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Sample records for achieve desired performance

  1. Optimizing density patterns to achieve desired light extraction for displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, T. L. R.; Cassarly, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    In displays such as backlights and signage, it is often desirable to produce a particular spatial luminance distribution of light. This work demonstrates an iterative optimization technique for determining the density of light extractors required to produce desired luminance distributions.

  2. Aligning Task Control with Desire for Control: Implications for Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Alex T.; Etcheverry, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether matches between task control and participants' desire for control over their environment lead to better task performance than mismatches. Work control and desire for control were manipulated, and participants engaged in timed tasks. As predicted, performance was higher in cases of match, even when task control and desire for control were low. Task control and desire for control may predict work performance in combination, highlighting the importance of Person-Environment Fit theory for both selection and work design. By manipulating desire for control, our research also explores the potentially state-dependent quality of this individual difference variable. PMID:26045630

  3. Using rewards and penalties to obtain desired subject performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.; Jex, H. R.; Stein, A. C.; Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Operant conditioning procedures, specifically the use of negative reinforcement, in achieving stable learning behavior is described. The critical tracking test (CTT) a method of detecting human operator impairment was tested. A pass level is set for each subject, based on that subject's asymptotic skill level while sober. It is critical that complete training take place before the individualized pass level is set in order that the impairment can be detected. The results provide a more general basis for the application of reward/penalty structures in manual control research.

  4. Primary Teacher Educators' Perception of Desired and Achieved Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Geography Education in Primary Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankman, Marian; van der Schee, Joop; Volman, Monique; Boogaard, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted among primary geography teacher educators. The research examines the perceptions of educators of primary teacher students' desired and achieved levels of substantial knowledge, syntactic knowledge, and beliefs about the subject of geography. The findings indicate that primary teacher…

  5. Paying for performance: Performance incentives increase desire for the reward object.

    PubMed

    Hur, Julia D; Nordgren, Loran F

    2016-09-01

    The current research examines how exposure to performance incentives affects one's desire for the reward object. We hypothesized that the flexible nature of performance incentives creates an attentional fixation on the reward object (e.g., money), which leads people to become more desirous of the rewards. Results from 5 laboratory experiments and 1 large-scale field study provide support for this prediction. When performance was incentivized with monetary rewards, participants reported being more desirous of money (Study 1), put in more effort to earn additional money in an ensuing task (Study 2), and were less willing to donate money to charity (Study 4). We replicated the result with nonmonetary rewards (Study 5). We also found that performance incentives increased attention to the reward object during the task, which in part explains the observed effects (Study 6). A large-scale field study replicated these findings in a real-world setting (Study 7). One laboratory experiment failed to replicate (Study 3). (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Paying for performance: Performance incentives increase desire for the reward object.

    PubMed

    Hur, Julia D; Nordgren, Loran F

    2016-09-01

    The current research examines how exposure to performance incentives affects one's desire for the reward object. We hypothesized that the flexible nature of performance incentives creates an attentional fixation on the reward object (e.g., money), which leads people to become more desirous of the rewards. Results from 5 laboratory experiments and 1 large-scale field study provide support for this prediction. When performance was incentivized with monetary rewards, participants reported being more desirous of money (Study 1), put in more effort to earn additional money in an ensuing task (Study 2), and were less willing to donate money to charity (Study 4). We replicated the result with nonmonetary rewards (Study 5). We also found that performance incentives increased attention to the reward object during the task, which in part explains the observed effects (Study 6). A large-scale field study replicated these findings in a real-world setting (Study 7). One laboratory experiment failed to replicate (Study 3). (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27414236

  7. Why We Think We Can't Dance: Theory of Mind and Children's Desire to Perform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Lan Nguyen; Norton, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) allows children to achieve success in the social world by understanding others' minds. A study with 3- to 12-year-olds, however, demonstrates that gains in ToM are linked to decreases in children's desire to engage in performative behaviors associated with health and well-being, such as singing and dancing. One hundred and…

  8. Understanding the DNA damage response in order to achieve desired gene editing outcomes in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Overcash, Justin M; Aryan, Azadeh; Myles, Kevin M; Adelman, Zach N

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes are high-impact disease vectors with the capacity to transmit pathogenic agents that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue. Continued growth in knowledge of genetic, molecular, and physiological pathways in mosquitoes allows for the development of novel control methods and for the continued optimization of existing ones. The emergence of site-specific nucleases as genomic engineering tools promises to expedite research of crucial biological pathways in these disease vectors. The utilization of these nucleases in a more precise and efficient manner is dependent upon knowledge and manipulation of the DNA repair pathways utilized by the mosquito. While progress has been made in deciphering DNA repair pathways in some model systems, research into the nature of the hierarchy of mosquito DNA repair pathways, as well as in mechanistic differences that may exist, is needed. In this review, we will describe progress in the use of site-specific nucleases in mosquitoes, along with the hierarchy of DNA repair in the context of mosquito chromosomal organization and structure, and how this knowledge may be manipulated to achieve precise chromosomal engineering in mosquitoes. PMID:25596822

  9. Understanding the DNA damage response in order to achieve desired gene editing outcomes in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Overcash, Justin M; Aryan, Azadeh; Myles, Kevin M; Adelman, Zach N

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes are high-impact disease vectors with the capacity to transmit pathogenic agents that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue. Continued growth in knowledge of genetic, molecular, and physiological pathways in mosquitoes allows for the development of novel control methods and for the continued optimization of existing ones. The emergence of site-specific nucleases as genomic engineering tools promises to expedite research of crucial biological pathways in these disease vectors. The utilization of these nucleases in a more precise and efficient manner is dependent upon knowledge and manipulation of the DNA repair pathways utilized by the mosquito. While progress has been made in deciphering DNA repair pathways in some model systems, research into the nature of the hierarchy of mosquito DNA repair pathways, as well as in mechanistic differences that may exist, is needed. In this review, we will describe progress in the use of site-specific nucleases in mosquitoes, along with the hierarchy of DNA repair in the context of mosquito chromosomal organization and structure, and how this knowledge may be manipulated to achieve precise chromosomal engineering in mosquitoes.

  10. A Model of Desired Performance in Phylogenetic Tree Construction for Teaching Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Steven D.

    This research paper examines phylogenetic tree construction-a form of problem solving in biology-by studying the strategies and heuristics used by experts. One result of the research is the development of a model of desired performance for phylogenetic tree construction. A detailed description of the model and the sample problems which illustrate…

  11. Type A Performance Standards and Goal Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Clay H.

    Achievement striving is a central dimension of the Type A behavior pattern. To investigate the relationship between Type A behavior pattern, personal performance goals, and goal achievement on two general information tests, 126 undergraduates participated in a two-phase study. First, behavior patterns were assessed using the Framingham Type A…

  12. Desire and deviate nymphos: performing inversion(s) as a lesbian consumer.

    PubMed

    Matrix, S

    1996-01-01

    This paper uses a personalist methodology to discuss my experience of being a lesbian consumer of pop-culture representations of lesbianism. It details, through cultural and feminist/lesbian theory, film theory, and performance criticism, my confusing and contradictory postmodern-feminist-lesbian-theorist response to and desire for what I read as lesbophobia inscribed all over a postcard photo of the cover of a lesbian 1950s pulp novel. I discuss my position as a lesbian looking at a lesbian looking and note the obvious elements of lesbo/homophobia present in this cultural artefact: the trivialization of lesbian desire; the stereotyping of lesbian women; the censorship or erasure of the possibilities of healthy same-sex desire; the prefiguration of the male voyeuristic gaze turning lesbian sex into a spectacle for male pleasure. The paper aims to underline the critical strategies of lesbian experience, the required negotiations in a hostile culture, and the ways that cultural criticism in the academy shape and prefigure my responses to lesbophobic performances in mass media. I question the nature of my pleasure in lesbophobic fictions and detail the process of reversing discourse in the Foucauldian sense. As I identify with the representations, however inaccurate, however fictional, I must invert or queer the lesbophobic message, finding pleasure in the very discourses that oppress me, stereotype me, tolerate me, target me. PMID:8827493

  13. Interactions Between Teaching Performance and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Yi-Ming; White, William F.

    There are two purposes for this study: first, to examine the relationship between college students' achievement and their ratings of instructors; second, to validate the two selected evaluation instruments that were designed specially for assessing teaching performance at the higher education level. Two evaluation inventories were selected for…

  14. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  15. Commentary on text of interview with Professor Lord Ara Darzi: ‘Desirable? Yes; but is it achievable?’

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This personal commentary explores some issues that arise in the text of the interview with Lord Darzi published in LJPC 6.6, from a point of view of an interest in health policy and change in healthcare organisations. It suggests that the vision is desirable but that there are four major questions about ready implementation that the field needs to consider: 1 Can primary care development and investment be protected in a cold financial climate? 2 Does the current marketisation of health care erode integration? 3 Does the health and social care system in London behave like a real system? 4 Is there really a cultural shift towards empowerment and organisational learning? PMID:25949741

  16. Achieving scale strategies for sustained competitive performance.

    PubMed

    Grube, Mark E; Gish, Ryan S; Tkach, Sasha N

    2008-05-01

    Growth to achieve scale requires the following strategic initiatives: Having a clear understanding of what the organization is and what it wants to become. Ensuring a structured and rigorous growth process. Leveraging size to achieve benefits of scale. Recognizing the importance of physicians, ambulatory care, and primary care. Establishing and maintaining accountability as growth occurs.

  17. Plasma performance in JET: Achievements and projections

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, A.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of recent experimental advances on JET, especially as they relate to fusion performance. Scaling relations are used to identify the critical parameters which need to be optimized to secure the best fusion performance. Finally the established best performance of JET is used as a base to project the performance to be expected in future D-T operation. 13 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. DC-9/JT8D refan, Phase 1. [technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting DC-9 aircraft with refan engine to achieve desired acoustic levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Analyses and design studies were conducted on the technical and economic feasibility of installing the JT8D-109 refan engine on the DC-9 aircraft. Design criteria included minimum change to the airframe to achieve desired acoustic levels. Several acoustic configurations were studied with two selected for detailed investigations. The minimum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 608 kg (1,342 lb) and the maximum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 809 kg (1,784 lb). The range loss for the minimum and maximum selected acoustic treatment configurations based on long range cruise at 10 668 m (35,000 ft) altitude with a typical payload of 6 804 kg (15,000 lb) amounts to 54 km (86 n. mi.) respectively. Estimated reduction in EPNL's for minimum selected treatment show 8 EPNdB at approach, 12 EPNdB for takeoff with power cutback, 15 EPNdB for takeoff without power cutback and 12 EPNdB for sideline using FAR Part 36. Little difference was estimated in EPNL between minimum and maximum treatments due to reduced performance of maximum treatment. No major technical problems were encountered in the study. The refan concept for the DC-9 appears technically feasible and economically viable at approximately $1,000,000 per airplane. An additional study of the installation of JT3D-9 refan engine on the DC-8-50/61 and DC-8-62/63 aircraft is included. Three levels of acoustic treatment were suggested for DC-8-50/61 and two levels for DC-8-62/63. Results indicate the DC-8 technically can be retrofitted with refan engines for approximately $2,500,000 per airplane.

  19. Achievement Components of Stanford-Binet Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Ernest D.; And Others

    A curriculum was devised by working backward from Stanford-Binet items to specification of a universe of content for which the Stanford-Binet could serve as a content-valid achievement test. It was reasoned that this curriculum should home. This curriculum was tested on 20 4-year-old disadvantaged children in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. The…

  20. Relation between Self-Esteem and Socially Desirable Responding and the Role of Socially Desirable Responding in the Relation between Self-Esteem and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examines the relation between self-esteem and socially desirable responding by integrating previous findings via a meta-analysis. In 55 studies containing 73 independent samples (N?=?11,901), the correlation between self-esteem and Impression Management was weak, that between self-esteem and Self-Deceptive Enhancement was from…

  1. Using the 2 x 2 Framework of Achievement Goals to Predict Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul; Larkin, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has established how achievement emotions are related to the trichotomous model of achievement goals, and how they predict academic performance. In our study we examine relations using an additional, mastery-avoidance goal, and whether outcome-focused emotions are predicted by mastery as well as performance goals. Results showed that…

  2. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: Testing a Model of Their Joint Relations with Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a theoretical model linking achievement goals and achievement emotions to academic performance. This model was tested in a prospective study with undergraduates (N = 213), using exam-specific assessments of both goals and emotions as predictors of exam performance in an introductory-level psychology course. The findings were…

  3. A Youth Performing Arts Experience: Psychological Experiences, Recollections, and the Desire to Do It Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trayes, Jan; Harre, Niki; Overall, Nickola C.

    2012-01-01

    Stage Challenge is a performing arts competition for New Zealand secondary schools. This longitudinal study used observations, repeated questionnaires, informal conversations, and a graffiti board to follow the 5-month experience of a student-led girls' team aged 10 to 17 years (n = 103). The focus was on the quality of their experience and what…

  4. The Performance of Desire: Gender and Sexual Negotiation in Long-Term Marriages

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sinikka; Umberson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    We integrate theoretical traditions on the social construction of gender, heterosexuality, and marriage with research and theory on emotion work to guide a qualitative investigation of how married people understand and experience sex in marriage. Results, based on 62 in-depth interviews, indicate that married men and women tend to believe that sex is integral to a good marriage and that men are more sexual than women. Moreover, husbands and wives commonly experience conflict around sex and undertake emotion work to manage their own and their spouse’s feelings about sex. We refer to this emotion work as “performing desire” and show how it is linked to gendered experiences in marriage and to competing cultural discourses around gender, heterosexuality, and marriage. PMID:21833150

  5. Conservation and Achievement Test Performance among Fifth-Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliphant, Virginia M.; Cox, David L.

    The relationship between conservation and achievement is examined on specific tests and test items on the Stanford Achievement Test Battery used in the elementary years. Specifically, performance on two tests (Word Meaning and Arithmetic Concepts) were analyzed according to subjects level of thinking (concrete or formal) for total score,…

  6. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    DOE PAGES

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agenciesmore » are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.« less

  7. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agencies are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.

  8. "Tu Que Te Mereces Un Principe, Un Dentista": The Use of Metaphors of Love, Desire, and Gender in Personal Ads on the Internet to Perform Heterosexuality. Creating and Supporting Ideologies of Heteronormativity and Sexuality in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Sosa, Deyanira

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how heterosexuality is performed and achieved in everyday language use, specifically in personal ads from the Internet. Within personal ads, it focuses on the metaphors used by ad posters to articulate concepts of love, desire, gender and sexuality. The aim was to determine how the use of certain metaphors reflects ad…

  9. Gender-Based Differential Item Performance in Mathematics Achievement Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Allen E.

    A procedure for the detection of differential item performance (DIP) is used to investigate the relationships between characteristics of mathematics achievement items and gender differences in performance. Eight randomly equivalent samples of high school seniors were each given a unique form of the ACT Assessment Mathematics Usage Test (ACTM).…

  10. Achieving High Performance on the i860 Microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, King; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The i860 is a high performance microprocessor used in the Intel Touchstone project. This paper proposes a paradigm for programming the i860 that is modelled on the vector instructions of the Cray computers. Fortran callable assembler subroutines were written that mimic the concurrent vector instructions of the Cray. Cache takes the place of vector registers. Using this paradigm we have achieved twice the performance of compiled code on a traditional solve.

  11. When performance-approach goals predict academic achievement and when they do not: a social value approach.

    PubMed

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    Research on achievement goal promotion at University has shown that performance-approach goals are perceived as a means to succeed at University (high social utility) but are not appreciated (low social desirability). We argue that such a paradox could explain why research has detected that performance-approach goals consistently predict academic grades. First-year psychology students answered a performance-approach goal scale with standard, social desirability and social utility instructions. Participants' grades were recorded at the end of the semester. Results showed that the relationship between performance-approach goals and grades was inhibited by the increase of these goals' social desirability and facilitated by the increase of their social utility, revealing that the predictive validity of performance-approach goals depends on social value.

  12. The Effect of Contiguity on Informational Achievement and Psychomotor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Donald W.

    Using a randomized block design and involving the participation of 73 fifth, sixth, and seventh grade pupils, this study sought to ascertain the relative effects of traditional, varied and integrated contiguity on the achievement of information content and the performance of a psychomotor task. The informational content selected for the study…

  13. Effects of Motivational and Situational Variables on Achievement Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boker, John R.; Games, Paul A.

    Problem-solving performance and goal-setting behavior were investigated in 156 undergraduates who, on Mehrabian's Achievement Scales, demonstrated either the motive to approach success or the motive to avoid failure. Different expectations of success or failure were induced by fictitious preperformance information. The degree of success or failure…

  14. Metrics help rural hospitals achieve world-class performance.

    PubMed

    Goodspeed, Scott W

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the emerging trend of using metrics in rural hospitals to achieve world-class performance. This trend is a response to the fact that rural hospitals have small patient volumes yet must maintain a profit margin in order to fulfill their mission to the community. The conceptual idea for this article is based largely on Robert Kaplan and David Norton's Balanced Scorecard articles in the Harvard Business Review. The ideas also come from the experiences of the 60-plus rural hospitals that are using the Balanced Scorecard and their implementation of metrics to influence performance and behavior. It is indeed possible for rural hospitals to meet and exceed the unique needs of patients and physicians (customers), to achieve healthy profit margins, and to be the rural hospital of choice that employees are proud to work for. PMID:17518021

  15. Comparing standardized measures of diligence and achievement with dental student academic performance.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, Joseph; Lindemann, Robert

    2005-04-01

    Utilizing a reliable and valid instrument to measure a student's application of energy and effort towards a goal (diligence) or the ability to reach goals (achievement) would enable dental educators to anticipate academic performance. This knowledge could be used to better distribute faculty and educational resources, as additional tutors could be provided for students who score low on diligence and achievement instruments. In this study, fourth-year dental students completed the Diligence Inventory and the NachNaff Scale (which measures desire to achieve) immediately prior to graduation. The scores from both inventories were correlated with nine measures of academic performance. For males, the NachNaff Scale positively correlated (p<.05) only with the quantity of exceptional performance reports (EPR) and for females negatively correlated only with science DAT scores. The modest positive correlations, which differ for gender, suggest that the NachNaff may be of limited use to predict dental student performance. For males, the Total Diligence mean positively correlated with EPR and National Board Parts I and II scores. For females, the Total Diligence mean positively correlated with EPR and a predental biology-chemistry-physics grade composite. Given the simplicity of the Diligence Inventory and its significant correlations with academic performance demonstrated in this study, it appears to be a useful tool to gain insight into students' diligence in striving to obtain goals.

  16. A desire for parsimony.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Lawrence J

    2013-12-01

    An understanding of wildness is being developed as a quality of interactive processing that increases survival opportunities in nature. A link is made between the need to improve interactive quality for wildness, and cognitive desires and interests in art, music, religion and philosophy as these can also be seen as attempts to improve interactive quality internally and externally. Interactive quality can be improved through gains in parsimony, that is, simplifications in the organisation of skills. The importance of parsimony in evolution is discussed, along with indicators of an internal parsimony desire that experiences joy if achieved through processes such as insight and understanding. A mechanism for the production and measurement of the parsimony desire is proposed, based on the number of subcortical pleasure hotspots that can be stimulated at once within the 'archipelago' available in the limbic system. PMID:25379257

  17. A Desire for Parsimony

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of wildness is being developed as a quality of interactive processing that increases survival opportunities in nature. A link is made between the need to improve interactive quality for wildness, and cognitive desires and interests in art, music, religion and philosophy as these can also be seen as attempts to improve interactive quality internally and externally. Interactive quality can be improved through gains in parsimony, that is, simplifications in the organisation of skills. The importance of parsimony in evolution is discussed, along with indicators of an internal parsimony desire that experiences joy if achieved through processes such as insight and understanding. A mechanism for the production and measurement of the parsimony desire is proposed, based on the number of subcortical pleasure hotspots that can be stimulated at once within the ‘archipelago’ available in the limbic system. PMID:25379257

  18. A More Desirable Balanced Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition Achieved by Heterologous Expression of Δ15/Δ4 Desaturases in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guiming; Ou, Qin; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Xudong; Sun, Guozhi; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Kunfu; Fang, Heng; Wang, Mingfu; Sun, Jie; Ge, Tangdong

    2013-01-01

    Arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are the most biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids, but their biosyntheses in mammals are very limited. The biosynthesis of DHA is the most difficult, because this undergoes the Sprecher pathway–a further elongation step from docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), a Δ6-desaturase acting on a C24 fatty acid substrate followed by a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper reports the successful heterologous expression of two non-mammalian genes (with modification of codon usage), coding for Euglena gracilis Δ4-desaturase and Siganus canaliculatus Δ4-desaturase respectively, in mammalian cells (HEK293 cell line). Both of the Δ4-desaturases can efficiently function, directly converting DPA into DHA. Moreover, the cooperation of the E. gracilis Δ4-desaturase with C. elegans Δ15-desaturase (able to convert a number of n-6 PUFAs to their corresponding n-3 PUFAs) in transgenic HEK293 cells made a more desirable fatty acid composition – a drastically reduced n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio and a high level of DHA as well as EPA and ARA. Our findings provide a basis for potential applications of the gene constructs for expression of Δ15/Δ4-desaturases in transgenic livestock to produce such a fatty acid profile in the related products, which certainly will bring benefit to human health. PMID:24391980

  19. Safety assessment of food and feed from biotechnology-derived crops employing RNA-mediated gene regulation to achieve desired traits: a scientific review.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Jay S; Brower-Toland, Brent; Jackson, Aimee L; Kier, Larry D

    2013-07-01

    Gene expression can be modulated in plants to produce desired traits through agricultural biotechnology. Currently, biotechnology-derived crops are compared to their conventional counterparts, with safety assessments conducted on the genetic modification and the intended and unintended differences. This review proposes that this comparative safety assessment paradigm is appropriate for plants modified to express mediators of RNA-mediated gene regulation, including RNA interference (RNAi), a gene suppression mechanism that naturally occurs in plants and animals. The molecular mediators of RNAi, including long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA), small interfering RNAs (siRNA), and microRNAs (miRNA), occur naturally in foods; therefore, there is an extensive history of safe consumption. Systemic exposure following consumption of plants containing dsRNAs that mediate RNAi is limited in higher organisms by extensive degradation of ingested nucleic acids and by biological barriers to uptake and efficacy of exogenous nucleic acids. A number of mammalian RNAi studies support the concept that a large margin of safety will exist for any small fraction of RNAs that might be absorbed following consumption of foods from biotechnology-derived plants that employ RNA-mediated gene regulation. Food and feed derived from these crops utilizing RNA-based mechanisms is therefore expected to be as safe as food and feed derived through conventional plant breeding.

  20. Perceptions of high-achieving African American/Black tenth graders from a low socioeconomic community regarding health scientists and desired careers.

    PubMed

    Boekeloo, Bradley; Randolph, Suzanne; Timmons-Brown, Stephanie; Wang, Min Qi

    2014-08-01

    Measures are needed to assess youth perceptions about health science careers to facilitate research aimed at increasing youth pursuit of health science. Although the Indiana Instrument provides an established measure of perceptions regarding nursing and ideal careers, we were interested in learning how high-achieving 10th graders from relatively low socioeconomic areas who identify as black/African American (black) perceive health science and ideal careers. The Indiana Instrument was modified, administered to 90 youth of interest, and psychometrically analyzed. Reliable subscales were identified that may facilitate parsimonious, theoretical, and reliable study of youth decision-making regarding health science careers. Such research may help to develop and evaluate strategies for increasing the number of minority health scientists.

  1. Perceptions of High Achieving African American/Black 10th Graders from a Low Socioeconomic Community Regarding Health Scientists and Desired Careers

    PubMed Central

    Boekeloo, Bradley; Randolph, Suzanne; Timmons-Brown, Stephanie; Wang, Min Qi

    2014-01-01

    Measures are needed to assess youth perceptions about health science careers to facilitate research aimed at facilitating youth pursuit of health science. Although the Indiana Instrument provides an established measure of perceptions regarding nursing and ideal careers, we were interested in learning how high achieving 10th graders from relatively low socioeconomic areas who identify as Black/African American (Black) perceive health science and ideal careers. The Indiana Instrument was modified, administered to 90 youth of interest, and psychometrically analyzed. Reliable subscales were identified that may facilitate parsimonious, theoretical, and reliable study of youth decision-making regarding health science careers. Such research may help to develop and evaluate strategies for increasing the number of minority health scientists. PMID:25194058

  2. Assessment of physician performance in Alberta: the Physician Achievement Review

    PubMed Central

    Hall, W; Violato, C; Lewkonia, R; Lockyer, J; Fidler, H; Toews, J; Jennett, P; Donoff, M; Moores, D

    1999-01-01

    The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta, in collaboration with the Universities of Calgary and Alberta, has developed a program to routinely assess the performance of physicians, intended primarily for quality improvement in medical practice. The Physician Achievement Review (PAR) provides a multidimensional view of performance through structured feedback to physicians. The program will also provide a new mechanism for identifying physicians for whom more detailed assessment of practice performance or medical competence may be needed. Questionnaires were created to assess an array of performance attributes, and then appropriate assessors were designated--the physician himself or herself (self-evaluation), patients, medical peers, consultants and referring physicians, and non-physician coworkers. A pilot study with 308 physician volunteers was used to evaluate the psychometric and statistical properties of the questionnaires and to develop operating policies. The pilot surveys showed good statistical validity and technical reliability of the PAR questionnaires. For only 28 (9.1%) of the physicians were the PAR results more than one standard deviation from the peer group means for 3 or more of the 5 major domains of assessment (self, patients, peers, consultants and coworkers). In post-survey feedback, two-thirds of the physicians indicated that they were considering or had implemented changes to their medical practice on the basis of their PAR data. The estimated operating cost of the PAR program is approximately $200 per physician. In February 1999, on the basis of the operating experience and the results of the pilot survey, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta implemented this innovative program, in which all Alberta physicians will be required to participate every 5 years. PMID:10420867

  3. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included…

  4. Achieving fast timing performance with multiplexed SiPMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, M. F.; Cates, J. W.; Levin, C. S.

    2016-04-01

    Using time of flight (ToF) measurements for positron emission tomography (PET) is an attractive avenue for increasing the signal to noise (SNR) ratio of PET images. However, achieving excellent time resolution required for high SNR gain using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) requires many resource heavy high bandwidth readout channels. A method of multiplexing many SiPM signals into a single electronic channel would greatly simplify ToF PET systems. However, multiplexing SiPMs degrades time resolution because of added dark counts and signal shaping. In this work the relative contribution of dark counts and signal shaping to timing degradation is simulated and a baseline correction technique to mitigate the effect of multiplexing on the time resolution of analog SiPMs is simulated and experimentally verified. A charge sharing network for multiplexing is proposed and tested. Results show a full width at half maximum (FWHM) coincidence time resolution of 232+/- 2 ps for a single 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LYSO scintillation crystals coupled to an array of sixteen 3 mm  ×  3 mm SiPMs that are multiplexed to a single timing channel (in addition to 4 position channels). A 4× 4 array of 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LFS crystals showed an average FWHM coincidence time resolution of 278+/- 7 ps using the same timing scheme. All experiments were performed at room temperature with no thermal regulation. These results show that excellent time resolution for ToF can be achieved with a highly multiplexed analog SiPM readout.

  5. Use of Osmotic Pumps to Establish the Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Relationship and Define Desirable Human Performance Characteristics for Aggrecanase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Michael R; Durham, Timothy B; Adams, Lisa A; Chambers, Mark G; Lin, Chaohua; Liu, Chin; Marimuthu, Jothirajah; Mitchell, Peter G; Mudra, Daniel R; Swearingen, Craig A; Toth, James L; Weller, Jennifer M; Thirunavukkarasu, Kannan

    2016-06-23

    The development of reliable relationships between in vivo target engagement, pharmacodynamic activity, and efficacy in chronic disease models is beneficial for enabling hypothesis-driven drug discovery and facilitating the development of patient-focused candidate selection criteria. Toward those ends, osmotic infusion pumps can be useful for overcoming limitations in the PK properties of proof-of-concept (POC) compounds to accelerate the development of such relationships. In this report, we describe the application of this strategy to the development of hydantoin-derived aggrecanase inhibitors (eg, 3) for the treatment of osteoarthiritis (OA). Potent, selective inhibitors were efficacious in both chemical and surgical models of OA when exposures were sustained in excess of 10 times the plasma IC50. The use of these data for establishing patient-focused candidate selection criteria is exemplified with the characterization of compound 8, which is projected to sustain the desired level of target engagement at a dose of 45 mg qd.

  6. Use of Osmotic Pumps to Establish the Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Relationship and Define Desirable Human Performance Characteristics for Aggrecanase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Michael R; Durham, Timothy B; Adams, Lisa A; Chambers, Mark G; Lin, Chaohua; Liu, Chin; Marimuthu, Jothirajah; Mitchell, Peter G; Mudra, Daniel R; Swearingen, Craig A; Toth, James L; Weller, Jennifer M; Thirunavukkarasu, Kannan

    2016-06-23

    The development of reliable relationships between in vivo target engagement, pharmacodynamic activity, and efficacy in chronic disease models is beneficial for enabling hypothesis-driven drug discovery and facilitating the development of patient-focused candidate selection criteria. Toward those ends, osmotic infusion pumps can be useful for overcoming limitations in the PK properties of proof-of-concept (POC) compounds to accelerate the development of such relationships. In this report, we describe the application of this strategy to the development of hydantoin-derived aggrecanase inhibitors (eg, 3) for the treatment of osteoarthiritis (OA). Potent, selective inhibitors were efficacious in both chemical and surgical models of OA when exposures were sustained in excess of 10 times the plasma IC50. The use of these data for establishing patient-focused candidate selection criteria is exemplified with the characterization of compound 8, which is projected to sustain the desired level of target engagement at a dose of 45 mg qd. PMID:27194201

  7. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-11-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included purposeful planning, inquiry science instruction, and contextually rich academic science vocabulary development. In combination, these instructional practices rapidly improved student-science learning outcomes and narrowed achievement gaps across diverse student populations.

  8. Separation of Performance-Approach and Performance-Avoidance Achievement Goals : A Broader Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Elliot, Andrew J.; Yamagata, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    In the literature on achievement goals, performance-approach goals (striving to do better than others) and performance-avoidance goals (striving to avoid doing worse than others) tend to exhibit a moderate to high correlation, raising questions about whether the 2 goals represent distinct constructs. In the current article, we sought to examine…

  9. Enhancing reproductive performance in dairy buffalo: major constraints and achievements.

    PubMed

    Nanda, A S; Brar, P S; Prabhakar, S

    2003-01-01

    Buffalo are of high economic importance for farmers in several developing countries but reproductive performance is poor. A large proportion of heifers attain puberty at 3-5 years of age. A good quality diet supplemented with extra nutrients reduces the age of puberty, whereas the effects of administration of exogenous GnRH or equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) are equivocal. The incidence of anoestrus in buffalo ranges from 20 to 80% depending on season. Most buffalo cease ovarian cyclicity during hot summers probably due to the combined effects of nutrition, environment and management. Keeping buffalo cool by wallowing, water sprinklers or shade improves fertility. Supplementary feeding with Urea Molasses Multi-nutrient Blocks (UMMB) for 60 days before calving enhances the early onset of postpartum oestrus. Regular UMMB supplementation also improves pregnancy rates in anoestrous non-pregnant buffalo. Prepartum vaginal prolapse is hereditary and eradication can be achieved by genetic selective breeding programmes. Treatment with calcium, phosphorus and progesterone gives only transient relief to clinical cases. Uterine torsion is the most common cause of dystocia (70%). Deployment of Sharma's detorsion method and anti-stress measures increase survival rates in cases presented within 36 h. In conclusion, greater understanding about the effects of better year-round nutrition, improved management and markers for logical breeding programmes are essential to curtail the incidence of the reproductive disorders that reduce buffalo fertility.

  10. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  11. Student Achievement and Education System Performance in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Hok, Ung Ngo; Tinon, Souer; Veasna, Meung; Nissay, Put

    2012-01-01

    The global spread of national assessment testing activities, and the growing pressure to move beyond basic measures of participation in educational monitoring, means that student achievement measures are likely to become increasingly relevant indicators of systemic progress in the developing world. Using data from the CESSP project in Cambodia,…

  12. Achievement Goals, Motivation, and Performance: A Closer Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urdan, Tim; Pajares, Frank; Lapin, Amy Z.

    An achievement goal theory framework was used to examine the relations among goals and a number of other motivational constructs in a sample of middle school students. Participants were 189 eighth graders from a public school in the south. In one session students completed the attitude measures and in another session they completed a mathematics…

  13. Improving Low Achievers' Academic Performance at University by Changing the Social Value of Mastery Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Meier, Emanuele; Brandner, Catherine; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in a university context, mastery goals are highly valued and that students may endorse these goals either because they believe in their utility (i.e., social utility), in which case mastery goals are positively linked to achievement, or to create a positive image of themselves (i.e., social desirability), in which…

  14. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  15. Achieving intelligent performance in autonomous on-road driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenoff, Craig I.; Evans, John M.; Barbera, Anthony J.; Albus, James S.; Messina, Elena R.; Balakirsky, Stephen B.

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes NIST"s efforts in evaluating what it will take to achieve autonomous human-level driving skills in terms of time and funding. NIST has approached this problem from several perspectives: considering the current state-of-the-art in autonomous navigation and extrapolating from there, decomposing the tasks identified by the Department of Transportation for on-road driving and comparing that with accomplishments to date, analyzing computing power requirements by comparison with the human brain, and conducting a Delphi Forecast using the expert researchers in the field of autonomous driving. A detailed description of each of these approaches is provided along with the major finding from each approach and an overall picture of what it will take to achieve human level driving skills in autonomous vehicles.

  16. Orchestrating ACO success: how top performers achieve shared savings.

    PubMed

    Harris, John M; Elizondo, Idette; Brown, Amanda M

    2016-03-01

    Leaders of the top-performing accountable care organizations in the Medicare Shared Savings Program attribute the success of their organizations in large part to seven strategies: Seek action-oriented leadership. Transform primary care physician practices. Keep patients out of the emergency department. Ensure all transitions are smooth. Make effective use of available data. Share information on physician performance. Keep patients engaged.

  17. Some methods for achieving more efficient performance of fuel assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltenko, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    More efficient operation of reactor plant fuel assemblies can be achieved through the use of new technical solutions aimed at obtaining more uniform distribution of coolant over the fuel assembly section, more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces, and higher values of departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR). Technical solutions using which it is possible to obtain more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces and higher DNBR values in reactor plant fuel assemblies are considered. An alternative heat removal arrangement is described using which it is possible to obtain a significantly higher power density in a reactor plant and essentially lower maximal fuel rod temperature.

  18. Orchestrating ACO success: how top performers achieve shared savings.

    PubMed

    Harris, John M; Elizondo, Idette; Brown, Amanda M

    2016-03-01

    Leaders of the top-performing accountable care organizations in the Medicare Shared Savings Program attribute the success of their organizations in large part to seven strategies: Seek action-oriented leadership. Transform primary care physician practices. Keep patients out of the emergency department. Ensure all transitions are smooth. Make effective use of available data. Share information on physician performance. Keep patients engaged. PMID:27183758

  19. Achieving Transformational Materials Performance in a New Era of Science

    ScienceCinema

    John Sarrao

    2016-07-12

    The inability of current materials to meet performance requirements is a key stumbling block for addressing grand challenges in energy and national security. Fortunately, materials research is on the brink of a new era - a transition from observation and validation of materials properties to prediction and control of materials performance. In this talk, I describe the nature of the current challenge, the prospects for success, and a specific facility concept, MaRIE, that will provide the needed capabilities to meet these challenges, especially for materials in extreme environments. MaRIE, for Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes, is Los Alamos' concept to realize this vision of 21st century materials research. This vision will be realized through enhancements to the current LANSCE accelerator, development of a fourth-generation x-ray light source co-located with the proton accelerator, and a comprehensive synthesis and characterization facility focused on controlling complex materials and the defect/structure link to materials performance.

  20. The Effects of Parental Involvement on Student Achievement in Three Michigan Performance Contracting Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillum, Ronald M.; And Others

    Reading achievement of students in second to sixth grade in three school districts participating in a performance-contracting program was tested, using the Stanford Achievement Test and the Metropolitan Achievement Test, at the beginning and the end of the school year. The performance contract for each of the districts included a…

  1. Achieving high sustained performance in an unstructured mesh CFD application

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D E; Anderson, W K; Gropp, W D; Kaushik, D K; Smith, B F

    1999-12-10

    This paper highlights a three-year project by an interdisciplinary team on a legacy F77 computational fluid dynamics code, with the aim of demonstrating that implicit unstructured grid simulations can execute at rates not far from those of explicit structured grid codes, provided attention is paid to data motion complexity and the reuse of data positioned at the levels of the memory hierarchy closest to the processor, in addition to traditional operation count complexity. The demonstration code is from NASA and the enabling parallel hardware and (freely available) software toolkit are from DOE, but the resulting methodology should be broadly applicable, and the hardware limitations exposed should allow programmers and vendors of parallel platforms to focus with greater encouragement on sparse codes with indirect addressing. This snapshot of ongoing work shows a performance of 15 microseconds per degree of freedom to steady-state convergence of Euler flow on a mesh with 2.8 million vertices using 3072 dual-processor nodes of ASCI Red, corresponding to a sustained floating-point rate of 0.227 Tflop/s.

  2. 39 CFR 3055.1 - Annual reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual reporting of service performance achievements. 3055.1 Section 3055.1 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  3. 39 CFR 3055.30 - Periodic reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodic reporting of service performance achievements. 3055.30 Section 3055.30 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  4. 39 CFR 3055.2 - Contents of the annual report of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contents of the annual report of service performance achievements. 3055.2 Section 3055.2 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  5. Desire, Democracy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thogersen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the concept of eros has found its way back into educational literature with the aim of integrating human desires into educational theories and counteracting a devaluation of emotional life. This paper holds the view that this integration is important because desire expresses a fundamental way of relating to the world. However, part…

  6. Vacuum upgrade and enhanced performances of the double imaging electron/ion coincidence end-station at the vacuum ultraviolet beamline DESIRS.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Garcia, Gustavo A; Gil, Jean-François; Nahon, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    We report here the recent upgrade of the SAPHIRS permanent photoionization end-station at the DESIRS vacuum ultraviolet beamline of synchrotron SOLEIL, whose performances have been enhanced by installing an additional double-skimmer differential chamber. The smaller molecular beam profile obtained at the interaction region has increased the mass resolution of the double imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (i(2)PEPICO) spectrometer, DELICIOUS III, installed in the photoionization chamber of the SAPHIRS endstation, by a factor of two, to M/ΔM ∼ 1700 (FWHM). The electron kinetic energy resolution offered by the velocity map imaging (VMI) part of the spectrometer has been improved down to 2.8% (ΔE/E) as we show on the N2 photoionization case in the double skimmer configuration. As a representative example of the overall state-of-the-art i(2)PEPICO performances, experimental results of the dissociation of state-selected O2(+)(B(2)∑(g)(-), v(+) = 0-6) molecular ions performed at the fixed photon energy of hν = 21.1 eV are presented. PMID:26724007

  7. Vacuum upgrade and enhanced performances of the double imaging electron/ion coincidence end-station at the vacuum ultraviolet beamline DESIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Gil, Jean-François; Nahon, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    We report here the recent upgrade of the SAPHIRS permanent photoionization end-station at the DESIRS vacuum ultraviolet beamline of synchrotron SOLEIL, whose performances have been enhanced by installing an additional double-skimmer differential chamber. The smaller molecular beam profile obtained at the interaction region has increased the mass resolution of the double imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (i2PEPICO) spectrometer, DELICIOUS III, installed in the photoionization chamber of the SAPHIRS endstation, by a factor of two, to M/ΔM ˜ 1700 (FWHM). The electron kinetic energy resolution offered by the velocity map imaging (VMI) part of the spectrometer has been improved down to 2.8% (ΔE/E) as we show on the N2 photoionization case in the double skimmer configuration. As a representative example of the overall state-of-the-art i2PEPICO performances, experimental results of the dissociation of state-selected O2+ (B 2 ∑ g - , v+ = 0-6) molecular ions performed at the fixed photon energy of hν = 21.1 eV are presented.

  8. Boredom in Achievement Settings: Exploring Control-Value Antecedents and Performance Outcomes of a Neglected Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Daniels, Lia M.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2010-01-01

    The linkages of achievement-related boredom with students' appraisals and performance outcomes were examined in a series of 5 exploratory, cross-sectional, and predictive investigations. Studies 1 and 2 assessed students' boredom in a single achievement episode (i.e., state achievement boredom); Studies 3, 4, and 5 focused on their habitual…

  9. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions are explored. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement made by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  10. Students' Achievement Goals, Emotion Perception Ability and Affect and Performance in the Classroom: A Multilevel Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassiou, Aikaterini; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Andreou, Eleni; Kafetsios, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Performance at school is affected not only by students' achievement goals but also by emotional exchanges among classmates and their teacher. In this study, we investigated relationships between students' achievement goals and emotion perception ability and class affect and performance. Participants were 949 Greek adolescent students in 49 classes…

  11. A Comparison of Low Performing Students' Achievements in Factoring Cubic Polynomials Using Three Different Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbonnaya, Ugorji I.; Mogari, David L.; Machisi, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In this study, repeated measures design was employed to compare low performing students' achievements in factoring cubic polynomials using three strategies. Twenty-five low-performing Grade 12 students from a secondary school in Limpopo province took part in the study. Data was collected using achievement test and was analysed using repeated…

  12. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  13. Construct Validity of the Computerized Continuous Performance Test with Measures of Intelligence, Achievement, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janice Whitten; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Administered Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and reading comprehension subtest of Peabody Individual Achievement Test to 54 school-aged children and adolescents referred for evaluation of learning disabilities. Parents…

  14. Cognitive Performance, School Behavior, and Achievement of Children from One-Parent Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetherington, E. Mavis; And Others

    This report reviews the research literature on the effects of divorce and one-parent childrearing on academic achievement and intellectual functioning in children. Life changes following the decision to separate are described along with scholastic achievement measured by IQ and aptitude tests and patterns of cognitive performance. Factors…

  15. Do Performance Goals Promote Learning? A Pattern Analysis of Singapore Students' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Paris, Scott G.; Hogan, David; Luo, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how achievement goals are combined to affect students' learning. We used a multiple goals perspective, based on mastery (i.e., mastery approach) and performance (including both approach and avoidance components) goals, to examine the achievement goal patterns of 1697 Singapore Secondary 3 students in their math study. Four…

  16. College Performance of New Maryland High School Graduates. Student Outcome and Achievement Report (SOAR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 SOAR (Student Outcome and Achievement Report) relies upon two sets of data, the academic performance data (which are collected directly from the colleges and universities) and the SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test)/ACT (American College Testing Program) data, to examine the relationship between students' academic achievements and…

  17. The Effects of Gender and Attributions on Achievement Motivation and Subsequent Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Sibylle J.; Latta, R. Michael

    One attributional model of achievement proposes that individuals attribute their own and others' performance outcomes to one or more of four causes, i.e., ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck, and that such attributions have motivational significance for subsequent achievement-related behavior. The effects of gender, level of resultant…

  18. A methodology to assess performance of human-robotic systems in achievement of collective tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a methodology to assess system performance of human-robotic systems in achievement of collective tasks such as habitat construction, geological sampling, and space exploration.

  19. Performance-Based Assessment, Science Festival Exhibit Presentations, and Elementary Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Verilette A.; Gerber, Brian L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the effective use of performance-based assessment for evaluating fifth- and sixth-grade student achievement as demonstrated by student exhibit presentations at a science festival. Individual evaluation scores and group negotiated evaluations were consistent. (Author/MM)

  20. Hypoactive Sexual Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Helen S.

    1977-01-01

    Low-libido disorders are highly prevalent, may be extremely distressful to patients and their partners, and influence the course and prognosis of therapy. This paper focuses on this important aspect of human sexuality. Some clinical features of hypoactive sexual desire are described, and some hypotheses about etiology and prognosis are presented.…

  1. Schooling of Desire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlin, Karen E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses education in virtue, inviting college professors to see themselves not as "meddlers" in students' private lives but rather as interlocutors who prompt students to examine their desires--not simply what they hope to gain, but who they hope to become as a result of their university education. Focuses on the philosophies of Plato,…

  2. Performance-Approach and Performance-Avoidance Classroom Goals and the Adoption of Personal Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinger, Malte; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Background: Students' perceptions of classroom goals influence their adoption of personal goals. To assess different forms of classroom goals, recent studies have favoured an overall measure of performance classroom goals, compared to a two-dimensional assessment of performance-approach and performance-avoidance classroom goals (PAVCG). Aims: This…

  3. Can achievement emotions be used to better understand motivation, learning, and performance in medical education?

    PubMed

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider an emergent theory of human emotion. The overarching purpose of the article is to introduce medical education researchers to the notion of achievement emotions and provide a brief overview of how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. First, we define achievement emotions and describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun R. 2006. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educ Psychol Rev 18:315-341.). Next, we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal causes, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance, and we discuss several implications for educational practice. Finally, we end with a call for more research on achievement emotions in medical education to facilitate our understanding of emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Self-Reported Achievement Goals and Nonself-Report Performance across Three Achievement Domains (Work, Sports, and Education)

    PubMed Central

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual’s drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that – overall – approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of

  5. A meta-analysis of self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance across three achievement domains (work, sports, and education).

    PubMed

    Van Yperen, Nico W; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that - overall - approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of performance

  6. Sexual Desire Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment. PMID:19727285

  7. Prediction of intrinsic motivation and sports performance using 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly.

  8. Universal Factors of Student Achievement in High-Performing Eastern and Western Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether a common set of student attitudes and behavioral tendencies can account for academic achievement across different, especially high-performing, countries via analysis of the PISA 2009 international data set. The 13 countries examined are 5 of the top-performing Eastern countries/systems, namely Shanghai China, South…

  9. 39 CFR 3055.31 - Contents of the Quarterly Report of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contents of the Quarterly Report of service performance achievements. 3055.31 Section 3055.31 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service...

  10. The Effects of the Classroom Performance System on Student Participation, Attendance, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2013-01-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology that increases student performance and promotes active learning. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes, where students' first spoken language is not…

  11. Boasts are a boost: achievement prime self-reactivity predicts subsequent academic performance.

    PubMed

    Gramzow, Richard H; Johnson, Camille S; Willard, Greg

    2014-03-01

    The present research tests the hypothesis that self-reactivity following an achievement prime reflects the strength of achievement goals and is a predictor of future goal-relevant performance. In Studies 1-3, undergraduates reported their grade-point averages (GPAs) following either an achievement goal prime or a control prime. Academic exaggeration (higher self-reported than official GPA) was the indicator of self-reactivity to the prime. Study 1 involved a direct achievement goal prime, whereas Studies 2 and 3 involved indirect priming techniques. In all 3 experiments, greater academic exaggeration following the achievement goal prime (but not the control prime) predicted better academic performance a semester later (based on official records). Study 4 demonstrated that the magnitude of students' GPA goals mediated the association between academic exaggeration and subsequent performance (1 year later). The fact that self-reactivity to a single achievement goal prime in the lab predicted later performance in "real life" suggests that individual differences in reactivity to a specific prime can signal much broader motivational orientations related to the primed goal. PMID:24588092

  12. The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent.

  13. A practice-specificity-based model of arousal for achieving peak performance.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Sheikh, Mahmood; Bagherzadeh, Fazlolah; Hemayattalab, Rasool; Ashayeri, Hassan

    2007-11-01

    The authors propose a practice-specificity-based model of arousal for achieving peak performance. The study included 37 healthy male physical education students whom they randomly assigned to a high-arousal (n = 19) or low-arousal group (n = 18). To manipulate participants' level of arousal, the authors used motivational techniques. They used heart rate and the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (R. Martens, 1977) to measure the level of arousal that participants achieved. At the determined and given arousal state, the 2 groups performed the task (basketball free throws) for 18 sessions. Both groups performed a retention test at the 2 arousal levels immediately after the last exercise session, in the posttest, and after 10 days. Results showed that both groups learned the task similarly and achieved their peak performance at their experienced arousal level. When tested at an arousal level that differed from the one that they experienced throughout practice sessions, participants' performance had deteriorated significantly. Performance of the task seemed to have integrated with the arousal level of the participants during the task learning. The findings of this study suggest a practice-specificity-based explanation for achieving peak performance.

  14. Student Achievement for Whom? High-Performing and Still "Playing the Game," the Meaning of School Achievement among High Achieving African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggan, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The preponderance of the research on African American students has generally focused on issues of school failure and underperformance. While the literature on high achieving Black students is sparse, very little is known about these students' school experiences and the meanings that they assign to achievement. Using student-based inquiry…

  15. Performance-based alternative assessments as a means of eliminating gender achievement differences on science tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Norman Merrill

    1998-09-01

    Historically, researchers have reported an achievement difference between females and males on standardized science tests. These differences have been reported to be based upon science knowledge, abstract reasoning skills, mathematical abilities, and cultural and social phenomena. This research was designed to determine how mastery of specific science content from public school curricula might be evaluated with performance-based assessment models, without producing gender achievement differences. The assessment instruments used were Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement's GOALSsp°ler: A Performance-Based Measure of Achievement and the performance-based portion of the Stanford Achievement Testspcopyright, Ninth Edition. The identified independent variables were test, gender, ethnicity, and grade level. A 2 x 2 x 6 x 12 (test x gender x ethnicity x grade) factorial experimental design was used to organize the data. A stratified random sample (N = 2400) was selected from a national pool of norming data: N = 1200 from the GOALSsp°ler group and N = 1200 from the SAT9spcopyright group. The ANOVA analysis yielded mixed results. The factors of test, gender, ethnicity by grade, gender by grade, and gender by grade by ethnicity failed to produce significant results (alpha = 0.05). The factors yielding significant results were ethnicity, grade, and ethnicity by grade. Therefore, no significant differences were found between female and male achievement on these performance-based assessments.

  16. Predicting subjective vitality and performance in sports: the role of passion and achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang

    2010-06-01

    The major purpose of this study was to test the hypothesized paths from dualistic passions through achievement goals to subjective vitality and performance in sports. 645 high school athletes participated. The proposed structural equation model, with relationships between dualistic passions and subjective vitality and sports performance mediated by achievement goals, fit the data well, especially for mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Harmonious and obsessive passions may lead athletes to high performance via the adoption of mastery-approach goals. However, these passions seem to have two paths influencing personal functioning: direct effects make players feel energetic, and indirect effects on subjective vitality through adoption of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals.

  17. Music Education Desire(ing): Language, Literacy, and Lieder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Issues of desire in music education are integral and anathema to the profession. Constituted of and by desire, we bodily engage music emotionally and cognitively; yet references to the body are limited to how it may be better managed in order to produce more satisfactory (desired) sounds, thus disciplining desire as we focus on the content of…

  18. Achievement goals, task performance, and interest: why perceived goal difficulty matters.

    PubMed

    Senko, Corwin; Harackiewicz, Judith M

    2005-12-01

    In field studies, mastery goals, which focus on developing skill, often predict task interest but not actual performance. Performance-approach goals, which focus on outperforming others, instead often predict strong performance but not interest. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that these distinct goal effects trace to goal difficulty perceptions. In each study, participants assigned to a performance-approach goal perceived their goal to be harder, and therefore felt more performance pressure, than those assigned to a mastery goal. Among participants low in dispositional achievement orientation, this experience translated into lower task interest when pursuing the performance-approach goal. However, participants in both studies also performed the activity better when pursuing this goal instead of a standard mastery goal, although this was not mediated by self-reported goal difficulty perceptions. Finally, further demonstrating the role of goal difficulty, a mastery goal manipulated to appear more difficult than a standard mastery goal produced effects matching the performance-approach goal.

  19. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  20. Producing desired ice faces

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J.; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih––a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface––due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid. PMID:26512102

  1. Producing desired ice faces.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-11-10

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih--a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface--due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid.

  2. Quantitative Guidance for Stove Usage and Performance to Achieve Health and Environmental Targets

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ranyee A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Displacing the use of polluting and inefficient cookstoves in developing countries is necessary to achieve the potential health and environmental benefits sought through clean cooking solutions. Yet little quantitative context has been provided on how much displacement of traditional technologies is needed to achieve targets for household air pollutant concentrations or fuel savings. Objectives This paper provides instructive guidance on the usage of cooking technologies required to achieve health and environmental improvements. Methods We evaluated different scenarios of displacement of traditional stoves with use of higher performing technologies. The air quality and fuel consumption impacts were estimated for these scenarios using a single-zone box model of indoor air quality and ratios of thermal efficiency. Results Stove performance and usage should be considered together, as lower performing stoves can result in similar or greater benefits than a higher performing stove if the lower performing stove has considerably higher displacement of the baseline stove. Based on the indoor air quality model, there are multiple performance–usage scenarios for achieving modest indoor air quality improvements. To meet World Health Organization guidance levels, however, three-stone fire and basic charcoal stove usage must be nearly eliminated to achieve the particulate matter target (< 1–3 hr/week), and substantially limited to meet the carbon monoxide guideline (< 7–9 hr/week). Conclusions Moderate health gains may be achieved with various performance–usage scenarios. The greatest benefits are estimated to be achieved by near-complete displacement of traditional stoves with clean technologies, emphasizing the need to shift in the long term to near exclusive use of clean fuels and stoves. The performance–usage scenarios are also provided as a tool to guide technology selection and prioritize behavior change opportunities to maximize impact. Citation

  3. Performance-Approach Goal Effects on Achievement under Low versus High Challenge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Durik, Amanda M.; Patel, Lily; Lovejoy, Chelsea M.; Valentiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of university students' achievement goals on performance under low versus high challenge conditions. The first was a laboratory experiment in which participants were assigned goals to pursue on a novel mathematics task alleged to be simple or complex to use. The second was a survey study in which students set goals…

  4. Immigrant Children's Educational Achievement in Western Countries: Origin, Destination, and Community Effects on Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levels, Mark; Dronkers, Jaap; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which macro-level characteristics of destination countries, origin countries, and immigrant communities help explain differences in immigrant children's educational achievement. Using data from the 2003 PISA survey, we analyze the mathematical performance of 7,403 pupils from 35 different origin countries in 13…

  5. Relationships Among Simple Measures of Reading and Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deno, Stanley L.; And Others

    Three concurrent validity studies were conducted to determine the relationship between performances on formative measures of reading and standardized achievement measures of reading. Correlational analyses for five formative measures and three standardized measures provided evidence for the validity of Words in Isolation, Words in Context, and…

  6. Improving Achievement in Low-Performing Schools: Key Results for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Randolph E.; Burke, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    As accountability in schools becomes more crucial, educators are looking for comprehensive and innovative management practices that respond to challenges and realities of student academic achievement. In order to improve academic performance and the quality of instruction, the entire school community needs to be involved. This book provides six…

  7. Academic Performance in African American Undergraduates: Effects of Cultural Mistrust, Educational Value, and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Taisha; Obasi, Ezemenari M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined achievement motivation, the value of education, cultural mistrust, and academic performance in 202 African American college students attending both Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and a Predominately White Institution (PWI). Results using hierarchical multiple regression established that the three…

  8. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  9. Reading Achievement, Mastery, and Performance Goal Structures among Students with Learning Disabilities: A Nonlinear Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Antoniou, Faye

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that a nonlinear relationship exists between a performance-classroom climate and the reading achievement of adolescent students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants were 62 students with LD (Grades 5-9) from public elementary schools in northern Greece. Classroom climate was…

  10. Four Language Skills Performance, Academic Achievement, and Learning Strategy Use in Preservice Teacher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the differences in language learning strategies (LLS) use between preservice teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and Arabic as a second language (ASL). It also examines the relationship between LLS use and language performance (academic achievement and four language skills) among ASL students. The study made use…

  11. Performance Concern, Contingent Self-Worth, and Responses to Repeated Achievement Failure in Second Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Patricia A.; Coulson, Sheri L.; Greene, Joelle K.; Bono, Katherine L.

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in emotion, cognitions, and task choice following achievement failure are found among four- to seven-year-olds. However, neither performance deterioration during failure nor generalization after failure--aspects of the helpless pattern in 10-year-olds--have been reliably demonstrated in this age group. In the present study,…

  12. Teaching to the Tails: Teacher Performance Pay and the Distribution of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyalka, Prashant; Sylvia, Sean; Liu, Chengfang; Chu, James; Rozelle, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that teachers in developing countries often have weak or misaligned incentives for improving student outcomes. In response, policymakers and researchers have proposed performance pay as a way to improve student outcomes by tying concrete measures like achievement scores to teacher pay. While evidence from randomized…

  13. Marked for Success: Secondary School Performance and University Achievement in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Keith; Broght, Erik; Sampson, Kaylene

    2011-01-01

    Building on Shulruf, Hattie and Tumen (2008), this work examines the capacity of various National Certificate in Educational Achievement (NCEA)-derived models to predict first-year performance in Biological Sciences at a New Zealand university. We compared three models: (1) the "best-80" indicator as used by several New Zealand…

  14. Setting Student Performance Standards: The Role of Achievement Level Descriptions in the Standard Setting Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Mary Lyn

    This paper looks at using descriptions of subject matter content to assist in the development and interpretation of student performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). These descriptions of content, called achievement level descriptions (ALDs), were initially conceptualized as exemplary statements of the knowledge and…

  15. Expressing International Educational Achievement in Terms of U.S. Performance Standards: Linking NAEP Achievement Levels to TIMSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gary W.

    2007-01-01

    Educators, researchers, and policymakers have considerable interest in how the American educational system compares to those in other countries. One major index for comparison is student academic achievement. This paper links the scale of the "National Assessment of Educational Progress" ("NAEP") to the scale of the "Third International…

  16. Creating a Desired Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins-Scott, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    When the author became president of Wheelock College in Boston in 2004, she asked the trustees and the entire campus community to engage in an innovative strategic planning and visioning process. The goal was to achieve consensus on a strategic vision for the future of Wheelock College by the end of her first year. This article discusses how…

  17. The honeymoon effect in job performance - Temporal increases in the predictive power of achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Sawin, Linda L.; Carsrud, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    Correlations between a job performance criterion and personality measures reflecting achievement motivation and an interpersonal orientation were examined at three points in time after completion of job training for a sample of airline reservations agents. Although correlations between the personality predictors and performance were small and nonsignificant for the 3-month period after beginning the job, by the end of six and eight months a number of significant relationships had emerged. Implications for the utility of personality measures in selection and performance prediction are discussed.

  18. How to achieve performance portable code using OpenACC compiler directives?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapillonne, Xavier; Fuhrer, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    In view of adapting the weather and climate model COSMO to future architectures a new version of the model capable of running on graphics processing units (GPUs) has been developed. A large part of the code has been ported using compiler directives based on the OpenACC programming model. In order to achieve the best performance on GPUs several optimizations have been introduced for time critical components, mostly in the so-called physical parameterizations. Some of these modifications unfortunately degrade performance on traditional CPUs. Being a large community code, the COSMO model is required to perform well on both hybrid and CPU-only supercomputers. The current practical solution is to have separate source files for GPU and CPU execution, which may in the long-term result in maintenance issues. Considering the physical parameterization responsible for the atmospheric radiative transfer computations, we first present the restructuring techniques necessary to achieve performance on the GPU. We then show that some parts of the code are compute bound on the CPU while memory bound limited on the GPU, leading to different requirements in terms of optimization. We finally discuss various solutions to achieve a portable and maintainable code, both in terms of possible improvement of the OpenACC standard or in terms of programming strategy.

  19. Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance while Reducing Achievement Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Pennebaker, James W.; Gosling, Samuel D.; Ferrell, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    An in-class computer-based system, that included daily online testing, was introduced to two large university classes. We examined subsequent improvements in academic performance and reductions in the achievement gaps between lower- and upper-middle class students in academic performance. Students (N = 901) brought laptop computers to classes and took daily quizzes that provided immediate and personalized feedback. Student performance was compared with the same data for traditional classes taught previously by the same instructors (N = 935). Exam performance was approximately half a letter grade above previous semesters, based on comparisons of identical questions asked from earlier years. Students in the experimental classes performed better in other classes, both in the semester they took the course and in subsequent semester classes. The new system resulted in a 50% reduction in the achievement gap as measured by grades among students of different social classes. These findings suggest that frequent consequential quizzing should be used routinely in large lecture courses to improve performance in class and in other concurrent and subsequent courses. PMID:24278176

  20. The effects of achievement goals on performance, enjoyment, and practice of a novel motor task.

    PubMed

    Kavussanu, Maria; Morris, Rebecca L; Ring, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    We examined the effects of trichotomous achievement goals on performance, enjoyment, and practice of a golf-putting task. Male (n = 39) and female (n = 63) undergraduate students participated in the experiment in exchange for course credit. Participants were assigned to a mastery, performance-approach, or performance-avoidance goal condition and completed seven blocks of 10 trials (one for baseline, four for the experimental phase, and two for the transfer phase) of a golf-putting task. Distance from the target was measured and performance measures of accuracy and consistency were calculated. Self-reported enjoyment during the baseline and experimental phases and practice during a 5-min period before and following the experimental task were also assessed. Performance accuracy and consistency improved similarly among the three groups. Individuals in all three conditions reported enjoying the task to the same extent. Mastery participants practiced for longer than performance-approach participants during the practice period. Performance-avoidance participants did not differ significantly from the other two groups. The three goals were equally effective in promoting performance and enjoyment of the golf-putting task. The differential practice results for the two performance goals suggest that they should be considered separately. PMID:19735037

  1. The effect of workshop groups on achievement goals and performance in biology: An outcome evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Wendi Kay

    This two-year quasi-experiment evaluated the effect of peer-led workshop groups on performance of minority and majority undergraduate biology students in a three-course series and investigated motivational explanations for performance differences. The workshop intervention used was modeled after a program pioneered by Treisman (1992) at the University of California. Majority volunteers randomly assigned to workshops (n = 61) performed between 1/2 and 1 standard deviation better than those assigned to the control group (n = 60; p < .05) in each quarter without spending more time studying. During Quarter 1, workshop minority students (n = 25) showed a pattern of increasing exam performance in comparison to historic control minority students (n = 21), who showed a decreasing pattern (p < .05). Although sex differences in biology performance were a focus of investigation, none were detected. Motivational predictions derived from the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation (Elliot & Church, 1997) were partially supported. Self-report survey measures of achievement goals, modeled after those used by Elliot and colleagues, were requested from all enrolled students. Volunteers (n = 121) reported higher average levels of approach and avoidance goals than nonvolunteers (n = 439; p < .05) and the relationship of goals to performance was moderated by volunteer status. Performance of volunteers was negatively related to avoidance of failure goals (r = .41, p < .01) and unrelated to performance approach goals. Performance of nonvolunteers was unrelated to avoidance of failure goals and positively related to performance approach goals (r = .28, p < .01). Mastery goals were unrelated to performance for all students. Results were inconsistent with Dweck and Leggett's (1988) theory of mastery vs. performance orientation, but were similar to results found by Elliot and colleagues. Contrary to hypotheses, motivational goals did not mediate performance for

  2. Competence and Performance in Belief-Desire Reasoning across Two Cultures: The Truth, the Whole Truth and Nothing but the Truth about False Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazdi, Amir Amin; German, Tim P.; Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Siegal, Michael

    2006-01-01

    There is a change in false belief task performance across the 3-5 year age range, as confirmed in a recent meta-analysis [Wellman, H. M., Cross, D., & Watson, J. (2001). Meta-analysis of theory mind development: The truth about false-belief. "Child Development," 72, 655-684]. This meta-analysis identified several performance factors influencing…

  3. Social jetlag, academic achievement and cognitive performance: Understanding gender/sex differences.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA.

  4. Governing Educational Desire: Culture, Politics, and Schooling in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Andrew B.

    2011-01-01

    Parents in China greatly value higher education for their children, but the intensity and effects of their desire to achieve this goal have largely gone unexamined--until now. "Governing Educational Desire" explores the cultural, political, and economic origins of Chinese desire for a college education as well as its vast consequences, which…

  5. High performances CNTFETs achieved using CNT networks for selective gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorintin, Louis; Bondavalli, Paolo; Legagneux, Pierre; Pribat, Didier

    2009-08-01

    Our study deals with the utilization of carbon nanotubes networks based transistors with different metal electrodes for highly selective gas sensing. Indeed, carbon nanotubes networks can be used as semi conducting materials to achieve good performances transistors. These devices are extremely sensitive to the change of the Schottky barrier heights between Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) and drain/source metal electrodes: the gas adsorption creates an interfacial dipole that modifies the metal work function and so the bending and the height of the Schottky barrier at the contacts. Moreover each gas interacts specifically with each metal identifying a sort of electronic fingerprinting. Using airbrush technique for deposition, we have been able to achieve uniform random networks of carbon nanotubes suitable for large area applications and mass production such as fabrication of CNT based gas sensors. These networks enable us to achieve transistors with on/off ratio of more than 5 orders of magnitude. To reach these characteristics, the density of the CNT network has been adjusted in order to reach the percolation threshold only for semi-conducting nanotubes. These optimized devices have allowed us to tune the sensitivity (improving it) of our sensors for highly selective detection of DiMethyl-Methyl-Phosphonate (DMMP, a sarin stimulant), and even volatile drug precursors using Pd, Au and Mo electrodes.

  6. Wind/tornado design criteria, development to achieve required probabilistic performance goals

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, D.S.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes the strategy for developing new design criteria for a critical facility to withstand loading induced by the wind/tornado hazard. The proposed design requirements for resisting wind/tornado loads are based on probabilistic performance goals. The proposed design criteria were prepared by a Working Group consisting of six experts in wind/tornado engineering and meteorology. Utilizing their best technical knowledge and judgment in the wind/tornado field, they met and discussed the methodologies and reviewed available data. A review of the available wind/tornado hazard model for the site, structural response evaluation methods, and conservative acceptance criteria lead to proposed design criteria that has a high probability of achieving the required performance goals.

  7. Performance Achievements and Challenges for FELs based on Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2006-08-27

    During the past decade several groups have assembled free electron lasers based on energy recovered linacs (ERLs). Such arrangements have been built to obtain high average power electron and photon beams, by using high repetition rate beam pulses driving FEL oscillators. In this paper the performance of many existing and several proposed facilities from around the world are reviewed. Going forward, many questions must be addressed to achieve still better performance including: higher average current injectors, better optimized accelerating cavities, higher energy acceptance and lower loss beam recirculation systems, and better optical cavity designs for dealing with the optical beam power circulating in the ERL FELs. This paper presents some of the current thinking on each of these issues.

  8. Evaluation of additional cooking procedures to achieve lethality microbiological performance standards for large, intact meat products.

    PubMed

    Haneklaus, A N; Harris, K B; Cuervo, M P; Ilhak, O I; Lucia, L M; Castillo, A; Hardin, M D; Osburn, W N; Savell, J W

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) has a specific lethality performance standard for ready-to-eat products. To assist meat processing establishments in meeting the performance standard, USDA-FSIS developed Appendix A, which provides guidelines for cooking temperatures, times, and relative humidity. This project determined whether the USDA-FSIS performance standards for lethality were met when using parameters other than those identified in Appendix A to cook large hams and beef inside rounds. The effects of alternative lethality parameters on the reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and coliforms and on the toxin production of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Large (9- to 12-kg) cured bone-in hams (n = 80) and large (8- to 13-kg) uncured beef inside rounds (n = 80) were used in this study. The products were subjected to 1 of 10 treatments defined by combinations of final internal product temperatures (48.9, 54.4, 60.0, 65.6, or 71.1°C) and batch oven relative humidities (50 or 90 % ). For all treatments, at least a 6.5-log reduction in Salmonella Typhimurium was achieved. The coliform counts were also substantially reduced for both hams and rounds. Across all treatments for both products, S. aureus toxin production was not detected. The relative humidity did not alter the lethality effectiveness for any of the treatments. The final internal temperatures and relative humidity combinations used in this project achieved the lethality performance standard established by USDA-FSIS for fully cooked, ready-to-eat products. PMID:22004824

  9. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance. PMID:27063414

  10. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L; Smith, Gregory M; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-04-11

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m(2) with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today's OLEDs in performance.

  11. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  12. A Comparison of Performance in Solving Arithmetical Word Problems by Children with Different Levels of Achievement in Mathematics and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikeras, Elin K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Performance in consistent arithmetical word problems was assessed in 941 pupils aged eight (N = 415), ten (N = 274), and thirteen (N = 252) classified in four achievement groups by standardised achievement tests: low achievement in both mathematics and reading (MLRL), in mathematics only (ML-only), in reading only (RL-only), and normal achievement…

  13. On the achievable performance using variable geometry active secondary suspension systems in commercial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, Willem-Jan; Besselink, Igo; Teerhuis, Arjan; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2011-10-01

    There is a need to further improve driver comfort in commercial vehicles. The variable geometry active suspension offers an interesting option to achieve this in an energy efficient way. However, the optimal control strategy and the overal performance potential remains unclear. The aim of this paper is to quantify the level of performance improvement that can theoretically be obtained by replacing a conventional air sprung cabin suspension design with a variable geometry active suspension. Furthermore, the difference between the use of a linear quadratic (LQ) optimal controller and a classic skyhook controller is investigated. Hereto, an elementary variable geometry actuator model and experimentally validated four degrees of freedom quarter truck model are adopted. The results show that the classic skyhook controller gives a relatively poor performance while a comfort increase of 17-28% can be obtained with the LQ optimal controller, depending on the chosen energy weighting. Furthermore, an additional 75% comfort increase and 77% energy cost reduction can be obtained, with respect to the fixed gain energy optimal controller, using condition-dependent control gains. So, it is concluded that the performance potential using condition-dependent controllers is huge, and that the use of the classic skyhook control strategy should, in general, be avoided when designing active secondary suspensions for commercial vehicles.

  14. Activating the Desire to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullo, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Wouldn't your job be easier if students were just more interested in learning? Now, here's a book that will open your eyes to where the desire to learn actually comes from and what teachers can really do to activate it. Using stories from classroom teachers, counselors, administrators, and students, Bob Sullo explains why the desire to learn is…

  15. Paedophilia, Sexual Desire, and Perversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiecker, Ben; Steutel, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes justifications given by pedophiles for having sex with children, including an analysis of "sexual desire" and "erotic." Raises the question of whether pedophile activities can ever be morally permissible. Uses principles of mutual consent and non-exploitation to answer negatively. Examines whether pedophile desires can be regarded as…

  16. Achieving realistic performance and decison-making capabilities in computer-generated air forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.; Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Zurita, Vincent B.; Benslay, James L., Jr.

    1997-07-01

    For a computer-generated force (CGF) system to be useful in training environments, it must be able to operate at multiple skill levels, exhibit competency at assigned missions, and comply with current doctrine. Because of the rapid rate of change in distributed interactive simulation (DIS) and the expanding set of performance objectives for any computer- generated force, the system must also be modifiable at reasonable cost and incorporate mechanisms for learning. Therefore, CGF applications must have adaptable decision mechanisms and behaviors and perform automated incorporation of past reasoning and experience into its decision process. The CGF must also possess multiple skill levels for classes of entities, gracefully degrade its reasoning capability in response to system stress, possess an expandable modular knowledge structure, and perform adaptive mission planning. Furthermore, correctly performing individual entity behaviors is not sufficient. Issues related to complex inter-entity behavioral interactions, such as the need to maintain formation and share information, must also be considered. The CGF must also be able to acceptably respond to unforeseen circumstances and be able to make decisions in spite of uncertain information. Because of the need for increased complexity in the virtual battlespace, the CGF should exhibit complex, realistic behavior patterns within the battlespace. To achieve these necessary capabilities, an extensible software architecture, an expandable knowledge base, and an adaptable decision making mechanism are required. Our lab has addressed these issues in detail. The resulting DIS-compliant system is called the automated wingman (AW). The AW is based on fuzzy logic, the common object database (CODB) software architecture, and a hierarchical knowledge structure. We describe the techniques we used to enable us to make progress toward a CGF entity that satisfies the requirements presented above. We present our design and

  17. A comprehensive approach to decipher biological computation to achieve next generation high-performance exascale computing.

    SciTech Connect

    James, Conrad D.; Schiess, Adrian B.; Howell, Jamie; Baca, Michael J.; Partridge, L. Donald; Finnegan, Patrick Sean; Wolfley, Steven L.; Dagel, Daryl James; Spahn, Olga Blum; Harper, Jason C.; Pohl, Kenneth Roy; Mickel, Patrick R.; Lohn, Andrew; Marinella, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    The human brain (volume=1200cm3) consumes 20W and is capable of performing > 10^16 operations/s. Current supercomputer technology has reached 1015 operations/s, yet it requires 1500m^3 and 3MW, giving the brain a 10^12 advantage in operations/s/W/cm^3. Thus, to reach exascale computation, two achievements are required: 1) improved understanding of computation in biological tissue, and 2) a paradigm shift towards neuromorphic computing where hardware circuits mimic properties of neural tissue. To address 1), we will interrogate corticostriatal networks in mouse brain tissue slices, specifically with regard to their frequency filtering capabilities as a function of input stimulus. To address 2), we will instantiate biological computing characteristics such as multi-bit storage into hardware devices with future computational and memory applications. Resistive memory devices will be modeled, designed, and fabricated in the MESA facility in consultation with our internal and external collaborators.

  18. Academic task persistence of normally achieving ADHD and control boys: performance, self-evaluations, and attributions.

    PubMed

    Hoza, B; Pelham, W E; Waschbusch, D A; Kipp, H; Owens, J S

    2001-04-01

    The authors examined academic task persistence, pretask expectancies, self-evaluations, and attributions of boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as compared with control boys. Participants were 83 ADHD boys and 66 control boys, all normally achieving. Prior to the task, performance expectancies were assessed. After a success-failure manipulation with find-a-word puzzles, performance on subsequent trials, self-evaluations, and attributions were evaluated. Compared with controls, ADHD boys solved fewer test puzzles, quit working more often, and found fewer words on a generalization task. Consistent with these behavioral findings, research assistants rated ADHD boys as less effortful and less cooperative than control boys. Although ADHD boys did not differ significantly from controls in their posttask self-evaluations, they did differ significantly from controls in some aspects of their attributions. Attributional data indicated that ADHD boys endorsed luck as a reason for success more strongly and lack of effort as a reason for failure less strongly than controls. PMID:11393604

  19. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions. MDRC Working Papers on Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  20. The Achievement Motivation-Performance Relationship as Moderated by Sex-Role Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Steven

    1976-01-01

    The moderating effect of sex-role attitudes in relation to the predictive validity of Mehrabian's achievement tendency scale for females is examined. The scale predicts better for academic achievement with females classified as non-traditional in sex-role orientation, and in social achievement for females classified as traditional. (Author/JKS)

  1. "Standards"-based Mathematics Curricula and Secondary Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; Post, Thomas R.; Maeda, Yukiko; Davis, Jon D.; Cutler, Arnold L.; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the mathematical achievement of high school students enrolled for 3 years in one of three NSF funded "Standards"-based curricula (IMP, CMIC, MMOW). The focus was on traditional topics in mathematics as measured by subtests of a standardized achievement test and a criterion-referenced test of mathematics achievement.…

  2. Measuring Emotions in Students' Learning and Performance: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Barchfeld, Petra; Perry, Raymond P.

    2011-01-01

    Aside from test anxiety scales, measurement instruments assessing students' achievement emotions are largely lacking. This article reports on the construction, reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) which is designed to assess various achievement emotions experienced by students in…

  3. Monitoring the performance of community forestry to achieve REDD+ goals through geospatial methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, H.; Krishna Gautam, S.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Koju, U. A.; Uddin, K.; Karky, B.

    2014-11-01

    Measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) is included in the Cancun, Mexico, in 2010 under climate change agreements, as one of the most critical elements necessary for the successful implementation of any reducing of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) mechanism. Community forestry is recognised as a successful model for conserving forests, raising awareness among local people and decentralising the forest governance practices. In the world, Nepal is considered as a leader in community-based forest management. This study conducted in 16 community forests (2384.76 ha) of Kayar Khola watershed (8002 ha) of Chitwan district, Nepal. In this paper, satellite images IKONOS-2 (2002) and GeoEye-1 (2009 & 2012) were used which have 1 m and 0.5 m ground spatial distance (GSD) respectively. Geographic information system (GIS) participatory approach was embraced for the boundaries delineation of community forests. Geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) classification technique was performed and overall accuracy 94 % with 92.91 % producer's and 96.2 % user's accuracies. Through change matrix method, 25.49 ha and 1.08 ha area deforested while 179.84 ha and 33.24 ha reforested in two time periods 2002-2009 and 2009-2012 respectively. Overall within 16 community forests, "Close broadleaved to Open broadleaved" 4.42 ha and 4 ha area is transferred between 2002-2009 and 2009-2012 respectively. While "Open broadleaved to Close broadleaved" 29.25 ha and 31.1 ha area is converted in seven years (2002-2009) and in three years (2009-2012) respectively. Coefficient of determination (R2) 0.833 achieved through a line-intercept transect between number of segmented and observed tree crowns. Maximum numbers of the counted trees exist below 20 m2, which show the forest of the study area is not mature and has capacity to

  4. On the Value of Intrinsic Rather than Traditional Achievement Goals for Performing Artists: A Short-Term Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacaille, Natalie; Koestner, Richard; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Educational researchers have examined the effect of achievement goals on student performance, and suggest that both mastery goals and performance-approach goals are beneficial, whereas performance-avoidance goals are harmful. Recent research proposes that these results may not be generalized in the domain of music. The purpose of the present study…

  5. Measuring Metacognition and Reaction Time: Further Findings on the Performances of General Education, Low-Achieving, and Institutionally Raised Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Abdullah, Ahmad A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the picture format to examine in depth the metacognitive performances and reaction time in general education, low-achieving, and institutionally raised students. Results revealed that institutionally raised students, unlike low-achieving students, took significantly the longest reaction time to finish the test…

  6. The relationship between medical students’ epistemological beliefs and achievement on a clinical performance examination

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sun-A; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Han, Eui-Ryoung; Woo, Young-Jong; Kevin, Deiter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study was to explore the relationship between clinical performance examination (CPX) achievement and epistemological beliefs to investigate the potentials of epistemological beliefs in ill-structured medical problem solving tasks. Methods: We administered the epistemological beliefs questionnaire (EBQ) to fourth-year medical students and correlated the results with their CPX scores. The EBQ comprised 61 items reflecting five belief systems: certainty of knowledge, source of knowledge, rigidity of learning, ability to learn, and speed of knowledge acquisition. The CPX included scores for history taking, physical examination, and patient-physician interaction. Results: The higher epistemological beliefs group obtained significantly higher scores on the CPX with regard to history taking and patient-physician interaction. The epistemological beliefs scores on certainty of knowledge and source of knowledge were significantly positively correlated with patient-physician interaction. The epistemological beliefs scores for ability to learn were significantly positively correlated with those for history taking, physical examination, and patient-physician interaction. Conclusion: Students with more sophisticated and advanced epistemological beliefs stances used more comprehensive and varied approaches in the patient-physician interaction. Therefore, educational efforts that encourage discussions pertaining to epistemological views should be considered to improve clinical reasoning and problem-solving competence in the clinic setting. PMID:26838566

  7. A hydrological modeling framework for defining achievable performance standards for pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Alain N; Lafrance, Pierre; Lavigne, Martin-Pierre; Savary, Stéphane; Konan, Brou; Quilbé, Renaud; Jiapizian, Paul; Amrani, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a hydrological modeling framework to define achievable performance standards (APSs) for pesticides that could be attained after implementation of recommended management actions, agricultural practices, and available technologies (i.e., beneficial management practices [BMPs]). An integrated hydrological modeling system, Gestion Intégrée des Bassins versants à l'aide d'un Système Informatisé, was used to quantify APSs for six Canadian watersheds for eight pesticides: atrazine, carbofuran, dicamba, glyphosate, MCPB, MCPA, metolachlor, and 2,4-D. Outputs from simulation runs to predict pesticide concentration under current conditions and in response to implementation of two types of beneficial management practices (reduced pesticide application rate and 1- to 10-m-wide edge-of-field and/or riparian buffer strips, implemented singly or in combination) showed that APS values for scenarios with BMPs were less than those for current conditions. Moreover, APS values at the outlet of watersheds were usually less than ecological thresholds of good condition, when available. Upstream river reaches were at greater risk of having concentrations above a given ecological thresholds because of limited stream flows and overland loads of pesticides. Our integrated approach of "hydrological modeling-APS estimation-ecotoxicological significance" provides the most effective interpretation possible, for management and education purposes, of the potential biological impact of predicted pesticide concentrations in rivers.

  8. The effects of training and competition on achievement goals, motivational responses, and performance in a golf-putting task.

    PubMed

    van de Pol P, K C; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships between goals and effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance. Participants (32 males, 28 females; M age = 19.12 years) performed a golf-putting task in a training condition and a competition condition and completed measures of goal involvement, effort, enjoyment, and tension; putting performance was also measured. Both task and ego involvement varied across training and competition, and variation in ego involvement explained variation in effort and enjoyment between these conditions. Ego involvement positively predicted effort in training and performance in competition, and interacted positively with task involvement to predict effort and enjoyment in competition. Our findings suggest that the distinction between training and competition is a valuable one when examining individuals' achievement motivation. PMID:23204359

  9. The CryoSat Interferometer after 6 years in orbit: calibration and achievable performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; De Bartolomei, Maurizio; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulse width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. In fact, the across-track echo direction can be derived by exploiting the precise knowledge of the baseline vector (i.e. the vector between the two antennas centers of phase) and simple geometry. The end-to-end calibration strategy for the CryoSat interferometer consists on in-orbit calibration campaigns following the approach described in [1]. From the beginning of the CryoSat mission, about once a year the interferometer calibration campaigns have been periodically performed by rolling left and right the spacecraft of about ±0.4 deg. This abstract is aimed at presenting our analysis of the calibration parameters and of the achievable performance of the CryoSat interferometer over the 6 years of mission. Additionally, some further studies have been performed to assess the accuracy of the roll angle computed on ground as function of the aberration (the apparent displacement of a celestial object from its true position, caused by the relative motion of the observer and the object) correction applied to the attitude quaternions, provided by the Star Tracker mounted on-board. In fact, being the roll information crucial to obtain an accurate estimate of the angle of arrival, the data from interferometer calibration campaigns have been used to verify how the application of the aberration correction affects the roll information and, in turns, the measured angle of arrival. [1] Galin, N.; Wingham, D.J.; Cullen, R.; Fornari, M.; Smith, W.H.F.; Abdalla, S., "Calibration of the CryoSat-2 Interferometer and Measurement of Across

  10. Social desirability bias in personality testing: implications for astronaut selection.

    PubMed

    Sandal, Gro M; Musson, Dave; Helmreich, Robert L; Gravdal, Lene

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of personality is recognized by space agencies as an approach to identify candidates likely to perform optimally during spaceflights. In the use of personality scales for selection, the impact of social desirability (SD) has been cited as a concern. Study 1 addressed the impact of SD on responses to the Personality Characteristic Inventory(PCI) and NEO-FFI. This was achieved by contrasting scores from active astronauts (N=65) with scores of successful astronaut applicants (N=63), and between pilots applicants (N=1271) and pilot research subjects (N=120). Secondly, personality scores were correlated with scores on the Marlow Crown Social Desirability Scale among applicants to managerial positions (N=120). The results indicated that SD inflated scores on PCI scales assessing negative interpersonal characteristics, and impacted on four of five scales in NEO-FFI. Still, the effect sizes were small or moderate. Study 2 addressed performance implications of SD during an assessment of males applying to work as rescue personnel operations in the North Sea (N=22). The results showed that SD correlated negatively with cognitive test performance, and positively with discrepancy in performance ratings between self and two observers. In conclusion, caution is needed in interpreting personality scores in applicant populations. SD maybe a negative predictor for performance under stress.

  11. Achievement First: Developing a Teacher Performance Management System That Recognizes Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are the single most important school-related factor in students' learning, and improving student learning is the single most important goal at Achievement First (AF), a fast-growing public charter school network in the Northeast. To achieve this goal, the AF team has worked to establish a common understanding of effective instructional…

  12. To Master or Perform? Exploring Relations between Achievement Goals and Conceptual Change Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. Aims: To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Sample and Method:…

  13. How Do Relationships Influence Student Achievement? Understanding Student Performance from a General, Social Psychological Standpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspelin, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the influence of relationships on student achievement by examining empirical evidence and by adopting a social psychological theory. Initially, the issue is addressed from a national, Swedish context. Thereafter, two general questions are raised: (1) What is the influence of relationships on student achievement, according to…

  14. Performance-Based Music Ensembles' Effects on Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Timothy Francis

    2013-01-01

    As increasing student achievement levels for all learners continues to drive the focus of education, identifying strategies and opportunities to accomplish this goal becomes progressively more important. This study explored the concepts of self-efficacy, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, and self-efficacy for academic achievement in…

  15. Relationships of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies to mathematics achievement in four high-performing East Asian education systems.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education systems, memorization strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement, whereas control strategies were positively associated with mathematics achievement. However, the association between elaboration strategies and mathematics achievement was a mixed bag. In Shanghai-China and Korea, elaboration strategies were not associated with mathematics achievement. In Hong Kong-China and Singapore, on the other hand, elaboration strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  16. Performance evaluation of iterative reconstruction algorithms for achieving CT radiation dose reduction - a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Cristina T; Tamm, Eric P; Cody, Dianna D; Liu, Xinming; Jensen, Corey T; Wei, Wei; Kundra, Vikas; Rong, X John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize image quality and dose performance with GE CT iterative reconstruction techniques, adaptive statistical iterative recontruction (ASiR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), over a range of typical to low-dose intervals using the Catphan 600 and the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantoms. The scope of the project was to quantitatively describe the advantages and limitations of these approaches. The Catphan 600 phantom, supplemented with a fat-equivalent oval ring, was scanned using a GE Discovery HD750 scanner at 120 kVp, 0.8 s rotation time, and pitch factors of 0.516, 0.984, and 1.375. The mA was selected for each pitch factor to achieve CTDIvol values of 24, 18, 12, 6, 3, 2, and 1 mGy. Images were reconstructed at 2.5 mm thickness with filtered back-projection (FBP); 20%, 40%, and 70% ASiR; and MBIR. The potential for dose reduction and low-contrast detectability were evaluated from noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements in the CTP 404 module of the Catphan. Hounsfield units (HUs) of several materials were evaluated from the cylinder inserts in the CTP 404 module, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated from the air insert. The results were con-firmed in the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantom at 6, 3, 2, and 1mGy. MBIR reduced noise levels five-fold and increased CNR by a factor of five compared to FBP below 6mGy CTDIvol, resulting in a substantial improvement in image quality. Compared to ASiR and FBP, HU in images reconstructed with MBIR were consistently lower, and this discrepancy was reversed by higher pitch factors in some materials. MBIR improved the conspicuity of the high-contrast spatial resolution bar pattern, and MTF quantification confirmed the superior spatial resolution performance of MBIR versus FBP and ASiR at higher dose levels. While ASiR and FBP were relatively insensitive to changes in dose and pitch, the spatial resolution for MBIR

  17. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of current generation tags limits the performance in a cluttered sensing environment. That is, as more SAW-based sensors are added to the environment, numerous tag responses are superimposed at the receiver and decoding all or even a subset of the telemetry becomes increasingly difficult. Background clutter generated by reflectors other than the sensors themselves is also a problem, as is multipath interference and signal distortion, but the limiting factor in many remote sensing applications can be expected to be tag mutual interference. This problem may be greatly mitigated by proper design of the SAW tag waveform, but that remains an open research problem, and in the meantime, several other related questions remain to be answered including: What are the fundamental relationships between tag parameters such as bit-rate, time-bandwidth-product, SNR, and achievable collision resolution? What are the

  18. Becoming-Teachers: Desiring Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a reading of the lives of teachers through a Deleuzian-Guattarian materialistic approach. By asking the question "what kind of life do teachers live?" this article reminds us that teachers sometimes welcome the imposed policies, procedures and programmes, the consequences of which remove them from students. This desire is…

  19. Criminal defendants who desire punishment.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, K L

    1990-01-01

    Some defendants desire to be punished. Sometimes psychotic motivations underlie punishment-seeking behavior; sometimes they do not. The defendant's clinical status is relevant to his competency to stand trial and to waive other rights. These issues are illustrated by presentation of a case of a defendant who sought punishment. The importance of psychiatric assessments of these defendants is emphasized.

  20. A Compelling Desire for Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veale, David

    2006-01-01

    A case is described of a patient who has a compelling and persistent desire to become deaf. She often kept cotton wool moistened with oil in her ears and was learning sign language. Living without sound appeared to be a severe form of avoidance behavior from hyperacusis and misophonia. She had a borderline personality disorder that was associated…

  1. Lifelong Learning, Policy and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Recent lifelong learning policies have been criticized for creating an illusion of freedom whilst simultaneously reducing choice. The concept of desire permits engagement with the conscious and unconscious drives that underpin individual decision-making, which direct the life course. Utilizing the ideas of Hume and Spinoza, the present article…

  2. The Relationship Between Achievement and Laboratory Skills to the Number of Experiments Performed by the High School Chemistry Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosmark, Jay Waldo

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of doubling the laboratory experiments and time in the laboratory on student achievement, performance on laboratory skills, and attitude toward high school chemistry. One hundred forty-three students were assigned either of two treatments. All students performed the same basic…

  3. The Influence of the Antecedent Variable on the Teachers' Performance through Achievement Motivation in Senior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewi, Erni R.; Bundu, Patta; Tahmir, Suradi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at analysing whether the antecedent variable directly affects the performance of the high school teachers or not. In addition, this research strives to find out whether the antecedent variable indirectly affects the teachers' performance through the achievement motivation of the high school teachers. It was a quantitative research…

  4. A Comprehensive Review of the Literature on the Effects of Breakfast on Mental Performance and Scholastic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, James P.

    A review of the literature on the effects of breakfast on mental performance and scholastic achievement reveals a dichotomy between the theoretical and the empirical literature. Whereas theoretical considerations maintain that breakfast makes a significant difference in mental performance in the late morning hours, empirical evidence can be…

  5. Using Performance Management To Achieve Quality Program Results. A Technical Assistance Guide. Research Report 89-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laventhol & Horwath, Philadelphia, PA.

    This guide provides assistance in using two primary management tools--the performance standards and performance-based, fixed unit price contracts--to achieve satisfactory results in Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) programs. The guide is organized in six chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the original purpose of the JTPA and introduces the investment…

  6. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    current generation tags limits the performance in a cluttered sensing environment. That is, as more SAW-based sensors are added to the environment, numerous tag responses are superimposed at the receiver and decoding all or even a subset of the telemetry becomes increasingly difficult. Background clutter generated by reflectors other than the sensors themselves is also a problem, as is multipath interference and signal distortion, but the limiting factor in many remote sensing applications can be expected to be tag mutual interference. This problem may be greatly mitigated by proper design of the SAW tag waveform, but that remains an open research problem, and in the meantime, several other related questions remain to be answered including: (1) What are the fundamental relationships between tag parameters such as bit-rate, time-bandwidth-product, SNR, and achievable collision resolution? (2) What are the differences in optimal or near-optimal interrogator designs between noise-limited environments and interference-limited environments? (3) What are the performance characteristics of different interrogator designs in term of parameters such as transmitter power level, range, and number of interfering tags? In this paper, we will present the results of a research effort aimed at providing at least partial answers to all of these questions.

  7. The Relationship of Laboratory Performance Ratings, Information Achievement and Pencil-Paper Performance Test Scores in College-Level Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Charles E.

    In this study, a pencil paper performance test (PPPT) was developed and administered to an experimental group of 46 students and a control group of 48 students to determine: (1) the difference between laboratory performance and the successful completion of a laboratory course in electricity, (2) the relationship between laboratory performance as…

  8. Flibanserin and Female Sexual Desire.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is one type of sexual problem that can affect women. It is characterized by low or absent sexual desire that cannot be attributed to another cause and results in difficulty in interpersonal relationships. HSDD is not well understood, and women may not report symptoms of difficulties to their health care providers. In August 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved flibanserin, a nonhormonal oral medication for the treatment of HSDD in premenopausal women. Flibanserin is the only currently available pharmacologic treatment for HSDD. This article will provide an overview of flibanserin, including potential adverse reactions, special considerations for use, and implications for nursing practice. PMID:27287358

  9. The case of the missing supercomputer performance : achieving optimal performance on the 8, 192 processors of ASCI Q

    SciTech Connect

    Petrini, F.; Kerbyson, D. J.; Pakin, S. D.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe how we improved the effective performance of ASCI Q, the world's second-fastest supercomputer, to meet our expectations. Using an arsenal of performance-analysis techniques including analytical models, custom microbenchmarks, full applications, and simulators, we succeeded in observing a serious-but previously undetectable-performance problem. We identified the source of the problem, eliminated the problem, and 'closed the loop' by demonstrating improved application performance. We present our methodology and provide insight into performance analysis that is immediately applicable to other large-scale cluster-based supercomputers.

  10. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other. PMID:26255443

  11. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  12. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning

    PubMed Central

    BJORK, ROBERT A.; KROLL, JUDITH F.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other. PMID:26255443

  13. Predicting End-of-Year Achievement Test Performance: A Comparison of Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kurz, Alexander; Zigmond, Naomi; Lemons, Christopher J.; Kloo, Amanda; Shrago, Jacqueline; Beddow, Peter A.; Williams, Leila; Bruen, Charles; Lupp, Lynda; Farmer, Jeanie; Mosiman, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the multiple-measures clause of recent federal policy regarding student eligibility for alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MASs), this study examined how scores or combinations of scores from a diverse set of assessments predicted students' end-of-year proficiency status on statewide…

  14. The Relationship between Victimization at School and Achievement: The Cusp Catastrophe Model for Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Antoniou, Faye; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Morgan, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between victimization and academic achievement from a nonlinear perspective using a cusp catastrophe model. Participants were 62 students with identified learning disabilities (LD) using statewide criteria in Greece. Students participated in a 2-year cohort-sequential design. Reading assessments involved measures of…

  15. The Relationship Between Teacher Performance Evaluation Scores and Student Achievement: Evidence From Cincinnati

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanowski, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    In this article, I present the results of an analysis of the relationship between teacher evaluation scores and student achievement on district and state tests in reading, mathematics, and science in a large Midwestern U.S. school district. Within a value-added framework, I correlated the difference between predicted and actual student achievement…

  16. Performance Report for Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study) 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xue-mei

    Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), a federally-funded program, introduced the study of Chinese language and culture at Queen Ka'ahumanu Elementary School (Hawaii), forming the foundation of an instructional program to be continued through middle and high school, to meet state foreign language standards. It was…

  17. Understanding Student Goal Orientation Tendencies to Predict Student Performance: A 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark Alan

    2013-01-01

    The study tested the 2X2 model of the Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO) theory in a military technical training environment while using the Air Force Officers Qualifying Test's academic aptitude score to control for the differences in the students' academic aptitude. The study method was quantitative and the design was correlational.…

  18. Quality After-School Programming and Its Relationship to Achievement-Related Behaviors and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassi, Annemarie M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between quality social support networks developed through high quality afterschool programming and achievement amongst middle school and high school aged youth. This study seeks to develop a deeper understanding of how quality after-school programs influence a youth's developmental…

  19. Performance Report for Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xue-mei

    Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), a federally-funded program, introduced the study of Chinese language and culture at Queen Ka'ahumanu Elementary School (Hawaii), forming the foundation of an instructional program to be continued through middle and high school, to meet state foreign language standards. In its…

  20. "Standards"-Based Mathematics Curricula and Middle-Grades Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Thomas R.; Harwell, Michael R.; Davis, Jon D.; Maeda, Yukiko; Cutler, Arnie; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.; Norman, Ke Wu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined achievement patterns of middle school students enrolled in Standards-based curricula, in particular those curricula that were funded from a solicitation of proposals through the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the early 1990s (NSF RFP 91-100). Approximately 1400 middle-grades students who had used either the Connected…

  1. Associations between Achievement Goal Orientations and Academic Performance Among Students at a UK Pharmacy School

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Hanna, Alan; Hall, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To ascertain goal orientations of pharmacy students and establish whether associations exist between academic performance, gender, or year of study. Methods. Goal orientations were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Respondents were categorized as high or low performers based on university grades. Associations and statistical significance were ascertained using parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression, as appropriate. Results. A response rate of 60.7% was obtained. High performers were more likely to be female than male. The highest mean score was for mastery approach; the lowest for work avoidance. The mean score for work avoidance was significantly greater for low performers than for high performers and for males than for females. First-year students were most likely to have top scores in mastery and performance approaches. Conclusion. It is encouraging that the highest mean score was for mastery approach orientation, as goal orientation may play a role in academic performance of pharmacy students. PMID:26396273

  2. Nursing to achieve organizational performance: Consider the role of nursing intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    The success and performance of healthcare organizations relies on the strategic management of knowledge. Nursing Intellectual Capital (NIC) has emerged as a concept involving nursing knowledge resources that create value in healthcare organizations. This article aims to discuss the importance of considering knowledge resources in the context of healthcare performance, with specific reference to NIC. Reflections are then provided on how leaders can look to advance NIC for improved performance. PMID:27060807

  3. The Effect of Performance Pay in Little Rock, Arkansas on Student Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Marcus; Greene, Jay; Ritter, Gary; Marsh, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines evidence from a performance-pay program implemented in five Little Rock, Arkansas elementary schools between 2004 and 2007. Using a differences-in-differences approach, the evidence shows that students whose teachers were eligible for performance pay made substantially larger test score gains in math, reading, and language than…

  4. Predicting arithmetical achievement from neuro-psychological performance: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fayol, M; Barrouillet, P; Marinthe, C

    1998-08-01

    In this article, we show that the performances of 5- to 6-year-old children in arithmetic tests can be predicted from their performances in neuro-psychological tests administered a number of months in advance, independently of their level of development. PMID:9818514

  5. Achievement Investment Prowess: Identifying Cost Efficient Higher Performing Maine Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Ida A.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the United States the debate has been frequent, intense, and at times adversarial over how to fund education adequately. Maine has been trying to identify higher performing schools in the hope that practices that contribute to success at higher performing schools can be adapted at similar schools throughout the state. The 1997…

  6. Task Goal Attributes, n Achievement, and Supervisory Performance. Technical Report No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steers, Richard M.

    A review of the research literature on goal-setting in organizational settings reveals that goal-setting on an individual job results in better task performance. However, the processes behind their effectiveness is unclear. For example, how are various job attributes of task goals related to performance, and how do various individual differences…

  7. Patterns and predictors of adolescent academic achievement and performance in a sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Molina, Brooke S G; Arnold, L Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mn age = 16.8) who met diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Combined type in early childhood (Mn age = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also tested to determine whether ADHD medication use, receipt of special education services, classroom performance, homework completion, or homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of ADHD and academic outcomes. Childhood predictors of adolescent achievement differed from those for performance. Classroom performance and homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of inattention and academic outcomes. PMID:21722025

  8. High-Performance and Omnidirectional Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Modules Achieved by 3D Geometry Design.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dongliang; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Zhang, Hanzhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Xufei; Che, Jianfei; Li, Dongdong

    2015-11-01

    High-performance thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells are achieved by combining macroscale 3D tubular substrates and nanoscaled 3D cone-like antireflective films. The tubular geometry delivers a series of advantages for large-scale deployment of photovoltaics, such as omnidirectional performance, easier encapsulation, decreased wind resistance, and easy integration with a second device inside the glass tube. PMID:26418573

  9. Swine herds achieve high performance by culling low lifetime efficiency sows in early parity.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Ariko; McTaggart, Iain; Koketsu, Yuzo

    2011-11-01

    Sow lifetime performance and by-parity performance were analyzed using a 3 by 3 factorial design, comprising 3 herd productivity groups and 3 sow efficiency groups. Data was obtained from 101 Japanese herds, totaling 173,526 parity records of 34,929 sows, for the years 2001 to 2006. Sows were categorized into 3 groups based on the lower and upper 25th percentiles of the annualized lifetime pigs born alive: low lifetime efficiency sows (LE sows), intermediate lifetime efficiency sows or high lifetime efficiency sows. Herds were grouped on the basis of the upper and lower 25th percentiles of pigs weaned per mated female per year, averaged over 6 years: high-, intermediate- or low-performing herds. Mixed-effects models were used for comparisons. LE sows in high-performing herds had 57.8 fewer lifetime nonproductive days and 0.5 earlier parity at removal than those in low-performing herds (P<0.05). The number of pigs born alive of LE sows continuously decreased from parity 1 to 5, whereas those of high lifetime efficiency sows gradually increased from parity 1 to 4 before decreasing up to parity ≥ 6 (P<0.05). In conclusion, the LE sows have a performance pattern of decreasing number of pigs born alive across parity. The present study also indicates that high-performing herds culled potential LE sows earlier than the other herds.

  10. Children's Achievement Expectations and Performance as a Function of Two Consecutive Reinforcement Experiences, Sex of Subject, and Sex of Experimenter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanelli, Dale Soderman; Hill, Kennedy T.

    1969-01-01

    Presents research patterned on two earlier studies by the Crandalls 1963, 1964 on the effects of praise, criticism, and nonreaction on 10-year-old children involved in a marble-dropping task. The subjects tended to increase in performance and decrease in achievement expectancy when criticized. Table, graphs, and bibliography. (RW)

  11. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma I.

    This study examined the assumption that language expression and reading performance are related processes. Subjects included a total of 676 nine-year-old children of heterogeneous socioeconomic status, intelligence, and achievement levels. Verbal fluency was defined as being a measure of associative verbal encoding (a/v/e), wherein children give…

  12. Why IEP Teams Assign Low Performers with Mild Disabilities to the Alternate Assessment Based on Alternate Achievement Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Kingston, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine teachers' rationales for assigning students with mild disabilities to alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). In interviews, special educators stated that their primary considerations in making the assignments were low academic performance, student use of extended…

  13. Participation and Performance Reporting for the Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS). Technical Report 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Deb; Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines publicly reported participation and performance data for the alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). The authors' analysis of these data included all states publicly reporting AA-MAS data, regardless of whether they had received approval to use the results for Title I accountability calculations.…

  14. The Relationship between Students' Reading Performance on Diagnostic Assessments and the Third Grade Reading Achievement Test in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinger, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was twofold: to examine the relationship of students' reading performance on six different diagnostic reading assessments and the third grade Ohio Reading Achievement Test; and to assist educators in choosing the diagnostic assessments that best identify students at risk of failing the third grade Ohio…

  15. Relationships of Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategies to Mathematics Achievement in Four High-Performing East Asian Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education…

  16. Instructional Resources as Determinants of English Language Performance of Secondary School High-Achieving Students in Ibadan, Oyo State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelodun, Gboyega Adelowo; Asiru, Abdulahi Babatunde

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role played by instructional resources in enhancing performance of students, especially that of high-achievers, in English Language. The study is descriptive in nature and it adopted a survey design. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of fifty (50) SSI-SSIII students from five schools in Ibadan…

  17. Conscientiousness, Achievement Striving, and Intelligence as Performance Predictors in a Sample of German Psychology Students: Always a Linear Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Knogler, Maximilian; Buhner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the interface between cognitive ability (intelligence) and personality in the prediction of academic performance have yielded mixed results so far. Especially an interaction between conscientiousness (and its facet achievement striving) and intelligence has been investigated. The hypothesis is that conscientiousness enhances the impact…

  18. Pilot Study: EatFit Impacts Sixth Graders' Academic Performance on Achievement of Mathematics and English Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Design: Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. Setting: California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). Participants: All sixth-grade…

  19. The Black-White-Other Achievement Gap: Testing Theories of Academic Performance among Multiracial and Monoracial Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Melissa R.

    2009-01-01

    The study presented here tested three theories of racial differences in academic performance among monoracial and multiracial high school students. These theories (status attainment, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes) were developed to explain differences in achievement among monoracial groups, but the study tested how the theories…

  20. A University Engagement Model for Achieving Technology Adoption and Performance Improvement Impacts in Healthcare, Manufacturing, and Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnis, David R.; Sloan, Mary Anne; Snow, L. David; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-01-01

    The Purdue Technical Assistance Program (TAP) offers a model of university engagement and service that is achieving technology adoption and performance improvement impacts in healthcare, manufacturing, government, and other sectors. The TAP model focuses on understanding and meeting the changing and challenging needs of those served, always…

  1. Patterns and Predictors of Adolescent Academic Achievement and Performance in a Sample of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mn = 16.8) who met diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Combined type in early childhood (Mn age = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also…

  2. Prior Mathematics Achievement, Cognitive Appraisals and Anxiety as Predictors of Finnish Students' Later Mathematics Performance and Career Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttala, Minna; Bjorn, Piia Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this two-year longitudinal study was to investigate the role and impact of prior mathematics performance, cognitive appraisals and mathematics-specific, affective anxiety in determining later mathematics achievement and future career orientation among Finnish adolescents. The basic ideas of the control-value theory, assumed to be…

  3. Locus of Control and Achievement Motivation as Moderators of the Expectancy-Academic Performance Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batlis, Nick C.; Waters, L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Expectancy theory predictions of course performance were tested for a sample of 195 undergraduates; significant prediction was attained for the total sample using a log linear expectancy model. (Author)

  4. Assessing Medicare's hospital pay-for-performance programs and whether they are achieving their goals.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Charles N; Ault, Thomas; Potetz, Lisa; Walke, Thomas; Chambers, Jayne Hart; Burch, Samantha

    2015-08-01

    Three separate pay-for-performance programs affect the amount of Medicare payment for inpatient services to about 3,400 US hospitals. These payments are based on hospital performance on specified measures of quality of care. A growing share of Medicare hospital payments (6 percent by 2017) are dependent upon how hospitals perform under the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, the Value-Based Purchasing Program, and the Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program. In 2015 four of five hospitals subject to these programs will be penalized under one or more of them, and more than one in three major teaching hospitals will be penalized under all three. Interactions among these programs should be considered going forward, including overlap among measures and differences in scoring performance. PMID:26240240

  5. Cloning to reproduce desired genotypes.

    PubMed

    Westhusin, M E; Long, C R; Shin, T; Hill, J R; Looney, C R; Pryor, J H; Piedrahita, J A

    2001-01-01

    Cloned sheep, cattle, goats, pigs and mice have now been produced using somatic cells for nuclear transplantation. Animal cloning is still very inefficient with on average less than 10% of the cloned embryos transferred resulting in a live offspring. However successful cloning of a variety of different species and by a number of different laboratory groups has generated tremendous interest in reproducing desired genotypes. Some of these specific genotypes represent animal cell lines that have been genetically modified. In other cases there is a significant demand for cloning animals characterized by their inherent genetic value, for example prize livestock, household pets and rare or endangered species. A number of different variables may influence the ability to reproduce a specific genotype by cloning. These include species, source of recipient ova, cell type of nuclei donor, treatment of donor cells prior to nuclear transfer, and the techniques employed for nuclear transfer. At present, there is no solid evidence that suggests cloning will be limited to only a few specific animals, and in fact, most data collected to date suggests cloning will be applicable to a wide variety of different animals. The ability to reproduce any desired genotype by cloning will ultimately depend on the amount of time and resources invested in research.

  6. Visualizing desirable patient healthcare experiences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sandra S; Kim, Hyung T; Chen, Jie; An, Lingling

    2010-01-01

    High healthcare cost has drawn much attention and healthcare service providers (HSPs) are expected to deliver high-quality and consistent care. Therefore, an intimate understanding of the most desirable experience from a patient's and/or family's perspective as well as effective mapping and communication of such findings should facilitate HSPs' efforts in attaining sustainable competitive advantage in an increasingly discerning environment. This study describes (a) the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the experience desired by patients and (b) the application of two visualization tools that are relatively new to the healthcare sector, namely the "spider-web diagram" and "promotion and detraction matrix." The visualization tools are tested with primary data collected from telephone surveys of 1,800 patients who had received care during calendar year 2005 at 6 of 61 hospitals within St. Louis, Missouri-based, Ascension Health. Five CQAs were found by factor analysis. The spider-web diagram illustrates that communication and empowerment and compassionate and respectful care are the most important CQAs, and accordingly, the promotion and detraction matrix shows those attributes that have the greatest effect for creating promoters, preventing detractors, and improving consumer's likelihood to recommend the healthcare provider.

  7. Visualizing desirable patient healthcare experiences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sandra S; Kim, Hyung T; Chen, Jie; An, Lingling

    2010-01-01

    High healthcare cost has drawn much attention and healthcare service providers (HSPs) are expected to deliver high-quality and consistent care. Therefore, an intimate understanding of the most desirable experience from a patient's and/or family's perspective as well as effective mapping and communication of such findings should facilitate HSPs' efforts in attaining sustainable competitive advantage in an increasingly discerning environment. This study describes (a) the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the experience desired by patients and (b) the application of two visualization tools that are relatively new to the healthcare sector, namely the "spider-web diagram" and "promotion and detraction matrix." The visualization tools are tested with primary data collected from telephone surveys of 1,800 patients who had received care during calendar year 2005 at 6 of 61 hospitals within St. Louis, Missouri-based, Ascension Health. Five CQAs were found by factor analysis. The spider-web diagram illustrates that communication and empowerment and compassionate and respectful care are the most important CQAs, and accordingly, the promotion and detraction matrix shows those attributes that have the greatest effect for creating promoters, preventing detractors, and improving consumer's likelihood to recommend the healthcare provider. PMID:20155554

  8. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students—that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status—a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals—as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison—the higher the students’ WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  9. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students-that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status-a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals-as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison-the higher the students' WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  10. Modified surface loading process for achieving improved performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongxiu; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Yafeng; Zhou, Li; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    Achieving high surface coverage of the colloidal quantum dots (QDs) on TiO2 films has been challenging for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Herein, a general surface engineering approach was proposed to increase the loading of these QDs. It was found that S2- treatment/QD re-uptake process can significantly improve the attachment of the QDs on TiO2 films. Surface concentration of the QDs was improved by ∼60%, which in turn greatly enhances light absorption and decreases carrier recombination in QDSCs. Ensuing QDSCs with optimized QD loading exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.66%, 83% higher than those fabricated with standard procedures.

  11. Performance of Students in Project-Based Science Classrooms on a National Measure of Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Rebecca M.; Krajcik, Joseph; Marx, Ronald W.; Soloway, Elliot

    2002-01-01

    Explores the performance of n=142 high schools students at the 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science test who are enrolled in a project based science (PBS) program as compared to a national sample of students. Recommends using inquiry-based approach such as PBS to implement reform in schools. (Contains 32 references.)…

  12. Initial Teacher Education: Does Self-Efficacy Influence Candidate Teacher Academic Achievement and Future Career Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad F.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative investigation examined the influence of low and high self-efficacy on candidate teacher academic performance in a foreign language teaching methodology course through testing the speculation that high self-efficacy levels would improve pedagogical-content knowledge (PCK). Positivism guided the research design at the levels of…

  13. Effects of Audio- and Videotape Models on Performance Achievement of Beginning Clarinetists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linklater, Fraser

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the effects on home practice of three different types of cassette tapes (a videotape, a modeling audiotape, and a nonmodeling audiotape) on the performance of beginning clarinet students. Finds no significant impact on amount of weekly practice, of practice using tapes, or of parental help based on tape type. (DSK)

  14. Relationships among Reading Performance, Locus of Control and Achievement for Marginal Admission Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Roger S.; Drexler, John A., Jr.

    The first phase of the study was a 2 x 2 factorial design, with locus of control and instructional method (lecture and demonstration) as independent variables and honor point average (HPA) as the dependent variable. The second phase used correlational techniques to test the extent to which reading performance and traditional predictors of…

  15. "High" Achievers? Cannabis Access and Student Performance. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1340

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marie, Olivier; Zölitz, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how legal cannabis access affects student performance. Identification comes from an exceptional policy introduced in the city of Maastricht which discriminated legal access based on individuals' nationality. We apply a difference-in-difference approach using administrative panel data on over 54,000 course grades of local…

  16. Mayoral Governance and Student Achievement: How Mayor-Led Districts Are Improving School and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.; Shen, Francis X.

    2013-01-01

    Mayoral control and accountability is one of very few major education reforms that aim at governance coherence in this nation's highly fragmented urban school systems. A primary feature of mayoral governance is that it holds the office of the mayor accountable for school performance. As an institutional redesign, mayoral governance integrates…

  17. Aural Dictation Affects High Achievement in Sight Singing, Performance and Composition Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The nature of skill acquisition has long been of interest to music educators. This study considers the research context for relationships between aural dictation, sight singing, performance and composition skills. Then, relationships between these skill areas are quantitatively investigated using data from the Australian New South Wales Music 2…

  18. Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions regarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillier, James

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to correct for perceived deficiencies in the No Child Left Behind Act, value-added models were proposed as a way to find out how much students learned in schools and classrooms throughout the school year. What has garnered much controversy regarding the value-added model, however, is the attempt to link pay and tenure to performance.…

  19. Teacher Performance Pay Signals and Student Achievement: Are Signals Accurate, and How well Do They Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzeske, David; Garland, Marshall; Williams, Ryan; West, Benjamin; Kistner, Alexandra Manzella; Rapaport, Amie

    2016-01-01

    High-performing teachers tend to seek out positions at more affluent or academically challenging schools, which tend to hire more experienced, effective educators. Consequently, low-income and minority students are more likely to attend schools with less experienced and less effective educators (see, for example, DeMonte & Hanna, 2014; Office…

  20. Believe, and you will achieve: changes over time in self-efficacy, engagement, and performance.

    PubMed

    Ouweneel, Else; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Le Blanc, Pascale M

    2013-07-01

    In order to answer the question whether changes in students' self-efficacy levels co-vary with similar changes in engagement and performance, a field study and an experimental study were conducted among university students. In order to do this, we adopted a subgroup approach. We created "natural" (Study 1) and manipulated (Study 2) subgroups based upon their change in self-efficacy over time and examined whether these subgroups showed similar changes over time in engagement and performance. The results of both studies are partly in line with Social Cognitive Theory, in that they confirm that changes in self-efficacy may have a significant impact on students' changes in cognition and motivation (i.e. engagement), as well as behavior (i.e. performance). More specifically, our results show that students' increases/decreases in self-efficacy were related to corresponding increases/decreases in their study engagement and task performance over time. Examining the consequences of changes in students' self-efficacy levels seems promising, both for research and practice.

  1. A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Student Achievement Using Standardized and Performance-Based Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinter, Brad; Matchock, Robert L.; Charles, Eric P.; Balch, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Three groups of undergraduates (42 senior graduating psychology majors, 27 first-year premajors taking introductory psychology, and 24 first-year, high-performing nonmajors taking introductory psychology) completed the Psychology Major Field Test (MFT) and a short-answer (SA) essay test on reasoning about core knowledge in psychology. Graduating…

  2. Short Circuits or Superconductors? Effects of Group Composition on High-Achieving Students' Science Assessment Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Noreen M.; Nemer, Kariane Mari; Zuniga, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Studied the effects of group ability composition (homogeneous versus heterogeneous) on group processes and outcomes for high-ability students completing science assessments. Results for 83 high ability students show the quality of group functioning serves as the strongest predictor of high-ability students' performance and explained much of the…

  3. Achieving supercomputer performance for neural net simulation with an array of digital signal processors

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, U.A.; Baumle, B.; Kohler, P.; Gunzinger, A.; Guggenbuhl, W.

    1992-10-01

    Music, a DSP-based system with a parallel distributed-memory architecture, provides enormous computing power yet retains the flexibility of a general-purpose computer. Reaching a peak performance of 2.7 Gflops at a significantly lower cost, power consumption, and space requirement than conventional supercomputers, Music is well suited to computationally intensive applications such as neural network simulation. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Recognition of staff nurse job performance and achievements: staff and manager perceptions.

    PubMed

    Cronin, S N; Becherer, D

    1999-01-01

    Recognition for job performance is central to staff nurse morale. However, little research has been done to identify recognition methods most valued by nurses themselves. The authors report results of a multisite survey conducted to compare staff and manager perceptions of meaningful recognition behaviors. They provide data for developing management interventions that may help to improve morale and increase retention. Given the financial constraints of the current environment, the nonmonetary recognition practices identified are of particular significance.

  5. Athlete Atypicity on the Edge of Human Achievement: Performances Stagnate after the Last Peak, in 1988

    PubMed Central

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Tafflet, Muriel; El Helou, Nour; Len, Stéphane; Escolano, Sylvie; Guillaume, Marion; Nassif, Hala; Tolaïni, Julien; Thibault, Valérie; Desgorces, François Denis; Hermine, Olivier; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    The growth law for the development of top athletes performances remains unknown in quantifiable sport events. Here we present a growth model for 41351 best performers from 70 track and field (T&F) and swimming events and detail their characteristics over the modern Olympic era. We show that 64% of T&F events no longer improved since 1993, while 47% of swimming events stagnated after 1990, prior to a second progression step starting in 2000. Since then, 100% of swimming events continued to progress. We also provide a measurement of the atypicity for the 3919 best performances (BP) of each year in every event. The secular evolution of this parameter for T&F reveals four peaks; the most recent (1988) followed by a major stagnation. This last peak may correspond to the most recent successful attempt to push forward human physiological limits. No atypicity trend is detected in swimming. The upcoming rarefaction of new records in sport may be delayed by technological innovations, themselves depending upon economical constraints. PMID:20098706

  6. Achieving superior MEBES performance through the use of SPC programs and state-of-the-art facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braz, Linda A.

    1993-06-01

    A MEBES III system can perform at levels that far exceed those published by the manufacturer. To achieve this, the photomask facility must be capable of maintaining extremely tight temperature controls. In addition, noise free power must be utilized and Class 10 cleanliness maintained. Through the use of a statistical process control (SPC) program generated at Etec, the MEBES performance can be monitored. Anomalies in system performance can be immediately identified and corrected without losing production masks. Impending system problems such as needed gun changes, gun centering, aperture changes, and charging of plates can be recognized and corrected before MEBES system performance would exceed our specifications. This paper also describes some of the unique facility designs/controls and demonstrated, through results, how these contribute to the MEBES performance.

  7. Preschool Children's Understanding of Conflicting Desires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Cosetti, Maura; Jones, Ressa; Kelton, Emily; Rafal, Valerie Meier; Richman, Lisa; Stanhaus, Heather

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the conditions under which 3-year-olds can use the desires of others to predict others' behavior. In Study 1, children were highly successful in predicting the actions of an agent based on that agent's desires when they were explicitly told about the agent's desires, even when the agent's desires were strongly different from…

  8. Motivation and Performance within a Collaborative Computer-Based Modeling Task: Relations between Students' Achievement Goal Orientation, Self-Efficacy, Cognitive Processing, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sins, Patrick H. M.; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In order to test the model, group measures of…

  9. A conceptual framework for achieving performance enhancing drug compliance in sport.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Robert J; Egger, Garry; Kapernick, Vicki; Mendoza, John

    2002-01-01

    There has been, and continues to be, widespread international concern about athletes' use of banned performance enhancing drugs (PEDs). This concern culminated in the formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in November 1999. To date, the main focus on controlling the use of PEDs has been on testing athletes and the development of tests to detect usage. Although athletes' beliefs and values are known to influence whether or not an athlete will use drugs, little is known about athletes' beliefs and attitudes, and the limited empirical literature shows little use of behavioural science frameworks to guide research methodology, results interpretation, and intervention implications. Mindful of this in preparing its anti-doping strategy for the 2000 Olympics, the Australian Sports Drug Agency (ASDA) in 1997 commissioned a study to assess the extent to which models of attitude-behaviour change in the public health/injury prevention literature had useful implications for compliance campaigns in the sport drug area. A preliminary compliance model was developed from three behavioural science frameworks: social cognition models; threat (or fear) appeals; and instrumental and normative approaches. A subsequent review of the performance enhancing drug literature confirmed that the overall framework was consistent with known empirical data, and therefore had at least face validity if not construct validity. The overall model showed six major inputs to an athlete's attitudes and intentions with respect to performance enhancing drug usage: personality factors, threat appraisal, benefit appraisal, reference group influences, personal morality and legitimacy. The model demonstrated that a comprehensive, fully integrated programme is necessary for maximal effect, and provides anti-doping agencies with a structured framework for strategic planning and implementing interventions. Programmes can be developed in each of the six major areas, with allocation of resources to each

  10. A conceptual framework for achieving performance enhancing drug compliance in sport.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Robert J; Egger, Garry; Kapernick, Vicki; Mendoza, John

    2002-01-01

    There has been, and continues to be, widespread international concern about athletes' use of banned performance enhancing drugs (PEDs). This concern culminated in the formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in November 1999. To date, the main focus on controlling the use of PEDs has been on testing athletes and the development of tests to detect usage. Although athletes' beliefs and values are known to influence whether or not an athlete will use drugs, little is known about athletes' beliefs and attitudes, and the limited empirical literature shows little use of behavioural science frameworks to guide research methodology, results interpretation, and intervention implications. Mindful of this in preparing its anti-doping strategy for the 2000 Olympics, the Australian Sports Drug Agency (ASDA) in 1997 commissioned a study to assess the extent to which models of attitude-behaviour change in the public health/injury prevention literature had useful implications for compliance campaigns in the sport drug area. A preliminary compliance model was developed from three behavioural science frameworks: social cognition models; threat (or fear) appeals; and instrumental and normative approaches. A subsequent review of the performance enhancing drug literature confirmed that the overall framework was consistent with known empirical data, and therefore had at least face validity if not construct validity. The overall model showed six major inputs to an athlete's attitudes and intentions with respect to performance enhancing drug usage: personality factors, threat appraisal, benefit appraisal, reference group influences, personal morality and legitimacy. The model demonstrated that a comprehensive, fully integrated programme is necessary for maximal effect, and provides anti-doping agencies with a structured framework for strategic planning and implementing interventions. Programmes can be developed in each of the six major areas, with allocation of resources to each

  11. Achieving Equivalent Academic Performance Between Campuses Using a Distributed Education Model

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Kenneth L.; Raehl, Cynthia L.; Smith, Quentin R.; Lockman, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate that students in competency-based anatomy and pharmaceutical calculations courses performed similarly whether enrolled in the classes through distance education or face-to-face lectures. Methods Student outcomes data including module examination scores, final course grades, and student demographics data were collected, merged, and analyzed. Results Mean module examination final scores and final course grades did not significantly differ between students at the lecture site and students at the remote site. Conclusions The competency-based anatomy and pharmaceutical calculations courses, whether remote or at the lecture site, provided equitable learning opportunities and roughly equivalent learning outcomes for students. PMID:19777103

  12. Achieving Reproducible Performance of Electrochemical, Folding Aptamer-Based Sensors on Microelectrodes: Challenges and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Combining specific recognition capabilities with the excellent spatiotemporal resolution of small electrodes represents a promising methodology in bioanalytical and chemical sensing. In this paper, we report the development of reproducible electrochemical, aptamer-based (E-AB) sensors on a gold microelectrode platform. Specifically, we develop microscale sensors (25 μm diameter) for two representative small molecule targets–adenosine triphosphate and tobramycin. Furthermore, we report on the challenges encountered at this size scale including small-magnitude signals and interference from the irreversible reduction of dissolved oxygen and present methods to circumvent these challenges. Through the electrochemical deposition of dendritic gold nanostructures, we demonstrate microscale sensors with improved performance by increasing signal-to-noise and consequently sensitivity. Finally, we report on the use of the nonspecific adsorption of serum proteins as an additional layer of surface passivation for stable sensor performance. The sensor development here represents general guidelines for fabricating electrochemical, folding aptamer-based sensors on small-scale electrodes. PMID:25337781

  13. Balance the Carrier Mobility To Achieve High Performance Exciplex OLED Using a Triazine-Based Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Tang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yi-Tzu; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2016-02-01

    A star-shaped 1,3,5-triazine/cyano hybrid molecule CN-T2T was designed and synthesized as a new electron acceptor for efficient exciplex-based OLED emitter by mixing with a suitable electron donor (Tris-PCz). The CN-T2T/Tris-PCz exciplex emission shows a high ΦPL of 0.53 and a small ΔET-S = -0.59 kcal/mol, affording intrinsically efficient fluorescence and highly efficient exciton up-conversion. The large energy level offsets between Tris-PCz and CN-T2T and the balanced hole and electron mobility of Tris-PCz and CN-T2T, respectively, ensuring sufficient carrier density accumulated in the interface for efficient generation of exciplex excitons. Employing a facile device structure composed as ITO/4% ReO3:Tris-PCz (60 nm)/Tris-PCz (15 nm)/Tris-PCz:CN-T2T(1:1) (25 nm)/CN-T2T (50 nm)/Liq (0.5 nm)/Al (100 nm), in which the electron-hole capture is efficient without additional carrier injection barrier from donor (or acceptor) molecule and carriers mobilities are balanced in the emitting layer, leads to a highly efficient green exciplex OLED with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%. The obtained EQE is 18% higher than that of a comparison device using an exciplex exhibiting a comparable ΦPL (0.50), in which TCTA shows similar energy levels but higher hole mobility as compared with Tris-PCz. Our results clearly indicate the significance of mobility balance in governing the efficiency of exciplex-based OLED. Exploiting the Tris-PCz:CN-T2T exciplex as the host, we further demonstrated highly efficient yellow and red fluorescent OLEDs by doping 1 wt % Rubrene and DCJTB as emitter, achieving high EQE of 6.9 and 9.7%, respectively.

  14. Balance the Carrier Mobility To Achieve High Performance Exciplex OLED Using a Triazine-Based Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Tang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yi-Tzu; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2016-02-01

    A star-shaped 1,3,5-triazine/cyano hybrid molecule CN-T2T was designed and synthesized as a new electron acceptor for efficient exciplex-based OLED emitter by mixing with a suitable electron donor (Tris-PCz). The CN-T2T/Tris-PCz exciplex emission shows a high ΦPL of 0.53 and a small ΔET-S = -0.59 kcal/mol, affording intrinsically efficient fluorescence and highly efficient exciton up-conversion. The large energy level offsets between Tris-PCz and CN-T2T and the balanced hole and electron mobility of Tris-PCz and CN-T2T, respectively, ensuring sufficient carrier density accumulated in the interface for efficient generation of exciplex excitons. Employing a facile device structure composed as ITO/4% ReO3:Tris-PCz (60 nm)/Tris-PCz (15 nm)/Tris-PCz:CN-T2T(1:1) (25 nm)/CN-T2T (50 nm)/Liq (0.5 nm)/Al (100 nm), in which the electron-hole capture is efficient without additional carrier injection barrier from donor (or acceptor) molecule and carriers mobilities are balanced in the emitting layer, leads to a highly efficient green exciplex OLED with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%. The obtained EQE is 18% higher than that of a comparison device using an exciplex exhibiting a comparable ΦPL (0.50), in which TCTA shows similar energy levels but higher hole mobility as compared with Tris-PCz. Our results clearly indicate the significance of mobility balance in governing the efficiency of exciplex-based OLED. Exploiting the Tris-PCz:CN-T2T exciplex as the host, we further demonstrated highly efficient yellow and red fluorescent OLEDs by doping 1 wt % Rubrene and DCJTB as emitter, achieving high EQE of 6.9 and 9.7%, respectively. PMID:26820247

  15. Tuning interactions between zeolite and supported metal by physical-sputtering to achieve higher catalytic performances

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Gang; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Jian; Xian, Hui; Tan, Yi-Sheng; Jiang, Zheng; Taguchi, Akira; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Yoneyama, Yoshiharu; Abe, Takayuki; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2013-01-01

    To substitute for petroleum, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is an environmentally benign process to produce synthetic diesel (n-paraffin) from syngas. Industrially, the synthetic gasoline (iso-paraffin) can be produced with a FTS process followed by isomerization and hydrocracking processes over solid-acid catalysts. Herein, we demonstrate a cobalt nano-catalyst synthesized by physical-sputtering method that the metallic cobalt nano-particles homogeneously disperse on the H-ZSM5 zeolite support with weak Metal-Support Interactions (MSI). This catalyst performed the high gasoline-range iso-paraffin productivity through the combined FTS, isomerization and hydrocracking reactions. The weak MSI results in the easy reducibility of the cobalt nano-particles; the high cobalt dispersion accelerates n-paraffin diffusion to the neighboring acidic sites on the H-ZSM5 support for isomerization and hydrocracking. Both factors guarantee its high CO conversion and iso-paraffin selectivity. This physical-sputtering technique to synthesize the supported metallic nano-catalyst is a promising way to solve the critical problems caused by strong MSI for various processes. PMID:24085106

  16. High-performance partially aligned semiconductive single-walled carbon nanotube transistors achieved with a parallel technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilei; Pillai, Suresh Kumar Raman; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2013-09-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are widely thought to be a strong contender for next-generation printed electronic transistor materials. However, large-scale solution-based parallel assembly of SWNTs to obtain high-performance transistor devices is challenging. SWNTs have anisotropic properties and, although partial alignment of the nanotubes has been theoretically predicted to achieve optimum transistor device performance, thus far no parallel solution-based technique can achieve this. Herein a novel solution-based technique, the immersion-cum-shake method, is reported to achieve partially aligned SWNT networks using semiconductive (99% enriched) SWNTs (s-SWNTs). By immersing an aminosilane-treated wafer into a solution of nanotubes placed on a rotary shaker, the repetitive flow of the nanotube solution over the wafer surface during the deposition process orients the nanotubes toward the fluid flow direction. By adjusting the nanotube concentration in the solution, the nanotube density of the partially aligned network can be controlled; linear densities ranging from 5 to 45 SWNTs/μm are observed. Through control of the linear SWNT density and channel length, the optimum SWNT-based field-effect transistor devices achieve outstanding performance metrics (with an on/off ratio of ~3.2 × 10(4) and mobility 46.5 cm(2) /Vs). Atomic force microscopy shows that the partial alignment is uniform over an area of 20 × 20 mm(2) and confirms that the orientation of the nanotubes is mostly along the fluid flow direction, with a narrow orientation scatter characterized by a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of <15° for all but the densest film, which is 35°. This parallel process is large-scale applicable and exploits the anisotropic properties of the SWNTs, presenting a viable path forward for industrial adoption of SWNTs in printed, flexible, and large-area electronics.

  17. Achieving high performance polymer optoelectronic devices for high efficiency, long lifetime and low fabrication cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinsong

    This thesis described three types of organic optoelectronic devices: polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), polymer photovoltaic solar cell, and organic photo detector. The research in this work focuses improving their performance including device efficiency, operation lifetime simplifying fabrication process. With further understanding in PLED device physics, we come up new device operation model and improved device architecture design. This new method is closely related to understanding of the science and physics at organic/metal oxide and metal oxide/metal interface. In our new device design, both material and interface are considered in order to confine and balance all injected carriers, which has been demonstrated very be successful in increasing device efficiency. We created two world records in device efficiency: 18 lm/W for white emission fluorescence PLED, 22 lm/W for red emission phosphorescence PLED. Slow solvent drying process has been demonstrated to significantly increase device efficiency in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixture polymer solar cell. From the mobility study by time of flight, the increase of efficiency can be well correlated to the improved carrier transport property due to P3HT crystallization during slow solvent drying. And it is found that, similar to PLED, balanced carrier mobility is essential in high efficient polymer solar cell. There is also a revolution in our device fabrication method. A unique device fabrication method is presented by an electronic glue based lamination process combined with interface modification as a one-step polymer solar cell fabrication process. It can completely skip the thermal evaporation process, and benefit device lifetime by several merits: no air reactive. The device obtained is metal free, semi-transparent, flexible, self-encapsulated, and comparable efficiency with that by regular method. We found the photomultiplication (PM) phenomenon in C

  18. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate achievements along…

  19. [How does summer affect sexual desire?].

    PubMed

    Kontula, Osmo; Väisälä, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Sexual desire involves many different things such as sexual thoughts and images, excitement, expectation and orgasm. Mood has a strong association with sexual desire. Fatigue and depression in particular cause lack of sexual desire. By affecting the state of alertness and energy in humans, sunlight may increase sexual activity. PMID:23901739

  20. Pleasure/Desire, Sexularism and Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Louise

    2012-01-01

    Pleasure and desire have been important components of researchers' vision for sexuality education for over 20 years, a trend inspired by Michelle Fine's seminal paper, "Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire." This essay considers how discourses related to pleasure and desire have been taken up in the USA and…

  1. Barriers to completion of desired postpartum sterilization.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Lori A; DeSimone, Michael; Allen, Rebecca H

    2013-02-01

    Tubal sterilization is a highly effective, permanent, and safe method of contraception. Many women who desire postpartum sterilization do not obtain the procedure due to barriers. We performed a retrospective cohort study examining patients from a single obstetrics practice who delivered between 1/1/07 and 6/30/07 at Women and Infants Hospital in Providence, RI. During the study period, 626 women in the practice delivered. Of these subjects, 87 (14%) desired postpartum sterilization. Of these 87, 45 (51.7%) underwent sterilization as planned. In multivariable analysis controlling for age, BMI, delivery mode and marital status, older age (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.12, 4.12, p=0.02) and cesarean delivery (OR 19.65, 95% CI 3.75, 103.1, p < 0.001) were associated with completion of postpartum sterilization and being married (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.02, 0.56, p=0.009) and having a higher BMI (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39, 0.91, p=0.02) were associated with incompletion. Only half of women who request postpartum sterilization antenatally end up obtaining the procedure.

  2. Multimedia OC12 parallel interface using VCSEL array to achieve high-performance cost-effective optical interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Edward S.

    1996-09-01

    ribbon cable, and MT connectors to achieve a high-performance, low-cost parallel link. A logical model of a multimedia server with parallel connections to an ATM switch, and to clients is presented. The design of the parallel optical link is analyzed. Furthermore, the link configured for testing, the test method, and test results are presented to confirm the analysis and to assure reliable link performance.

  3. The Effect of Retesting on End-of-Semester Performance in High School Chemistry at Three Levels of Previous Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboer, George E.

    1981-01-01

    Examines whether retesting: (1) affects achievement of students (N=95) grouped according to previous achievement in science; and (2) influences students to delay studying and perform at a low level on initial tests. Also examines whether procrastination of retested students is affected by their achievement level. (DS)

  4. Quality of education predicts performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading subtest.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S; Dean, Andy C; Thames, April D

    2014-12-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature.

  5. Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlick, Katherine

    "The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the

  6. Grating image with desired shaped dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Hideaki; Toda, Toshiki; Takahashi, Susumu; Sawamura, Chikara; Iwata, Fujio

    2000-03-01

    A new type of Grating Image we dominate as `Sparklegram' is presented. The Sparklegram is characterized because it provides high quality and better design flexibility. These features are achieved by constructing it with shaped dots as desired. Each dot can be designed as an individual shape, for example, a star or a triangle. As dot shapes, we can use not only geometric patterns, but also some kind of symbols. Not only flexibility of each consists dot shape, but also the quality of reconstructed image is remarkably increased too. Because of these features, the constructed image with the new type of Grating Image, Sparklegram has high quality and high flexibility. It can be applied to security use, for example on credit-cards, tickets, etc., and also can be applied to the package of software products, CDs, videos and other kind of items requiring security. And with these features of flexibility and high quality, Sparklegram has also advantages to be applied to other use, for example amusement use, comics and game characters' goods and packages.

  7. Functional Organosulfide Electrolyte Promotes an Alternate Reaction Pathway to Achieve High Performance in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuru; Dai, Fang; Gordin, Mikhail L; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gao, Yue; Song, Jiangxuan; Wang, Donghai

    2016-03-18

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have recently received great attention because they promise to provide energy density far beyond current lithium ion batteries. Typically, Li-S batteries operate by conversion of sulfur to reversibly form different soluble lithium polysulfide intermediates and insoluble lithium sulfides through multistep redox reactions. Herein, we report a functional electrolyte system incorporating dimethyl disulfide as a co-solvent that enables a new electrochemical reduction pathway for sulfur cathodes. This pathway uses soluble dimethyl polysulfides and lithium organosulfides as intermediates and products, which can boost cell capacity and lead to improved discharge-charge reversibility and cycling performance of sulfur cathodes. This electrolyte system can potentially enable Li-S batteries to achieve high energy density.

  8. Social desirability and sexual offenders: a review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lavinia; Grace, Randolph C

    2008-03-01

    Social desirability--the desire to make a favorable impression on others-poses a significant threat to the validity of self-reports. This review examines research on social desirability in both forensic and nonforensic populations with the goal of identifying how best to minimize threats to the validity of research with sexual offenders. Although social desirability has long been a major research topic in personality, consensus has not been reached on key questions such as its dimensional structure and whether social desirability constitutes a trait or a response bias. Research with offenders has shown that social desirability is negatively related to recidivism and that different offender subtypes vary in the degree to which social desirability appears to influence self-reports, with child molesters exhibiting the strongest tendency to "fake good." Several methods of controlling for social desirability have been proposed, but the effectiveness of these methods in increasing validity of offender self reports is questionable. Given the lack of consensus in the personality literature, a fresh start is needed in which basic questions regarding social desirability are revisited with respect to offender populations. PMID:18420557

  9. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, J. Gayle

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the current state of knowledge about hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Despite clinical attention to this disorder, ambiguity remains concerning the nature and treatment of low sexual desire. Reviews diagnostic issues, including prevalence estimates. Highlights current theories of etiology and maintenance, as well as assessment…

  10. Young Children's Understanding of Desire Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Louis J.; Coon, Jennifer A.; Wusinich, Nicole

    2000-01-01

    Two studies examined preschoolers' appreciation of how mental states arise. Findings suggest that 3- and 5-year-olds better understood perception-generated beliefs and attitude-generated desires than physiology-generated desires. Four- and 5-year-olds better understood the effects of quantity of experience than of time of experience on…

  11. Ewe lambs with higher breeding values for growth achieve higher reproductive performance when mated at age 8 months.

    PubMed

    Nieto, C A Rosales; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-09-15

    We studied the relationships among growth, body composition and reproductive performance in ewe lambs with known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning live weight (PWT) and depth of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). To detect estrus, vasectomized rams were placed with 190 Merino ewe lambs when on average they were 157 days old. The vasectomized rams were replaced with entire rams when the ewe lambs were, on average, 226 days old. Lambs were weighed every week and blood was sampled on four occasions for assay of ghrelin, leptin and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Almost 90% of the lambs attained puberty during the experiment, at an average live weight of 41.4 kg and average age of 197 days. Ewe lambs with higher values for EMD (P < 0.001), FAT (P < 0.01), PWT (P < 0.001), PEMD (P < 0.05) and PFAT (P < 0.05) were more likely to achieve puberty by 251 days of age. Thirty-six percent of the lambs conceived and, at the estimated date of conception, the average live weight was 46.9 ± 0.6 kg and average age was 273 days. Fertility, fecundity and reproductive rate were positively related to PWT (P < 0.05) and thus live weight at the start of mating (P < 0.001). Reproductive performance was not correlated with blood concentrations of ghrelin, leptin or ß-hydroxybutyrate. Many ewe lambs attained puberty, as detected by vasectomized rams, but then failed to become pregnant after mating with entire rams. Nevertheless, we can conclude that in ewe lambs mated at 8 months of age, higher breeding values for growth, muscle and fat are positively correlated with reproductive performance, although the effects of breeding values and responses to live weight are highly variable.

  12. Object of desire self-consciousness theory.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Brotto, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the construct of object of desire self-consciousness, the perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. The authors discuss the nature of the construct, variations in its expression, and how it may function as part of a self-schemata or script related to romance and sexuality. The authors suggest that object of desire self-consciousness may be an adaptive, evolved psychological mechanism allowing sexual and romantic tactics suitable to one's mate value. The authors also suggest that it can act as a signal that one has high mate value in the sexual marketplace. The authors then review literature (e.g., on fantasies, on sexual activity preferences, on sexual dysfunctions, on language) suggesting that object of desire self-consciousness plays a particularly important role in heterosexual women's sexual/romantic functioning and desires. PMID:23905711

  13. Predictive Indicators of High Performing Schools: A Study of Evaluative Inquiry and the Effective Use of Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kathryn L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing research suggests a link between evaluative inquiry (EI) and student achievement, where EI is defined as the practice of analyzing student achievement data to identify ways to improve instruction. However, researchers lacked empirical evidence regarding the relationship between specific EI indicators and student achievement. The purpose…

  14. Gender Differences in Achievement Goals and Performances in English Language and Mathematics of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…

  15. Sex Differences in Performance Attributions, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement in Mathematics: If I'm So Smart, Why Don't I Know It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Jennifer E. V.; Walsh, John; Yailagh, Manizheh Shehni

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we tested the claim that sex differences in mathematics achievement are related to boys' and girls' differing achievement-related beliefs. We compared the mathematics report card grades, 2001 Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) Numeracy subtest scores, performance attributions, and self-efficacy of 161 British Columbian public school…

  16. Achievement Gaps: How Hispanic and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Highlights. NCES 2011-485

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a detailed portrait of Hispanic and White academic achievement gaps and how students' performance has changed over time at both the national and state levels. The report presents achievement gaps using reading and mathematics assessment data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for the 4th- and 8th-grade…

  17. Effects of Explicit Teaching and Peer Tutoring on the Reading Achievement of Learning-Disabled and Low-Performing Students in Regular Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Deborah C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined effects of explicit teaching and peer tutoring on reading achievement of learning-disabled students and nondisabled, low-performing readers in academically integrated classrooms. Found that explicit-teaching students did not achieve reliably better than controls; students in the explicit teaching plus peer tutoring condition scored higher…

  18. The potential influence of perception of achievement on performance in volitional time-to-exhaustion cycle ergometer trials.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, Ross; Babraj, John

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this short communication was to report the findings of an investigation of the potential influence of spontaneous goal setting on subjects undertaking maximal fitness testing. Subjects were asked to complete a single incremental volitional time-to-exhaustion cycle ergometer trial. The final minute of the trial, after the last increase in increment in resistance, was broken down into six 10-second intervals and a frequency count made of how many subjects stopped within each interval. A chi-square test was used to determine that there was a significant difference between the expected and the observed frequencies (p < 0.05), with 45% of subjects stopping in the first interval (0-10 seconds) and 0% within the last interval (51-60 seconds). Reflections of the subjects revealed that those who were close to exhaustion but near to reaching the next increment of resistance were more likely to "push on." However, despite having been told to keep going as long as they could, subjects upon reaching that increment stopped almost immediately as they believed they could not manage to reach the next increment. This suggests a potential psychological element related to goal achievement that influences performance in incremental volitional time-to-exhaustion cycle ergometer trials. Practically, this means that the information participants have available on which to base goals (level of increment, time, etc.) needs to be minimized to prevent spontaneous goal setting.

  19. Endovascular Stents and Stent-Grafts: Is Heparin Coating Desirable?

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Stephen R.; Souza, Nandita M. de; Allison, David J.

    2000-07-15

    Heparins are glycosaminoglycans that, in addition to their anticoagulant activity, have interactions with growth factors and other glycoproteins. These interactions may stimulate neointimal hyperplasia when heparin is delivered locally on stents and stent-grafts. Modifying the structure of heparin to retain anticoagulant activity while minimizing these stimulatory effects on the vascular endothelium is desirable and may be achieved by understanding the relationships between the structure and function of the various parts of the heparin molecule.

  20. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  1. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma Irene

    After establishing reliability for an associative verbal encoding (a/v/e) test, the relationship between children's a/v/e and their reading achievement was investigated. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) a/v/e will improve with training, and (2) associated with improved a/v/e will be concomitant improvement in reading achievement. The subjects…

  2. Development and Validation of a Physics Achievement Test to Identify Instructor Variables Associated with Students' Physics Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacambra, Wilfredo T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common ways of detecting whether an improvement is achieved by an education institution is through measuring the students' achievement in a test. Testing is generally thought of as a means of assessing the knowledge and skills students have acquired through learning (Du-chastel and Nungester, 1998). Test results, besides assisting…

  3. A Multi-Institutional Study of the Relationship between High School Mathematics Achievement and Performance in Introductory College Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Danielle N.; Medhanie, Amanuel; Harwell, Michael; LeBeau, Brandon; Monson, Debra; Post, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of prior mathematics achievement and completion of a commercially developed, National Science Foundation-funded, or University of Chicago School Mathematics Project high school mathematics curriculum on achievement in students' first college statistics course. Specifically, we examined the relationship between…

  4. Writing Queer across the Borders of Geography and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malagreca, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author merges biographical notes, autoethnography and experimental writing to situate his migrant self as a self that "performs through writing," i.e. planned, experimental writing that subverts the centrality of the monolingual heterosexual identity. He explores the intersections of time, desire, and power across time and…

  5. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  6. Female sexual dysfunction: focus on low desire.

    PubMed

    Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Woodard, Terri

    2015-02-01

    Low or absent sexual desire is the most common sexual dysfunction in women, and its prevalence peaks during midlife. Its etiology is complex and may include biologic, psychologic, and social elements. Major risk factors for its development include poor health status, depression, certain medications, dissatisfaction with partner relationship, and history of physical abuse, sexual abuse, or both. Diagnosis is based on criteria set by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th Edition) and requires that a woman experience personal distress. Clinical evaluation should include medical history, sexual history, and, sometimes, a physical examination. Laboratory data are of limited value, except when warranted by history or physical examination. Treatment options include nonpharmacologic interventions such as education, office-based counseling, and psychotherapy. Although there are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments for low desire, pharmacologic agents have been used off-label for this purpose. Bupropion is an antidepressant that has been shown to improve desire in some women with and without depression. Systemic estrogen therapy is not recommended in the absence of vasomotor symptoms and is not directly associated with desire. However, vaginal estrogen is useful in patients presenting with concomitant vaginal atrophy and dyspareunia. Ospemifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that can be used as an alternative to vaginal estrogen. Exogenous testosterone has demonstrated efficacy in treating loss of desire in postmenopausal women. However, patients should be counseled that it is not FDA-approved for this purpose and there are limited published long-term safety data. Several agents for the treatment of low desire are currently in development. Gynecologists are in a unique position to address concerns about sexual desire in women.

  7. WWC Review of the Report "Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance While Reducing Achievement Gaps." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance While Reducing Achievement Gaps," examined the impact of frequent online testing and immediate feedback on the academic performance of college students. The study was conducted at the University of Texas in the fall of 2008 and 2011. Researchers found…

  8. Correlations among Six Learner Variables and the Performance of a Sample of Jamaican Eleventh-Graders on an Achievement Test on Respiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Pinnock, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at establishing if the level of performance of 500 Jamaican Grade 11 students on an achievement test on the concept of respiration was satisfactory (mean = 28 or 70% and above) or not (less than 70%); if there were statistically significant differences in their performance on the concept linked to their gender, cognitive abilities…

  9. Statins research unfinished saga: desirability versus feasibility.

    PubMed

    Fisman, Enrique Z; Adler, Yehuda; Tenenbaum, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Drugs in the same class are generally thought to be therapeutically equivalent because of similar mechanisms of action (the so-called "class effect"). However, statins differ in multiple characteristics, including liver and renal metabolism, half-life, effects on several serum lipid components, bioavailability and potency. Some are fungal derivatives, and others are synthetic compounds. The percentage absorption of an oral dose, amount of protein binding, degree of renal excretion, hydrophilicity, and potency on a weight basis is variable. These differences may be even greater in diabetic patients, who may present diabetes-induced abnormalities in P450 isoforms and altered hepatic metabolic pathways. Thus, it is obvious that head-to-head comparisons between different statins are preferable than trial-to-trial comparisons. Such assessments are of utmost importance, especially in cases in which specific populations with a distinct lipid profile and altered metabolic pathways, like diabetics, are studied. It should be specially pinpointed that patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes constitute also a special population regarding their atherogenic dyslipidemia, which is usually associated with low HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia and predominance of small dense LDL-cholesterol. Therefore, these patients may benefit from fibrates or combined statin/fibrate treatment. This policy is not accomplished since in the real world things are more complex. Trials would require very large sample sizes and long-term follow-up to detect significant differences in myocardial infarction or death between two different statins. Moreover, the fact that new compounds are under several phases of research and development represents an additional drawback for performing the trials. Ideally, head-to-head trials regarding clinically important outcomes should be conducted for all drugs. Nonetheless, the desirability of performing such trials, which epitomize modern evidence

  10. Fertility Desires among Women Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Ryan; Potter, JoNell Efantis; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Spence, Andrew; Byrne, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Rates of pregnancy among women living with HIV (WLHIV) have increased with the availability of effective HIV treatment. Planning for pregnancy and childbirth is an increasingly important element of HIV care. Though rates of unintended pregnancies are high among women in general, among couples affected by HIV, significant planning and reproductive decisions must be considered to prevent negative health consequences for WLHIV and their neonates. To gain insight into this reproductive decision-making process among WLHIV, this study explored women’s knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding fertility planning, reproductive desires, and safer conception practices. It was hypothesized that pregnancy desires would be influenced by partners, families, the potential risk of HIV transmission to infants, and physicians’ recommendations. Methods WLHIV of childbearing age were recruited from urban South Florida, and completed an assessment of demographics (N = 49), fertility desires and a conjoint survey of factors associated with reproductive decision-making. Results Using conjoint analysis, we found that different decision paths exist for different types of women: Younger women and those with less education desired children if their partners wanted children; reproductive desires among those with less education, and with less HIV pregnancy-related knowledge, displayed a trend toward additional emphasis on their family’s desires. Conversely, older women and those with more education appeared to place more importance on physician endorsement in their plans for childbearing. Conclusions Results of this study highlight the importance of ongoing preconception counselling for all women of reproductive age during routine HIV care. Counselling should be tailored to patient characteristics, and physicians should consider inclusion of families and/or partners in the process. PMID:27610626

  11. Faculty Perceptions of Students: Faculty Definition of Desirable Student Traits, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Junius A.

    An 80-item rating scale, drawn from faculty descriptions of students, was completed by 407 faculty for 398 students in 8 institutions to ascertain desirable traits beyond those directly related to academic achievement. The items, including a student desirability variable, together with SAT scores, high school rank, and freshman grade point…

  12. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M.; Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery, Shelly; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farritor, Shane; Joyce, James; Rebrovich, Barb

    2003-01-01

    Condensing five years of significant work into a brief narrative fitting PPR requirements gave the affiliates of the Nebraska Space Grant a valuable chance for reflection. Achievements of Space Grant in Nebraska were judiciously chosen for this document that best illustrate the resultant synergism of this consortium, keeping in mind that these examples are only a representation of greater activity throughout the state. Following are highlights of many of the finer and personal achievements for Nebraska Space Grant. The Consortium welcomes inquiries to elaborate on any of these accomplishments.

  13. Student Achievement Gaps in High-Performing Schools: Differences as a Function of the Professional Staff as a Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Kimberly S.; Meehan, Merrill L.

    This study investigated differences among professional staff members' commitment to continuous learning and improvement in high-performing schools differentiated by student academic performance and disaggregated by race and socioeconomic status. A total of 48 high-performing schools were identified by Kentucky Department of Education staff based…

  14. The ethical desirability of moral bioenhancement: a review of reasons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The debate on the ethical aspects of moral bioenhancement focuses on the desirability of using biomedical as opposed to traditional means to achieve moral betterment. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the ethical reasons presented in the literature for and against moral bioenhancement. Discussion A review was performed and resulted in the inclusion of 85 articles. We classified the arguments used in those articles in the following six clusters: (1) why we (don’t) need moral bioenhancement, (2) it will (not) be possible to reach consensus on what moral bioenhancement should involve, (3) the feasibility of moral bioenhancement and the status of current scientific research, (4) means and processes of arriving at moral improvement matter ethically, (5) arguments related to the freedom, identity and autonomy of the individual, and (6) arguments related to social/group effects and dynamics. We discuss each argument separately, and assess the debate as a whole. First, there is little discussion on what distinguishes moral bioenhancement from treatment of pathological deficiencies in morality. Furthermore, remarkably little attention has been paid so far to the safety, risks and side-effects of moral enhancement, including the risk of identity changes. Finally, many authors overestimate the scientific as well as the practical feasibility of the interventions they discuss, rendering the debate too speculative. Summary Based on our discussion of the arguments used in the debate on moral enhancement, and our assessment of this debate, we advocate a shift in focus. Instead of speculating about non-realistic hypothetical scenarios such as the genetic engineering of morality, or morally enhancing ‘the whole of humanity’, we call for a more focused debate on realistic options of biomedical treatment of moral pathologies and the concrete moral questions these treatments raise. PMID:25227512

  15. Striatal dopamine (D2) receptor availability predicts socially desirable responding.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Suzanne J; Mehta, Mitul A; Montgomery, Andrew J; Amiras, Dimitri; Egerton, Alice; Howard, Robert J; Grasby, Paul M

    2007-02-15

    Research in non-human primates has implicated striatal dopamine (D2) receptor function in the expression of social dominance--a fundamental component of social extraversion. We predicted that trait extraversion - indexed by the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) - would correlate with striatal DA (D2) receptor measures - indexed by [(11)C]-Raclopride binding potential (BP) - in 28 healthy post-menopausal females (mean age=75 years; range=58-91 years). Region of interest (ROI) and voxel-based statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses were performed, using a reference tissue model for [(11)C]-Raclopride. ROI analysis showed moderately significant negative correlations between extraversion and BP measures in the left caudate and between psychoticism scores and BP in the right putamen. Unexpectedly, scores on the Lie scale, a measure of socially desirable responding, were significantly and negatively correlated with BP measures in the putamen and survived Bonferroni correction on the right side. After controlling for the potential confounding of self-report bias in high Lie scorers, only the correlation between Lie scores and BP measures in the right putamen remained significant. Voxel-based analysis showed only Lie scores to be significantly and negatively correlated with BP measures in the right putamen. We explored this association further by applying an ROI-based approach to data on a previously scanned sample of young adults (n=13) and found a similar pattern of association, which achieved trend level significance in the right putamen. Although unanticipated, the relationship observed between BP measures in the right putamen and Lie scores is consistent with dopaminergic involvement in socially rewarding behaviour. How this relates to dopaminergic tone will need to be further explored.

  16. Children's Social Desirability Judgements about Ingratiation Tactics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, James H.; Sonnefeld, L. Joseph

    Fifty-eight children (mean age 11 years), 22 of whom were diagnosed as learning disabled, were administered a questionnaire in which scenarios were presented involving various ingratiation tactics toward three types of targets (parents, teachers, and peers) and were asked to rate each tactic as to its social desirability. Results indicated that…

  17. Faculty Sense of Academic Optimism and Its Relationship to Students' Achievement in Well Performing High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, Michael Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the organizational characteristics and behaviors that contribute to sustaining a culture of academic optimism as a mechanism of student achievement. While there is a developing research base identifying both the individual elements of academic optimism as well as the academic optimism construct itself as…

  18. Closing the Achievement Gap: A Summer School Program to Accelerate the Academic Performance of Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Ramon Michael

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing disparity in educational outcomes among economically and racially different groups of students, summer school has received attention from school reformers as a means to close the achievement gap. Given the interest in this topic by educators, researchers, and policymakers, there is little research on the impact of summer school…

  19. Five Social Disadvantages That Depress Student Performance: Why Schools Alone Can't Close Achievement Gaps. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Leila; Rothstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    That students' social and economic characteristics shape their cognitive and behavioral outcomes is well established, yet policymakers typically resist accepting that non-school disadvantages necessarily depress outcomes. Rather, they look to better schools and teachers to close achievement gaps, and consistently come up short. This report…

  20. What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Thomas Allen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

  1. Predicting Performance on State Achievement Tests Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading: A Multilevel Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Seungsoo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the relationship between Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) and statewide achievement tests in reading. A multilevel meta-analysis was used to calculate the correlation coefficient of the population for 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Results showed an overall large correlation coefficient…

  2. A Comparison of Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-9) Performance across Grade, Gender, Ethnicity, and Educational Program Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Kathryn; Kellow, Tom; Ye, Renmin

    This study compared Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-9) academic subtest scores by students' grade, gender, and ethnicity and across different educational programs (e.g., Title I and special education). The study sample consisted of 144,701 students from public schools in a large city in the Southwest United States (grades 1-11). Raw data were taken…

  3. The Relationship between Student Achievement of At-Risk Students and the Georgia Performance Standards in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Loralee Ann

    2012-01-01

    Educational leaders continue to be challenged in terms of accountability measures for increased student achievement, as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). In particular, schools must show adequate yearly progress (AYP) reaching 100% proficiency levels for all students in the areas of English language arts and mathematics by…

  4. Staying with the Text: The Contribution of Gender, Achievement Orientations, and Interest to Students' Performance on a Literacy Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jedda; Tisher, Ruth; Ainley, Mary; Kennedy, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    This study addresses concerns about boys' underperformance on literacy tasks compared to girls, by investigating male and females students' responses to narrative texts. Participants were 142 Grade 9 and 10 students. Achievement orientations, including goals, self-efficacy, and self-handicapping, were measured and approach and avoidance factors…

  5. The Effects of Socioeconomic Strata, Sex and Reading Achievement Level on the Auditory-Visual Integration Performance of Sixth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Michael Duane

    This study investigates the differences between the auditory-visual integration ability of 80 sixth grade students when such variables as socioeconomic status, sex, intelligence, conservation ability, and reading achievement were controlled. Socioeconomic Strata were determined by Hollingshead's Four Factor Index of Social Position. The California…

  6. Comparing the Reading Performance of High-Achieving Adolescents: Computer-Based Testing versus Paper/Pencil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eno, Linda Peet

    2011-01-01

    Literacy is moving into the digital context. Many of the literacy tasks associated with higher education, the workplace, and civic life now take place in the digital world. Literacy in high school, however, languishes in the text world. This study compared the text literacy of a group of high-achieving 10th-grade students, to their digital…

  7. The Impact of AP® Achievement Institute I on Students' AP Performance. Research Report No. 2012-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; Laitusis, Vytas

    2012-01-01

    The AP Achievement Institute I (APAI I) is a four-day professional development program offered to teachers and administrators by EXCELerator™, a district reform program operated by the College Board. The APAI I program is designed to help teachers develop effective AP instructional strategies for a diverse student body and to help district,…

  8. Teaching Bodies/Learning Desire: Rethinking the Role of Desire in the Pedagogic Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Desire is a crucial aspect of the pedagogic process. For too long, however, there has been a dichotomous relationship between understandings of teacher and student desire. The former is often configured as a pedagogic anachronism, problematised and needing to be contained. Conversely, the latter is essentialised as a force that should not be…

  9. The Effect of Performance-Pay in Little Rock, Arkansas on Student Achievement. Working Paper 2008-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Marcus; Greene, Jay P.; Ritter, Gary; Marsh, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines evidence from a performance-pay program implemented in five Little Rock, Arkansas elementary schools between 2004 and 2007. Using a differences-in-differences approach, the evidence shows that students whose teachers were eligible for performance pay made substantially larger test score gains in math, reading, and language than…

  10. Making Performance Accountability Work: English Lessons for U.S. Community Colleges: An Achieving the Dream Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaquette, Ozan

    2006-01-01

    Most states have experimented with performance accountability as a way to drive improvement in public higher education institutions and systems. However, efforts to implement performance funding in the United States have yielded mixed results. This policy brief describes the reforms that dramatically changed the policy landscape in England and…

  11. The effect of retesting on end-of-semester performance in high school chemistry at three levels of previous science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deboer, George E.

    To determine the effect of retesting on student learning in chemistry, three questions were addressed by means of a 3 × 2 (achievement level X treatment) factorial design: (1) Does retesting affect differently the end-of-semester mastery of course objectives of students who are grouped according to their previous achievement in science? (2) Do students who are given an opportunity to take retests merely delay their studying and perform at a lower level on initial tests than nonretested students? (3) Is the procrastination of retested students (if it exists) affected by their achievement level? The results showed that for one of four units low ability students who were retested demonstrated greater learning gains than low ability students who were not retested, and that procrastination, if it was present, did not have significant effects on student learning at any achievement level. Results were discussed in terms of the students' room for improvement, motivation to improve, and ability to improve.

  12. Topology of Sustainable Management of Dynamical Systems with Desirable States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kittel, Tim

    2015-04-01

    To keep the Earth System in a desirable region of its state space, such as the recently suggested 'tolerable environment and development window', 'planetary boundaries', or 'safe (and just) operating space', in addition to the identification of the quantitative internal dynamics and the available options for influencing it (management), there is an urgent need to understand the systems' state space structure with regard to questions such as (i) which of its parts can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region, (ii) which parts are in a variety of senses 'safe' to stay in when management options break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this structure. To complement existing approaches from optimal control focusing on quantitative optimization and being much applied in both engineering and integrated assessment, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology that partitions the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states including terminology suggestions for the various resulting parts. Our detailed formal classification of the possible states and management options with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region indicates that before performing some form of quantitative optimization, the sustainable management of the Earth System may require decisions of a more discrete type, e.g. choosing between ultimate safety and permanent desirability, or between permanent safety and increasing future options.

  13. Long-term costs of inflated self-estimate on academic performance among adolescent students: a case of second-language achievements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu-Li; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2009-12-01

    Past studies suggest that the adaptive or maladaptive consequences of inflated self-estimate, one form of positive illusions, require further investigation. 308 freshmen at a junior college (164 women, 144 men; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.1) participated in a longitudinal study during a 2-yr. period. There were three assessments of short- and long-term effects of overly positive self-estimates on second-language achievement. Students' overestimation of subsequent performance appears to be associated with lower achievement. Those students with apparently inflated self-estimates performed marginally better on the first assessment but worse in the second and final assessments. Students with more accurate self-estimates showed improvement on all assessments. The findings suggested that overinflated self-estimates, i.e., positive illusions, among adolescent students might lead to a lower achievement over the long-term.

  14. Shape control of composite plates and shells with embedded actuators. 2: Desired shape specified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koconis, David B.; Kollar, Laszlo P.; Springer, George S.

    The changes in shapes of fiber-reinforced composite beams, plates and shells affected by embedded piezoelectric actuators were investigated. An analytical method was developed to determine the voltages needed to achieve a specified desired shape. The method is formulated on the basis of mathematical models using two-dimensional, linear, shallow shell theory including transverse shear effects which are important in the case of sandwich construction. The solution technique is a minimization of an error function which is a measure of the difference between the deformed shape caused by the application of voltages and the desired shape. A computationally efficient, user-friendly computer code was written which is suitable for performing the numerical calculations. The code, designated as SHAPE2, gives the voltages needed to achieve specified changes in shape. To validate the method and the computer code, results generated by the code were compared to existing analytical and experimental results. The predictions provided by the SHAPE2 code were in excellent agreement with the results of the other analyses and data.

  15. Disentangling desire and arousal: a classificatory conundrum.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Sabina; Amsel, Rhonda M; Binik, Yitzchak M

    2013-08-01

    A controversial proposal to collapse sexual disorders of desire and arousal is forthcoming in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.) (DSM-5). Yet, no study has attempted to empirically distinguish these disorders by using explicit criteria to recruit and compare distinct groups of low desire and arousal sufferers. The goal of the current study was to test the feasibility of finding medically healthy men and women meeting clearly operationalized DSM-IV-TR criteria for disorders of desire and/or arousal and compare them to matched controls. To assess operational criteria, participants completed a comprehensive telephone screening interview assessing DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria, as well as standardized self-report measures of sexual functioning. The use of operationalized DSM-IV-TR criteria to recruit participants led to the exclusion of over 75% of those reporting sexual difficulties, with the primary reason for exclusion being failure to meet at least one central diagnostic criterion. The application of the DSM-5 criteria was even more restrictive and led to the exclusion of all but four men and one woman using the original four-symptom criteria, and four men and five women using the revised three-symptom criteria. Cluster analyses supported the distinction between desire and genital arousal difficulties, and suggest that different groups with distinct clusters of symptoms may exist, two of which are consistent with the DSM-5 criteria. Overall, results highlight the need for revisions to the diagnostic criteria, which, as they stand, do not capture the full range of many people's sexual difficulties.

  16. The Relationship between Students' Performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the Fourth and Fifth Grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnimont, Chad S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the fourth and fifth grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio. The sample utilized students from a suburban school district in Northwest Ohio. Third grade CogAT scores (2006-2007 school year), 4th…

  17. Beating the Odds: A City-by-City Analysis of Student Performance and Achievement Gaps on State Assessments. Results from the 2003-2004 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Council of the Great City Schools has prepared this fifth edition of "Beating the Odds" ("Beating the Odds V)" to give the nation another look at how inner-city schools are performing on the academic goals and standards set by the states for our children. This analysis examines student achievement in math and reading through spring 2004. It…

  18. How Does the Science Writing Heuristic Approach Affect Students' Performances of Different Academic Achievement Levels? A Case for High School Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer; Gunel, Murat

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH), known as an argumentation-based science inquiry approach, on Grade 9 students' performance on a post-test in relation to their academic achievement levels. Four intact classes taught by 2 chemistry teachers from a Turkish public high school were selected for the study; one…

  19. The Impact of a State Takeover on Academic Achievement, School Performance, and School Leadership in a Rural South Carolina School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Janice Zissette

    2009-01-01

    This case study on the impact of a state takeover in one of South Carolina's most rural school districts ("referred to as the County School District") was completed using a quasi-experimental mixed methods design to examine the impact on academic achievement, school performance, and school leadership as a result of the South Carolina Department of…

  20. A Comparative Case Study of Factors Distinguishing between High and Low-Performance on Reading Achievement in Elementary Rural Appalachian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jennifer; Hausman, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative comparative case study identified factors that distinguish between high and low-performance on reading achievement in elementary rural Appalachian schools. This study determined the most effective instructional reading strategies, as well as other influential factors, implemented by school districts in the rural Appalachia area…

  1. A Comparative Case Study of Factors Distinguishing between High and Low-Performance on Reading Achievement in Elementary Rural Appalachian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative comparative case study identified factors that distinguish between high and low-performance on reading achievement in elementary rural Appalachian schools. This study determined the most effective instructional reading strategies, as well as other influential factors, implemented by school districts in the rural Appalachia area…

  2. The Effect of Performance Assessment-Driven Instruction on the Attitude and Achievement of Senior High School Students in Mathematics in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arhin, Ato Kwamina

    2015-01-01

    The study was a quasi-experimental research project conducted to investigate the effect of performance assessment-driven instructions on the attitude and achievement in mathematics of senior high school students in Ghana at Ghana National College in Cape Coast. Two Form 1 science classes were used for the study and were assigned as experimental…

  3. Building trust through promises and performance. Can your organization achieve the stellar results and employee loyalty found at Southwest Airlines?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Edward J; Annison, Michael H

    2002-01-01

    Establishing a trusting relationship with your employees can help you transform your organization into a top performer. Examine how well-defined visions and goals are some of the keys to building that trust. PMID:11806234

  4. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery Shelly; Calamaio, Caprice; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne; Farritor, Shane

    2003-01-01

    This 15-year evaluation serves as a summary document highlighting the numerous and complete successes of the Nebraska Space Grant Program. Innovation has been highlighted through significant new endeavors during this 5-year period, such as placement of students and faculty at NASA Centers and the expansion of NSGC Native American Outreach Programs. While the last national program evaluation resulted in Nebraska s ranking as the top Capability Enhancement Consortium, and 5th best overall, Nebraska felt there was room for significant growth and development. This has been validated through the recent competitive attainment of Designated Grant status and has allowed for the exploration of new initiatives, as well as the expansion of already successful programs. A comprehensive strategic planning effort has involved all Nebraska representative entities and has guided Nebraska Space Grant through the evaluation period, providing a basis for continual advancement. Nebraska rigorously employs evaluation techniques to ensure that stated outcomes and metrics are achieved and that weaknesses are identified and corrected. With this coordinated approach, Nebraska expects that the next 5 years will yield new opportunities for significant achievement. Nebraska Space Grant will embrace new national endeavors, including the integration of Pender Public Schools -Nebraska s NASA Explorer School, geospatial initiatives, and the National Student Satellite Program.

  5. Employing low-temperature barriers to achieve strain-relaxed and high-performance GaN-based LEDs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhiting; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Wenliang; Lin, Yunhao; Yang, Meijuan; Chen, Shuqi; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-05-30

    The epitaxial structure design of low-temperature barriers has been adopted to promote strain relaxation in multiple quantum well (MQWs) and achieve high-efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With these barriers, the relaxation value of wells increases from 0 to 4.59%. The strain-relaxed mechanism of low-temperature barriers is also discussed. The LED chip with the barriers grown at the TMIn flow of 75 sccm and the growth temperature of 830 °C has an optimal strain relaxation value of 1.53% in wells, and exhibits the largest light output power of 63.83 mW at the injection current of 65 mA, which is higher than that of conventional LED (51.89 mW) by 23%. In-depth studies reveal that the optimal low-temperature barriers remarkably promote the strain relaxation in wells without forming large density of crystalline defects. This achievement of high-efficiency LEDs sheds light on the future solid-state lighting applications. PMID:27410111

  6. Final LDRD report : science-based solutions to achieve high-performance deep-UV laser diodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Alessi, Leonard J.; Smith, Michael L.; Henry, Tanya A.; Westlake, Karl R.; Cross, Karen Charlene; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Lee, Stephen Roger

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that has focused on overcoming major materials roadblocks to achieving AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes. We describe our growth approach to achieving AlGaN templates with greater than ten times reduction of threading dislocations which resulted in greater than seven times enhancement of AlGaN quantum well photoluminescence and 15 times increase in electroluminescence from LED test structures. We describe the application of deep-level optical spectroscopy to AlGaN epilayers to quantify deep level energies and densities and further correlate defect properties with AlGaN luminescence efficiency. We further review our development of p-type short period superlattice structures as an approach to mitigate the high acceptor activation energies in AlGaN alloys. Finally, we describe our laser diode fabrication process, highlighting the development of highly vertical and smooth etched laser facets, as well as characterization of resulting laser heterostructures.

  7. Both Patient and Facility Contribute to Achieving the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Pay-for-Performance Target for Dialysis Adequacy

    PubMed Central

    Tighiouart, Hocine; Meyer, Klemens B.; Miskulin, Dana C.

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) designated the achieved urea reduction ratio (URR) as a pay-for-performance measure, but to what extent this measure reflects patient characteristics and adherence instead of its intent to reflect facility performance is unknown. Here, we quantified the contributions of patient case-mix and adherence to the variability in achieving URR targets across dialysis facilities. We found that 92% of 10,069 hemodialysis patients treated at 173 facilities during the last quarter of 2004 achieved the target URR ≥65%. Mixed-effect models with random intercept for dialysis facility revealed a significant facility effect: 11.5% of the variation in achievement of target URR was attributable to the facility level. Adjusting for patient case-mix reduced the proportion of variation attributable to the facility level to 6.7%. Patient gender, body surface area, dialysis access, and adherence with treatment strongly associated with achievement of the URR target. We could not identify specific facility characteristics that explained the remaining variation between facilities. These data suggest that if adherence is not a modifiable patient characteristic, providers could be unfairly penalized for caring for these patients under current CMS policy. These penalties may have unintended consequences. PMID:22025629

  8. Both patient and facility contribute to achieving the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' pay-for-performance target for dialysis adequacy.

    PubMed

    Tangri, Navdeep; Tighiouart, Hocine; Meyer, Klemens B; Miskulin, Dana C

    2011-12-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) designated the achieved urea reduction ratio (URR) as a pay-for-performance measure, but to what extent this measure reflects patient characteristics and adherence instead of its intent to reflect facility performance is unknown. Here, we quantified the contributions of patient case-mix and adherence to the variability in achieving URR targets across dialysis facilities. We found that 92% of 10,069 hemodialysis patients treated at 173 facilities during the last quarter of 2004 achieved the target URR ≥65%. Mixed-effect models with random intercept for dialysis facility revealed a significant facility effect: 11.5% of the variation in achievement of target URR was attributable to the facility level. Adjusting for patient case-mix reduced the proportion of variation attributable to the facility level to 6.7%. Patient gender, body surface area, dialysis access, and adherence with treatment strongly associated with achievement of the URR target. We could not identify specific facility characteristics that explained the remaining variation between facilities. These data suggest that if adherence is not a modifiable patient characteristic, providers could be unfairly penalized for caring for these patients under current CMS policy. These penalties may have unintended consequences.

  9. How can we achieve and maintain high-quality performance of health workers in low-resource settings?

    PubMed

    Rowe, Alexander K; de Savigny, Don; Lanata, Claudio F; Victora, Cesar G

    In low and middle income countries, health workers are essential for the delivery of health interventions. However, inadequate health-worker performance is a very widespread problem. We present an overview of issues and evidence about the determinants of performance and strategies for improving it. Health-worker practices are complex behaviours that have many potential influences. Reviews of intervention studies in low and middle income countries suggest that the simple dissemination of written guidelines is often ineffective, that supervision and audit with feedback is generally effective, and that multifaceted interventions might be more effective than single interventions. Few interventions have been evaluated with rigorous cost-effectiveness trials, and such studies are urgently needed to guide policy. We propose an international collaborative research agenda to generate knowledge about the true determinants of performance and about the effectiveness of strategies to improve performance. Furthermore, we recommend that ministries of health and international organisations should actively help translate research findings into action to improve health-worker performance, and thereby improve health.

  10. Optimizing Performance on Linux Clusters Using Advanced Communication Protocols: Achieving Over 10 Teraflops on a 8.6 Teraflops Linpack-Rated Linux Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2005-04-26

    Advancements in high-performance networks (Quadrics, Infiniband or Myrinet) continue to improve the efficiency of modern clusters. However, the average application efficiency is as small fraction of the peak as the system’s efficiency. This paper describes techniques for optimizing application performance on Linux clusters using Remote Memory Access communication protocols. The effectiveness of these optimizations is presented in the context of an application kernel, dense matrix multiplication. The result was achieving over 10 teraflops on HP Linux cluster on which LINPACK performance is measured as 8.6 teraflops.

  11. 50% duty cycle may be inappropriate to achieve a sufficient chest compression depth when cardiopulmonary resuscitation is performed by female or light rescuers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Jae; Chung, Tae Nyoung; Bae, Jinkun; Kim, Eui Chung; Choi, Sung Wook; Kim, Ok Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Current guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend chest compressions (CC) during 50% of the duty cycle (DC) in part because of the ease with which individuals may learn to achieve it with practice. However, no consideration has been given to a possible interaction between DC and depth of CC, which has been the subject of recent study. Our aim was to determine if 50% DC is inappropriate to achieve sufficient chest compression depth for female and light rescuers. Methods Previously collected CC data, performed by senior medical students guided by metronome sounds with various down-stroke patterns and rates, were included in the analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the association between average compression depth (ACD) with average compression rate (ACR), DC, and physical characteristics of the performers. Expected ACD was calculated for various settings. Results DC, ACR, body weight, male sex, and self-assessed physical strength were significantly associated with ACD in multivariate analysis. Based on our calculations, with 50% of DC, only men with ACR of 140/min or faster or body weight over 74 kg with ACR of 120/min can achieve sufficient ACD. Conclusion A shorter DC is independently correlated with deeper CC during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The optimal DC recommended in current guidelines may be inappropriate for achieving sufficient CD, especially for female or lighter-weight rescuers.

  12. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research.

    PubMed

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies. PMID:27610072

  13. Technology for monitoring shot-level light source performance data to achieve high-optimization of lithography processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Masato; Ochiai, Hideyuki; Watabe, Yoshinobu; Ishida, Keisuke; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Youichi; Kumazaki, Takahito; Kurosu, Akihiko; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakizaki, Kouji; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2014-03-01

    Gigaphoton has developed a new monitoring system that provides shot-level light source performance data to FDC systems during exposure time. The system provides basic monitoring data (e.g. Energy, Wavelength, Bandwidth, etc.) and beam performance data, such as Beam Profile, Pointing, Divergence, Polarization can also be monitored using a new metrology tool called the Beam Performance Monitor (BPM) module. During exposure time the system automatically identifies the start and end timing of the wafer and each shot based on the burst of firing signals from the scanner, and stores the measured data in sequence. The stored data is sorted by wafer or by shot, and sent to REDeeM Piece which in turn converts the data to the user's protocol and send it to the FDC system. The user also has the option to directly view or download the stored data using a GUI. Through this monitoring system, users can manage light sources data at the shot or reticle level to facilitate optimization of performance and running cost of the light source for each process. This monitoring system can be easily retrofitted to Gigaphoton's current ArF laser light sources. The beam splitter of the BPM was specially designed to bend only a small fraction of the source beam, so we are able to simply install the BPM without the need for special optical alignment.

  14. A Descriptive-Comparative Study of Teacher Performance Evaluation on Student Achievement in a Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, William Howard

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the federal government increased accountability expectations by placing more emphasis on monitoring teacher performance. Using a model that focuses on the New York State teacher evaluation system, that is comprised of a rubric for observation, local student assessment scores, and student state assessment scores, this…

  15. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research

    PubMed Central

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies. PMID:27610072

  16. Failure Is Not an Option (TM). Six Principles That Guide Student Achievement in High-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankstein, Alan M.

    2004-01-01

    The author builds upon a foundation which identifies courageous school leadership and the professional learning community as the center of effective school reform. The author offers six guiding principles steps for creating and sustaining a high-performing school: (1) Common mission, vision, values, and goals: (2) Systems for prevention and…

  17. The Influence of Parenting Styles, Achievement Motivation, and Self-Efficacy on Academic Performance in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Erlanger A.; Chandler, Megan; Heffer, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting styles have consistently been shown to relate to various outcomes such as youth psychopathology, behavior problems, and academic performance. Building on the research in the parenting style literature, along with examining components of self-determination theory, the present study examined the relations among authoritative parenting…

  18. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research

    PubMed Central

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies.

  19. Substantial Improvements in Performance Indicators Achieved in a Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Cryopreservation Quality Assurance Program Using Single Donor Samples▿

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Wayne B.; Pett, Sarah L.; Sullivan, John S.; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A.; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Lloyd, Andrew; Lewin, Sharon R.

    2007-01-01

    Storage of high-quality cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is often a requirement for multicenter clinical trials and requires a reproducibly high standard of practice. A quality assurance program (QAP) was established to assess an Australia-wide network of laboratories in the provision of high-quality PBMC (determined by yield, viability, and function), using blood taken from single donors (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and HIV negative) and shipped to each site for preparation and cryopreservation of PBMC. The aim of the QAP was to provide laboratory accreditation for participation in clinical trials and cohort studies which require preparation and cryopreservation of PBMC and to assist all laboratories to prepare PBMC with a viability of >80% and yield of >50% following thawing. Many laboratories failed to reach this standard on the initial QAP round. Interventions to improve performance included telephone interviews with the staff at each laboratory, two annual wet workshops, and direct access to a senior scientist to discuss performance following each QAP round. Performance improved substantially in the majority of sites that initially failed the QAP (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001 for viability and yield, respectively). In a minority of laboratories, there was no improvement (n = 2), while a high standard was retained at the laboratories that commenced with adequate performance (n = 3). These findings demonstrate that simple interventions and monitoring of PBMC preparation and cryopreservation from multiple laboratories can significantly improve performance and contribute to maintenance of a network of laboratories accredited for quality PBMC fractionation and cryopreservation. PMID:17050740

  20. Engineering reverse saturable absorbers for desired wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, Yehuda B.; Scharf, Benjamin

    1986-06-01

    A variety of applications exist for reverse saturable absorbers (RSAs) in laser science (RSAs are substances whose excited-state absorption cross section is larger than their ground-state absorption cross section at a given wavelength and possess a number of other properties). We propose an approach to designing RSAs at a desired wavelength by construction of dimers of dye molecules which absorb near the wavelength of interest. The dimer ground-state absorption is to a state in which the excitation is spread over both monomeric units and the excited-state absorption commences from this state to the doubly excited electronic state in which both monomeric units are excited.

  1. [Geriatric homes: a non desired "good"].

    PubMed

    Jaques, Maria Ermelinda Miranda Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    The great problems which affect old people on this beginning of the XXI century, are not limited to illness. The morbid processes have other causes associated with them:forgetfulness, loneliness, insecurity and, specially, the lack of trust on the actual socio-political structures. This reflection treats the data collected from afield work developed in the city of Viana do Castelo, and the results show that the old people are now living alone, in precarious socio-relational conditions and with few resources to face their needs. The desired proximity with and by the citizen, at all levels, faces the distance and misconception of the supporting structures at the moment. PMID:17703850

  2. Parenting desires among bisexual women and lesbians.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S R; Smith, E M; Guenther, S M

    1987-03-01

    Parenting desires were ascertained among a large group of lesbians (n = 1,921) and bisexual women (n = 424) recruited in a nonclinical setting. More than 50% of each sexual-orientation group had considered having a child since recognizing their current sexual identity. Lesbians were more likely than bisexuals to favor adoption and donor insemination as options, whereas bisexuals were more likely to consider intercourse with either a cooperative or unsuspecting man. Overall, however, 47 women (2%) reported success in obtaining a child through one of these options.

  3. Clinical service desires of medical cannabis patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical cannabis dispensaries following the social or hybrid model offer supplementary holistic services in addition to dispensing medical cannabis. Historically, alternative physical health services have been the norm for these dispensaries, including services such as yoga, acupuncture, or chiropractor visits. A clinical service dearth remains for medical cannabis patients seeking substance use, misuse, dependence, and mental health services. This study examined patient desires for various clinical services and level of willingness to participate in specific clinical services. Methods Anonymous survey data (N = 303) were collected at Harborside Health Center (HHC), a medical cannabis dispensary in Oakland, CA. The sample was 70% male, 48% Caucasian and 21% African American. The mean male age was 38 years old and female mean age was 30. Sixty two percent of the male participants and 44% of the female participants are single. Sixteen percent of the population reported having a domestic partner. Forty six percent of the participants are employed full time, 41% have completed at least some college, and 49% make less than $40,000 a year. Results A significant portion of the sample, 62%, indicated a desire to participate in free clinical services at HHC, 34% would like more information about substances and use, and 41% want to learn more about reducing harms from substance use. About one quarter of the participants marked "would" or "likely would" participate in individual services such as consultation. Approximately 20% indicated "would" or "likely would" participate in psycho-educational forums, harm reduction information sharing sessions, online support groups, and coping, life, and social skills group. There was little interest in traditional NA/AA 12-step groups or adapted 12-step groups. Conclusions Desired clinical services can be qualified as a combination of harm reduction, educational, skills-based, peer support and therapeutic individual and group

  4. Inverse modeling of surface-water discharge to achieve restoration salinity performance measures in Florida Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, E.D.; James, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of numerical modeling to evaluate regional water-management practices involves the simulation of various alternative water-delivery scenarios, which typically are designed intuitively rather than analytically. These scenario simulations are used to analyze how specific water-management practices affect factors such as water levels, flows, and salinities. In lieu of testing a variety of scenario simulations in a trial-and-error manner, an optimization technique may be used to more precisely and directly define good water-management alternatives. A numerical model application in the coastal regions of Florida Bay and Everglades National Park (ENP), representing the surface- and ground-water hydrology for the region, is a good example of a tool used to evaluate restoration scenarios. The Southern Inland and Coastal System (SICS) model simulates this area with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic surface-water model and a three-dimensional ground-water model, linked to represent the interaction of the two systems with salinity transport. This coastal wetland environment is of great interest in restoration efforts, and the SICS model is used to analyze the effects of alternative water-management scenarios. The SICS model is run within an inverse modeling program called UCODE. In this application, UCODE adjusts the regulated inflows to ENP while SICS is run iteratively. UCODE creates parameters that define inflow within an allowable range for the SICS model based on SICS model output statistics, with the objective of matching user-defined target salinities that meet ecosystem restoration criteria. Preliminary results obtained using two different parameterization methods illustrate the ability of the model to achieve the goals of adjusting the range and reducing the variance of salinity values in the target area. The salinity variance in the primary zone of interest was reduced from an original value of 0.509 psu2 to values 0.418 psu2 and 0.342 psu2 using different

  5. Some Suggested Techniques for Achieving Required Main Ring Low Level RF Performance for the Tevatron I Program

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.E.; MacLachlan, J.

    1984-05-01

    These techniques are derived from experience with the existing low level rf system and from the results of accelerator experiments directed at the Tev I requirements which were performed using a specially modified low level rf system. The techniques suggested here are not necessarily unique and other techniques may be acceptable. It is important to realize that certain performance requirements on the Booster and Main Ring are substantially different in the Tev I program from those which have been acceptable in the fixed target program. For example, the longitudinal emittance of the bunches has been routinely and intentionally blown up by the 'bunch spreader' during acceleration to improve the smoothness of the spill. In the Tev I case, the 'bunch narrowing' procedure preceding {bar p} production and in bunch coalescing is facilitated by maintaining the smallest possible longitudinal emittance (i.e. the largest possible longitudinal phase space density). Also, during fixed target physics the Main Ring is essentially full (i.e. approx. 1090 of 1113 buckets occupied) so transient beam loading of the rf system is negligible except during injection, whereas for {bar p} production a single high intensity Booster batch (approx. 83 bunches) is to be accelerated causing substantial transient beam induced phase shift of the rf voltage during each passage. The low level phase and position error signals are normally derived from an essentially full ring during fixed target operation whereas in the Tev I program the systems must perform adequately with as few as ten adjacent buckets occupied. Because of the differences in emphasis between fixed target operation and Tevatron I operation is seems sensible to use separate low level rf systems for these two modes of operation. If a single low level system were to be used for both modes of operation some compromises may be necessary which might cause performance in either mode to be less than adequate. Because of the severe demands

  6. Fighting desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Michael

    2002-01-01

    "Fighting Desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic" is an investigation of Tropic of Cancer that investigates the deeply repressed homoerotic desire that periodically surfaces. This reading is dependent upon an interpretation of Eve Sedgwick that proposes male sexuality as a continuum. By looking at the nature of the male-male relationships, as well as the lack of emotion and presence in the male-female relationships, I will show that the most intimate relationships are between men, and that these relationships are expressed through the telling of stories about (heterosexual) sex; this is the function of women within the novel: one has sex with a woman, not for the pleasure that the act brings, but for the pleasure that the recounting of the story to other men brings. Furthermore, I will look at Miller's use of puns within the novel and how they also contribute to a homoerotic reading. None of this is to argue that Miller was not homophobic and sexist--Miller very clearly was--the purpose of this essay is to show the complex nature of sexuality, even within a protagonist who asserts a very defined heterosexuality.

  7. Effects of heat exposure and 3% dehydration achieved via hot water immersion on repeated cycle sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Justin A; Green, James M; Bishop, Phillip A; Richardson, Mark T; Neggers, Yasmin H; Leeper, James D

    2011-03-01

    This study examined effects of heat exposure with and without dehydration on repeated anaerobic cycling. Males (n = 10) completed 3 trials: control (CT), water-bath heat exposure (∼39°C) to 3% dehydration (with fluid replacement) (HE), and similar heat exposure to 3% dehydration (DEHY). Hematocrit increased significantly from pre to postheat immersion in both HE and DEHY. Participants performed 6 × 15s cycle sprints (30s active recovery). Mean Power (MP) was significantly lower vs. CT (596 ± 66 W) for DEHY (569 ± 72 W), and the difference approached significance for HE (582 ± 76 W, p = 0.07). Peak Power (PP) was significantly lower vs. CT (900 ± 117 W) for HE (870 ± 128 W) and approached significance for DEHY (857 ± 145 W, p = 0.07). Postsprint ratings of perceived exertion was higher during DEHY (6.4 ± 2.0) and HE (6.3 ± 1.6) than CT (5.7 ± 2.1). Combined heat and dehydration impaired MP and PP (decrements greatest in later bouts) with HE performance intermediate to CT and DEHY.

  8. Control-value theory: using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64.

    PubMed

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the emergent theoretical and empirical work on human emotion and how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. In the Guide, we define emotion, in general, and achievement emotions, more specifically. We describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), and we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal antecedents, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance. Next, we review the empirical support for control-value theory from non-medical fields and suggest several important implications for educational practice. In this section, we highlight the importance of designing learning environments that foster a high degree of control and value for students. Finally, we end with a discussion of the need for more research on achievement emotions in medical education, and we propose several key research questions we believe will facilitate our understanding of achievement emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  9. Serendipity or Pseudoserendipity? Unexpected versus Desired Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    1995-01-01

    Serendipity and pseudoserendipity in scientific discovery are distinguished with examples. True serendipity is seen to involve purely accidental discovery of things not sought, whereas pseudoserendipity involves accidental discoveries of ways to achieve an end that was sought. (DB)

  10. The Development and Testing of Laboratory Performance Tasks for the Assessment of Achievement in High School Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boorman, Joan Marie

    The quest to stem "the rising tide of mediocrity" described in A Nation at Risk has prompted a myriad of changes in secondary science instruction. Appropriate assessments of these changes in curriculum are crucial to a meaningful evaluation of their effectiveness. Because the nature of many of the improvements has been to engage students in higher order thinking skills, simple paper and pencil tests are often inconclusive evaluation measures. Research has shown a more definitive assessment of a student's ability to apply higher order thinking skills is possible with tests of performance in problem-solving tasks in a science laboratory. The Physics Laboratory Skills Test (PLST) was developed as a prototype assessment instrument for evaluation of student ability to perform a range of process skills in the high school physics laboratory setting. The PLST included seven different items based on topics presented in a typical high school physics course. Each item constituted a separate laboratory performance test and was completed by individual students in a 40 minute class period. A sample of 219 physics students from rural, urban, public, and private schools in NY and PA were tested with the PLST in May 1990. Results of this study show that the PLST has usability, validity, and reliability as an assessment of basic skills (measuring and reporting) and higher order skills (planning and analysis). Participating teachers determined the PLST to be an appropriate and useful tool in evaluating individual student abilities. Content validity was established via evaluation by 'expert' high school physics teachers. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to verify construct validity (r =.49) and inter-rater reliability (r =.81). The Cronbach Coefficient Alpha, which was used to determine internal consistency of each item, yielded strong positive results for the PLST. The outcomes of this study will be of particular interest to curriculum developers and classroom teachers

  11. Flibanserin for Treating Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Jae Hong; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    There have been several products developed for male sexual dysfunction. However, developing agents for female sexual dysfunction is lagging behind for various reasons. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and Tadalafil (Cialis), which have been prescribed for male sexual function disorders, are known to act on vessels.[1] On the other hand, flibanserin is thought to act on brain. Flibanserin has been approved by U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) of premenopausal women in 2015, and is expected to be released in South Korea soon. Authors wrote this article to acknowledge flibanserin to sexologists for females or physicians for menopausal medicine, so that this agent can be safely used for females who have HSDD. PMID:27152308

  12. Substituting telecommunications for travel - Feasible or desirable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Vleck, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in telecommunications and examines the detailed structure of travel to estimate the feasibility of substituting telecommunications for various travel objectives. The impact of travel is analyzed from a social, economic, energy, and pollution standpoint to assess the desirability of substitution. Perhaps 35-50% of the nation's travel could, in theory, be replaced by very advanced telecommunications (such as a much improved large-screen teleconferencing network), but public resistance would be massive. Much economic dislocation would result since, for example, over 25% of retail sales are travel-related. The energy savings would be modest since only 25% of the nation's energy is consumed by transportation. However, all pollution would be reduced substantially since transportation accounts for 75% of the carbon monoxide, 60% of the hydrocarbon, and 55% of the nitrogen oxide pollution in the nation. Problems related to the implementation of large-scale substitution are discussed.

  13. Flibanserin for Treating Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jae Hong; Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Soo Ah

    2016-04-01

    There have been several products developed for male sexual dysfunction. However, developing agents for female sexual dysfunction is lagging behind for various reasons. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and Tadalafil (Cialis), which have been prescribed for male sexual function disorders, are known to act on vessels.[1] On the other hand, flibanserin is thought to act on brain. Flibanserin has been approved by U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) of premenopausal women in 2015, and is expected to be released in South Korea soon. Authors wrote this article to acknowledge flibanserin to sexologists for females or physicians for menopausal medicine, so that this agent can be safely used for females who have HSDD. PMID:27152308

  14. The Circle of Female Sexual Desire-Have We Come a Long Way?

    PubMed

    Katz, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the release of sildenafil (Viagra) two decades ago to treat erectile dysfunction in men, there has been a conversation around whether there is a need for a "female Viagra." Last year's release of flibanserin (Addyi) was hailed by some as an achievement in women's sexual health. But how effective is this drug in affecting women's sexual desire? And are the things being labeled as women's sexual desire problems really problems to be fixed with a drug? PMID:27287350

  15. Strategies to optimize lithium-ion supercapacitors achieving high-performance: Cathode configurations, lithium loadings on anode, and types of separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wanjun; Li, Yangxing; Fitch, Brian; Shih, Jonathan; Doung, Tien; Zheng, Jim

    2014-12-01

    The Li-ion capacitor (LIC) is composed of a lithium-doped carbon anode and an activated carbon cathode, which is a half Li-ion battery (LIB) and a half electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). LICs can achieve much more energy density than EDLC without sacrificing the high power performance advantage of capacitors over batteries. LIC pouch cells were assembled using activated carbon (AC) cathode and hard carbon (HC) + stabilized lithium metal power (SLMP®) anode. Different cathode configurations, various SLMP loadings on HC anode, and two types of separators were investigated to achieve the optimal electrochemical performance of the LIC. Firstly, the cathode binders study suggests that the PTFE binder offers improved energy and power performances for LIC in comparison to PVDF. Secondly, the mass ratio of SLMP to HC is at 1:7 to obtain the optimized electrochemical performance for LIC among all the various studied mass ratios between lithium loading amounts and active anode material. Finally, compared to the separator Celgard PP 3501, cellulose based TF40-30 is proven to be a preferred separator for LIC.

  16. The Desire for Structure: A Deconstructive Analysis of "Desire under the Elms."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joel K.; Bowman, Michael S.

    A brief reading of "Desire under the Elms" by Eugene O'Neill illustrates how a conventional Oedipal reading of the playscript opens up spaces within the text for deconstructive free-play. In this case, a tension is identified and foregrounded between this conventional application of the Oedipal complex and Freud's interpretation of the Oedipal…

  17. Effects of Sexual Experience on Dating Desirability and Marriage Desirability: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istvan, Joseph; Griffitt, William

    1980-01-01

    Inexperienced men and both inexperienced and moderately experienced women rated highly experienced opposite-sex peers as less desirable dates and marriage partners. Moderately and highly experienced men and highly experienced women tended to rate all opposite-sex peers similarly along these same dimensions. (Author)

  18. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Presentación, M Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers' performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents' and teachers' ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  19. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Presentación, M. Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers’ performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents’ and teachers’ ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25972833

  20. Nameless desire: alexithymia and the anorexic patient.

    PubMed

    Petterson, Regina

    2004-03-01

    In this article, the author attempts to provide a psychoanalytic understanding of the anorexic patient who is disconnected from her affective experience and is considered to be alexithymic. Through her restrictive food ritual, this type of patient may organize her internal states by repeatedly creating an illusion of what it is that she needs and desires. The author asserts that the task of the therapist working with the anorexic patient with alexithymia is to be aware of his own sensation-based reverie as lived within the intersubjective arena. This will enable the therapist to assist the patient in building an affective vocabulary to accurately identify, differentiate, and label the internal signals of her body. It is suggested that the subjective emotional experience of the patient will continue to be reorganized, expanded, and enriched as the therapist and patient mutually influence one another in this unique relational matrix. A clinical vignette is provided to illustrate intersubjective treatment interventions with a difficult-to-reach anorexic patient.

  1. Getting to Outcomes: A Best Practice Process to Help Schools Achieve Desired Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Melissa A.; Wandersman, Abe; Splett, Joni Williams; Flaspohler, Paul; Weist, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Getting to Outcomes (GTO), a 10-step framework for accountability designed to facilitate effective implementation of evidence-based programs and improvement of home-grown practices (Getting to Outcomes and GTO are trademarks registered by the University of South Carolina and RAND; Wandersman, Imm, Chinman, & Kaftarian, 1999,…

  2. Designing Discussion Activities to Achieve Desired Learning Outcomes: Choices Using Mode of Delivery and Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sautter, Pookie

    2007-01-01

    The article provides insights on how the design of discussion activities can be used to facilitate alternative learning objectives in the marketing curriculum. A review of the literature provides insight for making choices with regards to two aspects of discussion design: (a) the choice between face-to-face and online (i.e., threaded bulletin…

  3. Achieving Safety: Safer Sex, Communication, and Desire among Young Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, José; Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily; Santana, Matthew Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, we explore the ways in which conceptualizations and definitions of safer sex are discussed and enacted. Placing attention on their safer sex practices, we analyze the conversations that do and do not occur among YGM and their partners, including the strategies (e.g., negotiated safety, condom communication and negotiation) that are commonly perceived as most useful by YGM. We provide recommendations regarding how to craft safer sex messages for YGM by considering their competing demands. PMID:21894239

  4. Achieving Safety: Safer Sex, Communication, and Desire among Young Gay Men.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, José; Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily; Santana, Matthew Leslie

    2011-09-01

    Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, we explore the ways in which conceptualizations and definitions of safer sex are discussed and enacted. Placing attention on their safer sex practices, we analyze the conversations that do and do not occur among YGM and their partners, including the strategies (e.g., negotiated safety, condom communication and negotiation) that are commonly perceived as most useful by YGM. We provide recommendations regarding how to craft safer sex messages for YGM by considering their competing demands. PMID:21894239

  5. Achieving Safety: Safer Sex, Communication, and Desire among Young Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Pingel, Emily; Johns, Michelle Marie; Santana, Matthew Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, the authors explore the ways in which conceptualizations and…

  6. The Role of Lithium Conditioning in Achieving High Performance, Long Pulse H-mode Discharges in the NSTX and EAST Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Maingi, Rajesh; Mansfield, D. K.; Gong, X. Z.; Sun, Z.; Bell, M. G.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, the role of lithium wall conditioning on the achievement of high performance, long pulse discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is documented. Common observations include recycling reduction and elimination of ELMs. In NSTX, lithium conditioning typically resulted in ELM-free operation with impurity accumulation, which was ameliorated e.g. with pulsed 3D fields to trigger controlled ELMs. Active lithium conditioning in EAST discharges has overcome this problem, producing an ELM-free Hmode with controlled density and impurities.

  7. Unravelling the correlation between the aspect ratio of nanotubular structures and their electrochemical performance to achieve high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yanyan; Deng, Jiyang; Qi, Dianpeng; Leow, Wan Ru; Wei, Jiaqi; Yin, Shengyan; Dong, Zhili; Yazami, Rachid; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-12-01

    The fundamental understanding of the relationship between the nanostructure of an electrode and its electrochemical performance is crucial for achieving high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, the relationship between the nanotubular aspect ratio and electrochemical performance of LIBs is elucidated for the first time. The stirring hydrothermal method was used to control the aspect ratio of viscous titanate nanotubes, which were used to fabricate additive-free TiO2 -based electrode materials. We found that the battery performance at high charging/discharging rates is dramatically boosted when the aspect ratio is increased, due to the optimization of electronic/ionic transport properties within the electrode materials. The proof-of-concept LIBs comprising nanotubes with an aspect ratio of 265 can retain more than 86 % of their initial capacity over 6000 cycles at a high rate of 30 C. Such devices with supercapacitor-like rate performance and battery-like capacity herald a new paradigm for energy storage systems.

  8. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on completion of Phase I and Phase II activities. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. During this reporting period, optimization tests were performed to evaluate system performance and identify optimum operating conditions for the installed equipment. The overfire air system process design activities and preliminary engineering design were completed.

  9. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on Phase I and Phase II activities. The furnace sensors were procured and installed in February 2003. Baseline testing was performed following the sensor installation. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. Process design activities were performed to support design of the equipment installed and to develop specifications for the overfire air system. The overfire air system preliminary engineering design was initiated.

  10. The Classroom Performance System (CPS): Effects on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural anatomy and physiology classes at South Texas College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2011-12-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology tool that increases student performance and addresses different learning styles. Instructional technologies are used to promote active learning; however, student embarrassment issue in a multicultural setting is not addressed. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes at South Texas College, where the first spoken language is not English. Quantitative method and quasi-experimental design were employed and comparative statistic methods and pre-post tests were used to collect the data. Participants were college students and sections of study were selected by convenient sampling. Participation was 100% during most of the lectures held and participation rate did not strike above 68% in control group. Attendance was significantly higher in CPS sections than the control group as shown by t-tests. Experimental sections had a higher increase in the pre-post test scores and student averages on lecture exams increased at a higher rate as compared to the control group. Therefore, the CPS increased student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural anatomy and physiology classes. The CPS can be studied in other settings where the first spoken language is English or in other programs, such as special education programs. Additionally, other variables can be studied and other methodologies can be employed.

  11. Academic Momentum at University/College: Exploring the Roles of Prior Learning, Life Experience, and Ongoing Performance in Academic Achievement across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Wilson, Rachel; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Ginns, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the context of "academic momentum," a longitudinal study of university students (N = 904) showed high school achievement and ongoing university achievement predicted subsequent achievement through university. However, the impact of high school achievement diminished, while additive effects of ongoing university achievement continued.…

  12. Great achievements by dedicated nurses.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Alison

    2016-04-27

    Like many nurses, those featured here are motivated by a desire to do everything they can to give high quality care to their patients. Nurses are often reluctant to seek recognition for their achievements, but by talking publicly about the difference they have made, Gillian Elwood, Anja Templin and Sandra Wood are helping to share good practice. PMID:27191295

  13. Design of PI controllers for achieving time and frequency domain specifications simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Hamamci, Serdar Ethem; Tan, Nusret

    2006-10-01

    This paper deals with the design of PI controllers which achieve the desired frequency and time domain specifications simultaneously. A systematic method, which is effective and simple to apply, is proposed. The required values of the frequency domain performance measures namely the gain and phase margins and the time domain performance measures such as settling time and overshoot are defined prior to the design. Then, to meet these desired performance values, a method which presents a graphical relation between the required performance values and the parameters of the PI controller is given. Thus, a set of PI controllers which attain desired performances can be found using the graphical relations. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the benefits of the method presented.

  14. Beyond ‘MSM’: Sexual Desire Among Bisexually-Active Latino Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Latino male bisexuality has been studied for the most part with a focus on men who have sex with men (MSM) and with little attention to sexual desire. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive understanding of how sexual desire is organized, enacted through sexual activity, and interpreted in the sexual lives of bisexually-active Latino men. To achieve this aim, an analysis was made of 18 sexual histories of bisexually active Latino men who participated in a two-year ethnographic study. Four configurations of sexual desire were constructed to reflect what was found in this population of bisexually-active Latino men: (a) lifetime homoerotic desire and casual sex with women; (b) lifetime heteroerotic desire, but commercial sex with men; (c) lifetime heteroerotic/transgender desire; (d) lifetime sexual desire for women and men. These configurations are explored in detail in this article. The analysis presented here is intended to offer insights into the overall study of Latino male bisexuality and into the foundations for the design of HIV and STI prevention programs directed toward bisexually-active Latino men and their partners. PMID:26412977

  15. Achieving extremely concentrated aqueous dispersions of graphene flakes and catalytically efficient graphene-metal nanoparticle hybrids with flavin mononucleotide as a high-performance stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Ayán-Varela, M; Paredes, J I; Guardia, L; Villar-Rodil, S; Munuera, J M; Díaz-González, M; Fernández-Sánchez, C; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2015-05-20

    The stable dispersion of graphene flakes in an aqueous medium is highly desirable for the development of materials based on this two-dimensional carbon structure, but current production protocols that make use of a number of surfactants typically suffer from limitations regarding graphene concentration or the amount of surfactant required to colloidally stabilize the sheets. Here, we demonstrate that an innocuous and readily available derivative of vitamin B2, namely the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide (FMNS), is a highly efficient dispersant in the preparation of aqueous dispersions of defect-free, few-layer graphene flakes. Most notably, graphene concentrations in water as high as ∼50 mg mL(-1) using low amounts of FMNS (FMNS/graphene mass ratios of about 0.04) could be attained, which facilitated the formation of free-standing graphene films displaying high electrical conductivity (∼52000 S m(-1)) without the need of carrying out thermal annealing or other types of post-treatment. The excellent performance of FMNS as a graphene dispersant could be attributed to the combined effect of strong adsorption on the sheets through the isoalloxazine moiety of the molecule and efficient colloidal stabilization provided by its negatively charged phosphate group. The FMNS-stabilized graphene sheets could be decorated with nanoparticles of several noble metals (Ag, Pd, and Pt), and the resulting hybrids exhibited a high catalytic activity in the reduction of nitroarenes and electroreduction of oxygen. Overall, the present results should expedite the processing and implementation of graphene in, e.g., conductive inks, composites, and hybrid materials with practical utility in a wide range of applications. PMID:25915172

  16. Achieving extremely concentrated aqueous dispersions of graphene flakes and catalytically efficient graphene-metal nanoparticle hybrids with flavin mononucleotide as a high-performance stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Ayán-Varela, M; Paredes, J I; Guardia, L; Villar-Rodil, S; Munuera, J M; Díaz-González, M; Fernández-Sánchez, C; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2015-05-20

    The stable dispersion of graphene flakes in an aqueous medium is highly desirable for the development of materials based on this two-dimensional carbon structure, but current production protocols that make use of a number of surfactants typically suffer from limitations regarding graphene concentration or the amount of surfactant required to colloidally stabilize the sheets. Here, we demonstrate that an innocuous and readily available derivative of vitamin B2, namely the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide (FMNS), is a highly efficient dispersant in the preparation of aqueous dispersions of defect-free, few-layer graphene flakes. Most notably, graphene concentrations in water as high as ∼50 mg mL(-1) using low amounts of FMNS (FMNS/graphene mass ratios of about 0.04) could be attained, which facilitated the formation of free-standing graphene films displaying high electrical conductivity (∼52000 S m(-1)) without the need of carrying out thermal annealing or other types of post-treatment. The excellent performance of FMNS as a graphene dispersant could be attributed to the combined effect of strong adsorption on the sheets through the isoalloxazine moiety of the molecule and efficient colloidal stabilization provided by its negatively charged phosphate group. The FMNS-stabilized graphene sheets could be decorated with nanoparticles of several noble metals (Ag, Pd, and Pt), and the resulting hybrids exhibited a high catalytic activity in the reduction of nitroarenes and electroreduction of oxygen. Overall, the present results should expedite the processing and implementation of graphene in, e.g., conductive inks, composites, and hybrid materials with practical utility in a wide range of applications.

  17. Girls' Portraits of Desire: Picturing a Missing Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits the missing discourse of female desire [Fine, M. 1988. Sexuality, schooling and adolescent females: The missing discourse of desire. "Harvard Educational Review" 58, no. 1: 29-53] in secondary schools. Instead of echoing previous studies that have documented how female desire is missing, this research starts from the premise…

  18. A Contrapuntal Analysis of Discourses of Desire in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Implicated in contributing to the problems youth today face in trying to claim an education, an informed active participation in the social order, dominant discourses of desire in education foreclose formal, critical analysis of social structures that construct, police, entreat, and deny desire. Looking at the ways in which desire is encoded in…

  19. An Investigation of Desired Friendships during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Katelyn K.; Bowker, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study of 384 young adolescents (45% girls, "M" age = 12.94 years) and their desired friendships (friendships that adolescents indicate they would like to form in the future) examined whether (a) adolescents desire to be friends with peers who are well-liked, popular, aggressive, and prosocial; (b) having desired friendships is…

  20. Preschoolers Use Information about Speakers' Desires to Learn New Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.; Troseth, Georgene L.

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates preschoolers' use of desires for word learning. Three-year-old children were shown pairs of novel toys and were asked about their own desire and told about a researcher's desire. For half of the children the researcher liked the same object they did and for the other half the researcher liked a different object. The…

  1. Low complexity interference alignment algorithms for desired signal power maximization problem of MIMO channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cong; Yang, Yunchuan; Yuan, Yaxiang

    2012-12-01

    In this article, we investigate the interference alignment (IA) solution for a K-user MIMO interference channel. Proper users' precoders and decoders are designed through a desired signal power maximization model with IA conditions as constraints, which forms a complex matrix optimization problem. We propose two low complexity algorithms, both of which apply the Courant penalty function technique to combine the leakage interference and the desired signal power together as the new objective function. The first proposed algorithm is the modified alternating minimization algorithm (MAMA), where each subproblem has closed-form solution with an eigenvalue decomposition. To further reduce algorithm complexity, we propose a hybrid algorithm which consists of two parts. As the first part, the algorithm iterates with Householder transformation to preserve the orthogonality of precoders and decoders. In each iteration, the matrix optimization problem is considered in a sequence of 2D subspaces, which leads to one dimensional optimization subproblems. From any initial point, this algorithm obtains precoders and decoders with low leakage interference in short time. In the second part, to exploit the advantage of MAMA, it continues to iterate to perfectly align the interference from the output point of the first part. Analysis shows that in one iteration generally both proposed two algorithms have lower computational complexity than the existed maximum signal power (MSP) algorithm, and the hybrid algorithm enjoys lower complexity than MAMA. Simulations reveal that both proposed algorithms achieve similar performances as the MSP algorithm with less executing time, and show better performances than the existed alternating minimization algorithm in terms of sum rate. Besides, from the view of convergence rate, simulation results show that the MAMA enjoys fastest speed with respect to a certain sum rate value, while hybrid algorithm converges fastest to eliminate interference.

  2. The taming of desire: Unspecific postponement reduces desire for and consumption of postponed temptations.

    PubMed

    Mead, Nicole L; Patrick, Vanessa M

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation began with the conjecture that people may do better by saying "some other time" instead of "no, not ever" in response to temptations. Drawing from learning theories, we hypothesized that people interpret unspecific postponement ("I can have it some other time") as a signal that they do not strongly value the postponed temptation. In this way, unspecific postponement may reduce desire for and consumption of postponed temptations, both in the present moment and over time. Four experiments tested those hypotheses. A multiphase study using the free-choice paradigm supported the learning account for the effects of postponement: unspecific postponement reduced immediate desire for a self-selected temptation which in turn statistically accounted for diminished consumption during the week after the manipulation--but only when postponement was induced, not when it was imposed (Experiment 1). Supporting the hypothesis that unspecific but not specific postponement connotes weak valuation, only unspecific postponement reduced attention to (Experiment 2) and consumption of (Experiment 3) the postponed temptation. Additionally, unspecific postponement delayed consumption primarily among those who were highly motivated to forgo consumption of the temptation (Experiment 3). A final multiphase experiment compared the effectiveness of unspecific postponement to the classic self-control mechanism of restraint, finding that unspecific postponement (vs. restraint) reduced consumption of the temptation in the heat of the moment and across 1 week postmanipulation (Experiment 4). The current research provides novel insight into self-control facilitation, the modification of desire, and the differential effects of unspecific and specific intentions for reducing unwanted behavior. PMID:26727664

  3. The taming of desire: Unspecific postponement reduces desire for and consumption of postponed temptations.

    PubMed

    Mead, Nicole L; Patrick, Vanessa M

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation began with the conjecture that people may do better by saying "some other time" instead of "no, not ever" in response to temptations. Drawing from learning theories, we hypothesized that people interpret unspecific postponement ("I can have it some other time") as a signal that they do not strongly value the postponed temptation. In this way, unspecific postponement may reduce desire for and consumption of postponed temptations, both in the present moment and over time. Four experiments tested those hypotheses. A multiphase study using the free-choice paradigm supported the learning account for the effects of postponement: unspecific postponement reduced immediate desire for a self-selected temptation which in turn statistically accounted for diminished consumption during the week after the manipulation--but only when postponement was induced, not when it was imposed (Experiment 1). Supporting the hypothesis that unspecific but not specific postponement connotes weak valuation, only unspecific postponement reduced attention to (Experiment 2) and consumption of (Experiment 3) the postponed temptation. Additionally, unspecific postponement delayed consumption primarily among those who were highly motivated to forgo consumption of the temptation (Experiment 3). A final multiphase experiment compared the effectiveness of unspecific postponement to the classic self-control mechanism of restraint, finding that unspecific postponement (vs. restraint) reduced consumption of the temptation in the heat of the moment and across 1 week postmanipulation (Experiment 4). The current research provides novel insight into self-control facilitation, the modification of desire, and the differential effects of unspecific and specific intentions for reducing unwanted behavior.

  4. Validation of Scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Walter L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2005-01-01

    The Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS), the most commonly used social desirability bias (SDB) assessment, conceptualizes SDB as an individual's need for approval. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) measures SDB as two separate constructs: impression management and self-deception. Scores on SDB scales are commonly…

  5. Love and Politics: Sister Quinlan and the Future We Have Desired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndebele, Njabulo S.

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney (like Stimpson and Parker in this issue) speaks of: "A historic dialectic [which] exists between the beautiful and the bestial". In this speech, delivered on 13 December 2012, Njabulo Ndebele reflects on the stories South Africa tells itself about past atrocity, as a way of achieving "the future we have desired".…

  6. An Expectancy-Value Perspective of Civic Education Motivation, Learning and Desirable Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Chua, Bee Leng

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed the mediating role of expectancy for success and value beliefs in civic education in linking socio-academic factors (gender, ethnicity, school level and prior achievement) to desirable civic attributes. The sample comprised 1664 students in their Year-7-Year-12 (mean age = 14.79, range = 12-18). Structural equation…

  7. Optimization of Milling Parameters Employing Desirability Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. L. S.; Rubio, J. C. Campos; Abrão, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of tool material (one cermet and two coated carbide grades), cutting speed and feed rate on the machinability of hardened AISI H13 hot work steel, in order to identify the cutting conditions which lead to optimal performance. A multiple response optimization procedure based on tool life, surface roughness, milling forces and the machining time (required to produce a sample cavity) was employed. The results indicated that the TiCN-TiN coated carbide and cermet presented similar results concerning the global optimum values for cutting speed and feed rate per tooth, outperforming the TiN-TiCN-Al2O3 coated carbide tool.

  8. Achieving highly effective non-biofouling performance for polypropylene membranes modified by UV-induced surface graft polymerization of two oppositely charged monomers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Ying; Wee, Kin-Ho; Bai, Renbi

    2010-02-25

    A major problem in membrane technology for applications such as wastewater treatment or desalination is often the loss of membrane permeability due to biofouling initiated from protein adsorption and biofilm formation on the membrane surface. In this study, we developed a relatively simple and yet versatile approach to prepare polypropylene (PP) membrane with highly effective non-biofouling performance. Copolymer brushes were grafted to the surface of PP membrane through UV-induced polymerization of two oppositely charged monomers, i.e., [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (TM) and 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt (SA), with varying TM:SA molar ratios. Surface analysis with scanning electron microscope (SEM) clearly showed the grafted copolymer brushes on the membrane surfaces and that with X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) revealed a similar TM:SA ratio of the grafted copolymer brushes to that of the monomer solution used for the polymerization. Water contact angle measurements indicated that the hydrophilicity of the membrane surfaces was remarkably improved by the grafting of the TM/SA copolymer brushes, with the lowest water contact angle of 27 degrees being achieved at the TM:SA ratio of around 1:1. Experiments for antiprotein adsorption with bovine serum album (BSA) and lysozyme (LYZ) and antibiofilm formation with Escherichia coli (E. coli) demonstrated a great dependence of the membrane performance on the TM:SA ratios of the grafted copolymer brushes. It was found that the characteristics of the surface charges of the membrane surfaces played a very important role in the non-biofouling performance, and the membrane surface with balanced positive and negative charges showed the best non-biofouling performance for the proteins and bacteria tested in this study.

  9. The impact of nursing students' chemistry learning performance assessment in Taiwan: competitive versus non-competitive student team achievement division approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior college in northern Taiwan during the first semester (totaling 18 weeks) of the 2008 academic year. Results: The findings reveal that both a heterogeneous group with external pressure (involving competitive STAD) and a friendship group with affective pressure (involving traditional learning) enhance group cohesion and assist students' meaningful learning; the heterogeneous group without extra pressure (involving non-competitive STAD), by contrast, fails because of apathy and lassitude. Moreover, learning effectiveness will obviously predominate until the learning strategy continues for a long period or at least one semester. Conclusions: This study revealed that the learning performance level of the competitive STAD group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group; and the learning performance level of the traditional group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group. Both the competitive STAD group and traditional group of medium ability students are significantly different from the non-competitive STAD group. Low-ability students from the competitive STAD group are significantly different from those of the non-competitive STAD, though no significant differences were found in learning perception. However, both a lack of friendship and a lack of ability in using algorithms may affect students' chemistry learning. Furthermore, gender imbalance, educational culture, and group emotions are factors that may influence student learning performance. Further study should focus on the use of grouping, improve responsibility in group discussion, and investigate group interaction

  10. Discipline, desire, and transgression in physiotherapy practice.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, David A; Holmes, Dave

    2012-08-01

    Therapeutic touch has played an important part in human civilization and continues to contribute to our social relations and individual identities. Therapeutic touch has been a vital component in the development and definition of physiotherapy practice and continues to be one of the profession's principal distinguishing competencies. It is surprising then that while so much has been written about how to perform therapeutic touch techniques, little has been written about the role that these techniques have played in defining physiotherapy's professional identity. Drawing on the work of three postmodern philosophers, we offer a critique of physio-therapeutic approaches to therapeutic touch, examining why certain modes of touch were adopted by the profession in the past and not others; how the innate sensuality of touch had to be managed; and how the disciplinary technologies that surrounded the practice of massage came to define physiotherapy's professional identity. Our thesis is that the disciplinary technologies adopted by the profession in the 1890s endure today and that the profession's heavily disciplined approach to touch is now constraining new therapeutic possibilities that may be necessary if the profession is to respond to the demands of twenty-first century health care.

  11. The Value of Extracurricular Support in Increased Student Achievement: An Assessment of a Pupil Personnel Model Including School Counselors and School Psychologists Concerning Student Achievement as Measured by an Academic Performance Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Greg S.; Young, I. Phillip

    2006-01-01

    This study examined two models of extra-curricular support for enhancing the academic achievement of students as measured by state mandated test scores. One management model includes the use of school counselors as enhancers of the educational process while the other model addresses the contribution of school psychologists. To differentiate…

  12. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du Hong; Wang Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William

    2009-07-15

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and/or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 {mu}m. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 {mu}m pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of {approx}80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 {mu}m pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or

  13. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    PubMed Central

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao, Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du, Hong; Wang, Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William

    2009-01-01

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and∕or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 μm. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 μm pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of ∼80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 μm pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or continuous

  14. Long distance atomic teleportation with as good success as desired

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Prakash, Hari

    2015-09-15

    Long distance atomic teleportation (LDAT) is of prime importance in long distance quantum communication. Scheme proposed by Bose et al. (1999) in principle enables us to have LDAT using cavity decay. However it gives message state dependent fidelity and success rate. Here, using interaction of entangled coherent states with atom–cavity systems and a two-step measurement, we show how, LDAT can be achieved with unit fidelity and as good success as desired under ideal conditions. The scheme is unique in that, the first measurement predicts success or failure. If success is predicted then second measurement gives perfect teleportation. If failure is predicted the message-qubit remains conserved therefore a second attempt may be started. We found that even in presence of decoherence due to dissipation of energy our scheme gives message state independent success rate and almost perfect teleportation in single attempt with mean fidelity of teleportation equal to 0.9 at long distances. However if first attempt fails, unlike ideal case where message-qubit remains conserved with unit fidelity, in presence of decoherence the message-qubit remains conserved to some degree, therefore mean fidelity of teleportation can be increased beyond 0.9 by repeating the process.

  15. Cues Resulting in Desire for Sexual Activity in Women

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties. PMID:16942529

  16. [Testosterone therapy in female hypoactive sexual desire disorder].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patrick

    2016-03-16

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes marked personal or interpersonal distress. It occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women. A number of potential contributory factors (hormonal, neurobiological and psychosocial) have been identified. Testosterone plays an excitatory role in sexual desire but the mechanism is not yet well understood. Treatment with testosterone has been shown to improve sexual desire in menopausal women with HSDD. However, there are limited data concerning premenopausal women and long-term safety. At present, physiological testosterone preparations for use in women are not available in Switzerland. PMID:27149714

  17. [Testosterone therapy in female hypoactive sexual desire disorder].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patrick

    2016-03-16

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes marked personal or interpersonal distress. It occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women. A number of potential contributory factors (hormonal, neurobiological and psychosocial) have been identified. Testosterone plays an excitatory role in sexual desire but the mechanism is not yet well understood. Treatment with testosterone has been shown to improve sexual desire in menopausal women with HSDD. However, there are limited data concerning premenopausal women and long-term safety. At present, physiological testosterone preparations for use in women are not available in Switzerland.

  18. Desiring productivity: nary a wasted moment, never a missed step!

    PubMed

    Rudge, Trudy

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how nurses are enrolled into and take part in programmes of efficiency and effectiveness. Using the philosophical theorizing about desire as a force or power, I focus specifically on what is understood as relations between desire and productivity in current Westernized health-care systems. Use is made of the idea from Spinoza that human emotions consist only of pleasure, pain, and desire as these act as a motive force. This is then linked with more contemporary work on the politics and discourses of desire. A report on the implementation of a productivity programme in the United Kingdom, The Productive Ward: Releasing time to care™, is explored for the ways its developers set about motivating nurses to endorse and enact the programme. In exploring the mechanics of desire in these processes, a view of desire as productive is promoted. Looking at desire as assembling actions, and an assemblage, moves the analysis to an interrogation of actions and practices used to enable and bring nurses to the process. Moreover, in working through the various modalities and operations of desire, the potential and limits of such projects are abstracted. Such potentials and limits are necessarily set by the intensification of power and desire in the capitalist economy, saturating areas of nursing, and health-care provision.

  19. An analysis of factors correlated with the achievement of the goal standard for the science portion of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmetz, Barbara Fotta

    2001-07-01

    This study sought to identify factors that could be used to predict the success of students on the science portion of the grade ten Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT). While the Connecticut State Department of Education measures student achievement in mathematics, reading and writing in grades 4, 6, and 8, science is assessed only in the grade ten CAPT. Since the CAPT science test does not identify specific areas in need of improvement, it is not possible to determine causes for low test scores. To address this, the study investigated the predictive values of the grade eight Mastery Tests in mathematics and reading, the student ability scores of the Otis-Lennon School Ability Index, and grades in prior science courses. The research sample consisted of five hundred and twenty-five students, member of the graduating classes of 2000 and 2001 in a large suburban high school. Students in the study had participated in the district testing program and their scores for the grade seven Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT), the grade eight Connecticut Mastery Tests (CMT) and the grade ten Connecticut Academic Performance Tests (CAPT) were available for analysis. This study investigated correlations between student achievement on the CMT and the science subtest of the CAPT, between OLSAT scores and the CAPT science scores, and between grades in ninth grade science and CAPT science scores. Scores were disaggregated by gender and by course level. Hypotheses 1, 2, 3 and 4 investigated the Pearson Product Moment Correlations of the OLSAT, CMT and course grades with scores on the science portion of the CAPT. Hypothesis 5 compared the scores of male and female students, using the t-test of independent sample means. Calculations showed moderate correlations for hypotheses 1--4, and the hypotheses were accepted. Hypothesis 5 was accepted for one class and rejected for the other. On the whole, female students received higher course grades and lower standardized test

  20. Inclusion and Diversity from Hegelylacan Point of View: Do We Desire Our Desire for Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tania Cristina B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of social exclusion, reported to be intrinsically connected to mathematical teaching from the perspective of Hegel's philosophy and Lacan's psychoanalysis. It provides a characterization of mathematics from a language viewpoint discusses the perennial demand for more mathematical achieving from the perspective of…

  1. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  2. Activities on Realization of High-Power and Steady-State ECRH System and Achievement of High Performance Plasmas in LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ikeda, R.; Tamura, N.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Takita, Y.; Mutoh, T.; Minami, R.; Kariya, T.; Imai, T.; Idei, H.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.

    2009-11-26

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) has contributed to the achievement of high performance plasma production, high electron temperature plasmas and sustainment of steady-state plasmas in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Our immediate targets of upgrading the ECRH system are 5 MW several seconds and 1 MW longer than one hour power injection into LHD. The improvement will greatly extend the plasma parameter regime. For that purpose, we have been promoting the development and installation of 77 GHz/1-1.5 MW/several seconds and 0.3 MW/CW gyrotrons in collaboration with University of Tsukuba. The transmission lines are re-examined and improved for high and CW power transmission. In the recent experimental campaign, two 77 GHz gyrotrons were operated. One more gyrotron, which was designed for 1.5 MW/2 s output, was constructed and is tested. We have been promoting to improve total ECRH efficiency for efficient gyrotron-power use and efficient plasma heating, e.g. a new waveguide alignment method and mode-content analysis and the feedback control of the injection polarization. In the last experimental campaign, the 77 GHz gyrotrons were used in combination with the existing 84 GHz range and 168 GHz gyrotrons. Multi-frequency ECRH system is more flexible in plasma heating experiments and diagnostics. A lot of experiments have been performed in relation to high electron temperature plasmas by realization of the core electron-root confinement (CERC), electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), Electron Bernstein Wave heating, and steady-state plasma sustainment. Some of the experimental results are briefly described.

  3. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented.

  4. "Non-Coercive Rearrangements": Theorizing Desire in TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motha, Suhanthie; Lin, Angel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that at the center of every English language learning moment lies desire: desire for the language; for the identities that English represents; for capital, power, and images that are associated with English; for what is believed to lie beyond the doors that English unlocks. However, despite its centrality within…

  5. Neural Correlates of Belief- and Desire-Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    Theory of mind requires an understanding of both desires and beliefs. Moreover, children understand desires before beliefs. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this developmental lag. Additionally, previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have neglected the direct comparison of these developmentally critical mental-state…

  6. Intergalactic Encounters: Desire and the Political Immediacy of Children's Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The author of this article creates a semblance between Deleuze and Guattari's conception of a politics of desire and the four realities, as outlined by Brent and Marjorie Wilson. By making this theoretical move, the author advances the idea that children's drawing unfolds from one moment to the next through the assemblages of desire that are most…

  7. Human Sexual Desire Disorder: Do We Have a Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.; Henry, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD), loss of sexual desire for sexual activity, is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions of men and women in the United States. This article presents an overview of this specific sexual dysfunction including incidence, possible causes, treatment options, and the role of the health educator in addressing…

  8. Social Desirability, Environmental Attitudes, and General Ecological Behaviour in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerke, Britta; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Socially desirable responses have been widely discussed as potentially biasing self-reported measures of environmental attitude and behaviour assessment. The direct and moderating effect of social desirability on children has not been analysed before. By applying a Lie scale together with a two-factor environmental attitude set measure and a scale…

  9. From desires to behavior: Moderating factors in a fertility transition

    PubMed Central

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Agadjanian, Victor

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Extensive research in both developed and developing countries has shown that preferences and intentions for future childbearing predict behavior. However, very little of this research has examined high-fertility contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the factors that increase or decrease correspondence between fertility desires and behavior in these settings are not well understood. OBJECTIVE This article documents the degree to which the desire to stop childbearing predicts fertility behavior over the short term among married women in rural southern Mozambique, a context where fertility transition is still in the early stages. Analyses test the moderating powers of individual, household, and community characteristics. METHODS Analyses use data from a longitudinal survey of married women of reproductive age (N=1678) carried out in 2006 and 2009 in rural areas of southern Mozambique. Logistic regression models are estimated to predict childbearing between 2006 and 2009 based on desires to stop childbearing and characteristics measured in 2006. RESULTS As expected, the desire to stop childbearing is strongly predictive of fertility behavior. Household wealth, local adult AIDS mortality, and being married to an unsuccessful labor migrant are associated with higher correspondence between reported desire to stop childbearing and fertility behavior. CONCLUSIONS Both factors related to the ability to carry out desires to stop childbearing and factors related to the strength and consistency of these desires moderate the association between desires and behaviors. Future research should expand measurement of fertility preferences to incorporate their strength and consistency as well as direction. PMID:23626485

  10. Detecting Social Desirability Bias Using Factor Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Walter L.; Cooper, Lou Ann

    2010-01-01

    Based on the conceptualization that social desirable bias (SDB) is a discrete event resulting from an interaction between a scale's items, the testing situation, and the respondent's latent trait on a social desirability factor, we present a method that makes use of factor mixture models to identify which examinees are most likely to provide…

  11. Breaking up with Deleuze: Desire and Valuing the Irreconcilable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Eve

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Eve Tuck grapples with Gilles Deleuze's conceptualization of desire, finding it simultaneously generative and unsatisfying. Recognizing that Deleuze will not "say" what Tuck wants him to say about desire--that it is smart, and constitutes expertise--Tuck reasons that there is only one thing she can do: break up with Deleuze. The…

  12. Understanding the Desirability of English Language Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Chao-Ling

    2008-01-01

    The popularity and desirability of English language education has become somewhat unbeatable in Taiwan. This article seeks to understand the multiple threads of reasoning systems that come together to constitute and sustain the desirability of English learning. It conceptualizes that language education is more than teaching and learning a…

  13. Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Desire to Marry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Scott J.

    1993-01-01

    Used data from over 2,000 respondents to explore racial, ethnic, and gender differences in desire to marry. African Americans were significantly less desiring of marriage than whites; racial difference among men was significantly larger than difference among women. Compared to nonhispanic whites of same gender, Hispanic men were more likely,…

  14. The Role of Creativity and Proactivity on Perceived Entrepreneurial Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampetakis, Leonidas A.

    2008-01-01

    The study tested the extent to which perceived desirability mediates the effects of student creativity and proactivity on entrepreneurial intent. Participants were 199 engineering and business university students from Greek Universities. Results using Structural Equation Modelling indicated that perceived desirability fully mediates the…

  15. Bibliotherapy for Low Sexual Desire: Evidence for Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Balzer, Alexandra M.; Zhao, Xinting; Bush, Hannah E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of bibliotherapy for low sexual desire among women, which is the most frequent sexual concern brought to counselors. Forty-five women responded to an advertisement for participation in a study on low sexual desire and were assigned to either the intervention or the wait-list control group. The intervention…

  16. Library Users' Service Desires: A LibQUAL+ Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Kyrillidou, Martha; Cook, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore library users' desired service quality levels on the twenty-two core LibQUAL+ items. Specifically, we explored similarities and differences in users' desired library service quality levels across user groups (i.e., undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty), across geographic locations (i.e.,…

  17. Desire to work as a death anxiety buffer mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yaakobi, Erez

    2015-01-01

    Four studies were conducted to examine the death anxiety buffering function of work as a terror management mechanism, and the possible moderating role of culture. In Study 1, making mortality salient led to higher reports of participants' desire to work. In Study 2, activating thoughts of fulfillment of the desire to work after mortality salience reduced the accessibility of death-related thoughts. In Study 3, activating thoughts of fulfillment of the desire to work reduced the effects of mortality salience on out-group derogation. In Study 4, priming thoughts about obstacles to the actualization of desire to work led to greater accessibility of death-related thoughts. Although two different cultures with contrasting work values were examined, the results were consistent, indicating that the desire to work serves as a death anxiety buffer mechanism in both cultures.

  18. Desire to work as a death anxiety buffer mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yaakobi, Erez

    2015-01-01

    Four studies were conducted to examine the death anxiety buffering function of work as a terror management mechanism, and the possible moderating role of culture. In Study 1, making mortality salient led to higher reports of participants' desire to work. In Study 2, activating thoughts of fulfillment of the desire to work after mortality salience reduced the accessibility of death-related thoughts. In Study 3, activating thoughts of fulfillment of the desire to work reduced the effects of mortality salience on out-group derogation. In Study 4, priming thoughts about obstacles to the actualization of desire to work led to greater accessibility of death-related thoughts. Although two different cultures with contrasting work values were examined, the results were consistent, indicating that the desire to work serves as a death anxiety buffer mechanism in both cultures. PMID:25384641

  19. Wishful seeing: more desired objects are seen as closer.

    PubMed

    Balcetis, Emily; Dunning, David

    2010-01-01

    Although people assume that they see the surrounding environment as it truly is, we suggest that perception of the natural environment is dependent upon the internal goal states of perceivers. Five experiments demonstrated that perceivers tend to see desirable objects (i.e., those that can fulfill immediate goals-a water bottle to assuage their thirst, money they can win, a personality test providing favorable feedback) as physically closer to them than less desirable objects. Biased distance perception was revealed through verbal reports and through actions toward the object (e.g., underthrowing a beanbag at a desirable object). We suggest that seeing desirable objects as closer than less desirable objects serves the self-regulatory function of energizing the perceiver to approach objects that fulfill needs and goals. PMID:20424036

  20. U.S. Math Performance in Global Perspective: How Well Does Each State Do at Producing High-Achieving Students? PEPG Report No.: 10-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Peterson, Paul E.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    To see how well U.S. schools do at producing high-achieving math students, the authors compare the percentage of U.S. public and private school students in the graduating Class of 2009 who were highly accomplished in mathematics in each of the 50 states and in 10 urban districts to percentages of high achievers in 56 other countries. Their…

  1. The Academic Achievement and Functional Performance of Youth with Disabilities. A Report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2006-3000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Newman, Lynn; Cameto, Renee; Levine, Phyllis

    2006-01-01

    Background: To provide a national picture of the academic achievements of American students, the National Center for Education Statistics has administered the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) periodically since 1969, but there has been no similar national picture of the academic achievement of youth with disabilities. Purpose: To…

  2. The Predictability of Enrolment and First-Year University Results from Secondary School Performance: The New Zealand National Certificate of Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Tumen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the predictive correlations between results from the New Zealand National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA), a standards-based qualification, and university grade point averages achieved by first-year students in one large New Zealand University (and, for comparison purposes, also presents correlations from the…

  3. Desiring foods: Cultivating non-attachment to nourishment in Buddhist Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Van Daele, Wim

    2016-10-01

    Food and desire are intimately entangled whereby food becomes a core tool to manage desire in fashioning oneself as a morally virtuous person. This paper looks at the ways in which Buddhist texts conceptualize human interactions with food and formulate prescriptions on how to handle food as a means of developing an attitude of non-attachment that aids in achieving nirvana-the extinguishing of desire to get released from the cycle of death and rebirth. The particular texts-the Agañña Sutta, the Āhāra Patikūlasaññā, and the Vinaya Pitaka- discussed here exhibit an attitude of deep ambiguity towards food in its capacity to incite desire. On the one hand nutrition is required to maintain life, but on the other, food can potentially be the cause of a degenerate state of mankind and a source of moral degradation. Hence, the Buddhist development of a dispassionate attitude towards food seeks to enable both nourishment and the pursuit of the extinction of the flame of desire in nirvana. Even though the texts formulate practical prescriptions for monks on how to relate to food to aid them in their pursuit, they also serve as moral standards for lay Sinhalese Buddhists who seek to model their everyday behaviour accordingly. PMID:27178877

  4. Desirability and feasibility of a vaccine against cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Paul; Plotkin, Stanley; Mocarski, Edward; Pass, Robert; Schleiss, Mark; Krause, Philip; Bialek, Stephanie

    2013-04-18

    Publication of a report from the Institute of Medicine in 2000 showing that a vaccine against cytomegalovirus (CMV) would likely be cost saving was very influential and encouraged the clinical evaluation of candidate vaccines. The major objective of a CMV vaccination program would be to reduce disease caused by congenital CMV infection, which is the leading viral cause of sensorineural hearing loss and neurodevelopmental delay. CMV has challenges as a vaccine target because it is a herpesvirus, it persists lifelong despite host immunity, infected individuals can be reinfected with new strains, overt disease occurs in those with immature or impaired immune systems and persons with this infection do not usually report symptoms. Nevertheless, natural immunity against CMV provides some protection against infection and disease, natural history studies have defined the serological and molecular biological techniques needed for endpoints in future clinical trials of vaccines and CMV is not highly communicable, suggesting that it may not be necessary to achieve very high levels of population immunity through vaccination in order to affect transmission. Three phase 2 CMV vaccine studies have been completed in the last 3 years and all report encouraging outcomes. A key international meeting was organized by the Food and Drug Administration in January 2012 at which interested parties from regulatory bodies, industry and academia discussed and prioritised designs for phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials. Vaccines able to prevent primary infection with CMV and to boost the immune response of those already infected are desirable. The major target populations for a CMV vaccine include women of childbearing age and adolescents. Toddlers represent another potential population, since an effect of vaccine in this age group could potentially decrease transmission to adults. In addition, prospective recipients of transplants and patients with AIDS would be expected to benefit.

  5. Psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics and desire for orthodontic treatment among Chinese undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Song; Zhang, Chuqin; Ni, Chulei; Qian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics in undergraduate students in the People’s Republic of China and to investigate the association between normal orthodontic treatment needs, psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics, and desire for orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in two universities in a city of the People’s Republic of China with 374 young adults aged between 19 years and 24 years. The students answered a Chinese version of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) and addressed their desire for orthodontic treatment. Objective malocclusion severity was assessed with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Statistical analysis was performed by the SPSS software (Version 15.0). Results There was no statistical sex difference in relation to the dental health component of IOTN (P=0.893) and PIDAQ scores (P=0.06), but it was found that the desire for orthodontic treatment was significantly stronger among females. The total and subscale PIDAQ scores and malocclusion severity differed significantly among the five grades of desire (P<0.01). Significant positive correlation was found among desire for orthodontic treatment, IOTN-dental health component grades, and total or subscale PIDAQ scores (P<0.01). High correlation was found between desire and PIDAQ score (r=0.93). Conclusion The desire for orthodontic treatment is higher among female young adults who have the same orthodontic treatment needs compared to males. The desire for orthodontic treatment has high positive correlation with PIDAQ scores and increases with the increase in self-perceived psychosocial impacts of malocclusion and the needs for orthodontic treatment. PMID:27354773

  6. Representational and Executive Selection Resources in "Theory of Mind": Evidence from Compromised Belief-Desire Reasoning in Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Tim P.; Hehman, Jessica A.

    2006-01-01

    Effective belief-desire reasoning requires both specialized representational capacities--the capacity to represent the mental states as such--as well as executive selection processes for accurate performance on tasks requiring the prediction and explanation of the actions of social agents. Compromised belief-desire reasoning in a given population…

  7. The Dopaminergic Midbrain Encodes the Expected Certainty about Desired Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H B; Mathys, Christoph; Dolan, Ray; Friston, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Dopamine plays a key role in learning; however, its exact function in decision making and choice remains unclear. Recently, we proposed a generic model based on active (Bayesian) inference wherein dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about optimal policies. Put simply, dopamine discharges reflect the confidence that a chosen policy will lead to desired outcomes. We designed a novel task to test this hypothesis, where subjects played a "limited offer" game in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Subjects had to decide how long to wait for a high offer before accepting a low offer, with the risk of losing everything if they waited too long. Bayesian model comparison showed that behavior strongly supported active inference, based on surprise minimization, over classical utility maximization schemes. Furthermore, midbrain activity, encompassing dopamine projection neurons, was accurately predicted by trial-by-trial variations in model-based estimates of precision. Our findings demonstrate that human subjects infer both optimal policies and the precision of those inferences, and thus support the notion that humans perform hierarchical probabilistic Bayesian inference. In other words, subjects have to infer both what they should do as well as how confident they are in their choices, where confidence may be encoded by dopaminergic firing. PMID:25056572

  8. The Dopaminergic Midbrain Encodes the Expected Certainty about Desired Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Mathys, Christoph; Dolan, Ray; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine plays a key role in learning; however, its exact function in decision making and choice remains unclear. Recently, we proposed a generic model based on active (Bayesian) inference wherein dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about optimal policies. Put simply, dopamine discharges reflect the confidence that a chosen policy will lead to desired outcomes. We designed a novel task to test this hypothesis, where subjects played a “limited offer” game in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Subjects had to decide how long to wait for a high offer before accepting a low offer, with the risk of losing everything if they waited too long. Bayesian model comparison showed that behavior strongly supported active inference, based on surprise minimization, over classical utility maximization schemes. Furthermore, midbrain activity, encompassing dopamine projection neurons, was accurately predicted by trial-by-trial variations in model-based estimates of precision. Our findings demonstrate that human subjects infer both optimal policies and the precision of those inferences, and thus support the notion that humans perform hierarchical probabilistic Bayesian inference. In other words, subjects have to infer both what they should do as well as how confident they are in their choices, where confidence may be encoded by dopaminergic firing. PMID:25056572

  9. Routing performance analysis and optimization within a massively parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen

    2013-04-16

    An apparatus, program product and method optimize the operation of a massively parallel computer system by, in part, receiving actual performance data concerning an application executed by the plurality of interconnected nodes, and analyzing the actual performance data to identify an actual performance pattern. A desired performance pattern may be determined for the application, and an algorithm may be selected from among a plurality of algorithms stored within a memory, the algorithm being configured to achieve the desired performance pattern based on the actual performance data.

  10. Treating Inhibited Sexual Desire: A Marital Therapy Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Linda Stone; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Defines inhibited sexual desire (ISD) as a relational phenomenon best treated in the marital context. Discusses ISD as it relates to the central marital issues of power, intimacy, and boundaries. (JAC)

  11. Social Desirability, Environmental Attitudes, and General Ecological Behaviour in Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerke, Britta; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-03-01

    Socially desirable responses have been widely discussed as potentially biasing self-reported measures of environmental attitude and behaviour assessment. The direct and moderating effect of social desirability on children has not been analysed before. By applying a Lie scale together with a two-factor environmental attitude set measure and a scale of self-reported General Ecological Behaviour (GEB) to 198 pupils, we found a moderate impact of Lie scores on only one of both attitude measures and a small impact on GEB. In a multiple regression analysis general behaviour was predicted by attitude, social desirability, and the interaction of both. Social desirability had no moderating effect on the relationship between environmental attitudes and behaviour. Implications of these outcomes for research on environmental issues with children are discussed.

  12. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  13. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  14. Method for preparing salt solutions having desired properties

    DOEpatents

    Ally, Moonis R.; Braunstein, Jerry

    1994-01-01

    The specification discloses a method for preparing salt solutions which exhibit desired thermodynamic properties. The method enables prediction of the value of the thermodynamic properties for single and multiple salt solutions over a wide range of conditions from activity data and constants which are independent of concentration and temperature. A particular application of the invention is in the control of salt solutions in a process to provide a salt solution which exhibits the desired properties.

  15. Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Julia Jill K

    2002-01-01

    Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) may occur in up to one-third of adult women in the US. The essential feature of female HSDD is a deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity that causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. The evaluation of female HSDD generally requires careful and thoughtful consideration of the patient and the multitude of factors that impact on the various components of adult female sexual desire. Several female reproductive life experiences may uniquely affect sexual desire. These events include menstrual cycles, hormonal contraceptives, postpartum states and lactation, oophorectomy and hysterectomy, and perimenopausal and postmenopausal states. Sexual dysfunctions in women have strong positive associations with low feelings of physical and emotional satisfaction and low feelings of happiness. Thus, female HSDD can greatly impact on quality of life. In this article, treatment options are discussed with special attention to significant reproductive life events that may impact on sexual desire in adult women. Depending on the particular phase of reproductive life that a woman is experiencing, different recommendations are made. Various options in the treatment of HSDD in women include lifestyle changes, treatment of coexisting medical or psychiatric disorders, switching or discontinuing medications that could impact on sexual desire, hormone therapy and marital therapy. Clinical trials are presently underway to assess medications that may potentially benefit female patients with HSDD.

  16. Exploring the effects of sexual desire discrepancy among married couples.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian J; Farero, Adam M; Busby, Dean M

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have found associations between the individual discrepancy of desired sexual frequency and actual sexual frequency and relational outcomes among premarital couples. The present study extended this research by using a sample of 1,054 married couples to explore how actor and partner individual sexual desire discrepancy (SDD) scores were associated with relationship satisfaction, stability, communication, and conflict during marriage. All participants took an online survey which assessed both couple sexual dynamics and relationship outcomes. Findings suggested that higher actor individual SDD was generally associated with negative relational outcomes, including lower reported relationship satisfaction, stability, and more reported couple conflict. These effects were found after controlling for background factors, baseline sexual frequency and desire, and couple desire discrepancies. Some partner effects were also found and were generally in the same direction. Marital length did not moderate the effects found although gender moderated associations between individual SDD and reported couple communication. Negative associations between individual SDD and communication were particularly strong when the husband reported high discrepancies between desired and actual sexual frequency. Results suggested that higher individual sexual desire discrepancies among married individuals may undermine relationship well-being. Applications of these findings to a clinical setting are also discussed. PMID:24045904

  17. Satisfaction with Appearance and the Desired Treatment to Improve Aesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zarea, Bader K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To identify participants' satisfaction with appearance and the desired treatment to improve aesthetics. Materials and Methods. 220 participants (127 males and 93 females, mean age = 21.4 ± 1.5 years) were recruited into the study. A structured questionnaire was used to assess patients' satisfaction with appearance and what treatment they desire to improve aesthetics. Participants scored the level of satisfaction with appearance using visual analogue scale. Results. The VAS mean score of satisfaction with general appearance was 6.8 ± 2.3. Half participants were dissatisfied with tooth appearance and 65.9% were dissatisfied with tooth colour. Higher VAS scores were associated with higher desire for all treatments that improve tooth appearance (P < .05). Dissatisfaction with tooth appearance increased with increased dissatisfaction with teeth colour, feeling of poor tooth alignment, presence of fractured anterior teeth, and increased desire for orthodontic, crowns, and dentures treatments (P < .05). Dissatisfaction with tooth colour was associated with increased desire for tooth whitening and tooth coloured fillings (P < .05). Conclusions. Participants had high levels of dissatisfaction with tooth appearance and tooth colour. Dissatisfaction with tooth colour contributed to the increased dissatisfaction with tooth appearance. Dissatisfaction with tooth appearance, colour, alignment, and condition was significantly related to high desire for aesthetic treatments. PMID:23509462

  18. The Level of Desirability of Information Technology Systems and Its Relation with Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allammeh, Sayyed Mohsen; Shavaran, Hamidreza; Dabaghi, Azizollah; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to define Information Technology (IT) desirability and determine IT relationship with organizational commitment. The existence of such a relationship between IT & organizational commitment can guide the organizational leaders to promote and to develop the IT potentials in order to improve the performance of employees,…

  19. Measuring social desirability across language and sex: A comparison of Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale factor structures in English and Mandarin Chinese in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kurz, A Solomon; Drescher, Christopher F; Chin, Eu Gene; Johnson, Laura R

    2016-06-01

    Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country in which multiple languages are prominently spoken, including English and Mandarin Chinese. As psychological science continues to develop within Malaysia, there is a need for psychometrically sound instruments that measure psychological phenomena in multiple languages. For example, assessment tools for measuring social desirability could be a useful addition in psychological assessments and research studies in a Malaysian context. This study examined the psychometric performance of the English and Mandarin Chinese versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale when used in Malaysia. Two hundred and eighty-three students (64% female; 83% Chinese, 9% Indian) from two college campuses completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale in their language of choice (i.e., English or Mandarin Chinese). Proposed factor structures were compared with confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple indicators-multiple causes models were used to examine measurement invariance across language and sex. Factor analyses supported a two-factor structure (i.e., Attribution and Denial) for the measure. Invariance tests revealed the scale was invariant by sex, indicating that social desirability can be interpreted similarly across sex. The scale was partially invariant by language version, with some non-invariance observed within the Denial factor. Non-invariance may be related to differences in the English and Mandarin Chinese languages, as well as cultural differences. Directions for further research include examining the measurement of social desirability in other contexts where both English and Mandarin Chinese are spoken (i.e., China) and further examining the causes of non-invariance on specific items.

  20. Measuring social desirability across language and sex: A comparison of Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale factor structures in English and Mandarin Chinese in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kurz, A Solomon; Drescher, Christopher F; Chin, Eu Gene; Johnson, Laura R

    2016-06-01

    Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country in which multiple languages are prominently spoken, including English and Mandarin Chinese. As psychological science continues to develop within Malaysia, there is a need for psychometrically sound instruments that measure psychological phenomena in multiple languages. For example, assessment tools for measuring social desirability could be a useful addition in psychological assessments and research studies in a Malaysian context. This study examined the psychometric performance of the English and Mandarin Chinese versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale when used in Malaysia. Two hundred and eighty-three students (64% female; 83% Chinese, 9% Indian) from two college campuses completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale in their language of choice (i.e., English or Mandarin Chinese). Proposed factor structures were compared with confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple indicators-multiple causes models were used to examine measurement invariance across language and sex. Factor analyses supported a two-factor structure (i.e., Attribution and Denial) for the measure. Invariance tests revealed the scale was invariant by sex, indicating that social desirability can be interpreted similarly across sex. The scale was partially invariant by language version, with some non-invariance observed within the Denial factor. Non-invariance may be related to differences in the English and Mandarin Chinese languages, as well as cultural differences. Directions for further research include examining the measurement of social desirability in other contexts where both English and Mandarin Chinese are spoken (i.e., China) and further examining the causes of non-invariance on specific items. PMID:27168227

  1. Students' Accounts of School-Performance Stress: A Qualitative Analysis of a High-Achieving Setting in Stockholm, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Almquist, Ylva B.; Östberg, Viveca

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine students' experiences of school performance as a stressor. Accounts of school-performance stress at both the individual level and in relation to group mechanisms are studied through qualitative interviews with eighth-grade students in a high-performing school in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 49). Using qualitative…

  2. Evaluation of the Effects of Medium of Instruction on the Science Learning of Hong Kong Secondary Students: Performance on the Science Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din Yan; Tsang, Wing Kwong; Cheung, Sin Pui

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the effects of a new Hong Kong policy requiring Chinese as the language of instruction on secondary students' learning of science. Science achievement test scores at 100 secondary schools indicate that previous use of English to teach science may have hampered students' ability to grasp material due to the high-level thinking…

  3. Are Physical Activity and Academic Performance Compatible? Academic Achievement, Conduct, Physical Activity and Self-Esteem of Hong Kong Chinese Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, C. C. W.; Chan, Scarlet; Cheng, Frances; Sung, R. Y. T.; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2006-01-01

    Education is so strongly emphasized in the Chinese culture that academic success is widely regarded as the only indicator of success, while too much physical activity is often discouraged because it drains energy and affects academic concentration. This study investigated the relations among academic achievement, self-esteem, school conduct and…

  4. Achieving Teacher Education Standards through a Mathematics Performance-Based Assessment: A Case Study of Five Colorado Preservice-Teachers on Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Julie

    2005-01-01

    A range of factors has impinged on the provision of teacher education programs in the last decade. Largely emanating from governmental demands for increased accountability, these have included the setting of standards for student achievement, proof of program impact, and state and national testing. These legislative reforms and school district…

  5. Feelings and Performance in the First Year at University: Learning-Related Emotions as Predictors of Achievement Outcomes in Mathematics and Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niculescu, Alexandra C.; Templelaar, Dirk; Leppink, Jimmie; Dailey-Hebert, Amber; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the predictive value of four learning-related emotions--Enjoyment, Anxiety, Boredom and Hopelessness for achievement outcomes in the first year of study at university. Method: We used a large sample (N = 2337) of first year university students enrolled over three consecutive academic years in a mathematics and…

  6. Autonomy Support and Achievement Goals as Predictors of Perceived School Performance and Life Satisfaction in the Transition between Lower and Upper Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Åge; Samdal, Oddrun

    2014-01-01

    A self-determination theory perspective on motivation assumes that basic need support is a prerequisite for motivation, achievement, and well-being in several domains of life. In the present cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 2.594 Norwegian students in their final year of lower secondary education and their first year of upper…

  7. Achieving Professional Excellence: Proceedings of a National Conference on Performance-Based Approaches to Training (Little Rock, Arkansas, October 8-10, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Lois G., Comp.; Kalamas, David J., Comp.

    This document contains 47 presentations which focus on professional preparation of personnel in vocational-technical education and industry as an essential step in achieving excellence in educational and industrial training programs. The presentations include "Critical Issues Facing Vocational Teacher Education" (Zellner, Parrish); "A Call for…

  8. Keeping Your Kids Out Front without Kicking Them from Behind: How To Nurture High-Achieving Athletes, Scholars, and Performing Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofler, Ian; DiGeronimo, Theresa Foy

    Pressuring gifted children into achieving parents' own unfulfilled longings for glory and success can cheat children of a normal childhood. This commonsense guide for parents of talented and gifted children offers guidance for establishing healthy boundaries between parents' ambitions and the needs of their talented children and provides clear-cut…

  9. Testing a Multi-Stage Screening System: Predicting Performance on Australia's National Achievement Test Using Teachers' Ratings of Academic and Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Davies, Michael; Griffin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the predictive validity of results from a screening system of academic enablers, with a sample of Australian elementary school students, when the criterion variable is end-of-year achievement. The investigation included (a) comparing the predictive validity of a brief criterion-referenced nomination system with more…

  10. The Impact of Nursing Students' Chemistry Learning Performance Assessment in Taiwan: Competitive versus Non-Competitive Student Team Achievement Division Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior…

  11. High Performing Schools in High Risk Environments: A Study on Leadership, School Safety, and Student Achievement at Two Urban Middle Schools in Los Angeles County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frias, Gus

    2010-01-01

    In the United States of America, all students and staff have a constitutional right to attend schools that are safe, secure, and successful. Despite this right, at many public schools, education leaders have failed to ensure the safety and high academic achievement of all students. The purpose of this research study is to expand knowledge about…

  12. [The effect of group size on salience of member desirability].

    PubMed

    Sugimori, S

    1993-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that undesirable members are salient in a small group, while desirable members become salient in a larger group. One hundred and forty-five students were randomly assigned to twelve conditions, and read sentences desirably, undesirably, or neutrally describing each member of a college student club. The twelve clubs had one of three group sizes: 13, 39, or 52, and the proportion of the desirable or undesirable to the neutral was either 11:2 or 2:11, forming a three-way (3 x 2 x 2) factorial. Twelve subjects each were asked to make proportion judgments and impression ratings. Results indicated that proportion of the undesirable members was over estimated when the group size was 13, showing negativity bias, whereas proportion of the desirable was overestimated when the size was 52, displaying positivity bias. The size 39 showed neither positivity nor negativity bias. These results along with those from impression ratings suggested that salience of member desirability interacted with group size. It is argued that illusory correlation and group cognition studies may well take these effects into consideration. PMID:8355426

  13. [The effect of group size on salience of member desirability].

    PubMed

    Sugimori, S

    1993-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that undesirable members are salient in a small group, while desirable members become salient in a larger group. One hundred and forty-five students were randomly assigned to twelve conditions, and read sentences desirably, undesirably, or neutrally describing each member of a college student club. The twelve clubs had one of three group sizes: 13, 39, or 52, and the proportion of the desirable or undesirable to the neutral was either 11:2 or 2:11, forming a three-way (3 x 2 x 2) factorial. Twelve subjects each were asked to make proportion judgments and impression ratings. Results indicated that proportion of the undesirable members was over estimated when the group size was 13, showing negativity bias, whereas proportion of the desirable was overestimated when the size was 52, displaying positivity bias. The size 39 showed neither positivity nor negativity bias. These results along with those from impression ratings suggested that salience of member desirability interacted with group size. It is argued that illusory correlation and group cognition studies may well take these effects into consideration.

  14. Desired emotions across cultures: A value-based account.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Maya; Schwartz, Shalom H; Cieciuch, Jan; Riediger, Michaela; Torres, Claudio; Scollon, Christie; Dzokoto, Vivian; Zhou, Xiaolu; Vishkin, Allon

    2016-07-01

    Values reflect how people want to experience the world; emotions reflect how people actually experience the world. Therefore, we propose that across cultures people desire emotions that are consistent with their values. Whereas prior research focused on the desirability of specific affective states or 1 or 2 target emotions, we offer a broader account of desired emotions. After reporting initial evidence for the potential causal effects of values on desired emotions in a preliminary study (N = 200), we tested the predictions of our proposed model in 8 samples (N = 2,328) from distinct world cultural regions. Across cultural samples, we found that people who endorsed values of self-transcendence (e.g., benevolence) wanted to feel more empathy and compassion, people who endorsed values of self-enhancement (e.g., power) wanted to feel more anger and pride, people who endorsed values of openness to change (e.g., self-direction) wanted to feel more interest and excitement, and people who endorsed values of conservation (e.g., tradition) wanted to feel more calmness and less fear. These patterns were independent of differences in emotional experience. We discuss the implications of our value-based account of desired emotions for understanding emotion regulation, culture, and other individual differences. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Knowing versus liking: Separating normative knowledge from social desirability in first impressions of personality.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Katherine H; Biesanz, Jeremy C

    2015-12-01

    There are strong differences between individuals in the tendency to view the personality of others as similar to the average person. That is, some people tend to form more normatively accurate impressions than do others. However, the process behind the formation of normatively accurate first impressions is not yet fully understood. Given that the average individual's personality is highly socially desirable (Borkenau & Zaltauskas, 2009; Wood, Gosling & Potter, 2007), individuals may achieve high normative accuracy by viewing others as similar to the average person or by viewing them in an overly socially desirable manner. The average self-reported personality profile and social desirability, despite being strongly correlated, independently and strongly predict first impressions. Further, some individuals have a more accurate understanding of the average individual's personality than do others. Perceivers with more accurate knowledge about the average individual's personality rated the personality of specific others more normatively accurately (more similar to the average person), suggesting that individual differences in normative judgments include a component of accurate knowledge regarding the average personality. In contrast, perceivers who explicitly evaluated others more positively formed more socially desirable impressions, but not more normatively accurate impressions.

  16. Representing female desire within a labial framework of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Sexual experiences, rather than being neutral, are specifically male or female. Yet at present no conceptual framework exists for representing female sexual desire. This has resulted in frequent misrepresentations of female sexual experience. To correct this, a labial framework is proposed, not to replace or oppose a phallic framework, but to exist alongside it. The lips of the mouth and those of the genitals provide a felicitous doubling of sexuality and speech to represent female desire and sexual pleasure as labial. Phallic and labial rhythms are organized differently in sexual arousal and desire, since, as Simone de Beauvoir put it, "Man 'gets stiff,' but woman 'gets wet.'" The labial framework therefore represents female psychosexuality more in terms of "wetware" than of "hardware."

  17. Is love colorblind? Political orientation and interracial romantic desire.

    PubMed

    Eastwick, Paul W; Richeson, Jennifer A; Son, Deborah; Finkel, Eli J

    2009-09-01

    The present research examined the association of political orientation with ingroup favoritism in two live romantic contexts. In Study 1, White participants had sequential interactions with both a White and Black confederate and reported their romantic desire for each. In Study 2, both White and Black participants speed-dated multiple potential romantic partners and reported whether they would be interested in meeting each speed-dating partner again. In both studies, White participants' political conservatism positively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: White conservatives were less likely than White liberals to desire Black (interracial) relative to White potential romantic partners. In contrast, Black participants' political conservatism negatively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: Consistent with system-justification theory, Black conservatives were more likely than Black liberals to desire White (interracial) relative to Black potential romantic partners. Political orientation may be a key factor that influences the initiation of interracial romantic relationships.

  18. Desire thinking: A risk factor for binge eating?

    PubMed

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Fernie, Bruce A; Manfredi, Chiara; Boccaletti, Fabio; Dallari, Giulia; Gandini, Federica; Pinna, Eleonora; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Sassaroli, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    In the current study we explored the role of desire thinking in predicting binge eating independently of Body Mass Index, negative affect and irrational food beliefs. A sample of binge eaters (n=77) and a sample of non-binge eaters (n=185) completed the following self-report instruments: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Irrational Food Beliefs Scale, Desire Thinking Questionnaire, and Binge Eating Scale. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that all variable scores were significantly higher for binge eaters than non-binge eaters. A logistic regression analysis indicated that verbal perseveration was a predictor of classification as a binge eater over and above Body Mass Index, negative affect and irrational food beliefs. A hierarchical regression analysis, on the combined sample, indicated that verbal perseveration predicted levels of binge eating independently of Body Mass Index, negative affect and irrational food beliefs. These results highlight the possible role of desire thinking as a risk factor for binge eating. PMID:25880044

  19. Media Impacts on Women's Fertility Desires: A Prolonged Exposure Experiment.

    PubMed

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Willis, Laura E; Kennard, Ashley R

    2016-06-01

    Media exposure may have implications for family planning, a public health issue of key importance. Drawing on social comparison theory and social identity theory, a prolonged exposure experiment examined whether media portrayals of women's social roles affect fertility desires among 166 American, nonstudent, never married, childless women ages 21-35 years old. After sign-up and baseline sessions, participants viewed magazine pages five days in a row. Stimuli presented women in either mother/homemaker roles, beauty ideal roles, or professional roles. Three days later, participants again indicated their number of desired children and time planned until first birth. Exposure to mother/homemaker and beauty ideal portrayals increased the number of desired children across time. Exposure to professional portrayals increased the time planned until 1st birth compared to beauty ideal portrayals-this impact was partially mediated by a shift toward more progressive gender norms (per social identity theory) and assimilation (per social comparison theory). PMID:27166510

  20. Media Impacts on Women's Fertility Desires: A Prolonged Exposure Experiment.

    PubMed

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Willis, Laura E; Kennard, Ashley R

    2016-06-01

    Media exposure may have implications for family planning, a public health issue of key importance. Drawing on social comparison theory and social identity theory, a prolonged exposure experiment examined whether media portrayals of women's social roles affect fertility desires among 166 American, nonstudent, never married, childless women ages 21-35 years old. After sign-up and baseline sessions, participants viewed magazine pages five days in a row. Stimuli presented women in either mother/homemaker roles, beauty ideal roles, or professional roles. Three days later, participants again indicated their number of desired children and time planned until first birth. Exposure to mother/homemaker and beauty ideal portrayals increased the number of desired children across time. Exposure to professional portrayals increased the time planned until 1st birth compared to beauty ideal portrayals-this impact was partially mediated by a shift toward more progressive gender norms (per social identity theory) and assimilation (per social comparison theory).

  1. Is love colorblind? Political orientation and interracial romantic desire.

    PubMed

    Eastwick, Paul W; Richeson, Jennifer A; Son, Deborah; Finkel, Eli J

    2009-09-01

    The present research examined the association of political orientation with ingroup favoritism in two live romantic contexts. In Study 1, White participants had sequential interactions with both a White and Black confederate and reported their romantic desire for each. In Study 2, both White and Black participants speed-dated multiple potential romantic partners and reported whether they would be interested in meeting each speed-dating partner again. In both studies, White participants' political conservatism positively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: White conservatives were less likely than White liberals to desire Black (interracial) relative to White potential romantic partners. In contrast, Black participants' political conservatism negatively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: Consistent with system-justification theory, Black conservatives were more likely than Black liberals to desire White (interracial) relative to Black potential romantic partners. Political orientation may be a key factor that influences the initiation of interracial romantic relationships. PMID:19571275

  2. Fluoxetine attenuates alcohol intake and desire to drink.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, C A; Poulos, C X; Bremner, K E; Lanctot, K L

    1994-09-01

    Several serotonin uptake inhibitors, including the long-acting fluoxetine, have been found to decrease alcohol intake in moderately dependent alcoholics. While the mechanism of their effect is not fully elucidated, a previous study with citalopram indicated that decreased desire to drink may be an important factor. Therefore, we tested fluoxetine effects on alcohol intake and desire to drink in a placebo-controlled study. Subjects, recruited by advertisement, were mildly/moderately dependent alcoholics (12 male, four female, aged 19-59 years, healthy, non-depressed) who did not believe they had a drinking problem and were not requesting treatment. After a 1 week baseline they received, single-blind, 2 weeks placebo followed by 2 weeks fluoxetine 60 mg/day. As out-patients, subjects recorded daily standard drinks (13.6 g ethanol) and rated interest, desire, craving and liking for alcohol biweekly. Each out-patient period was immediately followed by a double-blind experimental drinking session. Out-patient daily drinks slightly decreased during fluoxetine to 6.6 +/- 0.9 (mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with during placebo (7.16 +/- 0.95, p = 0.07, N.S.) and baseline (7.18 +/- 1.0, p > 0.1, N.S.). Desire, interest and craving for alcohol decreased during fluoxetine vs placebo baseline (p < 0.05), but not vs placebo. Appetite loss and decrease in food intake (p < 0.01, fluoxetine vs placebo) correlated with each other (r = 0.91, p < 0.01) but neither correlated with decrease in alcohol intake (appetite: r = 0.26, N.S.; food intake: r = 0.22, N.S.). Weight loss occurred during fluoxetine (p < 0.05 vs placebo) but did not correlate with decrease in alcohol intake (r = 0.1, N.S.). In the experimental drinking sessions after placebo and fluoxetine treatments subjects rated their desire for each of 18 mini-drinks (each one-third of a standard drink) offered at 5 min intervals. Fluoxetine decreased desire to drink throughout the sessions; both mean and maximum desire ratings were

  3. Topology of sustainable management of dynamical systems with desirable states: from defining planetary boundaries to safe operating spaces in the Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzig, J.; Kittel, T.; Donges, J. F.; Molkenthin, N.

    2016-01-01

    To keep the Earth system in a desirable region of its state space, such as defined by the recently suggested "tolerable environment and development window", "guardrails", "planetary boundaries", or "safe (and just) operating space for humanity", one needs to understand not only the quantitative internal dynamics of the system and the available options for influencing it (management) but also the structure of the system's state space with regard to certain qualitative differences. Important questions are, which state space regions can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region, which regions are in a variety of senses "safe" to stay in when management options might break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this topological structure? In this article, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology of the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states, as a complement to the existing literature on optimal control which is more focussed on quantitative optimization and is much applied in both the engineering and the integrated assessment literature. We suggest a certain terminology for the various resulting regions of the state space and perform a detailed formal classification of the possible states with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region. Our results indicate that, before performing some form of quantitative optimization such as of indicators of human well-being for achieving certain sustainable development goals, a sustainable and resilient management of the Earth system may require decisions of a more discrete type that come in the form of several dilemmas, e.g. choosing between eventual safety and uninterrupted desirability, or between uninterrupted safety and larger flexibility. We illustrate the concepts and dilemmas drawing on conceptual models from climate science, ecology, coevolutionary Earth system

  4. 1974-75 Philadelphia City-Wide Testing Program; February 1975 Achievement Testing Program. School Performance Distributions: Kindergarten through Grade Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosswald, Jules

    This is a report of pupil performance in Philadelphia schools based upon the February 1975 Philadelphia City-Wide Testing Program involving all pupils in kindergarten through grade 12. School performance distributions show the combined percentages of pupils in each school scoring within various national percentile rank ranges. The performance…

  5. Improving Teacher Effectiveness: An Examination of a Pay for Performance Plan for Boosting Student Academic Achievement in Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngoma, Sylvester

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the United States, educational organizations are striving to find more effective ways to improve teacher performance and student learning. The increased pressure to improve teacher effectiveness in the classroom has led many public school districts to adopt a pay for performance system as a strategic compensation option for enhancing…

  6. Can Multiple-Choice Testing Induce Desirable Difficulties? Evidence from the Laboratory and the Classroom.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon; Soderstrom, Nicholas C; Little, Jeri L

    2015-01-01

    The term desirable difficulties (Bjork, 1994) refers to conditions of learning that, though often appearing to cause difficulties for the learner and to slow down the process of acquisition, actually improve long-term retention and transfer. One known desirable difficulty is testing (as compared with restudy), although typically it is tests that clearly involve retrieval--such as free and cued recall tests--that are thought to induce these learning benefits and not multiple-choice tests. Nonetheless, multiple-choice testing is ubiquitous in educational settings and many other high-stakes situations. In this article, we discuss research, in both the laboratory and the classroom, exploring whether multiple-choice testing can also be fashioned to promote the type of retrieval processes known to improve learning, and we speculate about the necessary properties that multiple-choice questions must possess, as well as the metacognitive strategy students need to use in answering such questions, to achieve this goal.

  7. Which Feedback Is More Effective for Pursuing Multiple Goals of Differing Importance? The Interaction Effects of Goal Importance and Performance Feedback Type on Self-Regulation and Task Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how performance feedback type (progress vs. distance) affects Korean college students' self-regulation and task achievement according to relative goal importance in the pursuit of multiple goals. For this study, 146 students participated in a computerised task. The results showed the interaction effects of goal importance and…

  8. WWC Review of the Report "Closing the Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students' Academic Performance and All Students' College Transition." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For the 2014 study, "Closing the Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students' Academic Performance and All Students' College Transition," researchers investigated the impact of attending a moderated panel on incoming freshmen's adjustment to college. The panel…

  9. Functional Family Therapy and the Treatment of Inhibited Sexual Desire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regas, Susan J.; Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the therapy, assessment, and education principles of Functional Family Therapy and applies them to the treatment of inhibited sexual desire, using a case illustration. Functional Family Therapy works at motivating the couple to want change, rather than providing an understanding of underlying causes of the problem. (JAC)

  10. Iranian Adolescents' Intended Age of Marriage and Desired Family Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashakkori, Abbas; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined questionnaire data pertaining to intended age of marriage and desired family size from Iranian 12th graders. Proximal factors (individual level variables such as self-concept and school success) were stronger predictors on both dependent measures than were distal factors (parental education, sibling size, and family modernity). Proximal…

  11. Ranking, selecting, and prioritising genes with desirability functions.

    PubMed

    Lazic, Stanley E

    2015-01-01

    In functional genomics experiments, researchers often select genes to follow-up or validate from a long list of differentially expressed genes. Typically, sharp thresholds are used to bin genes into groups such as significant/non-significant or fold change above/below a cut-off value, and ad hoc criteria are also used such as favouring well-known genes. Binning, however, is inefficient and does not take the uncertainty of the measurements into account. Furthermore, p-values, fold-changes, and other outcomes are treated as equally important, and relevant genes may be overlooked with such an approach. Desirability functions are proposed as a way to integrate multiple selection criteria for ranking, selecting, and prioritising genes. These functions map any variable to a continuous 0-1 scale, where one is maximally desirable and zero is unacceptable. Multiple selection criteria are then combined to provide an overall desirability that is used to rank genes. In addition to p-values and fold-changes, further experimental results and information contained in databases can be easily included as criteria. The approach is demonstrated with a breast cancer microarray data set. The functions and an example data set can be found in the desiR package on CRAN (https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/desiR/) and the development version is available on GitHub (https://github.com/stanlazic/desiR). PMID:26644980

  12. 48 CFR 30.603-2 - Unilateral and desirable changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.603-2... disclosed or established cost accounting practices, but the Government shall not pay any increased cost, in... the CFAO has determined a change to a cost accounting practice is a desirable change, the change is...

  13. Desirable Leadership Behaviours of Multi-Cultural Managers in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littrell, Romie F.

    2002-01-01

    Hotel managers (both expatriate and indigenous) and supervisors (n=122) in China identified desirable and actual leadership traits in English and Chinese versions of the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire. Indigenous managers had more tolerance of freedom than expatriate managers. Supervisors were more tolerant than managers.…

  14. Designing and Evaluating Desired Outcomes for Program Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Tom; Emge, Lou

    This guide presents Federal requirements for statements of the desired outcomes of compensatory education programs. Local education authorities (LEAs) must state their goals for improving the educational opportunities of educationally deprived children so that they will succeed in the regular educational program of the LEA, attain grade-level…

  15. Eliciting Change in Maltreating Fathers: Goals, Processes, and Desired Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena L.; Francis, Karen J.; Kelly, Tim; Reid, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    There has been a growing recognition of the need to provide appropriate intervention services to fathers who have been abusive in their families. This paper highlights four specific treatment goals for fathers who maltreat their children, along with therapeutic strategies necessary to accomplish desired outcomes. These goals were developed as part…

  16. Residual magnetism holds solenoid armature in desired position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. P.

    1967-01-01

    Holding solenoid uses residual magnetism to hold its armature in a desired position after excitation current is removed from the coil. Although no electrical power or mechanical devices are used, the solenoid has a low tolerance to armature displacement from the equilibrium position.

  17. Information and Services Obtained and Desired by Parents of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemer, Richard H.; Kivett, Vira R.

    The 3 main objectives of this study, the fourth and final phase of an investigation to determine the information and services obtained and desired by rural parents during 4 stages of child rearing, were to determine: (1) the sources from which parents of adolescents received information and services regarding child care and development; (2) the…

  18. Ranking, selecting, and prioritising genes with desirability functions.

    PubMed

    Lazic, Stanley E

    2015-01-01

    In functional genomics experiments, researchers often select genes to follow-up or validate from a long list of differentially expressed genes. Typically, sharp thresholds are used to bin genes into groups such as significant/non-significant or fold change above/below a cut-off value, and ad hoc criteria are also used such as favouring well-known genes. Binning, however, is inefficient and does not take the uncertainty of the measurements into account. Furthermore, p-values, fold-changes, and other outcomes are treated as equally important, and relevant genes may be overlooked with such an approach. Desirability functions are proposed as a way to integrate multiple selection criteria for ranking, selecting, and prioritising genes. These functions map any variable to a continuous 0-1 scale, where one is maximally desirable and zero is unacceptable. Multiple selection criteria are then combined to provide an overall desirability that is used to rank genes. In addition to p-values and fold-changes, further experimental results and information contained in databases can be easily included as criteria. The approach is demonstrated with a breast cancer microarray data set. The functions and an example data set can be found in the desiR package on CRAN (https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/desiR/) and the development version is available on GitHub (https://github.com/stanlazic/desiR).

  19. Desiring Diversity and Backlash: White Property Rights in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    In this theoretical essay, I argue that the current incidences of backlash to diversity are best understood as a dynamic of complicated, historic and intertwined desires for racial diversity and white entitlement to property. I frame this argument in the theories of critical race theory and settler colonialism, each of which provide necessary but…

  20. Re-visioning Clients' Pathology into Initiatory Desire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Presents perspective of therapy that re-visions clients' pathology into desire for initiatory experience. Takes symbolic perspective of clients' presenting problems to provide meaning to symptoms and eliminate constraints of diagnoses and/or treatments. Lays developmental foundation to support clinical application of perspective in symbolic…

  1. 50 CFR 80.9 - Notice of desire to participate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.9 Notice of desire to... Federal Assistance which contains plans for the use of Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Program...

  2. Desire: A Key Factor for Successful Online GED Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Donita; Tham, Yuen San Sarah; Hogle, Julie; Koch, Jody

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the experiences of 12 adult online General Educational Development (GED) students to determine the role of program and personal factors that influenced their successful passing of the GED or their dropping-out of the program. Through surveys and interviews, we discovered that desire was the key factor for…

  3. 48 CFR 30.603-2 - Unilateral and desirable changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... changes. 30.603-2 Section 30.603-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Unilateral and desirable changes. (a) Unilateral changes. (1) The contractor may unilaterally change its... the aggregate, as a result of the unilateral change. (2) Prior to making any contract price or...

  4. Sexuality Education and Desire: Still Missing after All These Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Michelle; McClelland, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Nearly twenty years after the publication of Michelle Fine's essay "Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire," the question of how sexuality education influences the development and health of adolescents remains just as relevant as it was in 1988. In this article, Michelle Fine and Sara McClelland examine the…

  5. Women selectively guard their (desirable) mates from ovulating women.

    PubMed

    Krems, Jaimie Arona; Neel, Rebecca; Neuberg, Steven L; Puts, David A; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2016-04-01

    For women, forming close, cooperative relationships with other women at once poses important opportunities and possible threats-including to mate retention. To maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of same-sex social relationships, we propose that women's mate guarding is functionally flexible and that women are sensitive to both interpersonal and contextual cues indicating whether other women might be likely and effective mate poachers. Here, we assess one such cue: other women's fertility. Because ovulating (i.e., high-fertility) women are both more attractive to men and also more attracted to (desirable) men, ovulating women may be perceived to pose heightened threats to other women's romantic relationships. Across 4 experiments, partnered women were exposed to photographs of other women taken during either their ovulatory or nonovulatory menstrual-cycle phases, and consistently reported intentions to socially avoid ovulating (but not nonovulating) women-but only when their own partners were highly desirable. Exposure to ovulating women also increased women's sexual desires for their (highly desirable) partners. These findings suggest that women can be sensitive to subtle cues of other women's fertility and respond (e.g., via social exclusion, enhanced sexual attention to own mate) in ways that may facilitate their mate retention goals while not thwarting their affiliative goals. PMID:26766112

  6. Drawing Desire: Male Youth and Homoerotic Fan Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Jeffery P.

    2010-01-01

    Although Western mass media aimed at juvenile audiences aggressively eliminates any references to same-sex desire and behavior, it inspires a tremendous amount of homoerotic fan art. To determine how same-sex potential is portrayed in juvenile fan art, a content analysis was conducted of 872 male homoerotic images by 442 juvenile male and female…

  7. Desired Outcomes for Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beresford, Bryony; Tozer, Rosemary; Rabiee, Parvaneh; Sloper, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Within children's services, frameworks for assessing outcomes have been developed in the absence of consultation with children with autistic spectrum disorders and their parents. The research reported here worked with parents, other key adults and children with autistic spectrum disorders to identify desired outcomes. It found similarities with…

  8. 48 CFR 30.603-2 - Unilateral and desirable changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disclosed or established cost accounting practices, but the Government shall not pay any increased cost, in... protect the Government from the payment of the estimated increased costs, in the aggregate; and (ii) The... costs to the Government, in the aggregate. (b) Desirable changes. (1) Prior to taking action under...

  9. (Un)Desirable Effects of Output Funding for Flemish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantillon, B.; De Ridder, A.; Vanhaecht, E.; Verbist, G.

    2011-01-01

    Governments introducing output parameters (e.g. graduation numbers) in the funding rule of universities believe that it will induce universities to raise their teaching efforts while educational standards will remain unaffected. In this article we first show on theoretical grounds that this desire can only be fulfilled if there exist positive…

  10. Factors Influencing the Desire To Take Environmental Action in Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Chouinard, Omer; Musafiri, Jean-Pierre; IsaBelle, Claire

    In a coastal community, four social groups were chosen to participate in various educational programs designed to promote their desire to take environmental action. At the end of these educational programs, conducted by a scientist and an environmental educator, the participants were invited to get involved in the resolution of an environmental…

  11. Characteristics of Athletic Training Students That Preceptors Find Desirable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Thomas, Spencer; Paulsen, Jenica; Chiu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic training students acquire clinical hours under the direct supervision of athletic training preceptors. Objective: The purpose of this project was to explore what characteristics preceptors desire in their athletic training students. Design and Setting: Online survey instrument. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 286…

  12. Evaluating the User Experience of Exercising Reaching Motions With a Robot That Predicts Desired Movement Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2016-01-01

    The notion of an optimal difficulty during practice has been articulated in many areas of cognitive psychology: flow theory, the challenge point framework, and desirable difficulties. Delivering exercises at a participant's desired difficulty has the potential to improve both motor learning and users' engagement in therapy. Motivation and engagement are among the contributing factors to the success of exercise programs. The authors previously demonstrated that error amplification can be used to introduce levels of challenge into a robotic reaching task, and that machine-learning algorithms can dynamically adjust difficulty to the desired level with 85% accuracy. Building on these findings, we present the results of a proof-of-concept study investigating the impacts of practicing under desirable difficulty conditions. A control condition with a predefined random order for difficulty levels was deemed more suitable for this study (compared to constant or continuously increasing difficulty). By practicing the task at their desirable difficulties, participants in the experimental group perceived their performance at a significantly higher level and reported lower required effort to complete the task, in comparison to a control group. Moreover, based on self-reports, participants in the experimental group were willing, on average, to continue the training session for 4.6 more training blocks (∼45 min) compared to the control group's average. This study demonstrates the efficiency of delivering the exercises at the user's desired difficulty level to improve the user's engagement in exercise tasks. Future work will focus on clinical feasibility of this approach in increasing stroke survivors' engagement in their therapy programs.

  13. Evaluating the User Experience of Exercising Reaching Motions With a Robot That Predicts Desired Movement Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2016-01-01

    The notion of an optimal difficulty during practice has been articulated in many areas of cognitive psychology: flow theory, the challenge point framework, and desirable difficulties. Delivering exercises at a participant's desired difficulty has the potential to improve both motor learning and users' engagement in therapy. Motivation and engagement are among the contributing factors to the success of exercise programs. The authors previously demonstrated that error amplification can be used to introduce levels of challenge into a robotic reaching task, and that machine-learning algorithms can dynamically adjust difficulty to the desired level with 85% accuracy. Building on these findings, we present the results of a proof-of-concept study investigating the impacts of practicing under desirable difficulty conditions. A control condition with a predefined random order for difficulty levels was deemed more suitable for this study (compared to constant or continuously increasing difficulty). By practicing the task at their desirable difficulties, participants in the experimental group perceived their performance at a significantly higher level and reported lower required effort to complete the task, in comparison to a control group. Moreover, based on self-reports, participants in the experimental group were willing, on average, to continue the training session for 4.6 more training blocks (∼45 min) compared to the control group's average. This study demonstrates the efficiency of delivering the exercises at the user's desired difficulty level to improve the user's engagement in exercise tasks. Future work will focus on clinical feasibility of this approach in increasing stroke survivors' engagement in their therapy programs. PMID:25945816

  14. Achieving ICME with Multiscale Modeling: The Effects of Constituent Properties and Processing on the Performance of Laminated Polymer Matrix Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) is a useful approach for tailoring the performance of a material. For fiber-reinforced composites, not only do the properties of the constituents of the composite affect the performance, but so does the architecture (or microstructure) of the constituents. The generalized method of cells is demonstrated to be a viable micromechanics tool for determining the effects of the microstructure on the performance of laminates. The micromechanics is used to predict the inputs for a macroscale model for a variety of different fiber volume fractions, and fiber architectures. Using this technique, the material performance can be tailored for specific applications by judicious selection of constituents, volume fraction, and architectural arrangement given a particular manufacturing scenario

  15. Closing the social-class achievement gap: a difference-education intervention improves first-generation students' academic performance and all students' college transition.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nicole M; Hamedani, MarYam G; Destin, Mesmin

    2014-04-01

    College students who do not have parents with 4-year degrees (first-generation students) earn lower grades and encounter more obstacles to success than do students who have at least one parent with a 4-year degree (continuing-generation students). In the study reported here, we tested a novel intervention designed to reduce this social-class achievement gap with a randomized controlled trial (N = 168). Using senior college students' real-life stories, we conducted a difference-education intervention with incoming students about how their diverse backgrounds can shape what they experience in college. Compared with a standard intervention that provided similar stories of college adjustment without highlighting students' different backgrounds, the difference-education intervention eliminated the social-class achievement gap by increasing first-generation students' tendency to seek out college resources (e.g., meeting with professors) and, in turn, improving their end-of-year grade point averages. The difference-education intervention also improved the college transition for all students on numerous psychosocial outcomes (e.g., mental health and engagement).

  16. Imaging the Aurora - Desires, Needs, Reality and Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, L. J.

    2008-05-01

    Imaging the aurora, especially imaging the aurora with sufficient spectral, spatial and temporal resolution to meet the scientific community's desires and national needs, can be a difficult and costly problem if we follow the old paradigm of building a sensor or sensor suite that is all things to all users. In this talk I consider what can be done within the constraints of a relatively low cost mission design. To begin the process we have to start with questions: What are the scientific questions that require auroral imagery? What has to be imaged and why? What are the temporal and spatial resolution requirements? How can this be achieved? What does the instrument tradespace look like? Rather than posit a scientific question, I'll ask the reader of this abstract to consider a few questions. Is it important to be able to see the entire aurora at once (very important or is just enough to get the boundary and a good estimate of the precipitating particle power)? How much time do you have to be able to have auroral imagery (constantly monitoring or often enough to have a reasonable chance of observing a particular kind of event or only in concert with another measurement)? What kind of temporal resolution is required (fractions of a seconds, seconds, a minute)? What kind of spatial resolution is required (fine scale high resolution of the brightest features or general morphology and features)? How much of the data are you prepared to handle (every bit costs at the spacecraft and on the ground so how much do you really need)? Do you need to be able to image the sunlit aurora? What energy range of precipitating particles do you need to be able to image (or at least be sensitive to)? How long a data set do you need (as long as possible, a solar cycle, long enough to see superstorms, substorms)? These questions and many others determine what we must do in order to provide auroral imagery to meet a given users needs. We can not, as a community, afford to "require" that the

  17. "Masculinity, Femininity, Achievement Conflicts and Health."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Debra Eaton

    The objective of this study is to measure achievement motivation in terms of psychological masculinity and femininity rather than in terms of biological gender. The terms, psychological masculinity and femininity, refer to sets of characteristics desirable for both sexes. Masculine characteristics include independence, self-confidence,…

  18. The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

    Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the

  19. Achieving high performance non-fullerene organic solar cells through tuning the numbers of electron deficient building blocks of molecular acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Yusheng; Chen, Shangshang; Dong, Tao; Deng, Wei; Lv, Lei; Yang, Saina; Yan, He; Huang, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Two analogous dimer and tetramer compounds, SF-PDI2 and SF-PDI4, were designed, theoretically calculated, synthesized, and developed as electron acceptors for organic solar cells. The effects of the number of the electron deficient building blocks on the optical absorption, energy levels, charge transport, morphology, crystallinity, and photovoltaic performance of the molecules were investigated. In combination with two different donors, PTB7-Th and PffBT4T-2OD, the results showed that increasing the numbers of PDI building blocks is beneficial to photovoltaic performance and leads to efficiency over 5%.

  20. Educational differences in fertility desires, intentions and behaviour: A life course perspective.

    PubMed

    Berrington, Ann; Pattaro, Serena

    2014-09-01

    Despite a long tradition of studying the relationship between education and fertility outcomes less is known about how educational differences in fertility intentions are formed and translated into achieved births over the life course. This paper provides new insights using data from a large cohort study and Miller's Traits-Desires-Intentions-Behaviour framework for understanding childbearing. We examine how parental aspirations for education, educational ability in childhood, and educational attainment in young adulthood relate to: males' and females' fertility desires in adolescence; fertility intentions in early adulthood; and educational differences in the achievement of fertility intentions. We conclude that family building preferences expressed in adolescence, especially those for the timing of entry into parenthood are shaped by parental socio-economic background, mediated through educational ability and parental expectations for education. In young adulthood, no clear, consistent educational gradient in intended family size is found. However, there is a negative educational gradient in the likelihood of achieving intended births by age 46, especially for women. The findings indicate the importance of educational differences in employment and partnership behaviour in mediating these relationships.

  1. An Investigation of Linguistic, Cognitive, and Affective Factors that Impact English Language Learners' Performance on a State Standardized Reading Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strebel Halpern, Carine S.

    2009-01-01

    The explicit teaching of reading comprehension strategies has been proposed as a means to better prepare secondary school-aged students for today's information-dense, fast-paced, fast-changing global society, and to improve the academic performance of struggling adolescent readers. This proposition of a direct and positive impact of reading…

  2. Good and Bad News about Florida Student Achievement: Performance Trends on Multiple Indicators Since Passage of the A+ Legislation. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Madhabi

    2004-01-01

    What is the news on Florida's student performance since the passage of the A+ legislation? This brief presents a review of long-term data on five state and national indicators. It verifies outcomes and trends and examines the main premise of the A+ mandate that, given appropriate schooling, students will have equitable outcomes and access to…

  3. The Effects of Cognitive Training on Private Speech and Task Performance during Problem Solving among Learning Disabled and Normally Achieving Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R.

    To investigate task performance and the use of private speech and to examine the effects of a cognitive training approach, 30 learning disabled (LD) and 30 nonLD Ss (7 to 8 years old) were given a 17 piece wooden puzzle rigged so that it could not be completed correctly. Six variables were measured: (1) proportion of private speech that was task…

  4. The Effect of Evaluation on Performance: Evidence from Longitudinal Student Achievement Data of Mid-Career Teachers. NBER Working Paper No. 16877

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of evaluation on employee performance is traditionally studied in the context of the principal-agent problem. Evaluation can, however, also be characterized as an investment in the evaluated employee's human capital. We study a sample of mid-career public school teachers where we can consider these two types of evaluation effect…

  5. Are Academic Discounting and Devaluing Double-Edged Swords? Their Relations to Global Self-Esteem, Achievement Goals, and Performance among Stigmatized Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loose, Florence; Regner, Isabelle; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Dumas, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Often taken for granted, the coexistence of benefits and costs of discounting and devaluing has never been tested. Yet, not only are there inconsistent findings about the relations between these processes and global self-esteem, but little is known about their relations to motivation and performance. Here we simultaneously examined how academic…

  6. A Comparative Case Study of Veteran Superintendent's Leadership and Organizational Processes in Addressing the Academic Achievement of Students in Low Performing School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Catherine Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This research study investigated the leadership behaviors and organizational frames utilized by two veteran superintendents of medium sized school districts in California to address issues of academic performance in their respective districts as perceived by the superintendents and their respective board members and principals. Current…

  7. Determining Desirable Cursor Control Device Characteristics for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will travel to the moon and Mars, and all future Exploration vehicles and habitats will be highly computerized, necessitating an accurate method of interaction with the computers. The design of a cursor control device will have to take into consideration g-forces, vibration, gloved operations, and the specific types of tasks to be performed. The study described here is being undertaken to begin identifying characteristics of cursor control devices that will work well for the unique Exploration mission environments. The objective of the study is not to identify a particular device, but to begin identifying design characteristics that are usable and desirable for space missions. Most cursor control devices have strengths and weaknesses; they are more appropriate for some tasks and less suitable for others. The purpose of this study is to collect some initial usability data on a large number of commercially available and proprietary cursor control devices. A software test battery was developed for this purpose. Once data has been collected using these low-level, basic point/click/drag tasks, higher fidelity, scenario-driven evaluations will be conducted with a reduced set of devices. The standard tasks used for testing cursor control devices are based on a model of human movement known as Fitts law. Fitts law predicts that the time to acquire a target is logarithmically related to the distance over the target size. To gather data for analysis with this law, fundamental, low-level tasks are used such as dragging or pointing at various targets of different sizes from various distances. The first four core tasks for the study were based on the ISO 9241-9:(2000) document from the International Organization for Standardization that contains the requirements for non-keyboard input devices. These include two pointing tasks, one dragging and one tracking task. The fifth task from ISO 9241-9, the circular tracking task was not used

  8. Hope over experience: desirability and the persistence of optimism.

    PubMed

    Massey, Cade; Simmons, Joseph P; Armor, David A

    2011-02-01

    Many important decisions hinge on expectations of future outcomes. Decisions about health, investments, and relationships all depend on predictions of the future. These expectations are often optimistic: People frequently believe that their preferred outcomes are more likely than is merited. Yet it is unclear whether optimism persists with experience and, surprisingly, whether optimism is truly caused by desire. These are important questions because life's most consequential decisions often feature both strong preferences and the opportunity to learn. We investigated these questions by collecting football predictions from National Football League fans during each week of the 2008 season. Despite accuracy incentives and extensive feedback, predictions about preferred teams remained optimistically biased through the entire season. Optimism was as strong after 4 months as it was after 4 weeks. We exploited variation in preferences and matchups to show that desirability fueled this optimistic bias.

  9. Perceived parental behavior and the social desirability response set.

    PubMed

    Gooden, W E; Struble, K D

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of the social desirability response set as a confounding variable in research involving self-report measures of perceived parental behavior. Scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-C SDS) were correlated with each of the three factors on the Bronfenbrenner Parental Behavior Scale (BPB): (1) Loving, (2) Punishing, and (3) Demanding. Fifty-eight young adults participated in the study; the sample included roughly equal numbers of black and white subjects, male and female subjects, and college students and other community residents. Scores were analyzed by sex of subject and sex of parent as well as in combined groups. Significant correlations (p<.05, p<.01) were obtained from female subjects on BPB factors 2 and 3. Implications for the BPB's validity and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  10. Actual and desired computer literacy among allied health students.

    PubMed

    Agho, A O; Williams, A M

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the level of computer literacy among allied health students, with specific focus on physical therapy, occupational therapy, and respiratory therapy students, and to investigate the perceived differences between actual computer literacy and desired computer literacy. Two established measurement instruments were used to collect data from a sample of 377 allied health students. T-tests and Pearson product-moment correlations were conducted to analyze the data. Results show that allied health students take very few computer courses, but they are generally aware of the applications of computers in the practice of allied health and they desire a higher level of computer literacy than they currently have.

  11. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  12. Desirable features of a "humanoid" robot-therapist.

    PubMed

    Morasso, Pietro; Casadio, Maura; Giannoni, Psiche; Masia, Lorenzo; Sanguineti, Vittorio; Squeri, Valentina; Vergaro, Elena

    2009-01-01

    In relation with a recent Cochrane review, the paper discusses desirable features of a "humanoid" robot-therapist: 1) high mechanical compliance, 2) large range of force, 3) minimum assistance level, 4) soft haptic interaction for proprioceptive awareness, 5) adaptative assistance properties. It also proposes a framework for addressing optimal assistance and learning paradigms in view of a consensus in the community of rehabilitation engineers about shared principles and common standards. PMID:19965200

  13. Touching moments: desire modulates the neural anticipation of active romantic caress

    PubMed Central

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J.; Ferri, Francesca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    A romantic caress is a basic expression of affiliative behavior and a primary reinforcer. Given its inherent affective valence, its performance also would imply the prediction of reward values. For example, touching a person for whom one has strong passionate feelings likely is motivated by a strong desire for physical contact and associated with the anticipation of hedonic experiences. The present study aims at investigating how the anticipatory neural processes of active romantic caress are modulated by the intensity of the desire for affective contact as reflected by passionate feelings for the other. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning was performed in romantically involved partners using a paradigm that allowed to isolate the specific anticipatory representations of active romantic caress, compared with control caress, while testing for the relationship between neural activity and measures of feelings of passionate love for the other. The results demonstrated that right posterior insula activity in anticipation of romantic caress significantly co-varied with the intensity of desire for union with the other. This effect was independent of the sensory-affective properties of the performed touch, like its pleasantness. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis showed that the same posterior insula cluster interacted with brain regions related to sensory-motor functions as well as to the processing and anticipation of reward. The findings provide insight on the neural substrate mediating between the desire for and the performance of romantic caress. In particular, we propose that anticipatory activity patterns in posterior insula may modulate subsequent sensory-affective processing of skin-to-skin contact. PMID:24616676

  14. Desired machines: cinema and the world in its own image.

    PubMed

    Canales, Jimena

    2011-09-01

    In 1895 when the Lumière brothers unveiled their cinematographic camera, many scientists were elated. Scientists hoped that the machine would fulfill a desire that had driven research for nearly half a century: that of capturing the world in its own image. But their elation was surprisingly short-lived, and many researchers quickly distanced themselves from the new medium. The cinematographic camera was soon split into two machines, one for recording and one for projecting, enabling it to further escape from the laboratory. The philosopher Henri Bergson joined scientists, such as Etienne-Jules Marey, who found problems with the new cinematographic order. Those who had worked to make the dream come true found that their efforts had been subverted. This essay focuses on the desire to build a cinematographic camera, with the purpose of elucidating how dreams and reality mix in the development of science and technology. It is about desired machines and their often unexpected results. The interplay between what "is" (the technical), what "ought" (the ethical), and what "could" be (the fantastical) drives scientific research.

  15. Enhanced in Vitro and in Vivo Performance of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd Alloy Achieved with APTES Pretreatment for Drug-Eluting Vascular Stent Application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Pei; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Qiuping; Xi, Tingfei; Chen, Ming; Guan, Shaokang

    2016-07-20

    Bioabsorbable magnesium alloys are becoming prominent as temporary functional implants, as they avoid the risks generated by permanent metallic implants such as persistent inflammation and late restenosis. Nevertheless, the overfast corrosion of Mg alloys under physiological conditions hinders their wider application as medical implant materials. Here we investigate a simple one-step process to introduce a cross-linked 3-amino-propyltrimethoxysilane (APTES) silane physical barrier layer on the surface of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloys prior to electrostatic spraying with rapamycin-eluting poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) layer. Surface microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Nanoscratch test verified the superior adhesion strength of PLGA coating in the group pretreated with APTES. Electrochemical tests combined with long-term immersion results suggested that the preferable in vitro anticorrosion behavior could be achieved by dense APTES barrier. Cell morphology and proliferation data demonstrated that APTES pretreated group resulted in remarkably preferable compatibility for both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. On the basis of excellent in vitro mechenical property, the animal study on the APTES pretreated Mg-Zn-Y-Nd stent implanted into porcine coronary arteries confirmed benign tissue compatibility as well as re-endothelialization without thrombogenesis or in-stent restenosis at six-month followup. PMID:27331417

  16. Highly Functional TNTs with Superb Photocatalytic, Optical, and Electronic Performance Achieving Record PV Efficiency of 10.1% for 1D-Based DSSCs.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Li, Yuewen; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Mengal, Naveed; Memon, Anam Ali; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Different nanostructures of TiO2 play an important role in the photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications. TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) have received increasing attention for these applications due to their unique physicochemical properties. Focusing on highly functional TNTs (HF-TNTs) for photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications, this study describes the facile hydrothermal synthesis of HF-TNTs by using commercial and cheaper materials for cost-effective manufacturing. To prove the functionality and applicability, these TNTs are used as scattering structure in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photocatalytic, optical, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), electrochemical impedance spectrum, incident-photon-to-current efficiency, and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy characterizations are proving the functionality of HF-TNTs for DSSCs. HF-TNTs show 50% higher photocatalytic degradation rate and also 68% higher dye loading ability than conventional TNTs (C-TNTs). The DSSCs having HF-TNT and its composite-based multifunctional overlayer show effective light absorption, outstanding light scattering, lower interfacial resistance, longer electron lifetime, rapid electron transfer, and improved diffusion length, and consequently, J SC , quantum efficiency, and record photoconversion efficiency of 10.1% using commercial N-719 dye is achieved, for 1D-based DSSCs. These new and highly functional TNTs will be a concrete fundamental background toward the development of more functional applications in fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, Li-ion batteries, photocatalysis process, ion-exchange/adsorption process, and photoelectrochemical devices. PMID:27432775

  17. [Indicators in primary care: reality or desire. SESPAS report 2012].

    PubMed

    Ichaso Hernández-Rubio, M A de los Santos; García Armesto, Sandra

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this article is two-fold: firstly, to illustrate international experiences of assessing primary care performance by using examples of both cross-country comparisons and national assessment efforts and, secondly, to describe the progress achieved to date in the articulation of the Spanish Primary Care Information System. The central role assigned to primary care in conceptual frameworks clashes with the severe limitations in the quality and availability of the data required to construct the indicators. The lack of systematic and standardized databases covering diagnosis, procedures and intermediate results in individual patients is endemic across countries. Filling this gap has become a priority in most countries, especially during the last decade. In Spain, the concept of the Primary Care Information System appeared in 2003 and the first data/results were published in 2006. Since then, distinct elements have been progressively incorporated with the involvement of the various autonomous regions in Spain. Currently, the system includes various aspects such as the population assigned, the available resources, a national catalogue of primary care centers, and activity. The next challenge in this work in progress is to build a database of clinical information. PMID:22152924

  18. Fertility Desires and Intentions among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Hyma; Chowta, Nithyananda; Ramapuram, John; Bhaskaran, Unnikrishnan; Achappa, Basavaprabhu; Chandran, Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The desire of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to have children can have significant public health implications. Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) has increased the life expectancy of PLWHA as a result of which they may consider child bearing. There are hardly any studies from India addressing the fertility desires among PLWHA. Aim This study was done to assess the fertility desires of PLWHA in Southern India. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted among 230 HIV-positive men and women who presented to Kasturba Medical College (KMC), Mangalore, India. Study was conducted between October 2012 and October 2014. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 11.5. Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test and student t-test was used to find out the association of various factors affecting fertility desire. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The mean age of our study population was 36.3±5.5 years. The mean age of males was 37.3±6 years and for female 34.9±5 years. In our study 132 (57.4%) were males. Majority were literate 229 (99%). Majority of patients were employed 166 (72%). In our study 195 (84.7%) were on cART. Out of 230 PLWHA 39 (16.95%) were unmarried and 151(65.5%) married PLHIV were living with partners at the time of study. In our study 77 (33.5%) patients had fertility desire. Age, gender, marital status, number of children, partner’s fertility desire and HIV status of partner had an association with fertility desire. Conclusion Providing universal access to cART is the main aim of national programs. It is high time that these programs focus on fertility issues of PLWHA. Reproductive rights of PLWHA need to be respected. Physicians and HIV counselors should proactively discuss and address reproductive issues of PLWHA. PMID:27504328

  19. Chloride-selective electrodes based on "two-wall" aryl-extended calix[4]pyrroles: combining hydrogen bonds and anion-π interactions to achieve optimum performance.

    PubMed

    Sabek, Jad; Adriaenssens, Louis; Guinovart, Tomàs; Parra, Enrique J; Rius, F Xavier; Ballester, Pablo; Blondeau, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The performance of chloride-selective electrodes based on "two-wall" aryl-extended calix[4]pyrroles and multiwall carbon nanotubes is presented. The calix[4]pyrrole receptors bear two phenyl groups at opposite meso-positions. When the meso-phenyl groups are decorated with strong electron-withdrawing substituents, attractive anion-π interactions may exist between the receptor's aromatic walls and the sandwiched anion. These anion-π interactions are shown to significantly affect the selectivity of the electrodes. Calix[4]pyrrole, bearing a p-nitro withdrawing group on each of the meso-phenyl rings, afforded sensors that display anti-Hofmeister behavior against the lipophilic salicylate and nitrate anions. Based on the experimental data, a series of principles that help in predicting the suitability of synthetic receptors for use as anion-specific ionophores is discussed. Finally, the sensors deliver excellent results in the direct detection of chloride in bodily fluids.

  20. A Causal-Comparative Study: Determining the Diffference in Principals' Beliefs Regarding Order of Change for Closing Achievement Gaps High-Performing Schools as Compared to Low-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    Student achievement is inconsistent when comparing subgroups of students in public schools (Finn, 1999; Spellings, 2008; Teale, Paciga, & Hoffman, 2007). According to research, effective school principals believe that the problem is internal and subject to their control to effect change by addressing inequities. The changes required in closing…