-NASA locations are analyzed to establish guidelines for standardization, and facilitate the development of a fully integrated NASA-wide system of ground facilities for all classes of payloads. Operational interfaces between the space transportation system operator and the payload operator elements are defined. The advantages and disadvantages of standardization are discussed.

  7. Some new inequalities for continuous fusion frames and fusion pairs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Yun-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses continuous fusion frames and fusion pairs which are extensions of discrete fusion frames and continuous frames. The study of equalities and inequalities for various frames has seen great achievements. In this paper, using operator methods we establish some new inequalities for continuous fusion frames and fusion pairs. Our results extend and improve ones obtained by Balan, Casazza and Găvruţa. PMID:27652173

  8. 40 CFR Table 14 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall demonstrate continuous compliance by . . . 1. Subject to NSPS for carbon monoxide (CO) in 40 CFR.... 2. Not subject to the NSPS for CO in 40 CFR 60.103 a. Continuous emission monitoring system Not... parameter monitoring system—flare. The flare pilot light must be present at all times and the flare must...

  9. Monkey Prefrontal Neurons Reflect Logical Operations for Cognitive Control in a Variant of the AX Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT)

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, Rachael K.; Crowe, David A.; DeNicola, Adele L.; Sakellaridi, Sofia; MacDonald, Angus W.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive control is the ability to modify the behavioral response to a stimulus based on internal representations of goals or rules. We sought to characterize neural mechanisms in prefrontal cortex associated with cognitive control in a context that would maximize the potential for future translational relevance to human neuropsychiatric disease. To that end, we trained monkeys to perform a dot-pattern variant of the AX continuous performance task that is used to measure cognitive control impairment in patients with schizophrenia (MacDonald, 2008; Jones et al., 2010). Here we describe how information processing for cognitive control in this task is related to neural activity patterns in prefrontal cortex of monkeys, to advance our understanding of how behavioral flexibility is implemented by prefrontal neurons in general, and to model neural signals in the healthy brain that may be disrupted to produce cognitive control deficits in schizophrenia. We found that the neural representation of stimuli in prefrontal cortex is strongly biased toward stimuli that inhibit prepotent or automatic responses. We also found that population signals encoding different stimuli were modulated to overlap in time specifically in the case that information from multiple stimuli had to be integrated to select a conditional response. Finally, population signals relating to the motor response were biased toward less frequent and therefore less automatic actions. These data relate neuronal activity patterns in prefrontal cortex to logical information processing operations required for cognitive control, and they characterize neural events that may be disrupted in schizophrenia. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Functional imaging studies have demonstrated that cognitive control deficits in schizophrenia are associated with reduced activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (MacDonald et al., 2005). However, these data do not reveal how the disease has disrupted the function of prefrontal

  10. Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of the In(Ga)As/GaAs quantum-dot VCSELs for the 1.3 µm optical-fibre communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dawei; Tong, Cunzhu; Yoon, Soon Fatt; Fan, Weijun; Zhang, Dao Hua; Wasiak, Michał; Piskorski, Łukasz; Gutowski, Krzysztof; Sarzała, Robert P.; Nakwaski, Włodzimierz

    2009-05-01

    Efficient room-temperature (RT) continuous-wave (CW) lasing operation of the 1.3 µm MBE (molecular-beam epitaxy) In(Ga)As/GaAs quantum-dot (QD) top-emitting oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers (VCSELs) for the second-generation optical-fibre communication has been achieved. In their design, a concept of a QD inside a quantum well (QW) has been utilized. The proposed In(Ga)As/GaAs QD active region is composed of five groups of three 8 nm In0.15Ga0.85As QWs, each containing one InAs QD sheet layer. In each group located close to successive anti-node positions of the optical standing wave within the 3λ cavity, QWs are separated by 32 nm GaAs barriers. Besides, at both active-region edges, additional single InGaAs QWs are located containing single QD layers. For the 10 µm diameter QD VCSELs, the RT CW threshold current of only 6.2 mA (7.9 kA cm-2), differential efficiency of 0.11 W A-1 and the maximal output power of 0.85 mW have been recorded. The experimental characteristics are in excellent agreement with theoretical ones obtained using the optical-electrical-thermal-recombination self-consistent computer model. According to this, for the 10 µm devices, the fundamental linearly polarized LP01 mode remains the dominating one up to the current of 9.1 mA. The lowest RT CW lasing threshold below 5 mA is expected for 6 µm devices.

  11. 40 CFR 62.14535 - When must I comply with this subpart if I plan to continue operation of my CISWI unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid... would operate as designed. (4) You must conduct the initial performance test within 90 days after the... changes and air pollution control devices operate as designed. (4) You must conduct the...

  12. 40 CFR Table 21 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... depressuring and purging operations by . . . 1. Option 1 Flare that meets the requirements in § 63.11(b) The flare pilot light must be present at all times and the flare must be operating at all times that emissions may be vented to it Collecting flare monitoring data according to § 63.1572; and recording...

  13. 40 CFR Table 21 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... depressuring and purging operations by . . . 1. Option 1 Flare that meets the requirements in § 63.11(b) The flare pilot light must be present at all times and the flare must be operating at all times that emissions may be vented to it Collecting flare monitoring data according to § 63.1572; and recording...

  14. SWEIS Yearbook-2012 Comparison of 2012 Data to Projections of the 2008 Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mahowald, Hallie B.; Wright, Marjorie Alys

    2014-01-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) operations data for Calendar Year (CY) 2012 mostly fell within the 2008 Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) projections. Operation levels for one LANL facility exceeded the 2008 SWEIS capability projections—Radiochemistry Facility; however, none of the capability increases caused exceedances in radioactive air emissions, waste generation, or National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge. Several facilities exceeded the2008 SWEIS levels for waste generation quantities; however, all were one-time, non-routine events that do not reflect the day-to-day operations of the Laboratory. In addition, total site-wide waste generation quantities were below SWEIS projections for all waste types, reflecting the overall levels of operations at both the Key and Non-Key Facilities. Although gas and electricity consumption have remained within the 2008 SWEIS limits for utilities, water consumption exceeded the 2008 SWEIS projections by 27 million gallons in CY 2012.

  15. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Jjj of... - Operating Parameters for Which Levels Are Required To Be Established for Continuous and Batch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 8 Table 8 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.... 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 8 Table 8 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Operating Parameters for Which Levels...

  16. 40 CFR 62.14535 - When must I comply with this subpart if I plan to continue operation of my CISWI unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Compliance Schedule...) You must submit a waste management plan no later than April 5, 2004. (3) You must achieve final... October 4, 2004. (2) You must submit a waste management plan no later than April 5, 2004. (3) You...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14535 - When must I comply with this subpart if I plan to continue operation of my CISWI unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Compliance Schedule...) You must submit a waste management plan no later than April 5, 2004. (3) You must achieve final... October 4, 2004. (2) You must submit a waste management plan no later than April 5, 2004. (3) You...

  18. Continuous sampling of MSWI dioxins.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pao-Chen; Chang, Shu-Hao; Buekens, Alfons; Chang, Moo-Been

    2016-02-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is generally considered as a well-controlled source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), in brief dioxins. Start-up conditions continue, however, to be problematic. A self-developed continuous sampler was specially designed and built to fulfill the various sampling criteria of U.S. EPA Method 23 and monitor the trends of dioxins emissions during diverse operating conditions. In the MSWI plant investigated, a 98.1% TEQ PCDD/F removal efficiency was achieved in normal operation using activated carbon injection + bag filtration (ACI + BF) and the corresponding PCDD/F emission remains well below the standard set by Taiwan EPA (0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) @ 11% O2). During start-up, however, continuous sampling indicates that this limit value is reached only after 12 and 9 days, respectively for the 1st (2011) and 2nd test campaign (2012). Only 15 days after start-up the PCDD/F emissions shrunk to the levels typically measured during normal operation. The PCDD/F emissions from the 1st and 2nd continuous sampling campaigns were 5.4 and 5.5 mg I-TEQ, respectively. Short-term PCDD/F sampling such as the U.S. EPA Method 23 is less adapted to monitor these transient PCDD/F emissions representatively and accurately, due to a steady decrease of PCDD/F emissions after start-up. This self-developed continuous sampler effectively enhances the ease and reliability of emission data collecting during transient conditions of MSWI.

  19. 40 CFR Table 14 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 14 Table 14 to Subpart UUU of Part 63... Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63, Subpt. UUU, Table 14 Table 14 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Continuous....1565(c)(1), you shall meet each requirement in the following table that applies to you. For each...

  20. Continuing education for cytotechnologists: the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M W; Whitaker, D

    2000-10-01

    The development of a continuing education scheme for cytotechonologists in Australia is described. The process involved the establishment of a working party with Terms of Reference to review current practice in Australia and existing schemes in other parts of the world. The scheme developed takes the form of a continuing education diary that provides guidelines on the various forms of continuing education activity and corresponding credit points. The diary also provides for a record of activity to be kept. The scheme requires bi-annual submission of personal activity which is logged into a national database. A peer profile is provided and successful achievement is marked by the issue of a certificate of participation. The programme has achieved a 57% compliance in its first year of operation.

  1. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 7 Table 7 to Subpart UUU of Part 63... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and... With Operating Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in §...

  2. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 7 Table 7 to Subpart UUU of Part 63... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and... With Operating Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in §...

  3. 40 CFR Table 21 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and... Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units 21 Table 21 to Subpart UUU of Part 63... Compliance With Operating Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units As stated in §...

  4. 40 CFR Table 14 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 14 Table 14 to Subpart UUU of Part 63... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and... Compliance With Operating Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in §...

  5. 40 CFR Table 21 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and... Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units 21 Table 21 to Subpart UUU of Part 63... Compliance With Operating Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units As stated in §...

  6. Continuous-wave operation of InAsSb/InP quantum - dot lasers near 2 (mu)m at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Yueming; Uhl, David; Keo, Sam

    2004-01-01

    InAsSb quantum-dot lasers near 2 pm were demonstrated in cw operation at room temperature with a threshold current density of below 1 kA/cm, output power of 3 mW/facet and a differential quantum efficiency of 13%.

  7. Continuous cryopump with a device for regenerating the cryosurface

    DOEpatents

    Foster, C.A.

    1988-02-16

    A high throughput continuous cryopump is provided. The cryopump incorporates an improved method for regenerating the cryopumping surface while the pump is in continuous operation. The regeneration of the cryopumping surface does not thermally cycle the pump, and to this end a small chamber connected to a secondary pumping source serves to contain and exhaust frost removed from the cryopumping surface during such regeneration. The frost is exhausted at a rate substantially independent of the speed of the cryopump which enhances the capability of the pump to achieve a high compression ratio and allow the pump to operate continuously while the cryopumping surface is being regenerated. 8 figs.

  8. Continuous cryopump with a device for regenerating the cryosurface

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Christopher A.

    1988-01-01

    A high throughput continuous cryopump is provided. The cryopump (10) incorporates an improved method for regenerating the cryopumping surface (22) while the pump is in continuous operation. The regeneration of the cryopumping surface (22) does not thermally cycle the pump, and to this end a small chamber (91) connected to a secondary pumping source (60) serves to contain and exhaust frost removed from the cryopumping surface (22) during such regeneration. The frost is exhausted at a rate substantially independent of the speed of the cryopump which enhances the capability of the pump to achieve a high compression ratio and allow the pump to operate continuously while the cryopumping surface is being regenerated.

  9. Spectral properties and highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation in Nd-doped Sr(1-x)Y(x)F(2+x) crystals.

    PubMed

    Ma, F K; Jiang, D P; Su, L B; Wang, J Y; Cai, W; Liu, J; Zheng, J G; Zheng, W G; Xu, J; Liu, Y

    2016-02-01

    Spectral properties of Nd:Sr(1-x)Y(x)F(2+x) crystals were investigated. Compared with Nd:SrF2, the spectral parameters of Nd:Sr(1-x)Y(x)F(2+x) (x=0.05,0.1) were altered in a large scale. LD-pumped true CW laser has been demonstrated in the crystals. The slope efficiency up to 43.5% in 0.43% Nd:Sr0.95Y0.05F2.05 was achieved. The system is a promising candidate for highly efficient lasers.

  10. Continuous-Wave Single-Frequency Operation of Fabry-Perot Laser Diodes by Self-Injection Phase Locking Using Feedback from a Fiber Bragg Grating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Krainak, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Single-frequency operation of uncoated Fabry-Perot laser diodes is demonstrated by phase- locking the laser oscillations through self-injection seeding with feedback from a fiber Bragg grating. By precisely tuning the laser temperature so that an axial-mode coincides with the short-wavelength band edge of the grating, the phase of the feedback is made conjugate to that of the axial mode, locking the phase of the laser oscillations to that mode.

  11. High-gain 87 cm-1 Raman line of KYW and its impact on continuous-wave Raman laser operation.

    PubMed

    Sarang, Soumya; Williams, Robert J; Lux, Oliver; Kitzler, Ondrej; McKay, Aaron; Jasbeer, Hadiya; Mildren, Richard P

    2016-09-19

    We report a quasi-continuous-wave external cavity Raman laser based on potassium yttrium tungstate (KYW). Laser output efficiency and spectrum are severely affected by the presence of high gain Raman modes of low frequency (< 250 cm-1) that are characteristic of this crystal class. Output spectra contained frequency combs spaced by the low frequency modes but with the overall pump-to-Stokes conversion efficiency at least an order of magnitude lower than that typically obtained in other crystal Raman lasers. We elucidate the primary factors affecting laser performance by measuring the Raman gain coefficients of the low energy modes and numerically modeling the cascading dynamics. For a pump polarization aligned to the Ng crystallo-optic axis, the 87 cm-1 Raman mode has a gain coefficient of 9.2 cm/GW at 1064 nm and a dephasing time T2 = 9.6 ps, which are both notably higher than for the 765 cm-1 mode usually considered to be the prominent Raman mode of KYW. The implications for continuous-wave Raman laser design and the possible advantages for applications are discussed. PMID:27661886

  12. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  13. Alertness, performance and off-duty sleep on 8-hour and 12-hour night shifts in a simulated continuous operations control room setting

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, T.L.

    1995-04-01

    A growing number of nuclear power plants in the United States have adopted routine 12-hr shift schedules. Because of the potential impact that extended work shifts could have on safe and efficient power plant operation, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission funded research on 8-hr and 12-hr shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC) in Boston, Massachusetts. This report describes the research undertaken: a study of simulated 8-hr and 12-hr work shifts that compares alertness, speed, and accuracy at responding to simulator alarms, and relative cognitive performance, self-rated mood and vigor, and sleep-wake patterns of 8-hr versus 12-hr shift workers.

  14. Health-care district management information system plan: Review of operations analysis activities during calendar year 1975 and plan for continued research and analysis activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, G. J.; Stevenson, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    Operations research activities developed to identify the information required to manage both the efficiency and effectiveness of the Veterans Administration (VA) health services as these services relate to individual patient care are reported. The clinical concerns and management functions that determine this information requirement are discussed conceptually. Investigations of existing VA data for useful management information are recorded, and a diagnostic index is provided. The age-specific characteristics of diseases and lengths of stay are explored, and recommendations for future analysis activities are articulated. The effect of the introduction of new technology to health care is also discussed.

  15. High-efficiency continuous-wave Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 eye-safe laser operating at 1423.4 nm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanian; Chen, Xiaohan; Wang, Qingpu; Zhang, Xingyu; Chang, Jun; Gao, Liang; Shen, Hongbin; Cong, Zhenhua; Liu, Zhaojun; Tao, Xutang; Li, Ping

    2013-08-01

    A Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 (Nd:GGG) laser operating at a wavelength of 1423.4 nm was demonstrated, which has not yet been reported, and is of great interest for wide application potential. With a pumped power of 18.5 W, a maximum output power of 3.63 W was obtained, corresponding to an optical-to-optical efficiency of 19.6% and a slope efficiency of 26%. These unique characteristics of a Nd:GGG laser at 1423.4 nm thereby open new opportunities for a light source in the field of medicine. PMID:23913067

  16. 12.0-W continuous-wave diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO(4) laser with high brightness operating at 912-nm.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Yu, Xin; Chen, Fei; Li, Xudong; Yan, Renpeng; Zhang, Kun; Yu, Junhua; Wang, Yuezhu

    2009-03-01

    We present a diode-pumped high-power continuous-wave (cw) laser at 912 nm based on the quasi-three-level (4)F(3/2)-->(4)4I(9/2) transition in Nd:GdVO(4) crystal. By using a 5-mm-long conventional bulk crystal with 0.2at.% Nd(3+)-doped concentration, the maximum output power of 12.0 W is obtained, with a slope efficiency of 29.3%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output at 912 nm generated by diode-pumped Nd:GdVO(4) lasers. Furthermore, 3.2 W 456 nm deep-blue light is acquired by frequency doubling, resulting in an optical-to-optical efficiency of 8.0%. The short-term power instability of the blue laser is less than 3%. PMID:19259196

  17. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology - Canadian Institutes of Health Research - pharmaceutical partner postdoctoral operating fellowship programme: an outstanding success that continues to excel!

    PubMed

    McKay, Derek M; Daniels, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) postdoctoral fellowship programme was initiated in 1992 with the goal of promoting excellence in Canadian gastroenterological research. With backing from multiple pharmaceutical partners and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, 87 fellows were funded over the next ten years for a total investment of $8,730,101. Between 1992 and 2000, fellows authored 247 articles; 176 being original research articles, 31 (17.5%) of which appeared in journals with impact factors of greater than 10. As testament to the program's success in developing young scientists, 31 former fellows (36%) have progressed to faculty positions. The fellowship programme continues to be an outstanding success and the flagship of CAG research activities.

  18. Polarized spectra calculation and continuous wave laser operation of Yb-doped disordered Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yeqing; Chen, Aixi; You, Zhenyu; Tu, Chaoyang

    2015-12-01

    A notable disorder crystal Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal with Yb3+ ion doping concentration of 10 at.% was grown by the Czochralski method. The polarized absorption, polarized emission, and polarized gain cross sections were systematically calculated. The laser operations were investigated with Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystals cut along the a, b, and c crystallographic axes. The highest output power of 3.88 W was obtained by using the b-cut Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal, with a slope efficiency of 62%. Additionally, it was confirmed that the output laser spectra were largely dependent on the output coupler.

  19. Continuation of research into software for space operations support: Conversion of the display manager to X Windows/Motif, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Mark D.; Killough, Ronnie; Martin, Nancy L.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is currently using a set of applications called the Display Builder and Display Manager. They run on Concurrent systems and heavily depend on the Graphic Kernel System (GKS). At this time however, these two applications would more appropriately be developed in X Windows, in which a low X is used for all actual text and graphics display and a standard widget set (such as Motif) is used for the user interface. Use of the X Windows will increase performance, improve the user interface, enhance portability, and improve reliability. Prototype of X Window/Motif based Display Manager provides the following advantages over a GKS based application: improved performance by using a low level X Windows, display of graphic and text will be more efficient; improved user interface by using Motif; Improved portability by operating on both Concurrent and Sun workstations; and Improved reliability.

  20. SWEIS annual review - CY2002 : a comparison of CY2002 operations to projections included in the site-wide environmental impact statement for continued operation of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, Linda Sue; White, Brenda Bailey; Guerrero, Joseph Vincent; Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2003-10-01

    The SNL/NM CY2002 SWEIS Annual Review discusses changes in facilities and facility operations that have occurred in selected and notable facilities since source data were collected for the SNL/NM SWEIS (DOE/EIS-0281). The following information is presented: {sm_bullet} An updated overview of SNL/NM selected and notable facilities and infrastructure capabilities. {sm_bullet} An overview of SNL/NM environment, safety, and health programs, including summaries of the purpose, operations, activities, hazards, and hazard controls at relevant facilities and risk management methods for SNL/NM. {sm_bullet} Updated base year activities data, together with related inventories, material consumption, emissions, waste, and resource consumption. {sm_bullet} Appendices summarizing activities and related hazards at SNL/NM individual special, general, and highbay laboratories, and chemical purchases.