Science.gov

Sample records for achieve desired levels

  1. DC-9/JT8D refan, Phase 1. [technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting DC-9 aircraft with refan engine to achieve desired acoustic levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Analyses and design studies were conducted on the technical and economic feasibility of installing the JT8D-109 refan engine on the DC-9 aircraft. Design criteria included minimum change to the airframe to achieve desired acoustic levels. Several acoustic configurations were studied with two selected for detailed investigations. The minimum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 608 kg (1,342 lb) and the maximum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 809 kg (1,784 lb). The range loss for the minimum and maximum selected acoustic treatment configurations based on long range cruise at 10 668 m (35,000 ft) altitude with a typical payload of 6 804 kg (15,000 lb) amounts to 54 km (86 n. mi.) respectively. Estimated reduction in EPNL's for minimum selected treatment show 8 EPNdB at approach, 12 EPNdB for takeoff with power cutback, 15 EPNdB for takeoff without power cutback and 12 EPNdB for sideline using FAR Part 36. Little difference was estimated in EPNL between minimum and maximum treatments due to reduced performance of maximum treatment. No major technical problems were encountered in the study. The refan concept for the DC-9 appears technically feasible and economically viable at approximately $1,000,000 per airplane. An additional study of the installation of JT3D-9 refan engine on the DC-8-50/61 and DC-8-62/63 aircraft is included. Three levels of acoustic treatment were suggested for DC-8-50/61 and two levels for DC-8-62/63. Results indicate the DC-8 technically can be retrofitted with refan engines for approximately $2,500,000 per airplane.

  2. A Desired PAR-Achieving Precoder Design for Multiuser MIMO OFDM Based on Concentration of Measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Hyun-Su; Kim, Dong Ku

    2017-03-01

    For multi-user multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communications in orthogonal frequency di- vision multiplexing systems, we propose a MIMO precoding scheme providing a desired peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) at the minimum cost that is defined as received SNR degradation. By taking advantage of the concentration of measure, we formulate a convex problem with constraint on the desired PAR. Consequently, the proposed scheme almost exactly achieves the desired PAR on average, and asymptotically attains the desired PAR at the 0.001 point of its complementary cumulative distribution function, as the number of subcarriers increases.

  3. Primary Teacher Educators' Perception of Desired and Achieved Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Geography Education in Primary Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankman, Marian; van der Schee, Joop; Volman, Monique; Boogaard, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted among primary geography teacher educators. The research examines the perceptions of educators of primary teacher students' desired and achieved levels of substantial knowledge, syntactic knowledge, and beliefs about the subject of geography. The findings indicate that primary teacher educators…

  4. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  5. Commentary on text of interview with Professor Lord Ara Darzi: 'Desirable? Yes; but is it achievable?'.

    PubMed

    Ferlie, Ewan

    2015-01-01

    This personal commentary explores some issues that arise in the text of the interview with Lord Darzi published in LJPC 6.6, from a point of view of an interest in health policy and change in healthcare organisations. It suggests that the vision is desirable but that there are four major questions about ready implementation that the field needs to consider: 1 Can primary care development and investment be protected in a cold financial climate? 2 Does the current marketisation of health care erode integration? 3 Does the health and social care system in London behave like a real system? 4 Is there really a cultural shift towards empowerment and organisational learning?

  6. Testing the Level of Social Desirability During Job Interview on White-Collar Profession.

    PubMed

    Preiss, Marek; Mejzlíková, Tereza; Rudá, Adéla; Krámský, David; Pitáková, Jindra

    2015-01-01

    Social desirability as a tendency to present oneself in a better light rather than in a truthful manner is common feature presented during job interviews. Previous studies mainly focused on blue-collar professions and therefore authors researched contrary set of white-collar professions in three sub-studies with four different participant groups (legal professions; police officers; controls and university students influenced by scenarios; overall N = 636). It was hypothesized that candidates for legal profession would show similar tendency toward social desirability, when compared with controls. Furthermore, police officers were hypothesized to show similar levels of social desirability as legal professions. Lastly, participants in the instruction manipulation condition were hypothesized to show increased levels of social desirability in tender situation as compared to the honest situation. All groups were tested with balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR, Paulhus, 1984). Statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences for both subscales of BIDR when comparing legal professions and control group. Similarly, increased levels of social desirability were detected in police officer candidates as well as in university students in the tender situation compared with students in the honest situation. The overall results indicated that it is typical for white-collar candidates to adapt to the testing situation and it cannot be expected to see different behavior from legal profession candidates as was originally expected.

  7. Testing the Level of Social Desirability During Job Interview on White-Collar Profession

    PubMed Central

    Preiss, Marek; Mejzlíková, Tereza; Rudá, Adéla; Krámský, David; Pitáková, Jindra

    2015-01-01

    Social desirability as a tendency to present oneself in a better light rather than in a truthful manner is common feature presented during job interviews. Previous studies mainly focused on blue-collar professions and therefore authors researched contrary set of white-collar professions in three sub-studies with four different participant groups (legal professions; police officers; controls and university students influenced by scenarios; overall N = 636). It was hypothesized that candidates for legal profession would show similar tendency toward social desirability, when compared with controls. Furthermore, police officers were hypothesized to show similar levels of social desirability as legal professions. Lastly, participants in the instruction manipulation condition were hypothesized to show increased levels of social desirability in tender situation as compared to the honest situation. All groups were tested with balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR, Paulhus, 1984). Statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences for both subscales of BIDR when comparing legal professions and control group. Similarly, increased levels of social desirability were detected in police officer candidates as well as in university students in the tender situation compared with students in the honest situation. The overall results indicated that it is typical for white-collar candidates to adapt to the testing situation and it cannot be expected to see different behavior from legal profession candidates as was originally expected. PMID:26696944

  8. Students' Desired and Experienced Levels of Connectivity to an Asynchronous, Online, Distance Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Shawnda; Baker, Mary; Terras, Katherine; Mahar, Patti; Chiasson, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This study examined graduate students' desired and experienced levels of connectivity in an online, asynchronous distance degree program. Connectivity was conceptualized as the students' feelings of community and involvement, not their level of access to the Internet. Graduate students enrolled in a distance degree program were surveyed on both…

  9. Study of Social Desirability Levels of Female Youth Camp Leader Candidates in Accordance with Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Üzümcü, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study examination of the study of social desirability levels of female youth camp leader candidates in according with some variables. The study the scope of the research consists of 326 female trainees participated in the relevant course of youth camp leader candidates, depending on the Youth and Sport Ministry. As a measurement…

  10. Are self-reported physical activity levels associated with perceived desirability of activity-friendly communities?

    PubMed

    Librett, John J; Yore, Michelle M; Schmid, Thomas L; Kohl, Harold W

    2007-09-01

    People living in activity-friendly communities (AFCs) are more active but the self-selection influence is unknown. From 4856 respondents we explored mediating variables with expressed desire to live in AFCs. Association with desire to live in AFCs included ages 18-24 years (odds ratio [OR]=1.9), African American (OR=1.9) or Hispanic (OR=1.5), and believing AFCs would support activity-based transportation (OR=2.4). Regular physical activity (PA) was marginally associated with desire to live in AFCs (OR=1.3). These findings suggest that PA may be a significant factor in communities of this style. Strategies for social marketing along with changes to the built environment to increase PA levels are discussed.

  11. Adaptive control of input field to achieve desired output intensity profile in multimode fiber with random mode coupling.

    PubMed

    Mahalati, Reza Nasiri; Askarov, Daulet; Wilde, Jeffrey P; Kahn, Joseph M

    2012-06-18

    We develop a method for synthesis of a desired intensity profile at the output of a multimode fiber (MMF) with random mode coupling by controlling the input field distribution using a spatial light modulator (SLM) whose complex reflectance is piecewise constant over a set of disjoint blocks. Depending on the application, the desired intensity profile may be known or unknown a priori. We pose the problem as optimization of an objective function quantifying, and derive a theoretical lower bound on the achievable objective function. We present an adaptive sequential coordinate ascent (SCA) algorithm for controlling the SLM, which does not require characterizing the full transfer characteristic of the MMF, and which converges to near the lower bound after one pass over the SLM blocks. This algorithm is faster than optimizations based on genetic algorithms or random assignment of SLM phases. We present simulated and experimental results applying the algorithm to forming spots of light at a MMF output, and describe how the algorithm can be applied to imaging.

  12. Increase in Dickkopf-1 Serum Level in Recent Spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nocturne, Gaetane; Pavy, Stephan; Boudaoud, Saida; Seror, Raphaèle; Goupille, Philippe; Chanson, Philippe; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris; Berenbaum, Francis; Mariette, Xavier; Briot, Karine; Feydy, Antoine; Claudepierre, Pascal; Dieudé, Philippe; Nithitham, Joanne; Taylor, Kimberly E.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Dougados, Maxime; Roux, Christian; Miceli-Richard, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate DKK-1 and SOST serum levels among patients with recent inflammatory back pain (IBP) fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA and associated factors. Methods The DESIR cohort is a prospective, multicenter French cohort of 708 patients with early IBP (duration >3 months and <3 years) suggestive of AxSpA. DKK-1 and SOST serum levels were assessed at baseline and were compared between the subgroup of patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA (n = 486; 68.6%) and 80 healthy controls. Results Mean SOST serum levels were lower in ASAS+ patients than healthy controls (49.21 ± 25.9 vs. 87.8 ± 26 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, age (p = 5.4 10−9), CRP level (p<0.0001) and serum DKK-1 level (p = 0.001) were associated with SOST level. Mean DKK-1 serum levels were higher in axial SpA patients than controls (30.03 ± 15.5 vs. 11.6 ± 4.2 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, DKK-1 serum levels were associated with male gender (p = 0.03), CRP level (p = 0.006), SOST serum level (p = 0.002) and presence of sacroiliitis on radiography (p = 0.05). Genetic association testing of 10 SNPs encompassing the DKK-1 locus failed to demonstrate a significant contribution of genetics to control of DKK-1 serum levels. Conclusions DKK-1 serum levels were increased and SOST levels were decreased among a large cohort of patients with early axial SpA compared to healthy controls. DKK-1 serum levels were mostly associated with biological inflammation and SOST serum levels. PMID:26313358

  13. Current and desired competency levels of secondary agricultural teachers in Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbert, Chanda Dehron

    The purpose of this study was to identify the competencies needed by secondary agricultural teachers in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Specifically, this study identified competencies needed to help make teachers more effective while working with special needs students. The objectives of the study were to: (1) determine, verify, and evaluate competencies needed by secondary teachers of agriculture to work with handicapped students enrolled in agricultural and vocational education programs; (2) determine, verify, and evaluate competencies needed by secondary teachers of agriculture to work with economically disadvantaged students enrolled in agricultural and vocational education programs; (3) determine, verify, and evaluate competencies needed by secondary teachers of agriculture to work with academically challenged students enrolled in agricultural and vocational programs; and (4) evaluate the self-perceived competency levels of secondary agricultural education teachers and their desired competency levels. A 50% simple random sample of secondary agricultural teachers from the Directory for Agricultural Education in Pennsylvania, 1999--2000 was used. The design for the study was a descriptive study. The data collection instrument used was divided into five different areas: personal characteristics, professional role and development, instructional role, knowledge statements, and student leadership and organization. Subjects were asked to rate their present and desired levels of competency in the categories using a Likert-type scale. The competency scale was as follows: 1 = not competent; 2 = slightly competent, 3 = competent; 4 = very competent; 5 = extremely competent. There were 153 questionnaires mailed to the secondary agricultural education teachers. A total of 96 teachers responded to the questionnaire. Frequencies and distributions were used to describe demographic variables. T-test and analysis of variance were used to determine relationships between

  14. Just acceptable and desirable luminance levels for fast jet cockpit displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassie, C. Ken; Christopher, W. Colin

    2000-08-01

    This paper reports on the experiments undertaken by BAE SYSTEMS to determine the 'just acceptable' and 'desirable' luminance levels for graphical displays utilized in fast jet cockpits. The assessments of the displays were performed by BAE SYSTEMS test pilots. The results of the experiments are only fully applicable to displays which have the same reflectivity and black contrast as that of the display used during the assessment. The PJND (Perceived Must Noticeable) method was utilized to extend the results of the experiments to apply to displays with any combination of reflectivity and black contrast. The experiment involved both computer generated imagery and sensor imagery; as would be expected the luminance requirements for sensor imagery is far higher than it is for non-sensor imagery.

  15. Assessment of the level of the actual and desirable levels of computer literacy, usage and expected knowledge of undergraduate students of nursing.

    PubMed

    Hardy, J L

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the perceptions of students entering nursing at the bachelors level, of their actual and desirable knowledge about computers and their applications relevant to nursing and health care. Within the health care system the use of computerized systems is increasing rapidly. In Australia, the NSW Health Department's Information Management Resource Consortium pilot project--to introduce the First Data Hospital Information System into NSW public hospitals--is a significant example of this trend. While the importance of computerized systems is fairly well recognized for the areas of management and research, they are becoming increasingly significant in the delivery of clinical care and quality assurance. It is important that nurses during their undergraduate education develop the computer literacy and awareness that will allow them access to the both the information and its management. To achieve this effectively it is essential to determine both the entry knowledge of students and what skills and knowledge are essential and desirable for their future roles as nurses. The research undertaken replicated an American study [2] and used their validated questionnaire. Both pre-registration(n=20) and post-registration (n=24) undergraduate students responded to a 21 item questionnaire. The issues addressed related to computer literacy, usage, and knowledge of clinical applications. Both groups desired more "hands on" experience and knowledge in the nurse's role in developing applications and using computers to help care for patients. These results were consistent with the Parks et. al. study. The significance of comparing actual and desirable levels of computer knowledge and awareness is in assisting educators to shape curriculum and course content to more effectively meet the educational needs of these groups in terms of Health Informatics.

  16. The Level of Desirability of Information Technology Systems and Its Relation with Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allammeh, Sayyed Mohsen; Shavaran, Hamidreza; Dabaghi, Azizollah; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to define Information Technology (IT) desirability and determine IT relationship with organizational commitment. The existence of such a relationship between IT & organizational commitment can guide the organizational leaders to promote and to develop the IT potentials in order to improve the performance of employees,…

  17. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Córdova, A; Vega, K; Chung, A; Villena, A; Góñez, C; Castillo, S

    2002-12-01

    This study was a 12-week double blind placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel trial in which active treatment with different doses of Maca Gelatinizada was compared with placebo. The study aimed to demonstrate if effect of Maca on subjective report of sexual desire was because of effect on mood or serum testosterone levels. Men aged 21-56 years received Maca in one of two doses: 1,500 mg or 3,000 mg or placebo. Self-perception on sexual desire, score for Hamilton test for depression, and Hamilton test for anxiety were measured at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment. An improvement in sexual desire was observed with Maca since 8 weeks of treatment. Serum testosterone and oestradiol levels were not different in men treated with Maca and in those treated with placebo (P:NS). Logistic regression analysis showed that Maca has an independent effect on sexual desire at 8 and 12 weeks of treatment, and this effect is not because of changes in either Hamilton scores for depression or anxiety or serum testosterone and oestradiol levels. In conclusion, treatment with Maca improved sexual desire.

  18. SU-E-T-92: Achieving Desirable Lung Doses in Total Body Irradiation Based On in Vivo Dosimetry and Custom Tissue Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, G; Shiu, A; Zhou, S; Cui, J; Ballas, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To achieve desirable lung doses in total body irradiation (TBI) based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensation. Methods: The 15 MV photon beam of a Varian TrueBeam STx linac was used for TBI. Patients were positioned in the lateral decubitus position for AP/PA treatment delivery. Dose was calculated using the midpoint of the separation distance across the patient’s umbilicus. Patients received 200 cGy twice daily for 3 days. The dose rate at the patient’s midplane was approximately 10 cGy/min. Cerrobend blocks with a 5-HVL thickness were used for the primary lung shielding. A custom styrofoam holder for rice-flour filled bags was created based on the lung block cutouts. This was used to provide further lung shielding based on in vivo dose measurements. Lucite plates and rice-flour bags were placed in the head, neck, chest, and lower extremity regions during the treatment to compensate for the beam off-axis output variations. Two patients were included in the study. Patients 1 and 2 received a craniospinal treatment (1080 cGy) and a mediastinum treatment (2520 cGy), respectively, before the TBI. During the TBI nanoDot dosimeters were placed on the patient skin in the forehead, neck, umbilicus, and lung regions for dose monitoring. The doses were readout immediately after the treatment. Based on the readings, fine tuning of the thickness of the rice-flour filled bags was exploited to achieve the desirable lung doses. Results: For both patients the mean lung doses, which took into consideration all treatments, were controlled within 900 +/−10% cGy, as desired. Doses to the forehead, neck, and umbilicus were achieved within +/−10% of the prescribed dose (1200 cGy). Conclusion: A reliable and robust method was developed to achieve desirable lung doses and uniform body dose in TBI based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensator.

  19. Assessing the Desired and Actual Levels of Teachers' Participation in Decision-Making in Secondary Schools of Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bademo, Yismaw; Tefera, Bekalu Ferede

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the desired and actual levels of teachers' participation in decision-making process in Ethiopian secondary schools. For this, the study employed a cross-sectional survey design collecting data from sampled secondary school teachers (n = 258) found in Assosa Zone, Benishangual Gumuz Regional state, Ethiopia.…

  20. Relationship between Uric Acid Level and Achievement Motivation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Ernst F.; French, John R. P., Jr.

    In an investigation of the relationship of uric acid (a metabolic end product) to achievement, this study hypothesized that a person's serum urate level (a factor often associated with gout) is positively related to achievement need as well as indicators of actual achievement. (Speed of promotion and number of yearly publications were chosen as…

  1. Predicting Mathematics Achievement by Motivation and Self-Efficacy across Gender and Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartawi, AbdelAziz; Alsawaie, Othman N.; Dodeen, Hamzeh; Tibi, Sana; Alghazo, Iman M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which self-efficacy and motivation served as a predictor for mathematics achievement of fifth grade students in United Arab Emirates (UAE) across gender and achievement levels. Self-efficacy was measured by two scales, which differed in levels of specificity--Category Specific and Task Specific. Motivation was…

  2. Use of minipig skin biopsy model as an innovative tool to design topical formulation to achieve desired pharmacokinetics in humans.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Amitava; Leyes, Aquiles; Manser, Kimberly; Roadcap, Brad; Mestre, Christine; Tatosian, Daniel; Jin, Lan; Uemura, Naoto

    2015-05-01

    In vitro cadaver skin permeation studies are often conducted to characterize the permeation profile of compounds for dermal delivery. However, its utility could be limited in the case of topical products because of lack of reliable prediction of in vivo skin kinetics. In this paper, the use of in vivo skin biopsy data to guide topical formulation development is described. A formulation was developed by compounding MK-0873, a phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, into a commercially available cream base. The cream was characterized by skin pharmacokinetic studies in minipigs, which demonstrated that MK-0873 concentrations in the epidermis and dermis were substantially higher than the IC80 for human whole blood PDE4 inhibition of ∼200 nM, suggesting that cream should provide sufficient skin exposure to assess clinical efficacy. In toxicological studies, after 1 month repeat application in minipigs minor dermal irritation and minimal systemic exposure were observed. Based on these preclinical data, the cream formulation was chosen for single rising dose clinical studies, where plasma levels of MK-0873 were mostly below the LOQ, whereas skin biopsy concentrations ranged from 6.5 to 25.1 μM. These data suggested that minipig skin biopsy model can be a valuable tool to assess performance of topical formulations and guide formulation development.

  3. Grade Level of Achievement Reporting: Teacher and Administrator Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Dale; Laird, Alice; Mulgrew, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to assist educators in understanding grade level of achievement (GLA), the role it plays in communicating student learning, and how to effectively implement the reporting of grade level of achievement for students enrolled in grades one through nine to Alberta Education as an adjunct to the on-going reporting to…

  4. Grade Level of Achievement Reporting: Teacher and Administrator Handbook. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Dale; Laird, Alice; Mulgrew, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to assist educators in understanding grade level of achievement (GLA), the role it plays in communicating student learning, and how to effectively implement the reporting of grade level of achievement for students enrolled in grades one through nine to Alberta Education as an adjunct to the on-going reporting to…

  5. The Relationship among Wellness, Psychological Distress, and Social Desirability of Entering Master's-Level Counselor Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Heather L.; Robinson, E. H. "Mike", III; Young, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Two-hundred and four entering master's-level counseling students from 9 programs in 5 states participated in a study testing the only counseling-based wellness assessment measure, the Five Factor Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle (J. E. Myers, R. M. Luecht, & T. J. Sweeney, 2004), for its relationship to 2 other constructs: psychological distress…

  6. Social Deprivation, School-Level Achievement and Special Educational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Data from interviews with 299 teachers in 46 English primary schools revealed that the correlation between free school meals and achievement and between free school meals and special educational needs may stem from teacher judgments. The very poorest schools with the lowest achievement have substantially higher levels of special needs identified…

  7. Aligning Items and Achievement Levels: A Study Comparing Expert Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaliski, Pamela; Huff, Kristen; Barry, Carol

    2011-01-01

    For educational achievement tests that employ multiple-choice (MC) items and aim to reliably classify students into performance categories, it is critical to design MC items that are capable of discriminating student performance according to the stated achievement levels. This is accomplished, in part, by clearly understanding how item design…

  8. Changes in Men's Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol Levels, and in Sexual Desire after Smelling Female Axillary and Vulvar Scents.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Hernández-López, Leonor; de la O, Claudio E; Chavira-Ramírez, Roberto; Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that a woman's vaginal or axillary odors convey information on her attractivity. Yet, whether such scents induce psychoneuroendocrinological changes in perceivers is still controversial. We studied if smelling axillary and vulvar odors collected in the periovulatory and late luteal phases of young women modify salivary testosterone and cortisol levels, as well as sexual desire in men. Forty-five women and 115 men, all of them college students and unacquainted with each other, participated in the study. Female odors were collected on pads affixed to the axilla and on panty protectors both worn the entire night before experiments. Men provided five saliva samples, a basal one before the smelling procedure, and four more 15, 30, 60, and 75 min after exposure to odors. Immediately after smelling the odor source, men answered a questionnaire rating hedonic qualities of scents, and after providing the last saliva sample they answered questionnaire on sexual desire. We found that periovulatory axillary and vulvar odors increased testosterone and cortisol levels, with vulvar scents producing a more prolonged effect. Luteal axilla odors decreased testosterone and cortisol levels, while luteal vulva odors increased cortisol. Periovulatory axilla and vulva scents accounted for a general increase of interest in sex. These odors were also rated as more pleasant and familiar, while luteal vulvar odors were perceived as intense and unpleasant.

  9. Stable Salmonella live vaccine strains with two or more attenuating mutations and any desired level of attenuation.

    PubMed

    Linde, K; Beer, J; Bondarenko, V

    1990-06-01

    Mutants optimally attenuated for highly susceptible hosts and protecting after a single oral vaccination are often overattenuated for host species being less susceptible. Therefore, to select vaccine strains optimally attenuated for the particular host species it is essential that a range of mutants with graded levels of attenuation be provided so as to permit lesser susceptibility to be compensated for by a correspondingly lower level of attenuation. This, while guaranteeing the stability through two-marker or multi-marker attenuation, can be suitably accomplished by slightly to moderately virulence-reducing mutations. Aspartic acid auxotrophy and, in particular, 'metabolic drift' mutations, possibly by additionally incorporating antiepidemic markers, are adopted for the mouse model to demonstrate stepwise production of S. typhimurium and S. typhi vaccine candidate strains with graded attenuation or any level of attenuation desirable. It is emphasized that this basic approach is relevant to practice.

  10. Grade Level of Achievement: 2007-08 Report on Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the outcomes of the analysis of Grade Level of Achievement (GLA) data at the provincial level to inform the program planning and evaluation needs of Alberta Education as well as school and central office based administrators. GLA data reported to Alberta Education is a teacher's judgment of a student's academic progress. GLA…

  11. Middle Level Best Practice and Student Achievement in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dawn Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the implementation level of best practice strategies for middle level education in the state of Texas described by This We Believe (AMLE, 2010) and to determine the relationship of those practices with the schools' academic achievement in math and reading. A survey was distributed to principals of all…

  12. GRIK1 Genotype Moderates Topiramate's Effects on Daily Drinking Level, Expectations of Alcohol's Positive Effects, and Desire to Drink

    PubMed Central

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Armeli, Stephen; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We (Kranzler et al. 2014) reported that topiramate 200 mg/day reduced heavy drinking days and increased abstinent days in 138 heavy drinkers whose treatment goal was to reduce drinking to safe levels. In that 12-week, placebo-controlled study, we measured drinking using the Timeline Follow-back method at each treatment visit. In addition to the intent-to-treat effects of topiramate, we found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, encoding the GluK1 subunit of the kainate receptor, moderated the treatment effect in European Americans (EAs; n=122). Topiramate reduced heavy drinking only in rs2832407*C allele homozygotes. Here, we augment those analyses by using patients’ daily reports obtained using interactive voice response technology (a) to validate the interactive effects of GRIK1 and topiramate as predictors of drinking level and (b) to examine changes in expected positive effects of drinking (i.e., positive outcome expectancies) and desire to drink. We found that rs2832407*C allele homozygotes treated with topiramate drank less overall during treatment than those receiving placebo, validating our earlier findings for heavy drinking days (Kranzler et al. 2014). There was also a study day × medication group × genotype group interaction that predicted both positive alcohol expectancies and desire to drink, with rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes treated with topiramate showing the largest decreases in these outcomes during the study period. Changes in positive alcohol expectancies or desire to drink did not mediate the effects on drinking. These findings validate and extend our previous pharmacogenetic findings with topiramate. PMID:24786948

  13. Science at 0 Level: Subject Choice and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuffin, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Examines science course selection by curriculum candidates (N=2178) for Northern Ireland GCE 0 level in 1980. Data are provided for nature (biology, chemistry, physics) and number of courses selected, and achievement (pass/failure rates). Data are also reported for males/females and type of school. (JN)

  14. Beyond ORF: Student-Level Predictors of Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canto, Angela I.; Proctor, Briley E.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored student-level predictors of reading achievement among third grade regular education students. Predictors included student demographics (sex and socioeconomic status (SES), using free and reduced lunch as proxy for SES), direct observations of reading skills (oral reading fluency (ORF) and word decoding skill (nonsense word…

  15. Organizational Health and Student Achievement in Tennessee Middle Level Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Christopher L.; Buehler, Alison E.; Stein, William L.; Dalton, John E.; Robinson, Teresa R.; Anfara, Vincent A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Although the successful middle level school was designed to address both the affective and cognitive development of young adolescents (NMSA 2003), academic achievement is the outcome of paramount importance in the current political context of accountability, high-stakes testing, and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. In their efforts to reform,…

  16. Achieving network level privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Riaz Ahmed; Jameel, Hassan; d'Auriol, Brian J; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Song, Young-Jae

    2010-01-01

    Full network level privacy has often been categorized into four sub-categories: Identity, Route, Location and Data privacy. Achieving full network level privacy is a critical and challenging problem due to the constraints imposed by the sensor nodes (e.g., energy, memory and computation power), sensor networks (e.g., mobility and topology) and QoS issues (e.g., packet reach-ability and timeliness). In this paper, we proposed two new identity, route and location privacy algorithms and data privacy mechanism that addresses this problem. The proposed solutions provide additional trustworthiness and reliability at modest cost of memory and energy. Also, we proved that our proposed solutions provide protection against various privacy disclosure attacks, such as eavesdropping and hop-by-hop trace back attacks.

  17. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  18. A Desire for Parsimony

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of wildness is being developed as a quality of interactive processing that increases survival opportunities in nature. A link is made between the need to improve interactive quality for wildness, and cognitive desires and interests in art, music, religion and philosophy as these can also be seen as attempts to improve interactive quality internally and externally. Interactive quality can be improved through gains in parsimony, that is, simplifications in the organisation of skills. The importance of parsimony in evolution is discussed, along with indicators of an internal parsimony desire that experiences joy if achieved through processes such as insight and understanding. A mechanism for the production and measurement of the parsimony desire is proposed, based on the number of subcortical pleasure hotspots that can be stimulated at once within the ‘archipelago’ available in the limbic system. PMID:25379257

  19. Creative Artistic Achievement Is Related to Lower Levels of Alexithymia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Horwitz, Eva Bojner; Theorell, Töres; Ullén, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by deficits in the ability to identify, differentiate, and describe emotions--abilities that are of importance for social interactions, well-being, and, consequently, also for health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether achievements in cultural activities are associated with alexithymia. Participants from…

  20. Safety assessment of food and feed from biotechnology-derived crops employing RNA-mediated gene regulation to achieve desired traits: a scientific review.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Jay S; Brower-Toland, Brent; Jackson, Aimee L; Kier, Larry D

    2013-07-01

    Gene expression can be modulated in plants to produce desired traits through agricultural biotechnology. Currently, biotechnology-derived crops are compared to their conventional counterparts, with safety assessments conducted on the genetic modification and the intended and unintended differences. This review proposes that this comparative safety assessment paradigm is appropriate for plants modified to express mediators of RNA-mediated gene regulation, including RNA interference (RNAi), a gene suppression mechanism that naturally occurs in plants and animals. The molecular mediators of RNAi, including long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA), small interfering RNAs (siRNA), and microRNAs (miRNA), occur naturally in foods; therefore, there is an extensive history of safe consumption. Systemic exposure following consumption of plants containing dsRNAs that mediate RNAi is limited in higher organisms by extensive degradation of ingested nucleic acids and by biological barriers to uptake and efficacy of exogenous nucleic acids. A number of mammalian RNAi studies support the concept that a large margin of safety will exist for any small fraction of RNAs that might be absorbed following consumption of foods from biotechnology-derived plants that employ RNA-mediated gene regulation. Food and feed derived from these crops utilizing RNA-based mechanisms is therefore expected to be as safe as food and feed derived through conventional plant breeding.

  1. Comparison of the Level of Using Metacognitive Strategies during Study between High Achieving and Low Achieving Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doganay, Ahmet; Demir, Ozden

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to compare the level of using metacognitive strategies during study between high achieving and low achieving prospective classroom teachers. This study was designed as a mixed method study. Metacognitive Learning Strategies Scale developed by Namlu (2004) was used to measure the use of metacognitive strategies…

  2. A Study of Relationship between Achievement Motivation, Self Concept and Achievement in English and Mathematics at Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Riffat-Un-Nisa; Noureen, Ghazala; Naz, Anjum

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the achievement and its relationship with achievement motivation and self concept. The subjects consisted of 336 students (146 males and 172 females) from four public and four private schools of the Sargodha district at the secondary level. Intact groups of all eight schools enrolled in 9th grade were involved in the study. An…

  3. Perceptions of high-achieving African American/Black tenth graders from a low socioeconomic community regarding health scientists and desired careers.

    PubMed

    Boekeloo, Bradley; Randolph, Suzanne; Timmons-Brown, Stephanie; Wang, Min Qi

    2014-08-01

    Measures are needed to assess youth perceptions about health science careers to facilitate research aimed at increasing youth pursuit of health science. Although the Indiana Instrument provides an established measure of perceptions regarding nursing and ideal careers, we were interested in learning how high-achieving 10th graders from relatively low socioeconomic areas who identify as black/African American (black) perceive health science and ideal careers. The Indiana Instrument was modified, administered to 90 youth of interest, and psychometrically analyzed. Reliable subscales were identified that may facilitate parsimonious, theoretical, and reliable study of youth decision-making regarding health science careers. Such research may help to develop and evaluate strategies for increasing the number of minority health scientists.

  4. Perceptions of High Achieving African American/Black 10th Graders from a Low Socioeconomic Community Regarding Health Scientists and Desired Careers

    PubMed Central

    Boekeloo, Bradley; Randolph, Suzanne; Timmons-Brown, Stephanie; Wang, Min Qi

    2014-01-01

    Measures are needed to assess youth perceptions about health science careers to facilitate research aimed at facilitating youth pursuit of health science. Although the Indiana Instrument provides an established measure of perceptions regarding nursing and ideal careers, we were interested in learning how high achieving 10th graders from relatively low socioeconomic areas who identify as Black/African American (Black) perceive health science and ideal careers. The Indiana Instrument was modified, administered to 90 youth of interest, and psychometrically analyzed. Reliable subscales were identified that may facilitate parsimonious, theoretical, and reliable study of youth decision-making regarding health science careers. Such research may help to develop and evaluate strategies for increasing the number of minority health scientists. PMID:25194058

  5. Changes in Men’s Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol Levels, and in Sexual Desire after Smelling Female Axillary and Vulvar Scents

    PubMed Central

    Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Hernández-López, Leonor; de la O, Claudio E.; Chavira-Ramírez, Roberto; Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that a woman’s vaginal or axillary odors convey information on her attractivity. Yet, whether such scents induce psychoneuroendocrinological changes in perceivers is still controversial. We studied if smelling axillary and vulvar odors collected in the periovulatory and late luteal phases of young women modify salivary testosterone and cortisol levels, as well as sexual desire in men. Forty-five women and 115 men, all of them college students and unacquainted with each other, participated in the study. Female odors were collected on pads affixed to the axilla and on panty protectors both worn the entire night before experiments. Men provided five saliva samples, a basal one before the smelling procedure, and four more 15, 30, 60, and 75 min after exposure to odors. Immediately after smelling the odor source, men answered a questionnaire rating hedonic qualities of scents, and after providing the last saliva sample they answered questionnaire on sexual desire. We found that periovulatory axillary and vulvar odors increased testosterone and cortisol levels, with vulvar scents producing a more prolonged effect. Luteal axilla odors decreased testosterone and cortisol levels, while luteal vulva odors increased cortisol. Periovulatory axilla and vulva scents accounted for a general increase of interest in sex. These odors were also rated as more pleasant and familiar, while luteal vulvar odors were perceived as intense and unpleasant. PMID:24194730

  6. What Is Important in Electronic Textbooks for Students of Different Achievement Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luik, Piret; Mikk, Jaan

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study that explored which characteristics of electronic textbooks correlated with knowledge acquisition by learners of different achievement levels. The study was carried out on 35 units of electronic textbooks that were studied by 19 high-achieving and 19 low-achieving students in four Estonian schools. The…

  7. The Effect of Teacher Certification and Task Level on Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Liu, Qiduan

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the interaction effect of teachers' mathematics preparation and the thinking level of mathematics problems on student performance. Achievement scores of students whose teachers differed on level of mathematics preparation indicated that students performed better on higher level thinking tasks when teachers had advanced…

  8. Competency Level of Nigerian Primary 4 Pupils in Life Skills Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewale, J. Gbenga

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of education in Nigeria is to develop in children the ability to adapt to their changing environment. This goal could be achieved through competency in life skills. Therefore, this study examines the competency level of Nigerian Primary 4 pupils in the life skills achievement test. The test was administered on a sample of 22,638…

  9. Profiling Differences in Achievement and Social Goals of Students at Different Levels of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patricia Tenowich; Sonnenschein, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate domain-learning theory and goal theory to investigate the learning processes, achievement goals, social goals, and achievement of 141 college students. Cluster-analytic procedures were used to categorize participants at different levels of expertise based on their responses on knowledge, interest, and…

  10. The Role of Pre-School Education on Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school education on learning achievement at primary level in Bangladesh. Evidence from learning achievement test and household and school-related data were obtained from 7093 pupils attending 440 primary schools in Bangladesh. Findings suggest that a small proportion (15.3%) of primary school pupils attended…

  11. The Impact of Charter Schools on Promoting High Levels of Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Makel, Matthew C.; Rapp, Kelly E.

    2007-01-01

    This study compares achievement levels for high ability students attending charter schools and students in traditional public schools in Georgia. Researchers examined student achievement (as assessed by the state's Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests) using three comparison groups: students in the closest traditional schools with similar grade…

  12. Leading in the Middle: Leadership Behaviors of Middle Level Principals that Promote Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minus, Eric L.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the relationship between middle school principals' instructional leadership behaviors and student achievement. In particular, this study investigated the specific principal leadership behaviors of middle level principals that promote student achievement in school. A secondary variable for consideration was student…

  13. Evaluation Studies of the Nuffield A-Level Biology Trials - 4. School Characteristics and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Teacher motivation, class size, type of school (administrative arrangement), and instructional facilities available had little differential influence on student achievement in the trials of the Nuffield A-Level Biology course. The mean achievement of the students in the schools tended to reflect the general calibre and aspirations of past and…

  14. Desire, Democracy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thogersen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the concept of eros has found its way back into educational literature with the aim of integrating human desires into educational theories and counteracting a devaluation of emotional life. This paper holds the view that this integration is important because desire expresses a fundamental way of relating to the world. However, part…

  15. The Relation between Pre-Service Music Teachers' Psychological Resilience and Academic Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokus, Tuba

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relation between pre-service music teachers' psychological resilience and academic achievement levels and to determine what variables influence their psychological resilience levels. The study sample consisted of students enrolled in a music education program in the 2013-2014 academic year (N = 333). In respect with…

  16. Who Achieves Level 2 Qualifications during Adulthood? Evidence from the NCDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates, Ricardo; Feinstein, Leon; Skaliotis, Eleni

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of people who return to learning to achieve at least a level 2 qualification, drawing on the 1958 National Child Development Cohort Study. Results show that adults who gained level 2 were more likely than those who did not to have been engaged in a range of learning activities at earlier ages, including…

  17. The Influence of Parents Educational Level on Secondary School Students Academic Achievements in District Rajanpur

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Rana Muhammad Asad; Iqbal, Nadeem; Tasneem, Saima

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to focus the influence and impact of parents educational level on students academic achievement at secondary level of education. The study utilizes the students results of the 9th class in secondary school certificate examination taken by the Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education Dera Ghazi Khan. Oral interview,…

  18. Investigating the Relationship between School Level Accountability Practices and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gándara, Fernanda; Randall, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between school-level accountability practices and science achievement of 15-year-olds, across four counties: Australia, Korea, Portugal, and the United States. We used PISA 2006 data, since 2006 is the only administration that has focused on science. School-level accountability practices are here defined as…

  19. The Latino Education Crisis: School-Level Factors Influencing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Christie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to quantitatively examine the relationships among various school-level factors (school socioeconomic status, school size, average class size, and teacher effectiveness) and to determine which school-level factors predict Latino academic achievement and Adequate Yearly Progress. Measuring teacher effectiveness is at…

  20. The effect of teacher education level, teaching experience, and teaching behaviors on student science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Danhui

    Previous literature leaves us unanswered questions about whether teaching behaviors mediate the relationship between teacher education level and experience with student science achievement. This study examined this question with 655 students from sixth to eighth grade and their 12 science teachers. Student science achievements were measured at the beginning and end of 2006-2007 school year. Given the cluster sampling of students nested in classrooms, which are nested in teachers, a two-level multilevel model was employed to disentangle the effects from teacher-level and student-level factors. Several findings were discovered in this study. Science teachers possessing of advanced degrees in science or education significantly and positively influenced student science achievement. However, years of teaching experience in science did not directly influence student science achievement. A significant interaction was detected between teachers possessing an advanced degree in science or education and years of teaching science, which was inversely associated to student science achievement. Better teaching behaviors were also positively related to student achievement in science directly, as well as mediated the relationship between student science achievement and both teacher education and experience. Additionally, when examined separately, each teaching behavior variable (teacher engagement, classroom management, and teaching strategies) served as a significant intermediary between both teacher education and experience and student science achievement. The findings of this study are intended to provide insights into the importance of hiring and developing qualified teachers who are better able to help students achieve in science, as well as to direct the emphases of ongoing teacher inservice training.

  1. 2×2 dominant achievement goal profiles in high-level swimmers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini Estrada, Jose A; Mendez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Garcia, Benjamín; Saavedra, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess achievement goal dominance, self-determined situational motivation and competence in high-level swimmers before and after three training sessions set at different working intensities (medium, sub-maximal and maximal). Nineteen athletes (males, n=9, 18.00±2.32 years; females, n=10, 16.30±2.01 years, range = 14-18) agreed to participate. They completed a questionnaire that included the Dominant Achievement Goal assessment instrument, the 2×2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport (AGQ-S), The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS) and the Competence subscale of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise questionnaire (BPNES). Results indicated that participants overwhelmingly showed mastery-approach achievement goal dominance, and it remained stable at the conclusion of the different training sessions under all intensity levels. This profile was positively correlated to self-determined situational motivation and competence. However, swimmers' feelings of competence increased only after the medium intensity level training session. After the completion of the maximal intensity training session, swimmers' self-determined motivation was significantly lower compared to the other two training sessions, which could be caused by a temporary period of burnout. Results indicated that high-level swimmers had a distinct mastery-approach dominant achievement goal profile that was not affected by the workload of the different training sessions. They also showed high levels of self-determined situational motivation and competence. However, heavy workloads should be controlled because they can cause transitory burnout.

  2. Predictors of cultural capital on science academic achievement at the 8th grade level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misner, Johnathan Scott

    The purpose of the study was to determine if students' cultural capital is a significant predictor of 8th grade science achievement test scores in urban locales. Cultural capital refers to the knowledge used and gained by the dominant class, which allows social and economic mobility. Cultural capital variables include magazines at home and parental education level. Other variables analyzed include socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language learners (ELL). This non-experimental study analyzed the results of the 2011 Eighth Grade Science National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The researcher analyzed the data using a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The researcher concluded that the addition of cultural capital factors significantly increased the predictive power of the model where magazines in home, gender, student classified as ELL, parental education level, and SES were the independent variables and science achievement was the dependent variable. For alpha=0.05, the overall test for the model produced a R2 value of 0.232; therefore the model predicted 23.2% of variance in science achievement results. Other major findings include: higher measures of home resources predicted higher 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement; males were predicted to have higher 2011 NAEP 8 th grade science achievement; classified ELL students were predicted to score lower on the NAEP eight grade science achievement; higher parent education predicted higher NAEP eighth grade science achievement; lower measures of SES predicted lower 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement. This study contributed to the research in this field by identifying cultural capital factors that have been found to have statistical significance on predicting eighth grade science achievement results, which can lead to strategies to help improve science academic achievement among underserved populations.

  3. Organizational health and the achievement level of students in science at the secondary-level schools in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakkeer-Jaufar, Pakkeer Cadermohideen

    This study sought to identify those organizational health factors that might have overriding influence on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. This study involved 752 students, 33 science teachers, and 10 principals from two different districts, Ampara and Colombo, in Sri Lanka. Ten Tamil medium, secondary level, public schools were selected to participate in this study. Data were collected using four types of instruments: a questionnaire for pupils; interview schedules for science teachers and principals; checklists for classroom/school facilities, science laboratory facilities, and science practicals; and a science achievement test. The analysis focused on the collective perceptions of students, science teachers, and principals. Regression and path analyses were used as major analysis techniques, and the qualitative data provided by science teachers and principals were considered for a crosschecking of the quantitative inferences. The researcher found teacher affiliation, academic emphasis, and instructional leadership of the principal, in descending order, were the overriding influential factors on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. At the same time a similar descending order was found in their mean values and qualities. The researcher concluded that increasing the quality of the organizational health factors in Sri Lankan secondary schools would result in improved better achievement in science. The findings further indicate that instructional leadership of the principal had both direct and indirect effects on students' achievement in science when academic emphasis and teacher affiliation were taken into account. In addition, the resource support of the principal did not make any difference in students' science achievement and the findings stress the availability of the resources for individual students instead of assuming the general facilities of the school are available to all

  4. Learning nanotechnology with texts and comics: the impacts on students of different achievement levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-05-01

    Comics are popular with adolescents because of their features of humor, narrative, and visual imagery. The purposes of this study were to examine the learning outcomes and emotional perceptions of reading a science comic book and a science text booklet for students of different levels of achievement, and to explore the main factors of the two media which attract high-school students to learn science. A mixed-method quasi-experimental design was adopted. The participants were 697 grade ten students from eight schools with different levels of academic achievement. Two similar classes in each of the eight schools were assigned as the comic group or the text group. The results indicated that the science comic book benefited medium achievers more than the science text booklet did, but the contrary result was found for the high achievers. In comparison, the two media benefited the low achievers equally, but both had only a limited effect due to the students' lack of prior knowledge. We conclude four kinds of evidence, including perceived difficulty of comprehension, reasons for interest/disinterest, emotional perceptions of learning science, and learning time, to support the phenomenon of the learning benefit of media specific to certain achievers' science learning.

  5. Single-Parent Households and Children’s Educational Achievement: A State-Level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Paul R.; Patterson, Sarah; Beattie, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have examined associations between family structure and children’s educational achievement at the individual level, few studies have considered how the increase in single-parent households may have affected children’s educational achievement at the population level. We examined changes in the percentage of children living with single parents between 1990 and 2011 and state mathematics and reading scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Regression models with state and year fixed effects revealed that changes in the percentage of children living with single parents were not associated with test scores. Increases in maternal education, however, were associated with improvements in children’s test scores during this period. These results do not support the notion that increases in single parenthood have had serious consequences for U.S. children’s school achievement. PMID:26188447

  6. Single-parent households and children's educational achievement: A state-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Amato, Paul R; Patterson, Sarah; Beattie, Brett

    2015-09-01

    Although many studies have examined associations between family structure and children's educational achievement at the individual level, few studies have considered how the increase in single-parent households may have affected children's educational achievement at the population level. We examined changes in the percentage of children living with single parents between 1990 and 2011 and state mathematics and reading scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Regression models with state and year fixed effects revealed that changes in the percentage of children living with single parents were not associated with test scores. Increases in maternal education, however, were associated with improvements in children's test scores during this period. These results do not support the notion that increases in single parenthood have had serious consequences for U.S. children's school achievement.

  7. The effects of student-level and classroom-level factors on elementary students' science achievement in five countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Sibel

    The interest in raising levels of achievement in math and science has led to a focus on investigating the factors that shape achievement in these subjects (Lamb & Fullarton, 2002) as well as understanding how these factors operate across countries (Baker, Fabrega, Galindo, & Mishook, 2004). The current study examined the individual student factors and classroom factors on fourth grade science achievement within and across five countries. Guided by the previous school learning models, the elements of students' science learning were categorized as student-level and classroom-level factors. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science, and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom composition. Results for the United States and four other countries, Singapore, Japan, Australia, and Scotland were reported. Multilevel effects of student and classroom variables were examined through Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 fourth grade dataset. The outcome variable was the TIMSS 2003 science score. Overall, the results of this study showed that selected student background characteristics were consistently related to elementary science achievement in countries investigated. At the student-level, higher levels of home resources and self-confidence and at the classroom-level, higher levels of class mean home resources yielded higher science scores on the TIMSS 2003. In general, teacher and instructional variables were minimally related to science achievement. There was evidence of positive effects of teacher support in the U.S. and Singapore. The emphasis on science inquiry was positively related to science achievement in Singapore and negatively related in the U.S. and Australia. Experimental studies that investigate the impacts of teacher and instructional factors on elementary science achievement are

  8. A Definition of Achievement Level II in the Control of Spanish Syntax. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Clay Benjamin; Shawl, James Robert

    A third volume of a highly articulated set of language materials defines achievement level 2 in the control of Spanish syntax while providing descriptions and interrelationships of vital syntactic structures and expected student performance. The noun phrase, predicate phrase, verbal aspects, adverbials, relativization, noun modification,…

  9. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Kara; vanDellen, Michelle; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding…

  10. Students' Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Level and Its Relationship with Their Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar Güvendir, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation levels of eighth grade students and its relationship with their mathematical achievement. The participants of the study included 6,829 students who took TIMSS in 2011 and 239 mathematics teachers. The data obtained from the student and teacher questionnaires that are included in the…

  11. The Efficacy of Instructional Strategy on Mathematics Achievement, Attitudes, and Anxiety Levels of Developmental Math Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Browne, Carmen G.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation investigated three instructional strategies in developmental math classes to determine if instructional strategy had a positive effect on student achievement, attitude towards mathematics, and anxiety level towards mathematics at a college in western Pennsylvania for students majoring in applied arts. The significance of this…

  12. Analyzing State and Private School Students' Achievement Goal Orientation Levels in Terms of Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türkçapar, Ünal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the state and private school students' achievement goal orientation levels in terms of some variables. Quantitative survey method was used in this study. Study group in this research consists of 201 students who are studying at state and private school in Kahramanmaras during the 2014-2015 academic year.…

  13. Antecedent and Concurrent Psychosocial Skills That Support High Levels of Achievement within Talent Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation and emotional regulation are important for the sustained focused study and practice required for high levels of achievement and creative productivity in adulthood. Using the talent development model proposed by the authors as a framework, the authors discuss several important psychosocial skills based on the psychological research…

  14. Teaching Aptitude of Student Teachers and their Academic Achievements at Graduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajan, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation aims at studying teaching aptitude of student teachers with respect to their gender and academic achievement at graduate level examination. The sample for this study is selected by stratified random sampling from the Teacher Education institutions of Malabar area of Kerala. Teaching Aptitude Test Battery (T A T B)…

  15. Relationship among School Size, School Culture and Students' Achievement at Secondary Level in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad Salfi, Naseer; Saeed, Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to determine the relationship among school size, school culture and students' achievement at secondary level in Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The study was descriptive (survey type). It was conducted on a sample of 90 secondary school head teachers and 540 primary, elementary and high school teachers working in…

  16. Learning Nanotechnology with Texts and Comics: The Impacts on Students of Different Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-01-01

    Comics are popular with adolescents because of their features of humor, narrative, and visual imagery. The purposes of this study were to examine the learning outcomes and emotional perceptions of reading a science comic book and a science text booklet for students of different levels of achievement, and to explore the main factors of the two…

  17. Level of Students' Achievement in Mathematics at the End of Elementary Education in Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khair, Tarig Mohamed Ali Mohamed; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Elrofai, Tahra Aisa

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the level of student's achievement in mathematics in Yemen. This study use a sample of 200 male students and 200 female students, chosen from eight government schools on the basis of diversified sampling techniques. A mathematics test which composed of seventy five items that covered geometrical…

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Student Approaches to Learning and Reading Achievement at the School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musu-Gillette, Lauren E.; Barofsky, Meryl Y.; List, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort of 1998 (ECLS-K, 98), a nationally representative sample of kindergarteners in the United States, we investigated the relationship between approaches to learning and spring reading achievement with particular emphasis on classroom and school-level differences. We employed…

  19. The Impact of Scaffolding and Student Achievement Levels in a Problem-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Krista D.; Klein, James D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how scaffolds and student achievement levels influence inquiry and performance in a problem-based learning environment. The scaffolds were embedded within a hypermedia program that placed students at the center of a problem in which they were trying to become the youngest person to fly around the world in a balloon. One-hundred…

  20. 76 FR 9004 - Public Comment on Setting Achievement Levels in Writing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... Document. Materials for Review and Comment Policymakers, teachers, researchers, State and local writing specialists, members of professional writing and teacher organizations, and members of the public are invited... Public Comment on Setting Achievement Levels in Writing AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education,...

  1. Effects of Eclectic Learning Approach on Students' Academic Achievement and Retention in English at Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleman, Qaiser; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the research paper was to investigate the effect of eclectic learning approach on the academic achievement and retention of students in English at elementary level. A sample of forty students of 8th grade randomly selected from Government Boys High School Khurram District Karak was used. It was an experimental study and that's why…

  2. Playing level achieved, throwing history, and humeral torsion in Masters baseball players.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Rod; Adams, Roger; Ginn, Karen; Nicholson, Leslie

    2010-09-01

    Humeral torsion is thought to be beneficial for throwing. To examine this hypothesis, the throwing and non-throwing arms of 84 Masters baseball players over 35 years of age were measured for humeral torsion, and the highest playing level they achieved and their playing history were recorded. Regression analyses were used to obtain predictors of the highest playing level achieved, throwing arm humeral torsion, and side-to-side difference in humeral torsion. Equations accounting for 36%, 46%, and 12% of the variance respectively were produced. Achieving representative level playing status was associated with the number of seasons played under 16 years of age and having greater throwing arm humeral retrotorsion. Throwing arm humeral retrotorsion was associated with non-throwing arm humeral retrotorsion and an increased number of seasons played before the age of 16 years. A model in which repeated throwing develops an adaptive unilateral bone torsion along with growth in baseball expertise is proposed. Thus dominant arm humeral retrotorsion is a predictor of highest baseball playing level achieved, which in turn is influenced by genetic endowment (as seen in the torsion of the non-throwing arm) and amount of throwing activity, particularly prior to the age of 16.

  3. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from three…

  4. Resilience and Academic Achievement of Male and Female Secondary Level Students in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Inamullah, Hafiz; Khan, Naeemullah; Anwar, Nadeem

    2010-01-01

    Resilience is the ability to succeed despite barriers that make it difficult for the students to succeed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between resilience and academic achievement of secondary level students of Gujranwala, Pakistan. A Resilience scale was used to collect data. The sample consisted of 127 secondary…

  5. Achieving Higher Levels of Success for A.D.H.D. Students Working in Collaborative Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph S. C.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores a new and innovative strategy for helping students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (A.D.H.D.) achieve higher levels of academic success when working in collaborative groups. Since the research indicates that students with this disorder often have difficulty in maintaining their concentration this strategy is…

  6. Determining a Cost-Effective Mix of UAV-USV-Manned Platforms to Achieve a Desired Level of Surveillance in a Congested Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

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  7. Schooling of Desire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlin, Karen E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses education in virtue, inviting college professors to see themselves not as "meddlers" in students' private lives but rather as interlocutors who prompt students to examine their desires--not simply what they hope to gain, but who they hope to become as a result of their university education. Focuses on the philosophies of Plato,…

  8. Hypoactive Sexual Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Helen S.

    1977-01-01

    Low-libido disorders are highly prevalent, may be extremely distressful to patients and their partners, and influence the course and prognosis of therapy. This paper focuses on this important aspect of human sexuality. Some clinical features of hypoactive sexual desire are described, and some hypotheses about etiology and prognosis are presented.…

  9. The effects of preservice teacher's cognitive questioning level and redirecting on student science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Joseph P., II

    The objectives of this experimental study were to investigate the effects of 100% high cognitive questions, 50% high cognitive questions and 0% high cognitive questions on primary and intermediate students' achievement at the knowledge, comprehension, and analysis levels. A second purpose was to examine the effects of redirecting questions on student achievement. Groups of 5 subjects were randomly selected from 16 intermediate and 16 primary classrooms and then randomly assigned to one of three treatment levels. Data were collected on 154 subjects. Within the three cognitive questioning treatment levels the subjects were also randomly assigned to one of two questioning strategies: (1) redirected and (2) directed. Redirection occurs when the teacher asks the same question to a number of students (in this case 2). Thirty preservice teachers conducted the treatments. The teachers were trained to follow a prescribed behavior pattern and were video taped during the treatment to insure fidelity to the scripted questions. At the end of the lesson a criterion test was administered with 3 subtests measuring at the knowledge, comprehension, and analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. There was no significant difference among scores on the total criterion measure or the sub tests due to cognitive questioning level. There was a significant difference due to redirecting questions (p = 0.05). Students assigned to teachers using redirection scored significantly higher than those assigned to teachers not using this strategy. This difference was found on the knowledge subtest. Significant interactions occurred between questioning level and questioning strategy on the comprehension and total test.

  10. Effect of Direct Teaching Method on the Academic Achievement of High and Low Achievers in the Subject of English at the Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Ishtiaq; Hamdani, Syed Nisar Hussain; Quraishi, Uzma; Zeeshan, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The major objective of the study was to determine the role of the direct teaching method in the academic achievement of students in English at the secondary level. To achieve the said objective, the Solomon Four-Design pre-test/post-test equivalent group design was considered to be the most useful design for this study. The pre-test was used to…

  11. Student-Support Portfolio System with Students' Assessment of Their Own Level of Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Hisami; Saika, Takashi

    A JABEE educational program must be regularly improved in educational methods and educational environment. For the purpose, the program must establish a system that enhances students' understanding of class work, promoting students' enthusiasm to learn, while coping with students' requests. The mechanical engineering departments of Kogakuin University have established a portfolio system to support students from entrance to graduation. Specifically the portfolios on students' learning and life are continuously maintained, and students' ledgers are arranged and updated. Furthermore, a system, by which students can assess their own level of achievement against the program's learning and educational objectives, is also introduced. The achievement level can be checked from various viewpoints so that students could improve their learning plans.

  12. Storytelling in the digital world: achieving higher-level learning objectives.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Melissa R

    2012-01-01

    Nursing students are not passive media consumers but instead live in a technology ecosystem where digital is the language they speak. To prepare the next generation of nurses, educators must incorporate multiple technologies to improve higher-order learning. The author discusses the evolution and use of storytelling as part of the digital world and how digital stories can be aligned with Bloom's Taxonomy so that students achieve higher-level learning objectives.

  13. Desire thinking as a predictor of gambling.

    PubMed

    Fernie, Bruce A; Caselli, Gabriele; Giustina, Lucia; Donato, Gilda; Marcotriggiani, Antonella; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2014-04-01

    Desire thinking is a voluntary cognitive process involving verbal and imaginal elaboration of a desired target. A desired target can relate to an object, an internal state or an activity, such as gambling. This study investigated the role of desire thinking in gambling in a cohort of participants recruited from community and clinical settings. Ninety five individuals completed a battery of self-report measures consisting of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Gambling Craving Scale (GCS), the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ) and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Correlation analyses revealed that gender, educational level, recruitment source, anxiety and depression, craving and desire thinking were correlated with gambling. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that both recruitment source and desire thinking were the only independent predictors of gambling when controlling for all other study variables, including craving. These findings are discussed in the light of metacognitive therapy (MCT).

  14. How, and at what costs, can low-level stabilization be achieved? - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Metz; Detlef van Vuuren

    2006-02-15

    In order to prevent 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system', stabilization of greenhouse gases at low levels (at 550 ppmv CO{sub 2} equivalent or below) might be needed. This paper discusses some of the current literature on whether stabilization at such a low level is possible based on available technologies and on stabilisation scenarios (including their costs). Technology options considered were: energy efficiency improvement; renewable energy; nuclear power; CO{sub 2} capture and storage; biological sequestration; and non-CO{sub 2} gases reduction. The combined technical potential of different options as reported in the literature seems, in principle, to be sufficient to achieve low-level stabilization. Application of these technologies, however, is more uncertain as it requires further development, technology transfer, and widespread diffusion. Effective and efficient stabilization strategies use a portfolio of options (changing over time) to achieve a least cost approach. For low-level stabilization marginal costs will increase steadily as more and more expensive measures are required. Costs in terms of welfare loss, compared to a situation without climate policy measures, highly depend on the underlying socioeconomic development. If the most efficient implementation (including multi-gas strategies, maximum participation of countries in a global emission trading regime, optimal timing of reduction actions) is chosen, current studies estimate global costs in the order of a maximum of a few per cent GDP loss by the year 2050. Costs for individual countries may highly differ. By looking at mitigation/stabilization costs in a wider context we can help identify co-benefits of policies for achieving sustainable development, energy security or environmental goals, and so reduce costs. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Adolescent Sleep Duration, Variability, and Peak Levels of Achievement and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Arruda, Erin H; Krull, Jennifer L; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2017-01-27

    To inform public health recommendations for adolescent sleep, the amounts of sleep associated with the highest levels of academic achievement and mental health were examined. The degree to which daily variability in sleep duration represents an underappreciated but functionally significant sleep behavior also was tested. A total of 421 adolescents (Mage  = 15.03 years) with Mexican-American backgrounds reported nightly sleep times for 2 weeks; approximately 80% repeated the same protocol 1 year later. Multilevel modeling indicated that the amount of sleep associated with the lowest levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms was more than 1 hr greater than the amount associated with the highest levels of academic performance. Greater daily variability in sleep duration predicted greater symptomatology and mixed academic outcomes.

  16. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. Purpose/Objective/Focus This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Research Design Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time—that is, between one year’s achievement and the subsequent year’s dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. Findings/Results This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved

  17. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.

    SciTech Connect

    Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W.

    2012-05-15

    Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

  18. Achieving behavioral control with millisecond resolution in a high-level programming environment.

    PubMed

    Asaad, Wael F; Eskandar, Emad N

    2008-08-30

    The creation of psychophysical tasks for the behavioral neurosciences has generally relied upon low-level software running on a limited range of hardware. Despite the availability of software that allows the coding of behavioral tasks in high-level programming environments, many researchers are still reluctant to trust the temporal accuracy and resolution of programs running in such environments, especially when they run atop non-real-time operating systems. Thus, the creation of behavioral paradigms has been slowed by the intricacy of the coding required and their dissemination across labs has been hampered by the various types of hardware needed. However, we demonstrate here that, when proper measures are taken to handle the various sources of temporal error, accuracy can be achieved at the 1 ms time-scale that is relevant for the alignment of behavioral and neural events.

  19. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  20. Producing desired ice faces

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J.; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih––a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface––due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid. PMID:26512102

  1. Strategies for achieving high-level expression of genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Makrides, S C

    1996-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of several biological processes promises to broaden the usefulness of Escherichia coli as a tool for gene expression. There is an expanding choice of tightly regulated prokaryotic promoters suitable for achieving high-level gene expression. New host strains facilitate the formation of disulfide bonds in the reducing environment of the cytoplasm and offer higher protein yields by minimizing proteolytic degradation. Insights into the process of protein translocation across the bacterial membranes may eventually make it possible to achieve robust secretion of specific proteins into the culture medium. Studies involving molecular chaperones have shown that in specific cases, chaperones can be very effective for improved protein folding, solubility, and membrane transport. Negative results derived from such studies are also instructive in formulating different strategies. The remarkable increase in the availability of fusion partners offers a wide range of tools for improved protein folding, solubility, protection from proteases, yield, and secretion into the culture medium, as well as for detection and purification of recombinant proteins. Codon usage is known to present a potential impediment to high-level gene expression in E. coli. Although we still do not understand all the rules governing this phenomenon, it is apparent that "rare" codons, depending on their frequency and context, can have an adverse effect on protein levels. Usually, this problem can be alleviated by modification of the relevant codons or by coexpression of the cognate tRNA genes. Finally, the elucidation of specific determinants of protein degradation, a plethora of protease-deficient host strains, and methods to stabilize proteins afford new strategies to minimize proteolytic susceptibility of recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:8840785

  2. Creating a Desired Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins-Scott, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    When the author became president of Wheelock College in Boston in 2004, she asked the trustees and the entire campus community to engage in an innovative strategic planning and visioning process. The goal was to achieve consensus on a strategic vision for the future of Wheelock College by the end of her first year. This article discusses how…

  3. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  4. Learning Strategies of Physics Teacher Candidates: Relationships with Physics Achievement and Class Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selçuk, Gamze S.; Çalişkan, Serap; Erol, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    Learning strategy concept was introduced in the education field from the development of cognitive psychology. Learning strategies are behaviors and thoughts that a learner engages in during learning which are intended to influence the learner's encoding process. Literature on learning strategies in physics field is very scarce. Participants of the research consist of teacher candidates (n=137) from 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th grade attending Department of Physics Education, Education Faculty of Buca, Dokuz Eylül University in Turkey. Data of this research was collected by ``Scale of Learning Strategies Usage in Physics'' (Cronbach's Alpha=0.93). Mean, Standard Deviation, Analysis of Variance were used to analyze the research data. This paper reports on teacher candidates' learning strategies used in physics education The paper investigates the relationships between learning strategies and physics achievement, class level. Some important outcomes of the research are presented, discussed and certain suggestions are made.

  5. Achievement motivation level in students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and its influential factors

    PubMed Central

    KAVOUSIPOUR, SOMAYEH; NOORAFSHAN, ALI; POURAHMAD, SAEEDEH; DEHGHANI-NAZHVANI, ALI

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Many studies have investigated the relationship between motivation and educational outcomes. The present study was conducted to determine whether the students’ motivation in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) decreases during educational years. Methods: 770 students in SUMS were selected by multi-stage stratified random sampling from each field and entrance year. The first questionnaire contained 57 questions on the effect of economic, social, educational, geographical and personality factors on the students’ motivation. The second one was based on 50 incomplete sentences. The validity and reliability of these questionnaires were approved by the experts and Cronbach's Alpha coefficients (85% and 90%, respectively). In this cross-sectional study, ANOVA, t-test and Chi-square tests were applied for data analysis at the 0.05 significance level. Results: Six factors with the most effect on academic motivation were "family attitudes", "getting good jobs in future", "respect for themselves", " the ability to learn", "believing their role in victory and defeat" and "the tendency toward optimism about themselves". In addition, comparing professional doctorate and basic sciences’ results revealed no significant relationship between academic motivation and educational years (F=0.819, p=0.397). But comparing field by field showed that Dentistry and Hospital Management and Medical Information (HMMI) had a significant decrease in motivation score by increase in educational years (F=3.991, p=0.015). Conclusion: Achievement motivation level in SUMS students was higher than average and did not decrease during educational years. Also, the results showed that personal, social and educational related factors affected motivation level more than economic and environmental factors. PMID:25587552

  6. Achieving Population-Level Immunity to Rabies in Free-Roaming Dogs in Africa and Asia

    PubMed Central

    Morters, Michelle K.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Horton, Daniel L.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Schoeman, Johan P.; Restif, Olivier; Whay, Helen R.; Goddard, Amelia; Fooks, Anthony R.; Damriyasa, I. Made; Wood, James L. N.

    2014-01-01

    Canine rabies can be effectively controlled by vaccination with readily available, high-quality vaccines. These vaccines should provide protection from challenge in healthy dogs, for the claimed period, for duration of immunity, which is often two or three years. It has been suggested that, in free-roaming dog populations where rabies is endemic, vaccine-induced protection may be compromised by immuno-suppression through malnutrition, infection and other stressors. This may reduce the proportion of dogs that seroconvert to the vaccine during vaccination campaigns and the duration of immunity of those dogs that seroconvert. Vaccination coverage may also be limited through insufficient vaccine delivery during vaccination campaigns and the loss of vaccinated individuals from populations through demographic processes. This is the first longitudinal study to evaluate temporal variations in rabies vaccine-induced serological responses, and factors associated with these variations, at the individual level in previously unvaccinated free-roaming dog populations. Individual-level serological and health-based data were collected from three cohorts of dogs in regions where rabies is endemic, one in South Africa and two in Indonesia. We found that the vast majority of dogs seroconverted to the vaccine; however, there was considerable variation in titres, partly attributable to illness and lactation at the time of vaccination. Furthermore, >70% of the dogs were vaccinated through community engagement and door-to-door vaccine delivery, even in Indonesia where the majority of the dogs needed to be caught by net on successive occasions for repeat blood sampling and vaccination. This demonstrates the feasibility of achieving population-level immunity in free-roaming dog populations in rabies-endemic regions. However, attrition of immune individuals through demographic processes and waning immunity necessitates repeat vaccination of populations within at least two years to ensure

  7. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  8. My Desire for Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetrick, Laura J.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, Laura Hetrick focuses on what is inherently missing from the art education literature about teaching future teachers of art--of addressing nascent teachers' personal, pedagogical, and professional desires. Specifically, she considers teachers' desires for power and recognition, their desires to love and be loved, and…

  9. Is committed desire intentional? A qualitative exploration of sexual desire and differentiation of self in couples.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luana Cunha; Fraenkel, Peter; Narciso, Isabel; Novo, Rosa

    2015-06-01

    The question of what heightens or diminishes sexual desire has long been a passionate theme across cultures in literature, arts, media, and medicine. Yet, little research has been conducted to determine what affects level of desire within couples. The degree of differentiation of self has been suggested as an important variable in shaping partners' level of desire. Through a qualitative analysis of dyadic couple interviews, this study provides an account of characteristics, processes, and trajectories of sexual desire and differentiation in 33 heterosexual couples of varying ages and relationship duration. Factors associated with high desire were change and autonomy, whereas conflict and children were reported to be desire-diminishing factors. Innovation, sharing, autonomy, and effort emerged as desire-promoting strategies, while fostering personal interests, investing in a positive connection, and enhancing personal integrity were identified as couples' strategies to promote and preserve differentiation of self. The results also shed light on couples' perceptions of whether and how sexual desire changes over the course of the relationship and challenge common cultural assumptions about desire in committed relationships-namely the myth that the only authentic expression of desire is that which occurs spontaneously and without intention and planning. Implications for couple therapy are discussed.

  10. Comparisons of numerical magnitudes in children with different levels of mathematical achievement. An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola Reveca; Berumen, Gustavo; González-Garrido, Andrés Antonio

    2015-11-19

    The ability to map between non-symbolic and symbolic magnitude representations is crucial in the development of mathematics and this map is disturbed in children with math difficulties. In addition, positive parietal ERPs have been found to be sensitive to the number distance effect and skills solving arithmetic problems. Therefore we aimed to contrast the behavioral and ERP responses in children with different levels of mathematical achievement: low (LA), average (AA) and high (HA), while comparing symbolic and non-symbolic magnitudes. The results showed that LA children repeatedly failed when comparing magnitudes, particularly the symbolic ones. In addition, a positive correlation between correct responses while analyzing symbolic quantities and WRAT-4 scores emerged. The amplitude of N200 was significantly larger during non-symbolic comparisons. In addition, P2P amplitude was consistently smaller in LA children while comparing both symbolic and non-symbolic quantities, and correlated positively with the WRAT-4 scores. The latency of P3 seemed to be sensitive to the type of numerical comparison. The results suggest that math difficulties might be related to a more general magnitude representation problem, and that ERP are useful to study its timecourse in children with different mathematical skills.

  11. Repetition of a sisterhood survey at district level in Malawi: the challenge to achieve MDG 5.

    PubMed

    Beltman, Jogchum Jan; van den Akker, Thomas; Lam, Eva; Moens, Mieke; Kazima, Julie; Massaquoi, Moses; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2011-05-05

    Objective To evaluate progress made at district level in Malawi towards reaching the 5th Millennium Development Goal, the reduction of maternal mortality. Methods In 2006, community-based maternal mortality in Thyolo, Malawi was calculated by applying the 'sisterhood method', a survey that relies on participants responding to basic questions about maternal mortality in their families. Results were compared with a 1989 sisterhood study in the same district. Information on facility-based maternal mortality in 2005 was extracted from district hospital records. Results The community-based maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was calculated as 558 per 100 000 live births (95% CI 260 to 820). A comparison with the MMR from the 1989 survey (409 per 100 000 live births) shows that maternal mortality had not declined. The hospital-based MMR was 994 per 100 000 live births in 2005. Conclusion Maternal mortality in this district has not reduced and may actually have increased. The threat of failure to achieve Millennium Development Goal 5 increases the moral obligation to improve access to quality health care.

  12. Repetition of a sisterhood survey at district level in Malawi: the challenge to achieve MDG 5

    PubMed Central

    van den Akker, Thomas; Lam, Eva; Moens, Mieke; Kazima, Julie; Massaquoi, Moses; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate progress made at district level in Malawi towards reaching the 5th Millennium Development Goal, the reduction of maternal mortality. Methods In 2006, community-based maternal mortality in Thyolo, Malawi was calculated by applying the ‘sisterhood method’, a survey that relies on participants responding to basic questions about maternal mortality in their families. Results were compared with a 1989 sisterhood study in the same district. Information on facility-based maternal mortality in 2005 was extracted from district hospital records. Results The community-based maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was calculated as 558 per 100 000 live births (95% CI 260 to 820). A comparison with the MMR from the 1989 survey (409 per 100 000 live births) shows that maternal mortality had not declined. The hospital-based MMR was 994 per 100 000 live births in 2005. Conclusion Maternal mortality in this district has not reduced and may actually have increased. The threat of failure to achieve Millennium Development Goal 5 increases the moral obligation to improve access to quality health care. PMID:22021754

  13. Mice and rats achieve similar levels of performance in an adaptive decision-making task.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Santiago; Zador, Anthony M

    2014-01-01

    Two opposing constraints exist when choosing a model organism for studying the neural basis of adaptive decision-making: (1) experimental access and (2) behavioral complexity. Available molecular and genetic approaches for studying neural circuits in the mouse fulfill the first requirement. In contrast, it is still under debate if mice can perform cognitive tasks of sufficient complexity. Here we compare learning and performance of mice and rats, the preferred behavioral rodent model, during an acoustic flexible categorization two-alternative choice task. The task required animals to switch between two categorization definitions several times within a behavioral session. We found that both species achieved similarly high performance levels. On average, rats learned the task faster than mice, although some mice were as fast as the average rat. No major differences in subjective categorization boundaries or the speed of adaptation between the two species were found. Our results demonstrate that mice are an appropriate model for the study of the neural mechanisms underlying adaptive decision-making, and suggest they might be suitable for other cognitive tasks as well.

  14. The Effects of Grade Level and Other Factors on the Achievement in Project Physics among High School Physics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard Kenard, Jr.

    This study was designed to determine experimentally the relationship between achievement and grade level for 64 tenth-grade students, 48 eleventh-grade students, and 95 twelfth-grade physics students. All students were enrolled in the Project Physics course in their respective schools. The Physics Achievement Test (PAT) and the algebra I and II…

  15. An Examination of Tri-Level Collaboration around Student Achievement Using the Gap Analysis Approach: Central Office Leadership Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llamas, Sonia Rodarte

    2013-01-01

    Using the Gap Analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008), this study examined collaboration around student achievement at the central office leadership level in the Pasadena Unified School District (PUSD). This study is one of three concurrent studies focused on collaboration around student achievement in the PUSD that include…

  16. A Multi-Level Simultaneous Analysis of How Student and School Characteristics Are Related to Students' English Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güvendir, Emre

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how student and school characteristics are related to Turkish students' English language achievement in Evaluation of Student Achievement Test (ÖBBS) of 2009. The participants of the study involve 43707 ninth year students who were required to take ÖBBS in 2009. For data analysis two level hierarchical linear modeling was…

  17. Role of the Direct Teaching Method in the Academic Achievement of Students in English at the Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Ishtiaq; Inamullah, Hafiz; Naseer-Ud-Din, Muhammad; Hafizatullah, Hafiz

    2009-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to determine the role of the direct teaching method in the academic achievement of students in English at the secondary level. To achieve the said objective, the "Solomon Four-Design pre-test/post-test equivalent group design" was considered to be the most useful design for this study. The pre-test…

  18. Ten-Year Trend in SES Effects on Reading Achievement at School and Individual Levels: A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang-Hansen, Kajsa

    2008-01-01

    This study examined changes in the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on reading achievement at individual and school levels between 1991 and 2001. Data from 9 countries that participated in both the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Reading Literacy Study 1991 and the Trend Study in the Progress in…

  19. The Relationship between Professional Learning Communities, Personal Teacher Efficacy, and Student Achievement at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to determine if there was a relationship between professional learning community (PLC), personal teacher efficacy (PTE), and student achievement. The study examined teacher perception of PLC implementation and PET as it related to student achievement at the high school level on the Virginia End-of Course…

  20. Consideration of How Levels of Achievement and Anxiety toward Education Affect Older People's Participation in Adult Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Paul G.

    Using a sample of 250 adults aged 65 or over (in Quincy, Massachusetts), this study investigated the relation of educational participation by older adults to socioeconomic achievement and to anxiety as regards education. Achievement was based on levels of occupation, income, and education. A series of 17 questions covered peer relationships,…

  1. Maximal Levels of Aspiration, Minimal Boundary Goals, and Their Relationships with Academic Achievement: The Case of Secondary-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodis, Flaviu A.; Johnston, Michael; Meyer, Luanna H.; McClure, John; Hodis, Georgeta M.; Starkey, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Maximising educational attainment is important for both individuals and societies. However, understanding of why some students achieve better than others is far from complete. Motivation and achievement data from a sample of 782 secondary-school students in New Zealand reveal that two specific types of outcome goals, namely "maximal levels of…

  2. An Examination of Tri-Level Collaboration around Student Achievement Using the Gap Analysis Approach: School Site Leadership Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Esther Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Using the Gap Analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008), this project examined collaboration around student achievement at the school site leadership level in the Pasadena Unified School District (PUSD). This project is one of three concurrent studies focused on collaboration around student achievement in the PUSD that include…

  3. An Examination of Tri-Level Collaboration around Student Achievement Using the Gap Analysis Approach: Teacher Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Anthony Steven

    2013-01-01

    Using the Gap Analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008), this project examined collaboration around student achievement in the Pasadena Unified School District (PUSD) from the teacher perspective. As part of a tri-level study, two other projects examined collaboration around student achievement in PUSD from the perspectives of…

  4. Developing models to predict 8th grade students' achievement levels on timss science based on opportunity-to-learn variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitford, Melinda M.

    Science educational reforms have placed major emphasis on improving science classroom instruction and it is therefore vital to study opportunity-to-learn (OTL) variables related to student science learning experiences and teacher teaching practices. This study will identify relationships between OTL and student science achievement and will identify OTL predictors of students' attainment at various distinct achievement levels (low/intermediate/high/advanced). Specifically, the study (a) address limitations of previous studies by examining a large number of independent and control variables that may impact students' science achievement and (b) it will test hypotheses of structural relations to how the identified predictors and mediating factors impact on student achievement levels. The study will follow a multi-stage and integrated bottom-up and top-down approach to identify predictors of students' achievement levels on standardized tests using TIMSS 2011 dataset. Data mining or pattern recognition, a bottom-up approach will identify the most prevalent association patterns between different student achievement levels and variables related to student science learning experiences, teacher teaching practices and home and school environments. The second stage is a top-down approach, testing structural equation models of relations between the significant predictors and students' achievement levels according.

  5. Developing and Improving Modified Achievement Level Descriptors: Rationale, Procedures, and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Albus, Debra; Rogers, Chris; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    Some states are developing alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) to measure the academic achievement of some students with disabilities (Albus, Lazarus, Thurlow, & Cormier, 2009; Lazarus, Thurlow, Christensen, & Cormier, 2007). These assessments measure the same content as the general assessment for a given…

  6. Developing an Adequately Specified Model of State Level Student Achievement with Multilevel Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Lawrence

    Limitations of using linear, unilevel regression procedures in modeling student achievement are discussed. This study is a part of a broader study that is developing an empirically-based predictive model of variables associated with academic achievement from a multilevel perspective and examining the differences by which parameters are estimated…

  7. Mathematics Achievement Effects of Three Levels of Individualization: Whole Class, Ability Grouped, and Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Karweit, Nancy L.

    This research evaluated mathematics achievement and attitudinal effects of three instructional methods directed in varying degrees toward accommodating diversity in students' prior achievement. Two randomized field experiments of 16 and 18 weeks' duration, respectively, compared an individualized model, Team Assisted Individualization (TAI); an…

  8. Mathematics Achievement in Middle School Level in Pakistan: Findings from the First National Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayyaba, Saadia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The general objective of this paper is to investigate the mathematics achievement of middle grade students in Pakistan. Specifically: to determine whether mathematics achievement varies systematically across students and schools; to what extent the mathematics curriculum and frameworks are implemented in schools; to what extent gender and…

  9. Under the Radar: The Impact of Relatively Young Age for Grade Level on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryken, Klazina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether age differences affect students' academic achievement, and whether age differences affect students in low-income areas differently than those in mixed or higher-income areas. Student achievement data for grades 3, 7, and 11 in language arts and math were obtained from a variety of schools located…

  10. Achievement Levels Among Foreign-Born and Native-Born Mexican American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baral, David P.

    The study compared the academic achievement of 59 recent Mexican immigrant and 59 native-born Mexican American junior high school students in Nogales, Arizona. Three different types of variables were investigated: measures of student achievement, family background factors, and acculturative stress variables. Data were obtained from the school…

  11. U.S. Diagnostic Reference Levels and Achievable Doses for 10 Adult CT Examinations.

    PubMed

    Kanal, Kalpana M; Butler, Priscilla F; Sengupta, Debapriya; Bhargavan-Chatfield, Mythreyi; Coombs, Laura P; Morin, Richard L

    2017-02-21

    Purpose To develop diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and achievable doses (ADs) for the 10 most common adult computed tomographic (CT) examinations in the United States as a function of patient size by using the CT Dose Index Registry. Materials and Methods Data from the 10 most commonly performed adult CT head, neck, and body examinations from 583 facilities were analyzed. For head examinations, the lateral thickness was used as an indicator of patient size; for neck and body examinations, water-equivalent diameter was used. Data from 1 310 727 examinations (analyzed by using SAS 9.3) provided median values, as well as means and 25th and 75th (DRL) percentiles for volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), and size-specific dose estimate (SSDE). Applicable results were compared with DRLs from eight countries. Results More than 46% of the facilities were community hospitals; 13% were academic facilities. More than 48% were in metropolitan areas, 39% were suburban, and 13% were rural. More than 50% of the facilities performed fewer than 500 examinations per month. The abdomen and pelvis was the most frequently performed examination in the study (45%). For body examinations, DRLs (75th percentile) and ADs (median) for CTDIvol, SSDE, and DLP increased consistently with the patient's size (water-equivalent diameter). The relationships between patient size and DRLs and ADs were not as strong for head and neck examinations. These results agree well with the data from other countries. Conclusion DRLs and ADs as a function of patient size were developed for the 10 most common adult CT examinations performed in the United States. (©) RSNA, 2017.

  12. Bilingual vs. Oral Education: A Comparison of Academic Achievement Levels in Deaf Eighth-Graders from Two Decades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiling, Kerstin

    This study examined whether the level of academic achievement changed when deaf pupils in Sweden were introduced to sign communication at the preschool or kindergarten level. The study compared performance of 40 deaf students, attending a school for the deaf, on a comprehensive testing program (covering Swedish language and mathematical and…

  13. Longitudinal Investigation of Elementary Students' Science Academic Achievement in 4-8th Grades: Grade Level and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursal, Murat

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the change of the science academic achievement by grade level and gender where 222 elementary students' science and technology course scores between the 4th and 8th grades and science success percentages in 6th and 8th grades Level Determination Exam were longitudinally analyzed. Based on the findings of this study,…

  14. Psychosocial Maturity or Social Desirability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberger, Ellen

    The psychosocial maturity scale (PSM) described in several earlier papers is a self-report questionnaire. It is vulnerable, as are other questionnaires of this type, to respondents' wishes to present themselves in a socially desirable light. In this study, scores on two social desirability scales are examined in relation to PSM. Correlations…

  15. The Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Achievement, Attendance, and Discipline at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact block scheduling has on (a) student academic achievement, discipline, and attendance, and (b) administrator, teacher, and student perceptions. The study compared 2005-2010 data from a high school utilizing the A/B block schedule and a high school under a traditional schedule, in one suburban…

  16. Impact of Teacher Qualification on Student Achievement at the Elementary and Middle School Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Although the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act requires that classroom teachers be highly qualified, the assumption that achieving the highly qualified endorsement equates to teacher effectiveness in the classroom is unverified. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of teacher qualification, as defined by the NCLB Act and…

  17. A Comparison of Urban, Suburban, and Rural Principal Leadership Skills by Campus Student Achievement Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Susan; Winn, Pam; Gentry, Jim; Cauble, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Because of the importance of developing highly skilled school leaders, statewide assessments of 784 Texas public school administrators were compared to determine how leadership skills varied by type of campus (urban, suburban and rural) and by campus student achievement ratings. Important findings indicate differences exist by campus type and by…

  18. Science Anxiety: An Investigation of Science Achievement, Sex and Grade Level Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene; Chiarelott, Leigh

    This study reviews literature on science anxiety related to such variables as sex, intellectual capacity, achievement, and attitudes. To measure science anxiety, a questionnaire (included in an appendix) was developed, pilot-tested on students in grades 5 and 7 in the Bowling Green (Ohio) School District, and administered in final form to 532…

  19. Study-Orientation of High and Low Academic Achievers at Secondary Level in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Bashir, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Naemullah; Khan, Muhammad Saeed

    2009-01-01

    The study orientation of low and high academic achievers was compared, measured through a self-developed study orientation scale (SOS) primarily based on 47 items comparing study habits and attitude. Students' marks obtained in the 10th grade Examination determined the measure of academic performance. The analysis revealed that the high achievers…

  20. Removing the Barriers: Raising Achievement Levels for Minority Ethnic Pupils. Exploring Good Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    This resource kit, which can be used with an accompanying videotape and written materials, shows how three English secondary schools have succeeded in raising the achievement of their ethnic minority students by increasing expectations of what each student is capable of, valuing diversity, working in partnership with parents, and encouraging…

  1. A Transformational Analysis of Low Achievers' Writing at the Ninth and Eleventh Grade Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Mary Miles

    This study assesses an analytical process which seeks to describe the writing style of a student in terms of the four basic transformational operations: addition, deletion, combining, and reordering. Application of the process to writing skills of low achievers in English is evaluated. All ninth and eleventh grade students in the Falls Church,…

  2. Evaluation of Intrarehearsal Achievement by Listeners of Varying Levels of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate expertise-related differences in the evaluation of moment-to-moment rehearsal achievement. Nonmusic majors, music education majors, and expert music teachers (N = 60) listened to 18 "before" and "after" pairs of rehearsal trials of various high school bands in their pursuit…

  3. Variability in Pretest-Posttest Correlation Coefficients by Student Achievement Level. NCEE 2011-4033

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Russell; Haimson, Joshua; Perez-Johnson, Irma; May, Henry

    2011-01-01

    State assessments are increasingly used as outcome measures for education evaluations. The scaling of state assessments produces variability in measurement error, with the conditional standard error of measurement increasing as average student ability moves toward the tails of the achievement distribution. This report examines the variability in…

  4. Literacy Coaching to Improve Student Reading Achievement: A Multi-Level Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Garnier, Helen E.; Spybrook, Jessaca

    2013-01-01

    In a longitudinal group-randomized trial, we explore the key role of the quality of classroom text discussions in mediating the effects of Content-Focused Coaching (CFC) on student reading achievement (2983 students, 167 teachers). Schools in the United States serving large numbers of minority and English language learning (ELL) students from…

  5. Interracial Best Friendships: Relationship with 10th Graders' Academic Achievement Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newgent, Rebecca A.; Lee, Sang Min; Daniel, Ashley F.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships between interracial best friendships and 10th-grade students' academic achievement. The analysis consisted of data from 13,134 participants in the ELS:2002 database. The results indicated that interracial best friendships for minority students (African Americans, Latino Americans, Asian Americans, and…

  6. Electrophysiological dynamic brain connectivity during symbolic magnitude comparison in children with different mathematics achievement levels.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola R; Vélez-Pérez, Hugo; Espinoza-Valdez, Aurora; Romo-Vazquez, Rebeca; Salido-Ruiz, Ricardo A; Ruiz-Stovel, Vanessa; Gallardo-Moreno, Geisa B; González-Garrido, Andrés A; Berumen, Gustavo

    2017-02-08

    Children with mathematical difficulties usually have an impaired ability to process symbolic representations. Functional MRI methods have suggested that early frontoparietal connectivity can predict mathematic achievements; however, the study of brain connectivity during numerical processing remains unexplored. With the aim of evaluating this in children with different math proficiencies, we selected a sample of 40 children divided into two groups [high achievement (HA) and low achievement (LA)] according to their arithmetic scores in the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th ed.. Participants performed a symbolic magnitude comparison task (i.e. determining which of two numbers is numerically larger), with simultaneous electrophysiological recording. Partial directed coherence and graph theory methods were used to estimate and depict frontoparietal connectivity in both groups. The behavioral measures showed that children with LA performed significantly slower and less accurately than their peers in the HA group. Significantly higher frontocentral connectivity was found in LA compared with HA; however, when the connectivity analysis was restricted to parietal locations, no relevant group differences were observed. These findings seem to support the notion that LA children require greater memory and attentional efforts to meet task demands, probably affecting early stages of symbolic comparison.

  7. Student Misconceptions in Chemical Equilibrium as Related to Cognitive Level and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Alan E.; Kass, Heidi

    Reported is an investigation to determine the nature and extent of student misconceptions in chemical equilibrium and to ascertain the degree to which certain misconceptions are related to chemistry achievement and to performance on specific tasks involving cognitive transformations characteristic of the concrete and formal operational stages of…

  8. Validity Studies Using the Comprehensive Ability Battery (CAB): IV. Predicting Achievement at the University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph; Woolsey, Lorette K.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presented evidence of the criterion related validity of several Comprehensive Ability Battery (CAB) tests relative to criterion variables representing first year college achievement. Information regarding the criterion related validity of nontraditional tests of the CAB reflecting divergent production hypothesized to be associated with…

  9. Academic Achievement of Ugandan Sixth Grade Students: Influence of Parents' Education Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Kizito, Omala Saint; Jjemba, Evans

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the influence of a father and mother's education on the academic achievement of their child. The investigation is based on data sourced from the 2009 Southern African Consortium for Monitoring Education Quality survey comprising 5,148 records of sixth grade students enrolled in Ugandan primary schools. Students' percentage…

  10. The Use of the Arabic CBM Maze among Three Levels of Achievers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of the Arabic version of the Curriculum Based Measurement Maze (CBM Maze) for Jordanian students. A sample of 150 students was recruited from two public primary schools in Jordan. The students were ranked into high, moderate, and low achievers in terms of their performance in the Arabic course. Then all of…

  11. The Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement in Intermediate Level Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Class size and student achievement have been debated for decades. The vast amount of research on this topic is either conflicting or inconclusive. There are large and small scale studies that support both sides of this dilemma (Achilles, Nye, Boyd-Zaharias, Fulton, & Cain, 1994; Glass & Smith, 1979; Slavin, 1989). Class size reduction is a…

  12. The Influence of Early Childhood Program Participation on Academic Achievement at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villani, Gina Marie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of early childhood program participation on academic achievement by grade 3. This case study utilized a quantitative approach to data collection. For purposes of this research, one P-12 school district in central New Jersey was studied to look at the influence of early childhood program…

  13. Geographic Variation of District-Level Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Gender achievement gaps on national and state assessments have been a popular research topic over the last few decades. Many prior studies examine these gaps in different subjects (e.g., mathematics, reading, and science) and grades (typically kindergarten through eighth grade) for students living in various regions (typically states or countries)…

  14. Computers and Traditional Teaching Practices: Factors Influencing Middle Level Students' Science Achievement and Attitudes about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; Wrobel, Jerzy M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student-reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student-centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group…

  15. Human figure drawings: validity in assessing intellectual level and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Aikman, K G; Belter, R W; Finch, A J

    1992-01-01

    In a sample of 216 child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients, significant but low correlations were found between Goodenough-Harris (GH) drawing scores and both Full Scale IQs and academic achievement. The percentage of subjects correctly classified in appropriate IQ categories ranged from 35 to 44%; the percentage of misclassified subjects ranged from 56 to 65%. Consideration of visual-motor integration, using the Bender-Gestalt, did not improve the accuracy of G-H scores in predicting IQ scores in this sample. These results indicate that human figure drawings should not be substituted for other well-established intelligence and achievement tests nor used as an additional measure of these constructs when one is evaluating psychiatric patients.

  16. An Expectancy-Value Perspective of Civic Education Motivation, Learning and Desirable Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Chua, Bee Leng

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed the mediating role of expectancy for success and value beliefs in civic education in linking socio-academic factors (gender, ethnicity, school level and prior achievement) to desirable civic attributes. The sample comprised 1664 students in their Year-7-Year-12 (mean age = 14.79, range = 12-18). Structural equation…

  17. Achieving recommended daily physical activity levels through commuting by public transportation: unpacking individual and contextual influences.

    PubMed

    Wasfi, Rania A; Ross, Nancy A; El-Geneidy, Ahmed M

    2013-09-01

    This paper estimates the amount of daily walking associated with using public transportation in a large metropolitan area and examines individual and contextual characteristics associated with walking distances. Total walking distance to and from transit was calculated from a travel diary survey for 6913 individuals. Multilevel regression modelling was used to examine the underlying factors associated with walking to public transportation. The physical activity benefits of public transportation varied along gender and socio-economic lines. Recommended minutes of daily physical activity can be achieved for public transportation users, especially train users living in affluent suburbs.

  18. The Influence of the African American Father on Level of Self-Efficacy, Career Achievement, and Aspirations of His African American Daughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, April E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…

  19. Energy-Level Modulation of Small-Molecule Electron Acceptors to Achieve over 12% Efficiency in Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Sunsun; Ye, Long; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhang, Shaoqing; Mukherjee, Subhrangsu; Ade, Harald; Hou, Jianhui

    2016-11-01

    Fine energy-level modulations of small-molecule acceptors (SMAs) are realized via subtle chemical modifications on strong electron-withdrawing end-groups. The two new SMAs (IT-M and IT-DM) end-capped by methyl-modified dicycanovinylindan-1-one exhibit upshifted lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels, and hence higher open-circuit voltages can be observed in the corresponding devices. Finally, a top power conversion efficiency of 12.05% is achieved.

  20. A Study on Prospective Science Teachers' Knowledge and Achievement Levels in Mathematical Logic in Electricity-Related Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to reveal prospective science teachers' knowledge and achievement levels in electricity-related subjects. The data for the study were collected from 44 prospective teachers using three measurement tools. The data were then analyzed using software developed for the Probability and Possibility Calculation Statistics…

  1. Examining the Contribution of Teacher Graduate Degrees on Student Achievement as Measured by District Level TAKS Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badgett, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    In a time of limited means and continued calls for higher student achievement, school leaders need to be wise in their use of resources. Earlier research has called for greater levels of teacher preparation, and, while many school districts provide greater compensation for teachers with graduate degrees, some districts have begun phasing out this…

  2. Examining the Level of Convergence among Self-Regulated Learning Microanalytic Processes, Achievement, and a Self-Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Callan, Gregory L.; Malatesta, Jaime; Adams, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the convergent and predictive validity of self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic measures. Specifically, theoretically based relations among a set of self-reflection processes, self-efficacy, and achievement were examined as was the level of convergence between a microanalytic strategy measure and a SRL self-report…

  3. The Academic Achievement of Elementary Level General Education Students in Inclusion Classrooms versus Non-Inclusion Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surgener, Gena F.

    2016-01-01

    This research study was conducted to examine the effects of the academic achievement of elementary level general education students in the inclusion classroom setting versus the general education students in the non-inclusion classroom in a large suburban school district in Tennessee as measured by third, fourth, and fifth grade mathematics and…

  4. The Effective Practices and Beliefs of School Principals in High Achieving Hispanic Majority Mid-Level Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briseno, Johnny

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to investigate the effective practices and beliefs of 10 Texas principals in high achieving majority Hispanic mid-level schools. Participant interviews were analyzed using the Creswell (2007) six step method for analyzing phenomenological studies. Findings from this study…

  5. An Examination of Vocational School Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Mathematics and of Their Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasdemir, Cahit

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine vocational school students' self-efficacy beliefs in mathematics and their achievement levels. As the data collection tool, "Self-Efficacy Perception of Mathematics Scale" developed by Umay (2001) was used in the study. The sample is composed of 178 students who were attending different programs of…

  6. Prospective Teachers' Comprehension Levels of Special Relativity Theory and the Effect of Writing for Learning on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the comprehension levels of special relativity theory in prospective teachers who take the Introduction to Modern Physics lesson in the faculty of education science teaching department and the effect of writing for learning on their achievement is researched. In the research, a control group pre-test post-test…

  7. Learning Time of Day and Students' Academic Achievement at School Certificate Level: A Case Study of Chibote Girls' Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulenga, Henry M.; Mukuka, Angel

    2016-01-01

    A case study presented here is an investigation into whether time of day for instruction has an effect on students' academic achievement in Mathematics, Science, Biology and English at school certificate level by focusing on the grades candidates obtained after sitting for national examinations. The focus is primarily on 33 randomly selected…

  8. Improving the Ability of Qualitative Assessments to Discriminate Student Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Jeffrey Chi Hoe; Toh, Anita Ann Lee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the use of blind marking to increase the ability of criterion-referenced marking to discriminate students' varied levels of knowledge and skill mastery in a business communication skills course. Design/methodology/approach: The business communication course in this study involved more than 10 teachers and…

  9. Transcending Disciplinary Lines to Promote Student Achievement at the Post-Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Erinn; Brown, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Writing proficiencies in the K-12 setting and at the post-secondary level have become stagnant and have decreased in some instances. Several studies indicated using peer review was beneficial for students by increasing student engagement and providing appropriate feedback. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a peer review workshop…

  10. Psychological Factors in the Academic Achievement of Remedial-Level English Students in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    Rates of in-coming college students in need of academic remediation are on the rise, for both community college and four-year colleges. Consequently, many of these students will be required to enroll in some level of academic remediation in reading, writing and/or math to develop the basic skills necessary for student success in college-level…

  11. An Exploration of Levels of Use of an Innovation and the Relationship to Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Susan F.

    The present study was in part a case study involving the levels of use that existed among a sample of second- and fourth-grade teachers using or anticipating the use of individualized instruction in reading and mathematics instruction. The sample was assumed to include both users and nonusers of the innovation as half the schools were involved in…

  12. Is It Really Possible to Test All Educationally Significant Achievements with High Levels of Reliability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    PISA claims that it can extend its reach from its current core subjects of Reading, Science, Maths and problem-solving. Yet given the requirement for high levels of reliability for PISA, especially in the light of its current high stakes character, proposed widening of its subject coverage cannot embrace some important aspects of the social and…

  13. An Analysis of the Relationship between Organizational Servant Leadership and Student Achievement in Middle Level Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babb, Corbett A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory quantitative research study was to determine if middle schools in which higher levels of servant leadership are evident perform better on school effectiveness measures than middle schools that exhibit lower degrees of servant leadership. Furthermore, it sought to identify contextual factors that were correlated with…

  14. Teaching Physics at Preschool Level for Mexican Students in Order to Achieve the National Scientific Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramírez Díaz, Mario H.; Nieto Betance, Gabriela; García Trujillo, Luís Antonio; Chávez-Campos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    In its program of studies for preschool level, the Secretary of Public Education of Mexico promoted development of four standards of science: Scientific knowledge, applications of scientific knowledge and technology, skills associated to science, and attitudes associated to science. However, to develop this skills and reach out the standards there…

  15. Instructional Leadership in Missouri: A Study of Middle-Level Building Principals and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Craig L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to describe Missouri middle-level school principals' perceptions of their instructional leadership practices. The Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS) by Philip Hallinger was used to define the measured leadership tasks (www.philiphallinger.com). There were a total of 77 middle-level…

  16. Individualizing Instruction in College-Level Spanish: A Study of Student Achievement and Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimerhanzel-Nestlerode, Samye Ruth Mott; Cooper, James

    This study considers whether the outcomes for students who participated in an individualized instructional approach to language learning in intermediate college-level foreign language courses are different from the outcomes for students who participated in a lecture-recitation aproach. A two-treatment group quasi-experimental design was used. The…

  17. Charter school education in Texas: Student achievement on the exit level assessment in math and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jeffery E.

    Public schools in the state of Texas are held accountable for performance and quality of education. Accountability is important to all schools, but it is critical to open-enrollment charter schools to remain in good standing. The current economic situation in Texas public education has brought attention as well as the need for alternative education programs such as charter schools. It is of the utmost importance for charter schools to illustrate that they are meeting the academic needs of the target market. This study addressed student achievement, as well as expenditure per student in both charter schools and traditional schools in the Region 10 educational service center. The datum for the study were obtained from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) website, specifically the Academic Excellence Indicator System Data (AEIS) files for the 2011-2012. The study sample included 30 open-enrollment charters schools and 30 traditional high schools within the Region 10 educational service center during the school year of 2011-2012. The research study determined significant statistical differences between open-enrollment charter schools and traditional high schools. The potential for the study was to gain additional knowledge and insight along with additional data for the open-enrollment charter schools and traditional schools in the Region 10 Educational Service Center. The study has potentially increased the information for researchers and practitioners in education. In addition this study has proved charter schools are a viable and an effective educational tool for the future.

  18. A question of balance: achieving appropriate nutrient levels in biofortified staple crops.

    PubMed

    Sanahuja, Georgina; Farré, Gemma; Berman, Judit; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2013-12-01

    The biofortification of staple crops with vitamins is an attractive strategy to increase the nutritional quality of human food, particularly in areas where the population subsists on a cereal-based diet. Unlike other approaches, biofortification is sustainable and does not require anything more than a standard food-distribution infrastructure. The health-promoting effects of vitamins depend on overall intake and bioavailability, the latter influenced by food processing, absorption efficiency and the utilisation or retention of the vitamin in the body. The bioavailability of vitamins in nutritionally enriched foods should ideally be adjusted to achieve the dietary reference intake in a reasonable portion. Current vitamin biofortification programmes focus on the fat-soluble vitamins A and E, and the water-soluble vitamins C and B9 (folate), but the control of dosage and bioavailability has been largely overlooked. In the present review, we discuss the vitamin content of nutritionally enhanced foods developed by conventional breeding and genetic engineering, focusing on dosage and bioavailability. Although the biofortification of staple crops could potentially address micronutrient deficiency on a global scale, further research is required to develop effective strategies that match the bioavailability of vitamins to the requirements of the human diet.

  19. A Pharmacist-Staffed, Virtual Gout Management Clinic for Achieving Target Serum Uric Acid Levels: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Goldfien, Robert; Pressman, Alice; Jacobson, Alice; Ng, Michele; Avins, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Context: Relatively few patients with gout receive appropriate treatment. Objective: To determine whether a pharmacist-staffed gout management program is more effective than usual care in achieving target serum uric acid (sUA) levels in gout patients. Design: A parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of a pharmacist-staffed, telephone-based program for managing hyperuricemia vs usual care. Trial duration was 26 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome measure was achieving sUA levels at or below 6 mg/dL at the 26-week visit. Secondary outcome was mean change in sUA levels in the control and intervention groups. Participants were adults with recurrent gout and sUA levels above 6.0 mg/dL. Participants were randomly assigned to management by a clinical pharmacist following protocol or to monitoring of sUA levels but management of their gout by their usual treating physician. Results: Of 102 patients who met eligibility criteria, 77 subjects obtained a baseline sUA measurement and were entered into the trial. Among 37 participants in the intervention group, 13 (35%) had sUA levels at or below 6.0 mg/dL at 26 weeks, compared with 5 (13%) of 40 participants in the control group (risk ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 7.1, p = 0.03). The mean change in sUA levels among controls was +0.1 mg/dL compared with −1.5 mg/dL in the intervention group (sUA difference = −1.6, 95% CI = −0.9 to −2.4, p < 0.001). Conclusions: A structured pharmacist-staffed program was more effective than usual care for achieving target sUA levels. These results suggest a structured program could greatly improve gout management. PMID:27352414

  20. Local Partnerships: Achieving Stakeholder Consensus on Low-Level Waste Disposal?

    SciTech Connect

    Hooft, E.; Bergmans, A.; Derveaux, K.; Vanhoof, L.

    2002-02-28

    Nuclear waste management is more then finding a technical answer to a technical problem. Dealing with nuclear, or any other form of hazardous waste, for that matter, not only implies solving a technical problem, it also means solving a societal problem. And societal questions cannot be resolved in a technical laboratory. Of course, the technical aspect of nuclear waste management and disposal is a very important one, but the societal aspect is of equal importance. In order to find an implementable solution to deal with nuclear waste, attention should be paid to what kind of solution the society wants and under what conditions a proposed solution might be acceptable. This, however, cannot be achieved by simply adding a number of ''societal parameters'' to a technical concept modeling. It is something that can only be established through interaction with the public concerned. And that, in addition, is not something that can be preformed as an accidental spin off of a vastly elaborated technical program. Communicating or interacting with the public does not mean sweeping them off their feet with smoothly edited leaflets explaining how technically sound the proposed solution is and how wonderful it would fit in their back yard. Adding, just to proof how brilliantly this all has been thought through, numerous safety measures, so people would feel reassured. This kind of communication, will only activate people's suspicion and drive them straight into a ''NIMBY''-reaction. The public (and by this we mean the stakeholders or the people actually concerned) should be involved in the decision making on nuclear waste from the very start of the program. This means that they must be aware of the fact that tests are taken place, that they can participate in the follow up of these technical analysis, and, that they have a say in whether further steps will eventually be taken.

  1. Flibanserin and Female Sexual Desire.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is one type of sexual problem that can affect women. It is characterized by low or absent sexual desire that cannot be attributed to another cause and results in difficulty in interpersonal relationships. HSDD is not well understood, and women may not report symptoms of difficulties to their health care providers. In August 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved flibanserin, a nonhormonal oral medication for the treatment of HSDD in premenopausal women. Flibanserin is the only currently available pharmacologic treatment for HSDD. This article will provide an overview of flibanserin, including potential adverse reactions, special considerations for use, and implications for nursing practice.

  2. Quality of Research Design Moderates Effects of Grade Retention on Achievement: A Meta-analytic, Multi-level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Chiharu S.; Chen, Qi; Willson, Victor L.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The present meta-analysis examined the effect of grade retention on academic outcomes and investigated systemic sources of variability in effect sizes. Using multi-level modeling, we investigated characteristics of 207 effect sizes across 22 studies published between 1990 and 2007 at two levels: the study (between) and individual (within) levels. Design quality was a study-level variable. Individual level variables were median grade retained and median number of years post retention. Quality of design was associated with less negative effects. Studies employing middle to high methodological designs yielded effect sizes not statistically significantly different from zero and 0.34 higher (more positive) than studies with low design quality. Years post retention was negatively associated with retention effects, and this effect was stronger for studies using grade comparisons versus age comparisons. Results challenge the widely held view that retention has a negative impact on achievement. Suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:20717492

  3. Self-regulation, motivation, and math achievement in middle school: variations across grade level and math context.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Timothy J; Chen, Peggy P

    2009-10-01

    The current study examined grade level, achievement group, and math-course-type differences in student self-regulation and motivation in a sample of 880 suburban middle-school students. Analysis of variance was utilized to assess group differences in student self-regulation and motivation, and linear regression analysis was used to identify variables that best predicted students' use of regulatory strategies. A key finding was that although seventh graders exhibited a more maladaptive self-regulation and motivation profile than sixth graders, achievement groups in seventh grade (high, moderate, low) were more clearly differentiated across both self-regulation and motivation than achievement groups in sixth grade. The pattern of achievement group differences also varied across math course type, as self-regulation and motivation processes more consistently differentiated achievement groups in advanced classes than regular math courses. Finally, task interest was shown to be the primary motivational predictor of students' use of regulatory strategies during math learning. The study highlights the importance of identifying shifting student motivation and self-regulation during the early middle school years and the potential role that context may have on these processes.

  4. Chemical genoprotection: reducing biological damage to as low as reasonably achievable levels

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, M; Armero, D; Martínez-Beneyto, Y; Castillo, J; Benavente-García, O; Fernandez, H; Alcaraz-Saura, M; Canteras, M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant substances present in the human diet with an antimutagenic protective capacity against genotoxic damage induced by exposure to X-rays in an attempt to reduce biological damage to as low a level as reasonably possible. Methods Ten compounds were assessed using the lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) cytome test. The compounds studied were added to human blood at 25 μM 5 min before exposure to irradiation by 2 Gy of X-rays. Results The protective capacity of the antioxidant substances assessed was from highest to lowest according to the frequency of the MN generated by X-ray exposure: rosmarinic acid = carnosic acid = δ-tocopherol = l-acid ascorbic = apigenin = amifostine (P < 0.001) > green tea extract = diosmine = rutin = dimetylsulfoxide (P < 0.05) > irradiated control. The reduction in genotoxic damage with the radiation doses administered reached 58%, which represents a significant reduction in X-ray-induced chromosomal damage (P < 0.001). This degree of protection is greater than that obtained with amifostine, a radioprotective compound used in radiotherapy and which is characterised by its high toxicity. Conclusion Several antioxidant substances, common components of the human diet and lacking toxicity, offer protection from the biological harm induced by ionizing radiation. Administering these protective substances to patients before radiological exploration should be considered, even in the case of small radiation doses and regardless of the biological damage expected. PMID:21697157

  5. A Compelling Desire for Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veale, David

    2006-01-01

    A case is described of a patient who has a compelling and persistent desire to become deaf. She often kept cotton wool moistened with oil in her ears and was learning sign language. Living without sound appeared to be a severe form of avoidance behavior from hyperacusis and misophonia. She had a borderline personality disorder that was associated…

  6. [Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, HSDD].

    PubMed

    Mimoun, S

    2011-01-01

    Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) is the most common Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) affecting adult women of any age, including postmenopausal women. HSDD may have significant effects on the relationships and emotional balance of women and constitutes the most common form of FSD observed in clinical practice. HSDD is characterised by a deficiency or lack of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity, causing serious distress or interpersonal difficulties, and it is not exclusively caused by the effects of another psychiatric disorder, pathology or substance (such as medication). HSDD pathophysiology is not yet well understood, but it is thought to involve an imbalance between factors controlling inhibition and excitation of sexual desire in the brain. Many physicians are reluctant to discuss sexual desire problems with their patients for various reasons, such as insufficient knowledge of the field, an absence of efficient treatments and time constraints. Even though current treatment options are limited, a better understanding of the physiopathology behind HSDD may help develop new therapies.

  7. Lifelong Learning, Policy and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Recent lifelong learning policies have been criticized for creating an illusion of freedom whilst simultaneously reducing choice. The concept of desire permits engagement with the conscious and unconscious drives that underpin individual decision-making, which direct the life course. Utilizing the ideas of Hume and Spinoza, the present article…

  8. An exploration of the perceptions, developmental reasoning levels, differences in learning processes, and academic achievement levels of students in introductory college microbiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Barbara Ann Matherly

    1997-11-01

    This study explored the relationship between the grades students earned in introductory college microbiology and American College Testing scores, sex, race, age, GED or high school diploma, full-time or part-time student status, developmental reasoning levels, memory tactics, and expected achievement. The study also explored student perceptions at the beginning and the end of the microbiology courses for science preparation, expected achievement, relevancy of microbiology, and expectations for the course. Archival records for 121 freshman level and 119 sophomore level microbiology students were accessed to obtain final grades, ACT scores, sex, race, age, GED or high school diploma and full-time or part-time status. The same information was obtained for the 113 freshman level and the 85 sophomore level students who participated in the study. The study groups were given the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking to assess their level of formal reasoning ability, the Inventory of Learning Processes-Revised to assess three memory techniques, an initial perception survey, and an exit perception survey. Academic achievement in microbiology could not be predicted using composites of the predictor variables. There were significant relationships between the GALT scores and the predicted grades with both the freshman and the sophomore final grades. The Self-Efficacy Fact Retention scores and the Literal Memorization scores had significant relationships to the final grades of the freshmen but not the sophomores. There was not a significant relationship between the Deep Semantic scores and the final grades in either group. Students indicated that high school science had given them only a medium to low level of preparation for college microbiology. The sophomores felt that previous college science classes had given them a much better preparation for microbiology than did the freshmen students. Both groups expressed the importance of the laboratory experience to the understanding

  9. Library Users' Service Desires: A LibQUAL+ Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Kyrillidou, Martha; Cook, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore library users' desired service quality levels on the twenty-two core LibQUAL+ items. Specifically, we explored similarities and differences in users' desired library service quality levels across user groups (i.e., undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty), across geographic locations (i.e.,…

  10. Sequential Prediction of Literacy Achievement for Specific Learning Disabilities Contrasting in Impaired Levels of Language in Grades 4 to 9.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Elizabeth A; Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D

    2017-02-01

    Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text). A five-block regression model sequentially predicted literacy achievement from cognitive-linguistic translation (Block 1); working memory components for word-form coding (Block 2), phonological and orthographic loops (Block 3), and supervisory focused or switching attention (Block 4); and SLD groups (Block 5). Results showed that cognitive-linguistic translation explained an average of 27% and 15% of the variance in reading and writing achievement, respectively, but working memory components explained an additional 39% and 27% of variance. Orthographic word-form coding uniquely predicted nearly every measure, whereas attention switching uniquely predicted only reading. Finally, differences in reading and writing persisted between dyslexia and dysgraphia, with dysgraphia higher, even after controlling for Block 1 to 4 predictors. Differences in literacy achievement between students with dyslexia and oral and written language learning disabilities were largely explained by the Block 1 predictors. Applications to identifying and teaching students with these SLDs are discussed.

  11. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning

    PubMed Central

    BJORK, ROBERT A.; KROLL, JUDITH F.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other. PMID:26255443

  12. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  13. Does meditation play an integral role in achieving high-level wellness as defined by Travis and Ryan (2004)?

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Nicole J

    2011-01-01

    In the emerging discipline of wellness, Travis and Ryan (2004) develop a dynamic theory of wellness that while not explicitly stated takes a systems theory approach to health and wellness. As a result, their theory of wellness resonates with many of the concepts and ideals experienced through a meditation practice. It is with this congruence in mind that the current paper explores whether there is any relationship between meditation and high-level wellness and if meditation techniques play an integral role in helping to achieve enhanced levels of wellness. A wide range of research across disciplines is reviewed, and despite controversies in the methodology employed to test meditation's efficacy, it is readily apparent that numerous benefits or wellness outcomes are derived from a meditation practice. However, it is doubtful that meditation is the only path to deliver high-level wellness, other means exist-some that may be a function of the natural human condition.

  14. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  15. Use of tactual materials on the achievement of content specific vocabulary and terminology acquisition within an intermediate level science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, Brian H.

    In this quasi-experimental study, the researcher investigated the effectiveness of three tactual strategies and one non-tactual strategy of content specific vocabulary acquisition. Flash cards, task cards, and learning wheels served as the tactual strategies, and vocabulary review sheets served as a non-tactual strategy. The sample (n=85) consisted of all middle school students in a small high performing middle school located in the northern suburbs of New York City. All of the vocabulary words and terms came from the New York State Intermediate Level Science Core Curriculum. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to collect the data. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on the gain scores from each of the treatments. Multiple paired sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the results. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine if there was a variance between the academic achievement levels of the students, gender, and grade level for each of the treatments. All of the treatments significantly improved the science achievement of the students, but significance was found between them. Significance was found between the achievement groups with the above average students attaining a higher mean on the pre-test and post-test for each treatment, whereas the below average students had the lowest mean on both assessments. The sixth grade students showed significant improvement over the seventh grade students while using the flash cards (p=.004) and learning wheel (p=.007). During the learning wheel treatment, the males scored significantly better (p=.021) than the females on the pre-test and post-test. During the worksheet treatment, significance (p=.034) was found between gender and achievement group. The below average male students had the greatest gain from the pre-test to the post-test, but the post-test mean was still the lowest of the groups. Limitations, implications for future research and current practice are discussed. Key words are: flash cards, task cards

  16. The effects of a CD-ROM textbook on student achievement and cognition-level attainment of undergraduate biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludrick, Brad Burton

    Purpose of the study. This study was designed to measure the effects of CD-ROM textbook integration on student achievement and student cognition-level-attainment for undergraduate general biology students. Four sections of general biology were selected as the study group. Two sections served as the experimental group receiving CD-ROM textbook integration. The remaining two sections served as the control group, and were taught biological content utilizing a traditional textbook. Procedure. This study employed a pre-experimental research design, static group comparison (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavieh, 1996: 331), to determine if a CD-ROM textbook had significant effects on student cognition-level-attainment and content achievement of undergraduate biology students. The study was conducted during the 2001 spring semester at Southeastern Oklahoma State University. The duration of the treatment was approximately sixteen weeks. Four sections of general biology (N = 101) were selected as the study group. Two of the four sections of general biology (n = 48) were randomly selected by the researcher via coin toss to serve as the experimental group, Group A, and were taught biological content utilizing a CD-ROM Textbook. The remaining two sections of general biology (n = 53) served as the control group, Group B, and were taught biological content utilizing a traditional textbook. Various statistical tests were used in analysis of the data. The ten null hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of significance. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program (SPSS), version 9.0 (SPSS, 1999), was used to process the data. Results. The results determined by this study were the overall effects of the CD-ROM textbook did not significantly differ from the effects of the traditional textbook on student content achievement and cognition-level-attainment. Conclusions. The utilization of CD-ROM textbook instruction is not superior at improving student achievement of biology content, as

  17. Metabolic engineering of seeds can achieve levels of omega-7 fatty acids comparable to the highest levels found in natural plant sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.T.; Shanklin, J.; Mishra, G.; Whittle, E.; Bevan, S. A.; Merlo, A. O.; Walsh, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Plant oils containing {omega}-7 fatty acids (FAs; palmitoleic 16:1{Delta}{sup 9} and cis-vaccenic 18:1{Delta}{sup 11}) have potential as sustainable feedstocks for producing industrially important octene via metathesis chemistry. Engineering plants to produce seeds that accumulate high levels of any unusual FA has been an elusive goal. We achieved high levels of {omega}-7 FA accumulation by systematic metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A plastidial 16:0-ACP desaturase has been engineered to convert 16:0 to 16:1{Delta}{sup 9} with specificity >100-fold than that of naturally occurring paralogs, such as that from cat's claw vine (Doxantha unguis-cati). Expressing this engineered enzyme (Com25) in seeds increased {omega}-7 FA accumulation from <2% to 14%. Reducing competition for 16:0-ACP by down-regulating the {beta}-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II 16:0 elongase further increased accumulation of {omega}-7 FA to 56%. The level of 16:0 exiting the plastid without desaturation also increased to 21%. Coexpression of a pair of fungal 16:0 desaturases in the cytosol reduced the 16:0 level to 11% and increased {omega}-7 FA to as much as 71%, equivalent to levels found in Doxantha seeds.

  18. Metabolic Engineering of Seeds Can Achieve Levels of ω-7 Fatty Acids Comparable with the Highest Levels Found in Natural Plant Sources1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huu Tam; Mishra, Girish; Whittle, Edward; Pidkowich, Mark S.; Bevan, Scott A.; Merlo, Ann Owens; Walsh, Terence A.; Shanklin, John

    2010-01-01

    Plant oils containing ω-7 fatty acids (FAs; palmitoleic 16:1Δ9 and cis-vaccenic 18:1Δ11) have potential as sustainable feedstocks for producing industrially important octene via metathesis chemistry. Engineering plants to produce seeds that accumulate high levels of any unusual FA has been an elusive goal. We achieved high levels of ω-7 FA accumulation by systematic metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A plastidial 16:0-ACP desaturase has been engineered to convert 16:0 to 16:1Δ9 with specificity >100-fold than that of naturally occurring paralogs, such as that from cat's claw vine (Doxantha unguis-cati). Expressing this engineered enzyme (Com25) in seeds increased ω-7 FA accumulation from <2% to 14%. Reducing competition for 16:0-ACP by down-regulating the β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II 16:0 elongase further increased accumulation of ω-7 FA to 56%. The level of 16:0 exiting the plastid without desaturation also increased to 21%. Coexpression of a pair of fungal 16:0 desaturases in the cytosol reduced the 16:0 level to 11% and increased ω-7 FA to as much as 71%, equivalent to levels found in Doxantha seeds. PMID:20943853

  19. Cues Resulting in Desire for Sexual Activity in Women

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties. PMID:16942529

  20. Primary care of patients with high cardiovascular risk : Blood pressure, lipid and diabetic target levels and their achievement in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szigethy, Endre; Jancsó, Zoltán; Móczár, Csaba; Ilyés, István; Kovács, Eszter; Róbert Kolozsvári, László; Rurik, Imre

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for the majority of premature deaths in Hungary as well. Most of them could be prevented with healthy lifestyle of patients and adequate drug prescription of primary care physicians. Earlier European surveys found wide differences between the practices and achievements of different countries in this field. The study was based on and designed according to the framework of previous European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) studies and aimed presenting Hungarian results and comparing with the achievements of other countries and previous Hungarian surveys. Among rural and urban settings, 679 patients under continuous care (236 diabetics, 218 with dyslipidaemia, and 225 with hypertension) were consecutively selected by 20 experienced general practitioners. The mean age of patients was 60.3 years (men) and 64.0 years (women). Among diabetics, less than 7 % of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values were found in 42.5 % patients, while only 11.4 % patients had fasting plasma sugar less than 6.0 mmol/L. Of the patients treated for dyslipidaemia, the target level of triglyceride was reached by 40.6 %, recommended total cholesterol by 14.2 % and the HDL-cholesterol by 71.8 %. The therapeutic control of total and HDL-cholesterol was better in men, although women had better triglyceride values. The achievement among patients with hypertension was 42.0 %. Significantly higher blood pressure was measured by patients who were treated with not recommended combinations of antihypertensive medication. A remarkable improvement could be observed in Hungary in the field of secondary prevention. It was greater among patients with hypertension and dyslipidaemia and smaller in diabetes care. Compared to the results of published European surveys, Hungary occupies a good position, but further improvement is still required.

  1. Evidence-based surgical training in orthopaedics: how many arthroscopies of the knee are needed to achieve consultant level performance?

    PubMed

    Price, A J; Erturan, G; Akhtar, K; Judge, A; Alvand, A; Rees, J L

    2015-10-01

    Despite being one of the most common orthopaedic operations, it is still not known how many arthroscopies of the knee must be performed during training in order to develop the skills required to become a Consultant. A total of 54 subjects were divided into five groups according to clinical experience: Novices (n = 10), Junior trainees (n = 10), Registrars (n = 18), Fellows (n = 10) and Consultants (n = 6). After viewing an instructional presentation, each subject performed a simple diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee on a simulator with visualisation and probing of ten anatomical landmarks. Performance was assessed using a validated global rating scale (GRS). Comparisons were made against clinical experience measured by the number of arthroscopies which had been undertaken, and ROC curve analysis was used to determine the number of procedures needed to perform at the level of the Consultants. There were marked differences between the groups. There was significant improvement in performance with increasing experience (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis identified that approximately 170 procedures were required to achieve the level of skills of a Consultant. We suggest that this approach to identify what represents the level of surgical skills of a Consultant should be used more widely so that standards of training are maintained through the development of an evidenced-based curriculum.

  2. Learning the Cell Structures with Three-Dimensional Models: Students' Achievement by Methods, Type of School and Questions' Cognitive Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Naim, Raphael

    2013-08-01

    The cell topic was taught to 9th-grade students in three modes of instruction: (a) students "hands-on," who constructed three-dimensional cell organelles and macromolecules during the learning process; (b) teacher demonstration of the three-dimensional model of the cell structures; and (c) teaching the cell topic with the regular learning material in an expository mode (which use one- or two-dimensional cell structures as are presented in charts, textbooks and microscopic slides). The sample included 669, 9th-grade students from 25 classes who were taught by 22 Biology teachers. Students were randomly assigned to the three modes of instruction, and two tests in content knowledge in Biology were used. Data were treated with multiple analyses of variance. The results indicate that entry behavior in Biology was equal for all the study groups and types of schools. The "hands-on" learning group who build three-dimensional models through the learning process achieved significantly higher on academic achievements and on the high and low cognitive questions' levels than the other two groups. The study indicates the advantages students may have being actively engaged in the learning process through the "hands-on" mode of instruction/learning.

  3. Predicting Levels of Reading and Writing Achievement in Typically Developing, English-Speaking 2(nd) and 5(th) Graders.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jasmin Niedo; Abbott, Robert D; Berninger, Virginia W

    2014-05-01

    Human traits tend to fall along normal distributions. The aim of this research was to evaluate an evidence-based conceptual framework for predicting expected individual differences in reading and writing achievement outcomes for typically developing readers and writers in early and middle childhood from Verbal Reasoning with or without Working Memory Components (phonological, orthographic, and morphological word storage and processing units, phonological and orthographic loops, and rapid switching attention for cross-code integration). Verbal Reasoning (reconceptualized as Bidirectional Cognitive-Linguistic Translation) plus the Working Memory Components (reconceptualized as a language learning system) accounted for more variance than Verbal Reasoning alone, except for handwriting for which Working Memory Components alone were better predictors. Which predictors explained unique variance varied within and across reading (oral real word and pseudoword accuracy and rate, reading comprehension) and writing (handwriting, spelling, composing) skills and grade levels (second and fifth) in this longitudinal study. Educational applications are illustrated and theoretical and practical significance discussed.

  4. Processes of care desired by elderly patients with multimorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Allison E; Steiner, John F; Main, Deborah S

    2008-01-01

    Background. Most recommended care for chronic diseases is based on the research of single conditions. There is limited information on ‘best’ processes of care for persons with multiple morbidities. Our objective was to explore processes of care desired by elderly patients who have multimorbidities that may present competing demands for patients and providers. Methods. Qualitative investigation using one-on-one interviews of 26 community-dwelling HMO members aged 65–84 (50% male) who had, at a minimum, the combined conditions of diabetes, depression and osteoarthritis. Participants were chosen from a stratified random sample to have a range of 4–16 chronic medical conditions. Results. Participants’ desired processes of care included: the need for convenient access to providers (telephone, internet or in person), clear communication of individualized care plans, support from a single coordinator of care who could help prioritize their competing demands and continuity of relationships. They also desired providers who would listen to and acknowledge their needs, appreciate that these’ needs were unique and fluctuating and have a caring attitude. Conclusions. These respondents describe an ideal process of care that is patient centered and individualized and that supports their unique constellations of problems, shifting priorities and multidimensional decision making. Individual and ongoing care coordination managed by a primary contact person may meet some of these needs. Achieving these goals will require developing efficient methods of assessing patient care needs and flexible care management support systems that can respond to patients’ needs for different levels of support at different times. PMID:18628243

  5. The Desire Thinking Questionnaire: development and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Gabriele; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2011-11-01

    Desire thinking is a voluntary cognitive process involving verbal and imaginal elaboration of a desired target. Recent research has highlighted the role of desire thinking in the maintenance of addictive, eating and impulse control disorders. The goal of this research project was to develop the first self-report measure of desire thinking. In Study 1 we constructed the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ) and conducted a preliminary factor analysis which identified two factors. The first factor concerned the perseveration of verbal thoughts about desire-related content and experience and was named 'Verbal Perseveration'. The second factor concerned the tendency to prefigure images about desire-related content and experience and was named 'Imaginal Prefiguration'. In Study 2 we performed a confirmatory factor analysis which provided support for this two factor solution, with both factors achieving adequate internal consistency. Divergent validity was also established through correlation analyses. In Study 3 the temporal stability of the DTQ was examined and confirmed. Finally, in Study 4, the predictive validity of the DTQ in a sample of alcohol abusers was investigated. The DTQ was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as divergent and predictive validity. This self-report measure may aid future research into desire thinking and craving, as well as facilitate assessment and case formulation within the context of addictive, eating and impulse control disorders.

  6. Chameleon Effects in Homework Research: The Homework-Achievement Association Depends on the Measures Used and the Level of Analysis Chosen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Schnyder, Inge; Niggli, Alois; Neumann, Marko; Ludtke, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Using a data set specifically tailored to homework research, with a sample of 1275 students from 70 classes in Switzerland, the association between homework and achievement in French as a second language was tested at three levels (class level, between-student level, and within-student level). The strength and direction of the homework-achievement…

  7. Achievable capacity improvement by using multi-level modulation format in trench-assisted multi-core fiber system.

    PubMed

    Chang, J H; Choi, H G; Chung, Y C

    2013-06-17

    We evaluate the impacts of using multi-level modulation formats on the transmission capacity of the multi-core fiber (MCF) having trench-assisted index profile and hexagonal layout. For this evaluation, we utilize the spectral efficiency per unit area, defined as the spatial spectral efficiency (SSE). The results show that the SSE improvement achievable by using the higher-level modulation format can be reduced due to its lower tolerance to the inter-core crosstalk. We also evaluate the effects of using large effective area on the transmission capacity of the trench-assisted MCF. The results show that the use of large effective area can decrease this capacity due to the increased inter-core crosstalk and lengthened cable cutoff wavelength, although it can help increase the transmission distance. Thus, it is necessary to optimize the effective area of MCF by considering both the SSE and transmission distance. However, the results indicate that the effect of using different effective areas on the SSE-distance product is not significant, and it is not useful to increase the effective area of the trench-assisted MCF to be larger than ~110 μm(2).

  8. Variables that predict academic achievement in the Spanish compulsory secondary educational system: a longitudinal, multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Martín, Elena; Martínez-Arias, Rosario; Marchesi, Alvaro; Pérez, Eva M

    2008-11-01

    This article presents a study whose objective was to identify certain personal and institutional variables that are associated with academic achievement among Spanish, secondary school students, and to analyze their influence on the progress of those students over the course of that stage of their education. In order to do this, a longitudinal, multi-level study was conducted in which a total of 965 students and 27 different schools were evaluated in Language, Math and Social Science at three different times (beginning, middle and end of the period). The results show progress in all the schools and in all areas. As for the personal, student variables, the longitudinal, HLM analyses confirmed the importance of sex and sociocultural background and, distinguishing it from other studies, also the predictive capacity of meta-cognitive abilities and learning strategies on success in school. On the institutional level, the school climate and teachers' expectations of their students were the most relevant of the variables studied. The size of the school, the percentage of students who repeat grades, and the leadership of the administration also explained a portion of the variance in some areas.

  9. Using School-Level Student Achievement to Engage in Formative Evaluation: Comparative School-Level Rates of Oral Reading Fluency Growth Conditioned by Initial Skill for Second Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Kelli D.; Stoolmiller, Michael L.; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Kame'enui, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for data-based decision making at the school level using student achievement data. We demonstrate the potential of a national assessment database [i.e., the University of Oregon DIBELS Data System (DDS)] to provide comparative levels of school-level data on average student achievement gains. Through the DDS as a data source,…

  10. Health physics manual of good practices for reducing radiation exposure to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    SciTech Connect

    Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Kathren,., R.L.; Merwin, S.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1988-06-01

    A primary objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) health physics and radiation protection program has been to limit radiation exposures to those levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). As a result, the ALARA concept developed into a program and a set of operational principles to ensure that the objective was consistently met. Implementation of these principles required that a guide be produced. The original ALARA guide was issued by DOE in 1980 to promote improved understanding of ALARA concepts within the DOE community and to assist those responsible for operational ALARA activities in attaining their goals. Since 1980, additional guidance has been published by national and international organizations to provide further definition and clarification to ALARA concepts. As basic ALARA experience increased, the value and role of the original guide prompted the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) to support a current revision. The revised manual of good practices includes six sections: 1.0 Introduction, 2.0 Administration, 3.0 Optimization, 4.0 Setting and Evaluating ALARA Goals, 5.0 Radiological Design, and 6.0 Conduct of Operations. The manual is directed primarily to contractor and DOE staff who are responsible for conduct and overview of radiation protection and ALARA programs at DOE facilities. The intent is to provide sufficient guidance such that the manual, if followed, will ensure that radiation exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable and will establish the basis for a formally structured and auditable program. 118 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. A Comparison of Performance in Solving Arithmetical Word Problems by Children with Different Levels of Achievement in Mathematics and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikeras, Elin K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Performance in consistent arithmetical word problems was assessed in 941 pupils aged eight (N = 415), ten (N = 274), and thirteen (N = 252) classified in four achievement groups by standardised achievement tests: low achievement in both mathematics and reading (MLRL), in mathematics only (ML-only), in reading only (RL-only), and normal achievement…

  12. Self-Regulated Learning and Motivation Belief Differences among Gifted and Non-Gifted Middle School Students across Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogrebe, Jaclyn M.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examined self-regulated learning (SRL) and motivation beliefs (i.e., self-efficacy, perceived responsibility) across ability (i.e., gifted, advanced, average) and achievement groups (i.e., high achievers, low achievers) in a sample of 135 suburban middle school students (i.e., fifth and sixth grade). In order to expand upon…

  13. Sexual Desire and Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Boozalis, Amanda; Tutlam, Nhial T.; Robbins, Camaryn Chrisman; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of hormonal contraception on sexual desire. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1,938 of the 9,256 participants enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. This subset included participants enrolled between April and September 2011 who completed a baseline and six-month telephone survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between contraceptive method and report of lacking interest in sex, controlling for potential confounding variables. Results More than one in five participants (23.9%) reported lacking interest in sex at 6 months after initiating a new contraceptive method. Of 262 copper IUD users (referent group), 18.3% reported lacking interest in sex. Our primary outcome was more prevalent in women who are young (<18 years: adjusted odds ratio (ORadj)=2.04), black (ORadj=1.78), and married or living with a partner (ORadj=1.82). Compared to copper IUD users, participants using depot medroxyprogesterone (ORadj=2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.47-4.61), the vaginal ring (ORadj=2.53, 95% CI=1.37-4.69), and the implant (ORadj=1.60, 95% CI=1.03-2.49) more commonly reported lack of interest in sex. We found no association between use of the hormonal IUD, oral contraceptive pill, and patch and lack of interest in sex. Conclusion CHOICE participants using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, the contraceptive ring, and implant were more likely to report a lack of interest in sex compared to copper IUD users. Future research should confirm these findings and their possible physiological basis. Clinicians should be reassured that most women do not experience reduced sex drive with the use of most contraceptive methods. PMID:26855094

  14. Images of desire: cognitive models of craving.

    PubMed

    May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Panabokke, Nathalie; Kavanagh, David

    2004-07-01

    Cognitive modelling of phenomena in clinical practice allows the operationalization of otherwise diffuse descriptive terms such as craving or flashbacks. This supports the empirical investigation of the clinical phenomena and the development of targeted treatment interventions. This paper focuses on the cognitive processes underpinning craving, which is recognised as a motivating experience in substance dependence. We use a high-level cognitive architecture, Interacting Cognitive Subsystems (ICS), to compare two theories of craving: Tiffany's theory, centred on the control of automated action schemata, and our own Elaborated Intrusion theory of craving. Data from a questionnaire study of the subjective aspects of everyday desires experienced by a large non-clinical population are presented. Both the data and the high-level modelling support the central claim of the Elaborated Intrusion theory that imagery is a key element of craving, providing the subjective experience and mediating much of the associated disruption of concurrent cognition.

  15. Development of low-pH cements for immobilisation of intermediate level radioactive waste: achievements and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Martins de Freitas, Regeane; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2013-07-01

    Although cementation is a widely recognized solidification/ stabilization process for immobilisation of Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (ILRW), the low resistance to hyper-alkaline pore waters compromises the effectiveness of the process when Portland Cement (PC) is employed. Moreover the manufacture of PC is responsible for significant CO{sub 2} emissions. In this context, low pH cements are environmentally more suitable and have emerged as a potential alternative for obtaining secure waste forms. This paper summarises the achievements on development of low-pH cements and the challenges of using these new materials for the ILRW immobilisation. The performance of waste forms is also discussed in terms of radionuclides release. Reactive magnesium oxide and magnesium phosphate cements are emphasised as they feature important advantages such as consumption of available constituents for controlling acid-base reactions, reduced permeability and higher density. Additionally, in order to identify new opportunities for study, the long-term modelling approach is also briefly discussed. (authors)

  16. Pleasure/Desire, Sexularism and Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Louise

    2012-01-01

    Pleasure and desire have been important components of researchers' vision for sexuality education for over 20 years, a trend inspired by Michelle Fine's seminal paper, "Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire." This essay considers how discourses related to pleasure and desire have been taken up in the USA and…

  17. [How does summer affect sexual desire?].

    PubMed

    Kontula, Osmo; Väisälä, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Sexual desire involves many different things such as sexual thoughts and images, excitement, expectation and orgasm. Mood has a strong association with sexual desire. Fatigue and depression in particular cause lack of sexual desire. By affecting the state of alertness and energy in humans, sunlight may increase sexual activity.

  18. The Effects of Performance Objectives on the Achievement Level of Selected Eighth-Grade Science Pupils in Four Predominantly Black Inner City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Napoleon, Jr.

    Reported is a study to determine the effects of performance objectives on the achievement level of low achieving science pupils in four predominantly black inner city schools. Six teachers and 210 pupils were involved in the study. Three teachers were trained to develop and use performance objectives as an instructional technique. Pedagogical…

  19. Examining the Effects of General Level Course Elimination and Tracking on Student Growth and Achievement in a Suburban High School Mathematics Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a decade of reform driven by the NCLB legislation, there continues to be a significant gap in mathematics achievement between race/ethnicity and socioeconomic groupings of students. This study examines the practice of tracking and an effort to improve mathematics achievement by eliminating the general level mathematics track. The suburban…

  20. The Effects of School-Based Parental Involvement on Academic Achievement at the Child and Elementary School Level: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sira; Holloway, Susan D.

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers view parental involvement (PI) as a crucial component of school reform efforts, but evidence of its effect on student achievement is equivocal. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort dataset, we examined the long-term impact on student- and school-level achievement of three types of school-based PI: PI to…

  1. Sexual desire, distress, and associated factors in premenopausal women: preliminary findings from the hypoactive sexual desire disorder registry for women.

    PubMed

    Connor, Megan K; Maserejian, Nancy N; De Rogatis, Leonard; Meston, Cindy M; Gerstenberger, Eric P; Rosen, Raymond C

    2011-01-01

    This article presents data from a validation sample of 390 premenopausal women clinically diagnosed with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) enrolled in the HSDD Registry for Women. Participants completed validated measures of sexual distress (e.g., Female Sexual Distress Scale Revised, Question 13) and sexual function including desire (e.g., Female Sexual Function Index). Results showed that lower levels of desire in these women were associated with diminished sexual satisfaction, increased sexually related distress, and fatigue or stress in the women's lives. In addition, the level of distress related to sexual desire decreased with age. The authors conclude that even among women with clinically diagnosed HSDD, the level of sexually related distress varies with situational factors, such as stress and fatigue.

  2. The effect of retesting on end-of-semester performance in high school chemistry at three levels of previous science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deboer, George E.

    To determine the effect of retesting on student learning in chemistry, three questions were addressed by means of a 3 × 2 (achievement level X treatment) factorial design: (1) Does retesting affect differently the end-of-semester mastery of course objectives of students who are grouped according to their previous achievement in science? (2) Do students who are given an opportunity to take retests merely delay their studying and perform at a lower level on initial tests than nonretested students? (3) Is the procrastination of retested students (if it exists) affected by their achievement level? The results showed that for one of four units low ability students who were retested demonstrated greater learning gains than low ability students who were not retested, and that procrastination, if it was present, did not have significant effects on student learning at any achievement level. Results were discussed in terms of the students' room for improvement, motivation to improve, and ability to improve.

  3. The pathophysiology of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Anita H

    2010-07-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is defined as a deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity that causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. The dysfunction cannot be better accounted for by another psychiatric disorder (except another sexual dysfunction) and must not be due exclusively to the physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. HSDD occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women in the USA and its prevalence appears to be similar in Europe. A number of potential causative and contributory factors to low sexual desire have been identified, reflecting the interplay among hormonal, neurobiological, and psychosocial factors. One theory is that sexual desire is controlled in the brain by a balance between inhibitory and excitatory factors. In general, dopamine, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone play an excitatory role in sexual desire, whereas serotonin, prolactin, and opioids play an inhibitory role. It is hypothesized that decreased sexual desire may be due to a reduced level of excitatory activity, an increased level of inhibitory activity, or both. A greater understanding of the complex pathophysiology of HSDD would improve the identification and management of women for whom low sexual desire is a concern.

  4. The Effects of Cooperative and Individualistic Learning Structures on Achievement in a College-Level Computer-Aided Drafting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swab, A. Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study of cooperative learning in post-secondary engineering education investigated achievement of engineering students enrolled in two intact sections of a computer-aided drafting (CAD) course. Quasi-experimental and qualitative methods were employed in comparing student achievement resulting from out-of-class cooperative and individualistic…

  5. Virtual, on-line, frog dissection vs. conventional laboratory dissection: A comparison of student achievement and teacher perceptions among honors, general ability, and foundations-level high school biology classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopec, Ronald H.

    2002-09-01

    Dissecting animal specimens has long been a tradition in biology classes. Objections by students, based on religious or ethical grounds, have been raised regarding the dissections of animals in classroom laboratories. A number of states now have legal proceedings or statewide policies requiring that alternatives to the actual dissection of laboratory animal specimens be permitted in their school districts. Alternatives to actual dissections have been developed in recent years. For a variety of reasons, performing an actual or conventional animal dissection may not be a desirable option. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a virtual On-line frog dissection compares with an actual laboratory dissection. What were the perceptions of the teacher's using it? How does student achievement compare among three the different ability levels on a pre and posttest regarding basic frog anatomy? Is a virtual On-line dissection a suitable alternative for students who, for whatever reason, do not participate in the actual laboratory experience? The subjects consisted of 218 biology students among three different ability levels, in a Northeastern suburban high school. Approximately half of the student groups participated in a virtual On-line dissection, the other half in an actual laboratory dissection. A pretest of basic frog anatomy was administered to the students two days before and the posttest one day after their dissection experience. Data were analyzed using matched pairs t-Tests, Analysis of Variance, Tukey HSD, and Squared Curvilinear Coefficients. Survey questionnaires were administered to the teachers after the dissection experiences were completed. There were no significant differences found in achievement between the virtual and conventional dissection groups. There were significant differences found in achievement score means among the three ability levels. There was no significant interaction between gender and achievement. Perceptions of the teacher

  6. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Rescues Gene Knockout Levels Achieved with Integrase-Defective Lentiviral Vectors Encoding Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Pelascini, Laetitia P.L.; Maggio, Ignazio; Liu, Jin; Holkers, Maarten; Cathomen, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) work as dimers to induce double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at predefined chromosomal positions. In doing so, they constitute powerful triggers to edit and to interrogate the function of genomic sequences in higher eukaryotes. A preferred route to introduce ZFNs into somatic cells relies on their cotransduction with two integrase-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) each encoding a monomer of a functional heterodimeric pair. The episomal nature of IDLVs diminishes the risk of genotoxicity and ensures the strict transient expression profile necessary to minimize deleterious effects associated with long-term ZFN activity. However, by deploying IDLVs and conventional lentiviral vectors encoding HPRT1- or eGFP-specific ZFNs, we report that DSB formation at target alleles is limited after IDLV-mediated ZFN transfer. This IDLV-specific underperformance stems, to a great extent, from the activity of chromatin-remodeling histone deacetylases (HDACs). Importantly, the prototypic and U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved inhibitors of metal-dependent HDACs, trichostatin A and vorinostat, respectively, did not hinder illegitimate recombination-mediated repair of targeted chromosomal DSBs. This allowed rescuing IDLV-mediated site-directed mutagenesis to levels approaching those achieved by using their isogenic chromosomally integrating counterparts. Hence, HDAC inhibition constitutes an efficacious expedient to incorporate in genome-editing strategies based on transient IDLV-mediated ZFN expression. Finally, we compared two of the most commonly used readout systems to measure targeted gene knockout activities based on restriction and mismatch-sensitive endonucleases. These experiments indicate that these enzymatic assays display a similar performance. PMID:24059449

  7. A technique to determine a desired preparation axial inclination.

    PubMed

    Parker, M Harry; Ivanhoe, John R; Blalock, John S; Frazier, Kevin B; Plummer, Kevin D

    2003-10-01

    The guidelines recommended in the literature for the convergence angle of a crown preparation vary from 3 to 24 degrees. There is a lack of guidelines on techniques to achieve a specific axial inclination. The purpose of this article was to present a practical technique, with a diamond rotary cutting instrument of known axial inclination, to determine the diamond rotary cutting instrument angulations required to achieve the desired axial inclination of a preparation.

  8. Desire on and off the couch.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2013-03-01

    The concept of desire is potentially useful and underutilized for elucidating and understanding psychoanalytic material and informing psychoanalytic technique. It can be employed as a lens for viewing and clarifying diverse clinical phenomenon and other mental productions. One way of defining desire as a conceptual framework as applied to psychoanalytic theory is to refract it into three components: (1) love (emotional desire), (2) sex (physical desire), and (3) passion (other manifestations of desire). These different aspects of desire are manifest in and of themselves and as enhancements of one another. Focusing on each of them as manifest in the transference/countertransference relationship in analysis can facilitate a patient becoming more aware of psychological conflicts and working them through in analysis. This paper presents and discusses a case study in which these different aspects of desire are employed and analyzed.

  9. Temperament and Personality: A Mute Struggle for Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behjat, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    There has always been dissatisfaction by language teachers who observe different levels of achievement with students attending the same language class and taking the same instruction. This variation in attaining the desired level of proficiency can be caused by the learners' personality types. The present study was an attempt to explore the degree…

  10. Depression and sexual desire: an exploratory study in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Mário; Azevedo, Leandra Pinheiro; Gouveia, José Luís

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to study the relation between depression and its effect on the sexual desire in psychiatric patients. The sample comprised 89 patients from the Psychiatric and Mental Health Department of Alto Ave's Hospital Center, Entidade Publica Empresarial. The obtained results in this exploratory study revealed that depressive symptomatology severity is directly related with sexual desire. Variables gender, age, and working status, as well as, sociocultural levels indicated important and significant differences between patients.

  11. Systemic Administration of Glibenclamide Fails to Achieve Therapeutic Levels in the Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Lahmann, Carolina; Kramer, Holger B.; Ashcroft, Frances M.

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations in the Kir6.2 (KCNJ11) subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel cause neonatal diabetes (ND). Patients with severe mutations also suffer from neurological complications. Glibenclamide blocks the open KATP channels and is the treatment of choice for ND. However, although glibenclamide successfully restores normoglycaemia, it has a far more limited effect on the neurological problems. To assess the extent to which glibenclamide crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo, we quantified glibenclamide concentrations in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain tissue of rats, control mice, and mice expressing a human neonatal diabetes mutation (Kir6.2-V59M) selectively in neurones (nV59M mice). As only small sample volumes can be obtained from rodents, we developed a highly sensitive method of analysis, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry acquisition with pseudo-selected reaction monitoring, achieving a quantification limit of 10ng/ml (20nM) glibenclamide in a 30μl sample. Glibenclamide was not detectable in the CSF or brain of rats after implantation with subcutaneous glibenclamide pellets, despite high plasma concentrations. Further, one hour after a suprapharmacological glibenclamide dose was administered directly into the lateral ventricle of the brain, the plasma concentration was twice that of the CSF. This suggests the drug is rapidly exported from the CSF. Elacridar, an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (major multidrug resistance transporters at the BBB), did not affect glibenclamide levels in CSF and brain tissue. We also identified a reduced sensitivity to volatile anaesthetics in nV59M mice and showed this was not reversed by systemic delivery of glibenclamide. Our results therefore suggest that little glibenclamide reaches the central nervous system when given systemically, that glibenclamide is rapidly removed across the BBB when given intracranioventricularly, and that any

  12. Relationship Between Locus of Control Scores and Reading Achievement of Black and White Second Grade Children from Two Socio-Economic Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ralph L.; Uhl, Norman P.

    This study investigates the effect of socio-economic level (lower and upper-middle), race (black and white), and sex on locus of control of reinforcement scores, and the relationship between the latter scores and reading achievement in a sample of 211 second grade children. A stratified random sampling technique insured adequate levels of each…

  13. Estimating Causal Effects of Teacher-Child Relationships on Reading and Math Achievement in a High-Risk Sample: A Multi-Level Propensity Score Matching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; O'Connor, Erin E.; Cappella, Elise; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2013-01-01

    A robust body of research has identified associations between positive teacher-child relationships--characterized by high levels of closeness and low levels of conflict--and children's academic achievement in elementary school (e.g. Roorda, 2012). Additional studies find that high-quality teacher-child relationships may promote academic resilience…

  14. Low sexual desire--is it all in her head? Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Simon, James A

    2010-11-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is thought to be the most prevalent form of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), affecting up to 1 in 10 US women. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) as persistent or recurrent deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and thoughts, and/or desire for, or receptivity to, sexual activity, which causes personal distress or interpersonal difficulties and is not caused by a medical condition or drug. This definition has recently received criticism and recommendations for changes encompass the inclusion of duration, intensity, and frequency, and the elimination of distress as a diagnostic criterion. More recently, it has been suggested that arousal and desire be combined into one disorder for the upcoming DSM-V. Causes of low desire include chronic medical conditions, medications, surgeries, and psychosocial factors, but not necessarily increased age; both pre- and postmenopausal women can have HSDD, although the frequency appears to vary by age. Sexual function requires the complex interaction of multiple neurotransmitters and hormones, both centrally and peripherally, and sexual desire is considered the result of a complex balance between inhibitory and excitatory pathways in the brain. For example, dopamine, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone play an excitatory role, whereas serotonin and prolactin are inhibitory. Thus, decreased sexual desire could be due to a reduced level of excitatory activity, an increased level of inhibitory activity, or both. A number of validated self-report and clinician-administered instruments are available for assessing female sexual function; however, most have been used primarily in clinical research trials. The Decreased Sexual Desire Screener (DSDS) was developed for practicing clinicians who are neither trained nor specialized in FSD to assist in making an accurate diagnosis of

  15. Grating image with desired shaped dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Hideaki; Toda, Toshiki; Takahashi, Susumu; Sawamura, Chikara; Iwata, Fujio

    2000-03-01

    A new type of Grating Image we dominate as `Sparklegram' is presented. The Sparklegram is characterized because it provides high quality and better design flexibility. These features are achieved by constructing it with shaped dots as desired. Each dot can be designed as an individual shape, for example, a star or a triangle. As dot shapes, we can use not only geometric patterns, but also some kind of symbols. Not only flexibility of each consists dot shape, but also the quality of reconstructed image is remarkably increased too. Because of these features, the constructed image with the new type of Grating Image, Sparklegram has high quality and high flexibility. It can be applied to security use, for example on credit-cards, tickets, etc., and also can be applied to the package of software products, CDs, videos and other kind of items requiring security. And with these features of flexibility and high quality, Sparklegram has also advantages to be applied to other use, for example amusement use, comics and game characters' goods and packages.

  16. Levels of Achievement: A Review of the Assessment of Practice. Researching Professional Education. Research Reports Series Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrish, Kate; McManus, Mike; Ashworth, Peter

    Assessment of practice at diploma, degree, and postgraduate levels in nursing and midwifery education in Britain was the focus of a research study. Key issues from a critical review of literature on the assessment of theory and practice at different academic levels were as follows: lack of clarity in defining "levels"; inconsistencies in…

  17. Effects of Multiple Intelligences Supported Project-Based Learning on Students' Achievement Levels and Attitudes towards English Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Gökhan; Beyhan, Ömer

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of multiple intelligences supported project-based learning and traditional foreign language-teaching environment on students' achievement and their attitude towards English lesson. The research was carried out in 2009-2010 education-instruction year in Karatli Sehit Sahin Yilmaz Elementary…

  18. What Is the Predict Level of Which Computer Using Skills Measured in PISA for Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziya, Engin; Dogan, Nuri; Kelecioglu, Hulya

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at determining the extent to which computer using skills specified in Project for International Students Evaluation (PISA) 2006 predict Turkish students' achievement in mathematics. Apart from questions on mathematics, science and reading competencies, a student questionnaire, a school questionnaire and a parent questionnaire were…

  19. The Effect of Computer Based Instructional Technique for the Learning of Elementary Level Mathematics among High, Average and Low Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afzal, Muhammad Tanveer; Gondal, Bashir; Fatima, Nuzhat

    2014-01-01

    The major objective of the study was to elicit the effect of three instructional methods for teaching of mathematics on low, average and high achiever elementary school students. Three methods: traditional instructional method, computer assisted instruction (CAI) and teacher facilitated mathematics learning software were employed for the teaching…

  20. The Relationship between Grade-Level Team Implementation of Professional Learning Communities and Student Achievement in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesar, Peter V.

    2013-01-01

    With changing academic standards, more rigorous state assessments, growing diversity among student populations, decreased school funding, and high achievement expectations from the state and federal government, teachers have a very challenging and demanding job. Fully aware of these high expectations from the education community, school leaders…

  1. Examining the Relationships among Classroom Climate, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement in Undergraduate Mathematics: A Multi-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, leaders in American industry, military, education, and politics have focused considerable attention on STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education. Given the increased societal demand for STEM careers, the relationships among classroom climate, self-efficacy, and achievement in undergraduate mathematics…

  2. A Comparison of the Achievement Levels of Eighth Graders from One Parent Homes with Those from Two-Parent Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dollie Walton

    This study tested whether a significant difference exists between academic performance scores of eighth grade students from one-parent homes and those from two-parent homes in the areas of reading, mathematics, science, social studies, and English. School records pertaining to academic achievement, and free-lunch applications were used to collect…

  3. Primary Teacher Literacy Preparation and Practices in New York State Elementary Schools at Diverse Levels of Achievement and Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterne, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the issues of elementary teacher preparation for teaching literacy and teacher preparation for teaching literacy to diverse populations. This study contrasted primary teachers' literacy preparation and practice in high, middle, and low achieving and high, average, and low need schools in New York State.…

  4. Achievement Levels of Middle School Students in the Standardized Science and Technology Exam and Formative Assessment Probes: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Bulunuz, Mizrap; Karagoz, Funda; Tavsanli, Omer Faruk

    2016-01-01

    The present study has two aims. Firstly, it aims to determine eighth grade students' conceptual understanding of floating and sinking through formative assessment probes. Secondly, it aims to determine whether or not there is a significant difference between students' performance in formative assessment probes and their achievement in the…

  5. Relationships among Teacher and Pupil Self-Concept and Pupil Reading Achievement at the First Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, Verna Lee

    Relationships among teacher and pupil self-concepts and pupil reading achievement were investigated in a sample of 239 first-grade pupils and the 17 teachers assigned to them. Results from pretesting and posttesting indicated that a positive relationship existed among changes in certain elements of pupil self-concept (self-acceptance, social…

  6. Effects of Reflective Inquiry Instructional Technique on Students' Academic Achievement and Ability Level in Electronic Work Trade in Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbuanya, T. C.; Owodunni, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of reflective inquiry instructional technique on achievement of students in Technical Colleges. The study adopted a pre-test, post-test, non-equivalent control group, quasi-experimental research design which involved groups of students in their intact class assigned to experimental group and control…

  7. Influence of Student Beliefs about Nature of School Mathematics on Their Achievement at Secondary Level in Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Sarabi, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    This study probes students' beliefs about nature of mathematics, difficulty in learning mathematics sourcing from these and their influence on achievement in mathematics. Questionnaire survey on 458, 9th standard students randomly selected from schools of Malappuram district elicited data on nature of school mathematics and difficulty arising out…

  8. Comparative vs. Absolute Judgments of Trait Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstee, Willem K. B.

    1970-01-01

    Reversals of trait desirability are studied. Terms indicating conservativw behavior appeared to be judged relatively desirable in comparative judgement, while traits indicating dynamic and expansive behavior benefited from absolute judgement. The reversal effect was shown to be a general one, i.e. reversals were not dependent upon the specific…

  9. Predictors and grade level trends of school day physical activity achievement in low-income children from the U.S.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fang, Yi; Myrer, Rachel S; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of recommended levels (≥ 30 min/day) of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is paramount to decrease risk of chronic disease in children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and grade-level trends of school day MVPA achievement in low-income children. Data were collected during the Fall of 2014 on 1232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys) recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Children wore pedometers for one school week and a stratified random subsample (n = 533) also wore accelerometers to record sedentary time and MVPA. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to calculate odds ratios for achieving school MVPA standards (≥ 30 min/day) from various predictors and to determine odds of achievement across grade levels, accounting for school and classroom clustering. Odds of meeting MVPA standards were 3 times greater if a student achieved at least 6000 steps during the school day (p < 0.01), and were 55% lower for every 1% increase in sedentary time (p < 0.001). Older children had 26% lower odds of meeting the recommended levels of MVPA compared to children in an immediately younger grade level (p < 0.05). A significant proportion of MVPA variance was explained by classroom and school affiliation (Rho = 0.09 to 0.54, p < 0.001). Daily steps, sedentary times, grade level, and classroom and school affiliation associate with school MVPA achievement in low-income children.

  10. Predictors and grade level trends of school day physical activity achievement in low-income children from the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Ryan D.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Fang, Yi; Myrer, Rachel S.; Fu, You; Hannon, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of recommended levels (≥ 30 min/day) of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is paramount to decrease risk of chronic disease in children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and grade-level trends of school day MVPA achievement in low-income children. Data were collected during the Fall of 2014 on 1232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys) recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Children wore pedometers for one school week and a stratified random subsample (n = 533) also wore accelerometers to record sedentary time and MVPA. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to calculate odds ratios for achieving school MVPA standards (≥ 30 min/day) from various predictors and to determine odds of achievement across grade levels, accounting for school and classroom clustering. Odds of meeting MVPA standards were 3 times greater if a student achieved at least 6000 steps during the school day (p < 0.01), and were 55% lower for every 1% increase in sedentary time (p < 0.001). Older children had 26% lower odds of meeting the recommended levels of MVPA compared to children in an immediately younger grade level (p < 0.05). A significant proportion of MVPA variance was explained by classroom and school affiliation (Rho = 0.09 to 0.54, p < 0.001). Daily steps, sedentary times, grade level, and classroom and school affiliation associate with school MVPA achievement in low-income children. PMID:26844162

  11. Object of desire self-consciousness theory.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Brotto, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the construct of object of desire self-consciousness, the perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. The authors discuss the nature of the construct, variations in its expression, and how it may function as part of a self-schemata or script related to romance and sexuality. The authors suggest that object of desire self-consciousness may be an adaptive, evolved psychological mechanism allowing sexual and romantic tactics suitable to one's mate value. The authors also suggest that it can act as a signal that one has high mate value in the sexual marketplace. The authors then review literature (e.g., on fantasies, on sexual activity preferences, on sexual dysfunctions, on language) suggesting that object of desire self-consciousness plays a particularly important role in heterosexual women's sexual/romantic functioning and desires.

  12. Currently used dosage regimens of vancomycin fail to achieve therapeutic levels in approximately 40% of intensive care unit patients

    PubMed Central

    Obara, Vitor Yuzo; Zacas, Carolina Petrus; Carrilho, Claudia Maria Dantas de Maio; Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess whether currently used dosages of vancomycin for treatment of serious gram-positive bacterial infections in intensive care unit patients provided initial therapeutic vancomycin trough levels and to examine possible factors associated with the presence of adequate initial vancomycin trough levels in these patients. Methods A prospective descriptive study with convenience sampling was performed. Nursing note and medical record data were collected from September 2013 to July 2014 for patients who met inclusion criteria. Eighty-three patients were included. Initial vancomycin trough levels were obtained immediately before vancomycin fourth dose. Acute kidney injury was defined as an increase of at least 0.3mg/dL in serum creatinine within 48 hours. Results Considering vancomycin trough levels recommended for serious gram-positive infection treatment (15 - 20µg/mL), patients were categorized as presenting with low, adequate, and high vancomycin trough levels (35 [42.2%], 18 [21.7%], and 30 [36.1%] patients, respectively). Acute kidney injury patients had significantly greater vancomycin trough levels (p = 0.0055, with significance for a trend, p = 0.0023). Conclusion Surprisingly, more than 40% of the patients did not reach an effective initial vancomycin trough level. Studies on pharmacokinetic and dosage regimens of vancomycin in intensive care unit patients are necessary to circumvent this high proportion of failures to obtain adequate initial vancomycin trough levels. Vancomycin use without trough serum level monitoring in critically ill patients should be discouraged. PMID:28099635

  13. Emotional intelligence as a predictor of self-efficacy among students with different levels of academic achievement at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    GHARETEPEH, AMENEH; SAFARI, YAHYA; PASHAEI, TAHEREH; RAZAEI, MANSOUR; BAGHER KAJBAF, MOHAMMAD

    2015-01-01

    Introduction studies have indicated that emotional intelligence is positively related to self-efficacy and can predict the academic achievement. The present study aimed to investigate the role of emotional intelligence in identifying self-efficacy among the students of Public Health School with different levels of academic achievement. Methods This correlational study was conducted on all the students of Public Health School. 129 students were included in the study through census method. Data were collected using Emotional Intelligence and self-efficacy questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis by SPSS 14. Results The average score of students with high academic achievement was higher in self-efficacy (39.78±5.82) and emotional intelligence (117.07±10.33) variables and their components than that of students with low academic achievement (39.17±5.91, 112.07±13.23). The overall emotional intelligence score to predict self-efficacy explanation was different among students with different levels of academic achievement (p<0.001). Self-efficacy structure was explained through self-awareness and self-motivation components in students with low academic achievement (r=0.571). In students with high academic achievement, self-awareness, self-motivation and social consciousness played an effective role in explaining self-efficacy (r=0.677, p<0.001). Conclusion Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy play an important role in achieving academic success and emotional intelligence can explain self-efficacy. Therefore, it is recommended to teach emotional intelligence skills to students with low academic achievement through training workshops. PMID:25927067

  14. Use of allopurinol with low-dose 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease to achieve optimal active metabolite levels: A review of four cases and the literature

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Todd N; Ginsberg, Allen L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At least one-third of patients with inflammatory bowel disease do not respond or are intolerant to therapy with 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). A subgroup fails to attain optimal levels of 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) and instead shunts to 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotide (6-MMPN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted, and four patients are described who had been previously unable to achieve optimal 6-TGN metabolite levels until allopurinol was added to their treatment. RESULTS: All four patients achieved optimal 6-TGN levels and undetectable 6-MMPN with a mean 6-MP dose of 0.49 mg/kg. Three achieved steroid-free clinical remission. Two of those three patients had normalization of liver enzymes; one patient had baseline normal liver enzymes despite an initial 6-MMPN level of 27,369 pmol/8×108 red blood cells. Two patients experienced reversible leukopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Combination allopurinol and low-dose 6-MP is an effective means to achieve optimal metabolite levels and steroid-free clinical remission in previously refractory patients. Caution is advised. PMID:18299738

  15. Clinical Information System Services and Capabilities Desired for Scalable, Standards-Based, Service-oriented Decision Support: Consensus Assessment of the Health Level 7 Clinical Decision Support Work Group

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Jacobs, Jason; Welch, Brandon M.; Huser, Vojtech; Paterno, Marilyn D.; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Shields, David; Strasberg, Howard R.; Haug, Peter J.; Liu, Zhijing; Jenders, Robert A.; Rowed, David W.; Chertcoff, Daryl; Fehre, Karsten; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Curtis, A. Clayton

    2012-01-01

    A standards-based, service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support (CDS) has the potential to significantly enhance CDS scalability and robustness. To enable such a CDS architecture, the Health Level 7 CDS Work Group reviewed the literature, hosted multi-stakeholder discussions, and consulted domain experts to identify and prioritize the services and capabilities required from clinical information systems (CISs) to enable service-oriented CDS. In addition, relevant available standards were identified. Through this process, ten CIS services and eight CIS capabilities were identified as being important for enabling scalable, service-oriented CDS. In particular, through a survey of 46 domain experts, five services and capabilities were identified as being especially critical: 1) the use of standard information models and terminologies; 2) the ability to leverage a Decision Support Service (DSS); 3) support for a clinical data query service; 4) support for an event subscription and notification service; and 5) support for a user communication service. PMID:23304315

  16. An Effect of Levels of Learning Ability and Types of Feedback in Electronic Portfolio on Learning Achievement of Students in Electronic Media Production for Education Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koraneekij, Prakob

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study an effect of levels of learning ability and types of feedback in an electronic portfolio on learning achievement of students in electronic media production for education subject. The samples were 113 students registered in Electronic Media Production for Education Subject divided into 6 groups : 3 control…

  17. The Relation between Finnish University Students' Perceived Level of Study-Related Burnout, Perceptions of the Teaching-Learning Environment and Perceived Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriläinen, Matti; Kuittinen, Matti

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relation between university students' perceived level of study-related burnout (SRB) and their perceptions of the teaching-learning environment (TLE), as well as their perceived achievement motivation (AM). The data are based on a survey of nine Finnish universities in the spring of 2009. Altogether, 3035 university…

  18. Relations among Academic Enablers and Academic Achievement in Children with and without High Levels of Parent-Rated Symptoms of Inattention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among academic enablers (i.e., engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, study skills) and academic achievement in children with and without high levels of parent-rated symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity (Symptoms of IIH Group). The study included 69 participants (29 [42%] in the IIH…

  19. Achieved Level of Living in a Mississippi Delta County: A Step-wise Multiple Regression Model with Emphasis on Race and Related Background Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, John L.

    Washington County, Mississippi was selected as the site for this study because it manifested many of the rural social problems of the larger 11 county Yazoo Mississippi Delta region. During the spring of 1971 a sample of 418 males, 45 years of age and younger, were interviewed to investigate achieved level of living. The sample was about evenly…

  20. Using Eye Tracking to Observe Differential Effects of Repeated Readings for Second-grade Students as a Function of Achievement Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawoyski, Andrea M.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Binder, Katherine S.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated readings (RR) is an evidence-based instructional technique in which students read the same text multiple times. Currently, little is known about how effects of RR may differ based on students' achievement levels. Eye tracking provides a means for closely examining instructional effects because it permits measurement of subtle changes that…

  1. Impact of a Career Intervention on At-Risk Middle School Students' Career Maturity Levels, Academic Achievement, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legum, Harry L.; Hoare, Carol H.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 9-week career intervention program on at-risk middle school students' career maturity levels, self-esteem, and academic achievement. This study was based on a pretest and posttest design using a control group. Data were collected from 27 at-risk middle school students representing the…

  2. The Effect of Grouping by Formal Reasoning Ability, Formal Reasoning Ability Levels, Group Size, and Gender on Achievement in Laboratory Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Judith D.; Gifford, Vernon D.

    This study investigated the grouping effect on student achievement in a chemistry laboratory when homogeneous and heterogeneous formal reasoning ability, high and low levels of formal reasoning ability, group sizes of two and four, and homogeneous and heterogeneous gender were used for grouping factors. The sample consisted of all eight intact…

  3. The Investigation of the Relationship between the Level of Metacognitive Awareness, Self-Directed Learning Readiness and Academic Achievement of Preschool Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagal, Asude Balaban; Bayindir, Dilan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between the level of metacognitive awareness, self-directed learning readiness and academic achievement of preschool teacher candidates. The study group of the research, which was designed in survey method, included 151 teacher candidates from Atatürk Education Faculty, Preschool Teaching…

  4. Effects of Two Teaching Methods on the Achievement in and Attitude to Biology of Students of Different Levels of Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwagbo, Chinwe

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the relative efficacy of the guided inquiry and the expository teaching methods on the achievement in and attitude to biology of students of different levels of scientific literacy. Four research questions and four null hypotheses were posed and formulated respectively, to guide the work. It was hypothesized…

  5. The Effects of Synchronous Class Sessions on Students' Academic Achievement and Levels of Satisfaction in an Online Introduction to Computers Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeShea, Andrea Valene

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental static-group comparison study was to test the theory of transactional distance that relates the inclusion of synchronous class sessions into an online introductory computer course to students' levels of satisfaction and academic achievement at a post-secondary technical college. This study specifically looked…

  6. Changes in the Multi-Level Effects of Socio-Economic Status on Reading Achievement in Sweden in 1991 and 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kajsa Yang; Rosen, Monica; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the changes in educational inequality at the school- and individual-levels in 1991 and 2001. Comparisons are made between the IEA Reading Literacy Study 1991 and the so called 10-Year Trend Study in PIRLS 2001. The between-school differences in reading achievement variance and the size of the relationship between SES and…

  7. How Does the Science Writing Heuristic Approach Affect Students' Performances of Different Academic Achievement Levels? A Case for High School Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer; Gunel, Murat

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH), known as an argumentation-based science inquiry approach, on Grade 9 students' performance on a post-test in relation to their academic achievement levels. Four intact classes taught by 2 chemistry teachers from a Turkish public high school were selected for the study; one…

  8. Oligomycin A-induced inhibition of mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity suppresses boar sperm motility and in vitro capacitation achievement without modifying overall sperm energy levels.

    PubMed

    Ramió-Lluch, Laura; Yeste, Marc; Fernández-Novell, Josep M; Estrada, Efrén; Rocha, Luiz; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Concha, Ilona I; Ramírez, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    Incubation of boar spermatozoa in a capacitation medium with oligomycin A, a specific inhibitor of the F0 component of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, induced an immediate and almost complete immobilisation of cells. Oligomycin A also inhibited the ability of spermatozoa to achieve feasible in vitro capacitation (IVC), as measured through IVC-compatible changes in motility patterns, tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the acrosomal p32 protein, membrane fluidity and the ability of spermatozoa to achieve subsequent, progesterone-induced in vitro acrosome exocytosis (IVAE). Both inhibitory effects were caused without changes in the rhythm of O2 consumption, intracellular ATP levels or mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). IVAE was accompanied by a fast and intense peak in O2 consumption and ATP levels in control spermatozoa. Oligomycin A also inhibited progesterone-induced IVAE as well as the concomitant peaks of O2 consumption and ATP levels. The effect of oligomycin on IVAE was also accompanied by concomitant alterations in the IVAE-induced changes on intracellular Ca(2+) levels and MMP. Our results suggest that the oligomycin A-sensitive mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity is instrumental in the achievement of an adequate boar sperm motion pattern, IVC and IVAE. However, this effect seems not to be linked to changes in the overall maintenance of adequate energy levels in stages other than IVAE.

  9. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  10. The Effects of the Medium of Instruction in Certificate-Level Physics on Achievement and Motivation to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis; Yip, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year study was launched in a Hong Kong secondary school to investigate the effects of the medium of instruction (MOI), specifically English and Chinese, on the learning of certificate-level physics. A total of 199 Secondary Four (S4 or tenth-grade) students, divided into three major ability groups, participated in a teaching intervention…

  11. Dimensions of Literacy Leadership: An Analysis of Middle-Level Principals' Literacy Leadership Proficiencies and Student Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jannette M.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the extent to which middle-level principals reported the use of literacy leadership dimensions and whether or not a predictive relationship exists between the use of these dimensions and student reading proficiency in Grades 6 through 8 in Region 2 in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Also examined was the…

  12. Strategies for Achieving the New SHAPE America Standards and Grade-Level Outcomes: Bringing Obstacle Course Training into Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Keri S.; Brewer, Hannah; Windish, Lance; Carlson, Hollie

    2017-01-01

    The new SHAPE America standards and grade level outcomes for high-school physical education focus exclusively on physical activities that are suitable for lifelong participation. Some of the fastest-growing physical activities for adults in the United States are non-traditional multi-sport events and obstacle course races. As "Healthy People…

  13. Learning Achievement and the Efficiency of Learning the Concept of Vector Addition at Three Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubrud, Allan R.; Novak, Joseph D.

    1973-01-01

    Empirical data relate to Bruner's and Ausubel's theories of learning concepts at different age levels. The concept of vector addition was taught to eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The concept was learned and retained by high ability ninth and all tenth grade students. (PS)

  14. The Effect of Using Concept Maps on Student Achievement in Selected Topics in Chemistry at Tertiary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Indra Sen; Moono, Karren

    2015-01-01

    The performance in chemistry at tertiary level in Zambia has not been as expected. It has therefore been a matter of concern. There has been a continuous focus on exploring new teaching strategies to improve the understanding of this difficult subject. This study investigated the effectiveness of composite use of concept maps and traditional…

  15. The Relationship between Reading Achievement and Morphological Word Analysis in Deaf and Hearing Students Matched for Reading Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaustad, Martha Gonter; Kelly, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    This study extends the findings of Gaustad, Kelly, Payne, and Lylak (2002), which showed that deaf college students and hearing middle school students appeared to have approximately the same morphological knowledge and word segmentation skills. Because the average grade level reading abilities for the two groups of students were also similar,…

  16. [Desirable way for oral biomaterial research].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keiichi

    2007-07-01

    This review article is based on the ingredients of my lecture titled "Desirable way for oral biomaterial research in the JPS - considering Journal of Oral Rehabilitation Summer School 2006" at the JPS Advanced Seminar which was held with the general assembly meeting at March 4, 2007. How we explore the desirable way for oral biomaterial research in Japan was discussed with referral of the contents and discussion in the summer school.

  17. The BOS-X approach: achieving drastic cost reduction in CPV through holistic power plant level innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesniak, A.; Garboushian, V.

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Amonix Advanced Technology Group was awarded DOE SunShot funding in the amount of 4.5M to design a new Balance of System (BOS) architecture utilizing Amonix MegaModules™ focused on reaching the SunShot goal of 0.06-$0.08/kWhr LCOE. The project proposal presented a comprehensive re-evaluation of the cost components of a utility scale CPV plant and identified critical areas of focus where innovation is needed to achieve cost reduction. As the world's premier manufacturer and most experienced installer of CPV power plants, Amonix is uniquely qualified to lead a rethinking of BOS architecture for CPV. The presentation will focus on the structure of the BOS-X approach, which looks for the next wave of cost reduction in CPV through evaluation of non-module subsystems and the interaction between subsystems during the lifecycle of a solar power plant. Innovation around nonmodule components is minimal to date because CPV companies are just now getting enough practice through completion of large projects to create ideas and tests on how to improve baseline designs and processes. As CPV companies increase their installed capacity, they can utilize an approach similar to the methodology of BOS-X to increase the competitiveness of their product. Through partnership with DOE, this holistic approach is expected to define a path for CPV well aligned with the goals of the SunShot Initiative.

  18. Selected factors associated with achievement of biology preparatory students and their follow-up to higher level biology courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, Carol A.; Sarinsky, Gary B.

    This study was undertaken to determine whether a biology preparatory course given at an urban community college was helping students to develop the proper skills and background necessary for them to successfully complete follow-up courses in biology. A group of students who enrolled in a biology preparatory course, and subsequently, a follow-up anatomy and physiology or general biology course (experimental group) was compared to a group of students who should have registered for the preparatory course, but who enrolled directly into the anatomy and physiology or general biology course (control group). It was shown that there was no significant difference in their anatomy and physiology or general biology grades. Furthermore, only 16% of the initial group of preparatory students enrolled in and passed a follow-up biology course. Examination of the preparatory group using discriminant analysis ascertained that mathematics score was the principle discriminator between pass/fail groups. A stepwise multiple regression analysis of the variables explaining the preparatory grade showed that mathematics score, reading score, and type of high school degree explained 33% of the variance. Of the students who did pass the preparatory course and enrolled in a follow-up biology class, their preparatory grade was a good predictor of their achievement (measured by follow-up course grade), as determined by multiple regression.

  19. Some Suggested Techniques for Achieving Required Main Ring Low Level RF Performance for the Tevatron I Program

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.E.; MacLachlan, J.

    1984-05-01

    These techniques are derived from experience with the existing low level rf system and from the results of accelerator experiments directed at the Tev I requirements which were performed using a specially modified low level rf system. The techniques suggested here are not necessarily unique and other techniques may be acceptable. It is important to realize that certain performance requirements on the Booster and Main Ring are substantially different in the Tev I program from those which have been acceptable in the fixed target program. For example, the longitudinal emittance of the bunches has been routinely and intentionally blown up by the 'bunch spreader' during acceleration to improve the smoothness of the spill. In the Tev I case, the 'bunch narrowing' procedure preceding {bar p} production and in bunch coalescing is facilitated by maintaining the smallest possible longitudinal emittance (i.e. the largest possible longitudinal phase space density). Also, during fixed target physics the Main Ring is essentially full (i.e. approx. 1090 of 1113 buckets occupied) so transient beam loading of the rf system is negligible except during injection, whereas for {bar p} production a single high intensity Booster batch (approx. 83 bunches) is to be accelerated causing substantial transient beam induced phase shift of the rf voltage during each passage. The low level phase and position error signals are normally derived from an essentially full ring during fixed target operation whereas in the Tev I program the systems must perform adequately with as few as ten adjacent buckets occupied. Because of the differences in emphasis between fixed target operation and Tevatron I operation is seems sensible to use separate low level rf systems for these two modes of operation. If a single low level system were to be used for both modes of operation some compromises may be necessary which might cause performance in either mode to be less than adequate. Because of the severe demands

  20. Validity of the decreased sexual desire screener for diagnosing hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Anita H; Goldfischer, Evan; Goldstein, Irwin; DeRogatis, Leonard; Nappi, Rossella; Lewis-D'Agostino, Diane J; Kimura, Toshio; Hebert, Antoine; Pyke, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The decreased sexual desire screener is a brief diagnostic instrument for generalized acquired hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women. During the screening visit of 2 clinical trials, the authors assessed sensitivity of the decreased sexual desire screener in premenopausal women presenting with decreased sexual desire. The authors compared diagnoses of generalized acquired hypoactive sexual desire disorder made by clinicians who were not trained or specialized in the diagnosis of female sexual dysfunction using the decreased sexual desire screener with diagnoses made by expert clinicians after an extensive diagnostic interview. The sensitivity of the decreased sexual desire screener was 0.946 in a North American trial and 0.960 in a European trial.

  1. Combined Effect of Levels in Personal Self-Regulation and Regulatory Teaching on Meta-Cognitive, on Meta-Motivational, and on Academic Achievement Variables in Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Jesús; Sander, Paul; Martínez-Vicente, José M.; Vera, Mariano; Garzón, Angélica; Fadda, Salvattore

    2017-01-01

    The Theory of Self- vs. Externally-Regulated Learning™ (SRL vs. ERL) proposed different types of relationships among levels of variables in Personal Self-Regulation (PSR) and Regulatory Teaching (RT) to predict the meta-cognitive, meta-motivational and -emotional variables of learning, and of Academic Achievement in Higher Education. The aim of this investigation was empirical in order to validate the model of the combined effect of low-medium-high levels in PSR and RT on the dependent variables. For the analysis of combinations, a selected sample of 544 undergraduate students from two Spanish universities was used. Data collection was obtained from validated instruments, in Spanish versions. Using an ex-post-facto design, different Univariate and Multivariate Analyses (3 × 1, 3 × 3, and 4 × 1) were conducted. Results provide evidence for a consistent effect of low-medium-high levels of PSR and of RT, thus giving significant partial confirmation of the proposed rational model. As predicted, (1) the levels of PSR and positively and significantly effected the levels of learning approaches, resilience, engagement, academic confidence, test anxiety, and procedural and attitudinal academic achievement; (2) the most favorable type of interaction was a high level of PSR with a high level RT process. The limitations and implications of these results in the design of effective teaching are analyzed, to improve university teaching-learning processes. PMID:28280473

  2. Accurate dosimetry with GafChromic EBT film of a 6 MV photon beam in water: What level is achievable?

    SciTech Connect

    Battum, L. J. van; Hoffmans, D.; Piersma, H.; Heukelom, S.

    2008-02-15

    This paper focuses on the accuracy, in absolute dose measurements, with GafChromic EBT film achievable in water for a 6 MV photon beam up to a dose of 2.3 Gy. Motivation is to get an absolute dose detection system to measure up dose distributions in a (water) phantom, to check dose calculations. An Epson 1680 color (red green blue) transmission flatbed scanner has been used as film scanning system, where the response in the red color channel has been extracted and used for the analyses. The influence of the flatbed film scanner on the film based dose detection process was investigated. The scan procedure has been optimized; i.e. for instance a lateral correction curve was derived to correct the scan value, up to 10%, as a function of optical density and lateral position. Sensitometric curves of different film batches were evaluated in portrait and landscape scan mode. Between various batches important variations in sensitometric curve were observed. Energy dependence of the film is negligible, while a slight variation in dose response is observed for very large angles between film surface and incident photon beam. Improved accuracy in absolute dose detection can be obtained by repetition of a film measurement to tackle at least the inherent presence of film inhomogeneous construction. We state that the overall uncertainty is random in absolute EBT film dose detection and of the order of 1.3% (1 SD) under the condition that the film is scanned in a limited centered area on the scanner and at least two films have been applied. At last we advise to check a new film batch on its characteristics compared to available information, before using that batch for absolute dose measurements.

  3. Technology for monitoring shot-level light source performance data to achieve high-optimization of lithography processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Masato; Ochiai, Hideyuki; Watabe, Yoshinobu; Ishida, Keisuke; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Youichi; Kumazaki, Takahito; Kurosu, Akihiko; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakizaki, Kouji; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2014-03-01

    Gigaphoton has developed a new monitoring system that provides shot-level light source performance data to FDC systems during exposure time. The system provides basic monitoring data (e.g. Energy, Wavelength, Bandwidth, etc.) and beam performance data, such as Beam Profile, Pointing, Divergence, Polarization can also be monitored using a new metrology tool called the Beam Performance Monitor (BPM) module. During exposure time the system automatically identifies the start and end timing of the wafer and each shot based on the burst of firing signals from the scanner, and stores the measured data in sequence. The stored data is sorted by wafer or by shot, and sent to REDeeM Piece which in turn converts the data to the user's protocol and send it to the FDC system. The user also has the option to directly view or download the stored data using a GUI. Through this monitoring system, users can manage light sources data at the shot or reticle level to facilitate optimization of performance and running cost of the light source for each process. This monitoring system can be easily retrofitted to Gigaphoton's current ArF laser light sources. The beam splitter of the BPM was specially designed to bend only a small fraction of the source beam, so we are able to simply install the BPM without the need for special optical alignment.

  4. Effects of tactual and kinesthetic instructional resources on simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement and attitudes toward science of third-grade suburban students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searson, Robert Francis

    This researcher investigated the effects of tactual and kinesthetic instructional resources on the simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement and attitudes toward science of third-grade suburban students in a northern New Jersey school district. The Learning Style Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1996) was administered to ascertain the identity of the learning-style perceptual preferences of all 59 third-graders who completed the three science units. Each of the three classes was presented two science units using learning-style instructional resources; one science unit was taught using traditional methods. All three science units were completed in a six-week period. Students were administered a pretest and posttest for each science unit and the Semantic Differential Scale (Pizzo, 1981) at the conclusion of each science unit. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) assessed the effects of treatments and attitudes toward science. The statistical analysis of this study revealed a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between students' simple recall science achievement posttest scores when taught tactually and/or kinesthetically compared to when they were taught science traditionally. Furthermore, the Contingency Table analysis, using Fisher's Exact Test indicated a significant difference (p = 0.00008) between the higher-level cognitive science achievement posttest scores when students are taught science tactually and/or kinesthetically compared to when they are taught science traditionally. The findings of this study supported the view when tactual and/or kinesthetic methods were employed, higher achievement gains were realized for simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement. Further recommendations called for a reexamination of science instructional methods employed in our elementary classroom.

  5. Fertility Desires among Women Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Ryan; Potter, JoNell Efantis; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Spence, Andrew; Byrne, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Rates of pregnancy among women living with HIV (WLHIV) have increased with the availability of effective HIV treatment. Planning for pregnancy and childbirth is an increasingly important element of HIV care. Though rates of unintended pregnancies are high among women in general, among couples affected by HIV, significant planning and reproductive decisions must be considered to prevent negative health consequences for WLHIV and their neonates. To gain insight into this reproductive decision-making process among WLHIV, this study explored women’s knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding fertility planning, reproductive desires, and safer conception practices. It was hypothesized that pregnancy desires would be influenced by partners, families, the potential risk of HIV transmission to infants, and physicians’ recommendations. Methods WLHIV of childbearing age were recruited from urban South Florida, and completed an assessment of demographics (N = 49), fertility desires and a conjoint survey of factors associated with reproductive decision-making. Results Using conjoint analysis, we found that different decision paths exist for different types of women: Younger women and those with less education desired children if their partners wanted children; reproductive desires among those with less education, and with less HIV pregnancy-related knowledge, displayed a trend toward additional emphasis on their family’s desires. Conversely, older women and those with more education appeared to place more importance on physician endorsement in their plans for childbearing. Conclusions Results of this study highlight the importance of ongoing preconception counselling for all women of reproductive age during routine HIV care. Counselling should be tailored to patient characteristics, and physicians should consider inclusion of families and/or partners in the process. PMID:27610626

  6. Ping-pong amplification of a retroviral vector achieves high-level gene expression: human growth hormone production.

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, S L; Kabat, D

    1990-01-01

    Retroviral vectors offer major advantages for gene transfer studies but have not been useful for producing proteins in large quantities. This deficiency has resulted in part from interference to superinfection, which limits the numbers of active proviruses in cells. Recently, we found that these vectors amplify when they are added as calcium phosphate precipitates to cocultures of cells that package retroviruses into ecotropic and amphotropic host range envelopes. Helper-free virions from either cell type can infect the other without interference, resulting in theoretically limitless back-and-forth (ping-pong) vector replication. In initial studies, however, amplifications of a vector that contained the human growth hormone gene ceased when the hormone produced was 0.3% or less of cellular protein synthesis. This limit was caused by two factors. First, recombinant shutoff viruses that are replication defective and encode envelope glycoproteins form at a low probability during any round of the vector replication cycle and these spread in cocultures, thereby establishing interference. Single cells in shutoff cocultures therefore synthesize both ecotropic and amphotropic envelope glycoproteins, and they release promiscuous (presumably hybrid) virions. The probability of forming shutoff viruses before the vector had amplified to a high multiplicity was reduced by using small cocultures. Second, cells with large numbers of proviruses are unhealthy and their proviral expression can be unstable. Stable expresser cell clones were obtained by selection. Thereby, cell lines were readily obtained that stably produce human growth hormone as 4 to 6% of the total protein synthesis. A ping-pong retroviral vector can be used for high-level protein production in vertebrate cells. Images PMID:2352330

  7. Evaluation of skill achievement levels and practical experiences of public health nursing students before and after the introduction of the public health nursing course as an elective.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshimi; Saito, Emiko; Sawai, Minako; Kishi, Emiko; Kakemoto, Satori; Nakada, Harumi; Igarashi, Chiyo; Asahara, Kiyomi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To equip public health nurses (PHNs) with higher qualifications, PHN education is shifting from an integrated curriculum for PHNs and registered nurses to a specific elective system of undergraduate or postgraduate programs. Most colleges in the special wards of Tokyo introduced the elective system in 2014 before the remaining areas. The outcomes of this must be evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the achievement levels and practical experiences of PHN students at seven colleges in the special wards before and after introduction of the PHN course as an elective.Method Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were completed by senior PHN students at seven colleges in the special wards who underwent training in 2013, the last year of an integrated curriculum, and in 2014, the first year of the elective system. The target numbers of participants were 663 in 2013 and 136 in 2014 with 20 students from each school exposed to the elective system. Our study focused on whether they achieved the 98 "technical items of PHN training and achievement levels at the time of graduation" required by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The study also determined whether participants obtained practical experience in 15 items developed by the special wards based on the standards set for training.Results In 2013, there were 348 total responses (52.5%) and 310 valid responses. In 2014, there were 136 total responses (88.2%) and 120 valid responses. The average achievement rate at which the student answered, "I was able to arrive at it," at an arrival degree level for the 98 technical items was 72.6% in 2014, an increase compared to the 67.9% obtained in 2013. Moreover, the average practical experience rate at which the student answered, "I was able to have an experience," regarding the 15 items was 85.7% in 2014, which constituted an increase compared to 70.5% attained in 2013. However, the number of items with an achievement rate of more than 80% remained

  8. Kinetics of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients who Achieved Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Loss during Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2a Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Hui; Zhang, Lu; Qu, Xiao-Jing; Lu, Yao; Shen, Ge; Wu, Shu-Ling; Chang, Min; Liu, Ru-Yu; Hu, Lei-Ping; Li, Zhen-Zhen; Hua, Wen-Hao; Song, Shu-Jing; Xie, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss/seroconversion is considered to be the ideal endpoint of antiviral therapy and the ultimate treatment goal in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study aimed to assess the patterns of HBsAg kinetics in CHB patients who achieved HBsAg loss during the treatment of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) α-2a. Methods: A total of 150 patients were enrolled, composing of 83 hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg)-positive and 67 HBeAg-negative patients. Patients were treated with PEG-IFN α-2a180 μg/week until HBsAg loss/seroconversion was achieved, which occurred within 96 weeks. Serum hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid and serological indicators (HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, and anti-HBe) were determined before and every 3 months during PEG-IFN α-2a treatment. Biochemical markers and peripheral blood neutrophil and platelet counts were tested every 1–3 months. Results: Baseline HBsAg levels were 2.5 ± 1.3 log IU/ml, and decreased rapidly at 12 and 24 weeks by 48.3% and 88.3%, respectively. The mean time to HBsAg loss was 54.2 ± 30.4 weeks, though most patients needed extended treatment and 30.0% of HBsAg loss occurred during 72–96 weeks. Baseline HBsAg levels were significantly higher in HBeAg-positive patients (2.9 ± 1.1 log IU/ml) compared with HBeAg-negative patients (2.0 ± 1.3 log IU/ml; t = 4.733, P < 0.001), but the HBsAg kinetics were similar. Patients who achieved HBsAg loss within 48 weeks had significantly lower baseline HBsAg levels and had more rapid decline of HBsAg at 12 weeks compared to patients who needed extended treatment to achieve HBsAg loss. Conclusions: Patients with lower baseline HBsAg levels and more rapid decline during early treatment with PEG-IFN are more likely to achieve HBsAg loss during 96 weeks of treatment, and extended therapy longer than 48 weeks may be required to achieve HBsAg loss. PMID:28229987

  9. Closing the loop In Practice to Assure the Desired Performance

    PubMed Central

    Stead, William W.; Patel, Neal R.; Starmer, John M.

    2008-01-01

    A closed loop control process assures that a system performs within control limits. In closed loop control, the system's output feeds back directly to change the system's inputs. We describe an approach to planning and monitoring care that uses closed loop control to assure the desired performance using examples from Vanderbilt University Medical Center's ventilator management initiative. The approach has three components: an explicit end-to-end plan; a record of what is done as it is done; and an instant display of the status of each patient against their plan. The status display provides process control by showing the clinical team where correction is needed while they have time to act prospectively. Plans, displays and performance evolve together iteratively until the desired performance is achieved. PMID:18596845

  10. Modeling Socially Desirable Responding and Its Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Buehner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The impact of socially desirable responding or faking on noncognitive assessments remains an issue of strong debate. One of the main reasons for the controversy is the lack of a statistical method to model such response sets. This article introduces a new way to model faking based on the assumption that faking occurs due to an interaction between…

  11. Age and the Desire to Marry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahay, Jenna; Lewin, Alisa C.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding attitudes toward marriage at older ages is increasingly important as young adults delay marriage and large numbers of people return to the marriage market after divorce. This study examines age differences in the desire to marry among singles age 18 to 69 years, taking into account selection into marriage. Using data drawn from the…

  12. CONSTRAINTS ON DESIRABLE ACTIVITIES: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    desirable but in which he has never engaged. This was a pilot study for one to be carried out in another cultural setting as well as part of a program to...analyze social change. Happy individuals were more constrained by environmental factors, such as lack of an accessable location to engage in the

  13. Schooling and a "Blamable Desire for Knowledge"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    2005-01-01

    As a teacher the author often wishes that his students were more curious. Yet, Alice Ramos (this issue) proposes that curiosity can be a vice. She writes that there are times when a student might be motivated by a "blamable desire for knowledge." Ramos bases this claim on a distinction made by Thomas Aquinas, the thirteenth-century Aristotelian…

  14. Effects of multisensory resources on the achievement and science attitudes of seventh-grade suburban students taught science concepts on and above grade level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Patrice Helen

    This research was designed to determine the relationships among students' achievement scores on grade-level science content, on science content that was three years above-grade level, on attitudes toward instructional approaches, and learning-styles perceptual preferences when instructional approaches were multisensory versus traditional. The dependent variables for this investigation were scores on achievement posttests and scores on the attitude survey. The independent variables were the instructional strategy and students' perceptual preferences. The sample consisted of 74 educationally oriented seventh-grade students. The Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1990) was administered to determine perceptual preferences. The control group was taught seventh-grade and tenth-grade science units using a traditional approach and the experimental group was instructed on the same units using multisensory instructional resources. The Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) (Pizzo, 1981) was administered to reveal attitudinal differences. The traditional unit included oral reading from the textbook, completing outlines, labeling diagrams, and correcting the outlines and diagrams as a class. The multisensory unit included five instructional stations established in different sections of the classroom to allow students to learn by: (a) manipulating Flip Chutes, (b) using Electroboards, (c) assembling Task Cards, (d) playing a kinesthetic Floor Game, and (e) reading an individual Programmed Learning Sequence. Audio tapes and scripts were provided at each location. Students circulated in groups of four from station to station. The data subjected to statistical analyses supported the use of a multisensory, rather than a traditional approach, for teaching science content that is above-grade level. T-tests revealed a positive and significant impact on achievement scores (p < 0.0007). No significance was detected on grade-level achievement nor on the perceptual

  15. Sexual desire, sexual arousal and hormonal differences in premenopausal US and Dutch women with and without low sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Julia R; Rupp, Heather; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Brauer, Marieke; Laan, Ellen

    2011-05-01

    The interaction between women's hormonal condition and subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of desire or arousal remains only partially explored, in spite of frequent reports from women about problems with a lack of sexual desire. The present study recruited premenopausal women at two sites, one in the United States and the other in the Netherlands, and incorporated various measures of acute changes in sexual desire and arousal. A sample of 46 women who met criteria for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) was compared to 47 women who experienced no sexual problems (SF). Half of each group used oral contraceptives (OCs). The specific goal was to investigate whether there is a relationship between women's hormone levels and their genital and subjective sexual responsiveness. Background demographics and health variables, including oral contraceptive (OC) use, were recorded and hormones (total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), SHBG, and estradiol) were analyzed along with vaginal pulse amplitude and self-report measures of desire and arousal in response to sexual fantasy, visual sexual stimuli, and photos of men's faces. Self-reported arousal and desire were lower in the HSDD than the SF group, but only for women who were not using oral contraceptives. Relationships between hormones and sexual function differed depending on whether a woman was HSDD or not. In line with prior literature, FT was positively associated with physiological and subjective sexual arousal in the SF group. The HSDD women demonstrated the opposite pattern, in that FT was negatively associated with subjective sexual responsiveness. The findings suggest a possible alternative relationship between hormones and sexual responsiveness in women with HSDD who have characteristics similar to those in the present study.

  16. Teaching Bodies/Learning Desire: Rethinking the Role of Desire in the Pedagogic Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Desire is a crucial aspect of the pedagogic process. For too long, however, there has been a dichotomous relationship between understandings of teacher and student desire. The former is often configured as a pedagogic anachronism, problematised and needing to be contained. Conversely, the latter is essentialised as a force that should not be…

  17. Desirable attributes of public educational websites.

    PubMed

    Whitbeck, Caroline

    2005-07-01

    Certain attributes are particularly desirable for public educational websites, and websites for ethics education in particular. Among the most important of these attributes is wide accessibility through adherence to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards for HTML code. Adherence to this standard produces webpages that can be rendered by a full range of web browsers, including Braille and speech browsers. Although almost no academic websites, including ethics websites, and even fewer commercial websites are accessible by W3C standards, as illustrated by the Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science , even websites created on limited budgets and with an undergraduate student staff can fulfill these standards. Other desirable attributes, such as provision of annotation for all links and the use of annotated links to give the user alternate ways of ordering and organizing content, are important for making full use of the educational possibilities of hypermedia for websites.

  18. Body, costume, and desire in Christopher Marlowe.

    PubMed

    Woods, G

    1992-01-01

    All the desired youths in Marlowe come clothed in favors, the tokens of older and richer men's yearning. These bribes and rewards, often feminine or effeminate ornaments, not only beautify the already gorgeous bodies of young men, but also label and augment their value and their power. The moment of virility's blooming, in adolescence, is seen as a time when boys can negotiate favorable terms of entry into the realms of manhood by the seductive use of their glamor. For their part, desirous men are distracted from the affairs and cares of state by their nostalgic encounters with girlish boys, at worst, to the extent that their own patriarchal power is compromised by sodomitic dalliance. Marlowe's involvement in these plots is iterative and committed.

  19. Achievement of recommended lipid and lipoprotein levels with combined ezetimibe/statin therapy versus statin alone in patients with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Guyton, John R; Betteridge, D John; Farnier, Michel; Leiter, Lawrence A; Lin, Jianxin; Shah, Arvind; Johnson-Levonas, Amy O; Brudi, Philippe

    2011-04-01

    Treatment guidelines identify low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as the primary target of therapy with secondary targets of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (apoB). Data were pooled from 27 randomised, double-blind, active or placebo-controlled trials in 21,794 adult hypercholesterolaemic patients (LDL-C 1.81-6.48 mmol/L) receiving ezetimibe/statin or statin for 4-24 weeks. Percentages of patients achieving various targets were calculated among diabetes (n = 6541) and non-diabetes (n = 15,253) subgroups. Significantly more patients with and without diabetes achieved specified levels of LDL-C (< 2.59, < 1.99, < 1.81 mmol/L), non-HDL-C (< 3.37, < 2.59 mmol/L) and apoB (< 0.9, < 0.8 g/L) with ezetimibe/statin versus statin. Patients with diabetes had larger mean per cent reductions in LDL-C and non-HDL-C than non-diabetes patients. A greater percentage of patients achieved both the LDL-C and apoB targets and all three LDL-C, apoB, and non-HDL-C targets with ezetimibe/statin versus statin in both subgroups. Patients with diabetes benefitted at least as much as, and sometimes more than, non-diabetes patients following treatment with ezetimibe/statin.

  20. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  1. A Broad Range of Dose Optima Achieve High-level, Long-term Gene Expression After Hydrodynamic Delivery of Sleeping Beauty Transposons Using Hyperactive SB100x Transposase

    PubMed Central

    Podetz-Pedersen, Kelly M; Olson, Erik R; Somia, Nikunj V; Russell, Stephen J; McIvor, R Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system has been shown to enable long-term gene expression by integrating new sequences into host cell chromosomes. We found that the recently reported SB100x hyperactive transposase conferred a surprisingly high level of long-term expression after hydrodynamic delivery of luciferase-encoding reporter transposons in the mouse. We conducted dose-ranging studies to determine the effect of varying the amount of SB100x transposase-encoding plasmid (pCMV-SB100x) at a set dose of luciferase transposon and of varying the amount of transposon-encoding DNA at a set dose of pCMV-SB100x in hydrodynamically injected mice. Animals were immunosuppressed using cyclophosphamide in order to prevent an antiluciferase immune response. At a set dose of transposon DNA (25 µg), we observed a broad range of pCMV-SB100x doses (0.1–2.5 µg) conferring optimal levels of long-term expression (>1011 photons/second/cm2). At a fixed dose of 0.5 μg of pCMV-SB100x, maximal long-term luciferase expression (>1010 photons/second/cm2) was achieved at a transposon dose of 5–125 μg. We also found that in the linear range of transposon doses (100 ng), co-delivering the CMV-SB100x sequence on the same plasmid was less effective in achieving long-term expression than delivery on separate plasmids. These results show marked flexibility in the doses of SB transposon plus pCMV-SB100x that achieve maximal SB-mediated gene transfer efficiency and long-term gene expression after hydrodynamic DNA delivery to mouse liver. PMID:26784638

  2. [Trigerred desire--new look at hypoactive sexual desire disorder among women].

    PubMed

    Iniewicz, Grzegorz; Strzelczak, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to present controversy surrounding current desire disorder criteria listed in DSM IV. Developed by Masters and Jonhson in 1996, completed later by Kaplan in 1974, the human sexual response cycle which is the basis for contemporary desire disorder criteria, in some aspects stands in opposition to the results of the newest research. This paper presents evidence to change the DSM criteria suggested by Basson and analyzes recent proposals for DSM V criteria for consideration of these arguments.

  3. Desired skills and attributes for dietitian preceptors.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sharon; Grosjean, Garnet

    2010-01-01

    We examined the research literature to determine the skills and attributes that dietetic interns desire in clinical preceptors. A search of three databases produced little information specific to dietetics. Literature on preceptors in other health disciplines identified preceptor attributes that students in clinical placements value. We were able to cluster the data from these studies into four themes: knowledge and experience, personal characteristics, teaching skills and attitudes, and interpersonal relationships. This review suggests a need for further development of dietitian preceptor training, as well as for further research specific to dietetic interns' needs.

  4. Fighting desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Michael

    2002-01-01

    "Fighting Desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic" is an investigation of Tropic of Cancer that investigates the deeply repressed homoerotic desire that periodically surfaces. This reading is dependent upon an interpretation of Eve Sedgwick that proposes male sexuality as a continuum. By looking at the nature of the male-male relationships, as well as the lack of emotion and presence in the male-female relationships, I will show that the most intimate relationships are between men, and that these relationships are expressed through the telling of stories about (heterosexual) sex; this is the function of women within the novel: one has sex with a woman, not for the pleasure that the act brings, but for the pleasure that the recounting of the story to other men brings. Furthermore, I will look at Miller's use of puns within the novel and how they also contribute to a homoerotic reading. None of this is to argue that Miller was not homophobic and sexist--Miller very clearly was--the purpose of this essay is to show the complex nature of sexuality, even within a protagonist who asserts a very defined heterosexuality.

  5. Serendipity or Pseudoserendipity? Unexpected versus Desired Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    1995-01-01

    Serendipity and pseudoserendipity in scientific discovery are distinguished with examples. True serendipity is seen to involve purely accidental discovery of things not sought, whereas pseudoserendipity involves accidental discoveries of ways to achieve an end that was sought. (DB)

  6. Assessment of the Orion-SLS Interface Management Process in Achieving the EIA 731.1 Systems Engineering Capability Model Generic Practices Level 3 Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jellicorse, John J.; Rahman, Shamin A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is currently developing the next generation crewed spacecraft and launch vehicle for exploration beyond earth orbit including returning to the Moon and making the transit to Mars. Managing the design integration of major hardware elements of a space transportation system is critical for overcoming both the technical and programmatic challenges in taking a complex system from concept to space operations. An established method of accomplishing this is formal interface management. In this paper we set forth an argument that the interface management process implemented by NASA between the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and the Space Launch System (SLS) achieves the Level 3 tier of the EIA 731.1 System Engineering Capability Model (SECM) for Generic Practices. We describe the relevant NASA systems and associated organizations, and define the EIA SECM Level 3 Generic Practices. We then provide evidence for our compliance with those practices. This evidence includes discussions of: NASA Systems Engineering Interface (SE) Management standard process and best practices; the tailoring of that process for implementation on the Orion to SLS interface; changes made over time to improve the tailored process, and; the opportunities to take the resulting lessons learned and propose improvements to our institutional processes and best practices. We compare this evidence against the practices to form the rationale for the declared SECM maturity level.

  7. Compared to men, women view professional advancement as equally attainable, but less desirable.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Wilmuth, Caroline Ashley; Brooks, Alison Wood

    2015-10-06

    Women are underrepresented in most high-level positions in organizations. Though a great deal of research has provided evidence that bias and discrimination give rise to and perpetuate this gender disparity, in the current research we explore another explanation: men and women view professional advancement differently, and their views affect their decisions to climb the corporate ladder (or not). In studies 1 and 2, when asked to list their core goals in life, women listed more life goals overall than men, and a smaller proportion of their goals related to achieving power at work. In studies 3 and 4, compared to men, women viewed high-level positions as less desirable yet equally attainable. In studies 5-7, when faced with the possibility of receiving a promotion at their current place of employment or obtaining a high-power position after graduating from college, women and men anticipated similar levels of positive outcomes (e.g., prestige and money), but women anticipated more negative outcomes (e.g., conflict and tradeoffs). In these studies, women associated high-level positions with conflict, which explained the relationship between gender and the desirability of professional advancement. Finally, in studies 8 and 9, men and women alike rated power as one of the main consequences of professional advancement. Our findings reveal that men and women have different perceptions of what the experience of holding a high-level position will be like, with meaningful implications for the perpetuation of the gender disparity that exists at the top of organizational hierarchies.

  8. Managing Coil Epoxy Vacuum Impregnation Systems at the Manufacturing Floor Level To Achieve Ultimate Properties in State-of-the-Art Magnet Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    J.G. Hubrig; G.H. Biallas

    2005-05-01

    Liquid epoxy resin impregnation systems remain a state-of-the-art polymer material for vacuum and vacuum/pressure impregnation applications in the manufacture of both advanced and conventional coil winding configurations. Epoxy resins inherent latitude in processing parameters accounts for their continued popularity in engineering applications, but also for the tendency to overlook or misinterpret the requisite processing parameters on the manufacturing floor. Resin system impregnation must be managed in detail in order to achieve device life cycle reliability. This closer look reveals how manufacturing floor level management of material acceptance, handling and storage, pre- and post- impregnation processing and cure can be built into a manufacturing plan to increase manufacturing yield, lower unit cost and ensure optimum life cycle performance of the coil.

  9. Advertising, Desire, and the Unified Field: A Metaphysical Perspective on Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, David A.

    Suggesting that ills said to be perpetrated by advertising are really attributes of a unified field of consciousness, this paper discusses the concept that advertising creates desire. The generally undisputed notion that advertising helps to create specific desires is distinguished from the criticism that advertising increases the level and…

  10. Adaptive Arrays for Multiple Simultaneous Desired Signals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    weights [Equation (4)]. Using Equation (6), the inverse of the covariance matrix is given by 5 4 i *ŕm * T ". -1 1 I d Z dij (7) L -I + UT U* 4 di x di...Equations (11) and (12) p k = A k Ik d (14) dk aki*~~* ( ~ dk LJk Udk) and 1 t IjI II di l() 27 x = (1 + t UT U*) Thus, the output SNR of the kth desired...signals are assumed to be of the same frequency. There is no jammer 9 0 dB SIGNAL 10 dB SIGNAL 90 % 90 180 Fiur .dptdpatrnofalier rayo tn strpc lmet

  11. Substituting telecommunications for travel - Feasible or desirable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Vleck, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in telecommunications and examines the detailed structure of travel to estimate the feasibility of substituting telecommunications for various travel objectives. The impact of travel is analyzed from a social, economic, energy, and pollution standpoint to assess the desirability of substitution. Perhaps 35-50% of the nation's travel could, in theory, be replaced by very advanced telecommunications (such as a much improved large-screen teleconferencing network), but public resistance would be massive. Much economic dislocation would result since, for example, over 25% of retail sales are travel-related. The energy savings would be modest since only 25% of the nation's energy is consumed by transportation. However, all pollution would be reduced substantially since transportation accounts for 75% of the carbon monoxide, 60% of the hydrocarbon, and 55% of the nitrogen oxide pollution in the nation. Problems related to the implementation of large-scale substitution are discussed.

  12. Flibanserin for Treating Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jae Hong; Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Soo Ah

    2016-04-01

    There have been several products developed for male sexual dysfunction. However, developing agents for female sexual dysfunction is lagging behind for various reasons. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and Tadalafil (Cialis), which have been prescribed for male sexual function disorders, are known to act on vessels.[1] On the other hand, flibanserin is thought to act on brain. Flibanserin has been approved by U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) of premenopausal women in 2015, and is expected to be released in South Korea soon. Authors wrote this article to acknowledge flibanserin to sexologists for females or physicians for menopausal medicine, so that this agent can be safely used for females who have HSDD.

  13. Oxygen sensors and energy sensors act synergistically to achieve a graded alteration in gene expression: consequences for assessing the level of neuroprotection in response to stressors.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Gillian M C; Warburton, Joshua; Girjes, Adeeb

    2004-01-01

    Changes in gene expression are associated with switching to an autoprotected phenotype in response to environmental and physiological stress. Ubiquitous molecular chaperones from the heat shock protein (HSP) superfamily confer neuronal protection that can be blocked by antibodies. Recent research has focused on the interactions between the molecular sensors that affect the increased expression of neuroprotective HSPs above constitutive levels. An examination of the conditions under which the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was up regulated in a hypoxia and anoxia tolerant tropical species, the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum), revealed that up-regulation was dependent on exceeding a stimulus threshold for an oxidative stressor. While hypoxic-preconditioning confers neuroprotective changes, there was no increase in the level of Hsp70 indicating that its increased expression was not associated with achieving a neuroprotected state in response to hypoxia in the epaulette shark. Conversely, there was a significant increase in Hsp70 in response to anoxic-preconditioning, highlighting the presence of a stimulus threshold barrier and raising the possibility that, in this species, Hsp70 contributes to the neuroprotective response to extreme crises, such as oxidative stress. Interestingly, there was a synergistic effect of coincident stressors on Hsp70 expression, which was revealed when metabolic stress was superimposed upon oxidative stress. Brain energy charge was significantly lower when adenosine receptor blockade, provided by treatment with aminophylline, was present prior to the final anoxic episode, under these circumstances, the level of Hsp70 induced was significantly higher than in the pair-matched saline treated controls. An understanding of the molecular and metabolic basis for neuroprotective switches, which result in an up-regulation of neuroprotective Hsp70 expression in the brain, is needed so that intervention strategies can be devised

  14. The Circle of Female Sexual Desire-Have We Come a Long Way?

    PubMed

    Katz, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the release of sildenafil (Viagra) two decades ago to treat erectile dysfunction in men, there has been a conversation around whether there is a need for a "female Viagra." Last year's release of flibanserin (Addyi) was hailed by some as an achievement in women's sexual health. But how effective is this drug in affecting women's sexual desire? And are the things being labeled as women's sexual desire problems really problems to be fixed with a drug?

  15. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  16. Effects of Sexual Experience on Dating Desirability and Marriage Desirability: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istvan, Joseph; Griffitt, William

    1980-01-01

    Inexperienced men and both inexperienced and moderately experienced women rated highly experienced opposite-sex peers as less desirable dates and marriage partners. Moderately and highly experienced men and highly experienced women tended to rate all opposite-sex peers similarly along these same dimensions. (Author)

  17. Organization Development: An Approach for Achieving Desired Organizational Goals within the Venezuelan Navy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    C. HOW TO DEAL WITH RESISTANCE TO CHANGE -------- 43 D. OD MODELS FOR PLANNED CHANGE ----------------- 44 1. Kolb-Frohman Model...and AD stands for Accion Democratica. 18 [1.~ . the two parties generally get about 80 percent of the total votes with the other 20 percent divided...in OD.6 *Richard Beckhard defines it as: "An effort (1) planned , (2) organization wide, (3) managed from the top, to (4) increase organization

  18. Designing Discussion Activities to Achieve Desired Learning Outcomes: Choices Using Mode of Delivery and Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sautter, Pookie

    2007-01-01

    The article provides insights on how the design of discussion activities can be used to facilitate alternative learning objectives in the marketing curriculum. A review of the literature provides insight for making choices with regards to two aspects of discussion design: (a) the choice between face-to-face and online (i.e., threaded bulletin…

  19. Employing U.S. SOF in Colombia: Updating Strategy to Achieve The Desired End State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    APPLICABLE HISTORIC LESSONS LEARNED 11 CONCLUSION 14 ENDNOTES 15 BIBLIOGRAPHY 18 1 INTRODUCTION For nearly the past four decades, Colombia has...by Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, a strategy that involves training host nation (HN) forces in counter-insurgency operations.4 Lessons learned ...worry about. APPLICABLE HISTORIC LESSONS LEARNED One of the most obvious “Lessons Learned ” demonstrated by our counter-insurgency experiences in Vietnam

  20. Achieving Safety: Safer Sex, Communication, and Desire among Young Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Pingel, Emily; Johns, Michelle Marie; Santana, Matthew Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, the authors explore the ways in which conceptualizations and…

  1. Achieving Desired Results and Improved Outcomes: Integrating Planning and Assessment throughout Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Donald E., Jr.; Green, Joseph S.; Gallis, Harry A.

    2009-01-01

    Most physicians believe that to provide the best possible care to their patients, they must commit to continuous learning. For the most part, it appears the learning activities currently available to physicians do not provide opportunities for meaningful continuous learning. At the same time there have been increasing concerns about the quality of…

  2. Achieving the Desired Structure of the Defense Industry in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for... RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI...delivery of public services—a responsibility increasingly required to be shared by both sectors. Operating at the nexus of public and private

  3. Getting to Outcomes: A Best Practice Process to Help Schools Achieve Desired Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Melissa A.; Wandersman, Abe; Splett, Joni Williams; Flaspohler, Paul; Weist, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Getting to Outcomes (GTO), a 10-step framework for accountability designed to facilitate effective implementation of evidence-based programs and improvement of home-grown practices (Getting to Outcomes and GTO are trademarks registered by the University of South Carolina and RAND; Wandersman, Imm, Chinman, & Kaftarian,…

  4. Navy Needs to Establish Effective Metrics to Achieve Desired Outcomes for SPY1 Radar Sustainment (Redacted)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    incorporated into the follow-on PBL contracts and the fleet’s SPY-1 radar sustainment needs are met without a formal agreement binding ATAC to deliver...Phased Array Radar (SPY-1 radar) performance-based logistics contracts appropriately incentivized the support contractors. This audit is the second in...metrics into the performance-based logistics contracts used to sustain SPY-1 radars. Specifically, the metrics did not effectively incentivize

  5. Increasing women’s sexual desire: The comparative effectiveness of estrogens and androgens

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, Maurand; Wallen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Both estradiol and testosterone have been implicated as the steroid critical for modulating women’s sexual desire. By contrast, in all other female mammals only estradiol has been shown to be critical for female sexual motivation and behavior. Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the development of androgen therapies for female sexual desire disorders, but today there are still no FDA approved androgen therapies for women. Nonetheless, testosterone is currently, and frequently, prescribed off-label for the treatment of low sexual desire in women, and the idea of testosterone as a cure-all for female sexual dysfunction remains popular. This paper places the ongoing debate concerning the hormonal modulation of women’s sexual desire within a historical context, and reviews controlled trials of estrogen and/or androgen therapies for low sexual desire in postmenopausal women. These studies demonstrate that estrogen-only therapies that produce periovulatory levels of circulating estradiol increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Testosterone at supraphysiological, but not at physiological, levels enhances the effectiveness of low-dose estrogen therapies at increasing women’s sexual desire; however, the mechanism by which supraphysiological testosterone increases women’s sexual desire in combination with an estrogen remains unknown. Because effective therapies require supraphysiological amounts of testosterone, it remains unclear whether endogenous testosterone contributes to the modulation of women’s sexual desire. The likelihood that an androgen-only clinical treatment will meaningfully increase women’s sexual desire is minimal, and the focus of pharmaceutical companies on the development of androgen therapies for the treatment of female sexual desire disorders is likely misplaced. PMID:26589379

  6. Increasing women's sexual desire: The comparative effectiveness of estrogens and androgens.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Maurand; Wallen, Kim

    2016-02-01

    Both estradiol and testosterone have been implicated as the steroid critical for modulating women's sexual desire. By contrast, in all other female mammals only estradiol has been shown to be critical for female sexual motivation and behavior. Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the development of androgen therapies for female sexual desire disorders, but today there are still no FDA approved androgen therapies for women. Nonetheless, testosterone is currently, and frequently, prescribed off-label for the treatment of low sexual desire in women, and the idea of testosterone as a possible cure-all for female sexual dysfunction remains popular. This paper places the ongoing debate concerning the hormonal modulation of women's sexual desire within a historical context, and reviews controlled trials of estrogen and/or androgen therapies for low sexual desire in postmenopausal women. These studies demonstrate that estrogen-only therapies that produce periovulatory levels of circulating estradiol increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Testosterone at supraphysiological, but not at physiological, levels enhances the effectiveness of low-dose estrogen therapies at increasing women's sexual desire; however, the mechanism by which supraphysiological testosterone increases women's sexual desire in combination with an estrogen remains unknown. Because effective therapies require supraphysiological amounts of testosterone, it remains unclear whether endogenous testosterone contributes to the modulation of women's sexual desire. The likelihood that an androgen-only clinical treatment will meaningfully increase women's sexual desire is minimal, and the focus of pharmaceutical companies on the development of androgen therapies for the treatment of female sexual desire disorders is likely misplaced.

  7. Prevalence of women's sexual desire problems: what criteria do we use?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Goldhammer, Denisa L

    2013-08-01

    Problems of sexual desire are often cited as the most prevalent of the female sexual dysfunctions. Despite this finding, considerable variability exists when comparing prevalence figures across studies, highlighting the inconsistency in how these problems are defined and therefore measured. The current study was designed to determine how the prevalence estimates of women's sexual desire problems varied according to the diagnostic criteria adopted to define such problems. The sample consisted of 741 women from Australia, the Americas, Europe, and Asia. Participants were between 18 and 71 years of age and were involved in a heterosexual relationship spanning between 3 months and 49 years duration. Sexual desire problems were defined using a variety of criteria, including (1) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), (2) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for HSDD, removing the sexual thoughts/fantasy requirement, (3) self-identified "lack of sexual interest," and (4) low average ratings of sexual desire levels, as assessed using the female sexual desire questionnaire. The prevalence of sexual desire problems varied from 3.0 to 31.0% depending upon the criteria used to define such problems. It is important to reach a consensus with regard to the criteria used to define sexual desire problems, in order to standardize and compare studies investigating these problems. How women's sexual desire problems are conceptualized has implications for their treatment. Therapists may or may not need to address absent sexual thoughts/fantasies and may be working with low normative levels of desire versus subjective evaluations of low desire.

  8. I-NERI-2007-004-K, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FORMS FOR ACHIEVING WASTE MINIMIZATION FROM PYROPROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank

    2011-09-01

    Work describe in this report represents the final year activities for the 3-year International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI) project: Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing. Used electrorefiner salt that contained actinide chlorides and was highly loaded with surrogate fission products was processed into three candidate waste forms. The first waste form, a high-loaded ceramic waste form is a variant to the CWF produced during the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II used fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The two other waste forms were developed by researchers at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These materials are based on a silica-alumina-phosphate matrix and a zinc/titanium oxide matrix. The proposed waste forms, and the processes to fabricate them, were designed to immobilize spent electrorefiner chloride salts containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide, and halide fission products that accumulate in the salt during the processing of used nuclear fuel. This aspect of the I-NERI project was to demonstrate 'hot cell' fabrication and characterization of the proposed waste forms. The outline of the report includes the processing of the spent electrorefiner salt and the fabrication of each of the three waste forms. Also described is the characterization of the waste forms, and chemical durability testing of the material. While waste form fabrication and sample preparation for characterization must be accomplished in a radiological hot cell facility due to hazardous radioactivity levels, smaller quantities of each waste form were removed from the hot cell to perform various analyses. Characterization included density measurement, elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and the Product Consistency Test, which is a leaching method to measure chemical durability. Favorable results from this demonstration project

  9. How does achievement motivation influence mental effort mobilization? Physiological evidence of deteriorative effects of negative affects on the level of engagement.

    PubMed

    Capa, Rémi L; Audiffren, Michel

    2009-12-01

    We tested whether the effect of achievement motivation on effort is modulated by two possible factors of the motivational intensity theory (Wright and Kirby, 2001): perceived difficulty and maximally justified effort. Approach-driven (N=16) and avoidance-driven (N=16) participants were first instructed to perform a reaction time task to the best of their abilities. Next, the participants were instructed to consistently beat their performance standard established in the first condition. Approach-driven participants showed a stronger decrease of midfrequency band of heart rate variability, which was used as an index of mental effort, than avoidance-driven participants in the second instruction condition. Moreover, avoidance-driven participants showed a higher corrugator supercilii reactivity, which was used as an index of negative affects, than approach-driven participants in the second instruction condition. No difference of perceived difficulty between groups was observed. Results suggested that avoidance-driven participants developed negative affects in the second instruction condition decreasing the maximally justified effort and their level of engagement.

  10. Beyond ‘MSM’: Sexual Desire Among Bisexually-Active Latino Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Latino male bisexuality has been studied for the most part with a focus on men who have sex with men (MSM) and with little attention to sexual desire. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive understanding of how sexual desire is organized, enacted through sexual activity, and interpreted in the sexual lives of bisexually-active Latino men. To achieve this aim, an analysis was made of 18 sexual histories of bisexually active Latino men who participated in a two-year ethnographic study. Four configurations of sexual desire were constructed to reflect what was found in this population of bisexually-active Latino men: (a) lifetime homoerotic desire and casual sex with women; (b) lifetime heteroerotic desire, but commercial sex with men; (c) lifetime heteroerotic/transgender desire; (d) lifetime sexual desire for women and men. These configurations are explored in detail in this article. The analysis presented here is intended to offer insights into the overall study of Latino male bisexuality and into the foundations for the design of HIV and STI prevention programs directed toward bisexually-active Latino men and their partners. PMID:26412977

  11. Self Regulated and Communal Learning Contexts as They Relate to Math Achievement and Math Self Efficacy among African American Elementary Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Shirley Faye Jackson

    2012-01-01

    For decades, African American students, nationwide, have consistently scored much lower on math and reading achievement tests than their European counterparts, creating what is known as the "White-Black Achievement Gap". The purpose of the research was to determine if self regulated learning and communal learning contexts, either…

  12. The Impacts of Student-, Teacher- and School-Level Factors on Mathematics Achievement: An Exploratory Comparative Investigation of Singaporean Students and the USA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ker, H. W.

    2016-01-01

    Reports from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) consistently show that there is a substantial gap in average mathematics achievement between Singapore and the USA. This study conducts an exploratory comparative investigation on the multilevel factors influencing the mathematics achievement of students from these two…

  13. Girls' Portraits of Desire: Picturing a Missing Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits the missing discourse of female desire [Fine, M. 1988. Sexuality, schooling and adolescent females: The missing discourse of desire. "Harvard Educational Review" 58, no. 1: 29-53] in secondary schools. Instead of echoing previous studies that have documented how female desire is missing, this research starts from the…

  14. An Investigation of Desired Friendships during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Katelyn K.; Bowker, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study of 384 young adolescents (45% girls, "M" age = 12.94 years) and their desired friendships (friendships that adolescents indicate they would like to form in the future) examined whether (a) adolescents desire to be friends with peers who are well-liked, popular, aggressive, and prosocial; (b) having desired friendships is…

  15. Executive Function and the Development of Belief-Desire Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    In two studies children's performance on tasks requiring the ascription of beliefs and desires was investigated in relation to their executive function. Study 1 (n = 80) showed that 3- and 4-year-olds were more proficient at ascribing subjective, mutually incompatible desires and desire-dependent emotions to two persons than they were at ascribing…

  16. A Contrapuntal Analysis of Discourses of Desire in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Implicated in contributing to the problems youth today face in trying to claim an education, an informed active participation in the social order, dominant discourses of desire in education foreclose formal, critical analysis of social structures that construct, police, entreat, and deny desire. Looking at the ways in which desire is encoded in…

  17. Quality of Life, Social Desirability and Their Relationship in Opium Addicted Persons in Southeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Mansour; Kohan, Mehri; Ranjbar, Hadi; Arab, Nanaz; Rayani, Masoud; Mirrashidi, Salehe Sadat; Rafiei, Hossein; Amiri, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Addiction leads to many problems which may adversely affect addicted people, their families and impose health care agencies with many challenges. This study aimed to examined quality of life (QoL), social desirability and their relationship among opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran. Material and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2012 to January 2013, 123 addicted people were studied. Date collection tools were; checklist of demographic data, Iranian version of the 36-item short form QoL (SF-36) and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). Results: While mean score of QoL was 60.4±29.5, mean score of social desirability were 14.2±3.7. Low, moderate and high levels of social desirability were observed in 4.9%, 90.2% and 4.9% of participants, respectively. Pearson’s correlation were not significant between mean score of social desirability and mean score of QoL (p=0.969, r=0.004). Conclusion: Addicted participants of present study showed a moderate level of QoL and social desirability, without any significant relationship between QoL and social desirability. Further research is suggested in addicts with social and cultural differences. PMID:24762351

  18. Aligning Task Control with Desire for Control: Implications for Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Alex T.; Etcheverry, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether matches between task control and participants' desire for control over their environment lead to better task performance than mismatches. Work control and desire for control were manipulated, and participants engaged in timed tasks. As predicted, performance was higher in cases of match, even when task control and desire for control were low. Task control and desire for control may predict work performance in combination, highlighting the importance of Person-Environment Fit theory for both selection and work design. By manipulating desire for control, our research also explores the potentially state-dependent quality of this individual difference variable. PMID:26045630

  19. The impact of social desirability on psychometric measures of aggression.

    PubMed

    Vigil-Colet, Andreu; Ruiz-Pamies, Mireia; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2012-05-01

    Although many studies have focused on the effects of social desirability in personality measures, few have analysed its effects on such highly undesirable behaviour as aggressiveness. The present study analyzes the impact of social desirability on measures of direct and indirect aggression and on the relationships between both kinds of aggression with impulsivity, using a method that enables the content factors of the measures to be isolated from social desirability. Results showed that aggression measures are highly affected by social desirability and that the relationships between the two forms of aggression and impulsivity are due to the content measured by the tests and not to a common social desirability factor.

  20. Aligning Task Control with Desire for Control: Implications for Performance.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Alex T; Etcheverry, Paul E

    The current study examined whether matches between task control and participants' desire for control over their environment lead to better task performance than mismatches. Work control and desire for control were manipulated, and participants engaged in timed tasks. As predicted, performance was higher in cases of match, even when task control and desire for control were low. Task control and desire for control may predict work performance in combination, highlighting the importance of Person-Environment Fit theory for both selection and work design. By manipulating desire for control, our research also explores the potentially state-dependent quality of this individual difference variable.

  1. Love and Politics: Sister Quinlan and the Future We Have Desired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndebele, Njabulo S.

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney (like Stimpson and Parker in this issue) speaks of: "A historic dialectic [which] exists between the beautiful and the bestial". In this speech, delivered on 13 December 2012, Njabulo Ndebele reflects on the stories South Africa tells itself about past atrocity, as a way of achieving "the future we have desired".…

  2. Using rewards and penalties to obtain desired subject performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.; Jex, H. R.; Stein, A. C.; Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Operant conditioning procedures, specifically the use of negative reinforcement, in achieving stable learning behavior is described. The critical tracking test (CTT) a method of detecting human operator impairment was tested. A pass level is set for each subject, based on that subject's asymptotic skill level while sober. It is critical that complete training take place before the individualized pass level is set in order that the impairment can be detected. The results provide a more general basis for the application of reward/penalty structures in manual control research.

  3. Survey of Middle School Teacher Desire for Staff Development Focused on Competencies to Teach Gifted and Talented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Deborah O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, to determine the level of teacher desire for professional development in competencies needed to teach gifted learners, and second, to identify differences in the level of teacher desirability as it related to a number of independent measures (gender, life stage, teacher concerns, primary teaching…

  4. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  5. Desire thinking as a predictor of craving and binge drinking: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Martino, Francesca; Caselli, Gabriele; Felicetti, Federica; Rampioni, Margherita; Romanelli, Pierluigi; Troiani, Lorena; Sassaroli, Sandra; Albery, Ian P; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2017-01-01

    Desire thinking is a conscious and voluntary cognitive process orienting to prefigure images, information and memories about positive target-related experience. Desire thinking has been found to be associated with both craving and alcohol use in clinical and non-clinical populations, however its role in predicting craving and problematic drinking patterns has never been investigated using a longitudinal design. The central aim of the present study was to explore the role of desire thinking at Time 2 (3months post-baseline) in predicting craving and binge drinking and Time 3 (6months post-baseline), controlling for levels of both these constructs and Time 1 (baseline). One hundred and thirty three non-hazardous drinkers were assessed on craving and binge drinking at Times 1 and 3, and on desire thinking at Time 2. Findings showed that desire thinking at Time 2 predicted craving and binge drinking at Time 3, controlling for craving and binge drinking at Time 1. Furthermore, the imaginal prefiguration component of desire thinking at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between craving at Times 1 and 3; conversely the verbal perseveration component of desire thinking at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between binge drinking at Times 1 and 3. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Long distance atomic teleportation with as good success as desired

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Prakash, Hari

    2015-09-15

    Long distance atomic teleportation (LDAT) is of prime importance in long distance quantum communication. Scheme proposed by Bose et al. (1999) in principle enables us to have LDAT using cavity decay. However it gives message state dependent fidelity and success rate. Here, using interaction of entangled coherent states with atom–cavity systems and a two-step measurement, we show how, LDAT can be achieved with unit fidelity and as good success as desired under ideal conditions. The scheme is unique in that, the first measurement predicts success or failure. If success is predicted then second measurement gives perfect teleportation. If failure is predicted the message-qubit remains conserved therefore a second attempt may be started. We found that even in presence of decoherence due to dissipation of energy our scheme gives message state independent success rate and almost perfect teleportation in single attempt with mean fidelity of teleportation equal to 0.9 at long distances. However if first attempt fails, unlike ideal case where message-qubit remains conserved with unit fidelity, in presence of decoherence the message-qubit remains conserved to some degree, therefore mean fidelity of teleportation can be increased beyond 0.9 by repeating the process.

  7. Optical metrology in the conflict between desire and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osten, W.

    2016-08-01

    In the context of measurement technology, optical methods have a number of unique features. On the other hand the user is faced with serious challenges. One of the biggest challenges that currently attracts high attention in both the technical as well as life sciences, relates to exceeding the physical limits of resolution. Nowadays people prefer to talk about super-resolution. However, this concept creates an often excessive expectation, since this way only the diffraction limit can be achieved in many practical cases. Not to forget are those negative consequences that arise from the high information density in optical signals. The nature of light and its fascinating interaction with matter that makes our visual sense on the one hand the most valuable information carrier, often prevents on the other hand, the metrologically correct interpretation of the results. Nevertheless, it can be proven by numerous examples that no alternative to the optical principles exists. Because critical structures are getting smaller and functional surfaces are becoming increasingly complex, the wavelength of light provides the most flexible and traceable standard to cope with the challenges. But the potential of optical methods, often seduced to an overload of the wish list or to unrealistic promises. Therefore, this paper is dedicated to the tension between desire and reality in optical measuring techniques.

  8. Factors affecting desired family size among preliterate New Guinea mothers.

    PubMed

    Pust, R E; Newman, J S; Senf, J; Stotik, E

    1985-10-01

    A random sample of 331 Enga mothers in Papua New Guinea perceived that an average of 5.96 live births (S.D. = 1.88) were needed to achieve their mean desired completed family size (DFS) of 4.65 children (S.D. = 1.32). The mean of the personal child mortality rates projected by the individual mothers. 194/1000, is very close to the rate of 198/1000 (224 deaths among 1134 live births) experienced by the women as a group and the 177/1000 documented in a 1972 prospective study in the area. This suggests that as a group preliterate women may possess an accurate estimate of prevailing child mortality rates. Considerable interest in family planning was shown. However for cultural or linguistic reasons, the majority (except in the case of the pill and tubal ligation) expressed no opinions about their readiness to use specific modern methods. The mean parity of 43 women seeking tubal ligation was 5.98 (S.D. = 1.81). An integrated maternal health and family planning program focusing on the health benefits to mother and child of the current 3-4-year birth interval seems indicated.

  9. Differential Impacts of Intensive District-Level Technical Assistance on Student Achievement: A Study of California's District Assistance and Intervention Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Katharine O.; McEachin, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Building on Strunk, McEachin, and Westover (2011), the authors examine whether or not District Assistance and Intervention Teams (DAITs) have a differential impact on student performance across school and student characteristics. They use a quasi-experimental design to examine the impacts of DAITs on student achievement on math and English…

  10. The Efforts to Improve Mathematics Learning Achievement Results of High School Students as Required by Competency-Based Curriculum and Lesson Level-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidabutar, Ropinus

    2016-01-01

    The research was aimed to investigate the effect of various, innovated teaching models to improved the student's achievement in various topic in Mathematics. The study was conduct experiment by using innovated teaching with contextual, media and web which are the compared. with conventional teaching method. The result showed the innovation in the…

  11. Effects of Two Foreign Language Methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling, on Beginning-Level Students' Achievement, Fluency, and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Donna E.

    2009-01-01

    No empirical studies exist comparing the effectiveness of the two prevalent foreign language methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS), at helping students achieve second language acquisition. In turn, the purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to…

  12. Is Authoritative Teaching Beneficial for All Students? A Multi-Level Model of the Effects of Teaching Style on Interest and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Bridget V.; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the two facets of authoritative teaching--high academic press and caring for students--on student interest and achievement in mathematics for middle and high school students (N = 3,602 in 198 classrooms), and whether those effects are moderated by students' ethnicity (Hispanic, Vietnamese, and Caucasian…

  13. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to…

  14. A Descriptive Analysis of Reading Achievement Levels in Grade Four--A Follow-Up of a Three Year Experimental Study of Factors Affecting Learning to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collingwood, Madeline Duckworth

    This study was a follow-up of a three year longitudinal study of factors affecting learning to read. It examined the efficacy of four different approaches to beginning reading instruction on subsequent reading achievement in grade four. Major purposes were to determine what effect maturation and exposure to a non-experimental typical grade four…

  15. Project LEAP: The Labor Education Achievement Program. A Program To Improve the Literacy Level and Productivity of the Workforce. Final Project Report. April 1, 1990-June 30, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Baltimore Council of AFL-CIO Unions, MD.

    The Labor Education Achievement Program (LEAP) exceeded its recruitment and enrollment goal for April 1990 to June 1991. The number of union workers receiving services was 697 in 59 classes at 20 sites. Recruitment success was made possible by the use of the communication networks of the Baltimore AFL-CIO Metropolitan Council of Unions and public…

  16. [Testosterone therapy in female hypoactive sexual desire disorder].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patrick

    2016-03-16

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes marked personal or interpersonal distress. It occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women. A number of potential contributory factors (hormonal, neurobiological and psychosocial) have been identified. Testosterone plays an excitatory role in sexual desire but the mechanism is not yet well understood. Treatment with testosterone has been shown to improve sexual desire in menopausal women with HSDD. However, there are limited data concerning premenopausal women and long-term safety. At present, physiological testosterone preparations for use in women are not available in Switzerland.

  17. Depressed affect as a predictor of increased desire for alcohol in current drinkers of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Greeley, J; Swift, W; Heather, N

    1992-07-01

    Male drinkers (n = 45) were asked to rate their desire for a drink of alcohol when presented with the sight, smell and taste of their preferred alcoholic beverage and of a lemon cordial drink. The subjects' level of depressed affect on that day and their average daily consumption of alcohol over the last 30 days were measured prior to exposure to these cues. Both level of depressed affect and log of mean daily alcohol consumption predicted increased desire for alcohol when alcohol cues were present, accounting for 40% of the variance in desire. When presented with the lemon cordial cues only 14% of the variance in desire for alcohol was explained by these variables. Also, Spearman's rank order correlations were calculated between heavy drinkers' (n = 19) ratings of self-efficacy to resist drinking and desire for alcohol in the presence of the alcohol cues. There were significant negative correlations between desire for alcohol and self-efficacy ratings on the 'urges and temptations' and 'positive social situations' subscales of the Situational Confidence Questionnaire-39. Several alternative accounts of these findings are discussed.

  18. Adolescents' and parents' evaluations of helping versus fulfilling personal desires in family situations.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Judith G; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Gettman, Denise C; Villalobos, Myriam; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Metzger, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 118 predominantly European American families with early and middle adolescents (M(ages)= 12.32 and 15.18 years) and 1 parent evaluated hypothetical conflicts between adolescents' and parents' requests for assistance versus the other's personal desires. Evaluations differed by level of need, but in low-need situations, adolescents viewed teens as more obligated to help parents than did parents, whereas parents rated it as more permissible for teens to satisfy personal desires than did teenagers. Justifications for helping focused on concern for others, role responsibilities, and among parents, psychological reasons. Middle adolescents reasoned about role responsibilities more and viewed satisfying personal desires as less selfish than did early adolescents, but satisfying personal desires was seen as more selfish by parents of middle than early adolescents. Implications for adolescent-parent relationships are discussed.

  19. Desired lifetime and end-of-life desires across adulthood from 20 to 90: a dual-source information model.

    PubMed

    Lang, Frieder R; Baltes, Paul B; Wagner, Gert G

    2007-09-01

    How long do people want to live, and how does scientific research on aging affect such desires? A dual-source information model proposes that aging expectations and desires are informed differently by two sources: personal experiences on the one hand, and scientific and societal influences on the other. Two studies with independent German national samples explored desires regarding length of life and end of life among adults between the ages of 20 and 90. FINDINGS ARE: First, desired lifetime is consistent at around 85 years with few age differences. Second, experimental induction of good or bad news from research on aging has little effect in Study 1. Third, interest in science has moderating effects on desired lifetime in Study 2. Fourth, there is a high prevalence of a strong desire to control the "when and how" of one's death, although only 11% of the individuals completed a living will. Findings are consistent with the dual-source information model.

  20. Inclusion and Diversity from Hegelylacan Point of View: Do We Desire Our Desire for Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tania Cristina B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of social exclusion, reported to be intrinsically connected to mathematical teaching from the perspective of Hegel's philosophy and Lacan's psychoanalysis. It provides a characterization of mathematics from a language viewpoint discusses the perennial demand for more mathematical achieving from the perspective of…

  1. A Comparison of the Readability of Community College Social Science Textbooks with Student Reading Levels and the Effect on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertalan, John J.

    A determination of the reading grade placement levels (GPLs) and final course grades of community college students in relationship to the GPLs of their assigned social science textbooks was the focus of a study at Citrus Community College (Florida). Dale-Chall readability placement levels were calculated for eight textbooks used in 19 classes of…

  2. Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Desire to Marry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Scott J.

    1993-01-01

    Used data from over 2,000 respondents to explore racial, ethnic, and gender differences in desire to marry. African Americans were significantly less desiring of marriage than whites; racial difference among men was significantly larger than difference among women. Compared to nonhispanic whites of same gender, Hispanic men were more likely,…

  3. Neural Correlates of Belief- and Desire-Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Theory of mind requires an understanding of both desires and beliefs. Moreover, children developmentally acquire an understanding of desires before beliefs, even when compared via tasks with matched formats and demands. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this developmental lag or the neurocognitive underpinnings of desire reasoning. Previous functional neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have neglected the direct comparison of these developmentally critical mental-state concepts. Here we provide evidence for frontal and right-posterior neural activities associated with desire- and belief-judgments. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) were recorded as adult participants performed tasks requiring reasoning about diverse-desires and diverse-beliefs (and as a control, about parallel physical situations). A late slow wave (LSW), with a mid-frontal scalp distribution, was associated with desire- and belief-judgments. A LSW, with a right-posterior scalp distribution, was only associated with belief-judgments. These findings demonstrate neural overlap as well as critical differences in reasoning explicitly about desires and beliefs and provide an explanation for the developmental lag: children need to recruit additional neural processes for reasoning about beliefs beyond a common neural system for reasoning about mental states more generally (desires and beliefs). PMID:19630900

  4. Bibliotherapy for low sexual desire: evidence for effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Mintz, Laurie B; Balzer, Alexandra M; Zhao, Xinting; Bush, Hannah E

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of bibliotherapy for low sexual desire among women, which is the most frequent sexual concern brought to counselors. Forty-five women responded to an advertisement for participation in a study on low sexual desire and were assigned to either the intervention or the wait-list control group. The intervention group completed the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Desire (HISD; Apt & Hurlbert, 1992) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; R. Rosen et al., 2000), read the self-help book under study in 6 weeks, and completed the measures a second time. The control group completed the same measures 6 weeks apart. Results demonstrated that the intervention group made statistically greater gains over time as compared with the control group on measures of sexual desire (HISD and FSFI Desire subscale), sexual arousal (FSFI Arousal subscale), sexual satisfaction (FSFI Satisfaction subscale), and overall sexual functioning (FSFI Total Score). A subset of participants in the intervention group participated in a 7-week follow-up study, and these participants maintained their gains in sexual desire and overall sexual functioning. Findings have important implications for future research on the efficacy of bibliotherapy generally and for low sexual desire specifically. Results also have vital implications for the treatment of low sexual desire.

  5. Bibliotherapy for Low Sexual Desire: Evidence for Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Balzer, Alexandra M.; Zhao, Xinting; Bush, Hannah E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of bibliotherapy for low sexual desire among women, which is the most frequent sexual concern brought to counselors. Forty-five women responded to an advertisement for participation in a study on low sexual desire and were assigned to either the intervention or the wait-list control group. The intervention…

  6. Desiring Silence: Gender, Race and Pedagogy in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzei, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    In my work with white teachers, predominantly female, I assert that "desire" is functioning to produce silent discourses that serve to perpetuate a continuation of white privilege. Based on a qualitative research study exploring the nature of silences in teacher education classrooms, this paper seeks to explore how desire is functioning…

  7. Intergalactic Encounters: Desire and the Political Immediacy of Children's Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The author of this article creates a semblance between Deleuze and Guattari's conception of a politics of desire and the four realities, as outlined by Brent and Marjorie Wilson. By making this theoretical move, the author advances the idea that children's drawing unfolds from one moment to the next through the assemblages of desire that are most…

  8. "Non-Coercive Rearrangements": Theorizing Desire in TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motha, Suhanthie; Lin, Angel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that at the center of every English language learning moment lies desire: desire for the language; for the identities that English represents; for capital, power, and images that are associated with English; for what is believed to lie beyond the doors that English unlocks. However, despite its centrality within…

  9. The Role of Creativity and Proactivity on Perceived Entrepreneurial Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampetakis, Leonidas A.

    2008-01-01

    The study tested the extent to which perceived desirability mediates the effects of student creativity and proactivity on entrepreneurial intent. Participants were 199 engineering and business university students from Greek Universities. Results using Structural Equation Modelling indicated that perceived desirability fully mediates the…

  10. Human Sexual Desire Disorder: Do We Have a Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.; Henry, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD), loss of sexual desire for sexual activity, is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions of men and women in the United States. This article presents an overview of this specific sexual dysfunction including incidence, possible causes, treatment options, and the role of the health educator in addressing…

  11. Patterns of Workplace Supervisor Support Desired by Abused Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Nancy A.; Yragui, Nanette L.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Glass, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand differences in patterns of supervisor support desired by female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) and to examine whether the pattern of support desired at work is reflective of a woman's stage of change in the abusive relationship, IPV-related work interference, and IPV-related job reprimands or…

  12. Breaking up with Deleuze: Desire and Valuing the Irreconcilable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Eve

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Eve Tuck grapples with Gilles Deleuze's conceptualization of desire, finding it simultaneously generative and unsatisfying. Recognizing that Deleuze will not "say" what Tuck wants him to say about desire--that it is smart, and constitutes expertise--Tuck reasons that there is only one thing she can do: break up with Deleuze. The…

  13. From desires to behavior: Moderating factors in a fertility transition

    PubMed Central

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Agadjanian, Victor

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Extensive research in both developed and developing countries has shown that preferences and intentions for future childbearing predict behavior. However, very little of this research has examined high-fertility contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the factors that increase or decrease correspondence between fertility desires and behavior in these settings are not well understood. OBJECTIVE This article documents the degree to which the desire to stop childbearing predicts fertility behavior over the short term among married women in rural southern Mozambique, a context where fertility transition is still in the early stages. Analyses test the moderating powers of individual, household, and community characteristics. METHODS Analyses use data from a longitudinal survey of married women of reproductive age (N=1678) carried out in 2006 and 2009 in rural areas of southern Mozambique. Logistic regression models are estimated to predict childbearing between 2006 and 2009 based on desires to stop childbearing and characteristics measured in 2006. RESULTS As expected, the desire to stop childbearing is strongly predictive of fertility behavior. Household wealth, local adult AIDS mortality, and being married to an unsuccessful labor migrant are associated with higher correspondence between reported desire to stop childbearing and fertility behavior. CONCLUSIONS Both factors related to the ability to carry out desires to stop childbearing and factors related to the strength and consistency of these desires moderate the association between desires and behaviors. Future research should expand measurement of fertility preferences to incorporate their strength and consistency as well as direction. PMID:23626485

  14. Social Desirability, Environmental Attitudes, and General Ecological Behaviour in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerke, Britta; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Socially desirable responses have been widely discussed as potentially biasing self-reported measures of environmental attitude and behaviour assessment. The direct and moderating effect of social desirability on children has not been analysed before. By applying a Lie scale together with a two-factor environmental attitude set measure and a scale…

  15. Neural Correlates of Belief- and Desire-Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    Theory of mind requires an understanding of both desires and beliefs. Moreover, children understand desires before beliefs. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this developmental lag. Additionally, previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have neglected the direct comparison of these developmentally critical mental-state…

  16. Evidence-based treatments for low sexual desire in women.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A

    2017-02-22

    Low sexual desire is the most common sexual complaint in women, with multinational studies finding that at least a third of women experience low sexual desire. No single etiology for the development of Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder, the diagnosis laid out by the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, has been established. There has been considerable interest in pharmacological approaches to improving low desire, and agents targeting a range of neurotransmitters have been examined. To date, only flibanserin, a centrally acting medication targeting the serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine systems, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Despite statistically significant effects on sexual desire, sexual distress, and sexually satisfying events, side-effects are significant, and flibanserin is completely contraindicated with alcohol. As such, there has been renewed interest in advancing the science of psychological approaches to low desire, including cognitive behavioral and mindfulness therapies.

  17. Desire to work as a death anxiety buffer mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yaakobi, Erez

    2015-01-01

    Four studies were conducted to examine the death anxiety buffering function of work as a terror management mechanism, and the possible moderating role of culture. In Study 1, making mortality salient led to higher reports of participants' desire to work. In Study 2, activating thoughts of fulfillment of the desire to work after mortality salience reduced the accessibility of death-related thoughts. In Study 3, activating thoughts of fulfillment of the desire to work reduced the effects of mortality salience on out-group derogation. In Study 4, priming thoughts about obstacles to the actualization of desire to work led to greater accessibility of death-related thoughts. Although two different cultures with contrasting work values were examined, the results were consistent, indicating that the desire to work serves as a death anxiety buffer mechanism in both cultures.

  18. Neural correlates of belief- and desire-reasoning.

    PubMed

    Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Wellman, Henry M

    2009-01-01

    Theory of mind requires an understanding of both desires and beliefs. Moreover, children understand desires before beliefs. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this developmental lag. Additionally, previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have neglected the direct comparison of these developmentally critical mental-state concepts. Event-related brain potentials were recorded as participants (N = 24; mean age = 22 years) reasoned about diverse-desires, diverse-beliefs, and parallel physical situations. A mid-frontal late slow wave (LSW) was associated with desire and belief judgments. A right-posterior LSW was only associated with belief judgments. These findings demonstrate neural overlap and critical differences in reasoning explicitly about desires and beliefs, and they suggest children recruit additional neural processes for belief judgments beyond a common, more general, mentalizing neural system.

  19. Social desirability in personality inventories: symptoms, diagnosis and prescribed cure.

    PubMed

    Bäckström, Martin; Björklund, Fredrik

    2013-04-01

    An analysis of social desirability in personality assessment is presented. Starting with the symptoms, Study 1 showed that mean ratings of graded personality items are moderately to strongly linearly related to social desirability (Self Deception, Impression formation, and the first Principal Component), suggesting that item popularity may be a useful heuristic tool for identifying items which elicit socially desirable responding. We diagnose the cause of socially desirable responding as an interaction between the evaluative content of the item and enhancement motivation in the rater. Study 2 introduced a possible cure; evaluative neutralization of items. To test the feasibility of the method lay psychometricians (undergraduates) reformulated existing personality test items according to written instructions. The new items were indeed lower in social desirability while essentially retaining the five factor structure and reliability of the inventory. We conclude that although neutralization is no miracle cure, it is simple and has beneficial effects.

  20. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  1. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  2. On Competences and Values: From the Desire to Educate to Educating the Desire of Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrañaga, Roberto Sancho

    2015-01-01

    The competence discourse issued by the Colombian Ministry of National Education defines an ontological duty, a set of logics for the education of subjectivity. Some interesting elements result from this analysis. The first level, or denotative level, manages a management or business cultural code. This code is closely related to the second level…

  3. STUDYING TRAVEL-RELATED INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENTS AND DESIRES BY COMBINING HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED ORDINAL VARIABLES.

    PubMed

    Diana, Marco; Song, Tingting; Wittkowski, Knut M

    2009-03-01

    Ordinal measures are frequently encountered in travel behavior research. This paper presents a new method for combining them when a hierarchical structure of the data can be presumed. This method is applied to study the subjective assessment of the amount of travel by different transportation modes among a group of French clerical workers, along with the desire to increase or decrease the use of such modes. Some advantages of this approach over traditional data reduction technique such as factor analysis when applied to ordinal data are then illustrated. In this study, combining evidence from several variables sheds light on the observed moderately negative relationship between the personal assessment of the amount of travel and the desire to increase or decrease it, thus integrating previous partial (univariate) results. We find a latent demand for travel, thus contributing to clarify the behavioral mechanisms behind the induced traffic phenomenon. Categorizing the above relationship by transportation mode shows a desire for a less environmental-friendly mix of modes (i.e. a greater desire to use heavy motorized modes and a lower desire to use two-wheeled modes), whenever the respondents do not feel to travel extensively. This result, combined with previous theoretical investigations concerning the determinants of the desire to alter trips consumption levels, shows the importance of making people aware of how much they travel.

  4. Sexual desire among Mexican-American older women: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Luciana; Maciel, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Although researchers have related sexual desire in older women to quality-of-life variables such as overall physical health, well-being, and life satisfaction, little is known about the socio-cultural mechanisms that shape sexual desire in minority ethnic older women. We investigated this sexual variable among Mexican-American older women in a qualitative fashion. Date were collected from 25 community-dwelling women of Mexican descent (aged 59–89 years) using a semi-structured interview protocol and a grounded theory approach. We inquired about dimensions of sexual desire including sexual fantasies and the desire to engage in sexual activity within the context of several socio-cultural and health-related factors. Using content analysis, we were able to identify key themes differentiating among respondents’ levels of sexual desire and fantasies. These included the availability of a suitable partner, cultural and religious norms pertinent to women’s sexuality, stigma related to sexuality in older age, and health status. Traditional socio-cultural restrictions coupled with unmarried status and physical health problems emerged as critical issues associated with limited or no sexual fantasies and desire in our sample. Many respondents indicated that their sexual needs were unmet. PMID:20526982

  5. STUDYING TRAVEL-RELATED INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENTS AND DESIRES BY COMBINING HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED ORDINAL VARIABLES

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tingting; Wittkowski, Knut M.

    2010-01-01

    Ordinal measures are frequently encountered in travel behavior research. This paper presents a new method for combining them when a hierarchical structure of the data can be presumed. This method is applied to study the subjective assessment of the amount of travel by different transportation modes among a group of French clerical workers, along with the desire to increase or decrease the use of such modes. Some advantages of this approach over traditional data reduction technique such as factor analysis when applied to ordinal data are then illustrated. In this study, combining evidence from several variables sheds light on the observed moderately negative relationship between the personal assessment of the amount of travel and the desire to increase or decrease it, thus integrating previous partial (univariate) results. We find a latent demand for travel, thus contributing to clarify the behavioral mechanisms behind the induced traffic phenomenon. Categorizing the above relationship by transportation mode shows a desire for a less environmental-friendly mix of modes (i.e. a greater desire to use heavy motorized modes and a lower desire to use two-wheeled modes), whenever the respondents do not feel to travel extensively. This result, combined with previous theoretical investigations concerning the determinants of the desire to alter trips consumption levels, shows the importance of making people aware of how much they travel. PMID:20953273

  6. Evaluating the User Experience of Exercising Reaching Motions With a Robot That Predicts Desired Movement Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2016-01-01

    The notion of an optimal difficulty during practice has been articulated in many areas of cognitive psychology: flow theory, the challenge point framework, and desirable difficulties. Delivering exercises at a participant's desired difficulty has the potential to improve both motor learning and users' engagement in therapy. Motivation and engagement are among the contributing factors to the success of exercise programs. The authors previously demonstrated that error amplification can be used to introduce levels of challenge into a robotic reaching task, and that machine-learning algorithms can dynamically adjust difficulty to the desired level with 85% accuracy. Building on these findings, we present the results of a proof-of-concept study investigating the impacts of practicing under desirable difficulty conditions. A control condition with a predefined random order for difficulty levels was deemed more suitable for this study (compared to constant or continuously increasing difficulty). By practicing the task at their desirable difficulties, participants in the experimental group perceived their performance at a significantly higher level and reported lower required effort to complete the task, in comparison to a control group. Moreover, based on self-reports, participants in the experimental group were willing, on average, to continue the training session for 4.6 more training blocks (∼45 min) compared to the control group's average. This study demonstrates the efficiency of delivering the exercises at the user's desired difficulty level to improve the user's engagement in exercise tasks. Future work will focus on clinical feasibility of this approach in increasing stroke survivors' engagement in their therapy programs.

  7. Impact of a Social-Emotional and Character Development Program on School-Level Indicators of Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, and Disciplinary Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled design. The "Positive Action" Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse…

  8. The Impact of a One-to-One Laptop Computer Program on the Literacy Achievement of Eighth-Grade Students with Differing Measured Cognitive Skill Levels Who Are Eligible and Not Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch Program Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eric G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a one-to-one laptop computer program on the literacy achievement of eighth-grade students with above average, average, and below average measured cognitive skill levels who are eligible and not eligible for free or reduced price lunch program participation. The study analyzed, student…

  9. Un modelo de coordinacion en la ensenanza del ingles en un mismo nivel de conocimientos (A Model of Coordination in the Teaching of English at a Given Level of Achievement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauregui S., Beto

    1971-01-01

    Coordination among English classes at any given level depends on a number of factors. The classes must have a common syllabus with respect to course content, course intensity, and textbooks. The learning conditions should be the same for all groups. All classes should be the same size and have the same average of achievement based on the results…

  10. Mother and Father Socially Desirable Responding in Nine Countries: Two Kinds of Agreement and Relations to Parenting Self-Reports

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Maria Uribe Tirado, Liliana; Zelli, Arnaldo; Peña Alampay, Liane; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Silvia Bombi, Anna; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We assessed 2 forms of agreement between mothers’ and fathers’ socially desirable responding in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States (N = 1110 families). Mothers and fathers in all nine countries reported socially desirable responding in the upper half of the distribution, and countries varied minimally (but China was higher than the cross-country grand mean and Sweden lower). Mothers and fathers did not differ in reported levels of socially desirable responding, and mothers’ and fathers’ socially desirable responding were largely uncorrelated. With one exception, mothers’ and fathers’ socially desirable responding were similarly correlated with self-perceptions of parenting, and correlations varied somewhat across countries. These findings are set in a discussion of socially desirable responding, cultural psychology, and family systems. PMID:25043708

  11. Mother and father socially desirable responding in nine countries: Two kinds of agreement and relations to parenting self-reports.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Lansford, Jennifer E; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul

    2015-06-01

    We assessed 2 forms of agreement between mothers' and fathers' socially desirable responding in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand and the United States (N = 1110 families). Mothers and fathers in all 9 countries reported socially desirable responding in the upper half of the distribution, and countries varied minimally (but China was higher than the cross-country grand mean and Sweden lower). Mothers and fathers did not differ in reported levels of socially desirable responding, and mothers' and fathers' socially desirable responding were largely uncorrelated. With one exception, mothers' and fathers' socially desirable responding were similarly correlated with self-perceptions of parenting, and correlations varied somewhat across countries. These findings are set in a discussion of socially desirable responding, cultural psychology and family systems.

  12. The ethical desirability of moral bioenhancement: a review of reasons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The debate on the ethical aspects of moral bioenhancement focuses on the desirability of using biomedical as opposed to traditional means to achieve moral betterment. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the ethical reasons presented in the literature for and against moral bioenhancement. Discussion A review was performed and resulted in the inclusion of 85 articles. We classified the arguments used in those articles in the following six clusters: (1) why we (don’t) need moral bioenhancement, (2) it will (not) be possible to reach consensus on what moral bioenhancement should involve, (3) the feasibility of moral bioenhancement and the status of current scientific research, (4) means and processes of arriving at moral improvement matter ethically, (5) arguments related to the freedom, identity and autonomy of the individual, and (6) arguments related to social/group effects and dynamics. We discuss each argument separately, and assess the debate as a whole. First, there is little discussion on what distinguishes moral bioenhancement from treatment of pathological deficiencies in morality. Furthermore, remarkably little attention has been paid so far to the safety, risks and side-effects of moral enhancement, including the risk of identity changes. Finally, many authors overestimate the scientific as well as the practical feasibility of the interventions they discuss, rendering the debate too speculative. Summary Based on our discussion of the arguments used in the debate on moral enhancement, and our assessment of this debate, we advocate a shift in focus. Instead of speculating about non-realistic hypothetical scenarios such as the genetic engineering of morality, or morally enhancing ‘the whole of humanity’, we call for a more focused debate on realistic options of biomedical treatment of moral pathologies and the concrete moral questions these treatments raise. PMID:25227512

  13. The Stability of Social Desirability: A Latent Change Analysis.

    PubMed

    Haberecht, Katja; Schnuerer, Inga; Gaertner, Beate; John, Ulrich; Freyer-Adam, Jennis

    2015-08-01

    Social desirability has been shown to be stable in samples with higher school education. However, little is known about the stability of social desirability in more heterogeneous samples differing in school education. This study aimed to investigate the stability of social desirability and which factors predict interindividual differences in intraindividual change. As part of a randomized controlled trial, 1,243 job seekers with unhealthy alcohol use were systematically recruited at three job agencies. A total of 1,094 individuals (87.8%) participated in at least one of two follow-ups (6 and 15 months after baseline) and constitute this study's sample. The Social Desirability Scale-17 was applied. Two latent change models were conducted: Model 1 tested for interindividual differences in intraindividual change of social desirability between both follow-ups; Model 2 included possible predictors (age, sex, education, current employment status) of interindividual differences in intraindividual change. Model 1 revealed a significant decrease of social desirability over time. Model 2 revealed school education to be the only significant predictor of change. These findings indicate that stability of social desirability may depend on school education. It may not be as stable in individuals with higher school education as in individuals with lower education.

  14. EGBIRT and DESIRE; measuring the CIBR at 3 AU.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, J. C.; Beichman, C. A.

    A space mission with a small infrared telescope taken to 3 AU from the Sun could address the problem of detecting the first galaxies by measuring the accumulated radiation produced by all such objects. The cosmic infrared background radiation (CIBR) is the main repository for the energy liberated in early generations of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, but it has never been detected. Its measurement would be a quantum leap for cosmology, but Galactic stars and dust and interplanetary dust have set the limits so far. A new instrument, observing 3 AU from the Sun, could reduce the effects of the foregrounds by two orders of magnitude. Studies of two versions of such an instrument have already been proposed to NASA, the GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Extragalactic Infrared Background Telescope (EGBIRT) and the JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) Deep Space Infrared Experiment (DESIRE). Both involve very small telescopes with array detectors, cooled to reduce detector dark currents and telescope emission. The visible and near IR regions are scientifically very promising. A small deep space mission could easily measure the predicted levels of the CIBR at a price far less than that of COBE.

  15. CBM Reading, Mathematics, and Written Expression at the Secondary Level: Examining Latent Composite Relations among Indices and Unique Predictions with a State Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-01-01

    A paucity of research has examined the utility of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for data-based decision making at the secondary level. As schools move to multitiered systems of service delivery, it is conceivable that multiple screening measures will be used that address various academic subject areas. The value of including different CBM…

  16. Grade Level, Study Time, and Grade Retention and Their Effects on Motivation, Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, and Mathematics Achievement: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José Carlos; Valle, António; González-Pienda, Julio; Lourenço, Abílio

    2013-01-01

    The present study complements previous research findings with new data to improve our understanding of the relationship between motivational variables and academic performance in math mediated by self-regulated learning (SRL). A structural equation model with predictor (i.e., grade retention, grade level, and study time), process (i.e., perceived…

  17. Exploratory Study of Levels of Cognitive Skills in Achievement Goals Program, Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, and a Commercial Program Using the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego City Schools, CA. Evaluation Services Dept.

    Using Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956), this study explores whether the San Diego Schools are teaching and/or testing higher level cognitive skills. The Taxonomy arranges cognitive processes in ascending order in six areas; (1) recall of knowledge; (2) comprehension; (3) application; (4) analysis; (5) synthesis; and (6)…

  18. The Relationship between Approaches to Teaching and Approaches to Studying: A Two-Level Structural Equation Model for Biology Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario, Pedro; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Ferrando, Pere J.; Paiva, Maria Olimpia; Lourenco, Abilio; Cerezo, Rebeca; Valle, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1970s, a large body of research has reported on the differences between deep and surface approaches to student learning. More recently, however, this metaphor for students' approaches to learning has been applied to the practice of teaching. Studies at the university level have identified two approaches to teaching: the information…

  19. Using a Multidimensional Approach to Measure the Impact of Classroom-Level Factors upon Student Achievement: A Study Testing the Validity of the Dynamic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic model does not only refer to different effectiveness factors and groupings of factors operating at different levels but also supports that each factor can be defined and measured using 5 dimensions: frequency, focus, stage, quality, and differentiation. The importance of taking each dimension into account is raised in this paper.…

  20. Self-transcendence, sexual desire, and sexual frequency.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Pestana, José; Costa, David

    2017-04-03

    Self-forgetfulness is a facet of self-transcendence characterized by tendency to experience altered states of consciousness. We examined associations of self-forgetfulness with sexual desire and frequency. 261 Portuguese completed the self-forgetfulness subscale of the Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised, a measure of openness to experience, and a questionnaire on desired and actual frequency of vaginal intercourse, noncoital sex, and masturbation in the past month. In simple and partial correlations controlling for openness to experience and relationship status, women's self-forgetfulness correlated with desired frequency of intercourse and noncoital sex. For men, self-forgetfulness correlated with actual frequency of intercourse and noncoital sex.

  1. Disorders of desire: addiction and problems of intimacy.

    PubMed

    Keane, Helen

    2004-01-01

    This essay investigates the tensions produced by the categorization of different forms of excessive desire under the singular model of addiction, and it challenges the increasing acceptance of addiction as an all-purpose explanation for unruly desires through a comparison of the different forms of disordered desire in sex addiction and alcoholism. Moreover, it argues for a broad understanding of addictive processes to undermine the normative and moralizing assumptions of addiction discourses. Refiguring addiction as a kind of intimacy is one way of making sense of the intense relationships people can develop with substances and with activities.

  2. Romantic love and sexual desire in close relationships.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Gian C; Turner, Rebecca A; Keltner, Dacher; Campos, Belinda; Altemus, Margaret

    2006-05-01

    Drawing on recent claims in the study of relationships, attachment, and emotion, the authors hypothesized that romantic love serves a commitment-related function and sexual desire a reproduction-related function. Consistent with these claims, in Study 1, brief experiences of romantic love and sexual desire observed in a 3-min interaction between romantic partners were related to distinct feeling states, distinct nonverbal displays, and commitment- and reproductive-related relationship outcomes, respectively. In Study 2, the nonverbal display of romantic love was related to the release of oxytocin. Discussion focuses on the place of romantic love and sexual desire in the literature on emotion.

  3. Pharmacologic treatment options for hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Bolour, Sheila Y; Braunstein, Glenn D

    2005-09-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is the most common cause of sexual dysfunction in women. According to a national survey, approximately a third of all women experience low sexual desire. The etiology of the disorder is often multifactorial. Research in treatment options for hypoactive sexual desire disorder is limited. In this article, treatment options including sex therapy, hormone therapy (estrogen, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, tibolone), non-hormonal medical therapies (buproprion, buspirone, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, amantadine and apomorphine) and herbal therapies (Avlimil(R), Arginmax(R), Zestra(R), yohimbine and Ginkgo biloba) are reviewed.

  4. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  5. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  6. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  7. Sexual desire and linguistic analysis: a comparison of sexually-abused and non-abused women.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M

    2007-02-01

    Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored.

  8. To be or not to be in sexual desire: the androgen dilemma.

    PubMed

    Nappi, R E

    2015-10-01

    The androgen milieu and sexual desire in women seem to be tightly linked because they both decline with age. However, we are still missing a cut-off plasma level for androgens (total testosterone, free testosterone) or androgen precursors (androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS)) to diagnose androgen deficiency in clinical practice. Apart from the complex multidimensional nature of sexual desire across the reproductive lifespan, the correlation between measurements of testosterone and specific signs and symptoms has been difficult because, according to guidelines, most available assays are unreliable at baseline and under hormonal treatments. Recent data obtained with accurate methods based on mass spectrometry to measure total testosterone levels found a significant positive association with sexual desire, arousal and masturbation in midlife US women across the menopausal transition. Even in a European cohort of healthy women aged 19-65 years, sexual desire, measured with a validated questionnaire, correlated overall with free testosterone and androstenedione measured with mass spectrometry. Collectively, these data support the therapeutic use of testosterone for low desire and sexual dysfunction in those clinical conditions in which androgen deficiency may be accurately diagnosed.

  9. High-performance n-type organic semiconductors: incorporating specific electron-withdrawing motifs to achieve tight molecular stacking and optimized energy levels.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sun Woo; Kim, Jong H; Shin, Seunghoon; Yang, Hoichang; An, Byeong-Kwan; Yang, Lin; Park, Soo Young

    2012-02-14

    Novel π–conjugated cyanostilbene-based semiconductors (Hex-3,5-TFPTA and Hex-4-TFPTA) with tight molecular stacking and optimized energy levels are synthesized. Hex-4-TFPTA exhibits high-performance n-type organic field-effect transistor (OFET) properties with electron mobilities as high as 2.14 cm2 V−1s−1 and on-off current ratios

  10. Social Desirability, Environmental Attitudes, and General Ecological Behaviour in Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerke, Britta; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-03-01

    Socially desirable responses have been widely discussed as potentially biasing self-reported measures of environmental attitude and behaviour assessment. The direct and moderating effect of social desirability on children has not been analysed before. By applying a Lie scale together with a two-factor environmental attitude set measure and a scale of self-reported General Ecological Behaviour (GEB) to 198 pupils, we found a moderate impact of Lie scores on only one of both attitude measures and a small impact on GEB. In a multiple regression analysis general behaviour was predicted by attitude, social desirability, and the interaction of both. Social desirability had no moderating effect on the relationship between environmental attitudes and behaviour. Implications of these outcomes for research on environmental issues with children are discussed.

  11. Motivational neuroscience: instant desire for something you know is bad.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2013-03-18

    Avoiding what you know is bad is a major challenge for recovering addicts. New research suggests that powerful desire can develop even for cues that have always been repulsive. Memories about learned cues can promote addiction in certain conditions.

  12. Treating Inhibited Sexual Desire: A Marital Therapy Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Linda Stone; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Defines inhibited sexual desire (ISD) as a relational phenomenon best treated in the marital context. Discusses ISD as it relates to the central marital issues of power, intimacy, and boundaries. (JAC)

  13. Method for preparing salt solutions having desired properties

    DOEpatents

    Ally, Moonis R.; Braunstein, Jerry

    1994-01-01

    The specification discloses a method for preparing salt solutions which exhibit desired thermodynamic properties. The method enables prediction of the value of the thermodynamic properties for single and multiple salt solutions over a wide range of conditions from activity data and constants which are independent of concentration and temperature. A particular application of the invention is in the control of salt solutions in a process to provide a salt solution which exhibits the desired properties.

  14. Low educational level but not low income impairs the achievement of cytogenetic remission in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rego, Monica Napoleão Fortes; Metze, Konradin; Lorand-Metze, Irene

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Brazil, imatinib mesylate is supplied as the first-line therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase through the public universal healthcare program, Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). We studied the socio-demographic factors that influenced therapy success in a population in the northeast region of Brazil. METHODS: Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia from the state of Piauí were treated in only one reference center. Diagnosis was based on WHO 2008 criteria. Risk was assessed by Sokal, Hasford and EUTOS scores. Patients received 400 mg imatinib daily. We studied the influence of the following factors on the achievement of complete cytogenetic response within one year of treatment: age, clinical risk category, time interval between diagnosis and the start of imatinib treatment, geographic distance from the patient's home to the hospital, years of formal education and monthly income. RESULTS: Among 103 patients studied, the median age was 42 years; 65% of the patients had 2-9 years of formal education, and the median monthly income was approximately 100 US$. Imatinib was started in the first year after diagnosis (early chronic phase) in 69 patients. After 12 months of treatment, 68 patients had a complete cytogenetic response. The Hasford score, delay to start imatinib and years of formal education influenced the attainment of a complete cytogenetic response, whereas income and the distance from the home to the healthcare facility did not. CONCLUSION: Patients require additional healthcare information to better understand the importance of long-term oral anticancer treatment and to improve their compliance with the treatment. PMID:26039947

  15. Children’s Social Desirability: Effects of Test Assessment Mode

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Patricia H.; Baxter, Suzanne D.; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.; Smith, Albert F.; Collins, Kathleen L.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Alyssa L.; Puryear, Megan P.; Vaadi, Kate K.; Finney, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined a recently developed short version of the Children’s Social Desirability (CSD-S) scale with 157 fourth-grade children. Of interest was a) whether one-month test-retest reliability would vary as a function of test assessment mode (interview or classroom), gender, race, SES, and BMI percentile, and b) whether the degree of social desirability would vary as a function of these same variables. The CSD-S scale showed good test-retest reliability for both interview and classroom assessment modes (.85 and .83, respectively). Internal consistency also was good (first interview administration = .84; first classroom administration = .81). Reliability was good and did not vary significantly over assessment mode or any child subgroup variables, suggesting that the CSD-S scale is appropriate for general use. The interview mode elicited significantly more socially desirable answers than did the classroom mode. Social desirability did not differ across child subgroups. Some of these findings were examined, and replicated, on another sample. Thus, the CSD-S scale may be used with diverse groups of children to a) reliably assess a social desirability bias that may systematically bias other self-reports of interest to researchers and b) examine individual differences in degree of social desirability. PMID:25870465

  16. Children's Social Desirability: Effects of Test Assessment Mode.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patricia H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B; Smith, Albert F; Collins, Kathleen L; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Alyssa L; Puryear, Megan P; Vaadi, Kate K; Finney, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    This study examined a recently developed short version of the Children's Social Desirability (CSD-S) scale with 157 fourth-grade children. Of interest was a) whether one-month test-retest reliability would vary as a function of test assessment mode (interview or classroom), gender, race, SES, and BMI percentile, and b) whether the degree of social desirability would vary as a function of these same variables. The CSD-S scale showed good test-retest reliability for both interview and classroom assessment modes (.85 and .83, respectively). Internal consistency also was good (first interview administration = .84; first classroom administration = .81). Reliability was good and did not vary significantly over assessment mode or any child subgroup variables, suggesting that the CSD-S scale is appropriate for general use. The interview mode elicited significantly more socially desirable answers than did the classroom mode. Social desirability did not differ across child subgroups. Some of these findings were examined, and replicated, on another sample. Thus, the CSD-S scale may be used with diverse groups of children to a) reliably assess a social desirability bias that may systematically bias other self-reports of interest to researchers and b) examine individual differences in degree of social desirability.

  17. Textbook use and the biology education desired state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Sandra S.; Kyle, William C., Jr.

    This microethnographic study investigated the use of textbooks in six high school biology teachers' classrooms. Purposeful sampling techniques identified three textbook-centered (TC) teachers and three multiple-reference (MR) teachers. Composite profiles of TC and MR teachers and their classroom environments were constructed using data collected during classroom observations. The data were categorized and analyzed using the Project Synthesis desired state and actual state categories and descriptors as a framework (Harms & Yager, 1981). Thus, this study sought to ascertain if the nature of teachers' textbook use reveals relationships between factors indicative of the biology education desired state or actual state criteria. TC biology classrooms aligned with the actual state criteria in over 95% of the data entries. MR biology classrooms aligned about equally with the actual state and desired state criteria. Regardless of textbook orientation, teachers did not utilize desired state criteria in the process of evaluating student performance. Factors other than textbook orientation appear to align with desired state criteria. Identified factors include (a) the curricular goals espoused by individual teachers, (b) the instructional strategies used to implement the curriculum, and (c) the teacher's commitment to professional development. Preservice and in-service education must enhance teachers' ability to formulate goals consistent with desired state criteria in science education, develop appropriate strategies to implement those goals, and understand the need for continuing professional development.

  18. Adolescents' and Parents' Evaluations of Helping versus Fulfilling Personal Desires in Family Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Gettman, Denise C.; Villalobos, Myriam; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Metzger, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 118 predominantly European American families with early and middle adolescents (M[subscript ages]=12.32 and 15.18 years) and 1 parent evaluated hypothetical conflicts between adolescents' and parents' requests for assistance versus the other's personal desires. Evaluations differed by level of need, but in low-need situations,…

  19. Mapping Students' Conceptual Modes When Thinking about Chemical Reactions Used to Make a Desired Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrich, M. L.; Talanquer, V.

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this qualitative research study was to uncover major implicit assumptions that students with different levels of training in the discipline apply when thinking and making decisions about chemical reactions used to make a desired product. In particular, we elicited different ways of conceptualizing why chemical reactions happen…

  20. Does Technology Elicit Desired Behaviors in Emotionally Disturbed Students?: Perceptions of Elementary Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to identify the perceptions of educators regarding the potential impact of technology as a motivator to elicit desirable behaviors within students that have been identified with an educational diagnosis of emotional disturbance at the elementary school level. A review of the literature focused on key…

  1. Recodifications of Academic Positions and Reiterations of Desire: Change but Continuity in Gendered Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapping, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the analysis of changes in the social position of women needs to distinguish between levels of social practice and psychic subjectification. The argument draws on Lacan's conception of the relationship between subjectivity, desire and sexual difference to describe gendered aspects of subjectivity embedded within the…

  2. Rasch Modeling of the Self-Deception Scale of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervellione, Kelly L.; Lee, Young-Sun; Bonanno, George A.

    2009-01-01

    Self-deception has become a construct of great interest in individual differences research because it has been associated with levels of resilience and mental health. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) is a self-report measure used for quantifying self-deception. In this study we used Rasch modeling to examine the properties of…

  3. Achievement of practical level critical current densities in Ba1−xKxFe2As2/Ag tapes by conventional cold mechanical deformation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhaoshun; Togano, Kazumasa; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Kumakura, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered iron-based superconductors are potential candidates for high-field magnet applications. However, the critical current densities (Jc) of iron-based superconducting wires remain far below the level needed for practical applications. Here, we show that the transport Jc of Ba1−xKxFe2As2/Ag tapes is significantly enhanced by the combination process of cold flat rolling and uniaxial pressing. At 4.2 K, Jc exceeds the practical level of 105 A/cm2 in magnetic fields up to 6 T. The Jc-H curve shows extremely small magnetic field dependence and maintains a high value of 8.6 × 104 A/cm2 in 10 T. These are the highest values reported so far for iron-based superconducting wires. Hardness measurements and microstructure investigations reveal that the superior Jc in our samples is due to the high core density, more textured grains, and a change in the microcrack structure. These results indicate that iron-based superconductors are very promising for high magnetic field applications. PMID:24513646

  4. Race/ethnic differences in desired body mass index and dieting practices among young women attending college in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Schembre, Susan M; Nigg, Claudio R; Albright, Cheryl L

    2011-07-01

    In accordance with the sociocultural model, race/ethnicity is considered a major influence on factors associated with body image and body dissatisfaction, and eating disorders are often characterized as problems that are primarily limited to young White women from Western cultures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences that exist by race in desired body weight; the importance placed on those ideals; and dieting strategies among White, Asian American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, and other mixed-race young women in Hawai'i. A total of 144 female college students 18-20 years of age were surveyed about body weight as well as eating and exercise habits. Results demonstrated that all the young women wanted to lose weight. However, there were no differences in desired body weight or desired weight change by race after controlling for body mass index suggesting that current weight rather than race/ethnicity is the predominant influence on weight-related concerns. Young White women placed the greatest level of importance on achieving a lower body weight, which corresponded with a greater likelihood to be attempting weight loss (dieting) and greater endorsement of behaviors consistent with weight loss compared to their counterparts. Findings imply that, for young women, race/ethnicity may not have as significant an impact on factors associated with body weight ideals as previously believed. Rather, differences in the value placed on achieving a desired body weight, as it relates to disordered eating, should be further explored among race/ethnic groups.

  5. Spatio-temporal optimization of agricultural practices to achieve a sustainable development at basin level; framework of a case study in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, Natalia; corzo, Gerald; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2016-04-01

    The flood events present during the last years in different basins of the Colombian territory have raised questions on the sensitivity of the regions and if this regions have common features. From previous studies it seems important features in the sensitivity of the flood process were: land cover change, precipitation anomalies and these related to impacts of agriculture management and water management deficiencies, among others. A significant government investment in the outreach activities for adopting and promoting the Colombia National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) is being carried out in different sectors and regions, having as a priority the agriculture sector. However, more information is still needed in the local environment in order to assess were the regions have this sensitivity. Also the continuous change in one region with seasonal agricultural practices have been pointed out as a critical information for optimal sustainable development. This combined spatio-temporal dynamics of crops cycle in relation to climate change (or variations) has an important impact on flooding events at basin areas. This research will develop on the assessment and optimization of the aggregated impact of flood events due to determinate the spatio-temporal dynamic of changes in agricultural management practices. A number of common best agricultural practices have been identified to explore their effect in a spatial hydrological model that will evaluate overall changes. The optimization process consists on the evaluation of best performance in the agricultural production, without having to change crops activities or move to other regions. To achieve this objectives a deep analysis of different models combined with current and future climate scenarios have been planned. An algorithm have been formulated to cover the parametric updates such that the optimal temporal identification will be evaluated in different region on the case study area. Different hydroinformatics

  6. Word-Level Reading Achievement and Behavioral Inattention: Exploring Their Overlap and Relations with Naming Speed and Phonemic Awareness in a Community Sample of Children

    PubMed Central

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Grimbos, Teresa; Ferrari, Julia L. S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of naming speed and phonemic awareness to teacher inattention ratings and word-level reading proficiency in 79 first grade children (43 boys, 36 girls). Participants completed the cognitive and reading measures midway through the school year. Teacher ratings of inattention were obtained for each child at the same time point. A path analysis revealed that behavioral inattention had a significant direct effect on word reading proficiency as well as significant indirect effects through phonemic awareness and naming speed. For pseudoword reading proficiency, the effects of inattention were indirect only through phonemic awareness and naming speed. A regression analysis indicated that naming speed, but not phonemic awareness, was significantly associated with teacher inattention ratings controlling for word reading proficiency. The findings highlight the need to better understand the role of behavioral inattention in the development of emergent literacy skills and reading proficiency. PMID:25178628

  7. Effect of preannealing on the level of second-harmonic generation and defect sites achieved in poled low-water fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Leanne J.; Devilbiss, Alan D.; Tsai, Tsung E.

    1995-11-01

    The level of second-harmonic generation (SHG) in poled low-water fused silica was altered by preannealing in aqueous and dry-nitrogen atmospheres. The effect of water and heat was found to depend on the lot from which the material originated. The effect on the SHG of either a wet or a dry preanneal was sometimes found to be reversible by the opposite preannealing process. For both wet and dry preannealed samples the SHG was found to have both near-surface (< 25- mu m) and bulk ( \\approximately 1.5-mm) components. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data revealed the presence of Si and Ge E\\prime defect sites and showed that the relative concentrations of these sites was altered by the preannealing processes. EPR and SHG data provided evidence for a second-order bond effect along with a third-order hole-filling effect as sources of the nonlinearity. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America

  8. Word-level reading achievement and behavioral inattention: exploring their overlap and relations with naming speed and phonemic awareness in a community sample of children.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Grimbos, Teresa; Ferrari, Julia L S

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the contribution of naming speed and phonemic awareness to teacher inattention ratings and word-level reading proficiency in 79 first grade children (43 boys, 36 girls). Participants completed the cognitive and reading measures midway through the school year. Teacher ratings of inattention were obtained for each child at the same time point. A path analysis revealed that behavioral inattention had a significant direct effect on word reading proficiency as well as significant indirect effects through phonemic awareness and naming speed. For pseudoword reading proficiency, the effects of inattention were indirect only through phonemic awareness and naming speed. A regression analysis indicated that naming speed, but not phonemic awareness, was significantly associated with teacher inattention ratings controlling for word reading proficiency. The findings highlight the need to better understand the role of behavioral inattention in the development of emergent literacy skills and reading proficiency.

  9. Hungry for money: the desire for caloric resources increases the desire for financial resources and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Briers, Barbara; Pandelaere, Mario; Dewitte, Siegfried; Warlop, Luk

    2006-11-01

    This report attempts to provide an evolutionary explanation for humans' motivation to strive for money in present-day societies. We propose that people's desire for money is a modern derivate of their desire for food. In three studies, we show the reciprocal association between the incentive value of food and of money. In Study 1, hungry participants were less likely than satiated participants to donate to charity. In Study 2, participants in a room with an olfactory food cue, known to increase the desire to eat, offered less money in a give-some game compared with participants in a room free of scent. In Study 3, participants' desire for money affected the amount of M&M's they ate in a subsequent taste test, but only among participants who were not restricting their food intake in order to manage their weight.

  10. Nanoscale Polysulfides Reactors Achieved by Chemical Au-S Interaction: Improving the Performance of Li-S Batteries on the Electrode Level.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chao-Ying; Xiao, Pin; Li, Huan-Huan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Lin-Lin; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Wu, Xing-Long; Xie, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2015-12-23

    In this work, the chemical interaction of cathode and lithium polysulfides (LiPSs), which is a more targeted approach for completely preventing the shuttle of LiPSs in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, has been established on the electrode level. Through simply posttreating the ordinary sulfur cathode in atmospheric environment just for several minutes, the Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) were well-decorated on/in the surface and pores of the electrode composed of commercial acetylene black (CB) and sulfur powder. The Au NPs can covalently stabilize the sulfur/LiPSs, which is advantageous for restricting the shuttle effect. Moreover, the LiPSs reservoirs of Au NPs with high conductivity can significantly control the deposition of the trapped LiPSs, contributing to the uniform distribution of sulfur species upon charging/discharging. The slight modification of the cathode with <3 wt % Au NPs has favorably prospered the cycle capacity and stability of Li-S batteries. Moreover, this cathode exhibited an excellent anti-self-discharge ability. The slight decoration for the ordinary electrode, which can be easily accessed in the industrial process, provides a facile strategy for improving the performance of commercial carbon-based Li-S batteries toward practical application.

  11. CBM Reading, Mathematics, and Written Expression at the Secondary Level: Examining Latent Composite Relations Among Indices and Unique Predictions With a State Achievement Test.

    PubMed

    Codding, Robin S; Petscher, Yaacov; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-05-01

    A paucity of research has examined the utility of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for data-based decision making at the secondary level. As schools move to multitiered systems of service delivery, it is conceivable that multiple screening measures will be used that address various academic subject areas. The value of including different CBM indices measures is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the relationship among a variety of reading, writing, and mathematics CBM indices administered to 249 seventh-grade students; (b) investigate amount and patterns of growth; and (c) examine predictive validity to a high-stakes state test using latent factor analysis and multiple indicator growth models. Results indicated strong correspondence among CBM types for fall static scores but weak relationships among slopes. Different patterns of growth were yielded for CBM writing than for CBM reading and mathematics. Findings from this study suggested that although reading, mathematics, and writing CBM were independently and moderately related to both English Language Arts and Math test scores, reading was the strongest predictor when all 3 CBM constructs were considered jointly.

  12. Impacts of air pollution on cultural heritage corrosion at European level: What has been achieved and what are the future scenarios.

    PubMed

    Di Turo, Francesca; Proietti, Chiara; Screpanti, Augusto; Fornasier, M Francesca; Cionni, Irene; Favero, Gabriele; De Marco, Alessandra

    2016-11-01

    The interaction of pollutants with Cultural Heritage materials leads to artworks and materials degradation and loss, causing an unpriceless damage. This works aims to estimate the impacts of air pollution and meteorological conditions on limestone, copper and bronze and represents the European risk assessment for corrosion of Cultural Heritage materials. The measures and policies for atmospheric pollution reduction have cut off the SO2 concentration and consequently its impact on materials is drastically reduced. Indeed, in 1980 the number of UNESCO sites in danger was extremely high (94% for limestone, 54% for copper and 1% for bronze) while in 2010 these sites did not exceed the tolerable value of surface recession and corrosion. However, some problem related to air pollution persists. In particular, Random Forest Analysis (RFA), highlights PM10 as the main responsible for materials corrosion, in 2010. Two scenarios in 2030 have been tested, highlighting that the corrosion levels of limestone, copper and bronze exceed the tolerable limits only in the Balkan area and Turkey. Our results show the importance in the air quality modelling as a powerful tool for the UNESCO sites conservation.

  13. Romantic partners in a market perspective: expectations about what ensures a highly desirable partner.

    PubMed

    Castro, Felipe N; Hattori, Wallisen T; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Lopes, Fívia A

    2013-10-01

    This study used the biological market perspective and influential statistical models from the marketing field to investigate males' and females' expectations regarding which combination of characteristics are most relevant in ensuring desirable partnerships for same-sex individuals. Thus, 358 Brazilian undergraduates assessed eight descriptions of same-gender stimulus targets (formulated with different levels of physical attractiveness, social skills, and current or prospective social status) and evaluated the overall desirability of the targets' expected or probable partners. From the possible combinations, three groups emerged: for one group, mainly composed of men, status characteristics were the most important attributes; for the others, mostly composed of women, social skills or physical characteristics were identified as most important in appealing to a desirable partner. This work expands the understanding of variability in male and female romantic expectations, and its implications are discussed from an evolutionary perspective.

  14. Treatment Desires and Symptomatology among Substance Abusing Homeless Mothers: What I Want versus What I Need

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei

    2012-01-01

    The current study sought to identify information that may inform treatment providers regarding services for, and engagement of, substance abusing homeless mothers. Shelter-recruited, substance abusing homeless mothers' desires for treatment in several commonly reported problem areas including substance use, parenting, depressive symptoms/mood, physical health and childhood abuse history were assessed. The correspondence between mother's desire for treatment and self-reported problem severity was also examined. The majority of mothers reported at least some desire (versus no desire at all) for assistance with substance use, depressive symptoms/mood and parenting. A series of independent-sample T tests and chi-square tests showed that mothers indicating any treatment desire in the areas of substance use, depressive symptoms/mood, health problems and sexual abuse also reported higher levels of severity in the corresponding problem areas. The findings imply that psychosocial treatment should be available to all homeless mothers entering the shelter system, especially given that problem severity appears to be a fair indicator of interest in treatment. PMID:23076864

  15. Neural Substrates of Sexual Desire in Individuals with Problematic Hypersexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Ji-Woo; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the characteristics of individuals with hypersexual disorder have been accumulating due to increasing concerns about problematic hypersexual behavior (PHB). Currently, relatively little is known about the underlying behavioral and neural mechanisms of sexual desire. Our study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of sexual desire with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-three individuals with PHB and 22 age-matched healthy controls were scanned while they passively viewed sexual and nonsexual stimuli. The subjects' levels of sexual desire were assessed in response to each sexual stimulus. Relative to controls, individuals with PHB experienced more frequent and enhanced sexual desire during exposure to sexual stimuli. Greater activation was observed in the caudate nucleus, inferior parietal lobe, dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the PHB group than in the control group. In addition, the hemodynamic patterns in the activated areas differed between the groups. Consistent with the findings of brain imaging studies of substance and behavior addiction, individuals with the behavioral characteristics of PHB and enhanced desire exhibited altered activation in the prefrontal cortex and subcortical regions. In conclusion, our results will help to characterize the behaviors and associated neural mechanisms of individuals with PHB. PMID:26648855

  16. The desire to utilize postmastectomy breast reconstruction in Saudi Arabian women

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Basim A.; Samargandi, Osama A.; Alghamdi, Hattan A.; Sayegh, Anas A.; Hakeem, Yasir J.; Merdad, Leena; Merdad, Adnan A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study factors that influence the desire to utilize breast reconstruction after mastectomy, and to investigate the barriers to reconstruction among women in Saudi Arabia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study at 2 surgical centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all breast cancer patients attending the surgery clinics for follow-up after mastectomy between January and March 2013. Ninety-one patients met the study inclusion criteria. The first part of the questionnaire covered the demographic and socioeconomic information regarding factors that might influence the desire to utilize breast reconstruction including possible barriers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the significant predictors of the desire to undergo reconstruction. Results: Overall, 16.5% of patients underwent breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Young age and high educational attainment were significantly associated with an increased desire to undergo reconstruction. The main barriers to reconstruction were the lack of adequate information on the procedure (63%), concerns on the complications of the procedure (68%), and concerns on the reconstruction interfering with the detection of recurrence (54%). Conclusion: Age and educational level were significant predictors of the desire to utilize breast reconstruction. Furthermore, modifiable barriers included the lack of knowledge and misconceptions on the procedure. Addressing these issues may increase the rate of breast reconstruction in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25737172

  17. Rigid Organization of Fluorescence-Active Ligands by Artificial Macrocyclic Receptor to Achieve the Thioflavin T-Amyloid Fibril Level Association.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Ming; Zhang, Xu-Jie; Xu, Xiufang; Fu, Xiao-Ning; Hou, Hong-Biao; Liu, Yu

    2016-04-28

    The push-pull molecules with an intramolecular charge transfer from donor to acceptor sides upon excitation exhibit a wide variety of biological and electronic activities, as exemplified by the in vivo fluorescence imaging probes for amyloid fibrils in the diagnosis and treatment of amyloid diseases. Interestingly, the structurally much simpler bis(4,8-disulfonato-1,5-naphtho)-32-crown-8 (DNC), in keen contrast to the conventional macrocyclic receptors, was found to dramatically enhance the fluorescence of twisted intramolecular charge-transfer molecules possessing various benzothiazolium and stilbazolium fluorophores upon complexation. Spectroscopic and microcalorimetric titrations jointly demonstrated the complex structures and the interactions that promote the extremely strong complexation, revealing that the binding affinity in these artificial host-guest pairs could reach up to a nearly 10(7) M(-1) order of magnitude in water, and the sandwich-type complexation is driven by electrostatic, hydrophobic, π-stacking, and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Quantum chemical calculations on free molecules and their DNC-bound species in both the ground and excited states elucidated that the encapsulation by DNC could greatly deter the central single and double chemical bonds from free intramolecular rotation in the singlet excited state, thus leading to the unique and unprecedented fluorescence enhancement upon sandwich-type complexation. This complexation-induced structural reorganization mechanism may also apply to the binding of other small-molecule ligands by functional receptors and contribute to the molecular-level understanding of the receptor-ligand interactions in many biology-related systems.

  18. CARMENES-NIR channel spectrograph: how to achieve the full AIV at system level of a cryo-instrument in nine months

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, S.; Cárdenas, C.; Amado, P.; Abril, M.; Ferro, I.; Mirabet, E.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Ramón, A.; Sánchez-Carrasco, M. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Caballero Hernández, J. A.; Seifert, W.

    2016-07-01

    CARMENES is the new high-resolution high-stability spectrograph built for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA, Almería, Spain) by a consortium formed by German and Spanish institutions. This instrument is composed by two separated spectrographs: VIS channel (550-1050 nm) and NIR channel (950- 1700 nm). The NIR-channel spectrograph's responsible institution is the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC. The contouring conditions have led CARMENES-NIR to be a schedule-driven project with a extremely tight plan. The operation start-up was mandatory to be before the end of 2015. This plays in contradiction to the very complex, calm-requiring tasks and development phases faced during the AIV, which has been fully designed and implemented at IAA through a very ambitious, zero-contingency plan. As a large cryogenic instrument, this plan includes necessarily a certain number cryo-vacuum cycles, this factor being the most important for the overall AIV duration. Indeed, each cryo-vacuum cycle of the NIR channel runs during 3 weeks. This plan has therefore been driven to minimize the amount of cryo-vacuum cycles. Such huge effort has led the AIV at system level at IAA lab to be executed in 9 months from start to end -an astonishingly short duration for a large cryogenic, complex instrument like CARMENES NIR- which has been fully compliant with the final deadline of the installation of the NIR channel at CAHA 3.5m telescope. The detailed description of this planning, as well as the way how it was actually performed, is the main aim of the present paper.

  19. Knowing versus liking: Separating normative knowledge from social desirability in first impressions of personality.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Katherine H; Biesanz, Jeremy C

    2015-12-01

    There are strong differences between individuals in the tendency to view the personality of others as similar to the average person. That is, some people tend to form more normatively accurate impressions than do others. However, the process behind the formation of normatively accurate first impressions is not yet fully understood. Given that the average individual's personality is highly socially desirable (Borkenau & Zaltauskas, 2009; Wood, Gosling & Potter, 2007), individuals may achieve high normative accuracy by viewing others as similar to the average person or by viewing them in an overly socially desirable manner. The average self-reported personality profile and social desirability, despite being strongly correlated, independently and strongly predict first impressions. Further, some individuals have a more accurate understanding of the average individual's personality than do others. Perceivers with more accurate knowledge about the average individual's personality rated the personality of specific others more normatively accurately (more similar to the average person), suggesting that individual differences in normative judgments include a component of accurate knowledge regarding the average personality. In contrast, perceivers who explicitly evaluated others more positively formed more socially desirable impressions, but not more normatively accurate impressions.

  20. Dysregulated sexuality and high sexual desire: distinct constructs?

    PubMed

    Winters, Jason; Christoff, Kalina; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2010-10-01

    The literature on dysregulated sexuality, whether theoretical, clinical or empirical, has failed to differentiate the construct from high sexual desire. In this study, we tested three hypotheses which addressed this issue. A sample of 6458 men and 7938 women, some of whom had sought treatment for sexual compulsivity, addiction or impulsivity, completed an online survey comprised of various sexuality measures. Men and women who reported having sought treatment scored significantly higher on measures of dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire. For men, women, and those who had sought treatment, dysregulated sexuality was associated with increased sexual desire. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor model, indicating that, in both male and female participants, dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire variables loaded onto a single underlying factor. The results of this study suggest that dysregulated sexuality, as currently conceptualized, labelled, and measured, may simply be a marker of high sexual desire and the distress associated with managing a high degree of sexual thoughts, feelings, and needs.

  1. Socially desirable responding on the web: investigating the candor hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Risko, Evan F; Quilty, Lena C; Oakman, Jonathan M

    2006-12-01

    The investigation presented here explores the hypothesis that participants are less likely to respond in a socially desirable fashion on self-report questionnaires completed on the Web relative to those completed in the laboratory--the candor hypothesis. A battery of social desirability questionnaires (i.e., Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding [Paulhaus, 1984], Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale [Crowne & Marlowe, 1964], Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Lie Scale [Eysenck & Eysenck, 1994]) was administered to 3 groups: 2 groups consisted of undergraduate participants who were randomly assigned to complete the measures either in the laboratory (n = 60) or on the Web (n = 60), and 1 group consisted of self-selected participants who visited our experimental Web page and completed the measures online (n = 284). This design allowed us to assess the role of Web administration while controlling for differences in sample type, an oft-neglected issue in the Web literature. Results do not support the claim that administering self-report measures over the Web results in a decrease in socially desirable responding. Furthermore, these findings highlight the problems associated with confounding sample and medium. Implications for the use of Web as a research tool are discussed.

  2. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder in premenopausal women: case studies.

    PubMed

    Miner, Martin; Sadovsky, Richard; Buster, John E

    2012-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and is thus frequently encountered in the primary care provider and OB/GYN practices. Causes of low sexual desire may be hormonal, neurologic, vascular, psychologic, or a result of illness/surgery or medications. The condition is often left untreated because both women and clinicians feel embarrassed to bring up the topic and believe that there is no available treatment. The use of short, validated questionnaires, such as the Decreased Sexual Desire Screener, to be completed in the waiting room, can open up discussion between provider and patient. In addition, 2 other algorithms are designed for clinicians who are not specifically trained in FSD and can help in diagnosing and managing a broad range of conditions related to FSD. Treatment for low desire consists primarily of patient education and counseling, as well as treatment of underlying comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, or cancer. While testosterone products are approved in Europe for use in surgically postmenopausal women with HSDD, in the United States, no pharmacologic treatments are approved for the treatment of HSDD or any FSD. Testosterone products are being used off-label, but questions remain about their efficacy and safety in pre- and postmenopausal women. This article gives an overview of HSDD in clinical practice and provides 3 case descriptions to illustrate the treatment of low sexual desire in women with diverse histories.

  3. I-NERI Annual Technical Progress Report 2007-004-K Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    S. Frank

    2010-09-01

    The current method for the immobilization of fission products that accumulate in electrorefiner salt during the electrochemical processing of used metallic nuclear fuel is to encapsulate the electrorefiner salt in a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form. This process was developed by Argonne National Laboratory in the USA and is currently performed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) used fuel. This process utilizes a “once-through” option for the disposal of spent electrorefiner salt; where, after the treatment of the EBR-II fuel, the electrorefiner salt containing the active fission products will be disposed of in the ceramic waste form (CWF). The CWF produced will have low fission product loading of approximately 2 to 5 weight percent due to the limited fuel inventory currently being processed. However; the design and implementation of advanced electrochemical processing facilities to treat used fuel would process much greater quantities fuel. With an advanced processing facility, it would be necessary to selectively remove fission products from the electrorefiner salt for salt recycle and to concentrate the fission products to reduce the volume of high-level waste from the treatment facility. The Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Idaho National Laboratory have been collaborating on I-NERI research projects for a number of years to investigate both aspects of selective fission product separation from electrorefiner salt, and to develop advanced waste forms for the immobilization of the collected fission products. The first joint KAERI/INL I-NERI project titled: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels, was successfully completed in 2009 by concentrating and isolating fission products from actual electrorefiner salt used for the treated used EBR-II fuel. Two separation methods were tested and from these tests were

  4. Representing female desire within a labial framework of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Sexual experiences, rather than being neutral, are specifically male or female. Yet at present no conceptual framework exists for representing female sexual desire. This has resulted in frequent misrepresentations of female sexual experience. To correct this, a labial framework is proposed, not to replace or oppose a phallic framework, but to exist alongside it. The lips of the mouth and those of the genitals provide a felicitous doubling of sexuality and speech to represent female desire and sexual pleasure as labial. Phallic and labial rhythms are organized differently in sexual arousal and desire, since, as Simone de Beauvoir put it, "Man 'gets stiff,' but woman 'gets wet.'" The labial framework therefore represents female psychosexuality more in terms of "wetware" than of "hardware."

  5. Media Impacts on Women's Fertility Desires: A Prolonged Exposure Experiment.

    PubMed

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Willis, Laura E; Kennard, Ashley R

    2016-06-01

    Media exposure may have implications for family planning, a public health issue of key importance. Drawing on social comparison theory and social identity theory, a prolonged exposure experiment examined whether media portrayals of women's social roles affect fertility desires among 166 American, nonstudent, never married, childless women ages 21-35 years old. After sign-up and baseline sessions, participants viewed magazine pages five days in a row. Stimuli presented women in either mother/homemaker roles, beauty ideal roles, or professional roles. Three days later, participants again indicated their number of desired children and time planned until first birth. Exposure to mother/homemaker and beauty ideal portrayals increased the number of desired children across time. Exposure to professional portrayals increased the time planned until 1st birth compared to beauty ideal portrayals-this impact was partially mediated by a shift toward more progressive gender norms (per social identity theory) and assimilation (per social comparison theory).

  6. Is love colorblind? Political orientation and interracial romantic desire.

    PubMed

    Eastwick, Paul W; Richeson, Jennifer A; Son, Deborah; Finkel, Eli J

    2009-09-01

    The present research examined the association of political orientation with ingroup favoritism in two live romantic contexts. In Study 1, White participants had sequential interactions with both a White and Black confederate and reported their romantic desire for each. In Study 2, both White and Black participants speed-dated multiple potential romantic partners and reported whether they would be interested in meeting each speed-dating partner again. In both studies, White participants' political conservatism positively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: White conservatives were less likely than White liberals to desire Black (interracial) relative to White potential romantic partners. In contrast, Black participants' political conservatism negatively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: Consistent with system-justification theory, Black conservatives were more likely than Black liberals to desire White (interracial) relative to Black potential romantic partners. Political orientation may be a key factor that influences the initiation of interracial romantic relationships.

  7. Adolescent expectations and desires about marriage and parenthood.

    PubMed

    Plotnick, Robert D

    2007-12-01

    Using data collected in 2000 on a racially and ethnically diverse sample of high school seniors, this study analyzes adolescents' expectations and desires about marriage and parenthood, including unwed parenthood. The conceptual framework combines family context, opportunity cost, and social-psychological perspectives. Each perspective receives empirical support. Race, ethnicity, gender, parental education, and parental expectations for their child's education show significant relationships with expectations and desires about marriage and parenthood. Adolescents with higher opportunity costs, as indicated by better grades and higher expectations for their schooling, expect and desire to marry and have children at older ages. The relationships between parental education and parental expectations for their child's education and the outcomes are largely mediated through opportunity costs. Significant relationships between locus of control and the outcomes provide empirical support for the social-psychological element of the framework.

  8. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and current pharmacotherapeutic options in women.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) is the most common female sexual dysfunction. The diagnosis of HSDD requires the existence of personal distress or interpersonal difficulties associated with low sexual desire, that cannot be explained by any other psychiatric affection and that is not exclusively due to a disease or substance. HSDD can have a serious effect on emotional wellbeing and interpersonal relationships, and it occurs in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The Decreased Sexual Desire Screener is a shortened diagnostic method designed to help doctors who are not specialized in female sexual dysfunction to diagnose acquired HSDD in women. There is evidence that treatment with androgens or with estrogens is effective in HSDD; however, important unanswered questions still exist. Presently, new therapeutic strategies to combat HSDD are being researched, including novel methods of testosterone provision and drugs that act upon the CNS.

  9. Contributions of Social Desirability to Self-Reported Ageism.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Allen, Priscilla D; Denver, Jenny Y; Holland, Kayla R

    2015-09-01

    The authors examined the role of social desirability in 445 participants' responses to self-reported measures of ageism across two studies. In Study 1, college students and community adults completed the Relating to Older People Evaluation (ROPE) and a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-C SDS). Study 2 was a conceptual replication that included the Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA). Correlation analyses confirmed a small but significant relationship between scores on the positive ageist items and the social desirability scale in both studies. Ageist attitudes were correlated with negative ageist behaviors in Study 2. Implications for current views on ageism and strategies for reducing ageist attitudes and behaviors in everyday life are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of the Relationship between Social Desirability and Minor Psychiatric Disorders among Nurses in Southern Iran: A Robust Regression Approach

    PubMed Central

    Roustaei, Narges; Jafari, Peyman; Sadeghi, Erfan; Jamali, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social desirability may affect different aspects of people’s quality of life. One of the impressive dimensions of quality of life is mental health. The prevalence of Minor Psychiatric Disorders (MPD) among health care workers is higher than other health workers. This article aims at evaluating the relationship between social desirability and MPD among nurses in southern Iran. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 765 nurses who had been employed in hospitals in the southern provinces of Iran. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS) were used for evaluating the MPD and social desirability in nurses, respectively. The Robust Regression was used to determine any quantified relationship between social desirability and the level of MPD with adjusted age, gender, work experience, marital status, and level of education. Result: The mean scores of GHQ-12 and MC-SDS were 13.02±5.64 (out of 36) and 20.17±4.76 (out of 33), respectively. The result of Robust Regression indicated that gender and social desirability were statistically significant in affecting MPD. Conclusion: The prevalence of MPD in female nurses was higher than males. Nurses with higher social desirability scores had the tendency to report lower levels of MPD. PMID:26448957

  11. Fluoxetine attenuates alcohol intake and desire to drink.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, C A; Poulos, C X; Bremner, K E; Lanctot, K L

    1994-09-01

    Several serotonin uptake inhibitors, including the long-acting fluoxetine, have been found to decrease alcohol intake in moderately dependent alcoholics. While the mechanism of their effect is not fully elucidated, a previous study with citalopram indicated that decreased desire to drink may be an important factor. Therefore, we tested fluoxetine effects on alcohol intake and desire to drink in a placebo-controlled study. Subjects, recruited by advertisement, were mildly/moderately dependent alcoholics (12 male, four female, aged 19-59 years, healthy, non-depressed) who did not believe they had a drinking problem and were not requesting treatment. After a 1 week baseline they received, single-blind, 2 weeks placebo followed by 2 weeks fluoxetine 60 mg/day. As out-patients, subjects recorded daily standard drinks (13.6 g ethanol) and rated interest, desire, craving and liking for alcohol biweekly. Each out-patient period was immediately followed by a double-blind experimental drinking session. Out-patient daily drinks slightly decreased during fluoxetine to 6.6 +/- 0.9 (mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with during placebo (7.16 +/- 0.95, p = 0.07, N.S.) and baseline (7.18 +/- 1.0, p > 0.1, N.S.). Desire, interest and craving for alcohol decreased during fluoxetine vs placebo baseline (p < 0.05), but not vs placebo. Appetite loss and decrease in food intake (p < 0.01, fluoxetine vs placebo) correlated with each other (r = 0.91, p < 0.01) but neither correlated with decrease in alcohol intake (appetite: r = 0.26, N.S.; food intake: r = 0.22, N.S.). Weight loss occurred during fluoxetine (p < 0.05 vs placebo) but did not correlate with decrease in alcohol intake (r = 0.1, N.S.). In the experimental drinking sessions after placebo and fluoxetine treatments subjects rated their desire for each of 18 mini-drinks (each one-third of a standard drink) offered at 5 min intervals. Fluoxetine decreased desire to drink throughout the sessions; both mean and maximum desire ratings were

  12. Rice lines with high leaf mineral nutrient levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K), and sometimes other mineral nutrients are often applied as fertilizer, in addition to Nitrogen, to help achieve high yields in Texas rice production. For some mineral nutrients, total levels in soil would be sufficient to support the desired rice crop growth, but th...

  13. Thinking Levels of Questions in Christian Reading Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    If Christian schools desire students to achieve higher-level thinking, then the textbooks that teachers use should reflect such thinking. Using Risner's (1987) methodology, raters classified questions from two Christian publishers' fifth grade reading textbooks based on the revised Bloom's taxonomy (Anderson et al., 2001). The questions in the A…

  14. Can Multiple-Choice Testing Induce Desirable Difficulties? Evidence from the Laboratory and the Classroom.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon; Soderstrom, Nicholas C; Little, Jeri L

    2015-01-01

    The term desirable difficulties (Bjork, 1994) refers to conditions of learning that, though often appearing to cause difficulties for the learner and to slow down the process of acquisition, actually improve long-term retention and transfer. One known desirable difficulty is testing (as compared with restudy), although typically it is tests that clearly involve retrieval--such as free and cued recall tests--that are thought to induce these learning benefits and not multiple-choice tests. Nonetheless, multiple-choice testing is ubiquitous in educational settings and many other high-stakes situations. In this article, we discuss research, in both the laboratory and the classroom, exploring whether multiple-choice testing can also be fashioned to promote the type of retrieval processes known to improve learning, and we speculate about the necessary properties that multiple-choice questions must possess, as well as the metacognitive strategy students need to use in answering such questions, to achieve this goal.

  15. An Interactive Procedure to Preserve the Desired Edges during the Image Processing of Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Yu; Huang, Hsuan-Yu; Lee, Lin-Tsang

    2010-12-01

    The paper propose a new procedure including four stages in order to preserve the desired edges during the image processing of noise reduction. A denoised image can be obtained from a noisy image at the first stage of the procedure. At the second stage, an edge map can be obtained by the Canny edge detector to find the edges of the object contours. Manual modification of an edge map at the third stage is optional to capture all the desired edges of the object contours. At the final stage, a new method called Edge Preserved Inhomogeneous Diffusion Equation (EPIDE) is used to smooth the noisy images or the previously denoised image at the first stage for achieving the edge preservation. The Optical Character Recognition (OCR) results in the experiments show that the proposed procedure has the best recognition result because of the capability of edge preservation.

  16. "Masculinity, Femininity, Achievement Conflicts and Health."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Debra Eaton

    The objective of this study is to measure achievement motivation in terms of psychological masculinity and femininity rather than in terms of biological gender. The terms, psychological masculinity and femininity, refer to sets of characteristics desirable for both sexes. Masculine characteristics include independence, self-confidence,…

  17. Proven Strategies for Improving Learning & Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Duane

    The purpose of this book is to give student support personnel tools that: (1) will be recognized by educators as directly related to enhancing academic performance; (2) can be used with confidence that they will have the desired impact on achievement; and (3) are culturally sensitive. Chapters contain detailed presentation of the technology as…

  18. Factors Influencing the Desire To Take Environmental Action in Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Chouinard, Omer; Musafiri, Jean-Pierre; IsaBelle, Claire

    In a coastal community, four social groups were chosen to participate in various educational programs designed to promote their desire to take environmental action. At the end of these educational programs, conducted by a scientist and an environmental educator, the participants were invited to get involved in the resolution of an environmental…

  19. Desirable Leadership Behaviours of Multi-Cultural Managers in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littrell, Romie F.

    2002-01-01

    Hotel managers (both expatriate and indigenous) and supervisors (n=122) in China identified desirable and actual leadership traits in English and Chinese versions of the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire. Indigenous managers had more tolerance of freedom than expatriate managers. Supervisors were more tolerant than managers.…

  20. Sexuality Education and Desire: Still Missing after All These Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Michelle; McClelland, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Nearly twenty years after the publication of Michelle Fine's essay "Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire," the question of how sexuality education influences the development and health of adolescents remains just as relevant as it was in 1988. In this article, Michelle Fine and Sara McClelland examine the…

  1. Characteristics of Athletic Training Students That Preceptors Find Desirable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Thomas, Spencer; Paulsen, Jenica; Chiu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic training students acquire clinical hours under the direct supervision of athletic training preceptors. Objective: The purpose of this project was to explore what characteristics preceptors desire in their athletic training students. Design and Setting: Online survey instrument. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 286…

  2. Desirable Attributes and Practices for Mentees: Mentor Teachers' Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates attributes and practices for mentor teachers that can be used for effective mentoring. Universities provide guidelines for preservice teacher (mentee) engagement in schools generally from anecdotal evidence, however, what are desirable attributes and practices for mentees? This qualitative study gathers data from 25 mentor…

  3. Desire: A Key Factor for Successful Online GED Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Donita; Tham, Yuen San Sarah; Hogle, Julie; Koch, Jody

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the experiences of 12 adult online General Educational Development (GED) students to determine the role of program and personal factors that influenced their successful passing of the GED or their dropping-out of the program. Through surveys and interviews, we discovered that desire was the key factor for…

  4. Deaf children's use of beliefs and desires in negotiation.

    PubMed

    Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Rieffe, Carolien

    2004-01-01

    Although several studies have shown that deaf children demonstrated impaired performances on false-belief tasks, the children's belief understanding appeared intact when asked to explain emotions or behavior. However, this finding does not necessarily indicate a full-fledged theory of mind. This study aimed to investigate deaf children's negotiation strategies in false-belief situations, because situations that require negotiation provide a natural context with a clear motivational aspect, which might appeal more strongly to deaf children's false-belief reasoning capacities. The purpose of this study was to compare the reactions of 11- to 12-year-old deaf and hearing children to scenarios in which a mother, who is unaware of a change in the situation, threatens to block the fulfillment of the child's desire. The results showed that deaf children more often failed to correct the mother's false beliefs. In contrast with hearing children, who frequently left their own desires implicit, deaf children kept stressing their desires as a primary argument, even though the mother could be expected to be fully aware of these desires. Moral claims were used to the same extent by both groups. In general, deaf children more often used arguments that did not provide new information for their conversation partners, including repetitions of the same argument. The results were interpreted in terms of the special needs that are required by the hampered communication between deaf and hearing people as well as in terms of the ongoing discussion regarding theory-of-mind development in deaf children.

  5. Residual magnetism holds solenoid armature in desired position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. P.

    1967-01-01

    Holding solenoid uses residual magnetism to hold its armature in a desired position after excitation current is removed from the coil. Although no electrical power or mechanical devices are used, the solenoid has a low tolerance to armature displacement from the equilibrium position.

  6. Desired Change in Couples: Gender Differences and Effects on Communication

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Richard E.; Hunt, Ashley N.; Malik, Jill; Smith Slep, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample (N = 453) drawn from a representative sampling frame of couples who are married or living together and have a 3–7 year old child, this study investigates (a) the amount and specific areas of change desired by men and women, (b) the relation between relationship adjustment and desired change; and (c) the ways in which partners negotiate change. On the Areas of Change Questionnaire, women, compared with men, wanted greater increases in their partners’ emotional and companionate behaviors, instrumental support, and parenting involvement; men wanted greater increases in sex. Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (Kenny, 1996, both men’s and women’s relationship adjustment predicted desired change (i.e., actor effects), over and above the effects of their partners’ adjustment (i.e., partner effects); partner effects were not significant. Each couple was also observed discussing the man’s and the woman’s top desired change area. Both men and women behaved more positively during the partner-initiated conversations than during their own-initiated conversations. Women, compared with men, were more negative in their own and in their partners’ conversations. PMID:19685983

  7. Desiring Diversity and Backlash: White Property Rights in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    In this theoretical essay, I argue that the current incidences of backlash to diversity are best understood as a dynamic of complicated, historic and intertwined desires for racial diversity and white entitlement to property. I frame this argument in the theories of critical race theory and settler colonialism, each of which provide necessary but…

  8. 50 CFR 80.9 - Notice of desire to participate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.9 Notice of desire to... Federal Assistance which contains plans for the use of Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Program...

  9. Writing Queer across the Borders of Geography and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malagreca, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author merges biographical notes, autoethnography and experimental writing to situate his migrant self as a self that "performs through writing," i.e. planned, experimental writing that subverts the centrality of the monolingual heterosexual identity. He explores the intersections of time, desire, and power across…

  10. Public Education in Neoliberal Times: Memory and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects on the desire to defend and claim public education amidst the educational policy effects of contemporary neoliberal politics. The defence of public education, from schools to higher education, undoubtedly provides a powerful counter-veiling weight to the neoliberal policy logic of education-as-individual-value-accrual. At a…

  11. Consensus on Desirable Characteristics of Mail Questionnaires: Illusion or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boser, Judith A.; Clark, Sheldon B.

    This study of survey research experts was conducted to determine desirable characteristics of mail questionnaires. The 82-item Likert-scale instrument used in the study covered general appearance, instructions, choice of items, choice of response options, wording, order of items, and item format. The instrument was administered to: 8 subjects who…

  12. Drawing Desire: Male Youth and Homoerotic Fan Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Jeffery P.

    2010-01-01

    Although Western mass media aimed at juvenile audiences aggressively eliminates any references to same-sex desire and behavior, it inspires a tremendous amount of homoerotic fan art. To determine how same-sex potential is portrayed in juvenile fan art, a content analysis was conducted of 872 male homoerotic images by 442 juvenile male and female…

  13. Desired change in couples: gender differences and effects on communication.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Richard E; Hunt-Martorano, Ashley N; Malik, Jill; Slep, Amy M Smith

    2009-08-01

    Using a sample (N = 453) drawn from a representative sampling frame of couples who are married or living together and have a 3 to 7 year-old child, this study investigates (a) the amount and specific areas of change desired by men and women, (b) the relation between relationship adjustment and desired change; and (c) the ways in which partners negotiate change. On the Areas of Change Questionnaire, women compared with men, wanted greater increases in their partners' emotional and companionate behaviors, instrumental support, and parenting involvement; men wanted greater increases in sex. Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (Kenny, 1996), both men's and women's relationship adjustment predicted desired change (i.e., actor effects), over and above the effects of their partners' adjustment (i.e., partner effects); partner effects were not significant. Each couple was also observed discussing the man's and the woman's top desired change area. Both men and women behaved more positively during the partner-initiated conversations than during their own-initiated conversations. Women, compared with men, were more negative in their own and in their partners' conversations.

  14. Topology of Sustainable Management of Dynamical Systems with Desirable States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kittel, Tim

    2015-04-01

    To keep the Earth System in a desirable region of its state space, such as the recently suggested 'tolerable environment and development window', 'planetary boundaries', or 'safe (and just) operating space', in addition to the identification of the quantitative internal dynamics and the available options for influencing it (management), there is an urgent need to understand the systems' state space structure with regard to questions such as (i) which of its parts can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region, (ii) which parts are in a variety of senses 'safe' to stay in when management options break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this structure. To complement existing approaches from optimal control focusing on quantitative optimization and being much applied in both engineering and integrated assessment, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology that partitions the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states including terminology suggestions for the various resulting parts. Our detailed formal classification of the possible states and management options with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region indicates that before performing some form of quantitative optimization, the sustainable management of the Earth System may require decisions of a more discrete type, e.g. choosing between ultimate safety and permanent desirability, or between permanent safety and increasing future options.

  15. Effect of the product type, of the amount of applied sunscreen product and the level of protection in the UVB range on the level of protection achieved in the UVA range.

    PubMed

    Couteau, C; Diarra, H; Coiffard, L

    2016-03-16

    Using a topical product is part of the overall strategy for skin cancer prevention. The level of protection attainable when using commercial products is indicated by the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) value, in use everywhere. This value reflects the level of protection primarily in the UVB range. However, UVA radiation also has deleterious effects on the skin, and it is essential to prevent it, which is why products must offer a wide spectrum of protection. Tests conducted in vivo, before any marketing, are done by applying the studied product at a rate of 2.0 mg cm(-2), while users, in practice, only use 1.0-1.5 mg cm(-2). We now know that this reduction in the amount of applied product greatly affects the SPF. To complete the state of knowledge in this area, we sought to evaluate the effect of a decrease in the amount of applied sunscreen product by studying sunscreen creams and oils on the level of protection attainable in the UVA range. We have shown that the PF-UVA is divided by a factor of 2.2, on average, when the amount of applied product is reduced by half, with differences depending on the product type under consideration (cream or oil) and depending on the SPF of the preparation.

  16. Stress and social support among Hispanic student nurses: implications for academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Maville, J; Huerta, C G

    1997-01-01

    This article describes two studies examining the effects of stress and social support on the academic achievement of Hispanic associate degree nursing students. The first study investigated stress, measured by the Life Experiences Survey (LES), and its relationship to academic achievement. Data analysis revealed a relationship between negative stress and academic achievement. Student level and ethnic origin were found to be predictive of stress. Ethnic origin and age also had an effect on academic achievement. Qualitative data indicated that students experienced stresses as a result of the academic environment. The second study investigated the effect of social support, measured by the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), on student persistence. No significant relationship was found. Qualitative data revealed less than desired social support in lower achieving students. Conclusions from these studies form the basis for identification of the high risk student and strategies to remediate the academically handicapped Hispanic student.

  17. Why We Think We Can't Dance: Theory of Mind and Children's Desire to Perform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Lan Nguyen; Norton, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) allows children to achieve success in the social world by understanding others' minds. A study with 3- to 12-year-olds, however, demonstrates that gains in ToM are linked to decreases in children's desire to engage in performative behaviors associated with health and well-being, such as singing and dancing. One hundred and…

  18. Achievement Orientation in Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.

    The suggestion is made that the flood of middle-aged women who have recently turned away from traditional approaches to achievement may have shifted their orientation to changing options, but have always had a great desire to achieve. The effect of the changing values of the women's movement is discussed, and a grid of achievement motivation…

  19. Impact of a social-emotional and character development program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled design. The Positive Action Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (mean enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from baseline (2002) to one-year post trial (2007) revealed that intervention schools scored 9.8% better on the TerraNova (2(nd) ed.) test for reading and 8.8% on math; 20.7% better in Hawai'i Content and Performance Standards scores for reading and 51.4% better in math; and that intervention schools reported 15.2% lower absenteeism and fewer suspensions (72.6%) and retentions (72.7%). Overall, effect sizes were moderate to large (range 0.5-1.1) for all of the examined outcomes. Sensitivity analyses using permutation models and random-intercept growth curve models substantiated results. The results provide evidence that a comprehensive school-based program, specifically developed to target student behavior and character, can positively influence school-level achievement, attendance, and disciplinary outcomes concurrently.

  20. Educational differences in fertility desires, intentions and behaviour: A life course perspective.

    PubMed

    Berrington, Ann; Pattaro, Serena

    2014-09-01

    Despite a long tradition of studying the relationship between education and fertility outcomes less is known about how educational differences in fertility intentions are formed and translated into achieved births over the life course. This paper provides new insights using data from a large cohort study and Miller's Traits-Desires-Intentions-Behaviour framework for understanding childbearing. We examine how parental aspirations for education, educational ability in childhood, and educational attainment in young adulthood relate to: males' and females' fertility desires in adolescence; fertility intentions in early adulthood; and educational differences in the achievement of fertility intentions. We conclude that family building preferences expressed in adolescence, especially those for the timing of entry into parenthood are shaped by parental socio-economic background, mediated through educational ability and parental expectations for education. In young adulthood, no clear, consistent educational gradient in intended family size is found. However, there is a negative educational gradient in the likelihood of achieving intended births by age 46, especially for women. The findings indicate the importance of educational differences in employment and partnership behaviour in mediating these relationships.

  1. COGNITIVE ABILITY, SOCIAL DESIRABILITY, BODY MASS INDEX, AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AS CORRELATES OF FOURTH-GRADE CHILDREN’S DIETARY-REPORTING ACCURACY

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Albert F.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Hitchcock, David B.; Finney, Christopher J.; Royer, Julie A.; Guinn, Caroline H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship of reporting accuracy in 24-h dietary recalls to child respondent characteristics—cognitive ability, social desirability, body mass index (BMI) percentile, and socioeconomic status (SES). Subjects/Methods Fourth-grade children (mean age 10.1 years) were observed eating two school meals and interviewed about dietary intake for 24-h that included those meals. (Eight multiple-pass interview protocols operationalized the conditions of an experiment that crossed two retention intervals—short and long—with four prompts [ways of eliciting reports in the first pass].) Academic achievement test scores indexed cognitive ability; social desirability was assessed by questionnaire; height and weight were measured to calculate BMI; nutrition-assistance program eligibility information was obtained to index SES. Reported intake was compared to observed intake to calculate measures of reporting accuracy for school meals at the food-item (omission rate; intrusion rate) and energy (correspondence rate; inflation ratio) levels. Complete data were available for 425 of 480 validation-study participants. Results Controlling for manipulated variables and other measured respondent characteristics, for one or more of the outcome variables, reporting accuracy increased with cognitive ability (omission rate, intrusion rate, correspondence rate, P < .001); decreased with social desirability (correspondence rate, P < .0004); decreased with BMI percentile (correspondence rate, P = .001), and was better by higher than by lower SES children (intrusion rate, P = .001). Some of these effects were moderated by interactions with retention interval and sex. Conclusions Children’s dietary-reporting accuracy is systematically related to such respondent characteristics as cognitive ability, social desirability, BMI percentile, and SES. PMID:27222153

  2. Topology of sustainable management of dynamical systems with desirable states: from defining planetary boundaries to safe operating spaces in the Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzig, J.; Kittel, T.; Donges, J. F.; Molkenthin, N.

    2016-01-01

    To keep the Earth system in a desirable region of its state space, such as defined by the recently suggested "tolerable environment and development window", "guardrails", "planetary boundaries", or "safe (and just) operating space for humanity", one needs to understand not only the quantitative internal dynamics of the system and the available options for influencing it (management) but also the structure of the system's state space with regard to certain qualitative differences. Important questions are, which state space regions can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region, which regions are in a variety of senses "safe" to stay in when management options might break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this topological structure? In this article, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology of the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states, as a complement to the existing literature on optimal control which is more focussed on quantitative optimization and is much applied in both the engineering and the integrated assessment literature. We suggest a certain terminology for the various resulting regions of the state space and perform a detailed formal classification of the possible states with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region. Our results indicate that, before performing some form of quantitative optimization such as of indicators of human well-being for achieving certain sustainable development goals, a sustainable and resilient management of the Earth system may require decisions of a more discrete type that come in the form of several dilemmas, e.g. choosing between eventual safety and uninterrupted desirability, or between uninterrupted safety and larger flexibility. We illustrate the concepts and dilemmas drawing on conceptual models from climate science, ecology, coevolutionary Earth system

  3. Misery loves company: when sadness increases the desire for social connectedness.

    PubMed

    Gray, Heather M; Ishii, Keiko; Ambady, Nalini

    2011-11-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the effects of sadness on the desire for social connectedness. They hypothesized that sadness serves an adaptive function by motivating people to reach out to others and preferentially attend to information related to one's current level of social connectedness, but only when it is instigated by social loss. Consistent with this hypothesis, the authors observed that sadness induced by an emotional depiction of social loss enhanced (a) attention to nonverbal cues, an important source of information concerning an individual's current level of social connectedness (Experiment 1), and (b) the desire to engage in social behaviors (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3 the authors found that sadness that results from imagined social loss uniquely produced this pattern of effects. Sadness that resulted from imagined failure had different effects on motivation and no effect on sensitivity to nonverbal cues. These results support and refine functional explanations for the universality of sadness.

  4. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  5. Eye movements reveal the time-course of anticipating behaviour based on complex, conflicting desires.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Heather J; Breheny, Richard

    2011-05-01

    The time-course of representing others' perspectives is inconclusive across the currently available models of ToM processing. We report two visual-world studies investigating how knowledge about a character's basic preferences (e.g. Tom's favourite colour is pink) and higher-order desires (his wish to keep this preference secret) compete to influence online expectations about subsequent behaviour. Participants' eye movements around a visual scene were tracked while they listened to auditory narratives. While clear differences in anticipatory visual biases emerged between conditions in Experiment 1, post-hoc analyses testing the strength of the relevant biases suggested a discrepancy in the time-course of predicting appropriate referents within the different contexts. Specifically, predictions to the target emerged very early when there was no conflict between the character's basic preferences and higher-order desires, but appeared to be relatively delayed when comprehenders were provided with conflicting information about that character's desire to keep a secret. However, a second experiment demonstrated that this apparent 'cognitive cost' in inferring behaviour based on higher-order desires was in fact driven by low-level features between the context sentence and visual scene. Taken together, these results suggest that healthy adults are able to make complex higher-order ToM inferences without the need to call on costly cognitive processes. Results are discussed relative to previous accounts of ToM and language processing.

  6. Determining Desirable Cursor Control Device Characteristics for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will travel to the moon and Mars, and all future Exploration vehicles and habitats will be highly computerized, necessitating an accurate method of interaction with the computers. The design of a cursor control device will have to take into consideration g-forces, vibration, gloved operations, and the specific types of tasks to be performed. The study described here is being undertaken to begin identifying characteristics of cursor control devices that will work well for the unique Exploration mission environments. The objective of the study is not to identify a particular device, but to begin identifying design characteristics that are usable and desirable for space missions. Most cursor control devices have strengths and weaknesses; they are more appropriate for some tasks and less suitable for others. The purpose of this study is to collect some initial usability data on a large number of commercially available and proprietary cursor control devices. A software test battery was developed for this purpose. Once data has been collected using these low-level, basic point/click/drag tasks, higher fidelity, scenario-driven evaluations will be conducted with a reduced set of devices. The standard tasks used for testing cursor control devices are based on a model of human movement known as Fitts law. Fitts law predicts that the time to acquire a target is logarithmically related to the distance over the target size. To gather data for analysis with this law, fundamental, low-level tasks are used such as dragging or pointing at various targets of different sizes from various distances. The first four core tasks for the study were based on the ISO 9241-9:(2000) document from the International Organization for Standardization that contains the requirements for non-keyboard input devices. These include two pointing tasks, one dragging and one tracking task. The fifth task from ISO 9241-9, the circular tracking task was not used

  7. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  8. Asperger Syndrome and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Deborah E.; Barnhill, Gena P.; Myles, Brenda Smith; Hagiwara, Taku; Simpson, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    A study focused on identifying the academic characteristics of 21 children and youth who have Asperger syndrome. Students had an extraordinary range of academic achievement scores, extending from significantly above average to far below grade level. Lowest achievement scores were shown for numerical operations, listening comprehension, and written…

  9. Desirable attributes of vaccines for deployment in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dexiang; Zehrung, Darin

    2013-01-01

    A number of product development partnerships are actively developing new vaccines to combat infectious diseases in developing countries. To be effective, the products under development should not only be safe, efficacious, and affordable, but they should also have additional desirable technical attributes, including enhanced stability, efficient packaging, and improved ease of delivery. New technologies are now available to achieve these attributes; however, many of the technologies have yet to be adopted by the vaccine industry. This commentary discusses the opportunities and challenges associated with advancing such attributes, especially vaccine thermostability and dose sparing strategies, and the critical issues that must be addressed to bridge the gap between technology development and product development.

  10. The conceptual link between social desirability and cultural normativity.

    PubMed

    Bou Malham, Philippe; Saucier, Gerard

    2016-12-01

    Psychologists have a recurrent concern that socially desirable responding (SDR) is a form of response distortion that compromises the validity of self-report measures, especially in high-stakes situations where participants are motivated to make a good impression. Psychologists have used various strategies to minimise SDR or its impact, for example, forced choice responding, ipsatization, and direct measures of social desirability. However, empirical evidence suggests that SDR is a robust phenomenon existing in many cultures and a substantive variable with meaningful associations with other psychological variables and outcomes. Here, we review evidence of the occurrence of SDR across cultures and tie SDR to the study of cultural normativity and cultural consonance in anthropology. We suggest that cultural normativity is an important component of SDR, which may partly explain the adaptiveness of SDR and its association with positive outcomes.

  11. Effect of desired speed variability on highway traffic flow.

    PubMed

    Lipshtat, Azi

    2009-06-01

    Traffic flow is a function of many natural, environmental, and human factors. Not only that weather and road condition can vary, but drivers' decisions and policies also can affect the flow. Here we analyze the effect of distribution of desired speeds. We show that a broader distribution can reduce the flow efficiency and increase congestions. Since different drivers react differently to changes in weather or road conditions, such a change leads to a change in desired speed distribution as well. As a result, nonintuitive changes in traffic flow may occur. Besides providing insight and analyzing the underlying mechanism of a collective phenomenon, this example sheds light on a fundamental aspect of computational modeling. Although "mean-field" models that deal with average values only and ignore variability are simpler and easier to analyze, they can very easily turn into oversimplifications and miss relevant qualitative phenomena.

  12. Effect of desired speed variability on highway traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipshtat, Azi

    2009-06-01

    Traffic flow is a function of many natural, environmental, and human factors. Not only that weather and road condition can vary, but drivers’ decisions and policies also can affect the flow. Here we analyze the effect of distribution of desired speeds. We show that a broader distribution can reduce the flow efficiency and increase congestions. Since different drivers react differently to changes in weather or road conditions, such a change leads to a change in desired speed distribution as well. As a result, nonintuitive changes in traffic flow may occur. Besides providing insight and analyzing the underlying mechanism of a collective phenomenon, this example sheds light on a fundamental aspect of computational modeling. Although “mean-field” models that deal with average values only and ignore variability are simpler and easier to analyze, they can very easily turn into oversimplifications and miss relevant qualitative phenomena.

  13. Desirable role in a price-setting international mixed duopoly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we study the order of moves in a mixed international duopoly for differentiated goods, where firms choose whether to set prices sequentially or simultaneously. We discuss the desirable role of the public firm by comparing welfare among three games. We find that, in the three possible roles, the domestic public firm put a lower price, and then produces more than the foreign private firm.

  14. Desired machines: cinema and the world in its own image.

    PubMed

    Canales, Jimena

    2011-09-01

    In 1895 when the Lumière brothers unveiled their cinematographic camera, many scientists were elated. Scientists hoped that the machine would fulfill a desire that had driven research for nearly half a century: that of capturing the world in its own image. But their elation was surprisingly short-lived, and many researchers quickly distanced themselves from the new medium. The cinematographic camera was soon split into two machines, one for recording and one for projecting, enabling it to further escape from the laboratory. The philosopher Henri Bergson joined scientists, such as Etienne-Jules Marey, who found problems with the new cinematographic order. Those who had worked to make the dream come true found that their efforts had been subverted. This essay focuses on the desire to build a cinematographic camera, with the purpose of elucidating how dreams and reality mix in the development of science and technology. It is about desired machines and their often unexpected results. The interplay between what "is" (the technical), what "ought" (the ethical), and what "could" be (the fantastical) drives scientific research.

  15. The relationship between beginning college chemistry achievement and prior knowledge, number of college mathematics courses completed, GPA of college mathematics courses completed, levels of Piagetian intellectual development, mathematics ACT score, science ACT score, and composite ACT score

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, Margaret Gorjanc

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between achievement in Chem 33 (a third semester general chemistry course) and the following predictor variables: prior knowledge (Chem 32 grade), level of Piagetian intellectual development, number of college mathematics courses previously completed, grades received in prior college mathematics courses, science ACT scores, mathematics ACT scores, and composite ACT scores. During the winter semester of the 1994--1995 school year, the students who were enrolled in two sections of Chem 33, taught by the same professor, were given the TOLT test. In addition, their student records were examined in order to determine the grade they received in Chem 32, the number of mathematics courses Completed in college, the GPA for the mathematics courses completed in college, the science ACT score, mathematics ACT score, and the composite ACT score. A Pearson Correlation was performed on these variables to determine to what extent they were able to predict the student's achievement, measured by the grade in Chem 33. What was found in respect to achievement in Chem 33 was: prior knowledge was r = 0.67, GPA of mathematics courses completed in college was r = 0.58, mathematics ACT was r = 0.50, composite ACT was r = 0.40, and TOLT was r = 0.33. A stepwise multiple regression was also performed to see what interactions could be found between the variables themselves. There was no single predictor variable that adequately serves as a dominant predictor variable for success in Chem 33. It can be concluded that the Chem 32 grade (prior knowledge) coupled with the GPA of the college mathematics courses completed in college as well as the mathematics ACT score are the best predictors for achievement in Chem 33.

  16. Desires and management preferences of stakeholders regarding feral cats in the Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2014-04-01

    Feral cats are abundant in many parts of the world and a source of conservation conflict. Our goal was to clarify the beliefs and desires held by stakeholders regarding feral cat abundance and management. We measured people's desired abundance of feral cats in the Hawaiian Islands and identified an order of preference for 7 feral cat management techniques. In 2011 we disseminated a survey to 5407 Hawaii residents. Approximately 46% of preidentified stakeholders and 20% of random residents responded to the survey (1510 surveys returned). Results from the potential for conflict index revealed a high level of consensus (86.9% of respondents) that feral cat abundance should be decreased. The 3 most common explanatory variables for respondents' stated desires were enjoyment from seeing feral cats (84%), intrinsic value of feral cats (12%), and threat to native fauna (73%). The frequency with which respondents saw cats and change in the perceived abundance of cats also affected respondent's desired abundance of cats; 41.3% of respondents stated that they saw feral cats daily and 44.7% stated that the cat population had increased in recent years. Other potential environmental impacts of feral cats had little affect on desired abundance. The majority of respondents (78%) supported removing feral cats from the natural environment permanently. Consensus convergence models with data from 1388 respondents who completed the relevant questions showed live capture and lethal injection was the most preferred technique and trap-neuter-release was the least preferred technique for managing feral cats. However, the acceptability of each technique varied among stakeholders. Our results suggest that the majority of Hawaii's residents would like to see effective management that reduces the abundance of feral or free-roaming cats.

  17. Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Caprara, G V; Barbaranelli, C; Pastorelli, C; Bandura, A; Zimbardo, P G

    2000-07-01

    The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later. Prosocialness included cooperating, helping, sharing, and consoling, and the measure of antisocial aspects included proneness to verbal and physical aggression. Prosocialness had a strong positive impact on later academic achievement and social preferences, but early aggression had no significant effect on either outcome. The conceptual model accounted for 35% of variance in later academic achievement, and 37% of variance in social preferences. Additional analysis revealed that early academic achievement did not contribute to later academic achievement after controlling for effects of early prosocialness. Possible mediating processes by which prosocialness may affect academic achievement and other socially desirable developmental outcomes are proposed.

  18. The Enabling Role of Education in the Lives of Young People with Disabilities in India: Achieved and Desired Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singal, Nidhi; Jeffery, Roger; Jain, Aanchal; Sood, Neeru

    2011-01-01

    In India, the last few years have seen an increase in the school enrolment rates of children with disabilities; however, there are continuing concerns about the outcomes of these efforts, especially in terms of employment. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative enquiry into how young people (aged 15-30 years) with various impairments…

  19. Why achievement motivation predicts success in business but failure in politics: the importance of personal control.

    PubMed

    Winter, David G

    2010-12-01

    Several decades of research have established that implicit achievement motivation (n Achievement) is associated with success in business, particularly in entrepreneurial or sales roles. However, several political psychology studies have shown that achievement motivation is not associated with success in politics; rather, implicit power motivation often predicts political success. Having versus lacking control may be a key difference between business and politics. Case studies suggest that achievement-motivated U.S. presidents and other world leaders often become frustrated and thereby fail because of lack of control, whereas power-motivated presidents develop ways to work with this inherent feature of politics. A reevaluation of previous research suggests that, in fact, relationships between achievement motivation and business success only occur when control is high. The theme of control is also prominent in the development of achievement motivation. Cross-national data are also consistent with this analysis: In democratic industrialized countries, national levels of achievement motivation are associated with strong executive control. In countries with low opportunity for education (thus fewer opportunities to develop a sense of personal control), achievement motivation is associated with internal violence. Many of these manifestations of frustrated achievement motivation in politics resemble authoritarianism. This conclusion is tested by data from a longitudinal study of 113 male college students, showing that high initial achievement motivation combined with frustrated desires for control is related to increases in authoritarianism (F-scale scores) during the college years. Implications for the psychology of leadership and practical politics are discussed.

  20. Desirable attributes of the ambulance technician, paramedic, and clinical supervisor: findings from a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Kilner, T

    2004-01-01

    Methods: The Delphi technique was used to gain a consensus view from a panel of experts. The first round of the study asked the experts to list the attributes they believed were desirable for the ambulance technician, the ambulance paramedic, and the clinical supervisor. The first round of the study generated 3403 individual statements that were collapsed into 25 broad categories, which were returned to the experts, who were required to rate each of the attributes along a visual analogue scale in respect of each of the identified occupational groups. Results: On completion of the second round the data were analysed to demonstrate rank ordering of desirable attributes by occupational group. The level of agreement within each group was determined by analysis using the Kendall coefficient of concordance. This showed high levels of agreement within the technician group but less agreement within the paramedic and clinical supervisor group. All were highly significant p<0.0001. Conclusions: There was significant agreement among the experts as to the desirable attributes of ambulance staff, many of which do not feature in existing ambulance training curriculums. The findings of this study may therefore be of value in informing future curriculum development and in providing guidance for the selection of staff for each of the occupational groups. PMID:15107388