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Sample records for achieve controlled thermonuclear

  1. Method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.

    1986-01-01

    A method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy by illuminating a minute, solid density, hollow shell of a mixture of material such as deuterium and tritium with a high intensity, uniformly converging laser wave to effect an extremely rapid build-up of energy in inwardly traveling shock waves to implode the shell creating thermonuclear conditions causing a reaction of deuterons and tritons and a resultant high energy thermonuclear burn. Utilizing the resulting energy as a thermal source and to breed tritium or plutonium. The invention also contemplates a laser source wherein the flux level is increased with time to reduce the initial shock heating of fuel and provide maximum compression after implosion; and, in addition, computations and an equation are provided to enable the selection of a design having a high degree of stability and a dependable fusion performance by establishing a proper relationship between the laser energy input and the size and character of the selected material for the fusion capsule.

  2. Plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Krikorian, R. )

    1989-01-01

    This proceedings contains papers on plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion. Included are the following topics: Plasma focus and Z-pinch, Review of mirror fusion research, Progress in studies of x-ray and ion-beam emission from plasma focus facilities.

  3. Operating large controlled thermonuclear fusion research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Tarrh, J.M.; Post, R.S.; Thomas, P.

    1987-10-01

    The MIT Tara Tandem Mirror is a large, state of the art controlled thermonuclear fusion research facility. Over the six years of its design, implementation, and operation, every effort was made to minimize cost and maximize performance by using the best and latest hardware, software, and scientific and operational techniques. After reviewing all major DOE fusion facilities, an independent DOE review committee concluded that the Tara operation was the most automated and efficient of all DOE facilities. This paper includes a review of the key elements of the Tara design, construction, operation, management, physics milestones, and funding that led to this success. We emphasize a chronological description of how the system evolved from the proposal stage to a mature device with an emphasis on the basic philosophies behind the implementation process. This description can serve both as a qualitative and quantitative database for future large experiment planning. It includes actual final costs and manpower spent as well as actual run and maintenance schedules, number of data shots, major system failures, etc. The paper concludes with recommendations for the next generation of facilities. 13 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Energy Balance of Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashmi, M.; Staudenmaier, G.

    It is shown that a discrepancy and incompatibility persist between basic physics and fusion-literature regarding the radiation losses from a thermonuclear plasma. Whereas the fusion-literature neglects the excitation or line radiation completely, according to basic physics it depends upon the prevailing conditions and cannot be neglected in general. Moreover, for a magnetized plasma, while the fusion-literature assumes a self-absorption or reabsorption of cyclotron or synchrotron radiation emitted by the electrons spiraling along the magnetic field, the basic physics does not allow any effective reabsorption of cyclotron or synchrotron radiation. As is demonstrated, fallacious assumptions and notions, which somehow or other crept into the fusion-literature, are responsible for this discrepancy. In the present work, the theory is corrected. On the grounds of basic physics, a complete energy balance of magnetized and non-magnetized plasmas is presented for pulsed, stationary and self-sustaining operations by taking into account the energy release by reactions of light nuclei as well as different kinds of diffusive (conduction) and radiative (bremsstrahlung, cyclotron or synchrotron radiation and excitation radiation) energy losses. Already the energy losses by radiation make the energy balance negative. Hence, a fusion reactor - an energy producing device - seems to be beyond the realms of realization.

  5. [Human life and energy production. Prospects opened up by controlled thermonuclear fusion].

    PubMed

    Escande, D

    1997-03-18

    The massive and presently increasing energy production is going to confront mankind with a very important problem in the forthcoming decades, in particular due to the vanishing of resources and to the greenhouse effect. The share of fossil fuels in the energy production will have to decrease, and other energy sources will be needed. Among them controlled thermonuclear fusion has may assets due to its non-radioactive fuel with plentiful supply, its non radioactive and non polluting ashes, its safety, its weak environmental impact, and its irrelevance to nuclear proliferation in a normal setting. During the last three decades, physicists have made a series of steps toward the peaceful use of the dominant source of energy in the Universe. They have learned how to confine by magnetic fields plasmas at temperatures of 200 millions degrees centigrade, and they have developed several specific technologies. This way, they produced 11 million watts of nuclear power by fusing two isotopes of hydrogen. These investigations are conducted in a responsible spirit, that of ecoproduction, where possible negative consequences are anticipated, are made as low as reasonably achievable, and their management is studied. Yet several fundamental issues still have to be solved before on economically efficient industrial thermonuclear power plant be operated. A huge international collaboration involving Japan, the USA, the Russian Federation, and the European Union joined with Switzerland and Canada, is presently designing the first experimental thermonuclear reactor, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). It would cost 9 billion dollars, a cost similar to other large scientific projects. This is an important step toward an electricity producing thermonuclear reactor that would be both safe and respectful of human health and of environment. PMID:9203740

  6. [Human life and energy production. Prospects opened up by controlled thermonuclear fusion].

    PubMed

    Escande, D

    1997-03-18

    The massive and presently increasing energy production is going to confront mankind with a very important problem in the forthcoming decades, in particular due to the vanishing of resources and to the greenhouse effect. The share of fossil fuels in the energy production will have to decrease, and other energy sources will be needed. Among them controlled thermonuclear fusion has may assets due to its non-radioactive fuel with plentiful supply, its non radioactive and non polluting ashes, its safety, its weak environmental impact, and its irrelevance to nuclear proliferation in a normal setting. During the last three decades, physicists have made a series of steps toward the peaceful use of the dominant source of energy in the Universe. They have learned how to confine by magnetic fields plasmas at temperatures of 200 millions degrees centigrade, and they have developed several specific technologies. This way, they produced 11 million watts of nuclear power by fusing two isotopes of hydrogen. These investigations are conducted in a responsible spirit, that of ecoproduction, where possible negative consequences are anticipated, are made as low as reasonably achievable, and their management is studied. Yet several fundamental issues still have to be solved before on economically efficient industrial thermonuclear power plant be operated. A huge international collaboration involving Japan, the USA, the Russian Federation, and the European Union joined with Switzerland and Canada, is presently designing the first experimental thermonuclear reactor, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). It would cost 9 billion dollars, a cost similar to other large scientific projects. This is an important step toward an electricity producing thermonuclear reactor that would be both safe and respectful of human health and of environment.

  7. Feedback control of major disruptions in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, A. K.

    2011-08-15

    It is argued that major disruptions in ITER can be avoided by the feedback control of the causative MHD precursors. The sensors will be 2D-arrays of ECE detectors and the suppressors will be modulated ECH beams injected radially to produce non-thermal radial pressures to counter the radial dynamics of MHD modes. The appropriate amplitude and phase of this signal can stabilize the relevant MHD modes and prevent their evolution to a major disruption. For multimode MHD precursors, an optimal feedback scheme with a Kalman filter is discussed.

  8. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.

  9. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Physics of the plasma corona in the problem of laser controlled thermonuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, N. E.; Gorbunov, Leonid M.; Tikhonchuk, Vladimir T.

    1994-09-01

    A brief analysis is made of the most important nonlinear processes which result from the interaction of laser radiation with thermonuclear targets. lt is shown that problems in the physics of the plasma corona should be an essential part of any programme of research on laser controlled thermonuclear fusion. A list is given of the problems that have to be solved first before going to the next level of laser energies.

  10. Thermonuclear land of plenty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasior, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the process of energy production in the stars has been identified as the thermonuclear fusion, this mechanism has been proclaimed as a future, extremely modern, reliable and safe for sustaining energetic needs of the humankind. However, the idea itself was rather straightforward and the first attempts to harness thermonuclear reactions have been taken yet in 40s of the twentieth century, it quickly appeared that physical and technical problems of domesticating exotic high temperature medium known as plasma are far from being trivial. Though technical developments as lasers, superconductors or advanced semiconductor electronics and computers gave significant contribution for the development of the thermonuclear fusion reactors, for a very long time their efficient performance was out of reach of technology. Years of the scientific progress brought the conclusions that for the development of the thermonuclear power plants an enormous interdisciplinary effort is needed in many fields of science covering not only plasma physics but also material research, superconductors, lasers, advanced diagnostic systems (e.g. spectroscopy, interferometry, scattering techniques, etc.) with huge amounts of data to be processed, cryogenics, measurement-control systems, automatics, robotics, nanotechnology, etc. Due to the sophistication of the problems with plasma control and plasma material interactions only such a combination of the research effort can give a positive output which can assure the energy needs of our civilization. In this paper the problems of thermonuclear technology are briefly outlined and it is shown why this domain can be a broad field for the experts dealing with electronics, optoelectronics, programming and numerical simulations, who at first glance can have nothing common with the plasma or nuclear physics.

  11. Nucleosynthesis in Thermonuclear Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Claudia, Travaglio; Hix, William Raphael

    2013-01-01

    We review our understanding of the nucleosynthesis that occurs in thermonuclear supernovae and their contribution to Galactic Chemical evolution. We discuss the prospects to improve the modeling of the nucleosynthesis within simulations of these events.

  12. Smoking control: challenges and achievements

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa; de Araújo, Alberto José; de Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases.

  13. Malaria control: achievements, problems and strategies.

    PubMed

    Nájera, J A

    2001-06-01

    Even if history has not always been the Magistra vitae, Cicero expected it to be, it should provide, as Baas said, a mirror in which to observe and compare the past and present in order to draw therefrom well-grounded conclusions for the future. Based on this belief, this paper aims to provide an overview of the foundations and development of malaria control policies during the XX century. It presents an analysis of the conflicting tendencies which shaped the development of these policies and which appear to have oscillated between calls for frontal attack in an all-out campaign and calls for sustainable gains, even if slow. It discusses the various approaches to the control of malaria, their achievements and their limitations, not only to serve as a background to understand better the foundations of current policies, but also to prevent that simplistic generalisations may again lead to exaggerated expectations and disillusion. The first part of the paper is devoted to the development of malaria control during the first half of the century, characterised by the ups and downs in the reliance on mosquito control as the control measure applicable everywhere. The proliferation of "man-made-malaria", which accompanied the push for economic development in most of the endemic countries, spurred the need for control interventions and, while great successes were obtained in many specific projects, the general campaigns proposed by the enthusiasts of vector control faced increasing difficulties in their practical implementation in the field. Important events, which may be considered representative of this period are, on the campaign approach, the success of Gorgas in the Panama Canal, but also the failure of the Mian Mir project in India; while on the developmental approach, the Italian and Dutch schools of malariology, the Tennessee Valley and the development of malaria sanitation, included the so called species sanitation. The projection of these developments to a global

  14. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  15. Thermonuclear Fusion: An Energy Source for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, William E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses current research in thermonuclear fusion with particular emphasis on the problem of confining hot plasma. Recent experiments indicate that magnetic bottles called tokamaks may achieve the necessary confinement times, and this break-through has given renewed optimism to the feasibility of commercial fusion power by the turn of the…

  16. The Longitudinal Effects of Achievement Goals and Perceived Control on University Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Stewart, Tara L.; Newall, Nancy E. G.; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2014-01-01

    In the area of achievement motivation, students' beliefs pertaining to achievement goals and perceived control have separately guided a large amount theoretical and empirical research. However, limited research has considered the simultaneous effects of goals and control on achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine primary and…

  17. Thermonuclear supernovae: simulations of the deflagration stage and their implications.

    PubMed

    Gamezo, Vadim N; Khokhlov, Alexei M; Oran, Elaine S; Chtchelkanova, Almadena Y; Rosenberg, Robert O

    2003-01-01

    Large-scale, three-dimensional numerical simulations of the deflagration stage of a thermonuclear supernova explosion show the formation and evolution of a highly convoluted turbulent flame in the gravitational field of an expanding carbon-oxygen white dwarf. The flame dynamics are dominated by the gravity-induced Rayleigh-Taylor instability that controls the burning rate. The thermonuclear deflagration releases enough energy to produce a healthy explosion. The turbulent flame, however, leaves large amounts of unburned and partially burned material near the star center, whereas observations that imply these materials are present only in outer layers. This disagreement could be resolved if the deflagration triggers a detonation. PMID:12446871

  18. Thermonuclear supernovae: simulations of the deflagration stage and their implications.

    PubMed

    Gamezo, Vadim N; Khokhlov, Alexei M; Oran, Elaine S; Chtchelkanova, Almadena Y; Rosenberg, Robert O

    2003-01-01

    Large-scale, three-dimensional numerical simulations of the deflagration stage of a thermonuclear supernova explosion show the formation and evolution of a highly convoluted turbulent flame in the gravitational field of an expanding carbon-oxygen white dwarf. The flame dynamics are dominated by the gravity-induced Rayleigh-Taylor instability that controls the burning rate. The thermonuclear deflagration releases enough energy to produce a healthy explosion. The turbulent flame, however, leaves large amounts of unburned and partially burned material near the star center, whereas observations that imply these materials are present only in outer layers. This disagreement could be resolved if the deflagration triggers a detonation.

  19. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  20. Thermonuclear ignition criterion in ICF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baolian

    2010-11-01

    The Lawson criterion, which determines the onset of thermonuclear ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), is re-derived in terms of physical measurable quantities: the hot spot ion temperature T and the areal density (ρR) of the deuterium-tritium (DT) gas. From this criterion, an ignition curve is generated in the ρR -T plane. In addition, a minimal required implosion energy for laser-drive and a minimal DT gas mass for a sustainable ignition with respect to the condition are derived.

  1. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children (49% female)…

  2. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool…

  3. Tidally-Induced Thermonuclear Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Rosswog, S.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hix, William Raphael

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the results of 3D simulations of tidal disruptions of white dwarfs by moderate-mass black holes as they may exist in the cores of globular clusters or dwarf galaxies. Our simulations follow self-consistently the hydrodynamic and nuclear evolution from the initial parabolic orbit over the disruption to the build-up of an accretion disk around the black hole. For strong enough encounters (pericentre distances smaller than about 1/3 of the tidal radius) the tidal compression is reversed by a shock and finally results in a thermonuclear explosion. These explosions are not restricted to progenitor masses close to the Chandrasekhar limit, we find exploding examples throughout the whole white dwarf mass range. There is, however, a restriction on the masses of the involved black holes: black holes more massive than 2x105M{circle_dot} swallow a typical 0.6M{circle_dot} white dwarf before their tidal forces can overwhelm the star's selfgravity. Therefore, this mechanism is characteristic for black holes of moderate masses. The material that remains bound to the black hole settles into an accretion disk and produces an Xray flare close to the Eddington limit of L{sub Edd} {approx} 10{sup 41}erg/s (Mbh/1000M{circle_dot}), typically lasting for a few months. The combination of a peculiar thermonuclear supernova together with an X-ray flare thus whistle-blows the existence of such moderate-mass black holes. The next generation of wide field space-based instruments should be able to detect such events.

  4. On thermonuclear ignition criterion at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Wang, Yi-Ming; Batha, Steven H.

    2014-10-01

    Sustained thermonuclear fusion at the National Ignition Facility remains elusive. Although recent experiments approached or exceeded the anticipated ignition thresholds, the nuclear performance of the laser-driven capsules was well below predictions in terms of energy and neutron production. Such discrepancies between expectations and reality motivate a reassessment of the physics of ignition. We have developed a predictive analytical model from fundamental physics principles. Based on the model, we obtained a general thermonuclear ignition criterion in terms of the areal density and temperature of the hot fuel. This newly derived ignition threshold and its alternative forms explicitly show the minimum requirements of the hot fuel pressure, mass, areal density, and burn fraction for achieving ignition. Comparison of our criterion with existing theories, simulations, and the experimental data shows that our ignition threshold is more stringent than those in the existing literature and that our results are consistent with the experiments.

  5. On thermonuclear ignition criterion at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Wang, Yi-Ming; Batha, Steven H.

    2014-10-15

    Sustained thermonuclear fusion at the National Ignition Facility remains elusive. Although recent experiments approached or exceeded the anticipated ignition thresholds, the nuclear performance of the laser-driven capsules was well below predictions in terms of energy and neutron production. Such discrepancies between expectations and reality motivate a reassessment of the physics of ignition. We have developed a predictive analytical model from fundamental physics principles. Based on the model, we obtained a general thermonuclear ignition criterion in terms of the areal density and temperature of the hot fuel. This newly derived ignition threshold and its alternative forms explicitly show the minimum requirements of the hot fuel pressure, mass, areal density, and burn fraction for achieving ignition. Comparison of our criterion with existing theories, simulations, and the experimental data shows that our ignition threshold is more stringent than those in the existing literature and that our results are consistent with the experiments.

  6. Cryogenic thermonuclear fuel implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S. H.; Callahan, D. A.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Alger, E. T.; Berger, R. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bradley, D. K.; Burkhart, S. C.; Burr, R.; Caggiano, J. A.; Castro, C.; Choate, C.; Clark, D. S.; Celliers, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Collins, G. W.; Dewald, E. L.; DiNicola, P.; DiNicola, J. M.; and others

    2012-05-15

    and neutron yields achieved on laser facilities to date. This achievement is the result of the first hohlraum and capsule tuning experiments where the stagnation pressures have been systematically increased by more than a factor of 10 by fielding low-entropy implosions through the control of radiation symmetry, small hot electron production, and proper shock timing. The stagnation pressure is above 100 Gbars resulting in high Lawson-type confinement parameters of P{tau} Asymptotically-Equal-To 10 atm s. Comparisons with radiation-hydrodynamic simulations indicate that the pressure is within a factor of three required for reaching ignition and high yield. This will be the focus of future higher-velocity implosions that will employ additional optimizations of hohlraum, capsule and laser pulse shape conditions.

  7. Cryogenic thermonuclear fuel implosions on the National Ignition Facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenzer, S. H.; Callahan, D. A.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Kline, J. L.; Grim, G.; Alger, E. T.; Berger, R. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Betti, R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Boehly, T. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Burkhart, S. C.; Burr, R.; Caggiano, J. A.; Castro, C.; Casey, D. T.; Choate, C.; Clark, D. S.; Celliers, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Collins, G. W.; Dewald, E. L.; DiNicola, P.; DiNicola, J. M.; Divol, L.; Dixit, S.; Döppner, T.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Dzenitis, E.; Eckart, M.; Erbert, G.; Farley, D.; Fair, J.; Fittinghoff, D.; Frank, M.; Frenje, L. J. A.; Friedrich, S.; Casey, D. T.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Gibson, C.; Giraldez, E.; Glebov, V.; Glenn, S.; Guler, N.; Haan, S. W.; Haid, B. J.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Haynam, C. A.; Heestand, G. M.; Hermann, M.; Hermann, H. W.; Hicks, D. G.; Hinkel, D. E.; Holder, J. P.; Holunda, D. M.; Horner, J. B.; Hsing, W. W.; Huang, H.; Izumi, N.; Jackson, M.; Jones, O. S.; Kalantar, D. H.; Kauffman, R.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Klingmann, J.; Kohut, T.; Knauer, J. P.; Koch, J. A.; Kozioziemki, B.; Kyrala, G. A.; Kritcher, A. L.; Kroll, J.; La Fortune, K.; Lagin, L.; Landen, O. L.; Larson, D. W.; LaTray, D.; Leeper, R. J.; Le Pape, S.; Lindl, J. D.; Lowe-Webb, R.; Ma, T.; McNaney, J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Malsbury, T. N.; Mapoles, E.; Marshall, C. D.; Meezan, N. B.; Merrill, F.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Moore, A. S.; Moran, M.; Moreno, K. A.; Munro, D. H.; Nathan, B. R.; Nikroo, A.; Olson, R. E.; Orth, C. D.; Pak, A. E.; Patel, P. K.; Parham, T.; Petrasso, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Rinderknecht, H.; Regan, S. P.; Robey, H. F.; Ross, J. S.; Rosen, M. D.; Sacks, R.; Salmonson, J. D.; Saunders, R.; Sater, J.; Sangster, C.; Schneider, M. B.; Séguin, F. H.; Shaw, M. J.; Spears, B. K.; Springer, P. T.; Stoeffl, W.; Suter, L. J.; Thomas, C. A.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P. J.; Walters, C.; Weaver, S.; Weber, S. V.; Wegner, P. J.; Whitman, P. K.; Widmann, K.; Widmayer, C. C.; Wilde, C. H.; Wilson, D. C.; Van Wonterghem, B.; MacGowan, B. J.; Atherton, L. J.; Edwards, M. J.; Moses, E. I.

    2012-05-01

    The first inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments with equimolar deuterium-tritium thermonuclear fuel have been performed on the National Ignition Facility. These experiments use 0.17 mg of fuel with the potential for ignition and significant fusion yield conditions. The thermonuclear fuel has been fielded as a cryogenic layer on the inside of a spherical plastic capsule that is mounted in the center of a cylindrical gold hohlraum. Heating the hohlraum with 192 laser beams for a total laser energy of 1.6 MJ produces a soft x-ray field with 300 eV temperature. The ablation pressure produced by the radiation field compresses the initially 2.2-mm diameter capsule by a factor of 30 to a spherical dense fuel shell that surrounds a central hot-spot plasma of 50 μm diameter. While an extensive set of x-ray and neutron diagnostics has been applied to characterize hot spot formation from the x-ray emission and 14.1 MeV deuterium-tritium primary fusion neutrons, thermonuclear fuel assembly is studied by measuring the down-scattered neutrons with energies in the range of 10 to 12 MeV. X-ray and neutron imaging of the compressed core and fuel indicate a fuel thickness of (14 ± 3) μm, which combined with magnetic recoil spectrometer measurements of the fuel areal density of (1 ± 0.09) g cm-2 result in fuel densities approaching 600 g cm-3. The fuel surrounds a hot-spot plasma with average ion temperatures of (3.5 ± 0.1) keV that is measured with neutron time of flight spectra. The hot-spot plasma produces a total fusion neutron yield of 1015 that is measured with the magnetic recoil spectrometer and nuclear activation diagnostics that indicate a 14.1 MeV yield of (7.5±0.1)×1014 which is 70% to 75% of the total fusion yield due to the high areal density. Gamma ray measurements provide the duration of nuclear activity of (170 ± 30) ps. These indirect-drive implosions result in the highest areal densities and neutron yields achieved on laser facilities to date

  8. Interrelationships of Study Habits and Attitudes, Locus of Control, Motivation Achievement Tendencies and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    The study investigated (a) relationships between measures on study habits and attitudes, locus of control, achieving tendency, and semester grade-point averages (SGPA), (b) differences between the sexes on the above mentioned variables, and (c) best predictor of SGPA. The subjects were 39 males and 81 females. There were a number of significant…

  9. Locus of Control in Underachieving and Achieving Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Robert; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study, with 87 underachieving and 77 achieving gifted students in grades 6-9, found that general locus of control measures did not differentiate between the 2 groups, that both scored significantly higher on positive internal than on negative internal locus of control, and that there were no gender or grade effects. (Author/DB)

  10. On extended thermonuclear functions through pathway model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dilip

    when α → 1. The beauty of the result is that these different families of three different functional forms are covered through the pathway parameter α. In a physical set up if f (x) in (3) is the stable or limiting form, the Maxwell-Boltzmann approach to thermonuclear functions, then f (x) in (1) and (2) will contain a large variety of unstable or chaotic situations which will all tend to (3) in the limit. Thus we get a clear idea of all the stable and unstable situations around the Maxwell-Boltzmann approach. Thus the current theory is given a mathematical extension and physical interpretations can be found to situations in (1) and (2). Incidently Tsallis statistics is a special case of (1) for γ = 0, a = 1, δ = 1, η = 1. The Beck-Cohen superstatistics, discussed in current statistical mechanics literature is a special case of (2) for a = 1, η = 1, α > 1. The main purpose of the present paper is to investigate in some more detail, mathematically, the extended thermonuclear functions for Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics and in the cut-off case. The extended thermonuclear functions will be evaluated in closed form for all convenient values of the parameter by means of residue calculus. A comparison of the standard thermonuclear functions with the extended thermonuclear functions is also done. The results and derivations in this paper are new and these will be of interest to physicists, mathematicians, probabilists, and statisticians.

  11. The purposes, achievements, and priorities of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.S.

    1987-09-01

    Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be. (ACR)

  12. Neutron Stars and Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Supid

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes neutron stars and thermonuclear x ray bursts. The contents include: 1) Neutron Stars: why do we care?; 2) Thermonuclear Bursts: why do we care?; 3) Neutron Stars: Mass, Radius and Spin: a. Continuum Spectroscopy of Bursts b. Spectral Lines from Bursts c. Timing Properties of Bursts; 4) Neutron Star Atmosphere: Thermonuclear Flame Spreading; and 5) Future Prospects and Conclusions.

  13. The polonium-210 problem in thermonuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Shchipakhin, O.L.; Borisov, N.B.; Churkin, S.L.

    1993-12-31

    Polonium 210 forms in the lithium-lead eutectic blanket of a thermonuclear reactor. On the basis of obtained experimental data some estimates have been calculated on the ITER blanket accident consequences. The LOCA type accident represents the failure of eutectic circuit in the process of transfusion of liquid eutectic from blanket to the tritium reprocessing plant.

  14. Laser Fusion - A New Thermonuclear Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Ralph S.

    1975-01-01

    Describes thermonuclear processes induced by interaction of a laser beam with the surface of a fuel pellet. An expanding plasma is formed which results in compression of the element. Laser and reactor technology are discussed. Pictures and diagrams are included. (GH)

  15. Thermonuclear milestones: (1) The American effort

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, G.A.

    1996-11-01

    It took a decade for scientists in America to develop the first ideas for a {open_quote}Super{close_quote} bomb into a device that ignited {open_quote}the first small thermonuclear flame ever to burn on Earth.{close_quote} {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Soft commitment: self-control achieved by response persistence.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, E; Rachlin, H

    1995-01-01

    With reinforcement contingent on a single peck on either of two available keys (concurrent continuous reinforcement schedules) 4 pigeons, at 80% of free-feeding weights, preferred a smaller-sooner reinforcer (2.5 s of mixed grain preceded by a 0.5-s delay) to a larger-later reinforcer (4.5 s of mixed grain preceded by a 3.5-s delay). However, when the smaller-sooner and larger-later reinforcers were contingent on a concurrent fixed-ratio 31 schedule (the first 30 pecks distributed in any way on the two keys), all pigeons obtained the larger-later reinforcer much more often than they did when only a single peck was required. This "self-control" was achieved by beginning to peck the key leading to the larger-later reinforcer and persisting on that key until reinforcement occurred. We call this persistence "soft commitment" to distinguish it from strict commitment, in which self-control is achieved by preventing changeovers. Soft commitment also effectively achieved self-control when a brief (1-s) signal was inserted between the 30th and 31st response of the ratio and with concurrent fixed-interval 30-s schedules (rather than ratio schedules) of reinforcement. In a second experiment with the same subjects, the fixed ratio was interrupted by darkening both keys and lighting a third (center) key on which pecking was required for various fractions of the fixed-ratio count. The interruption significantly reduced self-control. When interruption was complete (30 responses on the center key followed by a single choice response), pigeons chose the smaller-sooner reinforcer as frequently as they did when only a single choice response was required. PMID:7561671

  17. Injecting nation: achieving control of hepatitis C in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wodak, A

    1997-09-01

    Since Australia banned heroin in 1953 consumption of illicit drugs, deaths, crime and corruption related to drugs have steadily increased. Injecting drug use (IDU) in Australia is now a significant public health problem linked each year to approximately 500 overdose deaths and more than 6000 hepatitis C infections. At least 85% of prevalent and incident hepatitis C cases in Australia are injecting drug users (IDUs) with annual incidence estimated at 15%. Although poorly documented, increasing numbers of patients with end-stage liver disease from hepatitis C now appear to present in Australia. This reflects a heroin-injecting epidemic commencing a quarter of a century ago, the close association between drug injecting and hepatitis C and the long delay between hepatitis C infection and complications. The overall health and economic burden of hepatitis C may soon exceed HIV. Control is far more difficult to achieve for hepatitis C than HIV because of much higher baseline prevalence levels and far greater infectiousness by blood to blood spread. Transmission appears to follow minimal breaches of infection control guidelines. Hepatitis C has not yet become a priority public health issue in Australia. No national prevention strategy has been proposed. Prevention strategies (such as needle exchange or methadone) which controlled HIV among IDUs should be expanded, with the expectation of some useful reduction of spread but without achieving control of hepatitis C. Other options for control must be considered. Eradicating illicit drug use in Australia is unachievable. Virtually eradicating injecting drug use by facilitating a switch to non-injecting routes of administration (NIROA) is achievable (although difficult) and this could control hepatitis C. NIROA will have the probable additional benefit of reducing drug overdose deaths. NIROA has begun recently to replace injecting in several countries without government intervention. Powerful cultural, pharmacological and

  18. Merging white dwarfs and thermonuclear supernovae.

    PubMed

    van Kerkwijk, M H

    2013-06-13

    Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and the suggestion that these supernovae instead result from mergers of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, including those that produce sub-Chandrasekhar-mass remnants. I then turn to possible observational tests, in particular, those that test the absence or presence of electron captures during the burning. PMID:23630372

  19. Merging white dwarfs and thermonuclear supernovae.

    PubMed

    van Kerkwijk, M H

    2013-06-13

    Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and the suggestion that these supernovae instead result from mergers of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, including those that produce sub-Chandrasekhar-mass remnants. I then turn to possible observational tests, in particular, those that test the absence or presence of electron captures during the burning.

  20. Epidemiology of a thermonuclear bomb-burst over Nashville, Tennessee: a theoretic study.

    PubMed

    Quinn, R W

    1983-07-01

    A thermonuclear bomb explosion over any city in the world would have a devastating effect on the population and environment. For those who survive, with or without injuries, life would become primitive with little or no uncontaminated food or water, and with inadequate housing, fuel, and medical care, resulting in a breakdown of family and interpersonal relationships. This theoretic study of the potential outcome of a thermonuclear bomb-burst over Nashville, Tennessee, discusses epidemiologically the wide range of medical and psychologic effects from the direct trauma of blast and fire, widespread epidemics of otherwise controlled disease, long-term chronic illness, genetic damage, and catastrophic environmental havoc.

  1. Parental Behavioural Control and Academic Achievement: Striking the Balance between Control and Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Karen Z.

    2012-01-01

    Using a longitudinal US dataset (N = 6,134) we examine the relationship between parental behavioural control and academic achievement and explore the moderating role of parental involvement and parental warmth. Analyses using multiple hierarchical regression with clustering controls shows that parental behavioural control is negatively associated…

  2. Compton scattering in ignited thermonuclear plasmas.

    PubMed

    Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P J

    2008-03-28

    Inertially confined, ignited thermonuclear D-T plasmas will produce intense blackbody radiation at temperatures T greater, similar20 keV; it is shown that the injection of GeV electrons into the burning core can efficiently generate high-energy Compton scattering photons. Moreover, the spectrum scattered in a small solid angle can be remarkably monochromatic, due to kinematic pileup; a peak brightness in excess of 10;{30} photons/(mm(2) mrad(2) s 0.1% bandwidth) is predicted. These results are discussed within the context of the Schwinger field and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect.

  3. Malaria in Turkey: successful control and strategies for achieving elimination.

    PubMed

    Özbilgina, Ahmet; Topluoglu, Seher; Es, Saffet; Islek, Elif; Mollahaliloglu, Salih; Erkoc, Yasin

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in the middle of Asia, Africa and Europe, close to Caucasia, Balkans and Middle East in subtropical climate zone. Malaria has been known since the early ages of human history and it was one of the leading diseases in Anatolian history, as well. Today, chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium vivax is the only agent of autochthonous malaria cases in Turkey. The other Plasmodium species identified are isolated from imported cases of malaria. The most common vector of malaria in Turkey is Anopheles sacharovi followed by An. superpictus, An. maculipennis and An. subalpinus. In 2009, pre-elimination stage of Malaria Program was started due to dramatic decline in the number of malaria cases in Turkey (Total, 84; 38 autochthonous cases only in 26 foci in south-eastern Anatolia, and 46 imported cases; incidence: 0.1/100,000). As there were no detected cases of new autochthonous malaria in the first 8 months of 2010, elimination stage was started. The role of the persistent policies and successful applications of the Ministry of Health, such as the strict control of the patients using anti-malarial drugs especially chloroquine, avoidance of resistant insecticides, facilitation of access to patients via Health Transformation Program (HTP), establishment of close contact with the patients' families, and improvement of reporting and surveillance system, was essential. In addition, improvement maintained in the motivations and professional rights of malaria workers, as well in the coordination of field studies and maintenance of a decline or termination in vector-to-person transmission were all achieved with the insistent policies of the Ministry of Health. Other factors that probably contributed to elimination studies include lessening of military operations in south-eastern Anatolia and the lowering of malaria cases in neighbouring countries in recent years. Free access to health services concerning malaria is still successfully conducted throughout the country

  4. Demonstration of thermonuclear conditions in magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Gomez, Matthew R.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Harding, Eric C.; et al

    2015-04-29

    In this study, the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas17, 056303 (2010)] utilizes a magnetic field and laser heating to relax the pressure requirements of inertial confinement fusion. The first experiments to test the concept [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] were conducted utilizing the 19 MA, 100 ns Z machine, the 2.5 kJ, 1 TW Z Beamlet laser, and the 10 T Applied B-field on Z system. Despite an estimated implosion velocity of only 70 km/s in these experiments, electron and ion temperatures at stagnation were as highmore » as 3 keV, and thermonuclear deuterium-deuterium neutron yields up to 2 × 1012 have been produced. X-ray emission from the fuel at stagnation had widths ranging from 50 to 110 μm over a roughly 80% of the axial extent of the target (6–8 mm) and lasted approximately 2 ns. X-ray yields from these experiments are consistent with a stagnation density of the hot fuel equal to 0.2–0.4 g/cm3. In these experiments, up to 5 ×1010 secondary deuterium-tritium neutrons were produced. Given that the areal density of the plasma was approximately 1–2 mg/cm2, this indicates the stagnation plasma was significantly magnetized, which is consistent with the anisotropy observed in the deuterium-tritium neutron spectra. Control experiments where the laser and/or magnetic field were not utilized failed to produce stagnation temperatures greater than 1 keV and primary deuterium-deuterium yields greater than 1010. An additional control experiment where the fuel contained a sufficient dopant fraction to substantially increase radiative losses also failed to produce a relevant stagnation temperature. The results of these experiments are consistent with a thermonuclear neutron source.« less

  5. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  6. Purpose Plus: Supporting Youth Purpose, Control, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Kanny, Mary Allison

    2011-01-01

    Research in the past decade suggests that a persistent achievement gap between students from low-income minority backgrounds and higher-income white backgrounds may be rooted in theories of student motivation and youth purpose. Yet limited research exists regarding the role of purpose on positive youth development as it pertains to academic…

  7. Controlling open quantum systems: tools, achievements, and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Christiane P.

    2016-06-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge of preserving relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence, which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence of decoherence. Here we review recent advances in optimal control methodology that allow typical tasks in device operation for open quantum systems to be tackled and discuss examples of relaxation-optimized dynamics. Optimal control theory is also a useful tool to exploit the environment for control. We discuss examples and point out possible future extensions.

  8. Debris control design achievements of the booster separation motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The stringent debris control requirements imposed on the design of the Space Shuttle booster separation motor are described along with the verification program implemented to ensure compliance with debris control objectives. The principal areas emphasized in the design and development of the Booster Separation Motor (BSM) relative to debris control were the propellant formulation and nozzle closures which protect the motors from aerodynamic heating and moisture. A description of the motor design requirements, the propellant formulation and verification program, and the nozzle closures design and verification are presented.

  9. An active control strategy for achieving weak radiator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naghshineh, K. . Acoustics and Radar Technology Lab.); Koopmann, G.H. . Center for Acoustics and Vibration)

    1994-01-01

    A general control strategy is presented for active suppression of total radiated sound power from harmonically excited structures based on the measurement of their response. Using the measured response of the structure together with knowledge of its structural mobility, and equivalent primary excitation force is found at discrete points along the structure. Using this equivalent primary force and performing a quadratic optimization of the power radiated form the structure, a set of control forces is found at selected points on the structure that results in minimum radiated sound power. A numerical example of this strategy is presented for a simply supported beam in a rigid baffle excited by a harmonic plane wave incident at an oblique angle. A comparison of the response of the beam with and without control forces shows a large reduction in the controlled response displacement magnitude. In addition, as the result of the action of the control forces, the magnitude of the wave number spectrum of the beam's response in the supersonic region is decreased substantially. The effect of the number and location of the actuators on reductions in sound power level is also studied. The actuators located at the anti-nodes of structural modes within the supersonic region together with those located near boundaries are found to be the most effective in controlling the radiation of sound from a structure.

  10. Understanding Neutron Stars using Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of thermonuclear X-ray bursts can be very useful to constrain the spin rate, mass and radius of a neutron star = EOS model of high density cold matter in the neutron star cores. Extensive observation and analysis of the data from the rising portions of the bursts = modeling of burst oscillations and thermonuclear flame spreading. Theoretical study of thermonuclear flame spreading on the rapidly spinning neutron stars should be done considering all the main physical effects (including magnetic field, nuclear energy generation, Coriolis effect, strong gravity, etc.).

  11. Neutron Stars and Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2007-01-01

    Studies of thermonuclear X-ray bursts can be very useful to constrain the spin rate, mass and radius of a neutron star approaching EOS model of high density cold matter in the neutron star cores. +k Extensive observation and analysis of the data from the rising portions of the bursts - modeling of burst oscillations and thermonuclear flame spreading. +k Theoretical study of thermonuclear flame spreading on the rapidly spinning neutron stars should be done considering all the main physical effects (including magnetic field, nuclear energy generation, Coriolis effect, strong gravity, etc.).

  12. Achieving Control of Occupational Exposures to Engineered Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Juric, Amanda; Meldrum, Richard; Liberda, Eric N

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposures resulting from Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) can pose a challenge for applying traditional risk assessment, control, or evaluation standards. This article discusses the limitations in traditional risk management approaches when it comes to ENM exposures, reviews current monitoring options, and suggests an interim management framework until research can meet the standard of evidence required by legislators. The proposed Nanomaterial Occupational Exposure Management Model (NOEM) offers a pragmatic approach that integrates resources from current academic research to provide a framework that can be applied by both industry and regulators. The NOEM Model focuses on addressing three concerns to exposure management: Risk Assessment, Exposure Control, and Exposure Monitoring. The resources supported for meeting these three components involve the integration of the Control Banding Nanotool and Nano Reference Values, both of which have been piloted and accepted through peer-reviewed processes and industry consultation.

  13. Cognitive Control Predicts Academic Achievement in Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldren, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Children's ability to shift behavior in response to changing environmental demands is critical for successful intellectual functioning. While the processes underlying the development of cognitive control have been thoroughly investigated, its functioning in an ecologically relevant setting such as school is less well understood. Given the alarming…

  14. Achievement Goals and Emotions: The Mediational Roles of Perceived Progress, Control, and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Nathan C.; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Muis, Krista R.; Ranellucci, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: The link between achievement goals and achievement emotions is well established; however, research exploring potential mediators of this relationship is lacking. The control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006, "Educational Psychology Review," 18, 315) posits that perceptions of control and value mediate the…

  15. [Strategy of tuberculosis control and achievement in Okinawa].

    PubMed

    2001-10-01

    After fierce battles in World War II, Okinawa was occupied by military of U.S.A. and consequently was administrated by USCAR (United States Civil Administration of Ryukyus). During 27 years from April 1945 to May 1972, reversion to Japan, the public Health Activities including T.B. control were performed by Ryukyus Government indirectly controlled by USCAR. The first issue of T.B. statistics was made in 1950. It revealed remarkable reduction of T.B. death rate, a quarter of that before the war. The main reasons of the reduction were considered due to the over-death in battles. But epidemic of T.B. had increased rapidly, especially since the Korean War occurred in 1950. Constructions of the military base were booming, and T.B. infection was spread among laborers, employees, and also their families. Then, Ryukyus Government enacted a temporary law of T.B. prevention and control in 1954. Home-care treatment of T.B. patient was started with registration and management in newly constructed Public Health Centers. Because of shortage of government budget, man-power including doctor and poor institutes, a system of short-termed admission treatment (6 months) and home cared chemotherapy were started. Public Health Nurses (PHN) took care the patient at home, and medical fee of T.B. treatment was free in charge to patients. So activities of PHN were very important. In 1962, Dr. Shoukou Imamura, from JATA, came to study the system of home care treatment. And 7,000 cases under supervision of Public Health Center were investigated. He reported that this system was fairly efficacious in Okinawa. In 1976, after reversion to Japan, study of T.B. surveillance control system was advised and introduced by Dr. Masakazu Aoki and Dr. Tooru Mori (JATA). By this modern system of surveillance, T.B. control is improved progressively in Okinawa. PMID:11712390

  16. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world.

  17. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Han

    2015-01-01

    After the Korean War (1950–1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea’s population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world. PMID:26485188

  18. Bayesian Estimation of Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliadis, C.; Anderson, K. S.; Coc, A.; Timmes, F. X.; Starrfield, S.

    2016-11-01

    The problem of estimating non-resonant astrophysical S-factors and thermonuclear reaction rates, based on measured nuclear cross sections, is of major interest for nuclear energy generation, neutrino physics, and element synthesis. Many different methods have been applied to this problem in the past, almost all of them based on traditional statistics. Bayesian methods, on the other hand, are now in widespread use in the physical sciences. In astronomy, for example, Bayesian statistics is applied to the observation of extrasolar planets, gravitational waves, and Type Ia supernovae. However, nuclear physics, in particular, has been slow to adopt Bayesian methods. We present astrophysical S-factors and reaction rates based on Bayesian statistics. We develop a framework that incorporates robust parameter estimation, systematic effects, and non-Gaussian uncertainties in a consistent manner. The method is applied to the reactions d(p,γ)3He, 3He(3He,2p)4He, and 3He(α,γ)7Be, important for deuterium burning, solar neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

  19. Muscle function in avian flight: achieving power and control

    PubMed Central

    Biewener, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Flapping flight places strenuous requirements on the physiological performance of an animal. Bird flight muscles, particularly at smaller body sizes, generally contract at high frequencies and do substantial work in order to produce the aerodynamic power needed to support the animal's weight in the air and to overcome drag. This is in contrast to terrestrial locomotion, which offers mechanisms for minimizing energy losses associated with body movement combined with elastic energy savings to reduce the skeletal muscles' work requirements. Muscles also produce substantial power during swimming, but this is mainly to overcome body drag rather than to support the animal's weight. Here, I review the function and architecture of key flight muscles related to how these muscles contribute to producing the power required for flapping flight, how the muscles are recruited to control wing motion and how they are used in manoeuvring. An emergent property of the primary flight muscles, consistent with their need to produce considerable work by moving the wings through large excursions during each wing stroke, is that the pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscles shorten over a large fraction of their resting fibre length (33–42%). Both muscles are activated while being lengthened or undergoing nearly isometric force development, enhancing the work they perform during subsequent shortening. Two smaller muscles, the triceps and biceps, operate over a smaller range of contractile strains (12–23%), reflecting their role in controlling wing shape through elbow flexion and extension. Remarkably, pigeons adjust their wing stroke plane mainly via changes in whole-body pitch during take-off and landing, relative to level flight, allowing their wing muscles to operate with little change in activation timing, strain magnitude and pattern. PMID:21502121

  20. Children's effortful control and academic achievement: do relational peer victimization and classroom participation operate as mediators?

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H

    2014-08-01

    Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children. PMID:25107413

  1. Demonstration of thermonuclear conditions in magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Matthew R.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Harding, Eric C.; Jennings, Christopher A.; Awe, Thomas James; Geissel, Matthias; Rovang, Dean C.; Smith, Ian C.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Herrmann, Mark C.; Mark Harry Hess; Lamppa, Derek C.; Martin, Matthew R.; McBride, Ryan D.; Peterson, Kyle J.; Porter, John L.; Rochau, Gregory A.; Savage, Mark E.; Schroen, Diana G.; Stygar, William A.; Vesey, Roger Alan

    2015-04-29

    In this study, the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas17, 056303 (2010)] utilizes a magnetic field and laser heating to relax the pressure requirements of inertial confinement fusion. The first experiments to test the concept [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] were conducted utilizing the 19 MA, 100 ns Z machine, the 2.5 kJ, 1 TW Z Beamlet laser, and the 10 T Applied B-field on Z system. Despite an estimated implosion velocity of only 70 km/s in these experiments, electron and ion temperatures at stagnation were as high as 3 keV, and thermonuclear deuterium-deuterium neutron yields up to 2 × 1012 have been produced. X-ray emission from the fuel at stagnation had widths ranging from 50 to 110 μm over a roughly 80% of the axial extent of the target (6–8 mm) and lasted approximately 2 ns. X-ray yields from these experiments are consistent with a stagnation density of the hot fuel equal to 0.2–0.4 g/cm3. In these experiments, up to 5 ×1010 secondary deuterium-tritium neutrons were produced. Given that the areal density of the plasma was approximately 1–2 mg/cm2, this indicates the stagnation plasma was significantly magnetized, which is consistent with the anisotropy observed in the deuterium-tritium neutron spectra. Control experiments where the laser and/or magnetic field were not utilized failed to produce stagnation temperatures greater than 1 keV and primary deuterium-deuterium yields greater than 1010. An additional control experiment where the fuel contained a sufficient dopant fraction to substantially increase radiative losses also failed to produce a relevant stagnation temperature. The results of these experiments are consistent with a thermonuclear neutron source.

  2. Demonstration of thermonuclear conditions in magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, M. R.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Hahn, K. D.; Hansen, S. B.; Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sinars, D. B.; Harding, E. C.; Jennings, C. A.; Awe, T. J.; Geissel, M.; Rovang, D. C.; Smith, I. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Hess, M. H.; and others

    2015-05-15

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion concept [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] utilizes a magnetic field and laser heating to relax the pressure requirements of inertial confinement fusion. The first experiments to test the concept [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] were conducted utilizing the 19 MA, 100 ns Z machine, the 2.5 kJ, 1 TW Z Beamlet laser, and the 10 T Applied B-field on Z system. Despite an estimated implosion velocity of only 70 km/s in these experiments, electron and ion temperatures at stagnation were as high as 3 keV, and thermonuclear deuterium-deuterium neutron yields up to 2 × 10{sup 12} have been produced. X-ray emission from the fuel at stagnation had widths ranging from 50 to 110 μm over a roughly 80% of the axial extent of the target (6–8 mm) and lasted approximately 2 ns. X-ray yields from these experiments are consistent with a stagnation density of the hot fuel equal to 0.2–0.4 g/cm{sup 3}. In these experiments, up to 5 × 10{sup 10} secondary deuterium-tritium neutrons were produced. Given that the areal density of the plasma was approximately 1–2 mg/cm{sup 2}, this indicates the stagnation plasma was significantly magnetized, which is consistent with the anisotropy observed in the deuterium-tritium neutron spectra. Control experiments where the laser and/or magnetic field were not utilized failed to produce stagnation temperatures greater than 1 keV and primary deuterium-deuterium yields greater than 10{sup 10}. An additional control experiment where the fuel contained a sufficient dopant fraction to substantially increase radiative losses also failed to produce a relevant stagnation temperature. The results of these experiments are consistent with a thermonuclear neutron source.

  3. Thermonuclear Fusion Research Progress and the Way to the Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Raymond

    2006-06-01

    The paper reviews the progress of fusion research and its prospects for electricity generation. It starts with a reminder of the principles of thermonuclear fusion and a brief discussion of its potential role in the future of the world energy production. The reactions allowing energy production by fusion of nuclei in stars and on earth and the conditions required to sustain them are reviewed. At the high temperatures required for fusion (hundred millions kelvins), matter is completely ionized and has reached what is called its 4th state: the plasma state. The possible means to achieve these extreme temperatures is discussed. The remainder of the paper focuses on the most promising of these approaches, magnetic confinement. The operating principles of the presently most efficient machine of this type — the tokamak — is described in some detail. On the road to producing energy with fusion, a number of obstacles have to be overcome. The plasma, a fluid that reacts to electromagnetic forces and carries currents and charges, is a complex medium. Fusion plasma is strongly heated and is therefore a good example of a system far from equilibrium. A wide variety of instabilities can grow in this system and lead to self-organized structures and spontaneous cycles. Turbulence is generated that degrades the confinement and hinders easy achievement of long lasting hot plasmas. Physicists have learned how to quench turbulence, thereby creating sort of insulating bottles inside the plasma itself to circumvent this problem. The recent history of fusion performance is outlined and the prospect of achieving power generation by fusion in a near future is discussed in the light of the development of the "International Tokamak Experimental Reactor" project ITER.

  4. Why achievement motivation predicts success in business but failure in politics: the importance of personal control.

    PubMed

    Winter, David G

    2010-12-01

    Several decades of research have established that implicit achievement motivation (n Achievement) is associated with success in business, particularly in entrepreneurial or sales roles. However, several political psychology studies have shown that achievement motivation is not associated with success in politics; rather, implicit power motivation often predicts political success. Having versus lacking control may be a key difference between business and politics. Case studies suggest that achievement-motivated U.S. presidents and other world leaders often become frustrated and thereby fail because of lack of control, whereas power-motivated presidents develop ways to work with this inherent feature of politics. A reevaluation of previous research suggests that, in fact, relationships between achievement motivation and business success only occur when control is high. The theme of control is also prominent in the development of achievement motivation. Cross-national data are also consistent with this analysis: In democratic industrialized countries, national levels of achievement motivation are associated with strong executive control. In countries with low opportunity for education (thus fewer opportunities to develop a sense of personal control), achievement motivation is associated with internal violence. Many of these manifestations of frustrated achievement motivation in politics resemble authoritarianism. This conclusion is tested by data from a longitudinal study of 113 male college students, showing that high initial achievement motivation combined with frustrated desires for control is related to increases in authoritarianism (F-scale scores) during the college years. Implications for the psychology of leadership and practical politics are discussed.

  5. Thermonuclear model for x-ray transients

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.K.; Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    The thermonuclear evolution of a 1.41 M sub solar neutron star accreting both solar and metal-deficient mixtures of hydrogen, helium, and heavy elements at rates ranging from about 10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -10/ M sub solar per year is examined using a one-dimensional numerical model. The metal deficient compositions may result either from placement of the neutron star in a binary system with a Population II red giant or from gravitational settling of heavy ions in the accreted material. For such accretion rates and metallicities, hydrogen burning, mediated by the ..beta..-limited CNO cycle, is stable and leads to the accumulation of a thick helium layer with mass 10/sup 23/ to 10/sup 25/ g and temperature 0.7 less than or equal to T/sub 8/ less than or equal to 1.2. Helium ignition occurs under extremely degenerate circumstances and is catastrophically violent. In the lower t helium shells this runaway is propagated as a convective deflagration, for the thicker layers a detonation front is set up which steepens into a strong relativistic shock wave in the neutron star envelope. In all models greatly super-Eddington luminosities in the outer layers of the neutron star lead to a sustained epoch of radiatively driven mass loss. Observationally, such models may correspond to rapid x-ray transients. The hopeless prospect for constructing a one-dimensional model for ..gamma..-ray bursts without magnetic field confinement is discussed and uncertainties pointed out in the strong screening correction for helium burning reaction.

  6. [Implementation of precision control to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2016-02-01

    The integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, which has been implemented since 2004, accelerated the progress towards schistosomiasis control in China, and achieved transmission control of the disease across the country by the end of 2015, which achieved the overall objective of the Mid- and Long-term National Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis (2004-2015) on schedule. Then, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination by 2025 was proposed in China in 2014. To achieve this new goal on schedule, we have to address the key issues, and implement precision control measures with more precise identification of control targets, so that we are able to completely eradicate the potential factors leading to resurgence of schistosomiasis transmission and enable the achievement of schistosomiasis elimination on schedule. Precision schistosomiasis control, a theoretical innovation of precision medicine in schistosomiasis control, will provide new insights into schistosomiasis control based on the conception of precision medicine. This paper describes the definition, interventions and the role of precision schistosomiasis control in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China, and demonstrates that sustainable improvement of professionals and integrated control capability at grass-root level is a prerequisite to the implementation of schistosomiasis control, precision schistosomiasis control is a key to the further implementation of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, and precision schistosomiasis control is a guarantee of curing schistosomiasis patients and implementing schistosomiasis control program and interventions. PMID:27356396

  7. [Implementation of precision control to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2016-02-01

    The integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, which has been implemented since 2004, accelerated the progress towards schistosomiasis control in China, and achieved transmission control of the disease across the country by the end of 2015, which achieved the overall objective of the Mid- and Long-term National Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis (2004-2015) on schedule. Then, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination by 2025 was proposed in China in 2014. To achieve this new goal on schedule, we have to address the key issues, and implement precision control measures with more precise identification of control targets, so that we are able to completely eradicate the potential factors leading to resurgence of schistosomiasis transmission and enable the achievement of schistosomiasis elimination on schedule. Precision schistosomiasis control, a theoretical innovation of precision medicine in schistosomiasis control, will provide new insights into schistosomiasis control based on the conception of precision medicine. This paper describes the definition, interventions and the role of precision schistosomiasis control in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China, and demonstrates that sustainable improvement of professionals and integrated control capability at grass-root level is a prerequisite to the implementation of schistosomiasis control, precision schistosomiasis control is a key to the further implementation of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, and precision schistosomiasis control is a guarantee of curing schistosomiasis patients and implementing schistosomiasis control program and interventions.

  8. Relations among Peer Acceptance, Inhibitory Control, and Math Achievement in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relations among peer acceptance, inhibitory control, and math achievement in ninety-nine 4th and 5th grade early adolescents. Teachers rated students on peer acceptance and students completed a computerized executive function task assessing inhibitory control. Math achievement was assessed via end of year math grades. Results…

  9. Criterion-Related Validity of the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale with Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Gary D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the relationships between student locus of control and academic achievement in grades five through eight. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale (NSLOCS) was used to measure motivation, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) to assess academic achievement. Results indicated moderate inverse relationships between level of…

  10. Moving the Achievement Goal Approach One Step Forward: Toward a Systematic Examination of the Autonomous and Controlled Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Elliot, Andrew J.; Soenens, Bart; Mouratidis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    An important recent development in the achievement goal literature is to define achievement goals strictly as aims. In this overview, we argue that this restrictive definition of achievement goals paves the way for a systematic consideration of the autonomous and controlled reasons underlying individuals' achievement goals, a distinction…

  11. Cryogenic thermonuclear fuel implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenzer, Siegfried

    2011-10-01

    The first inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments with cryogenic fuel layers have been fielded in preparation for ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility. These experiments use mega joule laser energies that compress fusion capsules in indirect dive hohlraums to test initial hot spot formation and thermonuclear fuel assembly. Hydrogen-rich fuel (THD) provides a relatively low yield and diagnostics rich environment that allows us to measure the implosion core, neutron yield, temperatures and fuel areal density from a suite of x-ray and neutron diagnostics. These experiments have successfully demonstrated the control of the implosion shape using ignition grade cryogenic fuel layers, laser pulse shaping, and nonlinear plasma optics. The implosions show scaling of the DT fusion yield with ion temperature over more than one order of magnitude to a yield in excess of 1014 neutrons. Recent implosion performance improvements due to shock timing tuning have led to high Lawson confinement parameters. Additional tuning experiments are being performed with the goal to increase hot spot temperatures and to observe alpha particle heating with pure DT fuel. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Current drive for stability of thermonuclear plasma reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amicucci, L.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.; Galli, A.; Panaccione, L.; Paoletti, F.; Schettini, G.; Spigler, R.; Tuccillo, A.

    2016-01-01

    To produce in a thermonuclear fusion reactor based on the tokamak concept a sufficiently high fusion gain together stability necessary for operations represent a major challenge, which depends on the capability of driving non-inductive current in the hydrogen plasma. This request should be satisfied by radio-frequency (RF) power suitable for producing the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) effect, recently demonstrated successfully occurring also at reactor-graded high plasma densities. An LHCD-based tool should be in principle capable of tailoring the plasma current density in the outer radial half of plasma column, where other methods are much less effective, in order to ensure operations in the presence of unpredictably changes of the plasma pressure profiles. In the presence of too high electron temperatures even at the periphery of the plasma column, as envisaged in DEMO reactor, the penetration of the coupled RF power into the plasma core was believed for long time problematic and, only recently, numerical modelling results based on standard plasma wave theory, have shown that this problem should be solved by using suitable parameter of the antenna power spectrum. We show here further information on the new understanding of the RF power deposition profile dependence on antenna parameters, which supports the conclusion that current can be actively driven over a broad layer of the outer radial half of plasma column, thus enabling current profile control necessary for the stability of a reactor.

  13. Do spherical tokamaks have a thermonuclear future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnov, S. V.

    2012-12-01

    the potential possibility of their use in thermonuclear research.

  14. a New Approach of the Deflagration to Detonation Transition in SNIa Thermonuclear Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chièze, Jean Pierre; Charignon, Camille

    2015-03-01

    A wide class of type Ia thermonuclear supernovae models relies on the transition from the subsonic deflagration combustion regime to the supersonic detonation regime of the carbon and oxygen mixture of an accreting white dwarf, near the Chandrasekhar mass. We show that this can actually be achieved in a cold C+O white dwarf near the Chandrasekhar mass, with seed sound waves of relatively low Mach number M ˜ 0.02. Moreover, even weaker perturbations, with velocity perturbations as low as M ˜ 0.003 can trigger a detonation wave in SNIa progenitors models wich include the presence of a thin helium surface layer.

  15. Development of Independence: Locus of Control, Achievement Motivation and Self vs. Adult Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickie, Jane R.; Mast, Vicki A.

    The development and interrelationship of various measures of independence in children ages 3-12 are examined. Subjects were scored on measures of locus of control and achievement motivation and were rated by teachers on independence and achievement. Subjects were also scored on reliance on adult evaluation and self-evaluation. The results showed…

  16. Social Axioms and Achievement across Cultures: The Influence of Reward for Application and Fate Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Fan; Leung, Kwok; Bond, Michael Harris

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the relationships between two social axiom dimensions, reward for application and fate control, with various achievement-related indexes across a wide range of cultures. Results showed that there was no relationship between reward for application and academic achievement or economic competitiveness, but reward for…

  17. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  18. A Model of Parental Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control in Academically Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated achievement-oriented parent socialization as it pertains to school avoidance in a sample of gifted students. A serial mediation model examining relationships among parental achievement-oriented psychological control (APC), fear of academic failure, academic amotivation, and school avoidance was tested. The sample included…

  19. Children's Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318

  20. Children's Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control.

    PubMed

    Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318

  1. On the Relation of Locus of Control and L2 Reading and Writing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Shirvan, Majid Elahi

    2011-01-01

    Locus of control, a psychological construct, has been the focus of attention in recent decades. Psychologists have discussed the effect of locus of control on achieving life goals in social/psychological interactions. While learning a foreign language involves both social interactions and psychological processes, the role and relation of locus of…

  2. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children's mathematics achievement?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children's mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9-12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent's report); math achievement was measured via teacher's report and through the standard Woodcock-Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children's mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children's self-regulation abilities in the context of school.

  3. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children's mathematics achievement?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children's mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9-12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent's report); math achievement was measured via teacher's report and through the standard Woodcock-Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children's mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children's self-regulation abilities in the context of school. PMID:26441758

  4. Locus of control, test anxiety, academic procrastination, and achievement among college students.

    PubMed

    Carden, Randy; Bryant, Courtney; Moss, Rebekah

    2004-10-01

    114 undergraduates completed the Internal-External Locus of Control scale, the Procrastination Scale, and the Achievement Anxiety Test. They also provided a self-report of their cumulative GPA. Students were divided into two groups by a median-split of 10.5, yielding an internally oriented group of 57 and an externally oriented group of 57. The former students showed significantly lower academic procrastination, debilitating test anxiety, and reported higher academic achievement than the latter.

  5. Thermonuclear Burning as a Probe of Neutron Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2008-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion is a fundamental process taking place in the matter transferred onto neutron stars in accreting binary systems. The heat deposited by nuclear reactions becomes readily visible in the X-ray band when the burning is either unstable or marginally stable, and results in the rich phenomenology of X-ray bursts, superbursts, and mHz quasiperiodic oscillations. Fast X-ray timing observations with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) over the past decade have revealed a wealth of new phenomena associated with thermonuclear burning on neutron stars, including the discovery of nuclear powered pulsations during X-ray bursts and superbursts. I will briefly review our current observational and theoretical understanding of these new phenomena, with an emphasis on recent findings, and discuss what they are telling us about the structure of neutron stars.

  6. Sonoluminescence, shock waves, and micro-thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W.C.; Clarke, D.B.; White, J.W.; Young, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    We have performed numerical hydrodynamic simulations of the growth and collapse of a sonoluminescing bubble in a liquid. Our calculations show that spherically converging shock waves are generated during the collapse of the bubble. The combination of the shock waves and a realistic equation of state for the gas in the bubble provides an explanation for the measured picosecond optical pulse widths and indicates that the temperatures near the center of the bubble may exceed 3O eV. This leads naturally to speculation about obtaining micro-thermonuclear fusion in a bubble filled with deuterium (D{sub 2}) gas. Consequently, we performed numerical simulations of the collapse of a D{sub 2} bubble in D{sub 2}0. A pressure spike added to the periodic driving amplitude creates temperatures that may be sufficient to generate a very small, but measurable number of thermonuclear D-D fusion reactions in the bubble.

  7. Shock ignition of thermonuclear fuel with high areal density.

    PubMed

    Betti, R; Zhou, C D; Anderson, K S; Perkins, L J; Theobald, W; Solodov, A A

    2007-04-13

    A novel method by C. Zhou and R. Betti [Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, 140 (2005)] to assemble and ignite thermonuclear fuel is presented. Massive cryogenic shells are first imploded by direct laser light with a low implosion velocity and on a low adiabat leading to fuel assemblies with large areal densities. The assembled fuel is ignited from a central hot spot heated by the collision of a spherically convergent ignitor shock and the return shock. The resulting fuel assembly features a hot-spot pressure greater than the surrounding dense fuel pressure. Such a nonisobaric assembly requires a lower energy threshold for ignition than the conventional isobaric one. The ignitor shock can be launched by a spike in the laser power or by particle beams. The thermonuclear gain can be significantly larger than in conventional isobaric ignition for equal driver energy.

  8. Care of thermally injured victims of a thermonuclear explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.Z.

    1983-04-29

    Nuclear war or accidental non-hostile nuclear explosion would obviously rank among the greatest disasters to affect mankind. In addition to massive numbers of casualties, depending on the circumstances, our ability to care for these casualties might also be affected. Despite the predictions of doomsday soothsayers, nothing is accomplished by burying one's head in the sand. Therefore, we must give consideration to how victims of a thermo-nuclear explosion would be cared for.

  9. Efficient GPU Accelerationfor Integrating Large Thermonuclear Networks in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidry, Mike

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate the systematic implementation of recently-developed fast explicit kinetic integration algorithms on modern graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerators. We take as representative test cases Type Ia supernova explosions with extremely stiff thermonuclear reaction networks having 150-365 isotopic species and 1600-4400 reactions, assumed coupled to hydrodynamics using operator splitting. In such examples we demonstrate the capability to integrate independent thermonuclear networks from ~250-500 hydro zones (assumed to be deployed on CPU cores) in parallel on a single GPU in the same wall clock time that standard implicit methods can integrate the network for a single zone. This two or more orders of magnitude increase in efficiency for solving systems of realistic thermonuclear networks coupled to fluid dynamics implies that important coupled, multiphysics problems in various scientific and technical disciplines that were intractable, or could be simulated only with highly schematic kinetic networks, are now computationally feasible. As examples of such applications I will discuss our ongoing deployment of these new methods for Type Ia supernova explosions in astrophysics and for simulation of the complex atmospheric chemistry entering into weather and climate problems.

  10. Peer Victimization and Effortful Control: Relations to School Engagement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyer, Roopa V.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Eisenberg, Nancy; Thompson, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    The relations among peer victimization, effortful control, school engagement, and academic achievement were examined in a group of 390 (212 boys and 178 girls) racially diverse (38.20% Latino and 46.70% White) 6- to 10-year-old children. Specifically, a multimethod, multi-informant approach was used in which data were gathered using self-report,…

  11. Effortful Control and Impulsivity as Concurrent and Longitudinal Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Haugen, Rg; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Kupfer, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test if both effortful control (EC) and impulsivity, a reactive index of temperament, uniquely predict adolescents' academic achievement, concurrently and longitudinally (Time 1: "N" = 168, X-bar[subscript age] = 12 years). At Time 1, parents and teachers reported on students' EC and impulsivity.…

  12. Examining Perceived Control Level and Instability as Predictors of First-Year College Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Hall, Nathan C.; Guay, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the intraindividual level and instability of perceived academic control (PC) among first-year college students, and their predictive effects on academic achievement. Two studies were conducted measuring situational (state) PC on different schedules: Study 1 (N = 242) five times over a 6-month period and…

  13. On-Line Tutoring for Math Achievement Testing: A Controlled Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Walles, Rena; Arroyo, Ivon; Woolf, Beverly P.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a controlled evaluation of an interactive on-line tutoring system for high school math achievement test problem solving. High school students (N = 202) completed a math pre-test and were then assigned by teachers to receive interactive on-line multimedia tutoring or their regular classroom instruction. The on-line tutored…

  14. Autonomy Support versus Psychological Control, Perfectionism, and Taiwanese Adolescents' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2013-01-01

    The author attempted to explore potential antecedents of achievement goals and relations of teacher and parental autonomy support versus psychological control to Taiwanese adolescents' perfectionistic tendencies. A total of 512 eighth-grade students completed self-reported questionnaires assessing variables of interest. Results indicated that…

  15. Predicting Learned Helplessness and Achievement: The Role of Locus on Control and Motivational Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Diane; Barrett, Marty

    This 2-year study examined the relative potency of locus of control (LOC) and motivational orientation (MO) as predictors of standardized achievement scores and learned helplessness. Also tested was the prediction that children with an extrinsic MO would be prone to adopt an external LOC over time. In the first year of the study, subjects were 158…

  16. The Effect of Inhibitory Control on General Mathematics Achievement and Fraction Comparison in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, David Maximiliano; Jiménez, Abelino; Bobadilla, Roberto; Reyes, Cristián; Dartnell, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in inhibitory control have been shown to relate to general mathematics achievement, but whether this relation varies for specific areas within mathematics is a question that remains open. Here, we evaluate if inhibitory processes play a specific role in the particular case of fraction comparison, where learners must ignore…

  17. “The Marshall Rosenbluth International Summer School – 2007: Plasma Thermonuclear Fusion and Plasma Astrophysics – 2007”

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Vladislav Alexander

    2007-10-01

    Contents: H. Berk: Frequency Sweeping Due to Phase Space Structure Formation in Plasmas M. Campbell : The Legacy of Marshall Rosenbluth in the Development of the Laser Fusion Program in the United States J. Candy: Gyrokinetic Simulations of Fusion Plasmas P. Diamond: The Legacy of Marshall Rosenbluth in Magnetic Confinement Theory G-Y. Fu: Nonlinear Hybrid Simulations of Multiple Energetic Particle Driven Alfven Modes in Toroidal Plasmas O. Gurcan: Theory of Intrinsic Rotation and Momentum Transport V. L. Jacobs: Kinetic and Spectral Descriptions for Atomic Processes in Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas C. F. Kennel: Marshall Rosenbluth and Roald Sagdeev in Trieste:The Birth of Modern Space Plasma N. A. Krall: The Contribution of Marshall Rosenbluth in the Development of Plasma Drift Wave and Universal Instability Theories C. S. Liu: The Legacy of Marshall Rosenbluth in Laser-Plasma Interaction Research N. Rostoker: Plasma Physics Research With Marshall Rosenbluth - My Teacher R. Z. Sagdeev: The Legacy of Marshall Rosenbluth in Plasma Physics V. Alexander Stefan A Note on the Rosenbluth Paper: Phys. Rev. Letters, 29, 565 (1972), and the Research in Parametric Plasma Theory Thereupon J. W. Van Dam: The Role of Marshall Rosenbluth in the Development of the Thermonuclear Fusion Program in the U.S.A. E. P. Velikhov: Problems in Plasma Astrophysics R. White: The Role of Marshall Rosenbluth in the Development of the Particle and MHD Interaction in Plasmas X. Xu: Edge Gyrokinetic Theory and Continuum Simulations Marshall Nicholas ROSENBLUTH (A Brief Biography) b. February 5,1927 - Albany, New York. d. September 28, 2003 - San Diego, California. M. N. Rosenbluth, a world-acclaimed scientist, is one of the ultimate authorities in plasma and thermonuclear fusion research, often indicated by the sobriquet the "Pope of Plasma Physics." His theoretical contributions have been central to the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion. In the 1950s his pioneering work in

  18. Role of Parenting Style in Achieving Metabolic Control in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shorer, Maayan; David, Ravit; Schoenberg-Taz, Michal; Levavi-Lavi, Ifat; Phillip, Moshe; Meyerovitch, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control and treatment adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Parents of 100 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed assessments of their parenting style and sense of helplessness. Parents and patients rated patient adherence to the treatment regimen. Glycemic control was evaluated by HbA1c values. RESULTS An authoritative paternal parenting style predicted better glycemic control and adherence in the child; a permissive maternal parenting style predicted poor adherence. A higher sense of helplessness in both parents predicted worse glycemic control and lesser adherence to treatment. Parental sense of helplessness was a significant predictor of diabetes control after correcting for other confounders (patient age, sex, and treatment method). CONCLUSIONS An authoritative nonhelpless parenting style is associated with better diabetes control in adolescents. Paternal involvement is important in adolescent diabetes management. These results have implications for psychological interventions. PMID:21788643

  19. Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jade Eloise; Castronovo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots), whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials) when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays. PMID:27195749

  20. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  1. An alternate method for achieving temperature control in the -130 C to 75 C range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth R.; Anderson, Mark R.; Lane, Robert W.; Cortez, Maximo G.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal vacuum testing often requires temperature control of chamber shrouds and heat exchangers within the -130 C to 75 C range. There are two conventional methods which are normally employed to achieve control through this intermediate temperature range: (1) single-pass flow where control is achieved by alternately pulsing hot gaseous nitrogen (GN2) and cold LN2 into the feed line to yield the setpoint temperature; and (2) closed-loop circulation where control is achieved by either electrically heating or LN2 cooling the circulating GN2 to yield the setpoint temperature. A third method, using a mass flow ratio controller along with modulating control valves on GN2 and LN2 lines, provides excellent control but equipment for this method is expensive and cost-prohibitive for all but long-term continuous processes. The single-pass method provides marginal control and can result in unexpected overcooling of the test article from even a short pulse of LN2. The closed-loop circulation method provides excellent control but requires an expensive blower capable of operating at elevated pressures and cryogenic temperatures. Where precise control is needed (plus or minus 2 C), single-pass flow systems typically have not provided the precision required, primarily because of overcooling temperature excursions. Where several individual circuits are to be controlled at different temperatures, the use of expensive cryogenic blowers for each circuit is also cost-prohibitive, especially for short duration of one-of-a-kind tests. At JPL, a variant of the single-pass method was developed that was shown to provide precise temperature control in the -130 C to 75 C range while exhibiting minimal setpoint overshoot during temperature transitions. This alternate method uses a commercially available temperature controller along with a GN2/LN2 mixer to dampen the amplitude of cold temperature spikes caused by LN2 pulsing. The design of the GN2/LN2 mixer, the overall control system

  2. Theoretical z -pinch scaling relations for thermonuclear-fusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Stygar, W A; Cuneo, M E; Vesey, R A; Ives, H C; Mazarakis, M G; Chandler, G A; Fehl, D L; Leeper, R J; Matzen, M K; McDaniel, D H; McGurn, J S; McKenney, J L; Muron, D J; Olson, C L; Porter, J L; Ramirez, J J; Seamen, J F; Speas, C S; Spielman, R B; Struve, K W; Torres, J A; Waisman, E M; Wagoner, T C; Gilliland, T L

    2005-08-01

    implosion time tau(i). For an accelerator coupled to a double-pinch-driven hohlraum that drives the implosion of an ICF fuel capsule, we find that the accelerator power and energy required to achieve high-yield fusion scale as tau(i)0.36 and tau(i)1.36, respectively. Thus the accelerator requirements decrease as the implosion time is decreased. However, the x-ray-power and thermonuclear-yield efficiencies of such a coupled system increase with tau(i). We also find that increasing the anode-cathode gap of the pinch from 2 to 4 mm increases the requisite values of P(a) and E(a) by as much as a factor of 2.

  3. Achieving the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's potential by investing in national capacity

    PubMed Central

    Wipfli, H; Stillman, F; Tamplin, S; da Costa, e Silva V L.; Yach, D; Samet, J

    2004-01-01

    May 2003 marked a critical achievement in efforts to stem the global tobacco epidemic, as the member states of the World Health Organization unanimously endorsed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, the adoption of the FCTC signifies only the end of the beginning of effective global action to control tobacco. Over the next several years the utility of the FCTC process and the treaty itself will be tested as individual countries seek to ratify and implement the treaty's obligations. Significant barriers to the treaty's long term success exist in many countries. It is crucial that the international tobacco control community now refocuses its efforts on national capacity building and ensures that individual countries have the knowledge, tools, data, people, and organisations needed to implement the convention and develop sustained tobacco control programmes. This paper provides a model of national tobacco control capacity and offers a prioritised agenda for action. PMID:15564631

  4. Scaling up interventions to achieve global tuberculosis control: progress and new developments.

    PubMed

    Raviglione, Mario; Marais, Ben; Floyd, Katherine; Lönnroth, Knut; Getahun, Haileyesus; Migliori, Giovanni B; Harries, Anthony D; Nunn, Paul; Lienhardt, Christian; Graham, Steve; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Weyer, Karin; Cole, Stewart; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2012-05-19

    Tuberculosis is still one of the most important causes of death worldwide. The 2010 Lancet tuberculosis series provided a comprehensive overview of global control efforts and challenges. In this update we review recent progress. With improved control efforts, the world and most regions are on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of decreasing tuberculosis incidence by 2015, and the Stop TB Partnership target of halving 1990 mortality rates by 2015; the exception is Africa. Despite these advances, full scale-up of tuberculosis and HIV collaborative activities remains challenging and emerging drug-resistant tuberculosis is a major threat. Recognition of the effect that non-communicable diseases--such as smoking-related lung disease, diet-related diabetes mellitus, and alcohol and drug misuse--have on individual vulnerability, as well as the contribution of poor living conditions to community vulnerability, shows the need for multidisciplinary approaches. Several new diagnostic tests are being introduced in endemic countries and for the first time in 40 years a coordinated portfolio of promising new tuberculosis drugs exists. However, none of these advances offer easy solutions. Achievement of international tuberculosis control targets and maintenance of these gains needs optimum national health policies and services, with ongoing investment into new approaches and strategies. Despite growing funding in recent years, a serious shortfall persists. International and national financial uncertainty places gains at serious risk. Perseverance and renewed commitment are needed to achieve global control of tuberculosis, and ultimately, its elimination. PMID:22608339

  5. High school students' perceptions of EFL teacher control orientations and their English academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between strong, shared, or loose teacher control during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. AIM. The present study aimed at (a) investigating students' perceptions of control behaviours exhibited by their English teachers; and (b) exploring the contribution of different types of teacher control behaviours to students' cognitive outcomes (English Achievement). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 732 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students studying in three major fields of high school (Mathematics, Natural Science, and Humanities). The participants (16-17 years of age) were selected from third-grade classes of 27 EFL teachers working in 25 high schools of 6 main different geographical regions in the Isfahan province, Iran. METHOD. To obtain a comprehensive picture of different control types exhibited by Iranian EFL teachers, the control subscales of the two existing questionnaires, i.e., the Questionnaire on Instructional Behaviours (QIB), adapted by Den Brok et al. (2004) and the Questionnaire on Lesson Activities (QLA) used by Den Brok (2001) were merged to form the Questionnaire of Teacher Control (QTC). The development of this Persian instrument involved several steps: translation and back translation by the researchers, one expert translator, and two EFL teachers; piloting; and a final administration of the questionnaire to the student sample. With respect to the second aim of the study, data regarding students' performances on the Standardized National English Achievement Tests were gathered from local educational offices and schools. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. Statistical analyses supported acceptable reliability and validity of the instrument. A main factor structure with three types of teacher control (strong/high, shared/mid, and loose/low) was found to underlie students

  6. High school students' perceptions of EFL teacher control orientations and their English academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between strong, shared, or loose teacher control during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. AIM. The present study aimed at (a) investigating students' perceptions of control behaviours exhibited by their English teachers; and (b) exploring the contribution of different types of teacher control behaviours to students' cognitive outcomes (English Achievement). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 732 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students studying in three major fields of high school (Mathematics, Natural Science, and Humanities). The participants (16-17 years of age) were selected from third-grade classes of 27 EFL teachers working in 25 high schools of 6 main different geographical regions in the Isfahan province, Iran. METHOD. To obtain a comprehensive picture of different control types exhibited by Iranian EFL teachers, the control subscales of the two existing questionnaires, i.e., the Questionnaire on Instructional Behaviours (QIB), adapted by Den Brok et al. (2004) and the Questionnaire on Lesson Activities (QLA) used by Den Brok (2001) were merged to form the Questionnaire of Teacher Control (QTC). The development of this Persian instrument involved several steps: translation and back translation by the researchers, one expert translator, and two EFL teachers; piloting; and a final administration of the questionnaire to the student sample. With respect to the second aim of the study, data regarding students' performances on the Standardized National English Achievement Tests were gathered from local educational offices and schools. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. Statistical analyses supported acceptable reliability and validity of the instrument. A main factor structure with three types of teacher control (strong/high, shared/mid, and loose/low) was found to underlie students

  7. Robust adaptive feedforward control and achievable tracking for systems with time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehner, Michael R.; Young, Peter M.

    2015-04-01

    A feedback/feedforward controller architecture is developed that characterises the achievable reference tracking of real time inputs for both minimum phase and non-minimum phase systems with time delays, when there are no modelling errors or external disturbances. This characterisation is obtained by factoring the plant into its minimum phase, non-minimum phase, and time delay components, which are used to design two feedforward controllers that inject signals into two points of the feedback loop. Design constraints are provided that determine both the types of signals that may be achieved, and the feedforward controllers that will generate that output. Of course, in practice, both modelling errors and external disturbances will be present. In this case, we develop robust analysis tools that both guide the feedback controller design process, and provide rigorous robust tracking performance that guarantees for the overall resulting closed-loop system. Robust methods for designing the feedforward controllers are presented, and numerical examples are provided. The performance of this architecture depends strongly on the choice of design parameters, and the accuracy of the plant model used. Hence, the use of adaptation methods is also considered, and it is shown that they can readily be employed to improve the performance of this control methodology.

  8. Professional training in the workplace: the role of achievement motivation and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Campillo-Álvarez, Angela; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Muñiz, José

    2013-01-01

    The core objective of the present work is to explore the reasons why workers from different employment sectors join training courses to improve their job. To this end we assessed achievement motivation, locus of control and professional qualifications according to the participants' employment sector. The final sample consisted of 1460 active Spanish workers from four different employment sectors: services, catering, metal construction, and others. Of the sample, 40.1% were male and 59.9% female, with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD = 9.7). The results show that the new scale developed to assess achievement motivation, locus of control and workers' qualifications presents adequate psychometric characteristics. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to employment sector. The areas studied showed satisfactory levels of workers' effort and achievement motivation to perform their jobs, though their attitudes toward the training courses as a basis for improving their employability are varied. Workers in the catering sector had higher levels of external attribution and the lowest interest in training. Those in the service sector had higher levels of achievement motivation and effort at work. Future research should develop a joint program covering the public and private sectors for the modification of these beliefs, attitudes and attributions.

  9. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children’s mathematics achievement?

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J.; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A.; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children’s mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9–12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent’s report); math achievement was measured via teacher’s report and through the standard Woodcock–Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children’s mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children’s self-regulation abilities in the context of school. PMID:26441758

  10. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  11. Birds achieve high robustness in uneven terrain through active control of landing conditions.

    PubMed

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Daley, Monica A

    2012-06-15

    We understand little about how animals adjust locomotor behaviour to negotiate uneven terrain. The mechanical demands and constraints of such behaviours likely differ from uniform terrain locomotion. Here we investigated how common pheasants negotiate visible obstacles with heights from 10 to 50% of leg length. Our goal was to determine the neuro-mechanical strategies used to achieve robust stability, and address whether strategies vary with obstacle height. We found that control of landing conditions was crucial for minimising fluctuations in stance leg loading and work in uneven terrain. Variation in touchdown leg angle (θ(TD)) was correlated with the orientation of ground force during stance, and the angle between the leg and body velocity vector at touchdown (β(TD)) was correlated with net limb work. Pheasants actively targeted obstacles to control body velocity and leg posture at touchdown to achieve nearly steady dynamics on the obstacle step. In the approach step to an obstacle, the birds produced net positive limb work to launch themselves upward. On the obstacle, body dynamics were similar to uniform terrain. Pheasants also increased swing leg retraction velocity during obstacle negotiation, which we suggest is an active strategy to minimise fluctuations in peak force and leg posture in uneven terrain. Thus, pheasants appear to achieve robustly stable locomotion through a combination of path planning using visual feedback and active adjustment of leg swing dynamics to control landing conditions. We suggest that strategies for robust stability are context specific, depending on the quality of sensory feedback available, especially visual input.

  12. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  13. Use a linear model to achieve stable composition control in a naphtha splitter

    SciTech Connect

    Karpe, P.

    1997-01-01

    The following two points using dual composition control in a naphtha splitter are emphasized: while literature provides general guidelines for design of control systems for distillation columns, each column is unique in terms of dynamic and steady state behavior. Multivariable control analytical tools, such as RGA and SVD, coupled with rigorous steady state simulations, can be effectively employed to achieve stable control in columns beset with severe loop interactions, and often in the absence of on-line analyzers, linear models representing the first order approximations of distillation columns can yield significant benefits. Such models are simple to understand, readily acceptable to operators, do not require special expertise to maintain, and therefore, offer high degree of reliability.

  14. Connecting scales: achieving in-field pest control from areawide and landscape ecology studies.

    PubMed

    Schellhorn, Nancy A; Parry, Hazel R; Macfadyen, Sarina; Wang, Yongmo; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-02-01

    Areawide management has a long history of achieving solutions that target pests, however, there has been little focus on the areawide management of arthropod natural enemies. Landscape ecology studies that show a positive relationship between natural enemy abundance and habitat diversity demonstrate landscape-dependent pest suppression, but have not yet clearly linked their findings to pest management or to the suite of pests associated with crops that require control. Instead the focus has often been on model systems of single pest species and their natural enemies. We suggest that management actions to capture pest control from natural enemies may be forth coming if: (i) the suite of response and predictor variables focus on pest complexes and specific management actions; (ii) the contribution of "the landscape" is identified by assessing the timing and numbers of natural enemies immigrating and emigrating to and from the target crop, as well as pests; and (iii) pest control thresholds aligned with crop development stages are the benchmark to measure impact of natural enemies on pests, in turn allowing for comparison between study regions, and generalizations. To achieve pest control we will need to incorporate what has been learned from an ecological understanding of model pest and natural enemy systems and integrate areawide landscape management with in-field pest management.

  15. Academic task persistence of normally achieving ADHD and control boys: performance, self-evaluations, and attributions.

    PubMed

    Hoza, B; Pelham, W E; Waschbusch, D A; Kipp, H; Owens, J S

    2001-04-01

    The authors examined academic task persistence, pretask expectancies, self-evaluations, and attributions of boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as compared with control boys. Participants were 83 ADHD boys and 66 control boys, all normally achieving. Prior to the task, performance expectancies were assessed. After a success-failure manipulation with find-a-word puzzles, performance on subsequent trials, self-evaluations, and attributions were evaluated. Compared with controls, ADHD boys solved fewer test puzzles, quit working more often, and found fewer words on a generalization task. Consistent with these behavioral findings, research assistants rated ADHD boys as less effortful and less cooperative than control boys. Although ADHD boys did not differ significantly from controls in their posttask self-evaluations, they did differ significantly from controls in some aspects of their attributions. Attributional data indicated that ADHD boys endorsed luck as a reason for success more strongly and lack of effort as a reason for failure less strongly than controls. PMID:11393604

  16. Design of PI controllers for achieving time and frequency domain specifications simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Hamamci, Serdar Ethem; Tan, Nusret

    2006-10-01

    This paper deals with the design of PI controllers which achieve the desired frequency and time domain specifications simultaneously. A systematic method, which is effective and simple to apply, is proposed. The required values of the frequency domain performance measures namely the gain and phase margins and the time domain performance measures such as settling time and overshoot are defined prior to the design. Then, to meet these desired performance values, a method which presents a graphical relation between the required performance values and the parameters of the PI controller is given. Thus, a set of PI controllers which attain desired performances can be found using the graphical relations. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the benefits of the method presented.

  17. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  18. Study of a Simulation Tool to Determine Achievable Control Dynamics and Control Power Requirements with Perfect Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a study of two methods for use in a generic nonlinear simulation tool that could be used to determine achievable control dynamics and control power requirements while performing perfect tracking maneuvers over the entire flight envelope. The two methods are NDI (nonlinear dynamic inversion) and the SOFFT(Stochastic Optimal Feedforward and Feedback Technology) feedforward control structure. Equivalent discrete and continuous SOFFT feedforward controllers have been developed. These equivalent forms clearly show that the closed-loop plant model loop is a plant inversion and is the same as the NDI formulation. The main difference is that the NDI formulation has a closed-loop controller structure whereas SOFFT uses an open-loop command model. Continuous, discrete, and hybrid controller structures have been developed and integrated into the formulation. Linear simulation results show that seven different configurations all give essentially the same response, with the NDI hybrid being slightly different. The SOFFT controller gave better tracking performance compared to the NDI controller when a nonlinear saturation element was added. Future plans include evaluation using a nonlinear simulation.

  19. Individual differences in inhibitory control, not non-verbal number acuity, correlate with mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Camilla; Attridge, Nina; Clayton, Sarah; Cragg, Lucy; Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Simms, Victoria; Inglis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Given the well-documented failings in mathematics education in many Western societies, there has been an increased interest in understanding the cognitive underpinnings of mathematical achievement. Recent research has proposed the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) which allows individuals to represent and manipulate non-verbal numerical information. Evidence has shown that performance on a measure of the ANS (a dot comparison task) is related to mathematics achievement, which has led researchers to suggest that the ANS plays a critical role in mathematics learning. Here we show that, rather than being driven by the nature of underlying numerical representations, this relationship may in fact be an artefact of the inhibitory control demands of some trials of the dot comparison task. This suggests that recent work basing mathematics assessments and interventions around dot comparison tasks may be inappropriate.

  20. Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control, Not Non-Verbal Number Acuity, Correlate with Mathematics Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Camilla; Attridge, Nina; Clayton, Sarah; Cragg, Lucy; Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Simms, Victoria; Inglis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Given the well-documented failings in mathematics education in many Western societies, there has been an increased interest in understanding the cognitive underpinnings of mathematical achievement. Recent research has proposed the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) which allows individuals to represent and manipulate non-verbal numerical information. Evidence has shown that performance on a measure of the ANS (a dot comparison task) is related to mathematics achievement, which has led researchers to suggest that the ANS plays a critical role in mathematics learning. Here we show that, rather than being driven by the nature of underlying numerical representations, this relationship may in fact be an artefact of the inhibitory control demands of some trials of the dot comparison task. This suggests that recent work basing mathematics assessments and interventions around dot comparison tasks may be inappropriate. PMID:23785521

  1. Thermonuclear Supernova Explosions From Hybrid White Dwarf Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willcox, Donald E.; Townsley, Dean; Calder, Alan; Denissenkov, Pavel; Herwig, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent results in stellar evolution in which convective boundary mixing in SAGB stars can give rise to hybrid white dwarf (WD) stars with a C-O core inside an O-Ne shell, we simulate thermonuclear (Type Ia) supernovae from these hybrid progenitors. We use the FLASH code to perform multidimensional simulations in the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) explosion paradigm from progenitor models produced with the MESA stellar evolution code that include the thermal energetics of the Urca process. We performed a suite of DDT simulations over a range of ignition conditions and compare to previous results from a suite of C-O white dwarfs. Despite significant variability within each suite, distinguishing trends are apparent in their Ni-56 yields and the kinetic properties of their ejecta. We comment on the feasibility of these hybrid WD explosions as the source of some classes of observed subluminous events. This research was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant DE-FG02-87ER40317 and by resources at the Institute for Advanced Computational Science at Stony Brook University. The software used in this work was in part developed by the DOE-supported ASC/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago.

  2. The classification of magnetohydrodynamic regimes of thermonuclear combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Remming, Ian S.; Khokhlov, Alexei M.

    2014-10-10

    Physical properties of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) reaction fronts are studied as functions of the thermodynamic conditions, and the strength and orientation of the magnetic field in the unburned matter through which the fronts propagate. We determine the conditions for the existence of the various types of MHD reaction fronts and the character of the changes in physical quantities across these reaction fronts. The analysis is carried out in general for a perfect gas equation of state and a constant energy release, and then extended to thermonuclear reaction fronts in degenerate carbon-oxygen mixtures and degenerate helium in conditions typical of Type Ia supernova explosions. We find that as unburned matter enters perpendicular to a reaction front, the release of energy through burning generates shear velocity in the reacting gas that, depending on the type of reaction front, strengthens or weakens the magnetic field. In addition, we find that the steady-state propagation of a reaction front is impossible for certain ranges of magnetic field direction. Our results provide insight into the phenomena of MHD thermonuclear combustion that is relevant to the interpretation of future simulations of SN Ia explosions that have magnetic fields systematically incorporated.

  3. Achieving glycemic control in special populations in hospital: perspectives in practice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Alice Y Y

    2014-04-01

    Achieving and maintaining glycemic control in patients with diabetes admitted to hospital is challenging because of the many competing factors of nutrition, pharmacotherapy and other patient-related and systemic factors. For patients receiving enteral or parenteral feeding, eating irregularly or receiving glucocorticoid therapy, the challenges are even greater. The basic principles to follow when managing glycemia in these populations are as follows: 1) Recognition of those at risk for hyperglycemia; 2) frequent bedside glucose monitoring; 3) a proactive approach with routine insulin administration based on the predicted glucose patterns; 4) constant reassessment of the glycemic status and titration of the routine insulin accordingly.

  4. The Impact of Achieve3000 on Elementary Literacy Outcomes: Evidence from a Two-Year Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Darryl V.; Lenard, Matthew A.; Page, Lindsay Coleman

    2016-01-01

    School districts are increasingly adopting technology-based resources in an attempt to improve student achievement. This paper reports the two-year results from randomized control trial of Achieve3000 in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) in Raleigh, North Carolina. Achieve3000 is an early literacy program that differentiates non-fiction…

  5. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE TREADMILL WALKING ON COGNITIVE CONTROL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Charles H.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hall, Eric E.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included twenty preadolescent participants (Age = 9.5 ± 0.5 years; 8 female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 minutes of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e., walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further supports the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:19356688

  6. Establishing Causality Using Longitudinal Hierarchical Linear Modeling: An Illustration Predicting Achievement From Self-Control

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Tsukayama, Eli; May, Henry

    2010-01-01

    The predictive validity of personality for important life outcomes is well established, but conventional longitudinal analyses cannot rule out the possibility that unmeasured third-variable confounds fully account for the observed relationships. Longitudinal hierarchical linear models (HLM) with time-varying covariates allow each subject to serve as his or her own control, thus eliminating between-individual confounds. HLM also allows the directionality of the causal relationship to be tested by reversing time-lagged predictor and outcome variables. We illustrate these techniques through a series of models that demonstrate that within-individual changes in self-control over time predict subsequent changes in GPA but not vice-versa. The evidence supporting a causal role for self-control was not moderated by IQ, gender, ethnicity, or income. Further analyses rule out one time-varying confound: self-esteem. The analytic approach taken in this study provides the strongest evidence to date for the causal role of self-control in determining achievement. PMID:20976121

  7. Relativistic outflow from two thermonuclear shell flashes on neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    in't Zand, J. J. M.; Keek, L.; Cavecchi, Y.

    2014-08-01

    We study the exceptionally short (32-43 ms) precursors of two intermediate-duration thermonuclear X-ray bursts observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer from the neutron stars in 4U 0614+09 and 2S 0918-549. They exhibit photon fluxes that surpass those at the Eddington limit later in the burst by factors of 2.6 to 3.1. We are able to explain both the short duration and the super-Eddington flux by mildly relativistic outflow velocities of 0.1c to 0.3c subsequent to the thermonuclear shell flashes on the neutron stars. These are the highest velocities ever measured from any thermonuclear flash. The precursor rise times are also exceptionally short: about 1 ms. This is inconsistent with predictions for nuclear flames spreading laterally as deflagrations and suggests detonations instead. This is the first time that a detonation is suggested for such a shallow ignition column depth (yign ≈ 1010 g cm-2). The detonation would possibly require a faster nuclear reaction chain, such as bypassing the α-capture on 12C with the much faster 12C(p,γ)13N(α,p)16O process previously proposed. We confirm the possibility of a detonation, albeit only in the radial direction, through the simulation of the nuclear burning with a large nuclear network and at the appropriate ignition depth, although it remains to be seen whether the Zel'dovich criterion is met. A detonation would also provide the fast flame spreading over the surface of the neutron star to allow for the short rise times. This needs to be supported by future two-dimensional calculations of flame spreading at the relevant column depth. As an alternative to the detonation scenario, we speculate on the possibility that the whole neutron star surface burns almost instantly in the auto-ignition regime. This is motivated by the presence of 150 ms precursors with 30 ms rise times in some superexpansion bursts from 4U 1820-30 at low ignition column depths of ~108 g cm-2.

  8. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P. Craig; Buyon, Lucas E.; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the “big three” diseases—namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria—has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda

  9. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P Craig; Buyon, Lucas E; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the "big three" diseases--namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria--has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda. PMID

  10. Longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's negative emotions, effortful control, and math achievement in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement.

  11. Longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's negative emotions, effortful control, and math achievement in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement. PMID:24916765

  12. The dynamic mutation characteristics of thermonuclear reaction in Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Quan, Tingting; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The stability and bifurcations of multiple limit cycles for the physical model of thermonuclear reaction in Tokamak are investigated in this paper. The one-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau type perturbed diffusion equations for the density of the plasma and the radial electric field near the plasma edge in Tokamak are established. First, the equations are transformed to the average equations with the method of multiple scales and the average equations turn to be a Z 2-symmetric perturbed polynomial Hamiltonian system of degree 5. Then, with the bifurcations theory and method of detection function, the qualitative behavior of the unperturbed system and the number of the limit cycles of the perturbed system for certain groups of parameter are analyzed. At last, the stability of the limit cycles is studied and the physical meaning of Tokamak equations under these parameter groups is given.

  13. Current drive at plasma densities required for thermonuclear reactors.

    PubMed

    Cesario, R; Amicucci, L; Cardinali, A; Castaldo, C; Marinucci, M; Panaccione, L; Santini, F; Tudisco, O; Apicella, M L; Calabrò, G; Cianfarani, C; Frigione, D; Galli, A; Mazzitelli, G; Mazzotta, C; Pericoli, V; Schettini, G; Tuccillo, A A

    2010-08-10

    Progress in thermonuclear fusion energy research based on deuterium plasmas magnetically confined in toroidal tokamak devices requires the development of efficient current drive methods. Previous experiments have shown that plasma current can be driven effectively by externally launched radio frequency power coupled to lower hybrid plasma waves. However, at the high plasma densities required for fusion power plants, the coupled radio frequency power does not penetrate into the plasma core, possibly because of strong wave interactions with the plasma edge. Here we show experiments performed on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) based on theoretical predictions that nonlinear interactions diminish when the peripheral plasma electron temperature is high, allowing significant wave penetration at high density. The results show that the coupled radio frequency power can penetrate into high-density plasmas due to weaker plasma edge effects, thus extending the effective range of lower hybrid current drive towards the domain relevant for fusion reactors.

  14. NASA superconducting magnetic mirror facility. [for thermonuclear research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Swanson, M. C.; Nichols, C. R.; Bloy, S. J.; Nagy, L. A.; Brady, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    The design details and initial test results of a superconducting magnetic mirror facility that has been constructed at NASA Lewis Research Center for use in thermonuclear research are summarized. The magnet system consists of four solenoidal coils which are individually rated at 5.0 T. Each coll is composed of an inner, middle, and outer winding. The inner winding is wound of stabilized Nb3Sn superconducting ribbon, and the middle and outer windings are wound of stabilized Nb-Ti superconducting wire. When arranged in the mirror geometry, the four coils will produce 8.7 T at the mirrors and a 1.8 mirror ratio. The magnet has a 41-cm diameter clear bore which is open to atmosphere. Distance between the mirrors is 111 cm. Presently there are only three magnets in the facility; the fourth magnet is being rebuilt.

  15. A compilation of charged-particle induced thermonuclear reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, C.; Arnould, M.; Rayet, M.; Descouvemont, P.; Baye, D.; Leclercq-Willain, C.; Coc, A.; Barhoumi, S.; Aguer, P.; Rolfs, C.; Kunz, R.; Hammer, J. W.; Mayer, A.; Paradellis, T.; Kossionides, S.; Chronidou, C.; Spyrou, K.; degl'Innocenti, S.; Fiorentini, G.; Ricci, B.; Zavatarelli, S.; Providencia, C.; Wolters, H.; Soares, J.; Grama, C.; Rahighi, J.; Shotter, A.; Lamehi Rachti, M.

    1999-08-01

    Low-energy cross section data for 86 charged-particle induced reactions involving light (1 <=Z <=14), mostly stable, nuclei are compiled. The corresponding Maxwellian-averaged thermonuclear reaction rates of relevance in astrophysical plasmas at temperatures in the range from 106 K to 1010 K are calculated. These evaluations assume either that the target nuclei are in their ground state, or that the target states are thermally populated following a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, except in some cases involving isomeric states. Adopted values complemented with lower and upper limits of the rates are presented in tabular form. Analytical approximations to the adopted rates, as well as to the inverse/direct rate ratios, are provided.

  16. Hot subdwarf stars and their connection to thermonuclear supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, S.; Kupfer, T.; Ziegerer, E.; Heber, U.; Németh, P.; Irrgang, A.; pre=", team

    2016-07-01

    Hot subdwarf stars (sdO/Bs) are evolved core helium-burning stars with very thin hydrogen envelopes, which can be formed by common envelope ejection. Close sdB binaries with massive white dwarf (WD) companions are potential progenitors of thermonuclear supernovae type Ia (SN Ia). We discovered such a progenitor candidate as well as a candidate for a surviving companion star, which escapes from the Galaxy. More candidates for both types of objects have been found by crossmatching known sdB stars with proper motion and light curve catalogues. The Gaia mission will provide accurate astrometry and light curves of all the stars in our hot subdwarf sample and will allow us to compile a much larger all-sky catalogue of those stars. In this way we expect to find hundreds of progenitor binaries and ejected companions.

  17. Influence of thermonuclear effects on the collapse of supermassive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, Pedro J.; Janka, H.-T.; Müller, E.; Müller, B.

    2011-09-01

    We present results of general relativistic simulations of collapsing supermassive stars using the two-dimensional general relativistic numerical code Nada, which solves the Einstein equations written in the BSSN formalism and the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations with high resolution shock capturing schemes. These numerical simulations use a tabulated equation of state which includes effects of radiation and gas pressure, and those associated with the electron-positron pairs. We also take into account the effect of thermonuclear energy released by hydrogen and helium burning. We find that objects with mass ≈ 5 × 105M and initial metallicity greater than ZCNO ≈ 0.004 do explode if non-rotating, while the threshold metallicity for an explosion is reduced to ZCNO ≈ 0.002 for objects uniformly rotating.

  18. The Dynamic Mutation Characteristics of Thermonuclear Reaction in Tokamak

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Quan, Tingting; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The stability and bifurcations of multiple limit cycles for the physical model of thermonuclear reaction in Tokamak are investigated in this paper. The one-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau type perturbed diffusion equations for the density of the plasma and the radial electric field near the plasma edge in Tokamak are established. First, the equations are transformed to the average equations with the method of multiple scales and the average equations turn to be a Z2-symmetric perturbed polynomial Hamiltonian system of degree 5. Then, with the bifurcations theory and method of detection function, the qualitative behavior of the unperturbed system and the number of the limit cycles of the perturbed system for certain groups of parameter are analyzed. At last, the stability of the limit cycles is studied and the physical meaning of Tokamak equations under these parameter groups is given. PMID:24892099

  19. The Thermonuclear Runaway and the Classical Nova Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starrfield, S.; Iliadis, C.; Hix, W. R.

    2016-05-01

    Nova explosions occur on the white dwarf component of a cataclysmic variable binary stellar system that is accreting matter lost by its companion. When sufficient material has been accreted by the white dwarf, a thermonuclear runaway occurs and ejects material in what is observed as a classical nova explosion. We describe both the recent advances in our understanding of the progress of the outburst and outline some of the puzzles that are still outstanding. We report on the effects of improving both the nuclear reaction rate library and including a modern nuclear reaction network in our one-dimensional, fully implicit, hydrodynamic computer code. In addition, there has been progress in observational studies of supernovae Ia with implications about the progenitors, and we discuss that in this review.

  20. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  1. Use of liquid metals in nuclear and thermonuclear engineering, and in other innovative technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Arnol'dov, M. N.; Efanov, A. D.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kozlov, F. A.; Loginov, N. I.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    By now, a good deal of experience has been gained with using liquid metals as coolants in nuclear power installations; extensive knowledge has been gained about the physical, thermophysical, and physicochemical properties of these coolants; and the scientific principles and a set of methods and means for handling liquid metals as coolants for nuclear power installations have been elaborated. Prototype and commercialgrade sodium-cooled NPP power units have been developed, including the BOR-60, BN-350, and BN-600 power units (the Soviet Union); the Rapsodie, Phenix, and Superphenix power units (France), the EBR-II power unit (the United States); and the PFR power unit (the United Kingdom). In Russia, dedicated nuclear power installations have been constructed, including those with a lead-bismuth coolant for nuclear submarines and with sodium-potassium alloy for spacecraft (the Buk and Topol installations), which have no analogs around the world. Liquid metals (primarily lithium and its alloy with lead) hold promise for use in thermonuclear power engineering, where they can serve not only as a coolant, but also as tritium-producing medium. In this article, the physicochemical properties of liquid metal coolants, as well as practical experience gained from using them in nuclear and thermonuclear power engineering and in innovative technologies are considered, and the lines of further research works are formulated. New results obtained from investigations carried out on the Pb-Bi and Pb for the SVBR and BREST fast-neutron reactors (referred to henceforth as fast reactors) and for controlled accelerator systems are described.

  2. Detonating Failed Deflagration Model of Thermonuclear Supernovae. I. Explosion Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plewa, Tomasz

    2007-03-01

    We present a detonating failed deflagration model of Type Ia supernovae. In this model, the thermonuclear explosion of a massive white dwarf follows an off-center deflagration. We conduct a survey of asymmetric ignition configurations initiated at various distances from the stellar center. In all cases studied, we find that only a small amount of stellar fuel is consumed during deflagration phase, no explosion is obtained, and the released energy is mostly wasted on expanding the progenitor. Products of the failed deflagration quickly reach the stellar surface, polluting and strongly disturbing it. These disturbances eventually evolve into small and isolated shock-dominated regions that are rich in fuel. We consider these regions as seeds capable of forming self-sustained detonations that, ultimately, result in the thermonuclear supernova explosion. Preliminary nucleosynthesis results indicate that the model supernova ejecta are typically composed of about 0.1-0.25 Msolar of silicon group elements and 0.9-1.2 Msolar of iron group elements and are essentially carbon-free. The ejecta have a composite morphology, are chemically stratified, and display a modest amount of intrinsic asymmetry. The innermost layers are slightly egg shaped with the axis ratio ~1.2-1.3 and dominated by the products of silicon burning. This central region is surrounded by a shell of silicon group elements. The outermost layers of ejecta are highly inhomogeneous and contain products of incomplete oxygen burning with only small admixture of unburned stellar material. The explosion energies are ~(1.3-1.5)×1051 ergs.

  3. Target Achievement Control Test: evaluating real-time myoelectric pattern-recognition control of multifunctional upper-limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J; Lock, Blair A; Kuiken, Todd A

    2011-01-01

    Despite high classification accuracies (~95%) of myoelectric control systems based on pattern recognition, how well offline measures translate to real-time closed-loop control is unclear. Recently, a real-time virtual test analyzed how well subjects completed arm motions using a multiple-degree of freedom (DOF) classifier. Although this test provided real-time performance metrics, the required task was oversimplified: motion speeds were normalized and unintended movements were ignored. We included these considerations in a new, more challenging virtual test called the Target Achievement Control Test (TAC Test). Five subjects with transradial amputation attempted to move a virtual arm into a target posture using myoelectric pattern recognition, performing the test with various classifier (1- vs 3-DOF) and task complexities (one vs three required motions per posture). We found no significant difference in classification accuracy between the 1- and 3-DOF classifiers (97.2% +/- 2.0% and 94.1% +/- 3.1%, respectively; p = 0.14). Subjects completed 31% fewer trials in significantly more time using the 3-DOF classifier and took 3.6 +/- 0.8 times longer to reach a three-motion posture compared with a one-motion posture. These results highlight the need for closed-loop performance measures and demonstrate that the TAC Test is a useful and more challenging tool to test real-time pattern-recognition performance.

  4. Boredom in Achievement Settings: Exploring Control-Value Antecedents and Performance Outcomes of a Neglected Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Daniels, Lia M.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2010-01-01

    The linkages of achievement-related boredom with students' appraisals and performance outcomes were examined in a series of 5 exploratory, cross-sectional, and predictive investigations. Studies 1 and 2 assessed students' boredom in a single achievement episode (i.e., state achievement boredom); Studies 3, 4, and 5 focused on their habitual…

  5. Achieving a new controllable male contraception by the photothermal effect of gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-qing; Sun, Chun-yang; Wang, Feng; Wang, Yu-cai; Zhai, Yi-wen; Liang, Meng; Liu, Wen-jing; Liu, Zhi-min; Wang, Jun; Sun, Fei

    2013-06-12

    During the process of human civilization, owning household pets has become increasingly popular. However, dogs and cats may be reservoirs or vectors of transmissible diseases to humans. Confronted with the overpopulation of pets, traditional contraception methods, surgical methods of sterilization, for animals are used, namely, ovariohysterectomy and orchidectomy. Therefore, a simple, nonsurgical, controllable, more effective and less expensive contraception method is highly desirable. In this study, we show that in situ testicular injection of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-modified gold nanorods with near-infrared irradiation in male mice can achieve short-lived or permanent male infertility. In a lower hyperthermia treatment, the morphology of testes and seminiferous tubules is only partly injured, and fertility indices are decreased to 10% at day 7, then recovered to 50% at day 60. In a higher hyperthermia treatment, the morphology of testes and seminiferous tubules are totally destroyed, and fertility indices are decreased to 0 at day 7. Overall, our results indicate a potential application of plasmonic nanomaterials for male contraception. PMID:23688274

  6. Thermonuclear inverse magnetic pumping power cycle for stellarator reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, D. D. M.; Kulsrud, R. M.

    1985-09-01

    A novel power cycle for direct conversion of alpha-particle energy into electricity is proposed for an ignited plasma in a stellerator reactor. The plasma column is alternately compressed and expanded in minor radius by periodic variation of the toroidal magnetic field strength. As a result of the way a stellarator is expected to work, the plasma pressure during expansion is greater than the corresponding pressure during compression. Therefore, negative work is done on the plasma during a complete cycle. This work manifests itself as a back-voltage in the toroidal field coils, and direct electrical energy is obtained from this voltage. For a typical reactor, the average power obtained from this cycle (with a minor radius compression factor on the order of 50%) can be as much as 50% of the electrical power obtained from the thermonuclear neutrons without compressing the plasma. Thus, if it is feasible to vary the toroidal field strength, the power cycle provides an alternative scheme of energy conversion for a deuterium-tritium fueled reactor. The cycle may become an important method of energy conversion for advanced neutron-lean fueled reactors. By operating two or more reactors in tandem, the cycle can be made self-sustaining.

  7. Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2016-01-01

    Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed in an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable.

  8. High energy components and collective modes in thermonuclear plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Coppi, B.; Cowley, S.; Detragiache, P.; Kulsrud, R.; Pegoraro, F.

    1986-02-01

    The theory of a class of collective modes of a thermonuclear magnetically confined plasma, with frequencies in the range of the ion cyclotron frequency and of its harmonics, is presented. These modes can be excited by their resonant cyclotron interaction with a plasma component of relatively high energy particles characterized by a strongly anisotropic distribution in velocity space. Normal modes that are spatially localized by the inhomogeneity of the plasma density are found. This ensures that the energy gained by their resonant interaction is not convected away. The mode spatial localization can be significantly altered by the magnetic field inhomogeneity for a given class of plasma density profiles. Special attention is devoted to the case of a spin polarized plasma, where the charged products of fusion reactions are anisotropically distributed. We show that for the mode of polarization that enhances nuclear reaction rates the tritium will be rapidly depolarized to toroidal configurations with relatively mild gradients of the confining magnetic field. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Wideband Heterodyne QWIP Receiver Development for Thermonuclear Fusion Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.A.; Buchanan, M.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Liu, H.C.; Richards, R.K.; Simpson, M.L.

    1998-11-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing heterodyne receivers for plasma diagnostic applications for over 20 years. One area of this work has been the development of a diagnostic system for the measurement of the energy of alpha particles created in a thermonuclear fusion reactor. These particles originate with an energy of 3.5 MeV and cool to the thermal energy of the plasma (around 15 keV) after several seconds. To measure the velocity distribution of these alpha particles, a Thomson scattering diagnostic is under development based on a high power CO{sub 2} laser at 10 microns with a heterodyne receiver. The Doppler shift generated by Thomson scattering of the alpha particles requires a wideband heterodyne receiver (greater than 10 GHz). Because Mercury-Cadimum-Telluride (MCT) detectors are limited to a bandwidth of approximately 2 GHz, a Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) detector was obtained from the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and evaluated for its heterodyne performance using the heterodyne testing facility developed at ORNL.

  10. Evidence of Spreading Layer Emission in a Thermonuclear Superburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koljonen, K. I. I.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Kuulkers, E.

    2016-10-01

    When a neutron star (NS) accretes matter from a companion star in a low-mass X-ray binary, the accreted gas settles onto the stellar surface through a boundary/spreading layer. On rare occasions the accumulated gas undergoes a powerful thermonuclear superburst powered by carbon burning deep below the NS atmosphere. In this paper, we apply the non-negative matrix factorization spectral decomposition technique to show that the spectral variations during a superburst from 4U 1636-536 can be explained by two distinct components: (1) the superburst emission characterized by a variable temperature blackbody radiation component and (2) a quasi-Planckian component with a constant, ˜2.5 keV, temperature varying by a factor of ˜15 in flux. The spectrum of the quasi-Planckian component is identical in shape and characteristics to the frequency-resolved spectra observed in the accretion/persistent spectrum of NS low-mass X-ray binaries and agrees well with the predictions of the spreading layer model by Inogamov & Sunyaev. Our results provide yet more observational evidence that superbursts—and possibly also normal X-ray bursts—induce changes in the disc-star boundary.

  11. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-Student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-Risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to…

  12. Effects of an Emotion Control Treatment on Academic Emotions, Motivation and Achievement in an Online Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChanMin; Hodges, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    We designed and developed an emotion control treatment and investigated its effects on college students' academic emotions, motivation, and achievement in an online remedial mathematics course. The treatment group showed more positive emotions of enjoyment and pride than the control group. The treatment group also showed a higher level of…

  13. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  14. The Effects of Formal Reasoning Ability, Locus of Control and Student Engagement on Science Process Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kenneth G.; Capie, William

    This study investigated student variables likely to influence process skill learning. Specifically, relationships were explored concerning the following variables: (1) student engagement and science process achievement, (2) formal reasoning ability and student engagement, (3) formal reasoning ability and science process achievement, (4) student…

  15. The achievements and challenges of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC).

    PubMed

    Sékétéli, A; Adeoye, G; Eyamba, A; Nnoruka, E; Drameh, P; Amazigo, U V; Noma, M; Agboton, F; Aholou, Y; Kale, O O; Dadzie, K Y

    2002-03-01

    The main strategy of APOC, of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), has enabled the programme to reach, empower and bring relief to remote and under-served, onchocerciasis-endemic communities. With CDTI, geographical and therapeutic coverages have increased substantially, in most areas, to the levels required to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public-health problem. Over 20 million people received treatment in 2000. APOC has also made effective use of the combination of the rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis (REMO) and geographical information systems (GIS), to provide information on the geographical distribution and prevalence of the disease. This has led to improvements in the identification of CDTI-priority areas, and in the estimates of the numbers of people to be treated. A unique public-private-sector partnership has been at the heart of APOC's relative success. Through efficient capacity-building, the programme's operations have positively influenced and strengthened the health services of participating countries. These laudable achievements notwithstanding, APOC faces many challenges during the second phase of its operations, when the full impact of the programme is expected to be felt. Notable among these challenges are the sustainability of CDTI, the strategy's effective integration into the healthcare system, and the full exploitation of its potential as an entry point for other health programmes. The channels created for CDTI, could, for example, help efforts to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (which will feature on the agenda of many participating countries during APOC's Phase 2). However, these other programmes need to be executed without compromising the onchocerciasis-control programme itself. Success in meeting these challenges will depend on the continued, wholehearted commitment of all the partners involved, particularly that of the governments of the participating countries. PMID:12081247

  16. Recommendations for a cryogenic system for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Slack, D.S.

    1989-09-20

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a new tokamak design project with joint participation from Japan, the European Community, the Soviet Union, and the United States. ITER will be a large machine requiring up to 100 kW of refrigeration at 4.5 K to cool its superconducting magnets. Unlike earlier fusion experiments, the ITER cryogenic system must handle pulse loads constituting a large percentage of the total load. These come from neutron heating during a fusion burn and from ac losses during ramping of current in the PF (poloidal field) coils. This paper presents a conceptual design for a cryogenic system that meets ITER requirements. It describes a system with the following features: Only time-proven components are used. The system obtains a high efficiency without use of cold pumps or other developmental components. High reliability is achieved by paralleling compressors and expanders and by using adequate isolation valving. The problem of load fluctuations is solved by a simple load-leveling device. The cryogenic system can be housed in a separate building located at a considerable distance from the ITER core, if desired. The paper also summarizes physical plant size, cost estimates, and means of handling vented helium during magnet quench. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Thermonuclear ignition in inertial confinement fusion and comparison with magnetic confinementa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betti, R.; Chang, P. Y.; Spears, B. K.; Anderson, K. S.; Edwards, J.; Fatenejad, M.; Lindl, J. D.; McCrory, R. L.; Nora, R.; Shvarts, D.

    2010-05-01

    The physics of thermonuclear ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is presented in the familiar frame of a Lawson-type criterion. The product of the plasma pressure and confinement time Pτ for ICF is cast in terms of measurable parameters and its value is estimated for cryogenic implosions. An overall ignition parameter χ including pressure, confinement time, and temperature is derived to complement the product Pτ. A metric for performance assessment should include both χ and Pτ. The ignition parameter and the product Pτ are compared between inertial and magnetic-confinement fusion. It is found that cryogenic implosions on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] have achieved Pτ ˜1.5 atm s comparable to large tokamaks such as the Joint European Torus [P. H. Rebut and B. E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)] where Pτ ˜1 atm s. Since OMEGA implosions are relatively cold (T ˜2 keV), their overall ignition parameter χ ˜0.02-0.03 is ˜5× lower than in JET (χ ˜0.13), where the average temperature is about 10 keV.

  18. Thermonuclear ignition in inertial confinement fusion and comparison with magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Betti, R.; Chang, P. Y.; Anderson, K. S.; Nora, R.; Spears, B. K.; Edwards, J.; Lindl, J. D.; Fatenejad, M.; McCrory, R. L.; Shvarts, D.

    2010-05-15

    The physics of thermonuclear ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is presented in the familiar frame of a Lawson-type criterion. The product of the plasma pressure and confinement time Ptau for ICF is cast in terms of measurable parameters and its value is estimated for cryogenic implosions. An overall ignition parameter chi including pressure, confinement time, and temperature is derived to complement the product Ptau. A metric for performance assessment should include both chi and Ptau. The ignition parameter and the product Ptau are compared between inertial and magnetic-confinement fusion. It is found that cryogenic implosions on OMEGA[T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] have achieved Ptauapprox1.5 atm s comparable to large tokamaks such as the Joint European Torus [P. H. Rebut and B. E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)] where Ptauapprox1 atm s. Since OMEGA implosions are relatively cold (Tapprox2 keV), their overall ignition parameter chiapprox0.02-0.03 is approx5x lower than in JET (chiapprox0.13), where the average temperature is about 10 keV.

  19. Thermonuclear targets for direct-drive ignition by a megajoule laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Bel’kov, S. A.; Bondarenko, S. V.; Vergunova, G. A.; Garanin, S. G.; Gus’kov, S. Yu. Demchenko, N. N.; Doskoch, I. Ya.; Kuchugov, P. A.; Zmitrenko, N. V.; Rozanov, V. B.; Stepanov, R. V.; Yakhin, R. A.

    2015-10-15

    Central ignition of a thin two-layer-shell fusion target that is directly driven by a 2-MJ profiled pulse of Nd laser second-harmonic radiation has been studied. The parameters of the target were selected so as to provide effective acceleration of the shell toward the center, which was sufficient for the onset of ignition under conditions of increased hydrodynamic stability of the ablator acceleration and compression. The aspect ratio of the inner deuterium-tritium layer of the shell does not exceed 15, provided that a major part (above 75%) of the outer layer (plastic ablator) is evaporated by the instant of maximum compression. The investigation is based on two series of numerical calculations that were performed using one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic codes. The first 1D code was used to calculate the absorption of the profiled laser-radiation pulse (including calculation of the total absorption coefficient with allowance for the inverse bremsstrahlung and resonance mechanisms) and the spatial distribution of target heating for a real geometry of irradiation using 192 laser beams in a scheme of focusing with a cubo-octahedral symmetry. The second 1D code was used for simulating the total cycle of target evolution under the action of absorbed laser radiation and for determining the thermonuclear gain that was achieved with a given target.

  20. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  1. Locus of Control or Self-Esteem; Which One is the Best Predictor of Academic Achievement in Iranian College Students

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Karami Matin, Behzad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Ashtarian, Hossein; Jalilian, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demographic, Rotter internal-external locus of control scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 21. Results Results showed that 29.8% and 76.2% of the participants had internal locus of control, and high self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant correlation between self-esteem, locus of control and academic achievement of the students. Self-esteem accounted for 39.5% of the variation in academic achievement. Conclusions It seems that interventions to increase self-esteem among student can help improve academic achievement among them. PMID:27284277

  2. Using confirmatory factor analysis to understand executive control in preschool children: sources of variation in emergent mathematic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Sheffield, Tiffany D.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize

    2010-01-01

    Latent variable modeling methods have demonstrated utility for understanding the structure of executive control (EC) across development. These methods are utilized to better characterize the relation between EC and mathematics achievement in the preschool period, and to understand contributing sources of individual variation. Using the sample and battery of laboratory tasks described in Wiebe, Espy and Charak (2008), latent EC was related strongly to emergent mathematics achievement in preschool, and was robust after controlling for crystallized intellectual skills. The relation between crystallized skills and emergent mathematics differed between girls and boys, although the predictive association between EC and mathematics did not. Two dimensions of the child’s social environment contributed to mathematics achievement: social network support through its relation to EC and environmental stressors through its relation with crystallized skills. These findings underscore the need to examine the dimensions, mechanisms, and individual pathways that influence the development of early competence in basic cognitive processes that underpin early academic achievement. PMID:21676089

  3. Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals during Task Engagement: Their Relation to Intrinsic Motivation and Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir Oz, Ayse; Lane, Jennie F.; Michou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying an endorsed achievement goal to intrinsic motivation and cheating. The endorsement of the achievement goal was ensured by involving 212 (M(subscript age) = 19.24, SD = 0.97) freshman students in a spatial task and asking them to report their most…

  4. Theory of supercompression of vapor bubbles and nanoscale thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatulin, Robert I.; Akhatov, Iskander Sh.; Topolnikov, Andrey S.; Bolotnova, Raisa Kh.; Vakhitova, Nailya K.; Lahey, Richard T. Jr.; Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2005-10-01

    This paper provides the theoretical basis for energetic vapor bubble implosions induced by a standing acoustic wave. Its primary goal is to describe, explain, and demonstrate the plausibility of the experimental observations by Taleyarkhan et al. [Science 295, 1868 (2002); Phys. Rev. E 69, 036109 (2004)] of thermonuclear fusion for imploding cavitation bubbles in chilled deuterated acetone. A detailed description and analysis of these data, including a resolution of the criticisms that have been raised, together with some preliminary HYDRO code simulations, has been given by Nigmatulin et al. [Vestnik ANRB (Ufa, Russia) 4, 3 (2002); J. Power Energy 218-A, 345 (2004)] and Lahey et al. [Adv. Heat Transfer (to be published)]. In this paper a hydrodynamic shock (i.e., HYDRO) code model of the spherically symmetric motion for a vapor bubble in an acoustically forced liquid is presented. This model describes cavitation bubble cluster growth during the expansion period, followed by a violent implosion during the compression period of the acoustic cycle. There are two stages of the bubble dynamics process. The first, low Mach number stage, comprises almost all the time of the acoustic cycle. During this stage, the radial velocities are much less than the sound speeds in the vapor and liquid, the vapor pressure is very close to uniform, and the liquid is practically incompressible. This process is characterized by the inertia of the liquid, heat conduction, and the evaporation or condensation of the vapor. The second, very short, high Mach number stage is when the radial velocities are the same order, or higher, than the sound speeds in the vapor and liquid. In this stage high temperatures, pressures, and densities of the vapor and liquid take place. The model presented herein has realistic equations of state for the compressible liquid and vapor phases, and accounts for nonequilibrium evaporation/condensation kinetics at the liquid/vapor interface. There are interacting

  5. Theory of supercompression of vapor bubbles and nanoscale thermonuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigmatulin, Robert I.; Akhatov, Iskander Sh.; Topolnikov, Andrey S.; Bolotnova, Raisa Kh.; Vakhitova, Nailya K.; Lahey, Richard T.; Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2005-10-01

    This paper provides the theoretical basis for energetic vapor bubble implosions induced by a standing acoustic wave. Its primary goal is to describe, explain, and demonstrate the plausibility of the experimental observations by Taleyarkhan et al. [Science 295, 1868 (2002); Phys. Rev. E 69, 036109 (2004)] of thermonuclear fusion for imploding cavitation bubbles in chilled deuterated acetone. A detailed description and analysis of these data, including a resolution of the criticisms that have been raised, together with some preliminary HYDRO code simulations, has been given by Nigmatulin et al. [Vestnik ANRB (Ufa, Russia) 4, 3 (2002); J. Power Energy 218-A, 345 (2004)] and Lahey et al. [Adv. Heat Transfer (to be published)]. In this paper a hydrodynamic shock (i.e., HYDRO) code model of the spherically symmetric motion for a vapor bubble in an acoustically forced liquid is presented. This model describes cavitation bubble cluster growth during the expansion period, followed by a violent implosion during the compression period of the acoustic cycle. There are two stages of the bubble dynamics process. The first, low Mach number stage, comprises almost all the time of the acoustic cycle. During this stage, the radial velocities are much less than the sound speeds in the vapor and liquid, the vapor pressure is very close to uniform, and the liquid is practically incompressible. This process is characterized by the inertia of the liquid, heat conduction, and the evaporation or condensation of the vapor. The second, very short, high Mach number stage is when the radial velocities are the same order, or higher, than the sound speeds in the vapor and liquid. In this stage high temperatures, pressures, and densities of the vapor and liquid take place. The model presented herein has realistic equations of state for the compressible liquid and vapor phases, and accounts for nonequilibrium evaporation/condensation kinetics at the liquid/vapor interface. There are interacting

  6. An observer based approach for achieving fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control of systems modeled as hybrid Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Renganathan, K; Bhaskar, VidhyaCharan

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach for achieving detection and identification of faults, and provide fault tolerant control for systems that are modeled using timed hybrid Petri nets. For this purpose, an observer based technique is adopted which is useful in detection of faults, such as sensor faults, actuator faults, signal conditioning faults, etc. The concepts of estimation, reachability and diagnosability have been considered for analyzing faulty behaviors, and based on the detected faults, different schemes are proposed for achieving fault tolerant control using optimization techniques. These concepts are applied to a typical three tank system and numerical results are obtained.

  7. Tobacco control efforts in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hassounah, S; Rawaf, D; Khoja, T; Rawaf, S; Hussein, M S; Qidwai, W; Majeed, A

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports a review into the current state of tobacco use, governance and national commitment for control, and current intervention frameworks in place to reduce the use of tobacco among the populations of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member states and Yemen. It further reviews structured policy-oriented interventions (in line with the MPOWER package of 6 evidence-based tobacco control measures) that represent government actions to strengthen, implement and manage tobacco control programmes and to address the growing epidemic of tobacco use. Our findings show that tobacco control in the GCC countries has witnessed real progress over the past decades. These are still early days but they indicate steps in the right direction. Future investment in implementation and enforcement of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, production of robust tobacco control legislation and the establishment of universally available tobacco cessation services are essential to sustain and strengthen tobacco control in the GCC region. PMID:25150358

  8. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  9. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  10. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, C. L.; Johnson, J. O.

    Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation's activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,(gamma)/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

  11. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from…

  12. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  13. Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Understand Executive Control in Preschool Children: Sources of Variation in Emergent Mathematic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Sheffield, Tiffany D.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize

    2011-01-01

    Latent variable modeling methods have demonstrated utility for understanding the structure of executive control (EC) across development. These methods are utilized to better characterize the relation between EC and mathematics achievement in the preschool period, and to understand contributing sources of individual variation. Using the sample and…

  14. A Randomized Controlled Design Investigating the Effects of Classroom-Based Physical Activity on Children's Fluid Intelligence and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedewa, Alicia L.; Ahn, Soyeon; Erwin, Heather; Davis, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature shows promising effects of physical activity on children's cognitive outcomes. This study assessed via a randomized, controlled design whether additional curricular physical activity during the school day resulted in gains for children's fluid intelligence and standardized achievement outcomes. Participants were children…

  15. High-School Students' Need for Cognition, Self-Control Capacity, and School Achievement: Testing a Mediation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrams, Alex; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control…

  16. Using Valid and Invalid Experimental Designs to Teach the Control of Variables Strategy in Higher and Lower Achieving Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Freer, Benjamin Dunham; Dunlap, Emily E.; Hodell, Emily C.; Calderhead, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Students (n = 1,069) from 60 4th-grade classrooms were taught the control of variables strategy (CVS) for designing experiments. Half of the classrooms were in schools that performed well on a state-mandated test of science achievement, and half were in schools that performed relatively poorly. Three teaching interventions were compared: an…

  17. The Effects of Diagnosis, Remediation and Locus of Control on Achievement, Retention, and Attitudes of Middle School Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Ramona L.; Yeany, Russell H.

    Reported is a study designed to determine the effects of diagnostic testing followed by prescribed remediation on the immediate and retained science achievement of middle school students, and to determine if effects of treatment were consistent across students' race and locus of control (LOC) levels. Three intact seventh-grade science classes were…

  18. The Nova Outburst: Thermonuclear Runaways on Degenerated Dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J.W.; Sparks, W.M.

    1999-07-08

    Observational and theoretical studies of the outbursts of classical novae have provided critical insights into a broad range of astrophysical phenomena. Thermonuclear runaways (TNRs) in accreted hydrogen-rich envelopes on the white dwarf (WD) components of close binary systems constitute not only the outburst mechanism for a classical nova explosion, but also the recurrent novae and a fraction of the symbiotic novae explosions. Studies of the general characteristics of these explosions, both in our own galaxy and in neighboring galaxies of varying metallicity, can teach us about binary stellar evolution, while studies of the evolution of nova binary systems can constrain models for the (as yet unidentified) progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. Further, the empirical relation between the peak luminosity of a nova and the rate of decline, which presents a challenge to theoretical models, allows novae to be utilized as standard candles for distance determinations out to the Virgo Cluster. E xtensive studies of novae with IUE and the resulting abundance determinations have revealed the existence of oxygen-neon white dwarfs in some systems. The high levels of enrichment of novae ejecta in elements ranging from carbon to sulfur confirm that there is significant dredge-up of matter from the core of the underlying white dwarf and enable novae to contribute to the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. Observations of the epoch of dust formation in the expanding shells of novae allow important constraints to be placed on the dust formation process and confirm that graphite, SiC, and SiO{sub 2} grains are formed by the outburst. It is possible that grains from novae were injected into the pre-solar nebula and can be identified with some of the pre-solar grains or ''stardust'' found in meteorites. Finally, g-ray observations during the first several years of their outburst, using the next generation of satellite observatories, could confirm

  19. Controlling surface enrichment in polymeric hole extraction layers to achieve high-efficiency organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hun; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Park, Jong Hyeok; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2012-10-01

    Hole extraction in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) can be modulated by a surface-enriched layer formed on top of the conducting polymer-based hole extraction layer (HEL). This tunes the surface work function of the HEL to better align with the ionization potential of the polymeric photoactive layer. Results show noticeable improvement in device power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in OPVs. We achieved a 6.1 % PCE from the OPV by optimizing the surface-enriched layer.

  20. Achievement of a low-outgassing white paint system for spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidenberg, B.; Park, J. J.; Clatterbuck, C.

    1972-01-01

    Test results and data for achieving a low-outgassing polymer resin suitable for potting or a paint pigment are presented. The resin, prepared in 0.5-kg (1-lb) batches, is acceptable for spacecraft use; its weight loss is less than 0.5 percent, and the volatile condensable materials are less than 0.05 percent. The paint adheres to a primed fiber glass or aluminum substrate. Results of UV irradiation, electron and proton radiation, and thermal cycling are presented.

  1. High Self-Control Predicts More Positive Emotions, Better Engagement, and Higher Achievement in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.; Gaerlan, Marianne Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    The control-value theory of academic emotions has emerged as a useful framework for studying the antecedents and consequences of different emotions in school. This framework focuses on the role of control-related and value-related appraisals as proximal antecedents of emotions. In this study, we take an individual differences approach to examine…

  2. The Neurospora photoreceptor VIVID exerts negative and positive control on light sensing to achieve adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Gin, Elan; Diernfellner, Axel C R; Brunner, Michael; Höfer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The light response in Neurospora is mediated by the photoreceptor and circadian transcription factor White Collar Complex (WCC). The expression rate of the WCC target genes adapts in daylight and remains refractory to moonlight, despite the extraordinary light sensitivity of the WCC. To explain this photoadaptation, feedback inhibition by the WCC interaction partner VIVID (VVD) has been invoked. Here we show through data-driven mathematical modeling that VVD allows Neurospora to detect relative changes in light intensity. To achieve this behavior, VVD acts as an inhibitor of WCC-driven gene expression and, at the same time, as a positive regulator that maintains the responsiveness of the photosystem. Our data indicate that this paradoxical function is realized by a futile cycle that involves the light-induced sequestration of active WCC by VVD and the replenishment of the activatable WCC pool through the decay of the photoactivated state. Our quantitative study uncovers a novel network motif for achieving sensory adaptation and defines a core input module of the circadian clock in Neurospora. PMID:23712010

  3. Theoretical determination of the strength characteristics of multilayer materials intended for nuclear and thermonuclear engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkovskii, I. V.; Leshukov, A. Yu.; Romashin, S. N.; Shorkin, V. S.

    2015-12-01

    A method is developed to estimate the integrity of multilayer structures. This method is based on the version of the theory of adhesion and cohesion interactions of structure elements that only takes into account their thermomechanical properties. The structures to be studied are the material of the multilayer wall of the liquid-metal thermonuclear reactor blanket and a heat-resistant magnet wire with a bimetallic conductor, which is the base of the windings of the magnetohydrodynamic machines and electric motors intended for operation at high temperatures under ionizing radiation in, e.g., the machines and facilities in nuclear and thermonuclear reactors.

  4. Achieving behavioral control with millisecond resolution in a high-level programming environment.

    PubMed

    Asaad, Wael F; Eskandar, Emad N

    2008-08-30

    The creation of psychophysical tasks for the behavioral neurosciences has generally relied upon low-level software running on a limited range of hardware. Despite the availability of software that allows the coding of behavioral tasks in high-level programming environments, many researchers are still reluctant to trust the temporal accuracy and resolution of programs running in such environments, especially when they run atop non-real-time operating systems. Thus, the creation of behavioral paradigms has been slowed by the intricacy of the coding required and their dissemination across labs has been hampered by the various types of hardware needed. However, we demonstrate here that, when proper measures are taken to handle the various sources of temporal error, accuracy can be achieved at the 1 ms time-scale that is relevant for the alignment of behavioral and neural events.

  5. Relationships among Reading Performance, Locus of Control and Achievement for Marginal Admission Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Roger S.; Drexler, John A., Jr.

    The first phase of the study was a 2 x 2 factorial design, with locus of control and instructional method (lecture and demonstration) as independent variables and honor point average (HPA) as the dependent variable. The second phase used correlational techniques to test the extent to which reading performance and traditional predictors of…

  6. A Study to Investigate the Relationship between Locus of Control and Academic Achievement of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Aijaz, Rukhma

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is regarded as the alpha and omega of learning. It is the heart of teaching learning process. Motivation is defined as an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains the behavior over time. Thus motivation is the pivotal component of learning and locus of control which is one of the important factors it stems from. Locus of…

  7. Controlling Error in Multiple Comparisons, with Examples from State-to-State Differences in Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Valerie S. L.; Jones, Lyle V.; Tukey, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates and compares three alternative procedures to adjust significance levels for multiplicity: (1) the traditional Bonferroni technique; (2) a sequential Bonferroni technique; and (3) a sequential approach to control the false discovery rate proposed by Y. Benjamini and Y. Hochberg (1995). Explains advantages of the Benjamini and Hochberg…

  8. Achieving control and interoperability through unified model-based systems and software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Robert; Ingham, Michel; Dvorak, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Control and interoperation of complex systems is one of the most difficult challenges facing NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. An integrated but diverse array of vehicles, habitats, and supporting facilities, evolving over the long course of the enterprise, must perform ever more complex tasks while moving steadily away from the sphere of ground support and intervention.

  9. A case control study of a deprivation triangle: teenage motherhood, poor educational achievement and unemployment.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Terry; Cupples, Margaret E; Irvine, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Teenage motherhood has been linked with poor health, poor educational attainment, poor employment prospects and socio-economic deprivation. Much of the evidence has come from large surveys and the nature of these inter-relationships remains unclear. A case-control study was designed to compare the educational and employment experiences of teenage mothers with those of an age matched sample of peers from a similar social background and to test the feasibility of carrying out this type of research within primary care. Participants were identified from records in 36 GP practices in the Greater Belfast area. First time teenage mothers with one child aged 9-15 months at the time of interview were selected. Teenage mothers were matched with a control group of nulliparous teenagers in respect of age and postcode and registered with the same practice. Questionnaires were administered in their home or at their health centre. Data were analysed using SPSS for Windows Version 6. Teenage mothers were less likely than controls to have gained passes in school leaving examinations. None of the mothers was in full time education compared with 35% of the controls. Excluding those in education or training, more of the control group were employed at the time of study (82% v 11%). It is concluded that teenage mothers with one child report poorer educational attainment and employment status than their nulliparous peers from a similar social background with similar educational opportunities. Attention must be paid to these findings when planning policy to help teenage mothers and avoid perpetuation of a cycle of socio-economic deprivation.

  10. Ebola: a holistic approach is required to achieve effective management and control.

    PubMed

    Roca, Anna; Afolabi, Muhammed O; Saidu, Yauba; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-04-01

    The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa has already caused substantial mortality and dire human and economic consequences. It continues to represent an alarming public health threat in the region and beyond and jeopardizes the provision of health care and other services in the affected countries. The scale of the epidemic has accelerated research efforts for diagnostics, treatment, and prevention galvanized through increased availability of funding. Our knowledge relating to the virus, disease pathogenesis, risk factors, dynamics of transmission, and epidemic control is increasing, and sociocultural factors have emerged as critical determinants for the success and failure of control efforts. However, there is a long way to go. In this review we summarize the current knowledge, examine the sociocultural context in West Africa, and outline priority areas for future research.

  11. Ebola: A holistic approach is required to achieve effective management and control

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Anna; Afolabi, Muhammed O.; Saidu, Yauba; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-01-01

    The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa has already caused substantial mortality and dire human and economic consequences. It continues to represent an alarming public health threat in the region and beyond and jeopardizes the provision of health care and other services in the affected countries. The scale of the epidemic has accelerated research efforts for diagnostics, treatment, and prevention galvanized through increased availability of funding. Our knowledge relating to the virus, disease pathogenesis, risk factors, dynamics of transmission, and epidemic control is increasing, and sociocultural factors have emerged as critical determinants for the success and failure of control efforts. However, there is a long way to go. In this review we summarize the current knowledge, examine the sociocultural context in West Africa, and outline priority areas for future research. PMID:25843598

  12. Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities through Building Data Analysis and Achieving Energy Savings through Improved Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, Bill

    2014-09-04

    This chapter will highlight analysis techniques to identify energy efficiency opportunities to improve operations and controls. A free tool, Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM), will be used to assist in the analysis of whole-building, sub-metered, and/or data from the building automation system (BAS). Appendix A describes the features of ECAM in more depth, and also provide instructions for downloading ECAM and all resources pertaining to using ECAM.

  13. A procedure to achieve fine control in MW processing of foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccurullo, G.; Cinquanta, L.; Sorrentino, G.

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional analytical model for predicting the unsteady temperature field in a cylindrical shaped body affected by spatially varying heat generation is presented. The dimensionless problem is solved analytically by using both partial solutions and the variation of parameters techniques. Having in mind industrial microwave heating for food pasteurization, the easy-to-handle solution is used to confirm the intrinsic lack of spatial uniformity of such a treatment in comparison to the traditional one. From an experimental point of view, a batch pasteurization treatment was realized to compare the effect of two different control techniques both based on IR thermography readout: the former assured a classical PID control, while the latter was based on a "shadowing" technique, consisting in covering portions of the sample which are hot enough with a mobile metallic screen. A measure of the effectiveness of the two control techniques was obtained by evaluating the thermal death curves of a strain Lactobacillus plantarum submitted to pasteurization temperatures. Preliminary results showed meaningful increases in the microwave thermal inactivation of the L. plantarum and similar significant decreases in thermal inactivation time with respect to the traditional pasteurization thermal treatment.

  14. Analysis of alternatives for insulinizing patients to achieve glycemic control and avoid accompanying risks of hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    GAO, JIALIN; XIONG, QIANYIN; MIAO, JUN; ZHANG, YAO; XIA, LIBING; LU, MEIQIN; ZHANG, BINHUA; CHEN, YUEPING; ZHANG, ANSU; YU, CUI; WANG, LI-ZHUO

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to explore the efficacy of glycemic control and the risks of hypoglycemia with different methods of insulin therapy, and to provide reference data for the clinical treatment of diabetes. In this retrospective study, hospitalized patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between March and December 2014, in the Department of Endocrinology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College, were divided into three groups, including an intensive insulin analogue therapy group, a premixed insulin analogue treatment group and a premixed human insulin therapy group. The efficacy of glycemic control and the incidence of hypoglycemia were determined in each of the insulin treatment groups. Compared with the other treatment groups, the intensive insulin analogue therapy group was associated with superior blood glucose control, shorter time to reach standard insulin regimen, shorter hospitalization time, fewer fluctuations in blood glucose levels and lower insulin dosage on discharge from hospital. However, this treatment was also associated with a high risk of hypoglycemia. In conclusion, when combined with the effective prevention of hypoglycemia and appropriate nursing care (especially in hospital care), intensive insulin analogue therapy may provide the greatest benefit to patients. PMID:26137223

  15. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cognition, Academic Achievement, and Psychosocial Function in Children: A Systematic Review of Randomized Control Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although the effects of aerobic physical activity (APA) on children’s physical health is well characterized, the effect of aerobic physical activity on cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function has not yet been established. This systematic review provides an overview of research elucidating the relationship between aerobic physical activity and children’s cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function. Methods A systematic review of English articles was performed in April 2013 using MEDLINE, Cochrane, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and EMBASE. Additional studies were identified through back-searching bibliographies. Only randomized control trials with an intervention of aerobic physical activity in children younger than 19 years that measured psychological, behavioral, cognitive, or academic outcomes were included. Results We found 8 relevant randomized control trials that met our inclusion criteria and extracted relevant data and evaluated the methodologic quality of the studies. Of the 8 studies identified, 2 studies were crossover randomized control trials studying the effects of acute aerobic physical activity on cognitive performance. Six studies were parallel-group randomized control studies, of which only 2 had a follow-up period of longer than 6 months. All studies showed that APA had a generally positive impact on children’s cognition and psychosocial function. However, this relationship was found to be minimal in many studies and in some measures, no significant improvement was seen at all. There was no documentation of APA having any negative impact on children’s cognition and psychosocial health, even in cases where school curriculum time was reassigned from classroom teaching to aerobic physical activity. Conclusion APA is positively associated with cognition, academic achievement, behavior, and psychosocial functioning outcomes. More rigorous trials with adequate sample sizes assessing the impact of APA on

  16. Nanomechanical control of properties of biological membranes achieved by rodlike magnetic nanoparticles in a superlow-frequency magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, Yu. I.; Klyachko, N. L.; Gribanovskii, S. L.; Golovin, D. Yu.; Samodurov, A. A.; Majouga, A. G.; Sokolsky-Papkov, M.; Kabanov, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    It is proposed to use single-domain rodlike magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as mediators for nanomechanical control of properties of biological membranes and cells on the molecular or cellular level by exposing them to a homogeneous nonheating low-frequency magnetic field (AC MF). The trigger effect is achieved due to rotatory-oscillatory motion of MNPs in the AC MF, which causes the needed deformations in macromolecules of the membrane interacting with these MNPs.

  17. Achievement of controlled resistive response of nanogapped palladium film to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, M.; Wong, M. H.; Ong, C. W.

    2015-07-20

    Palladium (Pd) film containing nanogaps of well controlled dimension was fabricated on a Si wafer having a high-aspect-ratio micropillar. The Pd film was arranged to experience hydrogen (H{sub 2})-induced volume expansion. (i) If the nanogap is kept open, its width is narrowed down. A discharge current was generated to give a strong, fast, and repeatable on-off type resistive switching response. (ii) If the nanogap is closed, the cross section of the conduction path varies to give continuous H{sub 2}-concentration dependent resistive response. The influence of stresses and related physical mechanisms are discussed.

  18. A quantitative integrated assessment of pollution prevention achieved by integrated pollution prevention control licensing.

    PubMed

    Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and

  19. Terrestrial rabies control in the European Union: historical achievements and challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Wysocki, Patrick; Roumiantzeff, Micha; Freney, Jean; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Vos, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the implementation of oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programmes, the European Union (EU) is becoming progressively free of red fox (Vulpes vulpes)-mediated rabies. Over the past three decades, the incidence of rabies had decreased substantially and vast areas of Western and Central Europe have been freed from rabies using this method of controlling an infectious disease in wildlife. Since rabies control is a top priority in the EU, the disease is expected to be eliminated from the animal source in the near future. While responsible authorities may consider the mission of eliminating fox rabies from the EU almost accomplished, there are still issues to be dealt with and challenges to be met that have not yet been in the focus of attention, but could jeopardise the ultimate goal. Among them are increasing illegal movements of animals, maintaining funding support for vaccination campaigns, devising alternative vaccine strategies in neighbouring Eastern European countries and the expanding distribution range of several potential rabies reservoir species in Europe.

  20. Probing thermonuclear flame spreading on neutron stars using burst rise oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2016-07-01

    Intense X-ray bursts (type-I bursts), originated from runaway thermonuclear processes, are observed from the surfaces of many accreting neutron star Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) systems and they provide an important tool to constrain the neutron star equation of state. Periodic intensity variations during these bursts, termed burst oscillations, are observed in about 10% of thermonuclear bursts. Oscillations during the rising phases of thermonuclear bursts are hypothesized to originate from an expanding hot-spot on the surface of the neutron star. We studied the evolution of oscillations during the rising phase of a large sample of thermonuclear bursts from 10 bursting neutron stars in order to probe the process of burning front propagation during an X-ray burst. Our results show observational evidences of expanding hot-spot with spin modulated flame speeds, possibly due to the effects of the Coriolis force present as a result of the high stellar spin (270-620 Hz). This implies that the flame propagation is latitude-dependent and we address the factors affecting the detection and non-detection of burst rise oscillations in the light of this Coriolis force modulated flame spreading scenario.

  1. Using the accreditation journey to achieve global impact: UHN's experience at the Kuwait Cancer Control Center.

    PubMed

    Ladha-Waljee, Nafeesa; McAteer, Stephen; Nickerson, Veronica; Khalfan, Adil

    2014-01-01

    On January 1, 2011, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (PM) - University Health Network (UHN) began a five-year partnership agreement with the Kuwait Ministry of Health's Kuwait Cancer Control Center (KCCC) to enhance cancer care services. Over the course of the partnership, opportunities for improvement were identified by UHN experts in order to accelerate KCCC's development toward subspecialty cancer care. Many of these opportunities involved building a robust infrastructure to support foundational hospital operation processes and procedures. Harnessing UHN's own successes in accreditation, the partnership took advantage of the national accreditation mandate in Kuwait to initiate a quality program and drive clinical improvement at KCCC. This resulted in improved staff engagement, better awareness and alignment of administration with clinical management and a stronger patient safety culture. This article discusses the successes and lessons learned at KCCC that may provide insight to healthcare providers implementing Accreditation Canada International's accreditation framework in other countries and cultures. PMID:25191806

  2. Herbicides as Weed Control Agents: State of the Art: II. Recent Achievements[C

    PubMed Central

    Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; van Almsick, Andreas; Beffa, Roland; Dietrich, Hansjoerg; Eckes, Peter; Hacker, Erwin; Hain, Ruediger; Strek, Harry John; Stuebler, Hermann; Willms, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    In response to changing market dynamics, the discovery of new herbicides has declined significantly over the past few decades and has only seen a modest upsurge in recent years. Nevertheless, the few introductions have proven to be interesting and have brought useful innovation to the market. In addition, herbicide-tolerant or herbicide-resistant crop technologies have allowed the use of existing nonselective herbicides to be extended into crops. An increasing and now major challenge is being posed by the inexorable increase in biotypes of weeds that are resistant to herbicides. This problem is now at a level that threatens future agricultural productivity and needs to be better understood. If herbicides are to remain sustainable, then it is a must that we adopt diversity in crop rotation and herbicide use as well as increase the use of nonchemical measures to control weeds. Nevertheless, despite the difficulties posed by resistant weeds and increased regulatory hurdles, new screening tools promise to provide an upsurge of potential herbicide leads. Our industry urgently needs to supply agriculture with new, effective resistance-breaking herbicides along with strategies to sustain their utility. PMID:25104721

  3. Herbicides as weed control agents: state of the art: II. Recent achievements.

    PubMed

    Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; van Almsick, Andreas; Beffa, Roland; Dietrich, Hansjoerg; Eckes, Peter; Hacker, Erwin; Hain, Ruediger; Strek, Harry John; Stuebler, Hermann; Willms, Lothar

    2014-11-01

    In response to changing market dynamics, the discovery of new herbicides has declined significantly over the past few decades and has only seen a modest upsurge in recent years. Nevertheless, the few introductions have proven to be interesting and have brought useful innovation to the market. In addition, herbicide-tolerant or herbicide-resistant crop technologies have allowed the use of existing nonselective herbicides to be extended into crops. An increasing and now major challenge is being posed by the inexorable increase in biotypes of weeds that are resistant to herbicides. This problem is now at a level that threatens future agricultural productivity and needs to be better understood. If herbicides are to remain sustainable, then it is a must that we adopt diversity in crop rotation and herbicide use as well as increase the use of nonchemical measures to control weeds. Nevertheless, despite the difficulties posed by resistant weeds and increased regulatory hurdles, new screening tools promise to provide an upsurge of potential herbicide leads. Our industry urgently needs to supply agriculture with new, effective resistance-breaking herbicides along with strategies to sustain their utility.

  4. Combining independent, weighted P-values: achieving computational stability by a systematic expansion with controllable accuracy.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gelio; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Given the expanding availability of scientific data and tools to analyze them, combining different assessments of the same piece of information has become increasingly important for social, biological, and even physical sciences. This task demands, to begin with, a method-independent standard, such as the P-value, that can be used to assess the reliability of a piece of information. Good's formula and Fisher's method combine independent P-values with respectively unequal and equal weights. Both approaches may be regarded as limiting instances of a general case of combining P-values from m groups; P-values within each group are weighted equally, while weight varies by group. When some of the weights become nearly degenerate, as cautioned by Good, numeric instability occurs in computation of the combined P-values. We deal explicitly with this difficulty by deriving a controlled expansion, in powers of differences in inverse weights, that provides both accurate statistics and stable numerics. We illustrate the utility of this systematic approach with a few examples. In addition, we also provide here an alternative derivation for the probability distribution function of the general case and show how the analytic formula obtained reduces to both Good's and Fisher's methods as special cases. A C++ program, which computes the combined P-values with equal numerical stability regardless of whether weights are (nearly) degenerate or not, is available for download at our group website http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads/CoinedPValues.html.

  5. Tools and Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination: What Do We Need to Achieve a Grand Convergence in Malaria?

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Janet; Shretta, Rima; Wells, Timothy N C; Bell, David; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Achee, Nicole; Qi, Gao

    2016-03-01

    Progress made in malaria control during the past decade has prompted increasing global dialogue on malaria elimination and eradication. The product development pipeline for malaria has never been stronger, with promising new tools to detect, treat, and prevent malaria, including innovative diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, vector control products, and improved mechanisms for surveillance and response. There are at least 25 projects in the global malaria vaccine pipeline, as well as 47 medicines and 13 vector control products. In addition, there are several next-generation diagnostic tools and reference methods currently in development, with many expected to be introduced in the next decade. The development and adoption of these tools, bolstered by strategies that ensure rapid uptake in target populations, intensified mechanisms for information management, surveillance, and response, and continued financial and political commitment are all essential to achieving global eradication.

  6. Tools and Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination: What Do We Need to Achieve a Grand Convergence in Malaria?

    PubMed Central

    Hemingway, Janet; Shretta, Rima; Wells, Timothy N. C.; Bell, David; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Achee, Nicole; Qi, Gao

    2016-01-01

    Progress made in malaria control during the past decade has prompted increasing global dialogue on malaria elimination and eradication. The product development pipeline for malaria has never been stronger, with promising new tools to detect, treat, and prevent malaria, including innovative diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, vector control products, and improved mechanisms for surveillance and response. There are at least 25 projects in the global malaria vaccine pipeline, as well as 47 medicines and 13 vector control products. In addition, there are several next-generation diagnostic tools and reference methods currently in development, with many expected to be introduced in the next decade. The development and adoption of these tools, bolstered by strategies that ensure rapid uptake in target populations, intensified mechanisms for information management, surveillance, and response, and continued financial and political commitment are all essential to achieving global eradication. PMID:26934361

  7. Population control of an overabundant species achieved through consecutive anthropogenic perturbations.

    PubMed

    Payo-Payo, Ana; Oro, Daniel; Igual, José Manuel; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carolina; Tavecchia, Giacomo

    2015-12-01

    The control of overabundant vertebrates is often problematic. Much work has focused on population-level responses and overabundance due to anthropogenic subsidies. However, far less work has been directed at investigating responses following the removal of subsidies. We investigate the consequences of two consecutive perturbations, the closure of a landfill and an inadvertent poisoning event, on the trophic ecology (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S), survival, and population size of an overabundant generalist seabird species, the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis). We expected that the landfill closure would cause a strong dietary shift and the inadvertent poisoning a decrease in gull population size. As a long-lived species, we also anticipated adult survival to be buffered against the decrease in food availability but not against the inadvertent poisoning event. Stable isotope analysis confirmed the dietary shift towards marine resources after the disappearance of the landfill. Although the survival model was inconclusive, it did suggest that the perturbations had a negative effect on survival, which was followed by a recovery back to average values. Food limitation likely triggered dispersal to other populations, while poisoning may have increased mortality; these two processes were likely responsible for the large fall in population size that occurred after the two consecutive perturbations. Life-history theory suggests that perturbations may encourage species to halt existing breeding investment in order to ensure future survival. However, under strong perturbation pulses the resilience threshold might be surpassed and changes in population density can arise. Consecutive perturbations may effectively manage overabundant species. PMID:26910951

  8. Gaining control: changing relations between executive control and processing speed and their relevance for mathematics achievement over course of the preschool period.

    PubMed

    Clark, Caron A C; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Garza, John; Sheffield, Tiffany D; Wiebe, Sandra A; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Early executive control (EC) predicts a range of academic outcomes and shows particularly strong associations with children's mathematics achievement. Nonetheless, a major challenge for EC research lies in distinguishing EC from related cognitive constructs that also are linked to achievement outcomes. Developmental cascade models suggest that children's information processing speed is a driving mechanism in cognitive development that supports gains in working memory, inhibitory control and associated cognitive abilities. Accordingly, individual differences in early executive task performance and their relation to mathematics may reflect, at least in part, underlying variation in children's processing speed. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the degree of overlap between EC and processing speed at different preschool age points; and (2) determine whether EC uniquely predicts children's mathematics achievement after accounting for individual differences in processing speed. As part of a longitudinal, cohort-sequential study, 388 children (50% boys; 44% from low income households) completed the same battery of EC tasks at ages 3, 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 years. Several of the tasks incorporated baseline speeded naming conditions with minimal EC demands. Multidimensional latent models were used to isolate the variance in executive task performance that did not overlap with baseline processing speed, covarying for child language proficiency. Models for separate age points showed that, while EC did not form a coherent latent factor independent of processing speed at age 3 years, it did emerge as a distinct factor by age 5.25. Although EC at age 3 showed no distinct relation with mathematics achievement independent of processing speed, EC at ages 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 showed independent, prospective links with mathematics achievement. Findings suggest that EC and processing speed are tightly intertwined in early childhood. As EC becomes progressively decoupled from

  9. Gaining control: changing relations between executive control and processing speed and their relevance for mathematics achievement over course of the preschool period.

    PubMed

    Clark, Caron A C; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Garza, John; Sheffield, Tiffany D; Wiebe, Sandra A; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Early executive control (EC) predicts a range of academic outcomes and shows particularly strong associations with children's mathematics achievement. Nonetheless, a major challenge for EC research lies in distinguishing EC from related cognitive constructs that also are linked to achievement outcomes. Developmental cascade models suggest that children's information processing speed is a driving mechanism in cognitive development that supports gains in working memory, inhibitory control and associated cognitive abilities. Accordingly, individual differences in early executive task performance and their relation to mathematics may reflect, at least in part, underlying variation in children's processing speed. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the degree of overlap between EC and processing speed at different preschool age points; and (2) determine whether EC uniquely predicts children's mathematics achievement after accounting for individual differences in processing speed. As part of a longitudinal, cohort-sequential study, 388 children (50% boys; 44% from low income households) completed the same battery of EC tasks at ages 3, 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 years. Several of the tasks incorporated baseline speeded naming conditions with minimal EC demands. Multidimensional latent models were used to isolate the variance in executive task performance that did not overlap with baseline processing speed, covarying for child language proficiency. Models for separate age points showed that, while EC did not form a coherent latent factor independent of processing speed at age 3 years, it did emerge as a distinct factor by age 5.25. Although EC at age 3 showed no distinct relation with mathematics achievement independent of processing speed, EC at ages 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 showed independent, prospective links with mathematics achievement. Findings suggest that EC and processing speed are tightly intertwined in early childhood. As EC becomes progressively decoupled from

  10. Gaining control: changing relations between executive control and processing speed and their relevance for mathematics achievement over course of the preschool period

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Caron A. C.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Garza, John; Sheffield, Tiffany D.; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Early executive control (EC) predicts a range of academic outcomes and shows particularly strong associations with children's mathematics achievement. Nonetheless, a major challenge for EC research lies in distinguishing EC from related cognitive constructs that also are linked to achievement outcomes. Developmental cascade models suggest that children's information processing speed is a driving mechanism in cognitive development that supports gains in working memory, inhibitory control and associated cognitive abilities. Accordingly, individual differences in early executive task performance and their relation to mathematics may reflect, at least in part, underlying variation in children's processing speed. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the degree of overlap between EC and processing speed at different preschool age points; and (2) determine whether EC uniquely predicts children's mathematics achievement after accounting for individual differences in processing speed. As part of a longitudinal, cohort-sequential study, 388 children (50% boys; 44% from low income households) completed the same battery of EC tasks at ages 3, 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 years. Several of the tasks incorporated baseline speeded naming conditions with minimal EC demands. Multidimensional latent models were used to isolate the variance in executive task performance that did not overlap with baseline processing speed, covarying for child language proficiency. Models for separate age points showed that, while EC did not form a coherent latent factor independent of processing speed at age 3 years, it did emerge as a distinct factor by age 5.25. Although EC at age 3 showed no distinct relation with mathematics achievement independent of processing speed, EC at ages 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 showed independent, prospective links with mathematics achievement. Findings suggest that EC and processing speed are tightly intertwined in early childhood. As EC becomes progressively decoupled from

  11. A Pilot Study on the Congruency of Locus of Control and Field Dependence as Related to Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, C. William; Cole, Ernest G.

    A pilot study was conducted at two middle schools to investigate the relationship among student locus of control, field dependency, self-esteem, and achievement. A relationship between self-esteem and achievement has already been identified by research; another variable considered as a possible effect on a person's predisposition to achieve was…

  12. Exercise Improves Executive Function and Achievement and Alters Brain Activation in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; McDowell, Jennifer E.; Austin, Benjamin P.; Miller, Patricia H.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Allison, Jerry D.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This experiment tested the hypothesis that exercise would improve executive function. Design Sedentary, overweight 7- to 11-year-old children (N = 171, 56% female, 61% Black, M ± SD age 9.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass index (BMI) 26 ± 4.6 kg/m2, BMI z-score 2.1 ± 0.4) were randomized to 13 ± 1.6 weeks of an exercise program (20 or 40 minutes/day), or a control condition. Main outcome measures Blinded, standardized psychological evaluations (Cognitive Assessment System and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III) assessed cognition and academic achievement. Functional magnetic resonance imaging measured brain activity during executive function tasks. Results Intent to treat analysis revealed dose response benefits of exercise on executive function and mathematics achievement. Preliminary evidence of increased bilateral prefrontal cortex activity and reduced bilateral posterior parietal cortex activity due to exercise was also observed. Conclusion Consistent with results obtained in older adults, a specific improvement on executive function and brain activation changes due to exercise were observed. The cognitive and achievement results add evidence of dose response, and extend experimental evidence into childhood. This study provides information on an educational outcome. Besides its importance for maintaining weight and reducing health risks during a childhood obesity epidemic, physical activity may prove to be a simple, important method of enhancing aspects of children’s mental functioning that are central to cognitive development. This information may persuade educators to implement vigorous physical activity. PMID:21299297

  13. A Further Examination of the Distinction between Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Parental Psychological Control: Psychometric Properties of the DAPCS with French-Speaking Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantzouranis, Gregory; Zimmermann, Gregoire; Mahaim, Elodie Biermann; Favez, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Psychological control refers to parental behaviors that intrude on the psychological and emotional development of the child. In 2010, Soenens et al. proposed a distinction between two domain-specific expressions of psychological control, that is, Dependency-oriented Psychological Control (DPC) and Achievement-oriented Psychological Control (APC).…

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic-calibrated edge-localized mode model in simulations of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onjun, Thawatchai; Kritz, Arnold H.; Bateman, Glenn; Parail, Vassili

    2005-08-01

    Self-consistent simulations of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [R. Aymar, P. Barabaschi, and Y. Shimomura, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 44, 519 (2002)] have been carried out using the JETTO-integrated modeling code in which theory-motivated models are used for the H-mode pedestal and for the stability conditions that lead to the edge-localized mode (ELM) crashes. Transport is described by combining the anomalous mixed Bohm/gyro-Bohm model [M. Erba, A. Cherubini, V. V. Parail, and A. Taroni, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 39, 261 (1997)] with the NCLASS neoclassical transport model [W. A. Houlberg, K. C. Shaing, S. P. Hirshman, and M. C. Zarnstorff, Phys. Plasmas 4, 3231 (1997)] in the core region, while only neoclassical transport is used in the pedestal region. In the simulations, an ELM crash can be triggered either by a pressure-driven ballooning mode or by a current-driven peeling mode, depending on which instability reaches its stability criterion first. The equilibrium and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stability analyses codes, HELENA and MISHKA [A. B. Mikhailovskii, G. T. A. Huysmans, S. E. Sharapov, and W. Kerner, Plasma Phys. Rep. 23, 713 (1997)], are used to evaluate the edge stability of the plasma just prior to an ELM crash in order to calibrate and confirm the validity of the stability criteria used to trigger ELMs in the JETTO simulations. It is found that the simulation of the ITER baseline case yields a fusion Q of 16.6, with the electron and ion temperatures at the top of the pedestal of 4.4 and 4.9keV, respectively. The high values of the pedestal temperature result from access to the second stability region of the ballooning mode. Simulation sensitivity studies are carried out by varying parameters such as the auxiliary heating power and the width of the pedestal. When the auxiliary heating power is turned off, it is found that significant fusion power is sustained and that access to ballooning mode second stability is

  15. A Deep Search for Prompt Radio Emission from Thermonuclear Supernovae with the Very Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chomiuk, Laura; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Bruzewski, Seth; Foley, Ryan J.; Parrent, Jerod; Strader, Jay; Badenes, Carles; Fransson, Claes; Kamble, Atish; Margutti, Raffaella; Rupen, Michael P.; Simon, Joshua D.

    2016-04-01

    Searches for circumstellar material around Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are some of the most powerful tests of the nature of SN Ia progenitors, and radio observations provide a particularly sensitive probe of this material. Here, we report radio observations for SNe Ia and their lower-luminosity thermonuclear cousins. We present the largest, most sensitive, and spectroscopically diverse study of prompt ({{Δ }}t≲ 1 years) radio observations of 85 thermonuclear SNe, including 25 obtained by our team with the unprecedented depth of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. With these observations, SN 2012cg joins SN 2011fe and SN 2014J as an SN Ia with remarkably deep radio limits and excellent temporal coverage (six epochs, spanning 5-216 days after explosion, implying \\dot{M}/{v}w≲ 5× 10-9 M⊙) yr-1/(100 km s-1), assuming ɛB = 0.1 and ɛe = 0.1). All observations yield non-detections, placing strong constraints on the presence of circumstellar material. We present analytical models for the temporal and spectral evolution of prompt radio emission from thermonuclear SNe as expected from interaction with either wind-stratified or uniform density media. These models allow us to constrain the progenitor mass loss rates, with limits in the range of \\dot{M}≲ 10-9-10-4 M⊙ yr-1, assuming a wind velocity of vw = 100 km s-1. We compare our radio constraints with measurements of Galactic symbiotic binaries to conclude that ≲10% of thermonuclear SNe have red giant companions.

  16. Frontiers in propulsion research: Laser, matter-antimatter, excited helium, energy exchange thermonuclear fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papailiou, D. D. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Concepts are described that presently appear to have the potential for propulsion applications in the post-1990 era of space technology. The studies are still in progress, and only the current status of investigation is presented. The topics for possible propulsion application are lasers, nuclear fusion, matter-antimatter annihilation, electronically excited helium, energy exchange through the interaction of various fields, laser propagation, and thermonuclear fusion technology.

  17. Deficits in the way to achieve balance related to mechanisms of dynamic stability control in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Arampatzis, Adamantios; Karamanidis, Kiros; Mademli, Lida

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the postural corrections related to components of dynamic stability aimed to increase our understanding of successful postural control among the elderly population. This was done by comparing balance behaviour of older adults who were able to recover stability (stable) and others who failed to regain stability (unstable) with a single step after a forward fall. Thirty-eight old male adults (64+/-3yr, 176+/-6cm, 78.5+/-7.8kg) had to recover balance after a sudden induced forward fall. All participants performed maximal isometric ankle plantarflexion and knee extension contractions on a dynamometer. The elongation of the gastrocnemius medialis and the vastus lateralis tendon and aponeuroses during isometric contraction was examined by ultrasonography. There were no differences in leg-extensor muscle strength or tendon stiffness between the two groups showing that the muscle tendon capacities may not be the reason for the observed differences in dynamic stability control. The unstable participants created a higher horizontal ground reaction push-off force of the support limb in the second part ( approximately 260ms after release) of the phase until touchdown leading to an unstable body position at touchdown. The results indicate deficits in the way to achieve balance related to mechanisms responsible for dynamic stability control within the elderly population.

  18. 1D-Simulation of Thermonuclear Target Compression and Burning for Laser Facility NIF and LMJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, R. Zh.; Chizhkov, M. N.; Karlyhanov, N. G.; Lusganova, O. V.; Lykov, V. A.; Netsvetayev, D. S.; Timakova, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    The high-power laser facilities NIF and LMJ with the pulse energy as high as 2 MJ are being created in the USA and France. The basic cryogenic indirect-drive targets for thermonuclear ignition on these facilities are a spherical shell from polystyrene doped with oxygen and bromine. (CH+5%O+0,25%Br), whose inner surface is covered with DT-ice layer. The central region of targets is filled with DT-gas. The targets for NIF and LMJ have different external radii (1,11 and 1,215 mm, correspondingly), masses of DT-fuel (210 и 310 μg), X-ray radiation temperature dependences in time. The thermonuclear yield from the NIF target calculated with LASNEX code is 15 MJ, the yield from the LMJ target calculated with FCI1 code is 25.4 MJ. In RFNC-VNIITF calculations of compression and burning of basic NIF and LMJ targets were performed by using of the 1D ERA code in the spectral diffusion approximation for radiation transfer. We used tabulated opacity calculated by the mean ion model. Thermonuclear yield calculated with ERA code is about 18 MJ for the NIF target and nearly 23 MJ for the LMJ target. Calculated yields are in good agreement with published results. Performed calculations justified the possibility to simulate ICF targets in RFNC-VNIITF. In paper are also presented analysis results of target sensitivity to opacity and X-ray temperature variations.

  19. Rocket propulsion by thermonuclear micro-bombs ignited with intense relativistic electron beams.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of a method for the ignition of a thermonuclear microbomb by means of an intense relativistic electron beam with regard to its potential application to rocket propulsion. With such a system, exhaust velocities up to 1000 km/sec, corresponding to a specific impulse of 100,000 sec, seem to be within the realm of possibility. The rocket is propelled by a chain of thermonuclear microbombs exploded in a concave magnetic mirror produced by superconducting field coils. The magnetic pressure of the field reflects the fireball generated by the explosion. For the large capacitor bank required to generate the intense relativistic electron beam, a desirable lightweight design may be possible through use of ferroelectric materials. Because of the high cost of the T-D and He 3-D thermonuclear material, the system has to be optimized by minimizing the T-D and He 3-D consumption by a proper TD and He 3-D fuel to hydrogen propellant mass ratio, leading to a larger total system mass than would be absolutely necessary.

  20. Experimental investigation of the 30S(α, p) thermonuclear reaction in x-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, D.; Chen, A. A.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Binh, D. N.; Chen, J.; Cherubini, S.; Duy, N. N.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Iwasa, N.; Jung, H. S.; Kato, S.; Kwon, Y. K.; Nishimura, S.; Ota, S.; Setoodehnia, K.; Teranishi, T.; Tokieda, H.; Yamada, T.; Yun, C. C.; Zhang, L. Y.

    2016-02-01

    We performed the first measurement of 30S+α resonant elastic scattering to experimentally examine the 30S(α, p) stellar reaction rate in type I x-ray bursts. These bursts are the most frequent thermonuclear explosions in the galaxy, resulting from thermonuclear runaway on the surface of accreting neutron star binaries. The 30S(α, p) reaction plays a critical role in burst models, yet very little is known about the compound nucleus 34Ar at these energies nor the reaction rate itself. We performed a measurement of alpha elastic scattering with a radioactive beam of 30S to experimentally probe the entrance channel. Utilizing a gaseous active target system and silicon detector array, we extracted the excitation function from 1.8 to 5.5 MeV near 160° in the center-of-mass frame. The experimental data were analyzed with an R-Matrix calculation, and we discovered several new resonances and extracted their quantum properties (resonance energy, width, spin, and parity). Finally, we calculated the narrow resonant thermonuclear reaction rate of 30S(α, p) for these new resonances.

  1. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (p<0.05), language (p<0.05), and attention (p<0.01) compared with their controls. In random effects models, epilepsy status had a significant effect on memory (coefficient=-0.14, CI: -0.23, -0.05), language (coefficient=-0.13, CI: -0.23, -0.04), and mathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment. PMID:24632351

  2. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (p<0.05), language (p<0.05), and attention (p<0.01) compared with their controls. In random effects models, epilepsy status had a significant effect on memory (coefficient=-0.14, CI: -0.23, -0.05), language (coefficient=-0.13, CI: -0.23, -0.04), and mathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment.

  3. Blood pressure telemonitoring is useful to achieve blood pressure control in inadequately treated patients with arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Neumann, C L; Menne, J; Rieken, E M; Fischer, N; Weber, M H; Haller, H; Schulz, E G

    2011-12-01

    Failing to reach blood pressure (BP) goals is one of the main problems in hypertension management. Especially in high-risk patients, intensive monitoring including frequently office visits or new techniques to monitor home BP is required. A total of 60 patients with uncontrolled hypertension were included and randomized into a group with telemetric BP monitoring (TBPM) (n=30) and a control group receiving standard care (n=30). During the 3-month study period, patients received in addition to their antihypertensive pre-treatment up to 2 × 300 mg irbesartan to achieve the required target BP. All patients were instructed to measure their BP once daily in the morning. In the TBPM group automatic alerts were generated by the central database server using pre-defined algorithms and patients were subsequently contacted by the physician. At baseline mean 24-h ambulant BP monitoring (ABPM) was 143.3±11.1/82.6±9.9 mm Hg in the TBPM group and 141.4±12.6/82.1±6.5 mm Hg in the standard care group. During treatment mean systolic BP showed a more intensive decrease in the TBPM vs control group (-17.0±11.1 mm Hg vs -9.8±13.7 mm Hg; P=0.032). Patients in the TBPM group had a more pronounced night dipping and a higher reduction of mean pulse pressure than controls (-8.1±5.9 mm Hg vs -2.8±7.4 mm Hg, P=0.004). After 3 months, TBPM-treated patients were given a higher mean daily dose of irbesartan (375±187 mg vs 222±147 mg in controls; P=<0.001). We demonstrated that with TBPM a more effective and faster titration of the antihypertensive agent is possible. The alarm criteria chosen were useful to improve BP control. PMID:21228822

  4. Thermonuclear fusion in a staged Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Drie, Alan David

    2001-05-01

    The Staged Z-Pinch idea was born out of trying to understand the enhanced X-ray yield from shell onto target Z-Pinches I performed in the late 1980s as an undergraduate student at UCI [1]. The idea was further matured through later successes of multi-shell implosions demonstrated at UCI, the Ecole Polytechnique in France, and the Kurchatov Institute in Russia. The Staged Z-Pinch is based upon a hybrid of a Z-Z and Z- Θ Pinch, i.e., an outer Z-Pinch drives Z and Θ currents on a separate coaxial inner target, through compression of axial and azimuthal magnetic fields trapped between the two. These fields provide magnetic shear stabilization. The load configurations tested were: 4 cm dia. Kr hollow gas shell liner with a 1.7 cm dia. D2 hollow gas shell and solid D2 gas jet targets. It is experimentally and computationally observed, that the Kr liner achieves a spectrum of high charge states, which peels off and accelerates ahead of the bulk of the liner. As this Kr implodes onto the deuterium core, it compresses the axial and azimuthal magnetic fields trapped in the liner-target gap, driving the target as a Staged Z-Pinch. In addition, axial current is constantly transferring from the liner to the deuterium target, and eventually dominates over the staged z-pinching of the target and instead drives it as a Z-Pinch. Even without any initial axial Bz field both the peeling and implosion of the target appear RT stable. I call this type of load configuration a Peeled Pinch. For our Staged Z-Pinch experiments, I designed and assembled a mega-ampere, μ s-class pulsed-power driver [2]. This would drive the Kr liner at current levels of 1.2 MA with implosion times of about 150 ns. To study the pinch I developed and installed neutron, optical, and x-ray diagnostics. For neutrons this includes: Ag activation, bubble and TOF detectors. For optical this includes: a N2 laser schlieren and a streak camera diagnostics. For x-rays this includes: a pinhole camera, XRDS and PINs.

  5. Controlling the Integration of Polyvinylpyrrolidone onto Substrate by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation To Achieve Excellent Protein Resistance and Detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Wang, Lin; Zeng, Xiangze; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Sa; Shi, Xuetao; Wang, Yingjun; Huang, Xuhui; Ren, Li

    2016-07-27

    Blood purification systems, in which the adsorbent removes exogenous and endogenous toxins from the blood, are widely used in clinical practice. To improve the protein resistance of and detoxification by the adsorbent, researchers can modify the adsorbent with functional molecules, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). However, achieving precise control of the functional molecular density, which is crucial to the activity of the adsorbent, remains a significant challenge. In the present study, we prepared a model system for blood purification adsorbents in which we controlled the integration density of PVP molecules of different molecular weights on an Au substrate by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). We characterized the samples with atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and QCM-D and found that the molecular density and the chain length of the PVP molecules played important roles in determining the properties of the sample. At the optimal condition, the modified sample demonstrated strong resistance to plasma proteins, decreasing the adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) and fibrinogen (Fg) by 92.5% and 79.2%, respectively. In addition, the modified sample exhibited excellent detoxification, and the adsorption of bilirubin increased 2.6-fold. Interestingly, subsequent atomistic molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the favorable interactions between PVP and bilirubin were dominated by hydrophobic interactions. An in vitro platelet adhesion assay showed that the adhesion of platelets on the sample decreased and that the platelets were maintained in an inactivated state. The CCK-8 assay indicated that the modified sample exhibited negligible cytotoxicity to L929 cells. These results demonstrated that our method holds great potential for the modification of adsorbents in blood purification systems. PMID:27363467

  6. A 5-year prospective case-control study of the influence of early otitis media with effusion on reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Lous, J; Fiellau-Nikolajsen, M

    1984-10-01

    In a still ongoing prospective longitudinal study, more than 500 children--a total birth-cohort in a Danish municipality--were followed from their 3rd to their 9th year of life by multiple impedance tests in order to investigate a number of factors concerning epidemiology and long-term impacts of otitis media with effusion. This is a report on the influence of otitis media with effusion early in life on reading achievement. The study revealed no difference in school-class level between the 9% of the children (n = 46) who constantly had abnormal tympanometry during a 6-month period at the age of 3, and the other pupils in the municipality. At the Silent Reading Test (OS-400), done on 40 of the 46 case-pupils the results did not differ from (1) the other pupils in the municipality, (2) from other pupils of the same sex in the same classroom, or (3) from individual control-pupils matched by sex, social group and classroom.

  7. Achievements and challenges of the World Bank Loan/Department for International Development grant-assisted Tuberculosis Control Project in China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peng; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Ben; Jiang, Shi-wen; Liu, Bo

    2011-07-01

    In March 2002, the government of China launched the World Bank Loan/ Department for International Development-supported Tuberculosis (TB) Control Project to reduce the prevalence and mortality of TB. The project generated promising results in policy development, strengthening of TB control systems, patient treatment success, funds management, and the introduction of legislation. In light of the global TB epidemic and control environment, it is useful to review the TB control priorities of the project, summarize the achievements and experiences around its implementation.

  8. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei; Purdie, Thomas G.; Rahman, Mohammad; Marshall, Andrea; Liu Feifei; Fyles, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm{sup 3} of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 50}) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose-volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V{sub 50} (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm{sup 3}), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm{sup 3} of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p <.001). Of the 17 patients who had a breath-hold threshold of {>=}0.8 L, 14 achieved a {>=}90% reduction in the heart V{sub 50} using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold <0.8 L achieved a lower, but still significant, reduction in the heart V{sub 50}. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  9. The use of idle equipment for ITER (International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor) magnet development

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.R.

    1988-07-11

    Test facilities that can be effectively applied to International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) magnet needs are scarce because the costs and the time required to produce them from the ground up tend to be prohibitive. It has been proposed as an option that several unique and valuable pieces of equipment that are already owned by the DOE be consolidated into the Lawrence Livermore National High Field Test Facility (HFTF) which may be uniquely qualified to make effective use of them. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Fermi-GBM detection of a thermonuclear burst from 4U 1608-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenke, P.; Linares, M.; Connaughton, V.; van der Horst, A. J.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Finger, M.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Kouveliotou, C.

    2012-05-01

    We report the detection with Fermi-GBM (daily CTIME data, 12-25 keV band) of an X-ray burst from a location consistent with the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary and thermonuclear burster 4U 1608-52. The burst peak occurred on May 2, 2012 at 06:47:54 UTC. The Fermi-GBM location of the burst is R.A.(J2000) = 241.3 deg, DEC(J2000) = -51.1 deg (1.8 deg from 4U 1608-52) with a 1 sigma error of 4.7 deg.

  11. Pilot experiments for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor active beam spectroscopy diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellermann, M. von; Bock, M. de; Jaspers, R.; Jakubowska, K.; Barnsley, R.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N. C.; Zastrow, K. D.; Lotte, P.; Giannella, R.; Malaquias, A.; Rachlew, E.; Tugarinov, S.; Krasilnikov, A.; Litnovsky, A.; Philipps, V.; Wienhold, P.; Oelhafen, P.; Temmerman, G. De; Shmaenok, L.

    2004-10-01

    Supporting pilot experiments and activities which are currently considered or already performed for the development of the International Thermonuclear Experiment Reactor active beam spectroscopy diagnostic are addressed in this article. Four key issues are presented including optimization of spectral instrumentation, feasibility of a motional Stark effect (MSE) evaluation based on line ratios, "first-mirror" test-bed experiments at the tokamak TEXTOR, and finally the role of integrated data analysis for the conceptual layout of the change exchange recombination spectroscopy and MSE diagnostic.

  12. The Influences of Parental Acceptance and Parental Control on School Adjustment and Academic Achievement for South Korean Children: The Mediation Role of Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jungyoon; Yu, Heekeun; Choi, Sumi

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parental acceptance, psychological control, and behavioral control on children's school adjustment and academic achievement, as well as the possible mediation effect of children's self-regulation in those processes. To do so, we examined 388 upper-level elementary school students (mean age = 11.38 years) in South…

  13. What "No Child Left Behind" Leaves behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In…

  14. Language Skills, Mathematical Thinking, and Achievement Motivation in Children with ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…

  15. The Impact of Retrieval Processes, Age, General Achievement Level, and Test Scoring Scheme for Children's Metacognitive Monitoring and Controlling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Saskia Susanne; Roebers, Claudia Maria

    2012-01-01

    This multi-phase study examined the influence of retrieval processes on children's metacognitive processes in relation to and in interaction with achievement level and age. First, N = 150 9/10- and 11/12-year old high and low achievers watched an educational film and predicted their test performance. Children then solved a cloze test regarding the…

  16. THE RETURN OF THE BURSTS: THERMONUCLEAR FLASHES FROM CIRCINUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, M.; Homan, J.; Chakrabarty, D.; Watts, A.; Altamirano, D.; Degenaar, N.; Yang, Y.; Wijnands, R.; Armas-Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; Patruno, A.; Van der Klis, M.; Soleri, P.; Casella, P.; Rea, N.

    2010-08-10

    We report the detection of 15 X-ray bursts with RXTE and Swift observations of the peculiar X-ray binary Circinus X-1 (Cir X-1) during its 2010 May X-ray re-brightening. These are the first X-ray bursts observed from the source after the initial discovery by Tennant and collaborators, 25 years ago. By studying their spectral evolution, we firmly identify nine of the bursts as type I (thermonuclear) X-ray bursts. We obtain an arcsecond location of the bursts that confirms once and for all the identification of Cir X-1 as a type I X-ray burst source, and therefore as a low magnetic field accreting neutron star. The first five bursts observed by RXTE are weak and show approximately symmetric light curves, without detectable signs of cooling along the burst decay. We discuss their possible nature. Finally, we explore a scenario to explain why Cir X-1 shows thermonuclear bursts now but not in the past, when it was extensively observed and accreting at a similar rate.

  17. The TDF System for Thermonuclear Plasma Reaction Rates, Mean Energies and Two-Body Final State Particle Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Warshaw, S I

    2001-07-11

    The rate of thermonuclear reactions in hot plasmas as a function of local plasma temperature determines the way in which thermonuclear ignition and burning proceeds in the plasma. The conventional model approach to calculating these rates is to assume that the reacting nuclei in the plasma are in Maxwellian equilibrium at some well-defined plasma temperature, over which the statistical average of the reaction rate quantity {sigma}v is calculated, where {sigma} is the cross-section for the reaction to proceed at the relative velocity v between the reacting particles. This approach is well-understood and is the basis for much nuclear fusion and astrophysical nuclear reaction rate data. The Thermonuclear Data File (TDF) system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Warshaw 1991), which is the topic of this report, contains data on the Maxwellian-averaged thermonuclear reaction rates for various light nuclear reactions and the correspondingly Maxwellian-averaged energy spectra of the particles in the final state of those reactions as well. This spectral information closely models the output particle and energy distributions in a burning plasma, and therefore leads to more accurate computational treatments of thermonuclear burn, output particle energy deposition and diagnostics, in various contexts. In this report we review and derive the theoretical basis for calculating Maxwellian-averaged thermonuclear reaction rates, mean particle energies, and output particle spectral energy distributions for these reactions in the TDF system. The treatment of the kinematics is non-relativistic. The current version of the TDF system provides exit particle energy spectrum distributions for two-body final state reactions only. In a future report we will discuss and describe how output particle energy spectra for three- and four-body final states can be developed for the TDF system. We also include in this report a description of the algorithmic implementation of the

  18. Predicting Academic Achievement from Cumulative Home Risk: The Mediating Roles of Effortful Control, Academic Relationships, and School Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Components of the home environment are associated with children's academic functioning. The accumulation of risks in the home are expected to prove more detrimental to achievement than any one risk alone, but the processes accounting for this relation are unclear. Using an index of cumulative home risk (CHR) inclusive of protective factors, as…

  19. Control-value theory: using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64.

    PubMed

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the emergent theoretical and empirical work on human emotion and how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. In the Guide, we define emotion, in general, and achievement emotions, more specifically. We describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), and we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal antecedents, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance. Next, we review the empirical support for control-value theory from non-medical fields and suggest several important implications for educational practice. In this section, we highlight the importance of designing learning environments that foster a high degree of control and value for students. Finally, we end with a discussion of the need for more research on achievement emotions in medical education, and we propose several key research questions we believe will facilitate our understanding of achievement emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  20. Spreading of thermonuclear flames on the neutron star in SAX J1808.4-3658: an observational tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2005-01-01

    We analyse archival Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) proportional counter array (PCA) data of thermonuclear X-ray bursts from the 2002 outburst of the accreting millisecond pulsar SAX 51808.4-3658. We present evidence of a complex frequency modulation of oscillations during burst rise, and correlations among the time evolution of the oscillation frequency, amplitude, and the inferred burning region area. We discuss these findings in the context of a model, based on thermonuclear flame spreading on the neutron star surface, that can qualitatively explain these features. From our model, we infer that for the 2002 Oct. 15 thermonuclear burst, the ignition likely occurred in the mid-latitudes, the burning region took approx. 0.2 s to nearly encircle the equatorial region of the neutron star, and after that the lower amplitude oscillation originated from the remaining asymmetry of the burning front in the same hemisphere where the burst ignited. We emphasize that studies of the evolution of burst oscillation properties during burst rise can provide a powerful tool to understand thermonuclear flame spreading on neutron star surfaces under extreme physical conditions.

  1. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  2. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Quinn, Patrick D; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-05-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  3. The Effects of Teaching Numerical Control Concepts Via Simulator Versus Non-Simulator Activities on the Achievement, Programming Proficiency and Attitude of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Douglas Taylor

    This study utilized 120 metalworking students and six teachers from Columbus, Ohio area high schools to ascertain the effects of teaching numerical control to industrial arts students by means of simulator-aided activities versus nonsimulator aided activities. Scores obtained from an achievement test, attitude inventory, and word address…

  4. An Examination of the Influence of Self Efficacy, Locus of Control, and Perceptions of Parent Involvement on Academic Achievement of Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myree, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Current research indicates that there is an on-going concern for the graduation rate of African American students in urban settings. This particular study sought to investigate the impact of students' self-efficacy, locus of control, and parental involvement on academic achievement via a targeted sample of urban African American high school…

  5. The development and the tests of the electrostatic probe for dust particle collection in thermonuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begrambekov, L. B.; Voityuk, A. N.; Zakharov, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Formation of dust particles in thermonuclear reactors can greatly affect the plasma parameters and lead to accumulation of tritium. The rates of formation and deposition of dust need to be measured, and the parameters of formation of dust particles and clusters need to be studied. A model of a device for collection of fine conductive particles capable of removing them from the reactor chamber for future research is proposed in this paper. The dust collector's operation is based on a principle of applied electrostatic field. The model was tested in different operating conditions: in vacuum, at the atmospheric pressure in the atmosphere of air and dry nitrogen. The experiments were conducted with a stationary system and with the dust collector in motion relative to the dusty surface. It is shown that, during the probe moving relative to the surface, it can remove up to 95% of fine tungsten particles with sizes ranging from 1 to 10 μm.

  6. Plasma physics effects on thermonuclear burn rate in the presence of hydrodynamic mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua; Kagan, Grigory; McDevitt, Christopher; Srinivasan, Bhuvana

    2016-03-01

    Hydrodynamic mix can significantly degrade thermonuclear burn rate in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target. Successful mitigation requires a detailed understanding of the physical mechanisms by which mix affects burn. Here we summarize the roles of three distinct plasma physics effects on burn rate. The first is the well-known effect of enhanced thermal energy loss from the hot spot and the mitigating role of self-generated or externally-applied magnetic field. The second is the fuel ion separation via inter-species ion diffusion driven by the powerful thermodynamic forces exacerbated by mix during the implosion process. The third is the fusion reactivity modification by fast ion transport in a mix-dominated ICF target, where hot plasma is intermingled with cold fuel.

  7. Stellar dynamics. The fastest unbound star in our Galaxy ejected by a thermonuclear supernova.

    PubMed

    Geier, S; Fürst, F; Ziegerer, E; Kupfer, T; Heber, U; Irrgang, A; Wang, B; Liu, Z; Han, Z; Sesar, B; Levitan, D; Kotak, R; Magnier, E; Smith, K; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K; Flewelling, H; Kaiser, N; Wainscoat, R; Waters, C

    2015-03-01

    Hypervelocity stars (HVSs) travel with velocities so high that they exceed the escape velocity of the Galaxy. Several acceleration mechanisms have been discussed. Only one HVS (US 708, HVS 2) is a compact helium star. Here we present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of US 708. Traveling with a velocity of ~1200 kilometers per second, it is the fastest unbound star in our Galaxy. In reconstructing its trajectory, the Galactic center becomes very unlikely as an origin, which is hardly consistent with the most favored ejection mechanism for the other HVSs. Furthermore, we detected that US 708 is a fast rotator. According to our binary evolution model, it was spun-up by tidal interaction in a close binary and is likely to be the ejected donor remnant of a thermonuclear supernova. PMID:25745168

  8. Astrophysics Simulations from the ASC/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes

    DOE Data Explorer

    The "Flash Center" works to solve the long-standing problem of thermonuclear flashes on the surfaces of compact stars such as neutron stars and white dwarfs, and in the interior of white dwarfs (i.e., Type I supernovae). The physical conditions, and many of the physical phenomena, are similar to those confronted by the Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship program. The (fully ionized) plasmas are at very high temperatures and densities; and the physical problems of nuclear ignition, deflagration or detonation, turbulent mixing, and interface dynamics for complex multicomponent fluids are common to the weapons program. Because virtually every aspect of this problem represents a computational Grand Challenge, large-scale numerical simulations are at the heart of its resolution (Taken from Executive Summary page). More than 35 simulations and computer animations developed through research at the "Flash Center" are available here. The collection offers .avi, .flv, or .mpeg file downloads as well as references to related research papers or presentations.

  9. Stellar dynamics. The fastest unbound star in our Galaxy ejected by a thermonuclear supernova.

    PubMed

    Geier, S; Fürst, F; Ziegerer, E; Kupfer, T; Heber, U; Irrgang, A; Wang, B; Liu, Z; Han, Z; Sesar, B; Levitan, D; Kotak, R; Magnier, E; Smith, K; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K; Flewelling, H; Kaiser, N; Wainscoat, R; Waters, C

    2015-03-01

    Hypervelocity stars (HVSs) travel with velocities so high that they exceed the escape velocity of the Galaxy. Several acceleration mechanisms have been discussed. Only one HVS (US 708, HVS 2) is a compact helium star. Here we present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of US 708. Traveling with a velocity of ~1200 kilometers per second, it is the fastest unbound star in our Galaxy. In reconstructing its trajectory, the Galactic center becomes very unlikely as an origin, which is hardly consistent with the most favored ejection mechanism for the other HVSs. Furthermore, we detected that US 708 is a fast rotator. According to our binary evolution model, it was spun-up by tidal interaction in a close binary and is likely to be the ejected donor remnant of a thermonuclear supernova.

  10. Review of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) detailed design report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-18

    Dr. Martha Krebs, Director, Office of Energy Research at the US Department of Energy (DOE), wrote to the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC), in letters dated September 23 and November 6, 1996, requesting that FESAC review the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Detailed Design Report (DDR) and provide its view of the adequacy of the DDR as part of the basis for the United States decision to enter negotiations with the other interested Parties regarding the terms and conditions for an agreement for the construction, operations, exploitation and decommissioning of ITER. The letter from Dr. Krebs, referred to as the Charge Letter, provided context for the review and a set of questions of specific interest.

  11. A low-level activation technique for monitoring thermonuclear fusion plasma conditions.

    PubMed

    Gasparro, Joël; Hult, Mikael; Bonheure, Georges; Johnston, Peter N

    2006-01-01

    Optimisation of the confinement and sustainability of a thermonuclear plasma requires methods to monitor processes in the plasma. In this work three materials were used as activation targets (Ti, MgF2 and a TiVAl compound). They were placed inside the joint European Torus (JET) vacuum chamber. Certain gamma-ray emitting radionuclides (7Be, 54Mn, 56Co, 57Co, 58Co and 46Sc) were measured using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory 1-2 months after activation. They were found to arise from neutron activation of bulk sample material and surface contaminants sputtered from other Tokamak parts. Decision thresholds for some activation products were determined in order to aid in giving upper bounds for the flux of charged particles.

  12. Temperature measurement during thermonuclear X-ray bursts with BeppoSAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beri, Aru; Paul, Biswajit; Orlandini, Mauro; Maitra, Chandreyee

    2016-05-01

    We have carried out a study of temperature evolution during thermonuclear bursts in LMXBs using broad band data from two instruments onboard BeppoSAX, the MECSand the PDS. However, instead of applying the standard technique of time resolved spectroscopy, we have determined the temperature in small time intervals using the ratio of count rates in the two instruments assuming a blackbody nature of burst emission and different interstellar absorption for different sources. Data from a total of twelve observations of six sources were analyzed during which 22 bursts were detected. We have obtained temperatures as high as ˜3.0 keV, even when there is no evidence of photospheric radius expansion. These high temperatures were observed in the sources within different broadband spectral states (soft and hard).

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Models of thermonuclear X-ray bursters (Lampe+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampe, N.; Heger, A.; Galloway, D. K.

    2016-05-01

    Using the KEPLER 1D hydrodynamics code (Woosley et al. 2004ApJS..151...75W), 464 models of thermonuclear X-ray bursters were performed across a range of accretion rates and compositions. We present the library of simulated burst profiles from this sample, and examine variations in the simulated light curve for different model conditions. We find that the recurrence time varies as a power law against accretion rate, and measure its slope while mixed H/He burning is occurring for a range of metallicities, finding the power law gradient to vary from {eta}=1.1 to 1.24. We identify the accretion rates at which mixed H/He burning stops and a transition occurs to different burning regimes. We explore how varying the accretion rate and metallicity affects burst morphology in both the rise and tail. (1 data file).

  14. SPIRAL INSTABILITY CAN DRIVE THERMONUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS IN BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kashyap, Rahul; Fisher, Robert; García-Berro, Enrique; Aznar-Siguán, Gabriela; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo

    2015-02-10

    Thermonuclear, or Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), originate from the explosion of carbon–oxygen white dwarfs, and serve as standardizable cosmological candles. However, despite their importance, the nature of the progenitor systems that give rise to SNe Ia has not been hitherto elucidated. Observational evidence favors the double-degenerate channel in which merging white dwarf binaries lead to SNe Ia. Furthermore, significant discrepancies exist between observations and theory, and to date, there has been no self-consistent merger model that yields a SNe Ia. Here we show that a spiral mode instability in the accretion disk formed during a binary white dwarf merger leads to a detonation on a dynamical timescale. This mechanism sheds light on how white dwarf mergers may frequently yield SNe Ia.

  15. The Influence of Accretion Rate and Metallicity on Thermonuclear Bursts: Predictions from KEPLER Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampe, Nathanael; Heger, Alexander; Galloway, Duncan K.

    2016-03-01

    Using the KEPLER hydrodynamics code, 464 models of thermonuclear X-ray bursters were performed across a range of accretion rates and compositions. We present the library of simulated burst profiles from this sample, and examine variations in the simulated light curve for different model conditions. We find that the recurrence time varies as a power law against accretion rate, and measure its slope while mixed H/He burning is occurring for a range of metallicities, finding the power law gradient to vary from η =1.1 to 1.24. We identify the accretion rates at which mixed H/He burning stops and a transition occurs to different burning regimes. We explore how varying the accretion rate and metallicity affects burst morphology in both the rise and tail.

  16. The development of beryllium plasma spray technology for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Elliott, K.E.; Hollis, K.J.; Bartlett, A.H.; Watson, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    Over the past five years, four international parties, which include the European Communities, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States, have been collaborating on the design and development of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the next generation magnetic fusion energy device. During the ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA), beryllium plasma spray technology was investigated by Los Alamos National Laboratory as a method for fabricating and repairing and the beryllium first wall surface of the ITER tokamak. Significant progress has been made in developing beryllium plasma spraying technology for this application. Information will be presented on the research performed to improve the thermal properties of plasma sprayed beryllium coatings and a method that was developed for cleaning and preparing the surface of beryllium prior to depositing plasma sprayed beryllium coatings. Results of high heat flux testing of the beryllium coatings using electron beam simulated ITER conditions will also be presented.

  17. The effect of relativistic Compton scattering on thermonuclear burn of pure deuterium fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemizad, A.; Nazirzadeh, M.; Khanbabaei, B.

    2016-08-01

    The relativistic effects of the Compton scattering on the thermonuclear burn-up of pure deuterium fuel in non-equilibrium plasma have been studied by four temperature (4T) theory. In the limit of low electron temperatures and photon energies, the nonrelativistic Compton scattering is valid and a convenient approximation, but in the high energy exchange rates between electrons and photons, is seen to break down. The deficiencies of the nonrelativistic approximation can be overcome by using the relativistic correction in the photons kinetic equation. In this research, we have utilized the four temperature (4T) theory to calculate the critical burn-up parameter for pure deuterium fuel, while the Compton scattering is considered as a relativistic phenomenon. It was shown that the measured critical burn-up parameter in ignition with relativistic Compton scattering is smaller than that of the parameter in the ignition with the nonrelativistic Compton scattering.

  18. Influences of Children's and Adolescents' Action-Control Processes on School Achievement, Peer Relationships, and Coping with Challenging Life Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhof, G. John; Little, Todd D.

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation represents a core aspect of human functioning that influences positive development across the life span. This chapter focuses on the action-control model, a key facet of self-regulation during childhood and early adolescence. The authors discuss the development of action-control beliefs, paying particular attention to their…

  19. A burst from a thermonuclear runaway on an ONeMg white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S.; Politano, M.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    Studies which examine the consequences of accretion, at rates of 10(exp -9) solar mass/yr and 10(exp -10) solar mass/yr, onto an ONeMg white dwarf with a mass of 1.35 solar masses are performed. In these studies, a Lagrangian, hydrodynamic, one-dimensional computer code was used. The code now includes a network with 89 nuclei up to Ca-40, elemental diffusion, new opacities, and new equation of state. The initial abundance distribution corresponded to a mixture that was enriched to either 25, 50, or 75 percent in products of carbon burning. The remaining material in each case is assumed to have a solar composition. The evolution of the thermonuclear runaway in the 1.35 solar mass white dwarf, with M = 10(exp -9) solar mass, produced peak temperatures in the shell source exceeding 300 million degrees. The sequence produced significant amounts of Na-22 from proton captures onto Ne-20 and significant amounts of Al-26 from proton captures on Mg-24. This sequence ejected 5.2 x 10(exp -6) solar mass moving with speeds from approximately 100 km/s to 2300 km/s. When the mass accretion rate was decreased to 10(exp -10) solar mass, the resulting thermonuclear runaway produced a shock that moved through the outer envelope of the white dwarf and raised the surface luminosity to L greater than 10(exp 7) solar luminosity and the effective temperature to values exceeding 10(exp 7) K. The interaction of the material expanding from off of the white dwarf with the accretion disk should produce a burst of gamma-rays.

  20. RELATIVISTIC COLLAPSE AND EXPLOSION OF ROTATING SUPERMASSIVE STARS WITH THERMONUCLEAR EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Montero, Pedro J.; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Mueller, Ewald

    2012-04-10

    We present results of general relativistic simulations of collapsing supermassive stars with and without rotation using the two-dimensional general relativistic numerical code Nada, which solves the Einstein equations written in the BSSN formalism and the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations with high-resolution shock-capturing schemes. These numerical simulations use an equation of state that includes the effects of gas pressure and, in a tabulated form, those associated with radiation and the electron-positron pairs. We also take into account the effect of thermonuclear energy released by hydrogen and helium burning. We find that objects with a mass of Almost-Equal-To 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} and an initial metallicity greater than Z{sub CNO} Almost-Equal-To 0.007 do explode if non-rotating, while the threshold metallicity for an explosion is reduced to Z{sub CNO} Almost-Equal-To 0.001 for objects uniformly rotating. The critical initial metallicity for a thermonuclear explosion increases for stars with a mass Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. For those stars that do not explode, we follow the evolution beyond the phase of black hole (BH) formation. We compute the neutrino energy loss rates due to several processes that may be relevant during the gravitational collapse of these objects. The peak luminosities of neutrinos and antineutrinos of all flavors for models collapsing to a BH are L{sub {nu}} {approx} 10{sup 55} erg s{sup -1}. The total radiated energy in neutrinos varies between E{sub {nu}} {approx} 10{sup 56} erg for models collapsing to a BH and E{sub {nu}} {approx} 10{sup 45}-10{sup 46} erg for models exploding.

  1. Relativistic Collapse and Explosion of Rotating Supermassive Stars with Thermonuclear Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, Pedro J.; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Müller, Ewald

    2012-04-01

    We present results of general relativistic simulations of collapsing supermassive stars with and without rotation using the two-dimensional general relativistic numerical code Nada, which solves the Einstein equations written in the BSSN formalism and the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations with high-resolution shock-capturing schemes. These numerical simulations use an equation of state that includes the effects of gas pressure and, in a tabulated form, those associated with radiation and the electron-positron pairs. We also take into account the effect of thermonuclear energy released by hydrogen and helium burning. We find that objects with a mass of ≈5 × 105 M ⊙ and an initial metallicity greater than Z CNO ≈ 0.007 do explode if non-rotating, while the threshold metallicity for an explosion is reduced to Z CNO ≈ 0.001 for objects uniformly rotating. The critical initial metallicity for a thermonuclear explosion increases for stars with a mass ≈106 M ⊙. For those stars that do not explode, we follow the evolution beyond the phase of black hole (BH) formation. We compute the neutrino energy loss rates due to several processes that may be relevant during the gravitational collapse of these objects. The peak luminosities of neutrinos and antineutrinos of all flavors for models collapsing to a BH are L ν ~ 1055 erg s-1. The total radiated energy in neutrinos varies between E ν ~ 1056 erg for models collapsing to a BH and E ν ~ 1045-1046 erg for models exploding.

  2. [MBL quality control survey of autoantibodies--25 years of activity and its achievement--mainly antinuclear antibodies].

    PubMed

    Tsunekawa, Shinji; Arai, Jiro; Ishihara, Yasushi; Fujii, Yoshihisa

    2010-02-01

    Annual MBL Quality Control Survey of Autoantibodies has continued to this day since it started in 1983 as the only quality control survey of autoantibodies in Japan. The survey has aimed at unification and standardization of measurement value, as well as finding out between-laboratory differences in results through reporting the results of tabulation to the participating laboratories. For carrying out the survey, we intend to make our efforts to promote assurance and standardization of the quality control of the autoantibodies. The number of participant on this survey has been increasing every year and more than 500 laboratories participate not only in Japan but also from Asia and European countries. The laboratories that participated in this survey are the ones that usually perform ANA test, anti-DNA antibodies test, anti-ENA antibodies test, AMA test, ASMA test, anti-cardiolipin antibodies test and anti-CCP antibodies test. The purpose of the survey is to standardize antinuclear antibodies testing value in semi quantitative assay using ANA control serum or our titer control HEPASERA-1. We got 12% increase from 79% to 91% in 1986 using ANA control serum. Additionally, we reached 97% (86% to 97%) of convergence in 2001 by using HEPASERA-1, which contains 4 major pattern titer controls from 1993. In 2007, coefficient of variation (CV) for anti-dsDNA antibodies was 13%, showing better result than 25% of the first survey in 1993. We started secondary survey for laboratories which reported a result far apart. In the secondary survey, we made investigation for cause and improvement action. We conclude quality control survey is useful for autoantibodies testing for its result convergence.

  3. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cr-doped Si achieved by controlling atomic structure, Cr concentration, and carrier densities: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xin-Yuan; Yang, Zhong-Qin; Zhu, Yan; Li, Yun

    2015-04-28

    By using first-principles calculations, we investigated how to achieve a strong ferromagnetism in Cr-doped Si by controlling the atomic structure and Cr concentration as well as carrier densities. We found that the configuration in which the Cr atom occupies the tetrahedral interstitial site can exist stably and the Cr atom has a large magnetic moment. Using this doping configuration, room-temperature ferromagnetism can be achieved in both n-type and p-type Si by tuning Cr concentration and carrier densities. The results indicate that the carrier density plays a crucial role in realizing strong ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  4. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cr-doped Si achieved by controlling atomic structure, Cr concentration, and carrier densities: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xin-Yuan; Zhu, Yan; Yang, Zhong-Qin; Li, Yun

    2015-04-01

    By using first-principles calculations, we investigated how to achieve a strong ferromagnetism in Cr-doped Si by controlling the atomic structure and Cr concentration as well as carrier densities. We found that the configuration in which the Cr atom occupies the tetrahedral interstitial site can exist stably and the Cr atom has a large magnetic moment. Using this doping configuration, room-temperature ferromagnetism can be achieved in both n-type and p-type Si by tuning Cr concentration and carrier densities. The results indicate that the carrier density plays a crucial role in realizing strong ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  5. Conformation-Controlled Diplatinum(II)-Ferrocene Dyads to Achieve Long-Lived Charge-Separated States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ge-Xia; Feng, Ke; Crossley, Maxwell J; Xing, Ling-Bao; Xiao, Hong-Yan; Li, Wen; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2016-08-16

    Square-planar polypyridyl platinum(II) complexes possess a rich range of structural and spectroscopic properties that are ideal for designing artificial photosynthetic centers. Taking advantage of the directionality in the charge-transfer excitation from the metal to the polypyridyl ligand, we describe here diplatinum(II)-ferrocene dyads, open-butterfly-like dyad 1 and closed-butterfly-like dyad 2, which were designed to understand the conformation and orientation effects to prolong the lifetime of charge-separated state. In contrast to the open-butterfly-like dyad 1, the closed-butterfly-like dyad 2 shows three-times long lifetime of charge separated state upon photoexcitation, demonstrating that the orientation in the rigid structure of dyad 2 is a very important issue to achieve long-lived charge separated state. PMID:27339465

  6. Students' Emotions for Achievement and Technology Use in Synchronous Hybrid Graduate Programmes: A Control-Value Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Nikolaus T.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous hybrid delivery (simultaneously teaching on-campus and online students using web conferencing) is becoming more common; however, little is known about how students experience emotions in this learning environment. Based on Pekrun's (2006) control-value theory of emotions, the dual purpose of this study was first to compare synchronous…

  7. Learning the Control of Variables Strategy in Higher and Lower Achieving Classrooms: Contributions of Explicit Instruction and Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Calderhead, William J.; Dunlap, Emily E.; Hodell, Emily C.; Freer, Benjamin Dunham

    2010-01-01

    Students (n = 797) from 36 4th-grade classrooms were taught the control of variables strategy for designing experiments. In the instruct condition, classes were taught in an interactive lecture format. In the manipulate condition, students worked in groups to design and run experiments to determine the effects of four variables. In the both…

  8. Longitudinal Relations among Parents' Reactions to Children's Negative Emotions, Effortful Control, and Math Achievement in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H.; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = 0.39 year) across kindergarten through…

  9. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a “dream” display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  10. A Remarkable Three Hour Thermonuclear Burst from 4U 1820-30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Brown, Edward F.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed observational and theoretical study of an approximately three hour long X-ray burst (the "super burst") observed by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) from the low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) 4U 1820-30. This is the longest X-ray burst ever observed from this source, and perhaps one of the longest ever observed in great detail from any source. We show that the super burst is thermonuclear in origin. Its peak luminosity of approximately 3.4 x 10(exp 38) ergs s(exp -1) is consistent with the helium Eddington limit for a neutron star at approximately 7 kpc, as well as the peak luminosity of other, shorter, thermonuclear bursts from the same source. The super burst begins in the decaying tail of a more typical (approximately equal to 20 s duration) thermonuclear burst. These shorter, more frequent bursts are well known helium flashes from this source. The level of the accretion driven flux as well as the observed energy release of upwards of 1.5 x 10(exp 42) ergs indicate that helium could not be the energy source for the super burst. We outline the physics relevant to carbon production and burning on helium accreting neutron stars and present calculations of the thermal evolution and stability of a carbon layer and show that this process is the most likely explanation for the super burst. Ignition at the temperatures in the deep carbon "ocean" requires greater than 30 times the mass of carbon inferred from the observed burst energetics unless the He flash is able to trigger a deflagration from a much smaller mass of carbon. We show, however, that for large columns of accreted carbon fuel, a substantial fraction of the energy released in the carbon burning layer is radiated away as neutrinos, and the heat that is conducted from the burning layer in large part flows inward, only to be released on timescales longer than the observed burst. Thus the energy released during the event possibly exceeds that observed in X-rays by more than a factor of

  11. General Strategy to Introduce pH-Induced Allostery in DNA-Based Receptors to Achieve Controlled Release of Ligands.

    PubMed

    Porchetta, Alessandro; Idili, Andrea; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis; Ricci, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    Inspired by naturally occurring pH-regulated receptors, here we propose a rational approach to introduce pH-induced allostery into a wide range of DNA-based receptors. To demonstrate this we re-engineered two model DNA-based probes, a molecular beacon and a cocaine-binding aptamer, by introducing in their sequence a pH-dependent domain. We demonstrate here that we can finely tune the affinity of these model receptors and control the load/release of their specific target molecule by a simple pH change. PMID:26053894

  12. General Strategy to Introduce pH-Induced Allostery in DNA-Based Receptors to Achieve Controlled Release of Ligands.

    PubMed

    Porchetta, Alessandro; Idili, Andrea; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis; Ricci, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    Inspired by naturally occurring pH-regulated receptors, here we propose a rational approach to introduce pH-induced allostery into a wide range of DNA-based receptors. To demonstrate this we re-engineered two model DNA-based probes, a molecular beacon and a cocaine-binding aptamer, by introducing in their sequence a pH-dependent domain. We demonstrate here that we can finely tune the affinity of these model receptors and control the load/release of their specific target molecule by a simple pH change.

  13. The effects of variations in nuclear interactions on nucleosynthesis in thermonuclear supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, A.; José, J.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Röpke, F. K.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Type Ia supernova explosions are violent stellar events important for their contribution to the cosmic abundance of iron peak elements and for their role as cosmological distance indicators. Aims: The impact of nuclear physics uncertainties on nucleosynthesis in thermonuclear supernovae has not been fully explored using comprehensive and systematic studies with multiple models. To better constrain predictions of yields from these phenomena, we investigate thermonuclear reaction rates and weak interaction rates that significantly affect yields in our underlying models. Methods: We have performed a sensitivity study by postprocessing thermodynamic histories from two different hydrodynamic, Chandrasekhar-mass explosion models. We have individually varied all input reaction and, for the first time, weak interaction rates by a factor of ten (up and down) and compared the yields in each case to yields using standard rates. Results: Of the 2305 nuclear reactions in our network, we find that in either model the rates of only 53 reactions affect the yield of any species with an abundance of at least 10-8 M⊙ by at least a factor of two. The rates of the 12C(α,γ), 12C+12C, 20Ne(α,p), 20Ne(α,γ), and 30Si(p,γ) reactions are among those that modify the most yields when varied by a factor of ten. From the individual variation of 658 weak interaction rates in our network by a factor of ten, only the stellar 28Si(β+)28Al, 32S(β+)32P, and 36Ar(β+)36Cl rates significantly affect the yields of species in a model. Additional tests reveal that reaction rate changes over temperatures T > 1.5 GK have the greatest impact and that ratios of radionuclides that may be used as explosion diagnostics change by a factor of ≲2 from the variation of individual rates by a factor of ten. Conclusions: Nucleosynthesis in the two adopted models is relatively robust to variations in individual nuclear reaction and weak interaction rates. Laboratory measurements of a limited number

  14. Igniting the Light Elements: The Los Alamos Thermonuclear Weapon Project, 1942-1952

    SciTech Connect

    Anne C. Fitzpatrick

    1999-07-01

    The American system of nuclear weapons research and development was conceived and developed not as a result of technological determinism, but by a number of individual architects who promoted the growth of this large technologically-based complex. While some of the technological artifacts of this system, such as the fission weapons used in World War II, have been the subject of many historical studies, their technical successors--fusion (or hydrogen) devices--are representative of the largely unstudied highly secret realms of nuclear weapons science and engineering. In the postwar period a small number of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's staff and affiliates were responsible for theoretical work on fusion weapons, yet the program was subject to both the provisions and constraints of the US Atomic Energy Commission, of which Los Alamos was a part. The Commission leadership's struggle to establish a mission for its network of laboratories, least of all to keep them operating, affected Los Alamos's leaders' decisions as to the course of weapons design and development projects. Adapting Thomas P. Hughes's ''large technological systems'' thesis, I focus on the technical, social, political, and human problems that nuclear weapons scientists faced while pursuing the thermonuclear project, demonstrating why the early American thermonuclear bomb project was an immensely complicated scientific and technological undertaking. I concentrate mainly on Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Theoretical, or T, Division, and its members' attempts to complete an accurate mathematical treatment of the ''Super''--the most difficult problem in physics in the postwar period--and other fusion weapon theories. Although tackling a theoretical problem, theoreticians had to address technical and engineering issues as well. I demonstrate the relative value and importance of H-bomb research over time in the postwar era to scientific, politician, and military participants in this project. I

  15. Influence of the tritium beta(-) decay on low-temperature thermonuclear burn-up in deuterium-tritium mixtures

    PubMed

    Frolov

    2000-09-01

    Low-temperature (Tthermonuclear burn-up in deuterium-tritium mixtures with various deuterium-tritium-helium-3 ratios is considered. The general dependence is studied for the critical burn-up parameter x(c)=rhor(c) upon the initial temperature T, density rho(0), and tritium molar concentration y for the [D]:y[T]:(1-y)[3He] mixture. In particular, it is shown that, if the tritium concentration y decreases, then the critical burn-up parameter x(c)(T,rho(0),y) grows very quickly (at fixed T and rho(0)). This means that tritium beta(-) decay significantly complicates thermonuclear burn-up in deuterium-tritium mixtures.

  16. Achieving pH control in microalgal cultures through fed-batch addition of stoichiometrically-balanced growth media

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of accounting for proton uptake and secretion has confounded interpretation of the stoichiometry of photosynthetic growth of algae. This is also problematic for achieving growth of microalgae to high cell concentrations which is necessary to improve productivity and the economic feasibility of commercial-scale chemical production systems. Since microalgae are capable of consuming both nitrate and ammonium, this represents an opportunity to balance culture pH based on a nitrogen feeding strategy that does not utilize gas-phase CO2 buffering. Stoichiometry suggests that approximately 36 weight%N-NH4+ (balance nitrogen as NO3-) would minimize the proton imbalance and permit high-density photoautotrophic growth as it does in higher plant tissue culture. However, algal media almost exclusively utilize nitrate, and ammonium is often viewed as ‘toxic’ to algae. Results The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exclusively utilize ammonium when both ammonium and nitrate are provided during growth on excess CO2. The resulting proton imbalance from preferential ammonium utilization causes the pH to drop too low to sustain further growth when ammonium was only 9% of the total nitrogen (0.027 gN-NH4+/L). However, providing smaller amounts of ammonium sequentially in the presence of nitrate maintained the pH of a Chlorella vulgaris culture for improved growth on 0.3 gN/L to 5 gDW/L under 5% CO2 gas-phase supplementation. Bioreactor pH dynamics are shown to be predictable based on simple nitrogen assimilation as long as there is sufficient CO2 availability. Conclusions This work provides both a media formulation and a feeding strategy with a focus on nitrogen metabolism and regulation to support high-density algal culture without buffering. The instability in culture pH that is observed in microalgal cultures in the absence of buffers can be overcome through alternating utilization of ammonium and nitrate. Despite the highly regulated

  17. Sensitivity improvement of an electrical sensor achieved by control of biomolecules based on the negative dielectrophoretic force.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Jinsik; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jung Ho; Hwang, Kyo Seon

    2016-11-15

    Effective control of nano-scale biomolecules can enhance the sensitivity and limit of detection of an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) sensor. Manipulation of the biomolecules by dielectrophoresis (DEP), especially the negative DEP (nDEP) force, so that they are trapped between electrodes (sensing regions) was predicted to increase the binding efficiency of the antibody and target molecules, leading to a more effective reaction. To prove this concept, amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein were respectively trapped between the sensing region owing to the nDEP force under 5V and 0.05V, which was verified with COMSOL simulation. Using the simulation value, the resistance change (ΔR/Rb) of the IME sensor from the specific antibody-antigen reaction of the two biomolecules and the change in fluorescence intensity were compared in the reference (pDEP) and nDEP conditions. The ΔR/Rb value improved by about 2-fold and 1.66-fold with nDEP compared to the reference condition with various protein concentrations, and these increases were confirmed with fluorescence imaging. Overall, nDEP enhanced the detection sensitivity for Aβ42 and PSA by 128% and 258%, respectively, and the limit of detection improved by up to 2-orders of magnitude. These results prove that DEP can improve the biosensor's performance. PMID:27449966

  18. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

  19. Medical effects of exposure of human beings to fallout radiation from a thermonuclear explosion.

    PubMed

    Cronkite, E P; Bond, V P; Conard, R A

    1995-05-01

    On March 1, 1954, after detonation of a thermonuclear device on Bikini atoll, an unexpected wind shift resulted in the deposition of radioactive fallout on inhabited atolls. The fallout radiation caused fleeting systemic effects, dose-dependent depression of hematopoiesis and skin burns primarily due to the beta ray component of the fission radionuclides. Within a few weeks, hematopoietic recovery was substantial but slight depression of blood counts was maintained for several years. One case of fatal acute myeloblastic leukemia developed in a boy receiving 1.9 Gy as an infant. Cretinism developed in two boys exposed as infants with estimated thyroidal dose in excess of 50 Gy. Chemical hypothyroidism was detected in several persons. Thyroid adenomas and cancer commenced appearance ten years after exposure and became a major long-term medical problem. There have been no late effects attributable to the beta burns 40 years after exposure. Internal contamination from ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides is detectable. The doses are comparable to background levels in the U.S. There is no detectible decrease in longevity of the exposed Marshallese compared to an unexposed Marshallese population.

  20. Collision Models for Plasma Simulation of Thermonuclear Burn: Comparison of Models and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winske, Dan; Albright, Brian; Bowers, Kevin; Lemons, Don

    2007-11-01

    There is renewed interest in examining plasma physics issues related to thermonuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and fast ignition (FI): e.g., the rate of temperature equilibration of electrons and ions, the formation and/or depletion of high energy tails of ion velocity distributions of ions, the slowing of energetic ions in dense plasmas, etc. To address these types of questions, we have developed a new particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulation capability, embodied in the code VPIC. To model TN-burn problems in dense plasmas, we have developed a new Coulomb collision model, based on the use of stochastic differential equations and well-known Spitzer rates to describe the collision process, which was presented at last year's meeting. Here we extend the model to included arbitrary weighting of individual simulation particles, rather than just separate weights for each plasma species, which is a feature intrinsic to VPIC. We compare test cases for plasma relaxation and slowing of fast beams using the new collision model with results obtained from an extension of standard particle-pairing collision models to weighted particles for parameter regimes of interest to ICF and FI.

  1. IGNITION COLUMN DEPTHS OF HELIUM-RICH THERMONUCLEAR BURSTS FROM 4U 1728-34

    SciTech Connect

    Misanovic, Zdenka; Galloway, Duncan K.; Cooper, Randall L.

    2010-08-01

    We analyzed thermonuclear (type I) X-ray bursts observed from the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1728-34 by RXTE, Chandra, and INTEGRAL. We compared the variation in burst energy and recurrence times as a function of accretion rate with the predictions of a numerical ignition model including a treatment of the heating and cooling in the crust. We found that the measured burst ignition column depths are significantly below the theoretically predicted values, regardless of the assumed thermal structure of the neutron star (NS) interior. While it is possible that the accretion rate measured by Chandra is underestimated, due to additional persistent spectral components outside the sensitivity band, the required correction factor is typically 3.6 and as high as 6, which is implausible. Furthermore, such underestimation is even more unlikely for RXTE and INTEGRAL, which have much broader bandpasses. Possible explanations for the observed discrepancy include shear-triggered mixing of the accreted helium to larger column depths, resulting in earlier ignition, or the fractional covering of the accreted fuel on the NS surface.

  2. Design considerations for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) toroidal field coils

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, S.S.; Lousteau, D.C.; Miller, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a new tokamak design project with joint participation from Europe, Japan, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), and the United States. This paper describes a magnetic and mechanical design methodology for toroidal field (TF) coils that employs Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor technology. Coil winding is sized by using conductor concepts developed for the US TIBER concept. The nuclear heating generated during operation is removed from the windings by helium flowing through the conductor. The heat in the coil case is removed through a separate cooling circuit operating at approximately 20 K. Manifold concepts are presented for the complete coil cooling system. Also included are concepts for the coil structural arrangement. The effects of in-plane and out-of-plane loads are included in the design considerations for the windings and case. Concepts are presented for reacting these loads with a minimum amount of additional structural material. Concepts discussed in this paper could be considered for the ITER TF coils. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Antenna design for fast ion collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor.

    PubMed

    Leipold, F; Furtula, V; Salewski, M; Bindslev, H; Korsholm, S B; Meo, F; Michelsen, P K; Moseev, D; Nielsen, S K; Stejner, M

    2009-09-01

    Fast ion physics will play an important role for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), where confined alpha particles will affect and be affected by plasma dynamics and thereby have impacts on the overall confinement. A fast ion collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic using gyrotrons operated at 60 GHz will meet the requirements for spatially and temporally resolved measurements of the velocity distributions of confined fast alphas in ITER by evaluating the scattered radiation (CTS signal). While a receiver antenna on the low field side of the tokamak, resolving near perpendicular (to the magnetic field) velocity components, has been enabled, an additional antenna on the high field side (HFS) would enable measurements of near parallel (to the magnetic field) velocity components. A compact design solution for the proposed mirror system on the HFS is presented. The HFS CTS antenna is located behind the blankets and views the plasma through the gap between two blanket modules. The viewing gap has been modified to dimensions 30x500 mm(2) to optimize the CTS signal. A 1:1 mock-up of the HFS mirror system was built. Measurements of the beam characteristics for millimeter-waves at 60 GHz used in the mock-up agree well with the modeling.

  4. Bulk-bronzied graphites for plasma-facing components in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.; Doerner, R.; Khandagle, M. . Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research); Causey, R.; Wilson, K. ); Croessmann, D.; Whitley, J. ); Holland, D.; Smolik, G. ); Matsuda, T.; Sogabe, T. (Toyo Tanso Co. Ltd., O

    1990-06-01

    Newly developed bulk-boronized graphites and boronized C-C composites with a total boron concentration ranging from 1 wt % to 30 wt % have been evaluated as plasma-facing component materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Bulk-boronized graphites have been bombarded with high-flux deuterium plasmas at temperatures between 200 and 1600{degree}C. Plasma interaction induced erosion of bulk-boronized graphites is observed to be a factor of 2--3 smaller than that of pyrolytic graphite, in regimes of physical sputtering, chemical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation. Postbombardment thermal desorption spectroscopy indicates that bulk-boronized graphites enhance recombinative desorption of deuterium, which leads to a suppression of the formation of deuterocarbon due to chemical sputtering. The tritium inventory in graphite has been found to decrease by an order of magnitude due to 10 wt % bulk-boronization at temperatures above 1000{degree}C. The critical heat flux to induce cracking for bulk-boronized graphites has been found to be essentially the same as that for non-boronized graphites. Also, 10 wt % bulk-boronization of graphite hinders air oxidation nearly completely at 800{degree}C and reduces the steam oxidation rate by a factor of 2--3 at around 1100 and 1350{degree}C. 38 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Thermonuclear runaways in nova outbursts. 2: Effect of strong, instantaneous, local fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, Anurag; Arnett, David

    1994-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the manner in which nova outbursts are initiated on the surface of a white dwarf, we investigate the effects fluctuations have on the evolution of a thermonuclear runaway. Fluctuations in temperature density, or the composition of material in the burning shell may arise due to the chaotic flow field generated by convection when it occurs, or by the accretion process itself. With the aid of two-dimensional reactive flow calculations, we consider cases where a strong fluctutation in temperature arises during the early, quiescent accretion phase or during the later, more dynamic, explosion phase. In all cases we find that an instantaneous, local temperature fluctuation causes the affected material to become Rayleigh-Taylor unstable. The rapid rise and subsequent expansion of matter immediately cools the hot blob, which prevents the lateral propagation of burning. This suggests that local temperature fluctuations do not play a significant role in directly initiating the runaway, especially during the early stages. However, they may provide an efficient mechanism of mixing core material into the envelope (thereby pre-enriching the fuel for subsequent episodes of explosive hydrogen burning) and of mixing substantial amounts of the radioactive nucleus N-13 into the surface layers, making novae potential gamma-ray sources. This suggests that it is the global not the local, evolution of the core-envelope interface to high temperatures which dominates the development of the runaway. We also present a possible new scenario for the initiation of nova outbursts based on our results.

  6. Rotational effects in thermonuclear type I bursts: equatorial crossing and directionality of flame spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavecchi, Yuri; Watts, Anna L.; Levin, Yuri; Braithwaite, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    In a previous study on thermonuclear (type I) bursts on accreting neutron stars, we addressed and demonstrated the importance of the effects of rotation, through the Coriolis force, on the propagation of the burning flame. However, that study only analysed cases of longitudinal propagation, where the Coriolis force coefficient 2Ωcos θ was constant. In this paper, we study the effects of rotation on propagation in the meridional (latitudinal) direction, where the Coriolis force changes from its maximum at the poles to zero at the equator. We find that the zero Coriolis force at the equator, while affecting the structure of the flame, does not prevent its propagation from one hemisphere to another. We also observe structural differences between the flame propagating towards the equator and that propagating towards the pole, the second being faster. In the light of the recent discovery of the low spin frequency of burster IGR J17480-2446 rotating at 11 Hz (for which Coriolis effects should be negligible), we also extend our simulations to slow rotation.

  7. Transmission of Thermonuclear Detonations through Layers of Burned Material in Carbon-Oxygen White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamezo, V. N.; Oran, E. S.

    2006-06-01

    In three-dimensional delayed-detonation models of type Ia supernovae, detonations propagate through funnels of degenerate carbon-oxygen matter that are left unburned by turbulent deflagrations in central parts of a white dwarf. Some of these funnels can be disconnected from the rest of the unburned material, thus creating unburned pockets that cannot be directly reached by a detonation wave. These pockets may or may not ignite when strong shocks generated by detonations reach them through layers of burned material. In this work, we study the detonation transmission phenomena in exploding white dwarfs using one-dimensional time-dependent numerical simulations based on reactive Euler equations. The thermonuclear burning of carbon-oxygen mixture is modeled by a 13-nuclei alpha network. We use a steady-state solution for the reaction-zone structure of a one-dimensional detonation wave as an initial condition. Time-dependent computations performed for a fully resolved carbon reaction scale show that a detonation shock passing through a layer of burned material can initiate a new detonation or decay. The critical thickness of burned material that allows the detonation reignition is a function of density. This work was supported in part by the NASA ATP program (NRA-02-OSS-01-ATP) and by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) through the Office of Naval Research.

  8. Radiographic Progression of Patients With Psoriatic Arthritis Who Achieve Minimal Disease Activity in Response to Golimumab Therapy: Results Through 5 Years of a Randomized, Placebo‐Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijde, Désirée; Beutler, Anna; Gladman, Dafna; Mease, Philip; Krueger, Gerald G.; McInnes, Iain B.; Helliwell, Philip; Coates, Laura C.; Xu, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate long‐term outcomes in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients who achieved or did not achieve minimal disease activity (MDA) through 5 years of golimumab treatment in the GO‐REVEAL trial. Methods The GO‐REVEAL trial was a phase III, randomized, double‐blind trial with placebo‐control through week 24 followed by an open‐label extension of golimumab 50/100 mg treatment up to 5 years. In these post‐hoc analyses, MDA was defined by the presence of ≥5 of 7 PsA outcome measures (≤1 swollen joint, ≤1 tender joint, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index [PASI] ≤1, patient pain score ≤15, patient global disease activity score ≤20 [range 0–100], Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index [HAQ DI] ≤0.5, and ≤1 tender enthesis point). Results Treatment with golimumab yielded significantly higher MDA response rates versus patients randomized to placebo at week 14 (23.5% versus 1.0%; P < 0.0001), week 24 (28.1% versus 7.7%; P < 0.0001), and week 52 (42.4% versus 30.2%; P = 0.037). MDA was achieved at least once by ∼50% of golimumab‐treated patients overall. Irrespective of treatment randomization, achievement of MDA at ≥3 and ≥4 consecutive visits was associated with significantly less radiographic progression and more improvement in MDA components allowing specific assessment of physical function (HAQ DI) and overall disease activity (patient global assessment of disease activity) at week 256 versus patients not achieving MDA. Logistic regression analyses indicated that a 1‐unit higher baseline HAQ DI score yielded a significantly lower likelihood of achieving MDA at ≥3 (odds ratio 0.514 [95% confidence interval 0.321–0.824]; P = 0.006) and ≥4 (odds ratio 0.480 [95% confidence interval 0.290–0.795]; P = 0.004) consecutive visits. Conclusion Among golimumab‐treated PsA patients, better long‐term functional improvement, patient global assessment, and radiographic outcomes were observed when

  9. Counselee participation in follow-up breast cancer genetic counselling visits and associations with achievement of the preferred role, cognitive outcomes, risk perception alignment and perceived personal control.

    PubMed

    Albada, Akke; Ausems, Margreet G E M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the counselee participation in the follow-up visits, compared to the first visits, for breast cancer genetic counselling and to explore associations with counselees' achievement of their preferred role in decision making, information recall, knowledge, risk perception alignment and perceived personal control. First and follow-up visits for breast cancer genetic counselling of 96 counselees of a Dutch genetics center were videotaped (2008-2010). Counselees completed questionnaires before counselling (T1), after the follow-up visit (T2) and one year after the follow-up visit (T3). Consultations were rated with the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Counselee participation was measured as the percentage of counselee utterances, the percentage of counselee questions and the interactivity (number of turns per minute). Follow-up visits had higher levels of counselee participation than first visits as assessed by the percentage of counselee talk, the interactivity and counselee questions. More counselee talk in the follow-up visit was related to higher achievement of the preferred role (T2) and higher perceived personal control (T3). Higher interactivity in the follow-up visit was related to lower achievement of the preferred role in decision making and lower information recall (T2). There were no significant associations with the percentage of questions asked and none of the participation measures was related to knowledge, risk perception alignment and perceived personal control (T2). In line with the interviewing admonishment 'talk less and listen more', the only assessment of counselee participation associated to better outcomes is the percentage of counselee talk. High interactivity might be associated with lower recall in breast cancer genetic counselees who are generally highly educated. However, this study was limited by a small sample size and a heterogeneous group of counselees. Research is needed on the interactions

  10. Ethiopia and its steps to mobilize resources to achieve 2020 elimination and control goals for neglected tropical diseases webs joined can tie a lion.

    PubMed

    Mengitsu, Belete; Shafi, Oumer; Kebede, Biruck; Kebede, Fikreab; Worku, Dagemlidet T; Herero, Merce; French, Michael; Kebede, Biruk; Mackenzie, Charles; Martindale, Sarah; Kebede, Zeyede; Hirpa, Tigist; Frawley, Hannah; Crowley, Kathryn; O'Neil, Maggie; McPherson, Scott

    2016-03-01

    In June 2013, at the launch of its National Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Master Plan, the Ethiopian government pledged to achieve WHO NTD elimination and control targets by 2020. With an estimated 80 million people living in areas where one or more NTDs are endemic, this goal presented an enormous challenge for the Federal Ministry of Health. However, as of September 2015, the Federal Ministry of Health has managed to mobilize support to implement mass drug administration in 84% of the trachoma endemic districts and 100% of the endemic districts for onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis. The national program still is facing large gaps in its podoconiosis and leishmaniasis programs, and it faces significant other challenges to stay on track for 2020 targets. However, this unprecedented scale-up in support was achieved through significant government investment in NTD interventions and creative coordination between donors and implementing partners, which may provide valuable lessons for other national NTD programs trying to achieve nationwide coverage. PMID:26940308

  11. Ethiopia and its steps to mobilize resources to achieve 2020 elimination and control goals for neglected tropical diseases webs joined can tie a lion.

    PubMed

    Mengitsu, Belete; Shafi, Oumer; Kebede, Biruck; Kebede, Fikreab; Worku, Dagemlidet T; Herero, Merce; French, Michael; Kebede, Biruk; Mackenzie, Charles; Martindale, Sarah; Kebede, Zeyede; Hirpa, Tigist; Frawley, Hannah; Crowley, Kathryn; O'Neil, Maggie; McPherson, Scott

    2016-03-01

    In June 2013, at the launch of its National Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Master Plan, the Ethiopian government pledged to achieve WHO NTD elimination and control targets by 2020. With an estimated 80 million people living in areas where one or more NTDs are endemic, this goal presented an enormous challenge for the Federal Ministry of Health. However, as of September 2015, the Federal Ministry of Health has managed to mobilize support to implement mass drug administration in 84% of the trachoma endemic districts and 100% of the endemic districts for onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis. The national program still is facing large gaps in its podoconiosis and leishmaniasis programs, and it faces significant other challenges to stay on track for 2020 targets. However, this unprecedented scale-up in support was achieved through significant government investment in NTD interventions and creative coordination between donors and implementing partners, which may provide valuable lessons for other national NTD programs trying to achieve nationwide coverage.

  12. Sensitivity study of explosive nucleosynthesis in type Ia supernovae: Modification of individual thermonuclear reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Eduardo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2012-05-01

    Background: Type Ia supernovae contribute significantly to the nucleosynthesis of many Fe-group and intermediate-mass elements. However, the robustness of nucleosynthesis obtained via models of this class of explosions has not been studied in depth until now.Purpose: We explore the sensitivity of the nucleosynthesis resulting from thermonuclear explosions of massive white dwarfs with respect to uncertainties in nuclear reaction rates. We put particular emphasis on indentifying the individual reactions rates that most strongly affect the isotopic products of these supernovae.Method: We have adopted a standard one-dimensional delayed detonation model of the explosion of a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf and have postprocessed the thermodynamic trajectories of every mass shell with a nucleosynthetic code to obtain the chemical composition of the ejected matter. We have considered increases (decreases) by a factor of 10 on the rates of 1196 nuclear reactions (simultaneously with their inverse reactions), repeating the nucleosynthesis calculations after modification of each reaction rate pair. We have computed as well hydrodynamic models for different rates of the fusion reactions of 12C and of 16O. From the calculations we have selected the reactions that have the largest impact on the supernova yields, and we have computed again the nucleosynthesis using two or three alternative prescriptions for their rates, taken from the JINA REACLIB database. For the three reactions with the largest sensitivity we have analyzed as well the temperature ranges where a modification of their rates has the strongest effect on nucleosynthesis.Results: The nucleosynthesis resulting from the type Ia supernova models is quite robust with respect to variations of nuclear reaction rates, with the exception of the reaction of fusion of two 12C nuclei. The energy of the explosion changes by less than ˜4% when the rates of the reactions 12C+12C or 16O+16O are multiplied by a factor of ×10 or

  13. Development of multifilamentary niobium titanium and niobium tin strands for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Zhang, P. X.; Tang, X. D.; Liu, X. H.; Lu, Y. F.; Weng, P. D.; Grunblatt, G.; Hoang, Gia K.; Verwaerde, C.

    2007-05-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor(ITER) device should demonstrate the scientific and technological possibility of commercial fusion energy production in large scale in order to solve the worldwide energy problem in the future. The superconducting magnet system is the key part of the ITER device to supply high magnetic fields for confining the deuterium-tritium plasma. The multifilament NbTi and Nb3Sn strands with high quality have been studied to meet the specifications of superconducting strands for fabricating poloidal field coils (PF) and toroidal field coils (TF). For NbTi strands with 8306 filaments, Jc of 2910 A mm-2 (4.2 K, 5 T, 0.1 μV cm-1) has been obtained by a conventional process. The proposed process could be used for fabrication of long strands with a unit length more than 5000 m. By an internal tin process the multifilamentary Nb3Sn strands with a diameter of 0.79 mm and a unit length longer than 5000 m have been successfully fabricated. The highest non-Cu Jcn (12 T, 4.2 K, 0.1 μV cm-1) value of 1249 A mm-2 has been obtained. The n-value of Nb3Sn strands is larger than 20 and the residual resistance ratio (RRR) value lies between 150 and 220. The formation of the Nb3Sn superconducting phase together with the evolution of microstructure has been investigated by neutron diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the properties of NbTi and Nb3Sn strands have already met basically the specifications proposed by the ITER program.

  14. Evidence of thermonuclear flame spreading on neutron stars from burst rise oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Bhattacharyya, Sudip E-mail: sudip@tifr.res.in

    2014-09-01

    Burst oscillations during the rising phases of thermonuclear X-ray bursts are usually believed to originate from flame spreading on the neutron star surface. However, the decrease of fractional oscillation amplitude with rise time, which provides a main observational support for the flame spreading model, have so far been reported from only a few bursts. Moreover, the non-detection and intermittent detections of rise oscillations from many bursts are not yet understood considering the flame spreading scenario. Here, we report the decreasing trend of fractional oscillation amplitude from an extensive analysis of a large sample of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array bursts from 10 neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. This trend is 99.99% significant for the best case, which provides, to the best of our knowledge, by far the strongest evidence of such a trend. Moreover, it is important to note that an opposite trend is not found in any of the bursts. The concave shape of the fractional amplitude profiles for all the bursts suggests latitude-dependent flame speeds, possibly due to the effects of the Coriolis force. We also systematically study the roles of low fractional amplitude and low count rate for non-detection and intermittent detections of rise oscillations, and attempt to understand them within the flame spreading scenario. Our results support a weak turbulent viscosity for flame spreading, and imply that burst rise oscillations originate from an expanding hot spot, thus making these oscillations a more reliable tool to constrain the neutron star equations of state.

  15. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronics system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, C.L.; Johnson, J.O.

    1994-05-01

    The utilization of reconnaissance/surveillance satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from fission and fusion weapons; and directed neutral particle beams and lasers. Electronic equipment, including modem integrated circuits, may undergo permanent or transient changes of the electrical properties of the active components when exposed to these sources of radiation. This report summarizes the results of the Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH v1.0 calculations designed to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized spaced based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emanating from a thermonuclear weapon detonation. The MASH calculations modeled several source/platform geometry configurations, obtaining results for multiple distances and weapon detonation positions relative to the platform. For certain source/platform orientations, the results indicate vulnerabilities to the C{sup 3} bay critical components box to radiation damage from a nuclear weapon detonation. Neutron protection factors ranged from 0.7 to 3.4 for the three platform configurations analyzed, and gamma-ray protection factors ranged from approximately 1.5 to 9.8. The results further indicate the source has a direct line-of-sight to the critical components box for certain source/platform orientations, regardless of the number of interceptors present. The merits of utilizing the MASH code system for estimating dose and shielding factors for spaced based assets has been demonstrated. The geometry configuration studied here is greatly simplified compared to those that will be encountered in an actual design.

  16. Reaction rate and composition dependence of the stability of thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Keek, L.; Cyburt, R. H.; Heger, A.

    2014-06-01

    The stability of thermonuclear burning of hydrogen and helium accreted onto neutron stars is strongly dependent on the mass accretion rate. The burning behavior is observed to change from Type I X-ray bursts to stable burning, with oscillatory burning occurring at the transition. Simulations predict the transition at a 10 times higher mass accretion rate than observed. Using numerical models we investigate how the transition depends on the hydrogen, helium, and CNO mass fractions of the accreted material, as well as on the nuclear reaction rates of 3α and the hot-CNO breakout reactions {sup 15}O(α, γ){sup 19}Ne and {sup 18}Ne(α, p){sup 21}Na. For a lower hydrogen content the transition is at higher accretion rates. Furthermore, most experimentally allowed reaction rate variations change the transition accretion rate by at most 10%. A factor 10 decrease of the {sup 15}O(α, γ){sup 19}Ne rate, however, produces an increase of the transition accretion rate of 35%. None of our models reproduce the transition at the observed rate, and depending on the true {sup 15}O(α, γ){sup 19}Ne reaction rate, the actual discrepancy may be substantially larger. We find that the width of the interval of accretion rates with marginally stable burning depends strongly on both composition and reaction rates. Furthermore, close to the stability transition, our models predict that X-ray bursts have extended tails where freshly accreted fuel prolongs nuclear burning.

  17. Transmission thermography for inspecting the busbar insulation layer in thermonuclear experimental reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dapeng; Zhang, Guang; Zhang, Xiaolong; Zeng, Zhi

    2014-11-01

    In Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, Superconducting Busbar is used for current transmission between magnet coils and current leads. The work temperature of the Busbar is about 4K because of liquid helium via inside. The large temperature grad from 300K to 4K could lead to the defects and damages occur on the insulation layer, which is made of glass fiber and polyimide and has a big different thermal expansion coefficient compared with the metal inner cylinder. This paper aims at developing an infrared transmission non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method for inspecting the insulation layer of Superconducting Busbar; theoretical model of transient heat conduction under a continuous inner heat source for cylindrical structure is described in the paper; a Busbar specimen which is designed with three delamination defects of different depths is heated inside by pouring hot water and monitored by an infrared detector located outside. Results demonstrate excellent detection performance for delamination defects in the insulation layer by using transmission thermography, all of the three defects of different depths can be visualized clearly in the thermal images, and the deeper defect has a better signal contrast, which is also shown in the temperature difference between defects and sound area vs. time curves. The results of light pulse thermography is also shown as a comparison, and it is found that the thermal images obtained by the transmission thermography has a much better signal contrast than that of the pulse thermography. In order to verify the experiments, finite element method is applied to simulate the heat conduction in the Busbar under the continuous inside heating, and it is found that the simulated temperature vs. time and simulated temperature difference vs. time curves are basically coincident with the experimental results. In addition, the possibility of in-service inspection for Busbar insulation layer in ITER item is discussed.

  18. An accretion disk swept up by a powerful thermonuclear X-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenaar, Nathalie

    Type-I X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions occurring in the surface layers of accreting neutron stars. These events are powerful probes of the physics of neutron stars and their surrounding accretion flow. Swift recently caught a very energetic type-I X-ray burst from the neutron star IGR J17062-6143 that displayed exceptional features. Firstly, the light curve of the 18 minute long X-ray burst tail shows an episode of 10 minutes with wild X-ray intensity fluctuations. Secondly, X-ray spectral analysis revealed a highly significant emission line around 1 keV, which can be interpreted as an Fe-L shell line caused by the irradiation of cold gas. Finally, the detection of significant absorption lines and edges in the Fe-K band are strongly suggestive of the presence of hot, highly ionized gas along the line of sight. None of these features are present in the persistent emission of the source. The X-ray burst of IGR J17062-6143 shows the first unambiguous detection of atomic features at CCD resolution. The timescale of the strong intensity variations, the velocity width of the Fe-L emission line, and photo-ionization modeling of the Fe-K absorption features each independently point to swept-up gas at a radius of ~1000 km from the neutron star. The unusual X-ray light curve and spectral properties could have plausibly been caused by a disruption of the accretion disk due to the super-Eddington fluxes reached during the X-ray burst.

  19. ON THE CONSISTENCY OF NEUTRON-STAR RADIUS MEASUREMENTS FROM THERMONUCLEAR BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, Duncan K.; Lampe, Nathanael

    2012-03-01

    The radius of neutron stars can in principle be measured via the normalization of a blackbody fitted to the X-ray spectrum during thermonuclear (type-I) X-ray bursts, although few previous studies have addressed the reliability of such measurements. Here we examine the apparent radius in a homogeneous sample of long, mixed H/He bursts from the low-mass X-ray binaries GS 1826-24 and KS 1731-26. The measured blackbody normalization (proportional to the emitting area) in these bursts is constant over a period of up to 60 s in the burst tail, even though the flux (blackbody temperature) decreased by a factor of 60%-75% (30%-40%). The typical rms variation in the mean normalization from burst to burst was 3%-5%, although a variation of 17% was found between bursts observed from GS 1826-24 in two epochs. A comparison of the time-resolved spectroscopic measurements during bursts from the two epochs shows that the normalization evolves consistently through the burst rise and peak, but subsequently increases further in the earlier epoch bursts. The elevated normalization values may arise from a change in the anisotropy of the burst emission or alternatively variations in the spectral correction factor, f{sub c} , of order 10%. Since burst samples observed from systems other than GS 1826-24 are more heterogeneous, we expect that systematic uncertainties of at least 10% are likely to apply generally to measurements of neutron-star radii, unless the effects described here can be corrected for.

  20. A thermolysis approach to simultaneously achieve crystal phase- and shape-control of ternary M-Fe-O metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chich-Neng; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Significant studies have achieved beautiful control in particle size, while the shape- and phase-control synthesis of nanoparticles remains an open challenge. In this study, we have developed a generalized methodology to selectively prepare either NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) M-Fe-O (M = Mn, Co) crystallites with high reproducibility. A two-step heating process was able to control formation of two types of crystal phase, either a thermodynamic spinel-type under air or a kinetic-control of NaCl-type (rock salt structure) under Ar in a cubic morphology. On the other hand, the three-step heating procedure in air obtained the spinel-type with a thermodynamic equilibrium octahedral shape exclusively. Either using metal acetates (M(ac)(2)) or metal acetylacetonates (M(acac)(2)) as the starting precursors (M = Mn, Co) can be introduced to prepare NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) crystallites with identical experimental parameters, including precursor concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, and heating rate. The oleic acid molecule, reaction temperature, and heating rate employed in the synthesis were carefully examined and found acting as determined roles behind the reaction processes. Apart from the previous literature reports as shape-directed and/or stabilizing agents, the oleic acid molecule played an additional phase-tuning role.

  1. Achieving dust lead clearance standards after lead hazard control projects: An evaluation of the HUD-recommended cleaning procedure and an abbreviated alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, S. ); Tohn, E. ); Rupp, R. ); Clark, S. . Dept. of Environmental Health)

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD's) Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing strongly recommend that after lead hazard control interventions all walls, ceiling, floors, and other horizontal surfaces be cleaned using a three-step process to reduce lead-contaminated dust and debris. The three steps are: an initial vacuuming using a machine equipped with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter (HEPA vacuum), wet wash with a lead cleaner, and a final HEPA vacuum. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two cleaning protocols: (1) the HUD-recommended three-step procedure, and (2) an abbreviated two-step cleaning procedure that omits the final HEPA vacuum. Cleaning procedures were evaluated in 27 dwelling units that had undergone significant lead hazard control interventions likely to produce lead dust. Dust lead samples were collected on floors and in window sills and troughs prior to the lead control hazard intervention, after the wet wash step of the cleaning procedure, and after completion of the second HEPA vacuuming. The results of the study demonstrate that dust lead surface loading on smooth and cleanable surfaces following the three-step and two-step cleaning procedures can achieve 1995 federal guidance dust clearance levels and levels substantially lower. Although the dust lead clearance rates before and after the second HEPA vacuum were the same, the time saved by omitting the second HEPA is small relative to the other elements of the cleaning process.

  2. THE FERMI-GBM X-RAY BURST MONITOR: THERMONUCLEAR BURSTS FROM 4U 0614+09

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, M.; Chakrabarty, D.; Connaughton, V.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Preece, R.; Jenke, P.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Finger, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Beklen, E.; Von Kienlin, A.

    2012-12-01

    Thermonuclear bursts from slowly accreting neutron stars (NSs) have proven difficult to detect, yet they are potential probes of the thermal properties of the NS interior. During the first year of a systematic all-sky search for X-ray bursts using the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope we have detected 15 thermonuclear bursts from the NS low-mass X-ray binary 4U 0614+09 when it was accreting at nearly 1% of the Eddington limit. We measured an average burst recurrence time of 12 {+-} 3 days (68% confidence interval) between 2010 March and 2011 March, classified all bursts as normal duration bursts and placed a lower limit on the recurrence time of long/intermediate bursts of 62 days (95% confidence level). We discuss how observations of thermonuclear bursts in the hard X-ray band compare to pointed soft X-ray observations and quantify such bandpass effects on measurements of burst radiated energy and duration. We put our results for 4U 0614+09 in the context of other bursters and briefly discuss the constraints on ignition models. Interestingly, we find that the burst energies in 4U 0614+09 are on average between those of normal duration bursts and those measured in long/intermediate bursts. Such a continuous distribution in burst energy provides a new observational link between normal and long/intermediate bursts. We suggest that the apparent bimodal distribution that defined normal and long/intermediate duration bursts during the last decade could be due to an observational bias toward detecting only the longest and most energetic bursts from slowly accreting NSs.

  3. The Fermi-GBM X-Ray Burst Monitor: Thermonuclear Bursts from 4U 0614+09

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, M.; Connaughton, V.; Jenke, P.; van der Horst, A. J.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Chakrabarty, D.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Finger, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; von Kienlin, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Thermonuclear bursts from slowly accreting neutron stars (NSs) have proven difficult to detect, yet they are potential probes of the thermal properties of the NS interior. During the first year of a systematic all-sky search for X-ray bursts using the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope we have detected 15 thermonuclear bursts from the NS low-mass X-ray binary 4U 0614+09 when it was accreting at nearly 1% of the Eddington limit. We measured an average burst recurrence time of 12 ± 3 days (68% confidence interval) between 2010 March and 2011 March, classified all bursts as normal duration bursts and placed a lower limit on the recurrence time of long/intermediate bursts of 62 days (95% confidence level). We discuss how observations of thermonuclear bursts in the hard X-ray band compare to pointed soft X-ray observations and quantify such bandpass effects on measurements of burst radiated energy and duration. We put our results for 4U 0614+09 in the context of other bursters and briefly discuss the constraints on ignition models. Interestingly, we find that the burst energies in 4U 0614+09 are on average between those of normal duration bursts and those measured in long/intermediate bursts. Such a continuous distribution in burst energy provides a new observational link between normal and long/intermediate bursts. We suggest that the apparent bimodal distribution that defined normal and long/intermediate duration bursts during the last decade could be due to an observational bias toward detecting only the longest and most energetic bursts from slowly accreting NSs.

  4. Ion heating and thermonuclear neutron production from high-intensity subpicosecond laser pulses interacting with underdense plasmas.

    PubMed

    Fritzler, S; Najmudin, Z; Malka, V; Krushelnick, K; Marle, C; Walton, B; Wei, M S; Clarke, R J; Dangor, A E

    2002-10-14

    Thermonuclear fusion neutrons produced by D(d,n)3He reactions have been measured from the interaction of a high-intensity laser with underdense deuterium plasmas. For an input laser energy of 62 J, more than (1.0+/-0.2)x10(6) neutrons with a mean kinetic energy of (2.5+/-0.2) MeV were detected. These neutrons were observed to have an isotropic angular emission profile. By comparing these measurements with those using a secondary solid CD2 target it was determined that neutrons are produced from direct ion heating during this interaction.

  5. Power-gated 32 bit microprocessor with a power controller circuit activated by deep-sleep-mode instruction achieving ultra-low power operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Hiroki; Ohsawa, Takashi; Miura, Sadahiko; Honjo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Hanyu, Takahiro; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2015-04-01

    A spintronic-based power-gated micro-processing unit (MPU) is proposed. It includes a power control circuit activated by the newly supported power-off instruction for the deep-sleep mode. These means enable the power-off procedure for the MPU to be executed appropriately. A test chip was designed and fabricated using 90 nm CMOS and an additional 100 nm MTJ process; it was successfully operated. The guideline of the energy reduction effects for this MPU was presented, using the estimation based on the measurement results of the test chip. The result shows that a large operation energy reduction of 1/28 can be achieved when the operation duty is 10%, under the condition of a sufficient number of idle clock cycles.

  6. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen S.; Skov, Julia; Sun, Yi; Duong Bang, Dang; Pedersen, Michael E.; Hansen, Mikkel F.; Wolff, Anders

    2013-07-01

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence signal from Rhodamine B. The method was validated with the PCR amplification of mecA gene (162 bp) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterium (MRSA), where the time for 30 cycles was reduced from 50 min (without over- and undershooting) to 20 min.

  7. High luminosity, slow ejecta and persistent carbon lines: SN 2009dc challenges thermonuclear explosion scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubenberger, S.; Benetti, S.; Childress, M.; Pakmor, R.; Hachinger, S.; Mazzali, P. A.; Stanishev, V.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Agnoletto, I.; Bufano, F.; Ergon, M.; Harutyunyan, A.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Kromer, M.; Navasardyan, H.; Nicolas, J.; Pastorello, A.; Prosperi, E.; Salgado, F.; Sollerman, J.; Stritzinger, M.; Turatto, M.; Valenti, S.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2011-04-01

    Extended optical and near-IR observations reveal that SN 2009dc shares a number of similarities with normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), but is clearly overluminous, with a (pseudo-bolometric) peak luminosity of log (L) = 43.47 (erg s-1). Its light curves decline slowly over half a year after maximum light [Δm15(B)true= 0.71], and the early-time near-IR light curves show secondary maxima, although the minima between the first and the second peaks are not very pronounced. The bluer bands exhibit an enhanced fading after ˜200 d, which might be caused by dust formation or an unexpectedly early IR catastrophe. The spectra of SN 2009dc are dominated by intermediate-mass elements and unburned material at early times, and by iron-group elements at late phases. Strong C II lines are present until ˜2 weeks past maximum, which is unprecedented in thermonuclear SNe. The ejecta velocities are significantly lower than in normal and even subluminous SNe Ia. No signatures of interaction with a circumstellar medium (CSM) are found in the spectra. Assuming that the light curves are powered by radioactive decay, analytic modelling suggests that SN 2009dc produced ˜1.8 M⊙ of 56Ni assuming the smallest possible rise time of 22 d. Together with a derived total ejecta mass of ˜2.8 M⊙, this confirms that SN 2009dc is a member of the class of possible super-Chandrasekhar-mass SNe Ia similar to SNe 2003fg, 2006gz and 2007if. A study of the hosts of SN 2009dc and other superluminous SNe Ia reveals a tendency of these SNe to explode in low-mass galaxies. A low metallicity of the progenitor may therefore be an important prerequisite for producing superluminous SNe Ia. We discuss a number of possible explosion scenarios, ranging from super-Chandrasekhar-mass white-dwarf progenitors over dynamical white-dwarf mergers and Type I? SNe to a core-collapse origin of the explosion. None of the models seems capable of explaining all properties of SN 2009dc, so that the true nature of this SN

  8. Study of Thermonuclear Alfven Instabilities in Next Step Burning Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    N.N. Gorelenkov; H.L. Berk; R. Budny; C.Z. Cheng; G.-Y. Fu; W.W. Heidbrink; G. Kramer; D. Meade; and R. Nazikian

    2002-07-02

    A study is presented for the stability of alpha-particle driven shear Alfven Eigenmodes (AE) for the normal parameters of the three major burning plasma proposals, ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), FIRE (Fusion Ignition Research Experiment), and IGNITOR (Ignited Torus). A study of the JET (Joint European Torus) plasma, where fusion alphas were generated in tritium experiments, is also included to attempt experimental validation of the numerical predictions. An analytic assessment of Toroidal AE (TAE) stability is first presented, where the alpha particle beta due to the fusion reaction rate and electron drag is simply and accurately estimated in 7-20 keV plasma temperature regime. In this assessment the hot particle drive is balanced against ion-Landau damping of the background deuterons and electron collision effects and stability boundaries are determined. Then two numerical studies of AE instability are presented. In one the High-n stability code HINST is used . This code is capable of predicting instabilities of low and moderately high frequency Alfven modes. HINST computes the non-perturbative solution of the Alfven eigenmodes including effects of ion finite Larmor radius, orbit width, trapped electrons etc. The stability calculations are repeated using the global code NOVAK. We show that for these tokamaks the spectrum of the least stable AE modes are TAE that appear at medium-/high-n numbers. In HINST TAEs are locally unstable due to the alphas pressure gradient in all the devices under the consideration except IGNITOR. However, NOVAK calculations show that the global mode structure enhances the damping mechanisms and produces stability in all configurations considered here. A serious question remains whether the perturbation theory used in NOVAK overestimates the stability predictions, so that it is premature to conclude that the nominal operation of all three proposals are stable to AEs. In addition NBI ions produce a strong

  9. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  10. A thermolysis approach to simultaneously achieve crystal phase- and shape-control of ternary M-Fe-O metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chich-Neng; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Significant studies have achieved beautiful control in particle size, while the shape- and phase-control synthesis of nanoparticles remains an open challenge. In this study, we have developed a generalized methodology to selectively prepare either NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) M-Fe-O (M = Mn, Co) crystallites with high reproducibility. A two-step heating process was able to control formation of two types of crystal phase, either a thermodynamic spinel-type under air or a kinetic-control of NaCl-type (rock salt structure) under Ar in a cubic morphology. On the other hand, the three-step heating procedure in air obtained the spinel-type with a thermodynamic equilibrium octahedral shape exclusively. Either using metal acetates (M(ac)2) or metal acetylacetonates (M(acac)2) as the starting precursors (M = Mn, Co) can be introduced to prepare NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) crystallites with identical experimental parameters, including precursor concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, and heating rate. The oleic acid molecule, reaction temperature, and heating rate employed in the synthesis were carefully examined and found acting as determined roles behind the reaction processes. Apart from the previous literature reports as shape-directed and/or stabilizing agents, the oleic acid molecule played an additional phase-tuning role.Significant studies have achieved beautiful control in particle size, while the shape- and phase-control synthesis of nanoparticles remains an open challenge. In this study, we have developed a generalized methodology to selectively prepare either NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) M-Fe-O (M = Mn, Co) crystallites with high reproducibility. A two-step heating process was able to control formation of two types of crystal phase, either a thermodynamic spinel-type under air or a kinetic-control of NaCl-type (rock salt structure) under Ar in a

  11. Effectiveness of Music Education for the Improvement of Reading Skills and Academic Achievement in Young Poor Readers: A Pragmatic Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; de Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão; Ploubidis, George B.; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading difficulties. Method 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT) in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114), and five served as controls (n = 121). Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT), and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) estimation method, which took compliance status into account. Results The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]). As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children), more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year). Conclusion The results may be seen as promising, but they are not, in themselves

  12. Challenges in achieving optimal glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients with declining renal function: The Southeast Asia perspective.

    PubMed

    Cc Chow, Francis; Chan, Siew-Pheng; Hwu, Chii-Min; Suwanwalaikorn, Sompongse; Wu, Akira Yt; Gan, Susan Yu; Zacarias, Manuel B

    2012-12-20

    It is well recognised that Asia is at the epicenter of the global type 2 diabetes epidemic. Driven by socioeconomic changes involving industrialization, urbanization and adoption of Western lifestyles, the unprecedented increases in the prevalence of diabetes are particularly evident in Southeast Asia. The impact of diabetes is immense, and despite evidence of the benefit of optimal glucose control in reducing the risk of disease progression and development of macrovascular and microvascular complications, many individuals in this region remain poorly controlled. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasingly common diabetes-associated complication in Asian patients. Furthermore, Southeast Asia has one of the highest rates of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world. Consequently, CKD in diabetes is associated with considerable morbidity and cardiovascular-related mortality, highlighting the need to screen and assess patients early in the course of the disease. The management of type 2 diabetes patients with declining renal function represents a significant challenge. Many of the older antidiabetic agents, such as metformin and sulfonylureas, are limited in their utility in CKD as a result of contraindications or hypoglycemic episodes. In contrast, dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitors have provided a welcome addition to the therapeutic armamentarium for achieving glycemic control in these special populations. With comparable efficacy to and more favorable pharmacokinetic and side-effect profiles than traditional therapies, agents in this drug class, such as linagliptin, offer a more tailored approach to disease control in type 2 diabetes patients with declining renal function.

  13. On the implementation of a chain nuclear reaction of thermonuclear fusion on the basis of the p+11B process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Zagreev, B. V.; Matafonov, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    Various theoretical and experimental schemes for implementing a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of the p+11B reaction are considered. They include beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition upon plasma acceleration by ponderomotive forces, and the irradiation of a solid-state target from 11B with a proton beam under conditions of a Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdrops. The possibility of employing ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses to initiate the p+11B reaction under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed. This and some other weakly radioactive thermonuclear reactions are promising owing to their ecological cleanness—there are virtually no neutrons among fusion products. Nuclear reactions that follow the p+11B reaction may generate high-energy protons, sustaining a chain reaction, and this is an advantage of the p+11B option. The approach used also makes it possible to study nuclear reactions under conditions close to those in the early Universe or in the interior of stars.

  14. Automatic exposure control in multichannel CT with tube current modulation to achieve a constant level of image noise: Experimental assessment on pediatric phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Brisse, Herve J.; Madec, Ludovic; Gaboriaud, Genevieve; Lemoine, Thomas; Savignoni, Alexia; Neuenschwander, Sylvia; Aubert, Bernard; Rosenwald, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-15

    Automatic exposure control (AEC) systems have been developed by computed tomography (CT) manufacturers to improve the consistency of image quality among patients and to control the absorbed dose. Since a multichannel helical CT scan may easily increase individual radiation doses, this technical improvement is of special interest in children who are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation, but little information is currently available regarding the precise performance of these systems on small patients. Our objective was to assess an AEC system on pediatric dose phantoms by studying the impact of phantom transmission and acquisition parameters on tube current modulation, on the resulting absorbed dose and on image quality. We used a four-channel CT scan working with a patient-size and z-axis-based AEC system designed to achieve a constant noise within the reconstructed images by automatically adjusting the tube current during acquisition. The study was performed with six cylindrical poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) phantoms of variable diameters (10-32 cm) and one 5 years of age equivalent pediatric anthropomorphic phantom. After a single scan projection radiograph (SPR), helical acquisitions were performed and images were reconstructed with a standard convolution kernel. Tube current modulation was studied with variable SPR settings (tube angle, mA, kVp) and helical parameters (6-20 HU noise indices, 80-140 kVp tube potential, 0.8-4 s. tube rotation time, 5-20 mm x-ray beam thickness, 0.75-1.5 pitch, 1.25-10 mm image thickness, variable acquisition, and reconstruction fields of view). CT dose indices (CTDIvol) were measured, and the image quality criterion used was the standard deviation of the CT number measured in reconstructed images of PMMA material. Observed tube current levels were compared to the expected values from Brooks and Di Chiro's [R.A. Brooks and G.D. Chiro, Med. Phys. 3, 237-240 (1976)] model and calculated values (product of a reference value

  15. ON THE EFFECT OF EXPLOSIVE THERMONUCLEAR BURNING ON THE ACCRETED ENVELOPES OF WHITE DWARFS IN CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Sion, Edward M.; Sparks, Warren E-mail: warrensparks@comcast.net

    2014-11-20

    The detection of heavy elements at suprasolar abundances in the atmospheres of some accreting white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables (CVs), coupled with the high temperatures needed to produce these elements, requires explosive thermonuclear burning. The central temperatures of any formerly more massive secondary stars in CVs undergoing hydrostatic CNO burning are far too low to produce these elements. Evidence is presented that at least some CVs contain donor secondaries that have been contaminated by white dwarf remnant burning during the common envelope phase and are transferring this material back to the white dwarf. This scenario does not exclude the channel in which formerly more massive donor stars underwent CNO processing in systems with thermal timescale mass transfer. Implications for the progenitors of CVs are discussed and a new scenario for the white dwarf's accretion-nova-outburst is given.

  16. Transition from Beam-Target to Thermonuclear Fusion in High-Current Deuterium Z-Pinch Simulations.

    PubMed

    Offermann, Dustin T; Welch, Dale R; Rose, Dave V; Thoma, Carsten; Clark, Robert E; Mostrom, Chris B; Schmidt, Andrea E W; Link, Anthony J

    2016-05-13

    Fusion yields from dense, Z-pinch plasmas are known to scale with the drive current, which is favorable for many potential applications. Decades of experimental studies, however, show an unexplained drop in yield for currents above a few mega-ampere (MA). In this work, simulations of DD Z-Pinch plasmas have been performed in 1D and 2D for a constant pinch time and initial radius using the code Lsp, and observations of a shift in scaling are presented. The results show that yields below 3 MA are enhanced relative to pure thermonuclear scaling by beamlike particles accelerated in the Rayleigh-Taylor induced electric fields, while yields above 3 MA are reduced because of energy lost by the instability and the inability of the beamlike ions to enter the pinch region.

  17. Ion species mix measurements in DIII-D and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor using ion-ion hybrid layer reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Watson, G.W.; Burrell, K.H.

    2004-10-01

    A superheterodyne reflectometer can provide a direct and inexpensive measurement of the concentrations of ion species with different charge to mass ratios. The ion-ion hybrid cutoff frequency is uniquely determined by the cyclotron frequencies and concentrations of the different species. The phase of a {approx}20 MHz wave that travels from a launching antenna on the low-field side of a tokamak, reflects off the cutoff layer, then travels to a receiving antenna provides a direct measure of the species mix. Hydrogen concentrations between 3% and 67% are measured in DIII-D using this technique. In theory, the technique can measure the spatial profile of the tritium concentration in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. Possible practical difficulties include attenuation of the wave in the evanescent layer near the antenna.

  18. Academic Buoyancy, Student's Achievement, and the Linking Role of Control: A Cross-Lagged Analysis of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Martin, Andrew J.; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Hall, James; Ginns, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated that although academic buoyancy and student's achievement are associated, the relationship is relatively modest. Aims: We sought to determine whether another construct might link academic buoyancy and student's achievement. Based on prior theoretical and empirical work, we examined a sense of…

  19. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  20. [LDL cholesterol control in patients with very high cardiovascular risk. A simplified algorithm for achieving LDL cholesterol goals "in two steps"].

    PubMed

    Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Galve, Enrique; Cordero-Fort, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Reducing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) is the main lipid goal of treatment for patients with very high cardiovascular risk. In these patients the therapeutic goal is to achieve a LDL-c lower than 70 mg/dL, as recommended by the guidelines for cardiovascular prevention commonly used in Spain and Europe. However, the degree of achieving these objectives in this group of patients is very low. This article describes the prevalence of the problem and the causes that motivate it. Recommendations and tools that can facilitate the design of an optimal treatment strategy for achieving the goals are also given. In addition, a new tool with a simple algorithm that can allow these very high risk patients to achieve the goals "in two-steps", i.e., with only two doctor check-ups, is presented. PMID:25048471

  1. [LDL cholesterol control in patients with very high cardiovascular risk. A simplified algorithm for achieving LDL cholesterol goals "in two steps"].

    PubMed

    Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Galve, Enrique; Cordero-Fort, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Reducing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) is the main lipid goal of treatment for patients with very high cardiovascular risk. In these patients the therapeutic goal is to achieve a LDL-c lower than 70 mg/dL, as recommended by the guidelines for cardiovascular prevention commonly used in Spain and Europe. However, the degree of achieving these objectives in this group of patients is very low. This article describes the prevalence of the problem and the causes that motivate it. Recommendations and tools that can facilitate the design of an optimal treatment strategy for achieving the goals are also given. In addition, a new tool with a simple algorithm that can allow these very high risk patients to achieve the goals "in two-steps", i.e., with only two doctor check-ups, is presented.

  2. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  3. Progress in preparing scenarios for operation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sips, A. C. C.; Giruzzi, G.; Ide, S.; Kessel, C.; Luce, T. C.; Snipes, J. A.; Stober, J. K.

    2015-02-01

    The development of operating scenarios is one of the key issues in the research for ITER which aims to achieve a fusion gain (Q) of ˜10, while producing 500 MW of fusion power for ≥300 s. The ITER Research plan proposes a success oriented schedule starting in hydrogen and helium, to be followed by a nuclear operation phase with a rapid development towards Q ˜ 10 in deuterium/tritium. The Integrated Operation Scenarios Topical Group of the International Tokamak Physics Activity initiates joint activities among worldwide institutions and experiments to prepare ITER operation. Plasma formation studies report robust plasma breakdown in devices with metal walls over a wide range of conditions, while other experiments use an inclined EC launch angle at plasma formation to mimic the conditions in ITER. Simulations of the plasma burn-through predict that at least 4 MW of Electron Cyclotron heating (EC) assist would be required in ITER. For H-modes at q95 ˜ 3, many experiments have demonstrated operation with scaled parameters for the ITER baseline scenario at ne/nGW ˜ 0.85. Most experiments, however, obtain stable discharges at H98(y,2) ˜ 1.0 only for βN = 2.0-2.2. For the rampup in ITER, early X-point formation is recommended, allowing auxiliary heating to reduce the flux consumption. A range of plasma inductance (li(3)) can be obtained from 0.65 to 1.0, with the lowest values obtained in H-mode operation. For the rampdown, the plasma should stay diverted maintaining H-mode together with a reduction of the elongation from 1.85 to 1.4. Simulations show that the proposed rampup and rampdown schemes developed since 2007 are compatible with the present ITER design for the poloidal field coils. At 13-15 MA and densities down to ne/nGW ˜ 0.5, long pulse operation (>1000 s) in ITER is possible at Q ˜ 5, useful to provide neutron fluence for Test Blanket Module assessments. ITER scenario preparation in hydrogen and helium requires high input power (>50 MW). H

  4. WWC Review of the Report "Learning the Control of Variables Strategy in Higher and Lower Achieving Classrooms: Contributions of Explicit Instruction and Experimentation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper examined three separate methods for teaching the "control of variables strategy" ("CVS"), a procedure for conducting a science experiment so that only one variable is tested and all others are held constant, or "controlled." The study analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial of 848 fourth-grade students in…

  5. Challenges facing the elimination of sleeping sickness in west and central Africa: sustainable control of animal trypanosomiasis as an indispensable approach to achieve the goal.

    PubMed

    Simo, Gustave; Rayaisse, Jean Baptiste

    2015-12-16

    African trypanosomiases are infectious diseases caused by trypanosomes. African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) remains an important threat for livestock production in some affected areas whereas human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is targeted for elimination in 2020. In West and Central Africa, it has been shown that the parasites causing these diseases can coexist in the same tsetse fly or the same animal. In such complex settings, the control of these diseases must be put in the general context of trypanosomiasis control or "one health" concept where the coordination of control operations will be beneficial for both diseases. In this context, implementing control activities on AAT will help to sustain HAT control. It will also have a positive impact on animal health and economic development of the regions. The training of inhabitants on how to implement and sustain vector control tools will enable a long-term sustainability of control operations that will lead to the elimination of HAT and AAT.

  6. Using Learner Controlled Progress-Based Rewards to Promote Motivation and Achievement of At-Risk Students in Managed Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Carlton A.

    2011-01-01

    Technology enhancements of the past two decades have not successfully overcome the problem of low motivation in Kindergarten through Grade 12 (K-12). Motivation and math achievement have been identified as major factors contributing to the high school dropout problem (30-50% in traditional/online programs). The impact of extrinsic rewards on…

  7. Progress in preparing scenarios for operation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sips, A. C. C.; Giruzzi, G.; Ide, S.; Kessel, C.; Luce, T. C.; Snipes, J. A.; Stober, J. K.

    2015-02-15

    The development of operating scenarios is one of the key issues in the research for ITER which aims to achieve a fusion gain (Q) of ∼10, while producing 500 MW of fusion power for ≥300 s. The ITER Research plan proposes a success oriented schedule starting in hydrogen and helium, to be followed by a nuclear operation phase with a rapid development towards Q ∼ 10 in deuterium/tritium. The Integrated Operation Scenarios Topical Group of the International Tokamak Physics Activity initiates joint activities among worldwide institutions and experiments to prepare ITER operation. Plasma formation studies report robust plasma breakdown in devices with metal walls over a wide range of conditions, while other experiments use an inclined EC launch angle at plasma formation to mimic the conditions in ITER. Simulations of the plasma burn-through predict that at least 4 MW of Electron Cyclotron heating (EC) assist would be required in ITER. For H-modes at q{sub 95} ∼ 3, many experiments have demonstrated operation with scaled parameters for the ITER baseline scenario at n{sub e}/n{sub GW} ∼ 0.85. Most experiments, however, obtain stable discharges at H{sub 98(y,2)} ∼ 1.0 only for β{sub N} = 2.0–2.2. For the rampup in ITER, early X-point formation is recommended, allowing auxiliary heating to reduce the flux consumption. A range of plasma inductance (l{sub i}(3)) can be obtained from 0.65 to 1.0, with the lowest values obtained in H-mode operation. For the rampdown, the plasma should stay diverted maintaining H-mode together with a reduction of the elongation from 1.85 to 1.4. Simulations show that the proposed rampup and rampdown schemes developed since 2007 are compatible with the present ITER design for the poloidal field coils. At 13–15 MA and densities down to n{sub e}/n{sub GW} ∼ 0.5, long pulse operation (>1000 s) in ITER is possible at Q ∼ 5, useful to provide neutron fluence for Test Blanket Module assessments. ITER scenario preparation

  8. Fast Ignition Thermonuclear Fusion: Enhancement of the Pellet Gain by the Colossal-Magnetic-Field Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2013-10-01

    The fast ignition fusion pellet gain can be enhanced by a laser generated B-field shell. The B-field shell, (similar to Earth's B-field, but with the alternating B-poles), follows the pellet compression in a frozen-in B-field regime. A properly designed laser-pellet coupling can lead to the generation of a B-field shell, (up to 100 MG), which inhibits electron thermal transport and confines the alpha-particles. In principle, a pellet gain of few-100s can be achieved in this manner. Supported in part by Nikola Tesla Labs, Stefan University, 1010 Pearl, La Jolla, CA 92038-1007.

  9. Impact of a Social-Emotional and Character Development Program on School-Level Indicators of Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, and Disciplinary Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled design. The "Positive Action" Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (M…

  10. WWC Review of the Report "Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the 2014 report, "Closing the Achievement Gap Through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten," researchers examined the impacts of "Tools of the Mind" on cognitive and academic…

  11. X-Ray Reflection of Thermonuclear Bursts from Neutron Stars: Constraining Flames with RXTE and an Outlook on NICER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keek, Laurens

    2016-04-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts observed from accreting neutron stars are employed to study, e.g., the nuclear physics of rare isotopes and the dense matter equation of state. Recent observations indicate that bursts strongly affect their accretion environment, and reprocessed burst emission may reflect off the inner accretion disk. The spectra of the short (10-100s) bursts are, however, of insufficient quality to accurately separate the neutron star signal from accretion disk emission and burst reflection. Only for two rare "superbursts" with durations of several hours did RXTE/PCA spectra show burst reflection signatures. We discuss the case of 4U 1636-536, where the reflection signal traced the evolution of the ionization state of the inner disk. Our simulations show that a large reflection fraction may indicate that the disk puffs up due to burst irradiation. After separating the direct burst emission from reflection, we show that the rise of the superburst light curve is shaped by a stalling carbon flame. In the near future, the Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) will have a band-pass that extends below 2 keV, where reflection dominates the burst spectrum, and which was not probed by RXTE. Therefore, NICER will be able to detect reflection features during the frequent short bursts. NICER will open a new field of studying the interaction of bursts and the accretion environment, which will inform us of which bursts are optimally suited for neutron star mass-radius measurements.

  12. Mechanical tests of the conduit tubes of a conductor for the Toroidal winding of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivykh, A. V.; Anashkin, O. P.; Keilin, V. E.; Diev, D. N.; Dinisilov, A. S.; Shcherbakov, V. I.; Tronza, V. I.

    2012-11-01

    Extremely stringent requirements, which include the impact toughness at the liquid-helium temperature, are imposed on the material of the conduit tubes for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Toroidal Field (TF) conductors. Modified 316LN-IG stainless steel is recommended as the conduit tube material. Steel 316LN-IG tube samples (both full-size samples and sub-sized samples) are subjected to mechanical tests at various stages of the process of conductor production: in the as-recieved state and after compacting, preliminary elongation by 2.5% at room temperature, and annealing at 650°C for 200 h in a pure helium gas atmosphere. The tests are carried out at room, liquid nitrogen, and liquid helium temperatures and satisfy the standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME and ASTM). The results of sub-size and full-size samples testing show that the last one gives more representative results to qualify the weld joints in liquid nitrogen. When the temperature decreases or the strain increases, the magnetization of the samples increases, especially in the weld area. Strain measurements with an extensometer demonstrate that the intracrystal processes occurring at the liquid-helium temperature can lead to a significant change in the local load, up to complete unloading in a deformation zone. Unusual local serrated deformation is observed with an extensometer installed in the weld area during tests in liquid helium: this deformation is the result of compressive jumps opposite to the loading direction.

  13. A hydrodynamic study of a slow nova outburst. [computerized simulation of thermonuclear runaway in white dwarf envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, W. M.; Starrfield, S.; Truran, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reports use of a Lagrangian implicit hydrodynamics computer code incorporating a full nuclear-reaction network to follow a thermonuclear runaway in the hydrogen-rich envelope of a 1.25 solar-mass white dwarf. In this evolutionary sequence the envelope was assumed to be of normal (solar) composition and the resulting outburst closely resembles that of the slow nova HR Del. In contrast, previous CNO-enhanced models resemble fast nova outbursts. The slow-nova model ejects material by radiation pressure when the high luminosity of the rekindled hydrogen shell source exceeds the local Eddington luminosity of the outer layers. This is in contrast to the fast nova outburst where ejection is caused by the decay of the beta(+)-unstable nuclei. Nevertheless, radiation pressure probably plays a major role in ejecting material from the fast nova remnants. Therefore, the sequence from slow to fast novae can be interpreted as a sequence of white dwarfs with increasing amounts of enhanced CNO nuclei in their hydrogen envelopes, although other parameters such as the white-dwarf mass and accretion rate probably contribute to the observed variation between novae.

  14. Achieving fertility control through woman’s autonomy and access to maternal healthcare: Are we on track? In-depth analysis of PDHS-2012-13

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sehar-un-Nisa; Siddiqui, Salma; Mahmood, Ayeshah

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Fertility control preferences and maternal healthcare have recently become a major concern for developing nations with evidence suggesting that low fertility control rates and poor maternal healthcare are among major obstructions in ensuring health and social status for women. Our objective was toanalyze the factors that influence women’s autonomy, access to maternal healthcare, and fertility control preferences in Pakistan. Methods: Data consisted of 11,761 ever-married women of ages 15-49 years from PDHS, 2012-13. Variables included socio-demographics, women’s autonomy, fertility control preferences and access to maternal healthcare. Results: Findings from multivariate analysis showed that women’s younger age, having less than three number of children and independent or joint decision-making (indicators of high autonomy) remained the most significant predictors for access to better quality maternal healthcare and better fertility control preferences when other variables were controlled. Conclusion: Women’s access to good quality maternal health care and fertility control preferences are directly and indirectly influenced by their demographic characteristics and decision-making patterns in domestic affairs. PMID:26870096

  15. Tailoring mass drug administration to context: implementation research is critical in achieving equitable progress in the control and elimination of helminth neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Dean, Laura; Page, Samantha; Hawkins, Kate; Stothard, Russell; Thomson, Rachael; Wanji, Samuel; Gyapong, Margaret; Anagbogu, Ifeoma; Molyneux, David; Theobald, Sally

    2016-07-01

    The concept of a technological quick fix or 'magic-bullet' for control and elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) is flawed. NTDs are embedded within complex biological and social systems that are shaped by ecological and political contexts. This commentary emphasises the need for implementation research to address implementation gaps in the control of NTDs. With a specific focus on sub-Saharan Africa and helminth diseases amenable to preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration, we explore the important role of context, programme partnerships and community in achieving equitable and effective NTD control. PMID:27481833

  16. Achievement of the World Bank loan project on schistosomiasis control (1992-2000) in Hubei province and the challenge in the future.

    PubMed

    Changsong, Sun; Binggui, Yu; Hongyi, Liao; Yuhai, Dai; Xu, Xingjian; Huiguo, Zhu; Yong, Jiang

    2002-05-01

    Since the World Bank provided a loan for control of schistosomiasis in China, started from 1992, with the objective of a reduction of prevalence and intensity of the infection both in humans and animals by 40%, through mass chemotherapy in areas of high prevalence, and selective chemotherapy in areas with medium and low endemicity together with focal mollusciciding, the objective of morbidity control of the project has been reached in Hubei Province.

  17. Research and Development Work Carried out by the Chair of Engineering Geodesy and Measurement and Control Systems, Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography WUT - Thematic Scope and Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Edward; Malarski, Ryszard; Prószyński, Witold; Sadowska, Alicja; Woźniak, Marek; Zaczek-Peplinska, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Geodetic engineering surveys are an important part of the works carried out by the Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw University of Technology. These works concern measurement techniques as well as advanced result analysis methods applied in precise industrial surveys and in processes controlling object's behaviour over time. The thematic scope of research realised by Chair of Engineering Geodesy and Control-Measuring Systems shows that article related to geodetic engineering measurements and geodetic monitoring is carried out with high intensity, resulting in technological advancement and implementation of new or improved measurement solutions and methods of measurement result development.

  18. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  19. Rapid Copper Metallization of Textile Materials: a Controlled Two-Step Route to Achieve User-Defined Patterns under Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Guan, Guijian; Jiang, Shan; Guo, Hongchen; Xia, Jing; Regulacio, Michelle D; Wu, Mingda; Shah, Kwok Wei; Dong, Zhili; Zhang, Jie; Han, Ming-Yong

    2015-09-30

    Throughout history earth-abundant copper has been incorporated into textiles and it still caters to various needs in modern society. In this paper, we present a two-step copper metallization strategy to realize sequentially nondiffusive copper(II) patterning and rapid copper deposition on various textile materials, including cotton, polyester, nylon, and their mixtures. A new, cost-effective formulation is designed to minimize the copper pattern migration on textiles and to achieve user-defined copper patterns. The metallized copper is found to be very adhesive and stable against washing and oxidation. Furthermore, the copper-metallized textile exhibits excellent electrical conductivity that is ~3 times better than that of stainless steel and also inhibits the growth of bacteria effectively. This new copper metallization approach holds great promise as a commercially viable method to metallize an insulating textile, opening up research avenues for wearable electronics and functional garments.

  20. Controlled Drawing Observation for Assessing a Child's Readiness for School and Predicting Academic Achievement at the End of the First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidkind, Pille; Kikas, Eve; Henno, Helen; Peets, Terje

    2011-01-01

    Controlled Drawing Observation (CDO) was developed by Tove Krogh and it has been used in Denmark, Finland and Estonia for assessing a child's readiness for school. CDO is a group test, it gives information about a child's functioning in an educational setting and it serves as a starting point for later individual assessment. The goal of the study…

  1. Examining the Motivational Impact of Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Framing and Autonomy-Supportive Versus Internally Controlling Communication Style on Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Matos, Lennia

    2005-01-01

    The present experimental research examined whether framing early adolescents' (11- to 12-year-olds) learning activity in terms of the attainment of an extrinsic (i.e., physical attractiveness) versus intrinsic (i.e., health) goal and communicating these different goal contents in an internally controlling versus autonomy-supportive way affect…

  2. Effects of Learning Approaches, Locus of Control, Socio-Economic Status and Self-Efficacy on Academic Achievement: A Turkish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suphi, Nilgun; Yaratan, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…

  3. Achievement of Low Emissions by Engine Modification to Utilize Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Advanced Emission Controls on a Class 8 Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, T. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Barton, G.; Rumminger, M.; Duggal, V.; Nelson, C.; Ray, M.; Cherrillo, R. A.

    2005-11-01

    A 2002 Cummins ISM engine was modified to be optimized for operation on gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and advanced emission control devices. The engine modifications included increased exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), decreased compression ratio, and reshaped piston and bowl configuration.

  4. Scotopic sensitivity/Irlen syndrome and the use of coloured filters: a long-term placebo controlled and masked study of reading achievement and perception of ability.

    PubMed

    Robinson, G L; Foreman, P J

    1999-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of using coloured filters on reading speed, accuracy, and comprehension as well as on perception of academic ability. A double-masked, placebo-controlled crossover design was used, with subjects being assessed over a period of 20 mo. There were three treatment groups (Placebo filters, Blue filters, and Optimal filters) involving 113 subjects with "reading difficulties", ranging in age from 9.2 yr. to 13.1 yr. and with an average discrepancy between chronological age and reading age of 1.8 yr. The 35 controls (who did not use coloured filters) ranged in age from 9.4 yr. to 12.9 yr., with an average discrepancy between chronological age and reading age of 2.1 yr. The treatment groups increased at a significantly greater rate than the control group in reading accuracy and reading comprehension but not for speed of reading. For self-reported perception of academic ability, two of the three treatment groups showed significantly greater increases than the control group. The larger improvements for treatment groups in reading comprehension may be related to a reduction in print and background distortions allowing attention to be directed to the processing of continuous text rather than to the identification of individual words. A reduction in print distortion, however, may not be sufficient to generate improved word-identification skills without additional remedial support, and this may be indicated by the nonsignificant increase in rate of reading. PMID:10544403

  5. Quasi-experimental nonequivalent (pretest and posttest) control-group study of the effects of microcomputer-based laboratory systems on academic achievement in high school chemistry students at two South Carolina high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venables, Jeffrey M.

    The literature on microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) lacks quantitative studies that measure the effect of MBL on student achievement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of MBL systems on the achievement of high school chemistry students. The first research question examined the effect of MBL systems on student achievement in high school chemistry laboratories. The second question analyzed the effect of MBL systems on the academic achievement of students of different genders, ethnicities, and socioeconomic backgrounds. This quasi-experimental quantitative research study evaluated the effects of MBL on student achievement in high school chemistry. The sample consisted of 124 college preparatory chemistry students at two high schools in a South Carolina school district. There were 42 participants in the experimental group and 82 participants in the control group. Both experimental and groups completed a pre- and post-test with MBL being the independent variable. The mean difference score for the experimental group was compared to that of the control group using an independent-measures t test and an analysis of variance. For the second research question, results were analyzed using a two-factor analysis of variance. Participant scores were broken down by gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status in order to identify potential differences. The results revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control groups, and no significant differences in effects of MBL on different segments of the population. Future studies should examine students using MBL for longer durations than one unit of study. As society continues to make technological advances, the effective assessment and implementation of technology resources for the classroom are becoming increasingly important.

  6. Neutrino Signal of Collapse-induced Thermonuclear Supernovae: The Case for Prompt Black Hole Formation in SN 1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Kfir; Kushnir, Doron

    2016-09-01

    Collapse-induced thermonuclear explosion (CITE) may explain core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). We analyze the neutrino signal in CITE and compare it to the neutrino burst of SN 1987A. For strong (≳ {10}51 erg) CCSNe, such as SN 1987A, CITE predicts a proto-neutron star (PNS) accretion phase lasting up to a few seconds that is cut off by black hole (BH) formation. The neutrino luminosity can later be revived by accretion disk emission after a dead time of a few to a few tens of seconds. In contrast, the neutrino mechanism for CCSNe predicts a short (≲s) PNS accretion phase, followed by slowly declining PNS cooling luminosity. We repeat statistical analyses used in the literature to interpret the neutrino mechanism, and apply them to CITE. The first 1–2 s of the neutrino burst are equally compatible with CITE and with the neutrino mechanism. However, the data points toward a luminosity drop at t = 2–3 s, which is in some tension with the neutrino mechanism but can be naturally attributed to BH formation in CITE. The occurrence of neutrino signal events at 5 s suggests that, within CITE, the accretion disk formed by that time. We perform two-dimensional numerical simulations showing that CITE may be able to accommodate this disk formation time while reproducing the ejected 56Ni mass and ejecta kinetic energy within factors of 2–3 of observations. We estimate the accretion disk neutrino luminosity, finding it to be on the low side but compatible with the data to a factor of 10. Given comparable uncertainties in the disk luminosity simulation, we conclude that direct BH formation may have occurred in SN 1987A.

  7. Neutrino Signal of Collapse-induced Thermonuclear Supernovae: The Case for Prompt Black Hole Formation in SN 1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Kfir; Kushnir, Doron

    2016-09-01

    Collapse-induced thermonuclear explosion (CITE) may explain core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). We analyze the neutrino signal in CITE and compare it to the neutrino burst of SN 1987A. For strong (≳ {10}51 erg) CCSNe, such as SN 1987A, CITE predicts a proto-neutron star (PNS) accretion phase lasting up to a few seconds that is cut off by black hole (BH) formation. The neutrino luminosity can later be revived by accretion disk emission after a dead time of a few to a few tens of seconds. In contrast, the neutrino mechanism for CCSNe predicts a short (≲s) PNS accretion phase, followed by slowly declining PNS cooling luminosity. We repeat statistical analyses used in the literature to interpret the neutrino mechanism, and apply them to CITE. The first 1-2 s of the neutrino burst are equally compatible with CITE and with the neutrino mechanism. However, the data points toward a luminosity drop at t = 2-3 s, which is in some tension with the neutrino mechanism but can be naturally attributed to BH formation in CITE. The occurrence of neutrino signal events at 5 s suggests that, within CITE, the accretion disk formed by that time. We perform two-dimensional numerical simulations showing that CITE may be able to accommodate this disk formation time while reproducing the ejected 56Ni mass and ejecta kinetic energy within factors of 2-3 of observations. We estimate the accretion disk neutrino luminosity, finding it to be on the low side but compatible with the data to a factor of 10. Given comparable uncertainties in the disk luminosity simulation, we conclude that direct BH formation may have occurred in SN 1987A.

  8. XPS, SIMS and FTIR-ATR characterization of boronized graphite from the thermonuclear plasma device RFX-mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzi, F.; Laguardia, L.; Caniello, R.; Canton, A.; Dal Bello, S.; Rais, B.; Anderle, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the characterization of a thin (tens of nanometers) boron layer on fine grain polycrystalline graphite substrate is presented. The boron film is used as conditioning technique for the full graphite wall of the Reversed Field eXperiment-modified (RFX-mod) experiment, a device for the magnetic confinement of plasmas of thermonuclear interest. Aim of the present analysis is to enlighten the chemical structure of the film, the trapping mechanism that makes it a getter for oxygen and hydrogen and the reason of its loss of effectiveness after exposure to about 100 s of hydrogen plasma. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy in combination with the Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) were used to obtain the structure and the chemical composition of graphitic samples as coated or coated and subsequently exposed to hydrogen plasma after boron deposition. The boron layers on the only coated samples were found to be amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide plus a variety of bonds like B-B, B-H, B-O, B-OH, C-C, C-H, C-O, C-OH. Both the thickness and the homogeneity of the layers were found to depend on the distance of the sample from the anode during the deposition. The samples contained oxygen along the layer thickness, at level of 5%, bound to boron. The gettering action of the boron is therefore already active during the deposition itself. The exposure to plasma caused erosion of the boron film and higher content of H and O bound to boron throughout the whole thickness. The interaction of the B layer with plasma is therefore a bulk phenomenon.

  9. Achievements and Challenges upon the Implementation of a Program for National Control of Congenital Chagas in Bolivia: Results 2004–2009

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Vega, Cristina; Billot, Claire; Torrico, Faustino

    2013-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the most endemic countries for Chagas disease. Data of 2005 shows that incidence is around 1.09‰ inhabitants and seroprevalence in children under 15 ranged from 10% in urban areas to 40% in rural areas. In this article, we report results obtained during the implementation of the congenital Chagas program, one of the biggest casuistry in congenital Chagas disease, led by National Program of Chagas and Belgian cooperation from 2004 to 2009. The program strategy was based on serological results during pregnancy and on the follow up of children born from positive mothers until one year old; if positive, treatment was done with Benznidazole, 10 mg/Kg/day/30 days with one post treatment control 6 months later. Throughout the length of the program, a total of 318,479 pregnant women were screened and 23.31% were detected positive. 42,538 children born from positive mothers were analyzed at birth by micromethod, of which 1.43% read positive. 10,120 children returned for their second micromethod control of which 2.29% read positive, 7,650 children returned for the serological control, of which 3.32% turned out positive. From the 1,093 positive children, 70% completed the 30 day-treatment and 122 returned for post treatment control with 96% showing a negative result. It has been seen that maternal-fetal transmission rates vary between 2% and 4%, with an average of 2.6% (about half of previously reported studies that reached 5%). In this work, we show that it is possible to implement, with limited resources, a National Congenital Chagas Program and to integrate it into the Bolivian health system. Keys of success are population awareness, health personnel motivation, and political commitment at all levels. PMID:23875039

  10. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  11. Statin Discontinuation after Achieving a Target Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level in Type 2 Diabetic Patients without Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Yoon-Hee; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated the rate of relapse of dyslipidemia and the factors which could predict relapse following a short-term statin discontinuation after achieving a target low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level in type 2 diabetic patients without cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods Ninety-nine subjects on rosuvastatin treatment and whose LDL-C level was lower than 100 mg/dL were randomly assigned to discontinue or maintain statin treatment at a 2:1 ratio. The subjects were followed-up after 10 weeks. A relapse of dyslipidemia was defined as a reascent of LDL-C level to greater than 100 mg/dL. Results The statin discontinuation group had a significant rate of relapse compared to the maintenance group (79% vs. 3%, respectively). Pretreatment and baseline lipid levels, their ratios, and hemoglobin A1c level were significantly different between the relapse and nonrelapse groups. The pretreatment and baseline lipid profiles and their ratios were independently associated with relapse. The pretreatment LDL-C level was the most useful parameter for predicting a relapse, with a cutoff of 123 mg/dL. During the follow-up period, no CVD event was noted. Conclusion The relapse rate of dyslipidemia was high when statins were discontinued in type 2 diabetic patients without CVD. Statin discontinuation should be considered carefully based on the pretreatment lipid profiles of patients. PMID:24627830

  12. The RhoGAP RGA-2 and LET-502/ROCK achieve a balance of actomyosin-dependent forces in C. elegans epidermis to control morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Diogon, Marie; Wissler, Frédéric; Quintin, Sophie; Nagamatsu, Yasuko; Sookhareea, Satis; Landmann, Frédéric; Hutter, Harald; Vitale, Nicolas; Labouesse, Michel

    2007-07-01

    Embryonic morphogenesis involves the coordinate behaviour of multiple cells and requires the accurate balance of forces acting within different cells through the application of appropriate brakes and throttles. In C. elegans, embryonic elongation is driven by Rho-binding kinase (ROCK) and actomyosin contraction in the epidermis. We identify an evolutionary conserved, actin microfilament-associated RhoGAP (RGA-2) that behaves as a negative regulator of LET-502/ROCK. The small GTPase RHO-1 is the preferred target of RGA-2 in vitro, and acts between RGA-2 and LET-502 in vivo. Two observations show that RGA-2 acts in dorsal and ventral epidermal cells to moderate actomyosin tension during the first half of elongation. First, time-lapse microscopy shows that loss of RGA-2 induces localised circumferentially oriented pulling on junctional complexes in dorsal and ventral epidermal cells. Second, specific expression of RGA-2 in dorsal/ventral, but not lateral, cells rescues the embryonic lethality of rga-2 mutants. We propose that actomyosin-generated tension must be moderated in two out of the three sets of epidermal cells surrounding the C. elegans embryo to achieve morphogenesis.

  13. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  14. Catalytic Scanning Probe Nanolithography (cSPL): Control of the AFM Parameters in Order to Achieve Sub-100-nm Spatially Resolved Epoxidation of Alkenes Grafted onto a Surface.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Vincent; Botton, Julien; Valyaev, Dmitry A; François, Cyril; Patrone, Lionel; Balaban, Teodor Silviu; Abel, Mathieu; Parrain, Jean-Luc; Chuzel, Olivier; Clair, Sylvain

    2016-04-26

    Scanning probe lithography (SPL) appears to be a reliable alternative to the use of masks in traditional lithography techniques as it offers the possibility of directly producing specific chemical functionalities with nanoscale spatial control. We have recently extend the range of applications of catalytic SPL (cSPL) by introducing a homogeneous catalyst immobilized on the apex of a scanning probe. Here we investigate the importance of atomic force microscopy (AFM) physical parameters (applied force, writing speed, and interline distance) on the resultant chemical activity in this cSPL methodology through the direct topographic observation of nanostructured surfaces. Indeed, an alkene-terminated self-assembled monolayer (alkene-SAM) on a silicon wafer was locally epoxidized using a scanning probe tip with a covalently grafted manganese complex bearing the 1,4,7-triazacyclononane macrocycle as the ligand. In a post-transformation process, N-octylpiperazine was covalently grafted to the surface via a selective nucleophilic ring-opening reaction. With this procedure, we could write various patterns on the surface with high spatial control. The catalytic AFM probe thus appears to be very robust because a total area close to 500 μm(2) was patterned without any noticeable loss of catalytic activity. Finally, this methodology allowed us to reach a lower lateral line resolution down to 40 nm, thus being competitive and complementary to the other nanolithographical techniques for the nanostructuration of surfaces.

  15. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  16. Design and fabrication of a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction based nonvolatile programmable switch achieving 40% less area using shared-control transistor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, D.; Natsui, M.; Mochizuki, A.; Miura, S.; Honjo, H.; Kinoshita, K.; Fukami, S.; Sato, H.; Ikeda, S.; Endoh, T.; Ohno, H.; Hanyu, T.

    2014-05-01

    A compact nonvolatile programmable switch (NVPS) using 90 nm CMOS technology together with perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (p-MTJ) devices is fabricated for zero-standby-power field-programmable gate array. Because routing information does not change once it is programmed into an NVPS, high-speed read and write accesses are not required and a write-control transistor can be shared among all the NVPSs, which greatly simplifies structure of the NVPS. In fact, the effective area of the proposed NVPS is reduced by 40% compared to that of a conventional MTJ-based NVPS. The instant on/off behavior without external nonvolatile memory access is also demonstrated using the fabricated test chip.

  17. The use of a remote-controlled minivalve, carried by freely moving animals on their head, to achieve instant pharmacological effects in intracerebral drug-perfusion studies.

    PubMed

    Ludvig, Nandor; Kovacs, Lorant; Kando, Laszlo; Medveczky, Geza; Tang, Hai M; Eberle, Lawrence P; Lemon, Charles R

    2002-02-01

    Intracerebral drug-perfusion studies in animals can be very efficiently performed with the 'reverse-dialysis' procedure. In this procedure, drugs are delivered into the brain via an intracerebrally implanted microdialysis probe. Traditionally, in reverse-dialysis studies the flow of control and drug solutions in the microdialysis site is alternated by large and heavy valves placed far from the experimental animal. In this arrangement, the drugs travel from the fluid-alternating device for a long (20--60 min) period before reaching the brain. This can obscure the onset of drug action, makes it difficult to deliver drugs into the extracellular space during short-lasting behavioral episodes, and considerably limits the number of drug solutions that can be perfused within an experimental session. This report describes the use of a miniature (15 mm long and 8 mm diameter), lightweight (1.4 g) minivalve (patent pending) for combined neuronal recording--intracerebral microdialysis studies in freely moving rats. The device is activated remotely and carried by the animals on their head. This allows the experimenter to alternate the control and drug solutions in the intracerebral recording/dialysis site rapidly and to detect the drug-induced neuronal firing pattern changes instantly, without interfering with the animal's behavior. It is demonstrated that with this novel device the onset of drug actions on hippocampal neurons can be clearly defined and that these actions occur within 2 min after minivalve activation. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the minivalve allows one to test a large number of drug solutions, successively, within the same experimental session. The described protocol offers a high-throughput method for testing the neuron-specific pharmacological effects of intracerebrally perfused drugs during various behaviors.

  18. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  19. The coarse pointing assembly for SILEX program or how to achieve outstanding pointing accuracy with simple hardware associated with consistent control laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buvat, Daniel; Muller, Gerard; Peyrot, Patrick

    1991-06-01

    Attention is given to the coarse pointing assembly (CPA) for the SILEX program, designed on the basis of 10 years of MATRA experience in very accurate drive mechanisms successfully conducted by the SPOT 1 and 2 flights as well as EURECA IOC. The basic key design feature of the mechanism is a 1200-step stepper motor driven in microstepping with harmonic defects compensation. This allows very low torque noise associated with a high accuracy (0.01 deg). The direct drive principle avoids backlash and permits a linear control of the output shaft of each drive. The only parts susceptible to possible wear are the ball bearings, which have a design margin of greater than 1000 for 10 yr of service life. In order to meet the dynamic performances required by SILEX, a closed loop active damping system is added to each drive unit. Two accelerometers used in a differential way sense the hinge microvibrations and an active damping loop reduces their Q factor down to a few dB. All CPA electrical parts (including motor, optical encoder, and accelerometer) are redundant to avoid single point of failure.

  20. Method and system to directly produce electrical power within the lithium blanket region of a magnetically confined, deuterium-tritium (DT) fueled, thermonuclear fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Woolley, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A method for integrating liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation with fusion blanket technology to produce electrical power from a thermonuclear fusion reactor located within a confining magnetic field and within a toroidal structure. A hot liquid metal flows from a liquid metal blanket region into a pump duct of an electromagnetic pump which moves the liquid metal to a mixer where a gas of predetermined pressure is mixed with the pressurized liquid metal to form a Froth mixture. Electrical power is generated by flowing the Froth mixture between electrodes in a generator duct. When the Froth mixture exits the generator the gas is separated from the liquid metal and both are recycled.

  1. The problems associated with the monitoring of complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities.

    PubMed

    Bilski, P; Blomgren, J; d'Errico, F; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernàndez, F; Fuchs, A; Golnik, N; Lacoste, V; Leuschner, A; Sandri, S; Silari, M; Spurny, F; Wiegel, B; Wright, P

    2007-01-01

    The European Commission is funding within its Sixth Framework Programme a three-year project (2005-2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organisational framework for this project is provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. One task within the CONRAD project, Work Package 6 (WP6), was to provide a report outlining research needs and research activities within Europe to develop new and improved methods and techniques for the characterisation of complex radiation fields at workplaces around high-energy accelerators, but also at the next generation of thermonuclear fusion facilities. The paper provides an overview of the report, which will be available as CERN Yellow Report.

  2. Method and System to Directly Produce Electrical Power within the Lithium Blanket Region of a Magnetically Confined, Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Fueled, Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, Robert D.

    1998-09-22

    A method for integrating liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation with fusion blanket technology to produce electrical power from a thermonuclear fusion reactor located within a confining magnetic field and within a toroidal structure. A hot liquid metal flows from a liquid metal blanket region into a pump duct of an electromagnetic pump which moves the liquid metal to a mixer where a gas of predetermined pressure is mixed with the pressurized liquid metal to form a Froth mixture. Electrical power is generated by flowing the Froth mixture between electrodes in a generator duct. When the Froth mixture exits the generator the gas is separated from the liquid metal and both are recycled.

  3. Transforming the Patient Role to Achieve Better Outcomes Through a Patient Empowerment Program: A Randomized Wait-List Control Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Plaksin, Joseph; Zabar, Sondra; Wallach, Andrew; Sawicki, Chester; Kundrod, Sarita; Kalet, Adina

    2016-01-01

    Background In the patient-centered medical home model of health care, both health care providers (HCPs) and patients must understand their respective roles and responsibilities, view the other as a partner, and use communication skills that promote shared decision making. This is particularly necessary in chronic conditions where outcomes depend on behavior change and in underserved populations where the burden of chronic disease is high. Objective The objectives of this study are to determine if a Patient Empowerment Program (PEP) (1) is acceptable to patients and feasible across multiple clinical sites; (2) will increase patient preference for control in medical decision making, improve patient perceptions of patient-HCP communication, and increase patient activation; (3) is associated with an increase in diabetes self-management behaviors; and (4) has an effect on hemoglobin A 1c(HbA 1c) level. Methods This study recruited English-speaking adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from three urban clinical sites in New York City and randomized them to an immediate intervention group that completed the PEP intervention or a deferred intervention group that served as a wait-list control and completed the PEP intervention after 3-4 months. The PEP intervention consists of two facilitated small group sessions. Session 1 focuses on defining HCP and patient roles in the medical encounter by introducing ideal communication behaviors in each role and by providing both positive and negative examples of patient-HCP encounters. Session 2 focuses on practicing communication skills by role-playing with actors who serve as standardized health care providers. After the role play, participants set goals for their own health care and for future interactions with their HCPs. Outcome measures include the Patient Activation Measure; Ask, Understand, Remember Assessment; Krantz Health Opinion Survey; SF-12v2 Health Survey; Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire; and HbA 1c. These

  4. Preparation and characterization of carbons for the retention of halogens in the condenser vacuum system of a thermonuclear plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román, S.; González, J. F.; Gañán, J.; Sabio, E.; González-García, C. M.; Ramiro, A.; Mangut, V.

    2006-06-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by air and carbon dioxide activation, from almond tree pruning, with the aim of obtaining carbons that reproduce the textural and mechanical properties of the carbons currently used in the filtering system of the condenser vacuum installation of a Thermonuclear Plant (CNA; Central Nuclear de Almaraz in Caceres, Spain), produced from coconut shell. The variables studied in non-catalytic gasification series with air were the temperature (215-270 °C) and the time (1-16 h) and the influence of the addition of one catalyst (Co) and the time (1-2 h) in catalytic gasification. In the case of activation with CO 2, the influence of the temperature (700-950 °C) and the time (1-8 h) was studied. The resulting carbons were characterized in terms of their BET surface, porosity, and pore size distribution. The N 2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K for both series showed a type I behaviour, typical of microporous materials. The isotherms showed that with both gasificant agents the temperature rise produced an increase in the carbon porosity. With regards to the activation time, a positive effect on the N 2 adsorbed volume on the carbons was observed. The best carbons of each series, as well as the CNA (carbon currently used in the CNA), were characterized by mercury porosimetry and iodine solution adsorption isotherms. The results obtained allowed to state that several of the carbons produced had characteristics similar to the carbon that is target of reproduction (which has SBET of 741 m 2 g -1, Vmi of 0.39 cm 3 g -1 and a iodine retention capacity of 429.3 mg g -1): carbon C (gasification with CO 2 at 850 °C during 1 h), with SBET of 523 m 2 g -1, Vmi of 0.33 cm 3 g -1 and a iodine retention capacity of 402.5 mg g -1, and carbon D (gasification with CO 2 at 900 °C during 1 h), whose SBET is 672 m 2 g -1, Vmi is 0.28 cm 3 g -1 and has a iodine retention capacity of 345.2 mg g -1.

  5. Image-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy: preliminary outcomes and toxicity of a joint interventional radiology and radiation oncology technique for achieving local control in challenging cases

    PubMed Central

    Kishan, Amar U.; Lee, Edward W.; McWilliams, Justin; Lu, David; Genshaft, Scott; Motamedi, Kambiz; Demanes, D. Jeffrey; Park, Sang June; Hagio, Mary Ann; Wang, Pin-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the ability of image-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy (IG-HDR) to provide local control (LC) of lesions in non-traditional locations for patients with heavily pre-treated malignancies. Material and methods This retrospective series included 18 patients treated between 2012 and 2014 with IG-HDR, either in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT; n = 9) or as monotherapy (n = 9). Lesions were located in the pelvis (n = 5), extremity (n = 2), abdomen/retroperitoneum (n = 9), and head/neck (n = 2). All cases were performed in conjunction between interventional radiology and radiation oncology. Toxicity was graded based on CTCAE v4.0 and local failure was determined by RECIST criteria. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed for LC and overall survival. Results The median follow-up was 11.9 months. Two patients had localized disease at presentation; the remainder had recurrent and/or metastatic disease. Seven patients had prior EBRT, with a median equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) of 47.0 Gy. The median total EQD2s were 34 Gy and 60.9 Gy for patients treated with monotherapy or combination therapy, respectively. Image-guided high-dose rate brachytherapy was delivered in one to six fractions. Six patients had local failures at a median interval of 5.27 months with a one-year LC rate of 59.3% and a one-year overall survival of 40.7%. Six patients died from their disease at a median interval of 6.85 months from the end of treatment. There were no grade ≥ 3 acute toxicities but two patients had serious long term toxicities. Conclusions We demonstrate a good one year LC rate of nearly 60%, and a favorable toxicity profile when utilizing IG-HDR to deliver high doses of radiation with high precision into targets not readily accessible by other forms of local therapy. These preliminary results suggest that further studies utilizing this approach may be considered for patients with difficult to access lesions that require LC. PMID:26622237

  6. Thermonuclear Data File.

    1992-05-05

    Version 00 The library contains reaction rates and spectral information (for 2-body reactions only) about the outgoing particles in plasma as a function of temperature. The range of plasma temperatures is from 0.1 to 1000 keV. The library was intended for use in fusion applications.

  7. Fatty acid as structure directing agent for controlled secondary growth of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles to achieve mesoscale assemblies: A facile approach for developing hierarchical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, K.; Kaushik, S. D.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Deb, P.

    2016-08-01

    Mesoscale hierarchical assemblies have emerged out as a new class of structures between fine dimension nanoparticles and bulk structures, having distinctly different physical properties from either side. Controlling the self-assembly process of primary nanoparticles and subsequent secondary growth mechanism is the key aspect for achieving such ordered structures. In this work, we introduce a new insight on achieving hierarchical assemblies of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles based on the temporal stability of the primary nanoparticles, where, the growth and stability of the primary particles are controlled by using oleic acid. It is found that the developed particles, at a critical concentration of oleic acid, prefer a secondary growth process, rather than promoting their individual growth. Domination of the attractive hydrophobic interaction over steric repulsion among the primary particles at this critical concentration of oleic acid is found to be the key factor for the initial aggregation of the primary particles, which eventually leads to the formation of spherical hierarchical assemblies via oriented attachment. It is also realized that the extremely well or poor stability conditions of the primary particles do not allow this secondary growth process. Estimated values of Co2+ distribution factor show that the cation distribution factor of CoFe2O4 system is not affected by the nature of dominant growth processes, when these are controlled. Interestingly, magnetic measurements reflect the stronger interparticle interaction in the hierarchical system and high magnetic moment values at low magnetic field.

  8. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  6. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  7. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  8. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  9. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  10. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  11. On the implementation of a chain nuclear reaction of thermonuclear fusion on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B process

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Zagreev, B. V.; Matafonov, A. P.

    2015-07-15

    Various theoretical and experimental schemes for implementing a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B reaction are considered. They include beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition upon plasma acceleration by ponderomotive forces, and the irradiation of a solid-state target from {sup 11}B with a proton beam under conditions of a Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdrops. The possibility of employing ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses to initiate the p+{sup 11}B reaction under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed. This and some other weakly radioactive thermonuclear reactions are promising owing to their ecological cleanness—there are virtually no neutrons among fusion products. Nuclear reactions that follow the p+{sup 11}B reaction may generate high-energy protons, sustaining a chain reaction, and this is an advantage of the p+{sup 11}B option. The approach used also makes it possible to study nuclear reactions under conditions close to those in the early Universe or in the interior of stars.

  12. The LOFT perspective on neutron star thermonuclear bursts: White paper in support of the mission concept of the large observatory for X-ray timing

    SciTech Connect

    in't Zand, J. J.M.; Malone, Christopher M.; Altamirano, D.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Brown, E. F.; Cavecchi, Y.; Chakrabarty, D.; Chenevez, J.; Cumming, A.; Degenaar, N.; Falanga, M.; Galloway, D. K.; Heger, A.; Jose, J.; Keek, L.; Linares, M.; Mahmoodifar, S.; Mendez, M.; Miller, M. C.; Paerels, F. B. S.; Poutanen, J.; Rozanska, A.; Schatz, H.; Serino, M.; Strohmayer, T. E.; Suleimanov, V. F.; Thielemann, F. -K.; Watts, A. L.; Weinberg, N. N.; Woosley, S. E.; Yu, W.; Zhang, S.; Zingale, M.

    2015-01-14

    The Large Area Detector (LAD) on the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing ( LOFT ), with a 8.5 m 2 photon- collecting area in the 2–30 keV bandpass at CCD-class spectral resolving power (λ/Δλ = 10 – 100), is designed for optimum performance on bright X-ray sources. Thus, it is well-suited to study thermonuclear X-ray bursts from Galactic neutron stars. These bursts will typically yield 2 x 105 photon detections per second in the LAD, which is at least 15 times more than with any other instrument past, current or anticipated. The Wide Field Monitor (WFM) foreseen for LOFT uniquely combines 2–50 keV imaging with large (30%) prompt sky coverage. This will enable the detection of tens of thousands of thermonuclear X-ray bursts during a 3-yr mission, including tens of superbursts. Both numbers are similar or more than the current database gathered in 50 years of X-ray astronomy.

  13. An Improved Reaction Rate Formulation for Charged-Particle Induced Thermonuclear Reaction of {sup 2}H(d,{gamma}){sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Azni Abdul; Yusof, Norhasliza; Idris, Mahirah; Kassim, Hasan Abu

    2011-03-30

    The reaction rate formula utilized in compilations such as the Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of Reaction Rates (NACRE) uses low energy approximation due to temperatures in stars are in the region of a few keVs. Most nuclear reaction experiments were done in MeV range and the interior temperatures of massive stars are {approx}10{sup 9} K. Hence an improved formulation for calculating the nuclear reaction rate that is applicable to high temperatures is discussed in this work. The exact tunneling probability that is applicable for all energies is obtained by solving the Schroedinger equation. This yields an enhanced expression for the astrophysical S-factor for calculating the thermonuclear reaction rate at high temperature. The thermonuclear reaction rate from this work is applied to the {sup 2}H(d,{gamma}){sup 4}He reaction and is compared with the NACRE compilation. This improved reaction rate can be included in the nuclear reaction network in a Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) code or a stellar nuclear network code.

  14. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  15. Achieving indoor air quality through contaminant control

    SciTech Connect

    Katzel, J.

    1995-07-10

    Federal laws outlining industry`s responsibilities in creating a healthy, hazard-free workspace are well known. OSHA`s laws on interior air pollution establish threshold limit values (TLVs) and permissible exposure limits (PELs) for more than 500 potentially hazardous substances found in manufacturing operations. Until now, OSHA has promulgated regulations only for the manufacturing environment. However, its recently-proposed indoor air quality (IAQ) ruling, if implemented, will apply to all workspaces. It regulates IAQ, including environmental tobacco smoke, and requires employers to write and implement IAQ compliance plans.

  16. Inducing stable reversion to achieve cancer control.

    PubMed

    Powers, Scott; Pollack, Robert E

    2016-04-01

    How can we stop cancer progression? Current strategies depend on modelling progression as the balanced outcome of mutations in, and expression of, tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes. New treatments emerge from successful attempts to tip that balance, but secondary mutational escape from those treatments has become a major impediment because it leads to resistance. In this Opinion article, we argue for a return to an earlier stratagem: tumour cell reversion. Treatments based on selection and analysis of stable revertants could create more durable remissions by reducing the selective pressure that leads to rapid drug resistance. PMID:27458638

  17. Closing the achievement gap through modification of neurocognitive and neuroendocrine function: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial of an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children's engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap. PMID:25389751

  18. Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children’s engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap. PMID:25389751

  19. Closing the achievement gap through modification of neurocognitive and neuroendocrine function: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial of an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children's engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap.

  20. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  1. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  2. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  3. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  4. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  5. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  6. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  7. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  8. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  9. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  10. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  11. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  12. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  13. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  14. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  15. NACRE II: an update of the NACRE compilation of charged-particle-induced thermonuclear reaction rates for nuclei with mass number A<16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Goriely, S.; Arnould, M.; Ohta, M.; Utsunomiya, H.

    2013-11-01

    An update of the NACRE compilation [3] is presented. This new compilation, referred to as NACRE II, reports thermonuclear reaction rates for 34 charged-particle induced, two-body exoergic reactions on nuclides with mass number A<16, of which fifteen are particle-transfer reactions and the rest radiative capture reactions. When compared with NACRE, NACRE II features in particular (1) the addition to the experimental data collected in NACRE of those reported later, preferentially in the major journals of the field by early 2013, and (2) the adoption of potential models as the primary tool for extrapolation to very low energies of astrophysical S-factors, with a systematic evaluation of uncertainties.

  16. FENIX (Fusion ENgineering International eXperimental): A test facility for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and other new superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Slack, D.S.; Patrick, R.E.; Miller, J.R.

    1990-09-21

    The Fusion ENgineering International eXperimental (FENIX) Test Facility which is nearing completion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a 76-t set of superconducting magnets housed in a 4-m-diameter cryostat. It represents a significant step toward meeting the testing needs for the development of superconductors appropriate for large-scale magnet applications such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The magnet set is configured to allow radial access to the 0.4-m-diameter high-field region where maximum fields up to 14 T will be provided. The facility is fitted with a thermally isolated test well with a port to the high-field region that allows insertion and removal of test conductors without disturbing the cryogenic environment of the magnets. It is expected that the facility will be made available to magnet developers internationally, and this paper discusses its general design features, its construction, and its capabilities.

  17. Physical Environment and Middle Grade Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tak Cheung

    This study measured the influence of air conditioning, carpeting, fluorescent lighting, and interior pastel coloring on the academic achievement of eighth grade Georgia pupils in 1975-76 when the variance due to socioeconomic status was statistically controlled. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the achievement scores of students on the…

  18. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  19. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  20. Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID): Design, methods and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial of community health worker assisted diabetes self-management support

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Karin; Drain, Nathan; Robinson, June; Kapp, Janet; Hebert, Paul; Taylor, Leslie; Silverman, Julie; Kiefer, Meghan; Lessler, Dan; Krieger, James

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives Community health workers (CHWs) may be an important mechanism to provide diabetes self-management to disadvantaged populations. We describe the design and baseline results of a trial evaluating a home-based CHW intervention. Methods & Research Design Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID) is a randomized, controlled trial evaluating a home-based CHW-delivered diabetes self-management intervention versus usual care. The study recruited participants from 3 health systems. Change in A1c measured at 12 months is the primary outcome. Change in blood pressure, lipids, health care utilization, health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and diabetes self-management behaviors at 12 months are secondary outcomes. Results A total of 1,438 patients were identified by medical record review as potentially eligible, 445 patients were screened by telephone for eligibility and 287 were randomized. Groups were comparable at baseline on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. All participants were low-income and were from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. The mean A1c was 8.9%, mean BMI was above the obese range, and non-adherence to diabetes medications was high. The cohort had high rates of co-morbid disease and low self-reported health status. Although one-third reported no health insurance, the mean number of visits to a physician in the past year was 5.7. Trial results are pending. Conclusions Peer-AID recruited and enrolled a diverse group of low income participants with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and delivered a home-based diabetes self-management program. If effective, replication of the Peer-AID intervention in community based settings could contribute to improved control of diabetes in vulnerable populations. PMID:24956324

  1. The effect of post-discharge educational intervention on patients in achieving objectives in modifiable risk factors six months after discharge following an episode of acute coronary syndrome, (CAM-2 Project): a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether an intervention mainly consisting of a signed agreement between patient and physician on the objectives to be reached, improves reaching these secondary prevention objectives in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors six-months after discharge following an acute coronary syndrome. Background There is room to improve mid-term adherence to clinical guidelines' recommendations in coronary heart disease secondary prevention, specially non-pharmacological ones, often neglected. Methods In CAM-2, patients discharged after an acute coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to the intervention or the usual care group. The primary outcome was reaching therapeutic objectives in various secondary prevention variables: smoking, obesity, blood lipids, blood pressure control, exercise and taking of medication. Results 1757 patients were recruited in 64 hospitals and 1510 (762 in the intervention and 748 in the control group) attended the six-months follow-up visit. After adjustment for potentially important variables, there were, between the intervention and control group, differences in the mean reduction of body mass index (0.5 vs. 0.2; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (1.6 cm vs. 0.6 cm; p = 0.05), proportion of patients who exercise regularly and those with total cholesterol below 175 mg/dl (64.7% vs. 56.5%; p = 0.001). The reported intake of medications was high in both groups for all the drugs considered with no differences except for statins (98.1% vs. 95.9%; p = 0.029). Conclusions At least in the short term, lifestyle changes among coronary heart disease patients are achievable by intensifying the responsibility of the patient himself by means of a simple and feasible intervention. PMID:21092191

  2. Achieving Cannabis Cessation - Evaluating N-acetylcysteine Treatment (ACCENT): Design and implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled study in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Sonne, Susan C.; Winhusen, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Ghitza, Udi E.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Matthews, Abigail G.; Sharma, Gaurav; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Vandrey, Ryan G.; Levin, Frances R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Lindblad, Robert; Allen, Colleen; Mooney, Larissa J.; Haynes, Louise; Brigham, Gregory S.; Sparenborg, Steve; Hasson, Albert L.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorders, effect sizes remain modest, and few individuals achieve long-term abstinence. One strategy to enhance outcomes is the addition of pharmacotherapy to complement behavioral treatment, but to date no efficacious medications targeting cannabis use disorders in adults through large, randomized controlled trials have been identified. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) is currently conducting a study to test the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) versus placebo (PBO), added to contingency management, for cannabis cessation in adults (ages 18–50). This study was designed to replicate positive findings from a study in cannabis-dependent adolescents that found greater odds of abstinence with NAC compared to PBO. This paper describes the design and implementation of an ongoing 12-week, intent-to-treat, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with one follow-up visit four weeks post-treatment. Approximately 300 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults will be randomized to NAC or PBO across six study sites in the United States. The primary objective of this 12-week study is to evaluate the efficacy of twice-daily orally-administered NAC (1200 mg) versus matched PBO, added to contingency management, on cannabis abstinence. NAC is among the first medications to demonstrate increased odds of abstinence in a randomized controlled study among cannabis users in any age group. The current study will assess the cannabis cessation efficacy of NAC combined with a behavioral intervention in adults, providing a novel and timely contribution to the evidence base for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. PMID:25179587

  3. Achieving cannabis cessation -- evaluating N-acetylcysteine treatment (ACCENT): design and implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled study in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Winhusen, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M; Ghitza, Udi E; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Matthews, Abigail G; Sharma, Gaurav; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Vandrey, Ryan G; Levin, Frances R; Weiss, Roger D; Lindblad, Robert; Allen, Colleen; Mooney, Larissa J; Haynes, Louise; Brigham, Gregory S; Sparenborg, Steve; Hasson, Albert L; Gray, Kevin M

    2014-11-01

    Despite recent advances in behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorders, effect sizes remain modest, and few individuals achieve long-term abstinence. One strategy to enhance outcomes is the addition of pharmacotherapy to complement behavioral treatment, but to date no efficacious medications targeting cannabis use disorders in adults through large, randomized controlled trials have been identified. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) is currently conducting a study to test the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) versus placebo (PBO), added to contingency management, for cannabis cessation in adults (ages 18-50). This study was designed to replicate positive findings from a study in cannabis-dependent adolescents that found greater odds of abstinence with NAC compared to PBO. This paper describes the design and implementation of an ongoing 12-week, intent-to-treat, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with one follow-up visit four weeks post-treatment. Approximately 300 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults will be randomized to NAC or PBO across six study sites in the United States. The primary objective of this 12-week study is to evaluate the efficacy of twice-daily orally-administered NAC (1200 mg) versus matched PBO, added to contingency management, on cannabis abstinence. NAC is among the first medications to demonstrate increased odds of abstinence in a randomized controlled study among cannabis users in any age group. The current study will assess the cannabis cessation efficacy of NAC combined with a behavioral intervention in adults, providing a novel and timely contribution to the evidence base for the treatment of cannabis use disorders.

  4. Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Caprara, G V; Barbaranelli, C; Pastorelli, C; Bandura, A; Zimbardo, P G

    2000-07-01

    The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later. Prosocialness included cooperating, helping, sharing, and consoling, and the measure of antisocial aspects included proneness to verbal and physical aggression. Prosocialness had a strong positive impact on later academic achievement and social preferences, but early aggression had no significant effect on either outcome. The conceptual model accounted for 35% of variance in later academic achievement, and 37% of variance in social preferences. Additional analysis revealed that early academic achievement did not contribute to later academic achievement after controlling for effects of early prosocialness. Possible mediating processes by which prosocialness may affect academic achievement and other socially desirable developmental outcomes are proposed.

  5. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  6. Imaging of high-energy x-ray emission from cryogenic thermonuclear fuel implosions on the NIF.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Bradley, D K; Bell, P; Cerjan, C J; Dixit, S; Döppner, T; Jones, O; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G; Landen, O L; LePape, S; Mackinnon, A J; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Prasad, R R; Ralph, J; Regan, S P; Smalyuk, V A; Springer, P T; Suter, L; Town, R P J; Weber, S V; Glenzer, S H

    2012-10-01

    Accurately assessing and optimizing the implosion performance of inertial confinement fusion capsules is a crucial step to achieving ignition on the NIF. We have applied differential filtering (matched Ross filter pairs) to provide broadband time-integrated absolute x-ray self-emission images of the imploded core of cryogenic layered implosions. This diagnostic measures the temperature- and density-sensitive bremsstrahlung emission and provides estimates of hot spot mass, mix mass, and pressure.

  7. Independent Control of the Magnetization in Ferromagnetic La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/SrTiO3/LaCoO3 Heterostructures Achieved by Epitaxial Lattice Mismatch.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Murias, Beatriz; Lucas, Irene; Jiménez-Cavero, Pilar; Magén, César; Morellón, Luis; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    We report the effect of interface symmetry-mismatch on the magnetic properties of LaCoO3 (LCO) thin films. Growing epitaxial LCO under tensile strain on top of cubic SrTiO3 (STO) produces a contraction along the c axis and a characteristic ferromagnetic response. However, we report here that ferromagnetism in LCO is completely suppressed when grown on top of a buffer layer of rhombohedral La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO), in spite of identical in-plane and out-of-plane lattice deformation. This confirms that it is the lattice symmetry mismatch and not just the total strain, which determines the magnetism of LCO. On the basis of this control over the magnetic properties of LCO, we designed a multilayered structure to achieve independent rotation of the magnetization in ferromagnetic insulating LCO and half-metallic ferromagnet LSMO. This is an important step forward for the design of spin-filtering tunnel barriers based on LCO.

  8. Independent Control of the Magnetization in Ferromagnetic La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/SrTiO3/LaCoO3 Heterostructures Achieved by Epitaxial Lattice Mismatch.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Murias, Beatriz; Lucas, Irene; Jiménez-Cavero, Pilar; Magén, César; Morellón, Luis; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    We report the effect of interface symmetry-mismatch on the magnetic properties of LaCoO3 (LCO) thin films. Growing epitaxial LCO under tensile strain on top of cubic SrTiO3 (STO) produces a contraction along the c axis and a characteristic ferromagnetic response. However, we report here that ferromagnetism in LCO is completely suppressed when grown on top of a buffer layer of rhombohedral La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO), in spite of identical in-plane and out-of-plane lattice deformation. This confirms that it is the lattice symmetry mismatch and not just the total strain, which determines the magnetism of LCO. On the basis of this control over the magnetic properties of LCO, we designed a multilayered structure to achieve independent rotation of the magnetization in ferromagnetic insulating LCO and half-metallic ferromagnet LSMO. This is an important step forward for the design of spin-filtering tunnel barriers based on LCO. PMID:26822394

  9. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  10. Achieving urinary continence in children.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsi-Yang

    2010-07-01

    Achievement of urinary continence is an important developmental step that most children attain with the assistance of their parents and caregivers. Debate continues as to the best time to toilet train; in some Asian and African cultures children are trained as infants, while training at age 2-3 years is more typical in Western cultures. Infant voiding is not merely a spinal reflex, as the sensation of bladder filling is relayed to the brain. However, the ability of the brain to inhibit bladder contractions, and to achieve coordinated bladder contraction with sphincter relaxation, matures over time. While there is a concern that later toilet training may be responsible for an increase in urinary incontinence in children, no controlled studies on early versus late toilet training exist to evaluate this hypothesis. A number of medical conditions such as spina bifida, posterior urethral valves, cerebral palsy and autism can cause incontinence and difficulties in toilet training. The decision to start toilet training a child should take into account both the parents' expectation of how independent the child will be in terms of toileting, and the child's developmental readiness, so that a realistic time course for toilet training can be implemented.

  11. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  12. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  13. Achieving TASAR Operational Readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept for aircraft operations featuring a NASA-developed cockpit automation tool, the Traffic Aware Planner (TAP), which computes traffic/hazard-compatible route changes to improve flight efficiency. The TAP technology is anticipated to save fuel and flight time and thereby provide immediate and pervasive benefits to the aircraft operator, as well as improving flight schedule compliance, passenger comfort, and pilot and controller workload. Previous work has indicated the potential for significant benefits for TASAR-equipped aircraft, and a flight trial of the TAP software application in the National Airspace System has demonstrated its technical viability. This paper reviews previous and ongoing activities to prepare TASAR for operational use.

  14. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  15. A Long-Term Experimental Case Study of the Ecological Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Invasive Plant Management in Achieving Conservation Goals: Bitou Bush Control in Booderee National Park in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmayer, David B.; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J.; Catford, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  16. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  17. Effect of particle pinch on the fusion performance and profile features of an international thermonuclear experimental reactor-like fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijia; Wang, Shaojie

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of the plasma temperature and density in an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)-like fusion device has been studied by numerically solving the energy transport equation coupled with the particle transport equation. The effect of particle pinch, which depends on the magnetic curvature and the safety factor, has been taken into account. The plasma is primarily heated by the alpha particles which are produced by the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions. A semi-empirical method, which adopts the ITERH-98P(y,2) scaling law, has been used to evaluate the transport coefficients. The fusion performances (the fusion energy gain factor, Q) similar to the ITER inductive scenario and non-inductive scenario (with reversed magnetic shear) are obtained. It is shown that the particle pinch has significant effects on the fusion performance and profiles of a fusion reactor. When the volume-averaged density is fixed, particle pinch can lower the pedestal density by ˜30 % , with the Q value and the central pressure almost unchanged. When the particle source or the pedestal density is fixed, the particle pinch can significantly enhance the Q value by 60 % , with the central pressure also significantly raised.

  18. Effect of particle pinch on the fusion performance and profile features of an international thermonuclear experimental reactor-like fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shijia Wang, Shaojie

    2015-04-15

    The evolution of the plasma temperature and density in an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)-like fusion device has been studied by numerically solving the energy transport equation coupled with the particle transport equation. The effect of particle pinch, which depends on the magnetic curvature and the safety factor, has been taken into account. The plasma is primarily heated by the alpha particles which are produced by the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions. A semi-empirical method, which adopts the ITERH-98P(y,2) scaling law, has been used to evaluate the transport coefficients. The fusion performances (the fusion energy gain factor, Q) similar to the ITER inductive scenario and non-inductive scenario (with reversed magnetic shear) are obtained. It is shown that the particle pinch has significant effects on the fusion performance and profiles of a fusion reactor. When the volume-averaged density is fixed, particle pinch can lower the pedestal density by ∼30%, with the Q value and the central pressure almost unchanged. When the particle source or the pedestal density is fixed, the particle pinch can significantly enhance the Q value by  60%, with the central pressure also significantly raised.

  19. Spectroscopy of 19Ne for the thermonuclear 15O(α ,γ )19Ne and 18F(p ,α )15O reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, A.; Laird, A. M.; de Séréville, N.; Wimmer, K.; Faestermann, T.; Hertenberger, R.; Seiler, D.; Wirth, H.-F.; Adsley, P.; Fulton, B. R.; Hammache, F.; Kiener, J.; Stefan, I.

    2015-11-01

    Uncertainties in the thermonuclear rates of the 15O (α ,γ ) 19 Ne and 18 F(p ,α ) 15 O reactions affect model predictions of light curves from type I x-ray bursts and the amount of the observable radioisotope 18F produced in classical novae, respectively. To address these uncertainties, we have studied the nuclear structure of 19Ne over Ex=4.0 -5.1 and 6.1-7.3 MeV using the (3He19F,t )19Ne reaction. We find the Jπ values of the 4.14- and 4.20-MeV levels to be consistent with 9 /2- and 7 /2- , respectively, in contrast to previous assumptions. We confirm the recently observed triplet of states around 6.4 MeV and find evidence that the state at 6.29 MeV, just below the proton threshold, is either broad or a doublet. Our data also suggest that predicted but yet unobserved levels may exist near the 6.86-MeV state. Higher resolution experiments are urgently needed to further clarify the structure of 19Ne around the proton threshold before a reliable 18 F(p ,α ) 15 O rate for nova models can be determined.

  20. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  1. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  2. Status of LDRD-DR 20070518 development of a magnetically driven target for thermo-nuclear burn studies (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, Robert G; Atchison, W L; Colgate, S A; Goforth, J; Griego, J; Guzik, J; Holtkamp, D; Idzorek, G; Kirkpatrick, R; Menikoff, R; Meyer, R; Oona, H; Reardon, P; Rousculp, C L; Sgro, A G; Tabaka, L

    2010-01-20

    This project is developing a magnetically driven cylindrical confinement system for the creation of a small region of material existing under extreme conditions. Using a Ranchero High Explosive Pulsed Power generator (HEPP) with maximum current ranging from 25- 50 MA depending on the load, a current driven Al cylinder will impact a series of nested, less massive Au shells. Each subsequent shell's inner surface velocity will increase due to it's smaller mass by the ratio 2.01( 1+ m{sub i+ 1}/m i), along with radial convergence. Attaining this ideal result requires highly efficient energy transfer which in turn requires plastic cushions. The final velocity of the last sequential shell will be used to drive a central experimental package in which extreme material conditions will be produced. The inexpensive nature of HEPP and the extreme conditions attainable allow many studies to be conducted in regimes not currently available in the laboratory. One potential central experimental package consists of a cylindrical Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target; a cylindrical Au pusher surrounding frozen DT. This target is used as a design tool. The ICF conditions achieved with such a target would be similar to those created in a double shell ignition capsule at the National Ignition Facility. The system being developed has a range of potential applications.

  3. Imaging of High-Energy X-Ray Emission from Cryogenic Thermonuclear Fuel Implosions on the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T

    2012-05-01

    Accurately assessing and optimizing the implosion performance of inertial confinement fusion capsules is a crucial step to achieving ignition on the NIF. We have applied differential filtering (matched Ross filter pairs) to provide spectrally resolved time-integrated absolute x-ray self-emission images of the imploded core of cryogenic layered targets. Using bremsstrahlung assumptions, the measured absolute x-ray brightness allows for the inference of electron temperature, electron density, hot spot mass, mix mass, and pressure. Current inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) seek to indirectly drive a spherical implosion, compressing and igniting a deuterium-tritium fuel. This DT fuel capsule is cryogenically prepared as a solid ice layer surrounded by a low-Z ablator material. Ignition will occur when the hot spot approaches sufficient temperature ({approx}3-4 keV) and {rho}R ({approx}0.3 g/cm{sup 2}) such that alpha deposition can further heat the hot spot and generate a self-sustaining burn wave. During the implosion, the fuel mass becomes hot enough to emit large amounts of x-ray radiation, the spectra and spatial variation of which contains key information that can be used to evaluate the implosion performance. The Ross filter diagnostic employs differential filtering to provide spectrally resolved, time-integrated, absolute x-ray self-emission images of the imploded core of cryogenic layered targets.

  4. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  5. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  6. Reliability achievement in high technology space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The production of failure-free hardware is discussed. The elements required to achieve such hardware are: technical expertise to design, analyze, and fully understand the design; use of high reliability parts and materials control in the manufacturing process; and testing to understand the system and weed out defects. The durability of the Hughes family of satellites is highlighted.

  7. Athletics, Athletic Leadership, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between athletics, athletic leadership, and academic achievement. This is likely to be a tricky issue as athletes and athletic leaders are not likely to be a random group of students. To address this issue I control for school fixed effects and instrument the endogenous variables with height. I find that…

  8. Academic Freedom, Achievement Standards and Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, D. Royce

    2011-01-01

    The tension between the freedom of academics to grade the achievements of their students without interference or coercion and the prerogative of higher education institutions to control grading standards is often deliberated by weighing up the authority and rights of the two parties. An alternative approach is to start with an analysis of the…

  9. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  10. Investigation of the thermonuclear 18Ne(α,p)21Na reaction rate via resonant elastic scattering of 21Na + p

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. Y.; He, J. J.; Parikh, A.; Xu, S. W.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Kubono, S.; Mohr, P.; Hu, J.; Ma, P.; Chen, S. Z.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wang, H. W.; Tian, W. D.; Chen, R. F.; Guo, B.; Hashimoto, T.; Togano, Y.; Hayakawa, S.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Yamada, T.; Komatsubara, T.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhou, X. H.

    2014-01-01

    The 18Ne(α,p)21Na reaction is thought to be one of the key breakout reactions from the hot CNO cycles to the rp process in type I x-ray bursts. In this work, the resonant properties of the compound nucleus 22Mg have been investigated by measuring the resonant elastic scattering of 21Na + p. An 89-MeV 21Na radioactive beam delivered from the CNS Radioactive Ion Beam Separator bombarded an 8.8 mg/cm2 thick polyethylene (CH2)n target. The 21Na beam intensity was about 2×105 pps, with a purity of about 70% on target. The recoiled protons were measured at the center-of-mass scattering angles of θc.m.≈175.2∘, 152.2∘, and 150.5∘ by three sets of ΔE-E telescopes, respectively. The excitation function was obtained with the thick-target method over energies Ex(22Mg)=5.5-9.2 MeV. In total, 23 states above the proton-threshold in 22Mg were observed, and their resonant parameters were determined via an R-matrix analysis of the excitation functions. We have made several new Jπ assignments and confirmed some tentative assignments made in previous work. The thermonuclear 18Ne(α,p)21Na rate has been recalculated based on our recommended spin-parity assignments. The astrophysical impact of our new rate has been investigated through one-zone postprocessing x-ray burst calculations. We find that the 18Ne(α,p)21Na rate significantly affects the peak nuclear energy generation rate, reaction fluxes, and onset temperature of this breakout reaction in these astrophysical phenomena.

  11. Development of a Jones vector based model for the measurement of a plasma current in a thermonuclear fusion reactor with a POTDR setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerssens, M.; Gusarov, A.; Moreau, P.; Malard, P.; Massaut, V.; Mégret, P.; Wuilpart, M.

    2012-04-01

    Fibre optical current sensor (FOCS) is a promising alternative to inductive sensors for the measurement of the plasma current in future thermonuclear fusion reactors. Standard FOCS relies on the measurement of the state of polarisation (SOP) of light at the output of an optical bre surrounding a current. Because of the Faraday eect, magnetic eld induced by electrical current rotates the SOP of light travelling into the bre. According to the Ampere's theorem this rotation is proportional to the surrounded current. In future tokamaks like ITER and DEMO, the plasma current will be suciently high to generate a rotation of the SOP higher than 2 radians. These conditions may lead to uncertainties on the determination of the plasma current if no post processing is performed. In this paper we propose a solution with a Polarisation Optical Time Domain Re ectometer (POTDR) setup allowing both unambiguous plasma current measurement and also local magnetic eld measurements. This measurement is based on the assessment of the SOP rotation of the Rayleigh backscattered POTDR signal. Thanks to the presence of an input polarizer, SOP variations are converted into power uctuations that contain information about the distribution of the magnetic eld and therefore about the plasma current. Using the Jones formalism we have developed a model accounting for the modication of the SOP of light travelling into the optical bre and the evolution of the POTDR signal. In parallel experimental PODTR measurements have been performed on the Tore Supra tokamak situated at CEA Cadarache in France. A comparison between the models and the experimental results conrms the capability of the system to measure the plasma current and the local magnetic eld even if further data post processing are still required.

  12. Thermonuclear X-ray bursts from the 401-Hz accreting pulsar IGR J17498-2921: indication of burning in confined regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2012-05-01

    We use the 2011 Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA) data of the 401-Hz accreting pulsar and burster IGR J17498-2921 to perform timing analysis and time-resolved spectroscopy of 12 thermonuclear X-ray bursts. We confirm previously reported burst oscillations from this source with a much higher significance (8.8σ). We note that the bursts can be divided into three groups: big photospheric radius expansion (PRE) bursts are about 10 times more luminous than medium bursts, while the latter are about 10 times more luminous than small bursts. The PCA field of view of these observations contains several known bursters, and hence some of the observed bursts might not be from IGR J17498-2921. The oscillations during big bursts at the known pulsar frequency show that these bursts were definitely from IGR J17498-2921. We find that at least several of the other bursts were also likely originated from IGR J17498-2921. Spectral analysis reveals that the luminosity differences among various bursts are primarily due to differences in normalizations, and not temperatures, even when we consider the effects of colour factor. This shows burning on a fraction of the stellar surface for those small and medium bursts, which originated from IGR J17498-2921. The low values of the upper limits of burst oscillation amplitude for these bursts suggest a small angle between the spin axis and the magnetic axis. We find indications of the PRE nature of a medium burst, which likely originated from IGR J17498-2921. If true, then, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that two PRE bursts with a peak count rate ratio of as high as ≈12 have been detected from the same source.

  13. The Effects of Learning Strategy Instruction on Achievement, Attitude, and Achievement Motivation in a Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin Selçuk, Gamze; Sahin, Mehmet; Açıkgöz, Kamile Ün

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the influence of learning strategy instruction on student teachers' physics achievement, attitude towards physics, and achievement motivation. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design with matching control group was used in the study. Two groups of student teachers ( n = 75) who were enrolled in an introductory physics course participated in the study. In the experimental group, questioning, summarizing, and graphic organizers were taught. The control group did not receive any presentation on strategy learning. Data were collected via the pre- and post-administration of the Physics Course Achievement Test, the Scale of Attitudes towards Physics, and the Achievement Motivation Scale. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance on the data revealed no significant differences in the attitude and achievement motivation between the strategy and control groups. However, the strategy group students were observed to have a tendency of more positive attitude and motivation than the control group students. Results also showed that explicit learning strategy instruction was more effective than traditional instruction in improving physics achievement of the participating students. The implications of these results for physics education are discussed.

  14. Boredom and Academic Achievement: Testing a Model of Reciprocal Causation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan C.; Goetz, Thomas; Perry, Raymond P.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical model linking boredom and academic achievement is proposed. Based on Pekrun's (2006) control-value theory of achievement emotions, the model posits that boredom and achievement reciprocally influence each other over time. Data from a longitudinal study with college students (N = 424) were used to examine the hypothesized effects. The…

  15. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  16. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  17. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a residual risk factor associated with long-term clinical outcomes in diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease who achieve optimal control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Manabu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Naito, Ryo; Konishi, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Shuta; Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Yokoyama, Takayuki; Okazaki, Shinya; Kurata, Takeshi; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is recognized an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality. Clinical trials have shown that statins significantly reduce cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. However, residual cardiovascular risk persists despite the achievement of target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with statin. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an established coronary risk factor that is independent of LDL-C levels. We evaluated the impact of HDL-C on long-term mortality in diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieved optimal LDL-C. We enrolled 438 consecutive diabetic patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention between 2004 and 2007 at our institution. We identified 165 patients who achieved target LDL-C <100 mg/dl. Patients were stratified into two groups according to HDL-C levels (low HDL-C group, baseline HDL-C <40 mg/dl; high HDL-C group, ≥40 mg/dl). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) that included all-cause death, acute coronary syndrome, and target lesion revascularization were evaluated between the two groups. The median follow-up period was 946 days. The rate of MACE was significantly higher in diabetic patients with low-HDL-C who achieved optimal LDL-C (6.9 vs 17.9 %, log-rank P = 0.030). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that HDL-C is significantly associated with clinical outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio for MACE 1.33, 95 % confidence interval 1.01-1.75, P = 0.042). Low HDL-C is a residual risk factor that is significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes among diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieve optimal LDL-C levels.

  18. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  19. Poor Results for High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  20. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  1. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  2. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  4. Family Status and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Rhoda N.; Horns, Virginia

    This study tested the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in reading achievement among children in grades 2 through 5 related to family structure. Researchers administered the Stanford Achievement Test to 119 students in an Alabama city suburban school system. Of the sample, 69 children lived in intact families and 50 lived in…

  5. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. Classroom Composition and Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey

    1983-01-01

    Third-grade students in high ability groups in mathematics achieved greater gains than students in low ability groups. The opposite results occurred in reading achievement. Possible reasons for this difference include different instructional techniques for reading and math and the effect of home environment on learning. (IS)

  7. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  8. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  9. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  10. Applications of intelligent-measurement systems in controlled-fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.; Lindquist, W.B.; Peterson, R.L.; Wyman, R.H.

    1981-06-22

    The paper describes the control and instrumentation for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA. This large-scale scientific experiment in controlled thermonuclear fusion, which is currently being expanded, originally had 3000 devices to control and 7000 sensors to monitor. A hierarchical computer control system, is used with nine minicomputers forming the supervisory system. There are approximately 55 local control and instrumentation microcomputers. In addition, each device has its own monitoring equipment, which in some cases consists of a small computer. After describing the overall system a more detailed account is given of the control and instrumentation for two large superconducting magnets.

  11. Mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Brian F.; Wither (Post.), David P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper is a distillation of the major result from the 1998 Ph.D. thesis of the late David Wither. It details a longitudinal study over five years of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. It starts from the already well documented negative correlation between the two, and seeks to establish one of the three hypotheses—that mathematics anxiety causes an impairment of mathematics achievement; that lack of mathematics achievement causes mathematics anxiety; or that there is a third underlying cause of the two.

  12. Condensed hydrogen for thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kucheyev, S. O.; Hamza, A. V.

    2010-11-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power, in either pure fusion or fission-fusion hybrid reactors, is a possible solution for future world's energy demands. Formation of uniform layers of a condensed hydrogen fuel in ICF targets has been a long standing materials physics challenge. Here, we review the progress in this field. After a brief discussion of the major ICF target designs and the basic properties of condensed hydrogens, we review both liquid and solid layering methods, physical mechanisms causing layer nonuniformity, growth of hydrogen single crystals, attempts to prepare amorphous and nanostructured hydrogens, and mechanical deformation behavior. Emphasis is given to current challenges defining future research areas in the field of condensed hydrogens for fusion energy applications.

  13. Medical responsibility and thermonuclear war.

    PubMed

    Cassel, C; Jameton, A

    1982-09-01

    The attention of physicians is being drawn to the issue of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, creating controversy about whether a political concern is appropriate for health care professionals. The use of nuclear weapons would incur human death and injury on a scale both unprecedented and unimaginable, and possibly damage the ecosphere far beyond the weapons' immediate effects. Medical supplies and facilities would be nonexistent; no meaningful medical response would be possible. A physician's responsibility to prevent nuclear war is based on the imperative to prevent a devastating incurable disease that cannot be treated. Such an imperative is consistent with the historic tradition of the social responsibility of health professionals, and can be justified by philosophical argument.

  14. The Progenitors of Thermonuclear Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Piersanti, L.; Straniero, O.; Tornambe, A.; Dominguez, I.

    2009-05-03

    In the framework of the rotating Double Degenerate Scenario for type Ia Supernovae progenitors, we show that the dichotomy between explosive events in early and late type galaxies can be easily explained. Assuming that more massive progenitors produce slow-decline (high-luminosity) light curve, it comes out that, at the current age of the Universe, in late type galaxies the continuous star formation provides very massive exploding objects (prompt component) corresponding to slow-decline (bright) SNe; on the other hand, in early type galaxies, where star formation ended many billions years ago, only low mass ''normal luminosity'' objects (delayed component) are present.

  15. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  16. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  17. Mastery Achievement of Intellectual Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trembath, Richard J.; White, Richard T.

    1979-01-01

    Mastery learning techniques were improved through mathematics instruction based on a validated learning hierarchy, presenting tasks in a sequence consistent with the requirements of the hierarchy, and requiring learners to demonstrate achievement before being allowed to proceed. (Author/GDC)

  18. Achieving Standards through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Most states do not have the time or resources to develop environmental education standards from scratch. Highlights the role that environmental education and its interdisciplinary nature can play in helping students achieve. (DDR)

  19. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  20. Achieving strategic cost reduction in the OR.

    PubMed

    Buchler, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Hospitals should be proactive insearching for ways to control operating room supply chain costs. A hospital can identify an overall supply cost savings goal by analyzing patient-encounter data for its 15 most costly procedures and identifying the dollar figure under which 25 percent of cases fall for each procedure. After establishing savings targets, the hospital can achieve its goals through a range of approaches. PMID:25647904

  1. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  2. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  3. Scheduling and Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    To use a block schedule or a traditional schedule? Which structure will produce the best and highest achievement rates for students? The research is mixed on this due to numerous variables such as: (1) socioeconomic levels; (2) academic levels; (3) length of time a given schedule has been in operation; (4) strategies being used in the classrooms;…

  4. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  5. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  6. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  7. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  8. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  9. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  10. Achieving Results in MBA Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deborah J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how Rice University's Jones Graduate School of Management achieves their mission for the communication program. Discusses three keys to the success of the program: individual coaching, integrated team instruction, and constant assessment of the students and the program. Presents an overview of the program. (SG)

  11. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  12. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  13. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  14. Achievement in Two School Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borth, Audrey M.

    The purpose of the study was to assess non-intellective correlates of achievement in a lower-class, all black, urban elementary school. These students were compared with a University school population which was different in many dimensions. There were residual similarities relative to the general role of the elementary school student. In neither…

  15. Literacy Achievement in Nongraded Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreide, Anita Therese

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal quantitative study compared literacy achievement of students from second through sixth grade based on two organizational systems: graded (traditional) and nongraded (multiage) classrooms. The California Standards Test (CST) scaled and proficiency scores for English-Language Arts (ELA) were used as the study's independent variable…

  16. PREDICTING ACHIEVEMENT FOR DEAF CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BONHAM, S.J., JR.

    THIS STUDY WAS DONE TO DETERMINE THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP ACHIEVEMENT TESTS WHEN USED TO EVALUATE DEAF CHILDREN. THE 36 CHILDREN SELECTED FOR THIS STUDY WERE IN GRADES 2, 4, AND 6 IN THE KENNEDY SCHOOL IN DAYTON, OHIO. ALL HAD SEVERE AUDITORY HANDICAPS AND WERE 10 TO 16 YEARS OLD. FOUR PSYCHOLOGISTS ADMINISTERED THE FOLLOWING…

  17. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  18. Perlman receives Sustained Achievement Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Charles; Perlman, David

    David Perlman was awarded the Sustained Achievement Award at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on December 10, 1997, in San Francisco, California. The award recognizes a journalist who has made significant, lasting, and consistent contributions to accurate reporting or writing on the geophysical sciences for the general public.

  19. Great achievements by dedicated nurses.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Alison

    2016-04-27

    Like many nurses, those featured here are motivated by a desire to do everything they can to give high quality care to their patients. Nurses are often reluctant to seek recognition for their achievements, but by talking publicly about the difference they have made, Gillian Elwood, Anja Templin and Sandra Wood are helping to share good practice. PMID:27191295

  20. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…