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Sample records for achieve desired results

  1. Serendipity or Pseudoserendipity? Unexpected versus Desired Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    1995-01-01

    Serendipity and pseudoserendipity in scientific discovery are distinguished with examples. True serendipity is seen to involve purely accidental discovery of things not sought, whereas pseudoserendipity involves accidental discoveries of ways to achieve an end that was sought. (DB)

  2. Cues Resulting in Desire for Sexual Activity in Women

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties. PMID:16942529

  3. Foreign Languages Desired but Unrequired: Results of an Idaho Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoonover, Penny

    1982-01-01

    Gives the results of a survey questionnaire on the foreign language needs of four multinational corporations in Boise, ID. Discusses areas in which business and universities should work together for mutual benefit. The questionnaire is appended. (EKN)

  4. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  5. Relationship of Children's Social Desirability Response Tendencies to Their Expectations of Response to Achievement Behaviors in Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Ellen F.

    This study clarifies the relationship between children's social desirability (CSD) response tendencies and their withdrawal from classroom achievement situations by investigating the effects of the child's expectations of peer response. Data gathered included scores on the Children's Social Desirability Scale, scores on an expectancy of response…

  6. Achieving the Desired Transformation: Thoughts on Next Steps for Outcomes-Based Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Holmboe, Eric S; Batalden, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Since the introduction of the outcomes-based medical education (OBME) movement, progress toward implementation has been active but challenging. Much of the angst and criticism has been directed at the approaches to assessment that are associated with outcomes-based or competency frameworks, particularly defining the outcomes. In addition, these changes to graduate medical education (GME) are concomitant with major change in health care systems--specifically, changes to increase quality and safety while reducing cost. Every sector, from medical education to health care delivery and financing, is in the midst of substantial change and disruption.The recent release of the Institute of Medicine's report on the financing and governance of GME highlights the urgent need to accelerate the transformation of medical education. One source of continued tension within the medical education community arises from the assumption that the much-needed increases in value and improvement in health care can be achieved by holding the current educational structures and architecture of learning in place while concomitantly withdrawing resources. The authors of this Perspective seek to reframe the important and necessary debate surrounding the current challenges to implementing OBME. Building on recent change and service theories (e.g., Theory U and coproduction), they propose several areas of redirection, including reexamination of curricular models and greater involvement of learners, teachers, and regulators in cocreating new training models, to help facilitate the desired transformation in medical education. PMID:26083400

  7. Primary Teacher Educators' Perception of Desired and Achieved Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Geography Education in Primary Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankman, Marian; van der Schee, Joop; Volman, Monique; Boogaard, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted among primary geography teacher educators. The research examines the perceptions of educators of primary teacher students' desired and achieved levels of substantial knowledge, syntactic knowledge, and beliefs about the subject of geography. The findings indicate that primary teacher…

  8. Considering Child-Based Results for Young Children: Definitions, Desirability, Feasibility, and Next Steps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon, Ed.; Cohen, Nancy, Ed.

    While elementary and secondary educators are pursuing a results orientation as a means of educational reform and pedagogical improvement, the early childhood field has not explored sufficiently the desirability and feasibility of, nor the process for, establishing child-based standards and results for younger children. This report presents a…

  9. Balancing struggles with desired results in everyday activities: strategies for elderly persons with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bontje, Peter; Asaba, Eric; Josephsson, Staffan

    2016-03-01

    The number of elderly persons with disabilities needing support with everyday activities increasing in Japan and around the world. Yet, engagement in everyday activities can support the quality of their daily life. Despite research focusing on reported meanings of people's actions, there is still limited knowledge on how engagement in everyday activity is enacted along with the meanings of persons' actions. The aim of the present study was to identify meanings of persons' actions within everyday activities of elderly Japanese with physical disabilities. Five elderly persons with physical disabilities living in the community participated in this study. Data were gathered by 10 participant observations of everyday activities supplemented with 13 unstructured interviews. Narrative analysis was used to identify meanings of persons' actions. The analysis identified an overall plot termed 'balancing struggles with desired results'. This plot illustrated that participants' and other involved individuals balanced problematic situations with finding situations that accommodated their needs. Meanings of these actions were further identified as three complementary strategies. Two of three strategies aimed to mitigate given problems, one by 'acting on a plan to achieve one's goals', the other by 'taking a step in a preferred direction by capitalising on emerging opportunities'. The third strategy focused on avoiding undesirable experiences by 'modifying problematic situations'. In conclusion, these findings call for care and rehabilitation providers' sensitivity to shifting foci of what matters in daily life's situations as well as aligning with persons' skills, resources and perspectives. Accordingly, the judicious and flexible use of these complementary strategies can enhance elderly persons' quality of daily living through everyday activities. PMID:26189963

  10. Getting to Results. Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Tory

    2008-01-01

    The "Closing the Achievement Gap" series explores the Casey Foundation's education investments and presents stories, results, and lessons learned. This publication describes efforts to develop a flexible but rigorous results measurements system that enables the Foundation and its grantees to reflect on practice and course-correct as needed to…

  11. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  12. Differences between the real and the desired worlds in the results of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Dib, Regina El; Jorge, Eliane Chaves; Kamegasawa, Amélia; Daher, Solange Ramires; Spagnuolo, Regina Stella; da Silva, Marise Pereira; Braga, Gabriel Pereira; Volpato, Enilze; Módolo, Norma Sueli Pinheiro; Betini, Marluci; do Valle, Adriana; Corrêa, Ione; Bazan, Rodrigo; Almeida, Ricardo Augusto MB; Weber, Silke Anna Theresa; Molina, Silvana; Yoo, Hugo; Boas, Paulo Villas; Corrente, José Eduardo; Mathew, Joseph; Kapoor, Anil; Carvalho, Raíssa Pierri; Vital, Roberto Bezerra; Braz, Leandro Gobbo; do Nascimento Junior, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We refer to the effectiveness (known as pragmatic or real world) and efficacy (known as explanatory or desired or ideal world) of interventions. However, these terms seem to be randomly chosen by investigators who design clinical trials and do not always reflect the true purpose of the study. A pragmatic-explanatory continuum indicator summary tool was thus developed with the aim of identifying the characteristics of clinical trials that distinguish between effectiveness and efficacy issues. We verified whether clinical trials used the criteria proposed by the indicator summary tool, and we categorized these clinical trials according to a new classification. METHOD: A systematic survey of randomized clinical trials was performed. We added a score ranging from 0 (more efficacious) to 10 (more effective) to each domain of the indicator summary tool and proposed the following classifications: high efficacy (<25), moderate efficacy (25-50), moderate effectiveness (51-75), and high effectiveness (<75). RESULTS: A total of 844 randomized trials were analyzed. No analyzed trials used the criteria proposed by the indicator summary tool. Approximately 44% of the trials were classified as having moderate effectiveness, and 43.82% were classified as having moderate efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Most clinical trials used the term “efficacy” to illustrate the application of results in clinical practice, but the majority of those were classified as having moderate effectiveness according to our proposed score. The classification based on the 0-100 score is still highly subjective and can be easily misunderstood in all domains based on each investigator's own experiences and knowledge. PMID:26375563

  13. Results of scientific achievements for production

    SciTech Connect

    Primachenko, V.V.

    1988-07-01

    During recent years the Aluminosilicate Refractory Laboratory of the Ukrainian Scientific-Research Institute for Refractories together with refractory, metallurgical, and other plants has solved a number of problems on the technology and service of refractories. This paper reviews those achievements. A method for producing refractories, vibrocasting, was developed and was found to increase labor productivity by two or three times. The properties of vibrocast refractory parts and materials are discussed and compared to those of pressed and pneumatically rammed refractories. A number of new high-quality forms of refractory production were introduced for fused mullite and heat-resistant mullite-corundum refractories. Increasing the service life of coke oven doors by using an unreinforced block liner and mechanizing their installation and removal was also discussed. The economic savings obtained via these and other developments are cited.

  14. Initial results of SEPAC scientific achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obayashi, T.; Kawashima, N.; Sasaki, S.; Yanagisawa, M.; Kuriki, K.; Nagatomo, M.; Ninomiya, K.; Roberts, W. T.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Williamson, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Electron beam injection of 5 keV, 300 mA (1.5 kW) and MPD arcjet plasma injection of 2 kJ/shot were successfully performed together with various kinds of diagnostic instruments including a high sensitivity TV camera observation in the Spacelab 1. Major scientific results obtained are studies of: (1) vehicle charge-up due to the electron beam emission and its neutralization by the MPD arcjet plasma; (2) beam-plasma interaction including the plasma wave excitation; (3) beam-atmosphere interaction such as the verification of critical velocity ionization effect; and (4) anomalous enhancement of ionization associated with a neutral gas injection into space.

  15. Commentary on text of interview with Professor Lord Ara Darzi: ‘Desirable? Yes; but is it achievable?’

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This personal commentary explores some issues that arise in the text of the interview with Lord Darzi published in LJPC 6.6, from a point of view of an interest in health policy and change in healthcare organisations. It suggests that the vision is desirable but that there are four major questions about ready implementation that the field needs to consider: 1 Can primary care development and investment be protected in a cold financial climate? 2 Does the current marketisation of health care erode integration? 3 Does the health and social care system in London behave like a real system? 4 Is there really a cultural shift towards empowerment and organisational learning? PMID:25949741

  16. Maternal obesity and metabolic risk to the offspring: why lifestyle interventions may have not achieved the desired outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, P; deMouzon, SH

    2015-01-01

    Obesity during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of short- and long-term metabolic dysfunction in the mother and her offspring. Both higher maternal pregravid body mass index (kg m−2) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and fetal adiposity. Multiple lifestyle intervention trials consisting of weight management using various diets, increased physical activity and behavioral modification techniques have been employed to avoid excessive GWG and improve perinatal outcomes. These randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have achieved modest success in decreasing excessive GWG, although the decrease in GWG was often not within the current Institute of Medicine guidelines. RCTs have generally not had any success with decreasing the risk of maternal gestational diabetes (GDM), preeclampsia or excessive fetal growth often referred to as macrosomia. Although the lack of success for these trials has been attributed to lack of statistical power and poor compliance with study protocols, our own research suggests that maternal pregravid and early pregnancy metabolic condition programs early placenta function and gene expression. These alterations in maternal/placental function occur in the first trimester of pregnancy prior to when most intervention trials are initiated. For example, maternal accrural of adipose tissue relies on prior activation of genes controlling lipogenesis and low-grade inflammation in early pregnancy. These metabolic alterations occur prior to any changes in maternal phenotype. Therefore, trials of lifestyle interventions before pregnancy are needed to demonstrate the safety and efficacy for both the mother and her offspring. PMID:25777180

  17. Contraceptive Practices and Fertility Desires Among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ngugi, Evelyn W.; Kim, Andrea A.; Nyoka, Raymond; Ng’ang’a, Lucy; Mukui, Irene; Ng’eno, Bernadette; Rutherford, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prevention of unplanned pregnancies is a critical element in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection, but its potential has not been fully realized. We assessed the utilization of family planning (FP) and fertility desires among women of reproductive age by HIV status. Methods We selected a nationally representative sample of households using a stratified 2-stage cluster design and surveyed women aged 15–49 years. We administered questionnaires and examined predictors of current use of FP and desire for children among sexually active women with known HIV infection and women who were HIV uninfected. Results Of 3583 respondents, 68.2% were currently using FP, and 57.7% did not desire children in the future. Among women who did not desire children in the future, 70.9% reported that they were using FP, including 68.7% of women with known HIV infection and 71.0% of women who were HIV uninfected. Women with known HIV infection had similar odds of using FP as women with no HIV infection (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval: 0.81 to 1.54). Women with no HIV infection had significantly higher adjusted odds of desiring future children (adjusted OR, 2.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.31 to 3.93) than women with known HIV infection. Conclusions There is unmet need for FP for HIV-infected women, underscoring a gap in the national prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategy. Efforts to empower HIV-infected women to prevent unintended pregnancies should lead to expanded access to contraceptive methods and take into account women’s reproductive intentions. PMID:24413040

  18. DC-9/JT8D refan, Phase 1. [technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting DC-9 aircraft with refan engine to achieve desired acoustic levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Analyses and design studies were conducted on the technical and economic feasibility of installing the JT8D-109 refan engine on the DC-9 aircraft. Design criteria included minimum change to the airframe to achieve desired acoustic levels. Several acoustic configurations were studied with two selected for detailed investigations. The minimum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 608 kg (1,342 lb) and the maximum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 809 kg (1,784 lb). The range loss for the minimum and maximum selected acoustic treatment configurations based on long range cruise at 10 668 m (35,000 ft) altitude with a typical payload of 6 804 kg (15,000 lb) amounts to 54 km (86 n. mi.) respectively. Estimated reduction in EPNL's for minimum selected treatment show 8 EPNdB at approach, 12 EPNdB for takeoff with power cutback, 15 EPNdB for takeoff without power cutback and 12 EPNdB for sideline using FAR Part 36. Little difference was estimated in EPNL between minimum and maximum treatments due to reduced performance of maximum treatment. No major technical problems were encountered in the study. The refan concept for the DC-9 appears technically feasible and economically viable at approximately $1,000,000 per airplane. An additional study of the installation of JT3D-9 refan engine on the DC-8-50/61 and DC-8-62/63 aircraft is included. Three levels of acoustic treatment were suggested for DC-8-50/61 and two levels for DC-8-62/63. Results indicate the DC-8 technically can be retrofitted with refan engines for approximately $2,500,000 per airplane.

  19. The Value of Full Correction: Achieving Excellent and Affordable Results.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2016-01-01

    Patients often come to medical aesthetic offices with hopes to fully correct lost facial volume and achieve a natural appearance. Unfortunately, the cost per syringe of dermal filler can be a barrier to desired outcomes. Many aesthetic practitioners do the best they can with the amount of product the patient can afford, often falling short of the "wow" effect for the patient. This article describes what one office implemented to solve the conundrum of affordability while still allowing offices to cover its own financial realities. This tool can help patients achieve beautiful, natural, and affordable outcomes while helping offices advance in manufacturer's tiers, improve word-of-mouth advertising, and increase job satisfaction. PMID:27606585

  20. School Counselors: Closing Achievement Gaps and Writing Results Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartline, Julie; Cobia, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Charged with closing the achievement gap for marginalized students, school counselors need to be able to identify gaps, develop interventions, evaluate effectiveness, and share results. This study examined 100 summary results reports submitted by school counselors after having received four days of training on the ASCA National Model. Findings…

  1. Factors associated with a bad functional prognosis in early inflammatory back pain: results from the DESIR cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lukas, C; Dougados, M; Combe, B

    2016-01-01

    Background Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a heterogeneous disease with hardly predictable potential courses. We aimed at determining prognostic factors of bad functional outcome at 2 years in patients with early inflammatory back pain (IBP). Methods Data from patients included in the French multicentre devenir des spondylarthropathies indifférenciées récentes (DESIR) cohort, that is, suffering from IBP starting before 50 years of age and lasting for 3–36 months, were used. A bad functional outcome at 24 months was defined as an increase in bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), or BASFI at 2 years higher than the 75th centile in the cohort. Demographic, clinical, biological and radiological data collected at inclusion were compared in patients with bad functional outcome versus others, by χ2 test, then by a multivariate logistic regression model with stepwise selection of relevant factors. Results 513 patients (54.4% females, 72.2% fulfilling ASAS criteria) were assessed. Of those, 130 (25.3%) fulfilled the aforementioned criteria of a bad functional outcome (BASFI increase ≥4 units or ≥36 at 2 years). Multivariate analysis revealed that not fulfilling ASAS criteria, female sex, age >33 years, lower educational level, active smoking status and high disease activity according to bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) at baseline were independently associated with a bad functional outcome at 24 months. Sensitivity analyses restricted to patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA resulted in similar results. Conclusion We observed, in a large prospective cohort of patients with early IBP, formerly described bad prognostic factors, especially a low educational level, an older age and a high disease activity at onset, and revealed that active smoking status and female sex were also independently associated with a poor outcome. Fulfilment of ASAS criteria, on the other hand, was predictive of a better outcome

  2. Cardiovascular and selected comorbidities in early arthritis and early spondyloarthritis, a comparative study: results from the ESPOIR and DESIR cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Gherghe, Ana Maria; Dougados, Maxime; Combe, Bernard; Landewé, Robert; Mihai, Carina; Berenbaum, Francis; Mariette, Xavier; Wolterbeek, Ron; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of comorbidities in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) and early axial spondyloarthritis (ESpA) versus the general population. Methods Baseline data of 689 patients with ERA from the Etude et Suivi des Polyarthrites Indifférenciées Récentes (ESPOIR) cohort (age 48.2±12.1 years, symptoms duration 14.2±14.5 weeks) and 645 patients with ESpA from Devenir des Spondylarthropathies Indifférenciées Récentes (DESIR; age 32.8±8.4 years, axial symptoms duration 79.0±45.7 weeks) were analysed. Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), infections and neoplasia were determined in each cohort. The prevalence (95% CI) of several comorbidities was compared with that in the French general population. For patients without CVD, the 10-year risk of developing CVD was calculated using the Framingham and SCORE equations. The heart age was calculated using the 2008 Framingham points system. Results 42% of patients with ERA and 20.3% of patients with ESpA had at least 1 comorbidity; the most common were arterial hypertension (AHT) and dyslipidaemia. AHT prevalence (95% CI) in ERA (18.2% (15.5% to 21.3%)), but not in ESpA (5.08% (3.57% to 7.14%)), was significantly increased (p<0.05) compared with the general population (7.58%). Prevalence of tuberculosis history was higher in ERA (4.7% (3.3% to 6.6%)), and ESpA (0.99% (0.4% to 2.3%)) than in the general population (0.02%; both p<0.05). No differences were observed in malignancies, coronary heart disease or diabetes. In ERA, among patients without a history of CVD, an intermediate to high CVD risk was found. The heart age exceeded the real age by 4.1±9.6 years in ERA and by 2.1±7.0 years in ESpA (p<0.001). Conclusions We found an increased prevalence of AHT and tuberculosis history in ERA and ESpA, and an increased CVD risk. These results should prompt rheumatologists to check these comorbidities early in the disease. PMID:26535145

  3. A Desire for Parsimony

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of wildness is being developed as a quality of interactive processing that increases survival opportunities in nature. A link is made between the need to improve interactive quality for wildness, and cognitive desires and interests in art, music, religion and philosophy as these can also be seen as attempts to improve interactive quality internally and externally. Interactive quality can be improved through gains in parsimony, that is, simplifications in the organisation of skills. The importance of parsimony in evolution is discussed, along with indicators of an internal parsimony desire that experiences joy if achieved through processes such as insight and understanding. A mechanism for the production and measurement of the parsimony desire is proposed, based on the number of subcortical pleasure hotspots that can be stimulated at once within the ‘archipelago’ available in the limbic system. PMID:25379257

  4. A desire for parsimony.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Lawrence J

    2013-12-01

    An understanding of wildness is being developed as a quality of interactive processing that increases survival opportunities in nature. A link is made between the need to improve interactive quality for wildness, and cognitive desires and interests in art, music, religion and philosophy as these can also be seen as attempts to improve interactive quality internally and externally. Interactive quality can be improved through gains in parsimony, that is, simplifications in the organisation of skills. The importance of parsimony in evolution is discussed, along with indicators of an internal parsimony desire that experiences joy if achieved through processes such as insight and understanding. A mechanism for the production and measurement of the parsimony desire is proposed, based on the number of subcortical pleasure hotspots that can be stimulated at once within the 'archipelago' available in the limbic system. PMID:25379257

  5. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2008. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  6. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the principle vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with…

  7. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  8. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  9. Effective Teaching Results in Increased Science Achievement for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2007-01-01

    This study of teacher effectiveness and student achievement in science demonstrated that effective teachers positively impact student learning. A general linear mixed model was used to assess change in student scores on the Discovery Inquiry Test as a function of time, race, teacher effectiveness, gender, and impact of teacher effectiveness in…

  10. Designing a Public Web-Based Information System to Illustrate and Disseminate the Development and Results of the DESIRE Project to Combat Desertification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geeson, Nichola; Brandt, Jane; Quaranta, Giovanni; Salvia, Rosanna

    2014-11-01

    Until around 1995 it was challenging to make the scientific results of research projects publicly available except through presentations at meetings or conferences, or as papers in academic journals. Then it began to be clear that the Internet could become the main medium to publish and share new information with a much wider audience. The DESIRE Project (desertification mitigation and remediation of land—a global approach for local solutions) has built on expertise gained in previous projects to develop an innovative online `Harmonized Information System' (HIS). This documents the context, delivery and evaluation of all tasks in the DESIRE Project using non-scientific terminology, with much of it also available in the local languages of the study sites. The DESIRE-HIS makes use of new possibilities for communication, including video clips, interactive tools, and links to social media networks such as Twitter. Dissemination of research results using this approach has required careful planning and design. This paper sets out the steps that have culminated in a complete online Information System about local solutions to global land management problems in desertification-affected areas, including many practical guidelines for responsible land management. As many of those who are affected by desertification do not have Internet access, printable dissemination materials are also available on the DESIRE-HIS.

  11. Manufacturing of glassy thin shell for adaptive optics: results achieved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poutriquet, F.; Rinchet, A.; Carel, J.-L.; Leplan, H.; Ruch, E.; Geyl, R.; Marque, G.

    2012-07-01

    Glassy thin shells are key components for the development of adaptive optics and are part of future & innovative projects such as ELT. However, manufacturing thin shells is a real challenge. Even though optical requirements for the front face - or optical face - are relaxed compared to conventional passive mirrors, requirements concerning thickness uniformity are difficult to achieve. In addition, process has to be completely re-defined as thin mirror generates new manufacturing issues. In particular, scratches and digs requirement is more difficult as this could weaken the shell, handling is also an important issue due to the fragility of the mirror. Sagem, through REOSC program, has recently manufactured different types of thin shells in the frame of European projects: E-ELT M4 prototypes and VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror (VLT DSM).

  12. Estimated prevalence of mental disorders and the desire for social distance--results from population surveys in two large German cities.

    PubMed

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Mnich, Eva; Kofahl, Christopher; Makowski, Anna Christin; Lambert, Martin; Karow, Anne; Bock, Thomas; Härter, Martin; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2013-10-30

    The study is focused on two research questions: What are the public's estimates of the prevalence of depression, schizophrenia, bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa? What is the relationship between the estimated prevalence of the mental disorders and the public's desire for social distance? Analyses are based on a telephone survey in two large German cities (Hamburg and Munich, N=2014, response rate 51%). Vignettes with typical signs and symptoms suggestive of a depression, schizophrenia, bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa were presented. Respondents were asked about the lifetime prevalence of the mental disorders and their desire for social distance. Across all four disorders under study the respondents markedly overestimate the rates of lifetime prevalence. Increasing prevalence estimation is associated with a significant decrease in the desire for social distance in case of schizophrenia. As for depression, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa there are no significant associations. Many campaigns aimed at reducing stigma emphasize the high prevalence of mental disorders. The assumption of these campaigns is that reduction of the perceived distinction leads to a decrease of the desire for social distance towards those afflicted. Our results indicate that this may not generally be an effective way to reduce stigma. PMID:23623451

  13. Prevalence of sexual desire and satisfaction among patients with screen-detected diabetes and impact of intensive multifactorial treatment: Results from the ADDITION-Denmark study

    PubMed Central

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbæk, Annelli; Charles, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Sexual problems are common in people with diabetes. It is unknown whether early detection of diabetes and subsequent intensive multifactorial treatment (IT) are associated with sexual health. We report the prevalence of low sexual desire and low sexual satisfaction among people with screen-detected diabetes and compare the impact of intensive multifactorial treatment with the impact of routine care (RC) on these measures. Design. A cross-sectional analysis of the ADDITION-Denmark trial cohort six years post-diagnosis. Setting. 190 general practices around Denmark. Subjects. A total of 968 patients with screen-detected type 2 diabetes. Main outcome measures. Low sexual desire and low sexual satisfaction. Results. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age was 64.9 (6.9) years. The prevalence of low sexual desire was 53% (RC) and 54% (IT) among women, and 24% (RC) and 25% (IT) among men. The prevalence of low sexual satisfaction was 23% (RC) and 18% (IT) among women, and 27% (RC) and 37% (IT) among men. Among men, the prevalence of low sexual satisfaction was significantly higher in the IT group than in the RC group, p = 0.01. Conclusion. Low sexual desire and low satisfaction are frequent among men and women with screen-detected diabetes, and IT may negatively impact men's sexual satisfaction. PMID:25659194

  14. A More Desirable Balanced Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition Achieved by Heterologous Expression of Δ15/Δ4 Desaturases in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guiming; Ou, Qin; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Xudong; Sun, Guozhi; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Kunfu; Fang, Heng; Wang, Mingfu; Sun, Jie; Ge, Tangdong

    2013-01-01

    Arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are the most biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids, but their biosyntheses in mammals are very limited. The biosynthesis of DHA is the most difficult, because this undergoes the Sprecher pathway–a further elongation step from docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), a Δ6-desaturase acting on a C24 fatty acid substrate followed by a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper reports the successful heterologous expression of two non-mammalian genes (with modification of codon usage), coding for Euglena gracilis Δ4-desaturase and Siganus canaliculatus Δ4-desaturase respectively, in mammalian cells (HEK293 cell line). Both of the Δ4-desaturases can efficiently function, directly converting DPA into DHA. Moreover, the cooperation of the E. gracilis Δ4-desaturase with C. elegans Δ15-desaturase (able to convert a number of n-6 PUFAs to their corresponding n-3 PUFAs) in transgenic HEK293 cells made a more desirable fatty acid composition – a drastically reduced n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio and a high level of DHA as well as EPA and ARA. Our findings provide a basis for potential applications of the gene constructs for expression of Δ15/Δ4-desaturases in transgenic livestock to produce such a fatty acid profile in the related products, which certainly will bring benefit to human health. PMID:24391980

  15. Perceptions of High Achieving African American/Black 10th Graders from a Low Socioeconomic Community Regarding Health Scientists and Desired Careers

    PubMed Central

    Boekeloo, Bradley; Randolph, Suzanne; Timmons-Brown, Stephanie; Wang, Min Qi

    2014-01-01

    Measures are needed to assess youth perceptions about health science careers to facilitate research aimed at facilitating youth pursuit of health science. Although the Indiana Instrument provides an established measure of perceptions regarding nursing and ideal careers, we were interested in learning how high achieving 10th graders from relatively low socioeconomic areas who identify as Black/African American (Black) perceive health science and ideal careers. The Indiana Instrument was modified, administered to 90 youth of interest, and psychometrically analyzed. Reliable subscales were identified that may facilitate parsimonious, theoretical, and reliable study of youth decision-making regarding health science careers. Such research may help to develop and evaluate strategies for increasing the number of minority health scientists. PMID:25194058

  16. Individual and dyadic barriers to a pharmacotherapeutic treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorders: results and implications from a small-scale study with bupropion.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Uwe H; Rüffer-Hesse, Claudia; Krüger, Tillmann H C; Philippsohn, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the results of an independent small-scale trial with the centrally acting agent bupropion for female hypoactive sexual desire disorder. The main goals were to gain insight into the intrapsychic and interpersonal barriers to improvement associated with the pharmacological treatment of this common disorder. Eligible subjects entered a 2-week run-in period and a 4-week placebo phase, followed by a 20-week treatment phase. In addition to semi-structured clinical interviews and a set of standardized questionnaires, we used 2 self-developed questionnaires, addressing the period between visits and the week preceding each visit. Participants were 16 women who entered the placebo phase and 10 who completed the medication period. Analyses of pre-post scores and of the questionnaire addressing the time between visits yielded no significant changes. The questionnaire focusing on the week preceding each visit indicated improvements in sexual desire, arousability, and orgasmic ease after Week 8. In the clinical interviews, half of the women reported subjective improvements of sexual desire and arousability that could not be transferred to the sexual relationship as a result of individual and dyadic barriers. Overall, a centrally acting agent such as bupropion may be a viable option for female sexual dysfunction, but it seems mandatory to embed it in a psychotherapeutic approach. PMID:22712818

  17. Schooling of Desire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlin, Karen E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses education in virtue, inviting college professors to see themselves not as "meddlers" in students' private lives but rather as interlocutors who prompt students to examine their desires--not simply what they hope to gain, but who they hope to become as a result of their university education. Focuses on the philosophies of Plato,…

  18. Endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: how to achieve optimal results with simple punch technique.

    PubMed

    Naraghi, Mohsen; Tabatabaii Mohammadi, Sayed Ziaeddin; Sontou, Alain Fabrice; Farajzadeh Deroee, Armin; Boroojerdi, Masoud

    2012-05-01

    Endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EEDCR) has been popularized as a minimally invasive technique. Although preliminary reports revealed less success in comparison with external approaches, recent endonasal endoscopic surgeries on various types of DCR have preserved advantages of this technique while diminishing the failures. We described our experience on EEDCR, including the main advantages and disadvantages of it. Hundred consecutive cases of lachrymal problems underwent EEDCR utilizing simple punch removal of bone, instead of powered instrumentation or lasers. The medial aspect of the sac was removed in all of patients, while preserving normal mucosa around the sac. Hundred cases of EEDCR were performed on 81 patients, with 19 bilateral procedures. Nine procedures were performed under local anesthesia. Based on a mean 14 months follow-up, 95 cases were free of symptoms, revealing 95% success rate. The punch technique diminishes the expenses of powered or laser instrumentation with comparable results. It seems that preserving normal tissues and creating a patent rhinostomy with least surgical trauma and less subsequent scar, plays the most important role in achieving desirable results. PMID:22065173

  19. The Neural Correlates of Desire

    PubMed Central

    Kawabata, Hideaki; Zeki, Semir

    2008-01-01

    In an event-related fMRI study, we scanned eighteen normal human subjects while they viewed three categories of pictures (events, objects and persons) which they classified according to desirability (desirable, indifferent or undesirable). Each category produced activity in a distinct part of the visual brain, thus reflecting its functional specialization. We used conjunction analysis to learn whether there is a brain area which is always active when a desirable picture is viewed, regardless of the category to which it belongs. The conjunction analysis of the contrast desirable > undesirable revealed activity in the superior orbito-frontal cortex. This activity bore a positive linear relationship to the declared level of desirability. The conjunction analysis of desirable > indifferent revealed activity in the mid-cingulate cortex and in the anterior cingulate cortex. In the former, activity was greater for desirable and undesirable stimuli than for stimuli classed as indifferent. Other conjunction analyses produced no significant effects. These results show that categorizing any stimulus according to its desirability activates three different brain areas: the superior orbito-frontal, the mid-cingulate, and the anterior cingulate cortices. PMID:18728753

  20. Performance as a Function of Resultant Achievement Motivation (Perceived Ability) and Perceived Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andy

    1974-01-01

    Data confirmed Kukla's attributional theory of performance. When a task is perceived to be difficult, high resultant achievers perform better than low resultant achievers, whereas the low motive group proves to be superior to the high group when the task is perceived as easy. (Author/RK)

  1. Producing desired ice faces

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J.; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih––a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface––due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid. PMID:26512102

  2. Desire, Democracy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thogersen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the concept of eros has found its way back into educational literature with the aim of integrating human desires into educational theories and counteracting a devaluation of emotional life. This paper holds the view that this integration is important because desire expresses a fundamental way of relating to the world. However, part…

  3. Two- and Three-Year Achievement Results from the Memphis Restructuring Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Sanders, William L.; Wright, S. Paul; Stringfield, Sam; Wang, L. Weiping; Alberg, Marty

    2001-01-01

    Presents the results of a study of student achievement, using a value-added testing technique, after 3 years of Memphis Restructuring Initiative. Findings show positive achievement gains in reform schools compared to demographically similar control schools, though strength of gains varied by type of reform and community poverty levels. (Contains…

  4. The Effects of CSCOPE on Student Achievement as Measured by Both TAKS and STAAR Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Maricela Robledo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CSCOPE curriculum on student achievement. CSCOPE is a curriculum management system used in 750 of the 1,039 school districts in the state of Texas. Student achievement is based on the results acquired from the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and the new version of the state…

  5. Some Correlates of Net Gain Resultant from Answer Changing on Objective Achievement Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Daniel J.; Schwedel, Allan

    1975-01-01

    Determines the relationship of sex, answer-changing incidence, and total score to net changes in total score resulting from changing answers, by examining the answer-changing behavior of graduate students responding to achievement test items. (Author/RC)

  6. Hypoactive Sexual Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Helen S.

    1977-01-01

    Low-libido disorders are highly prevalent, may be extremely distressful to patients and their partners, and influence the course and prognosis of therapy. This paper focuses on this important aspect of human sexuality. Some clinical features of hypoactive sexual desire are described, and some hypotheses about etiology and prognosis are presented.…

  7. School Achievement and Personality. Description of School Achievement in Terms of Ability, Trait, Situational and Background Variables. I: Design and Hypotheses; IV: Results and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskanen, Erkki A.

    This monograph, done in Helsinki, Finland, contains the first and fourth sections dealing with design, hypotheses, results, and discussion, describing school achievement in terms of ability, trait, situational, and background variables. The report (1) investigates the structure of school achievement, (2) describes school achievement in terms of…

  8. The Study of Student Achievement as a Result of Modification of Certain Identifiable Teacher Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widell, Waldo R.; And Others

    This study found no significant difference in student achievement as a result of change in identified teacher behaviors in an American History course. The behaviors were those identified in the Stanford Teacher Competence Appraisal Guide. Behavior change was effected through the use of a microteaching teach-reteach cycle with feedback from…

  9. Missing Data and Mixed Results: The Effects of Teach For America on Student Achievement Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Emily K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits existing experimental work on Teach For America (TFA) and extends it by examining treatment effects across the distribution of student achievement. TFA is a rapidly expanding teacher preparation program that currently serves over half a million students in low-income districts across the country. Previous research results did…

  10. Sexual Desire Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment. PMID:19727285

  11. Music Education Desire(ing): Language, Literacy, and Lieder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Issues of desire in music education are integral and anathema to the profession. Constituted of and by desire, we bodily engage music emotionally and cognitively; yet references to the body are limited to how it may be better managed in order to produce more satisfactory (desired) sounds, thus disciplining desire as we focus on the content of…

  12. Next Generation Scientists, Next Opportunities: EPA's Science To Achieve Results (STAR) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M.

    2004-12-01

    Scientific research is one of the most powerful tools we have for understanding and protecting our environment. It provides the foundation for what we know about our planet, how it has changed, and how it could be altered in the future. The National Center for Environmental Research (NCER) in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) supports high-quality, extramural research by the nation's leading scientists and engineers to strengthen the basis for decisions about local and national environmental issues. NCER works with academia, state and local governments, other federal agencies, and scientists in EPA to increase human knowledge of how to protect our health and natural resources through its three major programs: · Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Grants · Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) · Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Fellowships STAR, NCER's primary program, funds research grants and graduate fellowships in environmental science and engineering. Developing the next generation of environmental scientists and engineers is one of NCER's most important objectives. Each year, NCER helps between 80 and 160 students achieve Master's or Ph.D. degrees in environmental science and engineering through its STAR and Greater Research Opportunities (GRO) fellowships. Some of these students have moved on to careers in government while others are now full-time professors and researchers. Still others are working for state environmental agencies or furthering their studies through postdoctoral positions at universities. Since the inception of the NCER program, STAR fellowships (along with grants and SBIR projects) have been awarded in every state in the country. With the help of STAR, current and future scientists and engineers have been able to explore ways to preserve and protect human health and our precious resources.

  13. Flibanserin and Female Sexual Desire.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is one type of sexual problem that can affect women. It is characterized by low or absent sexual desire that cannot be attributed to another cause and results in difficulty in interpersonal relationships. HSDD is not well understood, and women may not report symptoms of difficulties to their health care providers. In August 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved flibanserin, a nonhormonal oral medication for the treatment of HSDD in premenopausal women. Flibanserin is the only currently available pharmacologic treatment for HSDD. This article will provide an overview of flibanserin, including potential adverse reactions, special considerations for use, and implications for nursing practice. PMID:27287358

  14. Results from D-T Experiments on TFTR and Implications for Achieving an Ignited Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R.J. and the TFTR Group

    1998-07-14

    Progress in the performance of tokamak devices has enabled not only the production of significant bursts of fusion energy from deuterium-tritium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) but, more importantly, the initial study of the physics of burning magnetically confined plasmas. As a result of the worldwide research on tokamaks, the scientific and technical issues for achieving an ignited plasma are better understood and the remaining questions more clearly defined. The principal research topics which have been studied on TFTR are transport, magnetohydrodynamic stability, and energetic particle confinement. The integration of separate solutions to problems in each of these research areas has also been of major interest. Although significant advances, such as the reduction of turbulent transport by means of internal transport barriers, identification of the theoretically predicted bootstrap current, and the study of the confinement of energetic fusion alpha-particles have been made, interesting and important scientific and technical issues remain for achieving a magnetic fusion energy reactor. In this paper, the implications of the TFTR experiments for overcoming these remaining issues will be discussed.

  15. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  16. Taking advantage of ground data systems attributes to achieve quality results in testing software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.; Hageman, Barbara H.

    1994-01-01

    During the software development life cycle process, basic testing starts with the development team. At the end of the development process, an acceptance test is performed for the user to ensure that the deliverable is acceptable. Ideally, the delivery is an operational product with zero defects. However, the goal of zero defects is normally not achieved but is successful to various degrees. With the emphasis on building low cost ground support systems while maintaining a quality product, a key element in the test process is simulator capability. This paper reviews the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) test tool that is used in the acceptance test process for unmanned satellite operations control centers. The TASS is designed to support the development, test and operational environments of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) operations control centers. The TASS uses the same basic architecture as the operations control center. This architecture is characterized by its use of distributed processing, industry standards, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components, and reusable software. The TASS uses much of the same TPOCC architecture and reusable software that the operations control center developer uses. The TASS also makes use of reusable simulator software in the mission specific versions of the TASS. Very little new software needs to be developed, mainly mission specific telemetry communication and command processing software. By taking advantage of the ground data system attributes, successful software reuse for operational systems provides the opportunity to extend the reuse concept into the test area. Consistency in test approach is a major step in achieving quality results.

  17. My Desire for Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetrick, Laura J.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, Laura Hetrick focuses on what is inherently missing from the art education literature about teaching future teachers of art--of addressing nascent teachers' personal, pedagogical, and professional desires. Specifically, she considers teachers' desires for power and recognition, their desires to love and be loved, and…

  18. School climate, peer victimization, and academic achievement: results from a multi-informant study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E; Haltigan, J D; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-09-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling, with school climate as a contextual variable. Boys and girls reported no differences in victimization by their peers, although boys had lower GPAs than girls. Peer victimization was related to lower GPA and to a poorer perception of school climate (individual-level), which was also associated with lower GPA. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that peer victimization was again negatively associated with GPA, and that lower school-level climate was associated with lower GPA. Although no moderating effects of school-level school climate or sex were observed, the relation between peer victimization and GPA remained significant after taking into account (a) school-level climate scores, (b) individual variability in school-climate scores, and (c) several covariates--ethnicity, absenteeism, household income, parental education, percentage of minority students, type of school, and bullying perpetration. These findings underscore the importance of a positive school climate for academic success and viewing school climate as a fundamental collective school outcome. Results also speak to the importance of viewing peer victimization as being harmfully linked to students' academic performance. PMID:25198617

  19. A Study of the Generalizability of the Results of a Standardized Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelavin, Sol H.; Barker, Pierce

    A standardized achievement testing program was begun in Alum Rock, California in the fall of 1972 as part of an evaluation of an Educational Voucher Demonstration. During each of the first three years of the demonstration both the form of test administration and the particular level of the standardized achievement test that a student is assigned…

  20. Achievement Goal Validation among African American High School Students: CFA and Rasch Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Caroline O.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Jones, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goal theory helps describe how and why students engage in various academic behaviors. Historically, achievement goals have been examined almost exclusively with undergraduate, nonminority samples, and predominately with factor analytic techniques. The present study adds to a growing literature by providing initial validation of a…

  1. Does Lengthening the School Day Increase Students' Academic Achievement? Results from a Natural Experiment in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    This study (an impact evaluation of the Chilean full school day program) uses difference-in-differences to estimate the effect of a large increase in instructional time on high school students' academic achievement. The main findings are (i) the program had a positive effect on students' achievement in both mathematics and language; (ii) the…

  2. The Influence of Outcome Desirability on Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krizan, Zlatan; Windschitl, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    People are often presumed to be vulnerable to a desirability bias, namely, a tendency to be overoptimistic about a future outcome as a result of their preferences or desires for that outcome. In this article, this form of wishful thinking is distinguished from the more general concepts of motivated reasoning and overoptimism, and the evidence for…

  3. Results from D-T experiments on TFTR and implications for achieving an ignited plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Blanchard, W.; Batha, S.

    1998-07-01

    Progress in the performance of tokamak devices has enable not only the production of significant bursts of fusion energy from deuterium-tritium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) but, more importantly, the initial study of the physics of burning magnetically confined plasmas. As a result of the worldwide research on tokamaks, the scientific and technical issues for achieving an ignited plasma are better understood and the remaining questions more clearly defined. The principal research topics which have been studied on TFTR are transport, magnetohydrodynamic stability, and energetic particle confinement. The integration of separate solutions to problems in each of these research areas has also been of major interest. Although significant advances, such as the reduction of turbulent transport by means of internal transport barriers, identification of the theoretically predicted bootstrap current, and the study of the confinement of energetic fusion alpha-particles have been made, interesting and important scientific and technical issues remain. In this paper, the implications for the TFTR experiments for overcoming these remaining issues will be discussed.

  4. Governing Educational Desire: Culture, Politics, and Schooling in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Andrew B.

    2011-01-01

    Parents in China greatly value higher education for their children, but the intensity and effects of their desire to achieve this goal have largely gone unexamined--until now. "Governing Educational Desire" explores the cultural, political, and economic origins of Chinese desire for a college education as well as its vast consequences, which…

  5. Mathematics beliefs and achievement of adolescent students in Japan: results from the TIMSS 1999 assessment.

    PubMed

    House, J Daniel

    2005-12-01

    A recent study (1) of undergraduate students in a precalculus course indicated that they expressed slightly positive attitudes toward mathematics. It is important, however, to examine relationships between students' initial attitudes and achievement outcomes. The present purpose was to assess the relationship between self-beliefs and mathematics achievement for a large national sample of students from the TIMSS 1999 international sample (eighth graders) from Japan. Several significant relationships between mathematics beliefs and test scores were noted. In addition, the overall multiple regression equation that assessed the joint significance of the complete set of self-belief variables was significant (F7.65 = 159.48, p < .001) and explained 20.6% of the variance in mathematics achievement test scores. PMID:16512286

  6. [Pregnancy desired--baby refused (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Olivier, C

    1983-05-01

    This essay seeks to answer the question of why so many abortions are requested in France when contraceptive methods are readily available by arguing that in such cases, the pregnancy is a response to a woman's unconscious desires while the abortion signifies a return to conscious control. The woman's early relationship to her mother is viewed as a factor in the later playing out of unconscious desires. Little girls, by virtue of their similarity to their mothers, can never be sexual objects in the same way that little boys are. Because infant girls are cared for by adult women who are loving, but not desiring, they are less likely to be satisfied in their early feeding, and this insatisfaction is transferred into adult insatiability in terms of all that comes to her from the man, including sperm. Women must wait until their sex lives begin to receive what men have from the moment of birth; a gift from outside themselves, colored by desire. This feeling of completion is however not accompanied by a desire to mother the child. In other cases the pregnancy may be desired as a proof of femininity or of a feeling of equality with other women that may have been poorly established if the identification with the mother functioned badly. The infant represents something more than himself: perhaps the identity of the woman. The multiplicity of factors involved create difficult consultations for the woman and for the doctor, because, in fact, the woman seeking an abortion views the infant as imaginary, not real. A woman who presents herself more often for abortion than for obstetric care is dominated by neurotic unconscious desires. The psychologist can aid the woman in overcoming postabortal depression by helping her achieve a more profound understanding of her unconscious desires. PMID:12338682

  7. High School Size, Achievement Equity, and Cost: Robust Interaction Effects and Tentative Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert; Howley, Craig; Williams, Tony; Glascock, Catherine

    Research has revealed interactive effects of school size and socioeconomic status--as school size increases, the mean measured achievement of schools with disadvantaged students declines. The larger the number of less advantaged students attending a school, the greater the decline. The same school-level interactions have been found in California,…

  8. Some Results and Comments on Using Latent Structure Models to Measure Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    1980-01-01

    Technical problems in achievement testing associated with using latent structure models to estimate the probability of guessing correct responses by examinees is studied; also the lack of problems associated with using Wilcox's formula score. Maximum likelihood estimates are derived which may be applied when items are hierarchically related.…

  9. Do Teacher Characteristics Matter? New Results on the Effects of Teacher Preparation on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla-Acevedo, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Research fairly consistently demonstrates that teachers are an important measurable factor in student learning, yet few teacher characteristics are shown to be consistently related to student achievement. Using a state administrative dataset that matches individual students to their teachers over time, I find that math teachers' undergraduate…

  10. Influences on Academic Achievement: A Comparison of Results from Uganda and More Industrialized Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    Findings in industrialized countries, such as those of Jencks and Coleman, indicate that socioeconomic status has a strong influence on academic achievement and that school effects are of lesser importance. This study of socioeconomic influences and school influences on the performance of 23,615 Ugandan children taking the Primary Leaving…

  11. Usage of Computers and Calculators and Students' Achievement: Results from TIMSS 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonijevic, Radovan

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the facts obtained from TIMSS 2003 (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study). This international comparative study, which includes 47 participant countries worldwide, explores dependence between eighth grade students' achievement in the areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and geography, and basic…

  12. BOY SCOUT 5 A DAY ACHIEVEMENT BADGE: OUTCOME RESULTS OF A TROOP & INTERNET INTERVENTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: A Boy Scout Five-A-Day Achievement Badge program (SAD), with both troop and Internet-based activities was developed and implemented, and its effect on fruit-juice (FJ) and low-fat vegetable (LV) consumption and psychosocial mediators evaluated. Methods: The nine-week program included 20 ...

  13. 5 A DAY ACHIEVEMENT BADGE FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN BOY SCOUTS: PILOT OUTCOME RESULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boy Scouts are an important channel to complement school-based programs to enable boys to eat more fruit, 100% juice, and vegetables (FJV) for chronic disease prevention. The "5 a Day Achievement Badge" program was presented on a pilot study basis to African-American Boy Scout troops in Houston. Tro...

  14. School Climate, Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement: Results from a Multi-Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…

  15. Improving Achievement in Low-Performing Schools: Key Results for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Randolph E.; Burke, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    As accountability in schools becomes more crucial, educators are looking for comprehensive and innovative management practices that respond to challenges and realities of student academic achievement. In order to improve academic performance and the quality of instruction, the entire school community needs to be involved. This book provides six…

  16. Mathematics Instruction and Achievement of Eighth-Grade Students in Korea: Results from the TIMSS 2007 Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J, Daniel; Telese, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Effective teaching practice for improving student achievement in mathematics is a critical area for instructional design. Further, results from international assessments of mathematics achievement have indicated that students in Korea typically earned test scores higher then international averages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the…

  17. Activating the Desire to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullo, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Wouldn't your job be easier if students were just more interested in learning? Now, here's a book that will open your eyes to where the desire to learn actually comes from and what teachers can really do to activate it. Using stories from classroom teachers, counselors, administrators, and students, Bob Sullo explains why the desire to learn is…

  18. Paedophilia, Sexual Desire, and Perversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiecker, Ben; Steutel, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes justifications given by pedophiles for having sex with children, including an analysis of "sexual desire" and "erotic." Raises the question of whether pedophile activities can ever be morally permissible. Uses principles of mutual consent and non-exploitation to answer negatively. Examines whether pedophile desires can be regarded as…

  19. Are New Technologies Influencing the Academic Results Achieved by Students? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargallo-Castel, Ana; Esteban-Salvador, Luisa; Marzo-Navarro, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the application of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) within tertiary education in a Spanish University. We analyze the results of a new initiative developed by the University of Zaragoza through an innovative project for a virtual campus called "Anillo Digital Docente." Data relating to…

  20. Neighborhoods and Academic Achievement: Results from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment. NBER Working Paper No. 11909

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Kling, Jeffrey R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    Families originally living in public housing were assigned housing vouchers by lottery, encouraging moves to neighborhoods with lower poverty rates. Although we had hypothesized that reading and math test scores would be higher among children in families offered vouchers (with larger effects among younger children), the results show no significant…

  1. Neighborhoods and Academic Achievement: Results from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Kling, Jeffrey R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    Families originally living in public housing were assigned housing vouchers by lottery, encouraging moves to neighborhoods with lower poverty rates. Although we had hypothesized that reading and math test scores would be higher among children in families offered vouchers (with larger effects among younger children), the results show no significant…

  2. So What's Different? Student Achievement and Attitude Results from Instructional Development Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastmond, J. Nicholls; Van Horn, Kathleen L.

    Reported are the results of instructional development projects at Utah State University, funded under mini grants, faculty development grants, or developmental grants to departments. These projects involve redesign of courses in media production, library resources, pattern design and fitting, counselling psychology, quantitative methods,…

  3. Is the Presence of a Results-Oriented Professional Learning Community Predictive of Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between teacher collaboration practices known as working as a professional learning community (PLC) and student performance. Through a review of the current literature, an operational framework of PLCs was developed that distinguished results-oriented from inquiry-oriented PLCs. The study considered the…

  4. Student Achievement in Private Schools: Results From NAEP 2000-2005. NCES 2006-459

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This report is the first to focus on private school students' performance on NAEP assessments. It provides results in reading, mathematics, science, and writing in 2000, 2002, 2003, and 2005. Specifically, it focuses on the three private school types that combined enroll the greatest proportion of private school students (Catholic, Lutheran, and…

  5. "STEPS" Avionics for Exploration Systems the Achieved Results and the Next "STEPS-2"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Andrea; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Gaia, Enrico; Paccagnini, Carlo

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents the STEPS project reached results in the avionics domains like: vision-based GNC for Mars Descent & Landing, Hazard avoidance and complete spacecraft autonomy; Autonomous Rover Navigation, based on perception, 3D map reconstruction and path planning; Mobility & Mechanisms providing an Integrated Ground Mobility System, Rendezvous & Docking equipment, and protection from Environment effects; Human-machine interface features of a predictive Command and Control System;; novel Design & Development Tools, such as a Rover S/W simulator and prototypes of the DEM viewer and of a S/W Rock Creator/visualizator. This paper presents also the STEPS 2 project that started January 2013 and is aimed at improving the development of the most promising technologies, selected from the results of the first STEP phase, and addressing the needs of the exploration missions as defined in the 2012 ministerial conference, with the ultimate goal of an in-flight validation within next five years.

  6. Achieving Higher Diagnostic Results in Stereotactic Brain Biopsy by Simple and Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Gulsen, Salih

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurosurgeons have preferred to perform the stereotactic biopsy for pathologic diagnosis when the intracranial pathology located eloquent areas and deep sites of the brain. AIM: To get a higher ratio of definite pathologic diagnosis during stereotactic biopsy and develop practical method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We determined at least two different target points and two different trajectories to take brain biopsy during stereotactic biopsy. It is a different way from the conventional stereotactic biopsy method in which one point has been selected to take a biopsy. We separated our patients into two groups, group 1 (N=10), and group 2 (N= 19). We chose one target to take a biopsy in group 1, and two different targets and two different trajectories in group 2. In group 2, one patient underwent craniotomy due to hemorrhage at the site of the biopsy during tissue biting. However, none of the patients in both groups suffered any neurological complication related biopsy procedure. RESULTS: In group 1, two of 10 cases, and, in group 2, fourteen of 19 cases had positive biopsy harvesting. These results showed statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Regarding these results, choosing more than one trajectories and taking at least six specimens from each target provides higher diagnostic rate in stereotaxic biopsy taking method.

  7. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

    2003-02-26

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

  8. Interprofessional curriculum development achieves results: Initial evidence from a dementia-care protocol.

    PubMed

    Annear, Michael James; Goldberg, Lynette R; Lo, Amanda; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the outcomes of a five-day, protocol-based interprofessional education (IPE) initiative to prepare undergraduate medical, nursing, and paramedic students for collaborative work with adults with dementia. Clinical placements provided a structured and supervised IPE experience for 127 students in two Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs) in Hobart, Australia, during 2013 and 2014. The IPE activity was based on a seven-step protocol formulated by an interprofessional team of educators and aged care practitioners that revolved around collaborative assessments of adults with complex health needs. This article describes the IPE protocol and presents the results of a pre- and post-placement attitude questionnaire and knowledge quiz administered to evaluate student attitudes towards IPE and knowledge of dementia. Data suggest that a five-day, supervised, and protocol-based IPE experience in a dementia-care setting can inculcate positive changes in student attitudes about collaborative practice and may encourage dementia-related learning outcomes. PMID:27029913

  9. The South America VLF Network - SAVNET: Achievements, Latest Results and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present recent results obtained by the South America VLF Network (SAVNET). The use of the VLF technique by tracking subionospheric propagation anomalies appears as a very promising tool to study various aspects of Space Weather disturbances. On long timescales it is possible to indirectly monitor the solar Lyman-alpha radiation along the solar cycles. Short time phenomena like solar explosive events can be observed with 100% probability, even for the small intensity events. The effect of high-energy precipitating solar particles can be tracked in the low ionosphere. The same technique is also relevant to study the ionospheric perturbations caused by geomagnetic storms on typical timescales of a day to few days. Extra solar and terrestrial high-energy phenomena are naturally detected in the very sensitive low ionospheric plasma, as Gamma-ray bursts and Soft Gamma-ray repeaters. Finally, the remote sensing of the low ionosphere is also used to search for seismic-electromagnetic effects prior to Earthquakes. At the present time, SAVNET is composed of nine (9) tracking receiver stations in Brazil, Peru, Argentina and Mexico. In this presentation we will describe our future plans for expanding the array. Eastern Europe, Ecuador and Asia are good host candidates to participate in these forthcoming activities. The array expansion is necessary to improve the probability detection of very high-energy remote phenomena, and to demonstrate that these processes of great astrophysical importance can be easily detected using a cheap and simple technique.

  10. Sex Differences in Judgments of Social Desirability.

    PubMed

    Paunonen, Sampo V

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluates sex differences in the perceived desirability of personality behaviors and beliefs. Men and women (N = 149, Mage  = 18.7) judged the social desirability scale values (SDSVs) of 150 personality statements as applied either to a male target or a female target. For comparison, some estimated SDSVs with no target sex specified. A separate sample of 537 respondents endorsed the 150 items via self-report. Raters showed a high consensus in their SDSV judgments within conditions (α = .86 to .90) and no sex-of-rater effects across conditions. Substantial sex-of-target effects (p < .001), however, revealed many behaviors that were viewed as desirable for one sex but not for the other. The behaviors seen as more (less) desirable when applied to men rather than to women were endorsed more (less) by men than by women in the respondent sample. Similar results were found when no target sex was specified for the SDSV ratings, presumably because judges evaluated the behaviors as applied to a target of their own sex. The present results have important implications for the measurement and reporting of SDSVs, the evaluation of substance versus style in self-reports, and the construction of desirability-reduced personality inventories. PMID:25728192

  11. A Compelling Desire for Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veale, David

    2006-01-01

    A case is described of a patient who has a compelling and persistent desire to become deaf. She often kept cotton wool moistened with oil in her ears and was learning sign language. Living without sound appeared to be a severe form of avoidance behavior from hyperacusis and misophonia. She had a borderline personality disorder that was associated…

  12. Lifelong Learning, Policy and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Recent lifelong learning policies have been criticized for creating an illusion of freedom whilst simultaneously reducing choice. The concept of desire permits engagement with the conscious and unconscious drives that underpin individual decision-making, which direct the life course. Utilizing the ideas of Hume and Spinoza, the present article…

  13. The Valid Use of NAEP Achievement Level Scores to Confirm State Test Results in the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneberg, Bert D.

    2007-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act sanctions the use of NAEP scores to confirm state testing results. The U.S. Department of Education, as test developer, is responsible to set forth how NAEP scores are to be interpreted and used. Thus far, the Department has not published a clear set of guidelines for using NAEP achievement level scores to conduct a…

  14. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M.; Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery, Shelly; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farritor, Shane; Joyce, James; Rebrovich, Barb

    2003-01-01

    Condensing five years of significant work into a brief narrative fitting PPR requirements gave the affiliates of the Nebraska Space Grant a valuable chance for reflection. Achievements of Space Grant in Nebraska were judiciously chosen for this document that best illustrate the resultant synergism of this consortium, keeping in mind that these examples are only a representation of greater activity throughout the state. Following are highlights of many of the finer and personal achievements for Nebraska Space Grant. The Consortium welcomes inquiries to elaborate on any of these accomplishments.

  15. Safety Observations Achieve Results

    2000-01-16

    The SOAR web application provides a multi-checklist capability where focused observations can be created to address risk-likely work environments, tasks, etc. The SOAR web application has numerous reports to sort the data by key word, multiple factors (i.e., location, team, behavior, checklist, work environment, etc.), and the highest frequency of behaviors and error-likely predecessors, etc. Other performance indicators are also provided.

  16. Social Desirability Scales: More Substance than Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Compared self-reports from 215 adults to the external criterion of spouse ratings of personality traits to separate substance from style in social desirability (SD) scales. Results showed that correcting self-reports for SD failed to improve correspondence with an external, objective criterion and in several cases lowered agreement. (LLL)

  17. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other. PMID:26255443

  18. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning

    PubMed Central

    BJORK, ROBERT A.; KROLL, JUDITH F.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other. PMID:26255443

  19. Goal desires moderate intention-behaviour relations.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, Andrew; Perugini, Marco; Hurling, Robert

    2008-03-01

    Models such as the Extended Model of Goal-Directed Behaviour and the Theory of Planned Behaviour imply that the impact of one's goals on behaviour is mediated by more proximal determinants. We hypothesize that goals can have a broader and more dynamic impact on behaviour and, specifically, that goal desires can moderate the effect of intentions on behaviour. Four studies addressed this issue by examining the direct and moderated effects of goal desires on behaviour. All of the studies required participants to complete baseline measures and then a follow-up indicator of behaviour. In Study 1 (N=119) that focused on fruit intake, Study 2 (N=123) and Study 3 (N=96) concerned with drinking alcohol and Study 4 (N=109) regarding snack consumption, behavioural intentions were more reliably related to behaviour when goal desires were strong. The results of Study 3 suggested that goal desire stability increases the likelihood of this moderator effect emerging and Study 4 revealed that this effect was not suppressed by intention stability. The findings suggest that goals and behavioural intentions can operate simultaneously and jointly influence action, a view that contradicts predictions that the effects of goals are fully mediated by more proximal behavioural determinants. PMID:17594757

  20. Visualizing desirable patient healthcare experiences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sandra S; Kim, Hyung T; Chen, Jie; An, Lingling

    2010-01-01

    High healthcare cost has drawn much attention and healthcare service providers (HSPs) are expected to deliver high-quality and consistent care. Therefore, an intimate understanding of the most desirable experience from a patient's and/or family's perspective as well as effective mapping and communication of such findings should facilitate HSPs' efforts in attaining sustainable competitive advantage in an increasingly discerning environment. This study describes (a) the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the experience desired by patients and (b) the application of two visualization tools that are relatively new to the healthcare sector, namely the "spider-web diagram" and "promotion and detraction matrix." The visualization tools are tested with primary data collected from telephone surveys of 1,800 patients who had received care during calendar year 2005 at 6 of 61 hospitals within St. Louis, Missouri-based, Ascension Health. Five CQAs were found by factor analysis. The spider-web diagram illustrates that communication and empowerment and compassionate and respectful care are the most important CQAs, and accordingly, the promotion and detraction matrix shows those attributes that have the greatest effect for creating promoters, preventing detractors, and improving consumer's likelihood to recommend the healthcare provider. PMID:20155554

  1. Testosterone and sexual desire in healthy women and men.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Sari M

    2012-12-01

    Sexual desire is typically higher in men than in women, with testosterone (T) thought to account for this difference as well as within-sex variation in desire in both women and men. However, few studies have incorporated both hormonal and social or psychological factors in studies of sexual desire. The present study addressed how three psychological domains (sexual-relational, stress-mood, body-embodiment) were related to links between T and sexual desire in healthy adults and whether dyadic and solitary desire showed associations with T. Participants (n = 196) were recruited as part of the Partnering, Physiology, and Health study, which had 105 men and 91 women who completed questionnaires and provided saliva for cortisol and T assays. T was positively linked to solitary desire in women, with masturbation frequency influencing this link. In contrast, T was negatively correlated with dyadic desire in women, but only when cortisol and perceived social stress were controlled. Replicating past findings, no significant correlations between T and desire in men were apparent, but these analyses showed that the null association remained even when psychological and confound variables were controlled. Men showed higher desire than women, but masturbation frequency rather than T influenced this difference. Results were discussed in terms of challenges to assumptions of clear links between T and desire, gendered approaches to T, and the unitarity of desire. PMID:22552705

  2. Desired professional development pathways for clinical pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Shord, Stacy S; Schwinghammer, Terry L; Badowski, Melissa; Banderas, Julie; Burton, Michael E; Chapleau, Christopher A; Gallagher, Jason C; Matsuura, Gregory; Parli, Sara E; Yunker, Nancy

    2013-04-01

    The 2012 American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Certification Affairs Committee was charged with developing guidelines for the desired professional development pathways for clinical pharmacists. This document summarizes recommendations for postgraduate education and training for graduates of U.S. schools and colleges of pharmacy and describes the preferred pathways for achieving, demonstrating, and maintaining competence as clinical pharmacists. After initial licensure within the state or jurisdiction in which the pharmacist intends to practice, completion of an accredited PGY1 pharmacy residency is recommended to further develop the knowledge and skills needed to optimize medication therapy outcomes. An accredited PGY2 pharmacy residency should be completed if a pharmacist wishes to seek employment in a specific therapeutic area or practice setting, if such a residency exists. Clinical pharmacists intending to conduct advanced research that is competitive for federal funding are encouraged to complete a fellowship or graduate education. Initial certification by the Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS) or other appropriate sponsoring organizations should be completed in the desired primary therapeutic area or practice setting within 2 years after accepting a position within the desired specific therapeutic area or practice setting. Clinical pharmacists subsequently will need to meet the requirements to maintain pharmacist licensure and board certification. Traineeships, practice-based activities, and certificate programs can be used to obtain additional knowledge and skills that support professional growth. Pharmacists are strongly encouraged to adopt a lifelong, systematic process for professional development and work with ACCP and other professional organizations to facilitate the development and implementation of innovative strategies to assess core practice competencies. PMID:23401084

  3. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery Shelly; Calamaio, Caprice; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne; Farritor, Shane

    2003-01-01

    This 15-year evaluation serves as a summary document highlighting the numerous and complete successes of the Nebraska Space Grant Program. Innovation has been highlighted through significant new endeavors during this 5-year period, such as placement of students and faculty at NASA Centers and the expansion of NSGC Native American Outreach Programs. While the last national program evaluation resulted in Nebraska s ranking as the top Capability Enhancement Consortium, and 5th best overall, Nebraska felt there was room for significant growth and development. This has been validated through the recent competitive attainment of Designated Grant status and has allowed for the exploration of new initiatives, as well as the expansion of already successful programs. A comprehensive strategic planning effort has involved all Nebraska representative entities and has guided Nebraska Space Grant through the evaluation period, providing a basis for continual advancement. Nebraska rigorously employs evaluation techniques to ensure that stated outcomes and metrics are achieved and that weaknesses are identified and corrected. With this coordinated approach, Nebraska expects that the next 5 years will yield new opportunities for significant achievement. Nebraska Space Grant will embrace new national endeavors, including the integration of Pender Public Schools -Nebraska s NASA Explorer School, geospatial initiatives, and the National Student Satellite Program.

  4. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  5. Social desirability bias in personality testing: Implications for astronaut selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandal, Gro M.; Musson, Dave; Helmreich, Robert. L.; Gravdal, Lene

    2005-07-01

    The assessment of personality is recognized by space agencies as an approach to identify candidates likely to perform optimally during spaceflights. In the use of personality scales for selection, the impact of social desirability (SD) has been cited as a concern. Study 1 addressed the impact of SD on responses to the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and NEO-FFI. This was achieved by contrasting scores from active astronauts (N=65) with scores of successful astronaut applicants (N=63), and between pilots applicants (N=1271) and pilot research subjects (N=120). Secondly, personality scores were correlated with scores on the Marlow Crown Social Desirability Scale among applicants to managerial positions (N=120). The results indicated that SD inflated scores on PCI scales assessing negative interpersonal characteristics, and impacted on four of five scales in NEO-FFI. Still, the effect sizes were small or moderate. Study 2 addressed performance implications of SD during an assessment of males applying to work as rescue personnel operations in the North Sea (N=22). The results showed that SD correlated negatively with cognitive test performance, and positively with discrepancy in performance ratings between self and two observers. In conclusion, caution is needed in interpreting personality scores in applicant populations. SD may be a negative predictor for performance under stress.

  6. Social desirability bias in personality testing: implications for astronaut selection.

    PubMed

    Sandal, Gro M; Musson, Dave; Helmreich, Robert L; Gravdal, Lene

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of personality is recognized by space agencies as an approach to identify candidates likely to perform optimally during spaceflights. In the use of personality scales for selection, the impact of social desirability (SD) has been cited as a concern. Study 1 addressed the impact of SD on responses to the Personality Characteristic Inventory(PCI) and NEO-FFI. This was achieved by contrasting scores from active astronauts (N=65) with scores of successful astronaut applicants (N=63), and between pilots applicants (N=1271) and pilot research subjects (N=120). Secondly, personality scores were correlated with scores on the Marlow Crown Social Desirability Scale among applicants to managerial positions (N=120). The results indicated that SD inflated scores on PCI scales assessing negative interpersonal characteristics, and impacted on four of five scales in NEO-FFI. Still, the effect sizes were small or moderate. Study 2 addressed performance implications of SD during an assessment of males applying to work as rescue personnel operations in the North Sea (N=22). The results showed that SD correlated negatively with cognitive test performance, and positively with discrepancy in performance ratings between self and two observers. In conclusion, caution is needed in interpreting personality scores in applicant populations. SD maybe a negative predictor for performance under stress. PMID:16010763

  7. Different Methods, Different Results: Examining the Implications of Methodological Divergence and Implicit Processes for Achievement Goal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Laura; Remedios, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal theory is one of the most popular theories of achievement motivation. Techniques researchers have used to assess goals include standardized questionnaires and interviews. One curious finding is that participants whose self-report questionnaire responses strongly indicate they operate with a performance goal do not make performance…

  8. Classroom Instruction and Science Achievement in Japan, Hong Kong, and Chinese Taipei: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J. Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The Third International Mathematics and Science Study represents the most comprehensive international assessment of educational contexts and student achievement yet conducted. As part of the examination of the effects of contextual factors on student achievement, a model was constructed that considered the effects of variables such as…

  9. Pleasure/Desire, Sexularism and Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Louise

    2012-01-01

    Pleasure and desire have been important components of researchers' vision for sexuality education for over 20 years, a trend inspired by Michelle Fine's seminal paper, "Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire." This essay considers how discourses related to pleasure and desire have been taken up in the USA and…

  10. Mapping degradation and conservation in the DESIRE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lynden, G.; Mantel, S.

    2012-04-01

    Mapping degradation and conservation in the DESIRE Project The World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies initiative (WOCAT) started in 1992, in reaction to the Global Assessment of Soil Degradation (GLASOD) by ISRIC. The original idea of WOCAT was to develop a world map similar the GLASOD one, however showing the positive side, i.e. describing what achievements had been made to combat soil degradation. Since 1992 WOCAT has developed and tested a method for standardized documentation and evaluation of Sustainable Land Management (SLM). It comprises three questionnaires, for documenting "Technologies" (what is actually implemented in the field), "Approaches" (what is needed in terms of "enabling environment" for a successful implementation of a technology) and a mapping questionnaire. The resulting database currently counts more than 350 technologies and over 250 approaches from around 50 countries. In the DESIRE project the WOCAT mapping tool was used to map area coverage, degree, impact, effectiveness, and other parameters of land degradation and conservation for 16 study sites. The mapping method in the study sites complements the information provided by the individual case studies on technologies and Approaches. It evaluates what type of land degradation is actually happening where and what is done about it in terms of Sustainable Land Management (SLM). The on-line map database is hosted by WOCAT, and the mapped outputs that can be generated from this database provide a powerful tool to obtain an overview of land degradation and conservation in a country, a region, or worldwide.

  11. Preliminary Results of Bioactive Amniotic Suspension with Allograft for Achieving One and Two-Level Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Eubulus J.; Utter, Philip A.; Cavanaugh, David A.; Frank, Kelly A.; Moody, Devan; McManus, Brian; Stone, Marcus B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone graft material for lumbar fusion was historically autologous bone graft (ABG). In recent years alternatives such as allograft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM), ceramics, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) have gained favor, although the complications of these are not fully understood. Bioactive amniotic suspension (BAS) with allograft is a new class of material derived from human amniotic tissue. Methods Eligible patients receiving a one or two level lumbar interbody fusion with Nucel, a BAS with allograft, were contacted and scheduled for a mininmim 12 month follow-up visit. Patients were evaluated for fusion using CT's and plain radiographs. Clincal outcomes, including ODI, VAS back and leg were collected, as well as comorbidities including BMI, smoking status, diabetes and previous lumbar surgery. Results One-level patients (N=38) were 71.1% female with mean age of 58.4 ± 12.7 and mean BMI of 30.6 ± 6.08. Two-level patients (N=34) were 58.8% female with mean age of 49.3 ±10.9 and mean BMI of 30.1 ± 5.82. Kinematic fusion was achieved in 97.4% of one-level patients and 100% of two-level patients. Baseline comorbidities were present in 89.5% of one-level patients and 88.2% of two-level patients. No adverse events related to BAS were reported in this study. Conclusion Fusion status is evaluated with many different biologics and varying methods in the literature. BAS with allograft in this study demonstrated high fusion rates with no complications within a largely comorbid population. Although a small population, BAS with allograft results were encouraging for one and two-level lumbar interbody fusion in this study. Further prospective studies should be conducted to investigate safety and efficacy in a larger population. PMID:27162714

  12. Clinical service desires of medical cannabis patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical cannabis dispensaries following the social or hybrid model offer supplementary holistic services in addition to dispensing medical cannabis. Historically, alternative physical health services have been the norm for these dispensaries, including services such as yoga, acupuncture, or chiropractor visits. A clinical service dearth remains for medical cannabis patients seeking substance use, misuse, dependence, and mental health services. This study examined patient desires for various clinical services and level of willingness to participate in specific clinical services. Methods Anonymous survey data (N = 303) were collected at Harborside Health Center (HHC), a medical cannabis dispensary in Oakland, CA. The sample was 70% male, 48% Caucasian and 21% African American. The mean male age was 38 years old and female mean age was 30. Sixty two percent of the male participants and 44% of the female participants are single. Sixteen percent of the population reported having a domestic partner. Forty six percent of the participants are employed full time, 41% have completed at least some college, and 49% make less than $40,000 a year. Results A significant portion of the sample, 62%, indicated a desire to participate in free clinical services at HHC, 34% would like more information about substances and use, and 41% want to learn more about reducing harms from substance use. About one quarter of the participants marked "would" or "likely would" participate in individual services such as consultation. Approximately 20% indicated "would" or "likely would" participate in psycho-educational forums, harm reduction information sharing sessions, online support groups, and coping, life, and social skills group. There was little interest in traditional NA/AA 12-step groups or adapted 12-step groups. Conclusions Desired clinical services can be qualified as a combination of harm reduction, educational, skills-based, peer support and therapeutic individual and group

  13. Bibliotherapy for low sexual desire: evidence for effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Mintz, Laurie B; Balzer, Alexandra M; Zhao, Xinting; Bush, Hannah E

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of bibliotherapy for low sexual desire among women, which is the most frequent sexual concern brought to counselors. Forty-five women responded to an advertisement for participation in a study on low sexual desire and were assigned to either the intervention or the wait-list control group. The intervention group completed the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Desire (HISD; Apt & Hurlbert, 1992) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; R. Rosen et al., 2000), read the self-help book under study in 6 weeks, and completed the measures a second time. The control group completed the same measures 6 weeks apart. Results demonstrated that the intervention group made statistically greater gains over time as compared with the control group on measures of sexual desire (HISD and FSFI Desire subscale), sexual arousal (FSFI Arousal subscale), sexual satisfaction (FSFI Satisfaction subscale), and overall sexual functioning (FSFI Total Score). A subset of participants in the intervention group participated in a 7-week follow-up study, and these participants maintained their gains in sexual desire and overall sexual functioning. Findings have important implications for future research on the efficacy of bibliotherapy generally and for low sexual desire specifically. Results also have vital implications for the treatment of low sexual desire. PMID:22774869

  14. Breast cancer early diagnosis experience in Florence: can a self referral policy achieve the results of service screening?

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, D; Paci, E; Zappa, M; Rosselli del Turco, M

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To assess the impact of a breast clinic on a specific target population and evaluate early diagnosis performance indicators for breast cancer in the presence of a self referral policy. DESIGN--Women living in Florence between 1980 and 1989 who had undergone mammography at a self referral breast clinic were studied. Main outcome measures were the use of mammography in relation to age, symptoms, and the interval between two subsequent tests, and early diagnosis performance indicators were the detection rate (DR), the prevalence/incidence ratio, and the proportion of early detected cancers. Performance indicators were compared with those from formal screening programmes. SETTING--Florence, Italy. PATIENTS--All mammograms performed at the clinic from 1980-89 in 40-69 year old women living in Florence were examined (n = 42,226). Records included the date of birth and of the examination, the reason for testing (asymptomatic/presence of pain/presence of symptoms other than pain), and the TNM classification for breast cancer cases. MAIN RESULTS--The total number of mammograms performed per annum increased by 70% over the decade, but much of this was routine repeat mammography (54.1% in 1989). Rates of first examinations in asymptomatic women increased in the second half of the decade from 17 per 1000 in 1985 to 31 per 1000 in 1989. Mammographic coverage decreased with increasing age from 12.6% in 40-49 year olds to 6.0% in 60-69 years old. Performance indicators of the activity in asymptomatic women were comparable with those expected in service screening. The proportion of not advanced cancers detected in asymptomatic women was 62.3% with a DR of 5.3 per 1000, and the average prevalence/incidence ratio was 2.9. CONCLUSIONS--High quality mammography performed in a breast clinic in self referred asymptomatic women can achieve as good results as a formal invitation screening service. Only a few of these women will benefit, but those who do are likely to be

  15. Evolution of the concept of Capacity-building, results achieved during the past years and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laffaiteur, M.; Camacho, S.

    -faring countries and developing countries. A strategy has been presented by the Action Team in order to implement a strategy aimed at increasing again the impact of the various initiatives already going on. The promotion of the sharing of educational materials and information could be facilitated by a network of bodies in UN Member States, dedicated organizations and UN regional centres. This presentation will aim to show the current status of this issue and to present results already achieved and the way forward.

  16. Can Research Design Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results? A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which differences in research design explain variation in Head Start program impacts. We employ meta-analytic techniques to predict effect sizes for cognitive and achievement outcomes as a function of the type and rigor of research design, quality and type of outcome measure, activity level of control group, and…

  17. The Economy-Wide Benefits of Increasing the Proportion of Students Achieving Year 12 Equivalent Education: Modelling Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This study analyzed the economic benefits of an increase in the proportion of Australian students achieving a 12th-grade equivalent education. Earlier research examined the direct costs and benefits of a program that increased 12th grade equivalent education for the five-year cohort 2003-2007. This study built on that by incorporating the indirect…

  18. The Impact of Every Classroom, Every Day on High School Student Achievement: Results from a School-Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Diane M.; Berg, Juliette K.; Alicea, Stacey; Si, Yajuan; Aber, J. Lawrence; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Every Classroom, Every Day (ECED) is a set of instructional improvement interventions designed to increase student achievement in math and English/language arts (ELA). ECED includes three primary components: (a) systematic classroom observations by school leaders, (b) intensive professional development and support for math teachers and…

  19. From desires to behavior: Moderating factors in a fertility transition

    PubMed Central

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Agadjanian, Victor

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Extensive research in both developed and developing countries has shown that preferences and intentions for future childbearing predict behavior. However, very little of this research has examined high-fertility contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the factors that increase or decrease correspondence between fertility desires and behavior in these settings are not well understood. OBJECTIVE This article documents the degree to which the desire to stop childbearing predicts fertility behavior over the short term among married women in rural southern Mozambique, a context where fertility transition is still in the early stages. Analyses test the moderating powers of individual, household, and community characteristics. METHODS Analyses use data from a longitudinal survey of married women of reproductive age (N=1678) carried out in 2006 and 2009 in rural areas of southern Mozambique. Logistic regression models are estimated to predict childbearing between 2006 and 2009 based on desires to stop childbearing and characteristics measured in 2006. RESULTS As expected, the desire to stop childbearing is strongly predictive of fertility behavior. Household wealth, local adult AIDS mortality, and being married to an unsuccessful labor migrant are associated with higher correspondence between reported desire to stop childbearing and fertility behavior. CONCLUSIONS Both factors related to the ability to carry out desires to stop childbearing and factors related to the strength and consistency of these desires moderate the association between desires and behaviors. Future research should expand measurement of fertility preferences to incorporate their strength and consistency as well as direction. PMID:23626485

  20. Grating image with desired shaped dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Hideaki; Toda, Toshiki; Takahashi, Susumu; Sawamura, Chikara; Iwata, Fujio

    2000-03-01

    A new type of Grating Image we dominate as `Sparklegram' is presented. The Sparklegram is characterized because it provides high quality and better design flexibility. These features are achieved by constructing it with shaped dots as desired. Each dot can be designed as an individual shape, for example, a star or a triangle. As dot shapes, we can use not only geometric patterns, but also some kind of symbols. Not only flexibility of each consists dot shape, but also the quality of reconstructed image is remarkably increased too. Because of these features, the constructed image with the new type of Grating Image, Sparklegram has high quality and high flexibility. It can be applied to security use, for example on credit-cards, tickets, etc., and also can be applied to the package of software products, CDs, videos and other kind of items requiring security. And with these features of flexibility and high quality, Sparklegram has also advantages to be applied to other use, for example amusement use, comics and game characters' goods and packages.

  1. Social desirability and sexual offenders: a review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lavinia; Grace, Randolph C

    2008-03-01

    Social desirability--the desire to make a favorable impression on others-poses a significant threat to the validity of self-reports. This review examines research on social desirability in both forensic and nonforensic populations with the goal of identifying how best to minimize threats to the validity of research with sexual offenders. Although social desirability has long been a major research topic in personality, consensus has not been reached on key questions such as its dimensional structure and whether social desirability constitutes a trait or a response bias. Research with offenders has shown that social desirability is negatively related to recidivism and that different offender subtypes vary in the degree to which social desirability appears to influence self-reports, with child molesters exhibiting the strongest tendency to "fake good." Several methods of controlling for social desirability have been proposed, but the effectiveness of these methods in increasing validity of offender self reports is questionable. Given the lack of consensus in the personality literature, a fresh start is needed in which basic questions regarding social desirability are revisited with respect to offender populations. PMID:18420557

  2. Exploring the Achievement Gap between White and Minority Students in Texas: A Comparison of the 1996 and 2000 NAEP and TAAS Eighth Grade Mathematics Test Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Thomas H.; Kester, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Compared scores for Texas eighth graders on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) and National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to study the achievement gap in mathematics in 1996 and 2000. Results show the likelihood of a ceiling effect impacting students' TAAS scores that created the illusion the achievement gap had narrowed.…

  3. Elementary School Achievement Profiles. A School-by-School Report of Basic Skills, Test Results, and School/Student/Staff Data. School Year 1983-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Dept. of Research, Evaluation, and Testing.

    This report presents the 1983-84 summary achievement profiles of the 82 Portland, Oregon, elementary schools for use by school staffs, administrators, and the community for planning, goal setting, and evaluation. The profiles contain Portland Achievement Level Tests results plus data on the physical facility, school personnel, student enrollment,…

  4. The Predictability of Enrolment and First-Year University Results from Secondary School Performance: The New Zealand National Certificate of Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Tumen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the predictive correlations between results from the New Zealand National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA), a standards-based qualification, and university grade point averages achieved by first-year students in one large New Zealand University (and, for comparison purposes, also presents correlations from the…

  5. Substituting telecommunications for travel - Feasible or desirable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Vleck, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in telecommunications and examines the detailed structure of travel to estimate the feasibility of substituting telecommunications for various travel objectives. The impact of travel is analyzed from a social, economic, energy, and pollution standpoint to assess the desirability of substitution. Perhaps 35-50% of the nation's travel could, in theory, be replaced by very advanced telecommunications (such as a much improved large-screen teleconferencing network), but public resistance would be massive. Much economic dislocation would result since, for example, over 25% of retail sales are travel-related. The energy savings would be modest since only 25% of the nation's energy is consumed by transportation. However, all pollution would be reduced substantially since transportation accounts for 75% of the carbon monoxide, 60% of the hydrocarbon, and 55% of the nitrogen oxide pollution in the nation. Problems related to the implementation of large-scale substitution are discussed.

  6. Young Children's Understanding of Desire Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Louis J.; Coon, Jennifer A.; Wusinich, Nicole

    2000-01-01

    Two studies examined preschoolers' appreciation of how mental states arise. Findings suggest that 3- and 5-year-olds better understood perception-generated beliefs and attitude-generated desires than physiology-generated desires. Four- and 5-year-olds better understood the effects of quantity of experience than of time of experience on…

  7. The Desired Image of a Science Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

    This study attempted to establish a desired image of an expert science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines and to contrast this desired image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. The synthesis was used to develop a…

  8. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, J. Gayle

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the current state of knowledge about hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Despite clinical attention to this disorder, ambiguity remains concerning the nature and treatment of low sexual desire. Reviews diagnostic issues, including prevalence estimates. Highlights current theories of etiology and maintenance, as well as assessment…

  9. Laser thermokeratoplasty: analysis of in-vitro results and refractive changes achieved in a first clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, Ralf; Geerling, Gerd; Kampmeier, Juergen; Koop, Norbert; Radt, Benno; Birngruber, Reginald

    1997-12-01

    Laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK) is a minimally invasive method to correct hyperopia and astigmatism. A cw mid-IR laser diode emitting at wavelengths around 1.86 micrometers was used to perform LTK on a first clinical trial. The coagulations were applied to the cornea by means of a specially designed focusing handpiece which was introduced into a corneal application mask fixed by a suction ring. Coagulation patterns consisting of 8 spots per ring were performed with a laser power between 100 - 150 mW and an irradiation time of 10 seconds both on single and on double rings. Significant refractive changes up to 19 D could initially be achieved followed by a strong regression within the first month. Three months post LTK, refractive changes achieved with the single and double ring have stabilized, yielding 1.2 and 1.8 D on the average, respectively. The method reveals only little adverse effects limited to the first days post-op. Force measurements were performed on corneal stripes, which were submerged for 10 s into an oil bath of constant temperature in order to investigate the absolute temperatures required for corneal collagen contraction. Only temperatures exceeding 90 degree(s)C induced a significant force. Analyzing the clinically used LTK parameters by temperature calculations revealed that only a small part of the heated stromal volume experienced sufficient high temperatures to induce significant collagen shrinkage.

  10. Object of desire self-consciousness theory.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Brotto, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the construct of object of desire self-consciousness, the perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. The authors discuss the nature of the construct, variations in its expression, and how it may function as part of a self-schemata or script related to romance and sexuality. The authors suggest that object of desire self-consciousness may be an adaptive, evolved psychological mechanism allowing sexual and romantic tactics suitable to one's mate value. The authors also suggest that it can act as a signal that one has high mate value in the sexual marketplace. The authors then review literature (e.g., on fantasies, on sexual activity preferences, on sexual dysfunctions, on language) suggesting that object of desire self-consciousness plays a particularly important role in heterosexual women's sexual/romantic functioning and desires. PMID:23905711

  11. EPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Centers for Water Research on National Priorities Related to a Systems View of Nutrient Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster describes the missions and objectives of four newly-awarded Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Centers. There is also a description of how the projects fit together to meet solicitation research questions.

  12. Occupational health nurses’ achievement of competence and comfort in respiratory protection and preferred learning methods results of a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Burgel, Barbara J; Novak, Debra A; Carpenter, Holly Elizabeth; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann M; Taormina, Deborah

    2014-02-01

    Additional findings are presented from a 2012 nationwide survey of 2,072 occupational health nurses regarding how they achieved competence in respiratory protection, their preferred methods of learning, and how they motivated employees to use respiratory protection. On-the-job training, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course, or attending professional conferences were the primary ways occupational health nurses gained respiratory protection knowledge. Attending professional conferences was the preferred method of learning, varying by type of industry and years of occupational health nurse experience. Employee motivational strategies were not widely used; the most common strategy was to tailor respiratory protection training to workplace culture. Designing training methods that match learning preferences, within the context of the organization's safety and quality improvement culture, is a key recommendation supported by the literature and these findings. Including respiratory protection content and competencies in all levels of academic nursing education is an additional recommendation. Additional research is needed to link training strategies with consistent and correct use of respiratory protection by employees. PMID:24812690

  13. Sexually compulsive men and inhibited sexual desire.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, B W

    1994-01-01

    Sexually compulsive males report extremely high rates of desire involving paraphiliac activity. Desire and arousal in partner sex is usually low or unstable. Cognitive-behavioral strategies and techniques are presented based on four components in the assessment/intervention process: 1) eliminating or reducing paraphiliac arousal; 2) sex education, changing sexual attitudes, self-disclosure, sexual assertiveness, and reduction of guilt and shame; 3) confronting secrecy and cognitive distortions, increasing empathy for victims, awareness of harm to others, and commitment to abstain from compulsive, abusive behavior; and 4) developing a healthy sexual desire and arousal pattern that nurtures and maintains an intimate relationship. The motivated male (especially with a partner he is comfortable with, attracted to, and trusts) can develop a pleasurable, erotic sexual pattern that allows him to maintain desire during partner sex. PMID:7996591

  14. Endovascular Stents and Stent-Grafts: Is Heparin Coating Desirable?

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Stephen R.; Souza, Nandita M. de; Allison, David J.

    2000-07-15

    Heparins are glycosaminoglycans that, in addition to their anticoagulant activity, have interactions with growth factors and other glycoproteins. These interactions may stimulate neointimal hyperplasia when heparin is delivered locally on stents and stent-grafts. Modifying the structure of heparin to retain anticoagulant activity while minimizing these stimulatory effects on the vascular endothelium is desirable and may be achieved by understanding the relationships between the structure and function of the various parts of the heparin molecule.

  15. Designing Vibrotactile Balance Feedback For Desired Body Sway Reductions

    PubMed Central

    Loughlin, Patrick; Mahboobin, Arash; Furman, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Vibrotactile feedback about body position and velocity has been shown to be effective at reducing low frequency body sway (below about 0.5 Hz) in response to balance perturbations while standing. However, current devices cause an undesirable increase in high frequency body sway. In addition, unlike other sensory prostheses such as hearing aids, which are fine-tuned to the user, current vibrotactile balance prostheses largely employ a “one size fits all” approach, in that they use the same settings (i.e. parameter values) for all subjects. Rather than using a fixed design consisting of position and velocity feedback for all subjects, we propose a “custom design” approach that employs system identification methods to identify the feedback required to achieve a desired body sway frequency response for the subject. Our derivations and simulations show that in order to accomplish this objective, feedback consisting of a subject-specific filtered combination of body position, velocity and acceleration is required. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the results. PMID:22254557

  16. The Contribution of the Responsive Classroom Approach on Children's Academic Achievement: Results from a Three Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Fan, Xitao; Chiu, Yu-Jen; You, Wenyi

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a quasi-experimental study on the contribution of the Responsive Classroom ("RC") Approach to elementary school children's reading and math performance over one-, two-, and three-year periods. All children enrolled in six schools (3 intervention and 3 control schools in a single district) were the participants in…

  17. Preventing Underage Drinking: Using Getting to Outcomes with the SAMHSA Strategic Prevention Framework to Achieve Results. RAND Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imm, Pamela; Chinman, Matthew; Wandersman, Abraham; Rosenbloom, David; Guckenburg, Sarah; Leis, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    Underage drinking is a significant problem in the United States: Alcohol is the primary contributor to the leading causes of death among adolescents. As a result, communitywide strategies to prevent underage drinking are more important than ever. Such strategies depend on the involvement and education of adolescents, parents, law enforcement …

  18. Exploring the effects of sexual desire discrepancy among married couples.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian J; Farero, Adam M; Busby, Dean M

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have found associations between the individual discrepancy of desired sexual frequency and actual sexual frequency and relational outcomes among premarital couples. The present study extended this research by using a sample of 1,054 married couples to explore how actor and partner individual sexual desire discrepancy (SDD) scores were associated with relationship satisfaction, stability, communication, and conflict during marriage. All participants took an online survey which assessed both couple sexual dynamics and relationship outcomes. Findings suggested that higher actor individual SDD was generally associated with negative relational outcomes, including lower reported relationship satisfaction, stability, and more reported couple conflict. These effects were found after controlling for background factors, baseline sexual frequency and desire, and couple desire discrepancies. Some partner effects were also found and were generally in the same direction. Marital length did not moderate the effects found although gender moderated associations between individual SDD and reported couple communication. Negative associations between individual SDD and communication were particularly strong when the husband reported high discrepancies between desired and actual sexual frequency. Results suggested that higher individual sexual desire discrepancies among married individuals may undermine relationship well-being. Applications of these findings to a clinical setting are also discussed. PMID:24045904

  19. Female sexual dysfunction: focus on low desire.

    PubMed

    Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Woodard, Terri

    2015-02-01

    Low or absent sexual desire is the most common sexual dysfunction in women, and its prevalence peaks during midlife. Its etiology is complex and may include biologic, psychologic, and social elements. Major risk factors for its development include poor health status, depression, certain medications, dissatisfaction with partner relationship, and history of physical abuse, sexual abuse, or both. Diagnosis is based on criteria set by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th Edition) and requires that a woman experience personal distress. Clinical evaluation should include medical history, sexual history, and, sometimes, a physical examination. Laboratory data are of limited value, except when warranted by history or physical examination. Treatment options include nonpharmacologic interventions such as education, office-based counseling, and psychotherapy. Although there are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments for low desire, pharmacologic agents have been used off-label for this purpose. Bupropion is an antidepressant that has been shown to improve desire in some women with and without depression. Systemic estrogen therapy is not recommended in the absence of vasomotor symptoms and is not directly associated with desire. However, vaginal estrogen is useful in patients presenting with concomitant vaginal atrophy and dyspareunia. Ospemifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that can be used as an alternative to vaginal estrogen. Exogenous testosterone has demonstrated efficacy in treating loss of desire in postmenopausal women. However, patients should be counseled that it is not FDA-approved for this purpose and there are limited published long-term safety data. Several agents for the treatment of low desire are currently in development. Gynecologists are in a unique position to address concerns about sexual desire in women. PMID:25569014

  20. Power, desire, and pleasure in sexual fantasies.

    PubMed

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Yost, Megan R

    2004-08-01

    One hundred and sixty-two participants (ages 21-45) wrote open-ended sexual fantasies and completed self-report measures of rape myth acceptance, adversarial sexual beliefs, and attitudes toward women. We coded fantasies using a newly developed scoring system that includes themes of dominance, submission, sexual pleasure, and sexual desire. Men fantasized about dominance more than women did; they also tended to focus more on the desire and pleasure of their partner. Desire and pleasure were more closely linked in the fantasies of men than in the fantasies of women, for whom the two were distinct constructs. Although fantasies of submission were not associated with problematic attitudes for either gender, men's fantasies of dominance were associated with greater acceptance of rape myths. For women, greater rape myth acceptance was associated with emotional and romantic fantasy themes. PMID:15497057

  1. Achievements and bottlenecks in humanitarian demining EU-funded research: final results from the EC DELVE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahli, Hichem; Bruschini, Claudio; Van Kempen, Luc; Schleijpen, Ric; den Breejen, Eric

    2008-04-01

    The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology Development (RTD) situation from early 1990 until 2006. The situation at the European level was analyzed with emphasis on activities sponsored by the European Commission (EC). This was also done for four European countries and Japan, with emphasis on national activities. The developments in HD during the last 10 years underline the fact that in a number of cases demining related developments have been terminated or at least put on hold. The study also showed that the funding provided by the EC under the Framework Program for RTD has led directly to the creation of an extensive portfolio of Humanitarian Demining technology development projects. The latter provided a range of research and supporting measures addressing the critical issues identified as a result of the regulatory policies developed in the field of Humanitarian Demining over the last ten years. However, the range of instruments available to the EC to finance the necessary research and development were limited, to pre-competitive research. The EC had no tools or programs to directly fund actual product development. As a first consequence, the EC funding program for development of technology for Humanitarian Demining unfortunately proved to be largely unsuitable for the small-scale development needed in a field where there is only a very limited market. As a second consequence, most of the research has been demonstrator-oriented. Moreover, the timeframe for RTD in Humanitarian Demining has not been sufficiently synchronized with the timeframe of the EC policies and regulations. The separation of the Mine Action and RTD funding streams in the EC did also negatively affect the take-up of new technologies. As a

  2. Effects of Problem-Based Learning Model versus Expository Model and Motivation to Achieve for Student's Physic Learning Result of Senior High School at Class XI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prayekti

    2016-01-01

    "Problem-based learning" (PBL) is one of an innovative learning model which can provide an active learning to student, include the motivation to achieve showed by student when the learning is in progress. This research is aimed to know: (1) differences of physic learning result for student group which taught by PBL versus expository…

  3. Social and Musical Objectives or Experiences School Music Teachers Anticipate Their Students Will Achieve as a Result of Attending a Summer Music Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Eric W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate specific social and musical objectives or experiences school music teachers anticipate their students will achieve as a result of attending a summer music camp. A survey instrument was developed to collect demographic data and responses to questions regarding 14 specific musical and social variables.…

  4. Beating the Odds II: A City-By-City Analysis of Student Performance and Achievement Gaps on State Assessments, Spring 2001 Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael

    This report presents district-by-district achievement data on 57 major city school systems in reading and mathematics. State assessment results were collected from state Web sites, reports, and databases. Data were analyzed by race/ethnicity when reported. Overall, the Great City Schools have made meaningful gains in math scores on state…

  5. The Efforts to Improve Mathematics Learning Achievement Results of High School Students as Required by Competency-Based Curriculum and Lesson Level-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidabutar, Ropinus

    2016-01-01

    The research was aimed to investigate the effect of various, innovated teaching models to improved the student's achievement in various topic in Mathematics. The study was conduct experiment by using innovated teaching with contextual, media and web which are the compared. with conventional teaching method. The result showed the innovation in the…

  6. Mathematics Beliefs and Achievement of Elementary School Students in Japan and the United States: Results from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J. Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Student self-beliefs are significantly related to several types of academic achievement. In addition, results from international assessments have indicated that students in Japan have typically scored above international averages (D. L. Kelly, I. V. S. Mullis, & M. O. Martin, 2000). In this study, the author examined relationships between…

  7. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  8. Socially desirable responding on the web: investigating the candor hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Risko, Evan F; Quilty, Lena C; Oakman, Jonathan M

    2006-12-01

    The investigation presented here explores the hypothesis that participants are less likely to respond in a socially desirable fashion on self-report questionnaires completed on the Web relative to those completed in the laboratory--the candor hypothesis. A battery of social desirability questionnaires (i.e., Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding [Paulhaus, 1984], Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale [Crowne & Marlowe, 1964], Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Lie Scale [Eysenck & Eysenck, 1994]) was administered to 3 groups: 2 groups consisted of undergraduate participants who were randomly assigned to complete the measures either in the laboratory (n = 60) or on the Web (n = 60), and 1 group consisted of self-selected participants who visited our experimental Web page and completed the measures online (n = 284). This design allowed us to assess the role of Web administration while controlling for differences in sample type, an oft-neglected issue in the Web literature. Results do not support the claim that administering self-report measures over the Web results in a decrease in socially desirable responding. Furthermore, these findings highlight the problems associated with confounding sample and medium. Implications for the use of Web as a research tool are discussed. PMID:17134335

  9. Trajectories of intimate partnerships, sexual attitudes, desire and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Ammar, N; Gauthier, J-A; Widmer, E D

    2014-12-01

    This research addresses the interrelations existing between trajectories of intimate partnerships and attitudes toward sexuality, sexual desire, and sexual satisfaction. It is based on a dataset of 600 adults aged 25-46 living in Geneva (Switzerland) and uses innovative multivariate techniques for clustering life trajectories. The results emphasize the diversity of men's and women's trajectories of intimate partnerships. Trajectories with frequent and short-term partnerships are associated with recreational attitudes and higher solitary and dyadic sexual desire. In contrast, trajectories featuring few or no intimate partnerships are associated with traditional sexual attitudes and less sexual desire. Women's attitudes toward sexuality are more strongly associated with their intimate trajectories than men's. This suggests that men and women do not develop their sexuality in the same relation with intimacy. The results are referred to the gendered master status hypothesis. PMID:26047692

  10. The Desirability of Applying Cost of Education Indices Given the Current State-of-the-Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William J., Jr.

    The desire to create an effective cost of education index (CEI) arises from a desire to achieve greater equity in state and federal school funding mechanisms. Before such a measure is useful, however, much more thought must be given to the specification of factors differentially affecting demand and supply. Consensus regarding classification of…

  11. Modeling Socially Desirable Responding and Its Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Buehner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The impact of socially desirable responding or faking on noncognitive assessments remains an issue of strong debate. One of the main reasons for the controversy is the lack of a statistical method to model such response sets. This article introduces a new way to model faking based on the assumption that faking occurs due to an interaction between…

  12. Age and the Desire to Marry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahay, Jenna; Lewin, Alisa C.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding attitudes toward marriage at older ages is increasingly important as young adults delay marriage and large numbers of people return to the marriage market after divorce. This study examines age differences in the desire to marry among singles age 18 to 69 years, taking into account selection into marriage. Using data drawn from the…

  13. Desire thinking: A risk factor for binge eating?

    PubMed

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Fernie, Bruce A; Manfredi, Chiara; Boccaletti, Fabio; Dallari, Giulia; Gandini, Federica; Pinna, Eleonora; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Sassaroli, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    In the current study we explored the role of desire thinking in predicting binge eating independently of Body Mass Index, negative affect and irrational food beliefs. A sample of binge eaters (n=77) and a sample of non-binge eaters (n=185) completed the following self-report instruments: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Irrational Food Beliefs Scale, Desire Thinking Questionnaire, and Binge Eating Scale. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that all variable scores were significantly higher for binge eaters than non-binge eaters. A logistic regression analysis indicated that verbal perseveration was a predictor of classification as a binge eater over and above Body Mass Index, negative affect and irrational food beliefs. A hierarchical regression analysis, on the combined sample, indicated that verbal perseveration predicted levels of binge eating independently of Body Mass Index, negative affect and irrational food beliefs. These results highlight the possible role of desire thinking as a risk factor for binge eating. PMID:25880044

  14. Representing female desire within a labial framework of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Sexual experiences, rather than being neutral, are specifically male or female. Yet at present no conceptual framework exists for representing female sexual desire. This has resulted in frequent misrepresentations of female sexual experience. To correct this, a labial framework is proposed, not to replace or oppose a phallic framework, but to exist alongside it. The lips of the mouth and those of the genitals provide a felicitous doubling of sexuality and speech to represent female desire and sexual pleasure as labial. Phallic and labial rhythms are organized differently in sexual arousal and desire, since, as Simone de Beauvoir put it, "Man 'gets stiff,' but woman 'gets wet.'" The labial framework therefore represents female psychosexuality more in terms of "wetware" than of "hardware." PMID:23118235

  15. Teaching Bodies/Learning Desire: Rethinking the Role of Desire in the Pedagogic Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Desire is a crucial aspect of the pedagogic process. For too long, however, there has been a dichotomous relationship between understandings of teacher and student desire. The former is often configured as a pedagogic anachronism, problematised and needing to be contained. Conversely, the latter is essentialised as a force that should not be…

  16. Realizing a desired family size: when should couples start?

    PubMed Central

    Habbema, J. Dik F.; Eijkemans, Marinus J.C.; Leridon, Henri; te Velde, Egbert R.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Until what age can couples wait to start a family without compromising their chances of realizing the desired number of children? SUMMARY ANSWER The latest female age at which a couple should start trying to become pregnant strongly depends on the importance attached to achieving a desired family size and on whether or not IVF is an acceptable option in case no natural pregnancy occurs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY It is well established that the treatment-independent and treatment-dependent chances of pregnancy decline with female age. However, research on the effect of age has focused on the chance of a first pregnancy and not on realizing more than one child. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION An established computer simulation model of fertility, updated with recent IVF success rates, was used to simulate a cohort of 10 000 couples in order to assess the chances of realizing a one-, two- or three-child family, for different female ages at which the couple starts trying to conceive. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The model uses treatment-independent pregnancy chances and pregnancy chances after IVF/ICSI. In order to focus the discussion, we single out three levels of importance that couples could attach to realizing a desired family size: (i) Very important (equated with aiming for at least a 90% success chance). (ii) Important but not at all costs (equated with a 75% success chance) (iii) Good to have children, but a life without children is also fine (equated with a 50% success chance). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE In order to have a chance of at least 90% to realize a one-child family, couples should start trying to conceive when the female partner is 35 years of age or younger, in case IVF is an acceptable option. For two children, the latest starting age is 31 years, and for three children 28 years. Without IVF, couples should start no later than age 32 years for a one-child family, at 27 years for a two-child family, and at 23 years for

  17. Inhibited Sexual Desire and Sexual Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Morse, William I.

    1985-01-01

    Inhibited sexual desire (ISD) is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions, especially in women. Family physicians have an opportunity to recognize ISD before the associated problems become entrenched, and to guide couples toward satisfactory resolution. A summary is presented of current thinking on ISD and its causes. Case reports and observations about frequency of and treatment for ISD are included. Much less has been written about sexual avoidance in the presence of desire. A definition is offered of simple sexual avoidance in the absence of genital dysfunction. Frequency, treatment response, and specific cases are described. A newly identified entity—mutual unwillingness to importune for sex—is discussed briefly. Counselling which focuses on communication, self responsibility, and sex education is very helpful to patients with sexual problems. PMID:21274060

  18. Children's Social Desirability and Dietary Reports

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Smith, Albert F.; Litaker, Mark S.; Baglio, Michelle L.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Shaffer, Nicole M.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated telephone administration of the Children's Social Desirability (CSD) scale and our adaptation for children of the Social Desirability for Food scale (C-SDF). Each of 100 4th-graders completed 2 telephone interviews 28 days apart. CSD scores had adequate internal consistency and test—retest reliability, and a 14-item subset was identified that sufficiently measures the same construct. Our C-SDF scale performed less well in terms of internal consistency and test—retest reliability; factor analysis revealed 2 factors, 1 of which was moderately related to the CSD. The 14-item subset of the CSD scale may help researchers understand error in children's dietary reports. PMID:15068757

  19. Shape control of composite plates and shells with embedded actuators. 2: Desired shape specified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koconis, David B.; Kollar, Laszlo P.; Springer, George S.

    The changes in shapes of fiber-reinforced composite beams, plates and shells affected by embedded piezoelectric actuators were investigated. An analytical method was developed to determine the voltages needed to achieve a specified desired shape. The method is formulated on the basis of mathematical models using two-dimensional, linear, shallow shell theory including transverse shear effects which are important in the case of sandwich construction. The solution technique is a minimization of an error function which is a measure of the difference between the deformed shape caused by the application of voltages and the desired shape. A computationally efficient, user-friendly computer code was written which is suitable for performing the numerical calculations. The code, designated as SHAPE2, gives the voltages needed to achieve specified changes in shape. To validate the method and the computer code, results generated by the code were compared to existing analytical and experimental results. The predictions provided by the SHAPE2 code were in excellent agreement with the results of the other analyses and data.

  20. The ethical desirability of moral bioenhancement: a review of reasons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The debate on the ethical aspects of moral bioenhancement focuses on the desirability of using biomedical as opposed to traditional means to achieve moral betterment. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the ethical reasons presented in the literature for and against moral bioenhancement. Discussion A review was performed and resulted in the inclusion of 85 articles. We classified the arguments used in those articles in the following six clusters: (1) why we (don’t) need moral bioenhancement, (2) it will (not) be possible to reach consensus on what moral bioenhancement should involve, (3) the feasibility of moral bioenhancement and the status of current scientific research, (4) means and processes of arriving at moral improvement matter ethically, (5) arguments related to the freedom, identity and autonomy of the individual, and (6) arguments related to social/group effects and dynamics. We discuss each argument separately, and assess the debate as a whole. First, there is little discussion on what distinguishes moral bioenhancement from treatment of pathological deficiencies in morality. Furthermore, remarkably little attention has been paid so far to the safety, risks and side-effects of moral enhancement, including the risk of identity changes. Finally, many authors overestimate the scientific as well as the practical feasibility of the interventions they discuss, rendering the debate too speculative. Summary Based on our discussion of the arguments used in the debate on moral enhancement, and our assessment of this debate, we advocate a shift in focus. Instead of speculating about non-realistic hypothetical scenarios such as the genetic engineering of morality, or morally enhancing ‘the whole of humanity’, we call for a more focused debate on realistic options of biomedical treatment of moral pathologies and the concrete moral questions these treatments raise. PMID:25227512

  1. Optimization of magnetosome production by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans using desirability function approach.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lei; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Hetao; Wang, Weidong; Chen, Peng; Li, Hongyu

    2016-02-01

    Present study aimed to resolve the conflict between cell growth and magnetosome formation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans) in batch experiments by applying response surface methodology (RSM) integrated a desirability function approach. The effects of several operating parameters on cell growth (OD600) and magnetosome production (Cmag) were evaluated. The maximum overall desirability (D) of 0.923 was achieved at iron concentration of 125.07mM, shake speed of 122.37rpm and nitrogen concentration of 2.40g/L. Correspondingly, the OD600 and Cmag were 0.522 and 1.196, respectively. The confirmation experiment confirmed that the optimum OD600 and Cmag obtained were in good agreement with the predicted values. The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses revealed that the production of magnetosomes could be improved via optimization. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the magnetosomes are magnetite. Results indicated that RSM with a desirability function was a useful technique to get the maximum OD600 and Cmag simultaneously. PMID:26652427

  2. Achieving an Undetectable PSA After Radiotherapy for Biochemical Progression After Radical Prostatectomy Is an Independent Predictor of Biochemical Outcome-Results of a Retrospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegel, Thomas Lohm, Gunnar; Bottke, Dirk; Hoecht, Stefan; Miller, Kurt; Siegmann, Alessandra; Schostak, Martin; Neumann, Konrad; Hinkelbein, Wolfgang

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: Salvage radiotherapy (SRT) is commonly used to treat patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (RP). Retrospective series have demonstrated biochemical response in approximately 60-75% of patients, but only a significantly lower rate of patients achieves a response with a decrease of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to a value below the limits of detectability. Therefore, long-term response at 10 years is only about 20-25% in all of these patients. The purpose of this study was to determine prognostic factors with impact on achieving the undetectable PSA range after SRT and to define the role of this end point. Methods and Materials: Between 1997 and 2004, 162 patients received SRT at the Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin. No patient had hormonal treatment before SRT and 90% of the patients (143) had a SRT dose of 66 Gy. We analyzed the impact of nine potential risk factors on achieving an undetectable PSA after RT and on biochemical relapse-free survival (bNED) after SRT. Results: Median follow-up time was 41.5 months and median PSA pre-RT was 0.33 ng/mL. Calculated bNED for 3.5 years was 54%. A total of 60% of the patients achieved an undetectable PSA after SRT. Univariate analysis demonstrated statistically significant predictors of biochemical progression after SRT: Gleason score (p = 0.01), PSA pre-SRT (p = 0.031), tumor stage (p = 0.047), and persistent detectable PSA after RT (p < 0.00005). In multivariate analysis, margin status (p = 0.017) and PSA pre-SRT (p = 0.002) were significant predictors of an undetectable PSA after SRT. The most significant independent predictor of bNED was 'PSA undetectable after RT' (p < 0.0005) with a hazard ratio of 8.4, thus leading to a calculated bNED at 3.5 years of 75% compared with only 18% for those patients, who did not achieve an undetectable PSA after SRT. The rate of severe Grade 3-4 side effects was below 2.5%. Conclusions: The study represents one of the largest retrospective

  3. What people desire, feel conflicted about, and try to resist in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Vohs, Kathleen D; Baumeister, Roy F

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, we used experience sampling to measure desires and desire regulation in everyday life. Our analysis included data from 205 adults, who furnished a total of 7,827 reports of their desires over the course of a week. Across various desire domains, results revealed substantial differences in desire frequency and strength, the degree of conflict between desires and other goals, and the likelihood of resisting desire and the success of this resistance. Desires for sleep and sex were experienced most intensively, whereas desires for tobacco and alcohol had the lowest average strength, despite the fact that these substances are thought of as addictive. Desires for leisure and sleep conflicted the most with other goals, and desires for media use and work brought about the most self-control failure. In addition, we observed support for a limited-resource model of self-control employing a novel operationalization of cumulative resource depletion: The frequency and recency of engaging in prior self-control negatively predicted people's success at resisting subsequent desires on the same day. PMID:22547657

  4. Topology of Sustainable Management of Dynamical Systems with Desirable States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kittel, Tim

    2015-04-01

    To keep the Earth System in a desirable region of its state space, such as the recently suggested 'tolerable environment and development window', 'planetary boundaries', or 'safe (and just) operating space', in addition to the identification of the quantitative internal dynamics and the available options for influencing it (management), there is an urgent need to understand the systems' state space structure with regard to questions such as (i) which of its parts can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region, (ii) which parts are in a variety of senses 'safe' to stay in when management options break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this structure. To complement existing approaches from optimal control focusing on quantitative optimization and being much applied in both engineering and integrated assessment, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology that partitions the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states including terminology suggestions for the various resulting parts. Our detailed formal classification of the possible states and management options with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region indicates that before performing some form of quantitative optimization, the sustainable management of the Earth System may require decisions of a more discrete type, e.g. choosing between ultimate safety and permanent desirability, or between permanent safety and increasing future options.

  5. Ranking, selecting, and prioritising genes with desirability functions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In functional genomics experiments, researchers often select genes to follow-up or validate from a long list of differentially expressed genes. Typically, sharp thresholds are used to bin genes into groups such as significant/non-significant or fold change above/below a cut-off value, and ad hoc criteria are also used such as favouring well-known genes. Binning, however, is inefficient and does not take the uncertainty of the measurements into account. Furthermore, p-values, fold-changes, and other outcomes are treated as equally important, and relevant genes may be overlooked with such an approach. Desirability functions are proposed as a way to integrate multiple selection criteria for ranking, selecting, and prioritising genes. These functions map any variable to a continuous 0–1 scale, where one is maximally desirable and zero is unacceptable. Multiple selection criteria are then combined to provide an overall desirability that is used to rank genes. In addition to p-values and fold-changes, further experimental results and information contained in databases can be easily included as criteria. The approach is demonstrated with a breast cancer microarray data set. The functions and an example data set can be found in the desiR package on CRAN (https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/desiR/) and the development version is available on GitHub (https://github.com/stanlazic/desiR). PMID:26644980

  6. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on children's attendance, academic achievement and short-term hunger: results from a stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, Delvina; Turley, Maria; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Free school breakfast programmes (SBPs) exist in a number of high-income countries, but their effects on educational outcomes have rarely been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Methods A 1-year stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 New Zealand schools in low socioeconomic resource areas. Participants were 424 children, mean age 9±2 years, 53% female. The intervention was a free daily SBP. The primary outcome was children's school attendance. Secondary outcomes were academic achievement, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, behaviour, short-term hunger, breakfast habits and food security. Results There was no statistically significant effect of the breakfast programme on children's school attendance. The odds of children achieving an attendance rate <95% was 0.76 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.02) during the intervention phase and 0.93 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.31) during the control phase, giving an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.11), p=0.19. There was a significant decrease in children's self-reported short-term hunger during the intervention phase compared with the control phase, demonstrated by an increase of 8.6 units on the Freddy satiety scale (95% CI 3.4 to 13.7, p=0.001). There were no effects of the intervention on any other outcome. Conclusions A free SBP did not have a significant effect on children's school attendance or academic achievement but had significant positive effects on children's short-term satiety ratings. More frequent programme attendance may be required to influence school attendance and academic achievement. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR)—ACTRN12609000854235. PMID:23043203

  7. A survey on farmers' fertility desires.

    PubMed

    1996-04-01

    This news brief presents findings from a survey of fertility desires among 10,000 farm households in 1400 villages, 140 townships, and 14 counties in Hunan Province, China. Findings reveal that farmers fully support the present national family planning program. Farmers believe that smaller families will contribute to higher incomes and improvement in people's lives. 1.51% of farmers were dissatisfied with the family planning program, and 2.48% desired more children. During 1982 to the present, the average number of births in Huanglongxincum Village, Huanghua Town, Changsha County, declined from 76 to 26 births. The average net per capita income increased from 100 yuan to 3000 yuan. Five couples with only daughters declined the offer of second birth quotas. A woman from Shou Hongsheng, Heliao Township, Zhigiang County, had an only daughter and left with her family for another village in 1991 with the hope of having a second child. Instead the couple prospered, and net annual family income from a specialized fruit production business increased to 40,000 yuan yearly. By 1994, the couple was given permission to have a second child, but the couple turned down the offer. Local provincial family planning officials believe these changes in attitude among farmers are a hopeful sign and the highest award given by the people to the public sector. PMID:12347489

  8. Flibanserin for Treating Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Jae Hong; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    There have been several products developed for male sexual dysfunction. However, developing agents for female sexual dysfunction is lagging behind for various reasons. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and Tadalafil (Cialis), which have been prescribed for male sexual function disorders, are known to act on vessels.[1] On the other hand, flibanserin is thought to act on brain. Flibanserin has been approved by U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) of premenopausal women in 2015, and is expected to be released in South Korea soon. Authors wrote this article to acknowledge flibanserin to sexologists for females or physicians for menopausal medicine, so that this agent can be safely used for females who have HSDD. PMID:27152308

  9. Flibanserin for Treating Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jae Hong; Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Soo Ah

    2016-04-01

    There have been several products developed for male sexual dysfunction. However, developing agents for female sexual dysfunction is lagging behind for various reasons. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and Tadalafil (Cialis), which have been prescribed for male sexual function disorders, are known to act on vessels.[1] On the other hand, flibanserin is thought to act on brain. Flibanserin has been approved by U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) of premenopausal women in 2015, and is expected to be released in South Korea soon. Authors wrote this article to acknowledge flibanserin to sexologists for females or physicians for menopausal medicine, so that this agent can be safely used for females who have HSDD. PMID:27152308

  10. Predictors and outcomes of sustained, intermittent or never achieving remission in patients with recent onset inflammatory polyarthritis: results from the Norfolk Arthritis Register

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael J.; Diffin, Janet; Scirè, Carlo A.; Lunt, Mark; MacGregor, Alex J.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Early remission is the current treatment strategy for patients with inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and RA. Our objective was to identify baseline factors associated with achieving remission: sustained (SR), intermittent (IR) or never (NR) over a 5-year period in patients with early IP. Methods. Clinical and demographic data of patients with IP recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) were obtained at baseline and years 1, 2, 3 and 5. Remission was defined as no tender or swollen joints (out of 51). Patients were classified as NR or PR, respectively, if they were in remission at: no assessment or ⩾3 consecutive assessments after baseline, and IR otherwise. Ordinal regression and a random effects model, respectively, were used to examine the association between baseline factors, remission group and HAQ scores over time. Results. A total of 868 patients (66% female) were included. Of these, 54%, 34% and 12% achieved NR, IR and SR, respectively. In multivariate analysis, female sex (odds ratio, OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.63), higher tender joint count (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93, 0.96), higher HAQ (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.74), being obese (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.99), hypertensive (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.90) or depressed (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.00) at baseline were independent predictors of being in a lower remission group. IR and SR were associated with lower HAQ scores over time and lower DAS28 at year 5. Conclusion. Women with higher tender joint count and disability at baseline, depression, obesity and hypertension were less likely to achieve remission. This information could help when stratifying patients for more aggressive therapy. PMID:27220594

  11. Is There a Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement? Positive Results from Public School Children in the Northeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomitz, Virginia R.; Slining, Meghan M.; McGowan, Robert J.; Mitchell, Suzanne E.; Dawson, Glen F.; Hacker, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine relationships between physical fitness and academic achievement in diverse, urban public school children. Methods: This cross-sectional study used public school data from 2004 to 2005. Academic achievement was assessed as a passing score on Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) achievement tests in…

  12. Effect of desired speed variability on highway traffic flow.

    PubMed

    Lipshtat, Azi

    2009-06-01

    Traffic flow is a function of many natural, environmental, and human factors. Not only that weather and road condition can vary, but drivers' decisions and policies also can affect the flow. Here we analyze the effect of distribution of desired speeds. We show that a broader distribution can reduce the flow efficiency and increase congestions. Since different drivers react differently to changes in weather or road conditions, such a change leads to a change in desired speed distribution as well. As a result, nonintuitive changes in traffic flow may occur. Besides providing insight and analyzing the underlying mechanism of a collective phenomenon, this example sheds light on a fundamental aspect of computational modeling. Although "mean-field" models that deal with average values only and ignore variability are simpler and easier to analyze, they can very easily turn into oversimplifications and miss relevant qualitative phenomena. PMID:19658567

  13. The Circle of Female Sexual Desire-Have We Come a Long Way?

    PubMed

    Katz, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the release of sildenafil (Viagra) two decades ago to treat erectile dysfunction in men, there has been a conversation around whether there is a need for a "female Viagra." Last year's release of flibanserin (Addyi) was hailed by some as an achievement in women's sexual health. But how effective is this drug in affecting women's sexual desire? And are the things being labeled as women's sexual desire problems really problems to be fixed with a drug? PMID:27287350

  14. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  15. The Desire for Structure: A Deconstructive Analysis of "Desire under the Elms."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joel K.; Bowman, Michael S.

    A brief reading of "Desire under the Elms" by Eugene O'Neill illustrates how a conventional Oedipal reading of the playscript opens up spaces within the text for deconstructive free-play. In this case, a tension is identified and foregrounded between this conventional application of the Oedipal complex and Freud's interpretation of the Oedipal…

  16. Effects of Sexual Experience on Dating Desirability and Marriage Desirability: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istvan, Joseph; Griffitt, William

    1980-01-01

    Inexperienced men and both inexperienced and moderately experienced women rated highly experienced opposite-sex peers as less desirable dates and marriage partners. Moderately and highly experienced men and highly experienced women tended to rate all opposite-sex peers similarly along these same dimensions. (Author)

  17. Minimum variance lower bound estimation and realization for desired structures.

    PubMed

    Alipouri, Yousef; Poshtan, Javad

    2014-05-01

    The Minimum Variance Lower Bound (MVLB) represents the best achievable controller capability in a variance sense. Estimation and realization of MVLB for nonlinear systems confront some difficulties. Hence, almost all methods introduced so far estimate MVLB for a certain structure (e.g., NARMAX) or controller (e.g. PID). In this paper, MVLB for desired structures (not restricted to a certain type) is studied. The situation when the model is not in hand, is not accurate, or is not invertible has been considered. Moreover, in order to realize minimum variance controllers for nonlinear structures, a recursive model-free MVC design is utilized. Finally, a simulation study has been used to clarify the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. PMID:24642244

  18. Desired machines: cinema and the world in its own image.

    PubMed

    Canales, Jimena

    2011-09-01

    In 1895 when the Lumière brothers unveiled their cinematographic camera, many scientists were elated. Scientists hoped that the machine would fulfill a desire that had driven research for nearly half a century: that of capturing the world in its own image. But their elation was surprisingly short-lived, and many researchers quickly distanced themselves from the new medium. The cinematographic camera was soon split into two machines, one for recording and one for projecting, enabling it to further escape from the laboratory. The philosopher Henri Bergson joined scientists, such as Etienne-Jules Marey, who found problems with the new cinematographic order. Those who had worked to make the dream come true found that their efforts had been subverted. This essay focuses on the desire to build a cinematographic camera, with the purpose of elucidating how dreams and reality mix in the development of science and technology. It is about desired machines and their often unexpected results. The interplay between what "is" (the technical), what "ought" (the ethical), and what "could" be (the fantastical) drives scientific research. PMID:21995220

  19. Augmented approach to desirability function based on MM estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midi, Habshah; Mustafa, Mohd Shafie; Fitrianto, Anuar

    2013-04-01

    The desirability function approach is commonly used in industry to tackle multiple response optimization problems. The shortcoming of this approach is that the variability in each predicted response is ignored. It is now evident that the actual response may fall outside the acceptable region even though the predicted response at the optimal solution has a high overall desirability score. An augmented approach to the desirability function (AADF) is put forward to rectify this problem. Nevertheless the AADF is easily affected by outliers since the AADF is constructed based on the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimate which is not resistant to outliers. As an alternative, we propose a robust MM-estimator to estimate the parameters of the Response Surface Model (RSM) and incorporated the estimated parameters in the augmented approach framework. A numerical example is presented to assess the performance of the AADF-MM based method. The numerical results signify that the AADF-MM based is more efficient than the AADF-OLS based method.

  20. Achieving Safety: Safer Sex, Communication, and Desire among Young Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Pingel, Emily; Johns, Michelle Marie; Santana, Matthew Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, the authors explore the ways in which conceptualizations and…

  1. Getting to Outcomes: A Best Practice Process to Help Schools Achieve Desired Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Melissa A.; Wandersman, Abe; Splett, Joni Williams; Flaspohler, Paul; Weist, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Getting to Outcomes (GTO), a 10-step framework for accountability designed to facilitate effective implementation of evidence-based programs and improvement of home-grown practices (Getting to Outcomes and GTO are trademarks registered by the University of South Carolina and RAND; Wandersman, Imm, Chinman, & Kaftarian, 1999,…

  2. Latina Mothers' Enactments of Agency: Achieving Desires through Discourses in Family Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toso, Blaire Willson

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a post-structural feminist framework to examine how the literacy and mothering discourses women encountered in a family literacy program assisted or constrained them in enacting agency. Employing a narrative approach, combined with other methodological strategies (ethnographic observations, discourse analysis of program…

  3. Sociosexual attitudes and dyadic sexual desire independently predict women's preferences for male vocal masculinity.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Jones, Benedict C; Fraccaro, Paul J; Tigue, Cara C; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Feinberg, David R

    2014-10-01

    Research suggests that the desire to behave sexually with a partner (dyadic sexual desire) may reflect desire for intimacy whereas solitary sexual desire may reflect pleasure seeking motivations more generally. Because direct reproductive success can only be increased with a sexual partner, we tested whether dyadic sexual desire was a better predictor of women's preferences for lower pitched men's voices (a marker of relatively high reproductive success) than was solitary sexual desire. In Study 1, women (N = 95) with higher dyadic sexual desire scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 preferred masculinized male voices more than did women with lower dyadic sexual desire scores. We did not find a significant relationship between women's vocal masculinity preferences and their solitary sexual desire scores. In Study 2, we tested whether the relationship between voice preferences and dyadic sexual desire scores was related to differences in sociosexual orientation. Women (N = 80) with more positive attitudes towards uncommitted sex had stronger vocal masculinity preferences regardless of whether men's attractiveness was judged for short-term or long-term relationships. Independent of the effect of sociosexual attitudes, dyadic sexual desire positively predicted women's masculinity preferences when assessing men's attractiveness for short-term but not long-term relationships. These effects were independent of women's own relationship status and hormonal contraceptive use. Our results provide further evidence that women's mate preferences may independently reflect individual differences in both sexual desire and openness to short-term relationships, potentially with the ultimate function of maximizing the fitness benefits of women's mate choices. PMID:24830906

  4. Explaining the Achievement Gap between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students: An Analysis of PISA 2009 Results for Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Steve; Perry, Laura B.; McConney, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relative roles of home and school variables in accounting for achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in Australia and New Zealand. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2009, our findings show that achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous…

  5. Effects of a Universally Free, In-Classroom School Breakfast Program: Results from the Second Year of the Maryland Meals for Achievement Evaluation. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, J. Michael; Rankin, Emunah; Feeney, Kelly; Kenney, Leigh; Kleinman, Ron

    Noting that many children in the United States are not well nourished despite the recent economic boom, the state of Maryland began the Maryland Meals for Achievement (MMFA) program, a demonstration project to see if providing a classroom breakfast free to all students can improve student nutrition and academic achievement. This interim report…

  6. Large-Scale Student Assessment Studies Measure the Results of Processes of Knowledge Acquisition: Evidence in Support of the Distinction between Intelligence and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumert, Jurgen; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich; Brunner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Given the relatively high intercorrelations observed between mathematics achievement, reading achievement, and cognitive ability, it has recently been claimed that student assessment studies (e.g., TIMSS, PISA) and intelligence tests measure a single cognitive ability that is practically identical to general intelligence. The present article uses…

  7. Composition and consistency of the desired affective state: The role of personality and motivation

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Adam A; Hemenover, Scott H.; Larsen, Randy J.; Shulman, Tirza E.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal and experience sampling designs, the consistency and composition, and personality and motivational predictors, of the desired affective state are explored. Findings indicate that, while the desired affect is relatively malleable throughout one semester, it is relatively stable throughout 1 week. Personality and motivations/goals were related to the content of the desired affective state. Extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were related to the content of the desired affective state. In addition, higher-order goals predicted the content of the desired affective state. Our results suggest that the content of the desired affective state may be largely dependent on personality, motivation, and, potentially, an interaction between personality and motivation. PMID:21625402

  8. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  9. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  10. Why Indexing the Sky is Desirable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, P. F.

    Indexing the sky is a database-oriented term to indicate a partitioning scheme of the celestial sphere in order to achieve better performance in queries involving finding close neighbours. Several schemes have been proposed: HTM, HEALPix, ``IDT: iso-declination tiles", Quadrilateralized Spherical Cube, etc., but their use has not become widespread. The scientific value of the internal indexation files is much higher though, as they keep track of the source density of catalogues and hence allow us to answer a family of questions not easily handled by a standard DB system and providing an unusual visual aid: a snapshot of the location of sources listed in any catalog. The pros and cons of adopting an VO-oriented indexation scheme are analyzed.

  11. Innovative Hypofractionated Stereotactic Regimen Achieves Excellent Local Control with No Radiation Necrosis: Promising Results in the Management of Patients with Small Recurrent Inoperable GBM

    PubMed Central

    Pannullo, Susan C.; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Taube, Shoshana; Chang, Jenghwa; Parashar, Bhupesh; Christos, Paul; Wernicke, A.Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge. Several institutions reported that a single fraction of ≥ 20 Gy for small tumor burden results in excellent local control; however, this is at the expense of a high incidence of radiation necrosis (RN). Therefore, we developed a hypofractionation pattern of 33 Gy/3 fractions, which is a radiobiological equivalent of 20 Gy, with the aim to lower the incidence of RN. We reviewed records of 21 patients with recurrent GBM treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) to their 22 respective lesions. Sixty Gy fractioned external beam radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. Median time from primary irradiation to HFSRT was 9.6 months (range: 3.1 – 68.1 months). In HFSRT, a median dose of 33 Gy in 11 Gy fractions was delivered to the 80% isodose line that encompassed the target volume. The median tumor volume was 1.07 cm3 (range: 0.11 – 16.64 cm3). The median follow-up time after HFSRT was 9.3 months (range: 1.7 – 33.6 months). Twenty-one of 23 lesions treated (91.3%) achieved local control while 2/23 (8.7%) progressed. Median time to progression outside of the treated site was 5.2 months (range: 2.2 – 9.6 months). Progression was treated with salvage chemotherapy. Five of 21 patients (23.8%) were alive at the end of this follow-up; two patients remain disease-free. The remaining 16/21 patients (76.2%) died of disease. Treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no acute CTC/RTOG > Grade 2. There was 0% incidence of RN. A prospective trial will be underway to validate these promising results. PMID:27096136

  12. Innovative Hypofractionated Stereotactic Regimen Achieves Excellent Local Control with No Radiation Necrosis: Promising Results in the Management of Patients with Small Recurrent Inoperable GBM.

    PubMed

    Jia, Angela; Pannullo, Susan C; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Taube, Shoshana; Chang, Jenghwa; Parashar, Bhupesh; Christos, Paul; Wernicke, A Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge. Several institutions reported that a single fraction of ≥ 20 Gy for small tumor burden results in excellent local control; however, this is at the expense of a high incidence of radiation necrosis (RN). Therefore, we developed a hypofractionation pattern of 33 Gy/3 fractions, which is a radiobiological equivalent of 20 Gy, with the aim to lower the incidence of RN. We reviewed records of 21 patients with recurrent GBM treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) to their 22 respective lesions. Sixty Gy fractioned external beam radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. Median time from primary irradiation to HFSRT was 9.6 months (range: 3.1 - 68.1 months). In HFSRT, a median dose of 33 Gy in 11 Gy fractions was delivered to the 80% isodose line that encompassed the target volume. The median tumor volume was 1.07 cm3 (range: 0.11 - 16.64 cm3). The median follow-up time after HFSRT was 9.3 months (range: 1.7 - 33.6 months). Twenty-one of 23 lesions treated (91.3%) achieved local control while 2/23 (8.7%) progressed. Median time to progression outside of the treated site was 5.2 months (range: 2.2 - 9.6 months). Progression was treated with salvage chemotherapy. Five of 21 patients (23.8%) were alive at the end of this follow-up; two patients remain disease-free. The remaining 16/21 patients (76.2%) died of disease. Treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no acute CTC/RTOG > Grade 2. There was 0% incidence of RN. A prospective trial will be underway to validate these promising results. PMID:27096136

  13. Optimum Cycle Length and Discharge Burnup for Nuclear Fuel; Phase II: Results Achievable with Enrichments Greater than 5 w/o

    SciTech Connect

    J. Secker, et al

    2002-09-30

    The report evaluates increasing enrichment to achieve lower fuel cycle costs. Increasing enrichment 6 w/o does not reach the optimum point. Further increase is possible before the optimum will be reached.

  14. Beyond ‘MSM’: Sexual Desire Among Bisexually-Active Latino Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Latino male bisexuality has been studied for the most part with a focus on men who have sex with men (MSM) and with little attention to sexual desire. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive understanding of how sexual desire is organized, enacted through sexual activity, and interpreted in the sexual lives of bisexually-active Latino men. To achieve this aim, an analysis was made of 18 sexual histories of bisexually active Latino men who participated in a two-year ethnographic study. Four configurations of sexual desire were constructed to reflect what was found in this population of bisexually-active Latino men: (a) lifetime homoerotic desire and casual sex with women; (b) lifetime heteroerotic desire, but commercial sex with men; (c) lifetime heteroerotic/transgender desire; (d) lifetime sexual desire for women and men. These configurations are explored in detail in this article. The analysis presented here is intended to offer insights into the overall study of Latino male bisexuality and into the foundations for the design of HIV and STI prevention programs directed toward bisexually-active Latino men and their partners. PMID:26412977

  15. An Assessment of the Argumentativeness Scale for Social Desirability Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicotera, Anne Maydan

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between the argumentativeness scale and judgments of its social desirability. Finds that when the variance in argumentativeness that can be attributed to social desirability is removed, the difference between the sexes diminishes. Analyzes sex differences in social desirability, and concludes that sex differences on…

  16. Girls' Portraits of Desire: Picturing a Missing Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits the missing discourse of female desire [Fine, M. 1988. Sexuality, schooling and adolescent females: The missing discourse of desire. "Harvard Educational Review" 58, no. 1: 29-53] in secondary schools. Instead of echoing previous studies that have documented how female desire is missing, this research starts from the premise…

  17. An Investigation of Desired Friendships during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Katelyn K.; Bowker, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study of 384 young adolescents (45% girls, "M" age = 12.94 years) and their desired friendships (friendships that adolescents indicate they would like to form in the future) examined whether (a) adolescents desire to be friends with peers who are well-liked, popular, aggressive, and prosocial; (b) having desired friendships is…

  18. A Contrapuntal Analysis of Discourses of Desire in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Implicated in contributing to the problems youth today face in trying to claim an education, an informed active participation in the social order, dominant discourses of desire in education foreclose formal, critical analysis of social structures that construct, police, entreat, and deny desire. Looking at the ways in which desire is encoded in…

  19. Social Desirability, Psychological Distress, and Consumer Satisfaction With Mental Health Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Stephane; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Determined strength of relationship between social desirability, psychological distress, and consumer satisfaction with mental health treatment in 82 clients in therapy. Results indicated that both consumer satisfaction reports and psychological distress scores were contaminated by socially desirable responding. (Author/ABL)

  20. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR): A Reliability Generalization Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Andrew; Bagger, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) is one of the most widely used social desirability scales. The authors conducted a reliability generalization study to examine the typical reliability coefficients of BIDR scores and explored factors that explained the variability of reliability estimates across studies. The results indicated…

  1. The taming of desire: Unspecific postponement reduces desire for and consumption of postponed temptations.

    PubMed

    Mead, Nicole L; Patrick, Vanessa M

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation began with the conjecture that people may do better by saying "some other time" instead of "no, not ever" in response to temptations. Drawing from learning theories, we hypothesized that people interpret unspecific postponement ("I can have it some other time") as a signal that they do not strongly value the postponed temptation. In this way, unspecific postponement may reduce desire for and consumption of postponed temptations, both in the present moment and over time. Four experiments tested those hypotheses. A multiphase study using the free-choice paradigm supported the learning account for the effects of postponement: unspecific postponement reduced immediate desire for a self-selected temptation which in turn statistically accounted for diminished consumption during the week after the manipulation--but only when postponement was induced, not when it was imposed (Experiment 1). Supporting the hypothesis that unspecific but not specific postponement connotes weak valuation, only unspecific postponement reduced attention to (Experiment 2) and consumption of (Experiment 3) the postponed temptation. Additionally, unspecific postponement delayed consumption primarily among those who were highly motivated to forgo consumption of the temptation (Experiment 3). A final multiphase experiment compared the effectiveness of unspecific postponement to the classic self-control mechanism of restraint, finding that unspecific postponement (vs. restraint) reduced consumption of the temptation in the heat of the moment and across 1 week postmanipulation (Experiment 4). The current research provides novel insight into self-control facilitation, the modification of desire, and the differential effects of unspecific and specific intentions for reducing unwanted behavior. PMID:26727664

  2. Validation of Scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Walter L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2005-01-01

    The Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS), the most commonly used social desirability bias (SDB) assessment, conceptualizes SDB as an individual's need for approval. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) measures SDB as two separate constructs: impression management and self-deception. Scores on SDB scales are commonly…

  3. Achieving Consensus for the Design and Delivery of an Online Intervention to Support Midwives in Work-Related Psychological Distress: Results From a Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Clyne, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Background Some midwives are known to experience both professional and organizational sources of psychological distress, which can manifest as a result of the emotionally demanding midwifery work, and the traumatic work environments they endure. An online intervention may be one option midwives may engage with in pursuit of effective support. However, the priorities for the development of an online intervention to effectively support midwives in work-related psychological distress have yet to be explored. Objective The aim of this study was to explore priorities in the development of an online intervention to support midwives in work-related psychological distress. Methods A two-round online Delphi study was conducted. This study invited both qualitative and quantitative data from experts recruited via a scoping literature search and social media channels. Results In total, 185 experts were invited to participate in this Delphi study. Of all participants invited to contribute, 35.7% (66/185) completed Round 1 and of those who participated in this first round, 67% (44/66) continued to complete Round 2. Out of 39 questions posed over two rounds, 18 statements (46%) achieved consensus, 21 (54%) did not. Participants were given the opportunity to write any additional comments as free text. In total, 1604 free text responses were collected and categorized into 2446 separate statements of opinion, creating a total of 442 themes. Overall, participants agreed that in order to effectively support midwives in work-related psychological distress, online interventions should make confidentiality and anonymity a high priority, along with 24-hour mobile access, effective moderation, an online discussion forum, and additional legal, educational, and therapeutic components. It was also agreed that midwives should be offered a simple user assessment to identify those people deemed to be at risk of either causing harm to others or experiencing harm themselves, and direct them to

  4. Social Desirability and Behavior Rating Scales: An Exploratory Study with the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merydith, Scott P.; Prout, H. Thompson; Blaha, John

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 (CBCL/4-18) and two modified measures of social desirability, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale with a sample of 65 parents of normal children from grades K-7. Results from correlational and multiple regression…

  5. An Expectancy-Value Perspective of Civic Education Motivation, Learning and Desirable Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Chua, Bee Leng

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed the mediating role of expectancy for success and value beliefs in civic education in linking socio-academic factors (gender, ethnicity, school level and prior achievement) to desirable civic attributes. The sample comprised 1664 students in their Year-7-Year-12 (mean age = 14.79, range = 12-18). Structural equation…

  6. Love and Politics: Sister Quinlan and the Future We Have Desired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndebele, Njabulo S.

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney (like Stimpson and Parker in this issue) speaks of: "A historic dialectic [which] exists between the beautiful and the bestial". In this speech, delivered on 13 December 2012, Njabulo Ndebele reflects on the stories South Africa tells itself about past atrocity, as a way of achieving "the future we have desired".…

  7. Birth desires and intentions of women diagnosed with a meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Michelle A.; Craig, Benjamin M.; Egan, Kathleen M.; Reed, Damon R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT To the authors’ knowledge, no previous study has examined the impact of meningioma diagnosis on women’s birth desires and intentions. In an exploratory study, the authors surveyed women affected by meningioma to determine their attitudes toward childbearing and the influences, including physician recommendations, on this major life decision and compared their responses to those of women in the general population. METHODS Meningioma survivors from the Meningioma Mommas online support group participated in an online survey that included questions on their birth desires and intentions, whether the risk of disease recurrence influenced their reproductive decisions, and risks communicated to them by their physicians. Using chi-square and rank-sum tests, the authors compared the survey participants’ responses with those of the general population as assessed by the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Logistic regression was used to adjust for differences in age, race, ethnicity, education, parity, pregnancy status, and infertility status in these populations. RESULTS Respondents with meningioma were more likely than those in the general population to report wanting a baby (70% vs 54%, respectively), intending to have a baby (27% vs 12%, respectively), and being very sure about this intention (10% vs 2%, respectively). More than half (32 of 61) of the women of childbearing age reported being advised by a physician about potential risk factors for recurrence of the meningioma, and pregnancy was the most commonly cited risk factor (26 of 61). The most common factor influencing birth desires and intentions was risk of the meningioma returning and requiring more treatment, which was reported by nearly two-thirds of the women in their childbearing years. CONCLUSIONS A majority of the meningioma survivors of childbearing age who completed the survey reported a desire for children, although concern about the risk of meningioma recurrence was an important

  8. Effects of Attractiveness and Social Status on Dating Desire in Heterosexual Adolescents: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent adolescent dating desire is based on attractiveness and social status of a potential short-term partner. Further, we tested whether self-perceived mate value moderated the relationship between dating desire and attractiveness of a potential partner. Data were used from a sample of 1,913 adolescents aged 13–18. Participants rated the importance of various characteristics of a potential partner and also participated in an experimental vignette study in which dating desire was measured with either low or high attractive potential partners having either a high or low social status. The results showed that boys rated attractiveness as more important than girls, while social status was rated as relatively unimportant by both sexes. In addition, in the experimental vignette study, it was found that attractiveness was the primary factor for boys’ dating desire. Only when a potential partner was attractive, social status became important for boys’ dating desire. For girls, on the other hand, it appeared that both attractiveness and social status of a potential partner were important for their dating desire. Finally, boys and girls who perceived themselves as having a high mate value showed more dating desire toward an attractive potential partner compared to adolescents who perceived themselves as having a low mate value. The present results extend previous research by showing that attractiveness of a potential partner is important to both adolescent boys and girls, but social status does not strongly affect dating desire during this particular age period. PMID:19830538

  9. Cross-National Comparisons of the Association between Student Motivation for Learning Mathematics and Achievement Linked with School Contexts: Results from TIMSS 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Pey-Yan

    2010-01-01

    The goals of this dissertation were as follows: (1) application of quantitative methods to large-scale databases, (2) investigation of relationships between student mathematics achievement and student motivational attitudes for learning mathematics at the macro level (i.e., national level) and at the micro level (i.e., student level), (3)…

  10. Coping Styles and Achievement: A Cross-National Study of School Children. Volume I of V Volumes: The Theory, Design, and Validation Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Robert F.

    This study undertook to develop an improved conceptual system for explaining effective behavior; to build reliable measures of the components of that behavior; to develop and apply the measures internationally; and to validate the measures and concepts against objective criteria of achievement. An eight-nation team defined three sets of components…

  11. Principal Perceptions and Student Achievement in Reading in Korea, Mexico, and the United States: Educational Leadership, School Autonomy, and Use of Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Seon-Hi; Slater, Charles L.; Backhoff, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This study compared PISA 2009 student reading literacy scores with principal perceptions across three countries with varying levels of student performance: Korea, Mexico, and the United States. Seventy-five countries participated in PISA 2009, which measured 15-year-old children's reading achievement and principal perceptions. The study…

  12. The Effects of Research-Based Curriculum Materials and Curriculum-Based Professional Development on High School Science Achievement: Results of a Cluster-Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Joseph; Kowalski, Susan; Getty, Stephen; Wilson, Christopher; Carlson, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Effective instructional materials can be valuable interventions to improve student interest and achievement in science (National Research Council [NRC], 2007); yet, analyses indicate that many science instructional materials and curricula are fragmented, lack coherence, and are not carefully articulated through a sequence of grade levels (AAAS,…

  13. Who Are the Students Who May Qualify for an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS)?: Focus Group Results. Synthesis Report 79

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Sandra; Ebben, Barbara; Kubinski, Eva; Sim, Grant; Liu, Kristin; Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha; Christian, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 2007, federal regulations to two major education laws gave state departments of education the option to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The regulations stated that the AA-MAS was intended for students who were being instructed in the grade-level…

  14. Illinois Community College System Selected Programs and Services for Underrepresented Groups. Focus Area: Academic Achievement Promoting Positive Results and Highlighting Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community College Board, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Through the Underrepresented Groups Report, community colleges have an opportunity to report on initiatives and strategies aimed at increasing participation and achievement among individuals with Disabilities, Women, and Minorities. Underrepresented Groups Report production is an important annual statutory responsibility (Public Act 85-283) for…

  15. Optimization of Milling Parameters Employing Desirability Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. L. S.; Rubio, J. C. Campos; Abrão, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of tool material (one cermet and two coated carbide grades), cutting speed and feed rate on the machinability of hardened AISI H13 hot work steel, in order to identify the cutting conditions which lead to optimal performance. A multiple response optimization procedure based on tool life, surface roughness, milling forces and the machining time (required to produce a sample cavity) was employed. The results indicated that the TiCN-TiN coated carbide and cermet presented similar results concerning the global optimum values for cutting speed and feed rate per tooth, outperforming the TiN-TiCN-Al2O3 coated carbide tool.

  16. Preschoolers’ Current Desires Warp Their Choices for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Atance, Cristina M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm to assess how children’s choices for the future are influenced by their current desires. Forty-eight 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds were assigned to one of four conditions. In two of these conditions (intervention), we manipulated children’s current state of thirst by allowing them to eat pretzels. In the remaining two conditions (baseline), we did not give them pretzels. The children were then asked to choose between water and pretzels. In one intervention and one baseline condition, they chose what they would like “now,” whereas in the other intervention and baseline conditions, they chose what they would like “tomorrow.” Results revealed that, despite children’s overwhelming desire for pretzels in the baseline conditions, children in both intervention conditions chose water. The data support the notion that children’s current state influences not only their choices for the present, but also their choices for the future. We discuss this finding in terms of both cognitive-developmental and adult social-cognitive theory. PMID:16866743

  17. Influence of social desirability on age differences in self-reports of mood and personality.

    PubMed

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2011-08-01

    ABSTRACT Increased age has been found to be associated with differences in affect and personality that have been interpreted in terms of better emotional regulation and increased maturity. However, these findings have largely been based on self-report data, and the primary goal of the current research was to investigate the hypothesis that age-related differences in affect and in certain desirable personality traits might, at least partially, reflect age differences in social desirability. As expected, increased age was associated with lower levels of negative affect and Neuroticism and higher levels of positive affect, life satisfaction, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, and scores on the social desirability scale were positively related to age and to desirable self-report characteristics but negatively related to undesirable self-report characteristics. Importantly, controlling for the variance in the social desirability measure resulted in less positive age trends in both types of self-report measures. PMID:21682727

  18. Influence of social desirability on age differences in self-reports of mood and personality

    PubMed Central

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Increased age has been found to be associated with differences in affect and personality which have been interpreted in terms of better emotional regulation and increased maturity. However, these findings have largely been based on self-report data, and the primary goal of the current research was to investigate the hypothesis that age-related differences in affect and in certain desirable personality traits might, at least partially, reflect age differences in social desirability. As expected, increased age was associated with lower levels of negative affect and neuroticism and higher levels of positive affect, life satisfaction, agreeableness and conscientiousness, and scores on the social desirability scale were positively related to age and to desirable self-report characteristics, but negatively related to undesirable self-report characteristics. Importantly, controlling for the variance in the social desirability measure resulted in less positive age trends in both types of self-report measures. PMID:21682727

  19. Violation of eating expectancies does not reduce conditioned desires for chocolate.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Karolien; van den Broek, Myrr; Havermans, Remco C; Jansen, Anita

    2016-05-01

    Although eating desires can be easily learned, their extinction appears more difficult. The present two-session study aimed to investigate the role of eating expectancies in the short and longer-term extinction of eating desires. In addition, the relationship between eating desires and conditioned evaluations was examined to test whether they might share a similar mechanism. It was hypothesized that the short-term extinction of eating desires would be more successful after the disconfirmation of eating expectancies (instructed extinction or IE), while resulting in worse longer-term extinction because omission of the food reward during extinction is not surprising. In contrast to the hypotheses, it was found that IE had no effect on the short-term and longer-term extinction of eating desires. Eating desires correlated with conditioned evaluations only to some extent. It is concluded that eating expectancies do not mediate the short-term extinction of conditioned eating desires. In addition, their longer-term extinction does not appear to be facilitated by a greater violation of eating expectancies. This suggests that it might not be necessary to focus on expectancy violation in cue exposure therapy to reduce eating desires. PMID:26853599

  20. Agreeableness: dimension of personality or social desirability artifact?

    PubMed

    Graziano, William G; Tobin, Renée M

    2002-10-01

    Agreeableness is linked to socially valued traits and prosocial motives, so self-reported Agreeableness may be distorted by self-favoring biases (SFB). A three-study multimethod research program explored links between the Big Five dimension of Agreeableness and SFB from three perspectives. First, we examined zero-order relations between Agreeableness and SFB measures (N = 316). Next, we used a round robin design (N = 351) and the Social Relations Model analyses (Kenny, 1994) to partition perceptions of Agreeableness into target and perceiver effects. These effects then were related to SFB concerns, and differential responsiveness to a manipulation of the social desirability of Agreeableness. Study 3 (N = 312) examined a manipulation of Agreeableness as a moderator of the relation between dispositional Agreeableness and interpersonal conflict tactics. Overall, results indicate that Agreeableness is not easily manipulated nor distorted by SFB. Results are discussed in terms of Agreeableness as a substantive system of motives. PMID:12322857

  1. Normative influence and desired family size among young people in rural Egypt.

    PubMed

    Harbour, Catherine

    2011-06-01

    Research has identified the lack of acceptance of a two-child-family norm as the biggest obstacle to achieving replacement-level fertility in Egypt. This analysis examines norms about desired family size for 1,366 males and 1,367 females aged 15-24 in 2004 in rural Minya governorate. Two-level random-effects multivariate logistic regression models, stratified by sex and grouped by neighborhood, are used to assess normative influence at the household and neighborhood levels, controlling for individual- and household-level covariates. In the final model, young males in neighborhoods where more people desire a small family are 33 percent more likely to desire a small family than are young males in other neighborhoods. Young females in households with one or more adults preferring a small family are 78 percent more likely to desire a small family, and young females in households with one or more young people who prefer a small family are 37 percent more likely to desire a small family themselves, compared with those living with adults or with young people, respectively, who do not prefer a small family. Programs aiming to reduce fertility should be aware of gender differences in the sources of normative influence on desired family size. PMID:21834412

  2. Long distance atomic teleportation with as good success as desired

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Prakash, Hari

    2015-09-15

    Long distance atomic teleportation (LDAT) is of prime importance in long distance quantum communication. Scheme proposed by Bose et al. (1999) in principle enables us to have LDAT using cavity decay. However it gives message state dependent fidelity and success rate. Here, using interaction of entangled coherent states with atom–cavity systems and a two-step measurement, we show how, LDAT can be achieved with unit fidelity and as good success as desired under ideal conditions. The scheme is unique in that, the first measurement predicts success or failure. If success is predicted then second measurement gives perfect teleportation. If failure is predicted the message-qubit remains conserved therefore a second attempt may be started. We found that even in presence of decoherence due to dissipation of energy our scheme gives message state independent success rate and almost perfect teleportation in single attempt with mean fidelity of teleportation equal to 0.9 at long distances. However if first attempt fails, unlike ideal case where message-qubit remains conserved with unit fidelity, in presence of decoherence the message-qubit remains conserved to some degree, therefore mean fidelity of teleportation can be increased beyond 0.9 by repeating the process.

  3. Children's understanding of the distinction between intentions and desires.

    PubMed

    Schult, Carolyn A

    2002-01-01

    Much of the previous research on children's understanding of intentions confounded intentions with desires. Intentions and desires are different, in that a desire can be satisfied in a number of ways, but an intention must be satisfied by carrying out the intended action. Children 3 through 7 years of age and adults were presented with situations in which intentions were satisfied but desires were not, or vice versa, in a story-comprehension task (N = 71) and a target-hitting game (N = 45). Although 3- and 4-year-olds were unable to differentiate desires and intentions consistently, 5- and 7-year-olds often matched the adult pattern. Younger children's difficulties in understanding intentions are discussed in terms of their use of a desire-outcome matching strategy and the representational complexities of intentions. PMID:12487490

  4. Test-Retest Reliability of a Short Form of the Children’s Social Desirability Scale for Nutrition and Health-Related Research

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Patricia H.; Baxter, Suzanne D.; Hitchcock, David B.; Royer, Julie A.; Smith, Albert F.; Guinn, Caroline H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Children’s Social Desirability Short (S-CSD) scale, consisting of 14 items from the Children’s Social Desirability scale. Methods The previously validated S-CSD scale was classroom administered to 97 fourth-grade children (80% African American, 76% low socioeconomic status) in 2 sessions a month apart. Each classroom administration lasted approximately 5 minutes. Results The S-CSD scale showed acceptable levels of test-retest reliability (0.70) and internal consistency (0.82 and 0.85 for the first and second administrations, respectively). Reliability was adequate within subgroups of gender, socioeconomic status, academic achievement, and body mass index percentile. Levels of social desirability did not differ across subgroups. Conclusions and Implications Social desirability bias is a potential source of systematic response error in children’s self-report assessments of nutrition and health-related behaviors. The S-CSD scale may be used with diverse groups of children to reliably and efficiently assess social desirability bias. PMID:24418615

  5. [Testosterone therapy in female hypoactive sexual desire disorder].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patrick

    2016-03-16

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes marked personal or interpersonal distress. It occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women. A number of potential contributory factors (hormonal, neurobiological and psychosocial) have been identified. Testosterone plays an excitatory role in sexual desire but the mechanism is not yet well understood. Treatment with testosterone has been shown to improve sexual desire in menopausal women with HSDD. However, there are limited data concerning premenopausal women and long-term safety. At present, physiological testosterone preparations for use in women are not available in Switzerland. PMID:27149714

  6. Inclusion and Diversity from Hegelylacan Point of View: Do We Desire Our Desire for Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tania Cristina B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of social exclusion, reported to be intrinsically connected to mathematical teaching from the perspective of Hegel's philosophy and Lacan's psychoanalysis. It provides a characterization of mathematics from a language viewpoint discusses the perennial demand for more mathematical achieving from the perspective of…

  7. Determining Desirable Cursor Control Device Characteristics for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2007-01-01

    A test battery was developed for cursor control device evaluation: four tasks were taken from ISO 9241-9, and three from previous studies conducted at NASA. The tasks focused on basic movements such as pointing, clicking, and dragging. Four cursor control devices were evaluated with and without Extravehicular Activity (EVA) gloves to identify desirable cursor control device characteristics for NASA missions: 1) the Kensington Expert Mouse, 2) the Hulapoint mouse, 3) the Logitech Marble Mouse, and 4) the Honeywell trackball. Results showed that: 1) the test battery is an efficient tool for differentiating among input devices, 2) gloved operations were about 1 second slower and had at least 15% more errors; 3) devices used with gloves have to be larger, and should allow good hand positioning to counteract the lack of tactile feedback, 4) none of the devices, as designed, were ideal for operation with EVA gloves.

  8. Library Users' Service Desires: A LibQUAL+ Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Kyrillidou, Martha; Cook, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore library users' desired service quality levels on the twenty-two core LibQUAL+ items. Specifically, we explored similarities and differences in users' desired library service quality levels across user groups (i.e., undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty), across geographic locations (i.e.,…

  9. "Non-Coercive Rearrangements": Theorizing Desire in TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motha, Suhanthie; Lin, Angel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that at the center of every English language learning moment lies desire: desire for the language; for the identities that English represents; for capital, power, and images that are associated with English; for what is believed to lie beyond the doors that English unlocks. However, despite its centrality within…

  10. Social Desirability, Environmental Attitudes, and General Ecological Behaviour in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerke, Britta; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Socially desirable responses have been widely discussed as potentially biasing self-reported measures of environmental attitude and behaviour assessment. The direct and moderating effect of social desirability on children has not been analysed before. By applying a Lie scale together with a two-factor environmental attitude set measure and a scale…

  11. Breaking up with Deleuze: Desire and Valuing the Irreconcilable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Eve

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Eve Tuck grapples with Gilles Deleuze's conceptualization of desire, finding it simultaneously generative and unsatisfying. Recognizing that Deleuze will not "say" what Tuck wants him to say about desire--that it is smart, and constitutes expertise--Tuck reasons that there is only one thing she can do: break up with Deleuze. The…

  12. Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Desire to Marry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Scott J.

    1993-01-01

    Used data from over 2,000 respondents to explore racial, ethnic, and gender differences in desire to marry. African Americans were significantly less desiring of marriage than whites; racial difference among men was significantly larger than difference among women. Compared to nonhispanic whites of same gender, Hispanic men were more likely,…

  13. Neural Correlates of Belief- and Desire-Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    Theory of mind requires an understanding of both desires and beliefs. Moreover, children understand desires before beliefs. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this developmental lag. Additionally, previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have neglected the direct comparison of these developmentally critical mental-state…

  14. Understanding the Desirability of English Language Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Chao-Ling

    2008-01-01

    The popularity and desirability of English language education has become somewhat unbeatable in Taiwan. This article seeks to understand the multiple threads of reasoning systems that come together to constitute and sustain the desirability of English learning. It conceptualizes that language education is more than teaching and learning a…

  15. Patterns of Workplace Supervisor Support Desired by Abused Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Nancy A.; Yragui, Nanette L.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Glass, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand differences in patterns of supervisor support desired by female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) and to examine whether the pattern of support desired at work is reflective of a woman's stage of change in the abusive relationship, IPV-related work interference, and IPV-related job reprimands or…

  16. Intergalactic Encounters: Desire and the Political Immediacy of Children's Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The author of this article creates a semblance between Deleuze and Guattari's conception of a politics of desire and the four realities, as outlined by Brent and Marjorie Wilson. By making this theoretical move, the author advances the idea that children's drawing unfolds from one moment to the next through the assemblages of desire that are most…

  17. Human Sexual Desire Disorder: Do We Have a Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.; Henry, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD), loss of sexual desire for sexual activity, is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions of men and women in the United States. This article presents an overview of this specific sexual dysfunction including incidence, possible causes, treatment options, and the role of the health educator in addressing…

  18. Bibliotherapy for Low Sexual Desire: Evidence for Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Balzer, Alexandra M.; Zhao, Xinting; Bush, Hannah E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of bibliotherapy for low sexual desire among women, which is the most frequent sexual concern brought to counselors. Forty-five women responded to an advertisement for participation in a study on low sexual desire and were assigned to either the intervention or the wait-list control group. The intervention…

  19. Wishful seeing: more desired objects are seen as closer.

    PubMed

    Balcetis, Emily; Dunning, David

    2010-01-01

    Although people assume that they see the surrounding environment as it truly is, we suggest that perception of the natural environment is dependent upon the internal goal states of perceivers. Five experiments demonstrated that perceivers tend to see desirable objects (i.e., those that can fulfill immediate goals-a water bottle to assuage their thirst, money they can win, a personality test providing favorable feedback) as physically closer to them than less desirable objects. Biased distance perception was revealed through verbal reports and through actions toward the object (e.g., underthrowing a beanbag at a desirable object). We suggest that seeing desirable objects as closer than less desirable objects serves the self-regulatory function of energizing the perceiver to approach objects that fulfill needs and goals. PMID:20424036

  20. Heritability of Health and Aging Limitations on Personally Desired Activities

    PubMed Central

    Gurland, Barry J.; Page, William; Small, Brent; McArdle, John J.; Plassman, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate heritability of incident limitations on personally desired activities within the eighth decade of life. We measured self-rated ability to perform ten personally desired activities in 1606 male veteran twin pairs at baseline and four years later. At follow-up, 33% of the cohort reported more limitations in desired activities. Among twins who completed both assessments, there were no statistically significant differences in incidence rates of limitations as a function of zygosity. Sensitivity tests showed the same for change scores; and that, if cognitive impairment or death are deemed to belong among limitations of desired activities, zygosity contributed 10% to new limitations at follow-up. Maintaining personally desired activities over four years in the eighth decade is not subject to substantial genetic influence. However, if death and cognitive impairment are added to incident limitations, then genetics plays a modest role. In all cases, unique environment is the predominant influence. PMID:26973959

  1. Social desirability in personality inventories: Symptoms, diagnosis and prescribed cure

    PubMed Central

    Bäckström, Martin; Björklund, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of social desirability in personality assessment is presented. Starting with the symptoms, Study 1 showed that mean ratings of graded personality items are moderately to strongly linearly related to social desirability (Self Deception, Impression formation, and the first Principal Component), suggesting that item popularity may be a useful heuristic tool for identifying items which elicit socially desirable responding. We diagnose the cause of socially desirable responding as an interaction between the evaluative content of the item and enhancement motivation in the rater. Study 2 introduced a possible cure; evaluative neutralization of items. To test the feasibility of the method lay psychometricians (undergraduates) reformulated existing personality test items according to written instructions. The new items were indeed lower in social desirability while essentially retaining the five factor structure and reliability of the inventory. We conclude that although neutralization is no miracle cure, it is simple and has beneficial effects. PMID:23252410

  2. Stabilization effect of multiple drivers' desired velocities in car-following theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Geng; Zhao, Min; Sun, Di-Hua; Liu, Wei-Ning; Li, Hua-Min

    2016-01-01

    In order to reveal the influence of driver's individual behavior on traffic flow more accurately, a new car-following model is proposed with consideration of multiple drives' desired velocities. The stability criterion of the new model is derived through linear stability theory and the results show that the current driver's desired velocity can stabilize traffic flow but the preceding driver's desired velocity can damage traffic stability. Through nonlinear analysis, the traffic jamming transition characteristics near the critical point can be described by the kink-antikink soliton of the mKdV equation. Numerical simulation confirms the analytical results, which shows that the multiple drivers' desired velocities play an important role in traffic evolution.

  3. Simvastatin Hydroxy Acid Fails to Attain Sufficient Central Nervous System Tumor Exposure to Achieve a Cytotoxic Effect: Results of a Preclinical Cerebral Microdialysis Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogesh T; Jacus, Megan O; Davis, Abigail D; Boulos, Nidal; Turner, David C; Vuppala, Pradeep K; Freeman, Burgess B; Gilbertson, Richard J; Stewart, Clinton F

    2016-04-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors were potent hits against a mouse ependymoma cell line, but their effectiveness against central nervous system tumors will depend on their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and attain a sufficient exposure at the tumor. Among 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors that had activity in vitro, we prioritized simvastatin (SV) as the lead compound for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies based on its potential for central nervous system penetration as determined from in silico models. Furthermore, we performed systemic plasma disposition and cerebral microdialysis studies of SV (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in a murine model of ependymoma to characterize plasma and tumor extracellular fluid (tECF) pharmacokinetic properties. The murine dosage of SV (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was equivalent to the maximum tolerated dose in patients (7.5 mg/kg, p.o.) based on equivalent plasma exposure of simvastatin acid (SVA) between the two species. SV is rapidly metabolized in murine plasma with 15 times lower exposure compared with human plasma. SVA exposure in tECF was <33.8 ± 11.9 µg/l per hour, whereas the tumor to plasma partition coefficient of SVA was <0.084 ± 0.008. Compared with in vitro washout IC50 values, we did not achieve sufficient exposure of SVA in tECF to suggest tumor growth inhibition; therefore, SV was not carried forward in subsequent preclinical efficacy studies. PMID:26802130

  4. Low complexity interference alignment algorithms for desired signal power maximization problem of MIMO channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cong; Yang, Yunchuan; Yuan, Yaxiang

    2012-12-01

    In this article, we investigate the interference alignment (IA) solution for a K-user MIMO interference channel. Proper users' precoders and decoders are designed through a desired signal power maximization model with IA conditions as constraints, which forms a complex matrix optimization problem. We propose two low complexity algorithms, both of which apply the Courant penalty function technique to combine the leakage interference and the desired signal power together as the new objective function. The first proposed algorithm is the modified alternating minimization algorithm (MAMA), where each subproblem has closed-form solution with an eigenvalue decomposition. To further reduce algorithm complexity, we propose a hybrid algorithm which consists of two parts. As the first part, the algorithm iterates with Householder transformation to preserve the orthogonality of precoders and decoders. In each iteration, the matrix optimization problem is considered in a sequence of 2D subspaces, which leads to one dimensional optimization subproblems. From any initial point, this algorithm obtains precoders and decoders with low leakage interference in short time. In the second part, to exploit the advantage of MAMA, it continues to iterate to perfectly align the interference from the output point of the first part. Analysis shows that in one iteration generally both proposed two algorithms have lower computational complexity than the existed maximum signal power (MSP) algorithm, and the hybrid algorithm enjoys lower complexity than MAMA. Simulations reveal that both proposed algorithms achieve similar performances as the MSP algorithm with less executing time, and show better performances than the existed alternating minimization algorithm in terms of sum rate. Besides, from the view of convergence rate, simulation results show that the MAMA enjoys fastest speed with respect to a certain sum rate value, while hybrid algorithm converges fastest to eliminate interference.

  5. Desiring foods: Cultivating non-attachment to nourishment in Buddhist Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Van Daele, Wim

    2016-10-01

    Food and desire are intimately entangled whereby food becomes a core tool to manage desire in fashioning oneself as a morally virtuous person. This paper looks at the ways in which Buddhist texts conceptualize human interactions with food and formulate prescriptions on how to handle food as a means of developing an attitude of non-attachment that aids in achieving nirvana-the extinguishing of desire to get released from the cycle of death and rebirth. The particular texts-the Agañña Sutta, the Āhāra Patikūlasaññā, and the Vinaya Pitaka- discussed here exhibit an attitude of deep ambiguity towards food in its capacity to incite desire. On the one hand nutrition is required to maintain life, but on the other, food can potentially be the cause of a degenerate state of mankind and a source of moral degradation. Hence, the Buddhist development of a dispassionate attitude towards food seeks to enable both nourishment and the pursuit of the extinction of the flame of desire in nirvana. Even though the texts formulate practical prescriptions for monks on how to relate to food to aid them in their pursuit, they also serve as moral standards for lay Sinhalese Buddhists who seek to model their everyday behaviour accordingly. PMID:27178877

  6. A Dyadic Operator for the Gradation of Desirability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piolle, Guillaume

    We propose a normal modal deontic logic based on a dyadic operator, similar in structure to the temporal "until". By bringing significant expressiveness to the logic, it allows both the definition of a monadic desirability operator similar to the SDL obligation, and the expression of the relative level of desirability of target formulae. The interpretation of this logic on a linear structure of worlds ordered by desirability makes its semantics more intuitive and concrete than the SDL deontic accessibility relation. We also show that the core modality of the logic permits to represent the Chisholm and Forrester paradoxes of deontic logic in a more precise way, which does not lead to inconsistencies.

  7. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  8. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  9. High-Dose Continuous Oxacillin Infusion Results in Achievement of Pharmacokinetics Targets in Critically Ill Patients with Deep Sternal Wound Infections following Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Launey, Yoann; Malherbe, Alexandre; Dermu, Marine; Piau, Caroline; Flécher, Erwan; Tribut, Olivier; Mallédant, Yannick; Seguin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge regarding antimicrobial therapy strategies in deep sternal wound infections (DSWI) following cardiac surgery is limited. Therefore, we aimed to determine the steady-state plasma and mediastinal concentrations of oxacillin administered by continuous infusion in critically ill patients with DSWI and to compare these concentrations with the susceptibility of staphylococci recovered. A continuous infusion of oxacillin (150 to 200 mg/kg of body weight/24 h) was administered after a loading dose (50 mg/kg). Plasma and mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin were determined 4 h after the loading dose (H4) and then at day 1 (H24) and day 2 (H48). Twelve patients were included. Nine patients exhibited bacteremia, 5 were in septic shock, 8 were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, and 4 were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci. The median MIC (first to third interquartile range) was 0.25 (0.24 to 0.41) mg/liter. Median plasma concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 64.4 (41.4 to 78.5) and 20.4 (12.4 to 30.4) mg/liter, 56.9 (31.4 to 80.6) and 21.7 (6.5 to 27.3) mg/liter, and 57.5 (32.2 to 85.1) and 20 (14.3 to 35.7) mg/liter. The median mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 2.3 (0.7 to 25.9) and 0.9 (<0.5 to 15) mg/liter, 29.1 (19.7 to 38.2) and 12.6 (5.9 to 19.8) mg/liter, and 31.6 (14.9 to 42.9) and 17.1 (6.7 to 26.7) mg/liter. High-dose oxacillin delivered by continuous infusion is a valuable strategy to achieve our pharmacokinetic target (4× MIC) at the site of action at H24. But concerns remain in cases of higher MICs, emphasizing the need for clinicians to obtain the MICs for the bacteria and to monitor oxacillin concentrations, especially the unbound forms, at the target site. PMID:24982092

  10. High-dose continuous oxacillin infusion results in achievement of pharmacokinetics targets in critically ill patients with deep sternal wound infections following cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Nesseler, Nicolas; Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Launey, Yoann; Malherbe, Alexandre; Dermu, Marine; Piau, Caroline; Flécher, Erwan; Tribut, Olivier; Mallédant, Yannick; Seguin, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge regarding antimicrobial therapy strategies in deep sternal wound infections (DSWI) following cardiac surgery is limited. Therefore, we aimed to determine the steady-state plasma and mediastinal concentrations of oxacillin administered by continuous infusion in critically ill patients with DSWI and to compare these concentrations with the susceptibility of staphylococci recovered. A continuous infusion of oxacillin (150 to 200 mg/kg of body weight/24 h) was administered after a loading dose (50 mg/kg). Plasma and mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin were determined 4 h after the loading dose (H4) and then at day 1 (H24) and day 2 (H48). Twelve patients were included. Nine patients exhibited bacteremia, 5 were in septic shock, 8 were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, and 4 were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci. The median MIC (first to third interquartile range) was 0.25 (0.24 to 0.41) mg/liter. Median plasma concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 64.4 (41.4 to 78.5) and 20.4 (12.4 to 30.4) mg/liter, 56.9 (31.4 to 80.6) and 21.7 (6.5 to 27.3) mg/liter, and 57.5 (32.2 to 85.1) and 20 (14.3 to 35.7) mg/liter. The median mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 2.3 (0.7 to 25.9) and 0.9 (<0.5 to 15) mg/liter, 29.1 (19.7 to 38.2) and 12.6 (5.9 to 19.8) mg/liter, and 31.6 (14.9 to 42.9) and 17.1 (6.7 to 26.7) mg/liter. High-dose oxacillin delivered by continuous infusion is a valuable strategy to achieve our pharmacokinetic target (4× MIC) at the site of action at H24. But concerns remain in cases of higher MICs, emphasizing the need for clinicians to obtain the MICs for the bacteria and to monitor oxacillin concentrations, especially the unbound forms, at the target site. PMID:24982092

  11. The neural basis of desire reasoning for self and others: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qin; Li, Peng; Li, Fuhong; Wang, Qi; Cao, Bihua; Li, Hong

    2016-01-20

    Theory of mind refers to the ability to attribute mental states to self and others, and predict actions in terms of mental states. It is still unclear how certain kinds of processing occur in theory of mind operation. The present study compared neural activities elicited by desire reasoning for self and for others under consistent or inconsistent conditions using the event-related potential method. The results showed that the late positive component (LPC) associated with desire reasoning was larger during the 450-550 ms time period in the condition of reasoning for self than that for others when desires were inconsistent. A left hemisphere effect on the scalp distribution was observed for the LPC component. The present study showed that a left frontal LPC component might reflect the subjective categorization process in desire reasoning. PMID:26619233

  12. Predictors of sexual assertiveness: the role of sexual desire, arousal, attitudes, and partner abuse.

    PubMed

    Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexual attitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, higher dyadic desire, and higher sexual arousal. In women, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, less solitary sexual desire and higher dyadic sexual desire, arousal, erotophilia, and positive attitudes towards sexual fantasies. Results were discussed in the light of prevention and educational programs that include training in sexual assertiveness skills. PMID:22875718

  13. Traffic stability of a car-following model considering driver’s desired velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Geng; Sun, Di-Hua; Liu, Wei-Ning; Liu, Hui

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed by considering driver’s desired velocity according to Transportation Cyber Physical Systems. The effect of driver’s desired velocity on traffic flow has been investigated through linear stability theory and nonlinear reductive perturbation method. The linear stability condition shows that driver’s desired velocity effect can enlarge the stable region of traffic flow. From nonlinear analysis, the Burgers equation and mKdV equation are derived to describe the evolution properties of traffic density waves in the stable and unstable regions respectively. Numerical simulation is carried out to verify the analytical results, which reveals that traffic congestion can be suppressed efficiently by taking driver’s desired velocity effect into account.

  14. [Neurobiological, psychological and sociological approach to sexual desire and sexual satisfaction].

    PubMed

    Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Ammar, Nadia; Bolmont, Mylène; Dosch, Alessandra; Favez, Nicolas; Van der Linden, Martial; Widmer, Eric

    2016-03-16

    In the last years, University Fund Maurice Chalumeau (FUMC) launched a dynamic of research designed to promote scientific excellence and the development of Sexology with particular interest regarding sexual desire. The FUMC has supported a research project entitled "Neurobiological, psychological and sociological approach to sexual desire and sexual satisfaction". This project, sampled on 600 people (300 men and 300 women) aged between 25 and 46 years, was structured around three studies: a broad sociological study and two more specific ones, focused on some psychological mechanisms and neurobiological factors involved in sexual desire. The results show how the secondary socialization, personal expectations, beliefs and values in sexuality, sexual motivations, body image, as well as the neurobiological foundations and visual patterns, are of vital importance in the dynamics of sexual desire. PMID:27149717

  15. Sexual desire in men: effects of oral ingestion of a product derived from fertilized eggs.

    PubMed

    Eskeland, B; Thom, E; Svendsen, K O

    1997-01-01

    A commercial product, Libido (Libid, Libbido, Erosom and Ardorare, names used in different markets), which is based on components derived from fertilized, partly incubated chickens' eggs, has been used to treat diminished sexual desire in men. The results from two double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled experiments indicate that Libido has a significant enhancing effect on sexual desire in men with normal and reduced sexual drive. Over periods as short as 2 weeks, 58% of the participants with low sexual desire noticed improvement as assessed using a visual analogue scale. Data obtained from consumers suggest significant effects on the frequency of sexual intercourse, on increased self-esteem, on the level of happiness, and on stamina. In a separate Swedish study, 84% of 31 men reported increased sexual desire during 3 weeks on Libido. It takes 1-2 weeks of regular use of Libido (3 g twice daily) before noticeable changes are observed. PMID:9100160

  16. Treating Inhibited Sexual Desire: A Marital Therapy Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Linda Stone; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Defines inhibited sexual desire (ISD) as a relational phenomenon best treated in the marital context. Discusses ISD as it relates to the central marital issues of power, intimacy, and boundaries. (JAC)

  17. What’s in a Kiss? The Effect of Romantic Kissing on Mate Desirability

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Past research suggests that various courtship rituals, such as romantic kissing, may convey useful mate quality information. Two studies were carried out to examine how purported romantic kissing abilities, as a potential cue to some form of mate information, affect appraisals of potential mating partners. In Experiment 1, 724 participants were presented with vignette descriptions of potential mating partners and were asked to rate partner desirability for various mating-related situations. The primary result of this experiment was that purported kissing ability increased mate desirability in “casual sex” mating situations for women to a greater extent than for men. Experiment 2 repeated the same procedure with another 178 participants, this time including visual information alongside vignette descriptions containing kissing-related information to examine the relative effects of these two modalities. It was found that the presence of a picture alongside a descriptive vignette negated the effect of kissing-related information only when rating potential partners on attractiveness or desirability for further courtship, though not when evaluating partners for casual sex or long-term relationship scenarios. Visual information containing “attractive” photos of potential partners was also found to have a greater effect on men’s ratings of partner desirability than on women’s ratings of partner desirability. The results are discussed in light of romantic kissing’s potential function of conveying important mate quality and desirability information, and its relative role in the presence of additional visual mate cues. PMID:25299759

  18. Preschool-aged children recognize ambivalence: emerging identification of concurrent conflicting desires.

    PubMed

    Rostad, Kristin; Pexman, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    We examined the ability of preschool-aged children to identify conflicting, or ambivalent, desire states (e.g., "I want to go to the birthday party because there will be cake, but I also don't want to go because I'm having fun playing at home"). Participants were 4- and 5-year-old children, and a group of undergraduate students (n = 20 in each age group). They were presented with 14 scenarios involving both "single desire" and "dual desire" states, including both approach (i.e., "want") and avoidance (i.e., "not want") desires. Our primary interest was children's ability to identify concurrent conflicting "dual desire" states, and this ability was found in most of the 5-year-old age group tested and in about half of the 4-year-old age group. As such, these results provide evidence that children can identify ambivalence at earlier ages than previously reported. In addition, results showed that the challenge in recognizing ambivalence is the presence of desires of opposite valence directed at the same target. PMID:25914671

  19. Method for preparing salt solutions having desired properties

    DOEpatents

    Ally, Moonis R.; Braunstein, Jerry

    1994-01-01

    The specification discloses a method for preparing salt solutions which exhibit desired thermodynamic properties. The method enables prediction of the value of the thermodynamic properties for single and multiple salt solutions over a wide range of conditions from activity data and constants which are independent of concentration and temperature. A particular application of the invention is in the control of salt solutions in a process to provide a salt solution which exhibits the desired properties.

  20. Characteristics Desired in Clinical Data Warehouse for Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soo-Yong; Kim, Woo Sung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Due to the unique characteristics of clinical data, clinical data warehouses (CDWs) have not been successful so far. Specifically, the use of CDWs for biomedical research has been relatively unsuccessful thus far. The characteristics necessary for the successful implementation and operation of a CDW for biomedical research have not clearly defined yet. Methods Three examples of CDWs were reviewed: a multipurpose CDW in a hospital, a CDW for independent multi-institutional research, and a CDW for research use in an institution. After reviewing the three CDW examples, we propose some key characteristics needed in a CDW for biomedical research. Results A CDW for research should include an honest broker system and an Institutional Review Board approval interface to comply with governmental regulations. It should also include a simple query interface, an anonymized data review tool, and a data extraction tool. Also, it should be a biomedical research platform for data repository use as well as data analysis. Conclusions The proposed characteristics desired in a CDW may have limited transfer value to organizations in other countries. However, these analysis results are still valid in Korea, and we have developed clinical research data warehouse based on these desiderata. PMID:24872909

  1. Desire for prenatal gender disclosure among primigravidae in Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Tochukwu C; Enwereji, Jamike O; Okoro, Onyemaechi S; Iferikigwe, Eric S; Ikeako, Lawrence C; Ezenyeaku, Cyril C; Adiri, Charles O

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal gender disclosure is a nonmedical fetal ultrasonography view, which is considered ethically unjustified but has continued to grow in demand due to pregnant women’s requests. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of primigravidae who want prenatal gender disclosure and the reasons for it. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of randomly selected primigravidae seen at Enugu Scan Centre. The women were randomly selected using a table of random numbers. Results Ninety percent (225/250) of 250 primigravidae who fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in this study wanted to know the gender of their unborn baby, while 10% (25/250) declined gender disclosure. Furthermore, 62% (155/250) of primigravidae had preference for male children. There was statistically significant desire for male gender (P=0.0001). Statistically significant number of primigravidae who wanted gender disclosure did so to plan for the new baby (P=0.0001), and those that declined gender disclosure “leave it to the will of GOD” (P=0.014). Conclusion Ninety percent of primigravidae wanted gender disclosure because of plans for the new baby, personal curiosity, partner and in-laws’ curiosity; moreover, some women wanted to test the accuracy of the findings at delivery and 62% of primigravidae had preference for male children. In view of these results, gender disclosure could be beneficial in this environment. PMID:25792816

  2. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE RESULTS ACHIEVED IN ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION WITH TWO KINDS OF AUTOLOGOUS GRAFTS: PATELLAR TENDON VERSUS SEMITENDINOUS AND GRACILIS

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Monteiro, Diego Antico; Dias, Leonardo; Correia, Dárcio Maurício; Cohen, Moisés; Forgas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: this study aims to compare the arthrometric and isokinetic examination results from two types of autologous grafts: the central third of the patellar ligament and a graft formed by the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles, within the same rehabilitation protocol, six months after the surgery. Methods: the results from examinations carried out on 63 patients were analyzed. These patients were divided in two groups: one group of 30 patients who received a patellar tendon graft and another group of 33 patients who received a graft from the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles. Both the grafts were attached in the same way, with Endobutton™ for suspensory fixation to the femur and a bioabsorbable interference screw for fixation in the tibial tunnel. Results: arthrometry 30 did not present any statistical difference between the two study groups. On the other hand, the isokinetic evaluation showed that the patellar tendon group had a larger mean peak torque of flexion and greater extension deficit, while the semitendinosus/gracilis group had a better mean flexion/extension ratio and greater percentage of flexion deficit. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups when measuring peak torque extension. Conclusion: therefore, when the patellar tendon was used, there was greater extensor deficit and, when the semitendinosus/gracilis tendons were used, there was greater flexor deficit. PMID:27004173

  3. Minor counterclockwise rotation of the Tatra Mountains (Central Western Carpathians) as derived from paleomagnetic results achieved in hematite-bearing Lower Triassic sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szaniawski, Rafał; Ludwiniak, Mirosław; Rubinkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    Paleomagnetic studies accompanied with tectonic fieldworks have been carried out within hematite-bearing Lower Triassic red beds from the Tatra Mountains (Central Western Carpathians) in order to determine tectonic rotations of regional scale. The studied rocks contain primary remanent magnetization recorded by hematite and display both polarities. The obtained inclination is slightly lower than expected for stable Europe, which could imply either minor latitudinal separation or come from the inclination error. The results from six sampling sites representing rocks situated in autochthonous cover of the crystalline basement and inclined only during the Neogene uplift imply 19° counterclockwise rotation. Considering the tectonic position of the studied rocks, this rotation could be attributed to the entire Tatra Block. In turn, results from rocks tilted in two tectonic events: during Late Cretaceous compression and further in Neogene uplift requires double tectonic correction as normal unfolding procedure results in spurious declination. It is suggested that the latter mechanism together with local rotations of allochthonous nappes may explain part of variable rotations reported in previous paleomagnetic studies of Mesozoic rocks from the Central Western Carpathians.

  4. Achieving a Healthy Zoning Policy in Baltimore: Results of a Health Impact Assessment of the TransForm Baltimore Zoning Code Rewrite

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Amelia; Fichtenberg, Caroline M.; Feingold, Beth J.; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Jennings, Jacky M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The social determinants of health (SDH) include factors apart from genes and biology that affect population health. Zoning is an urban planning tool that influences neighborhood built environments. We describe the methods and results of a health impact assessment (HIA) of a rezoning effort in Baltimore, Maryland, called TransForm Baltimore. We highlight findings specific to physical activity, violent crime, and obesity. Methods We conducted a multistage HIA of TransForm Baltimore using HIA practice guidelines. Key informant interviews identified focus areas for the quantitative assessment. A literature review and a zoning code analysis evaluated potential impacts on neighborhood factors including physical activity, violent crime, and obesity. We estimated potential impacts in high- and low-poverty neighborhoods. The findings resulted in recommendations to improve the health-promoting potential of TransForm Baltimore. Results Mixed-use and transit-oriented development were key goals of TransForm Baltimore. Health impacts identified by stakeholders included walkability and healthy communities. For Baltimore residents, we estimated that (1) the percentage of people living in districts allowing mixed-use and off-premise alcohol outlets would nearly triple, (2) 18% would live in transit-oriented development zones, and (3) all residents would live in districts with new lighting and landscaping guidelines. Limiting the concentration of off-premise alcohol outlets represented an opportunity to address health promotion. Conclusions Changes to Baltimore's zoning code could improve population health including decreasing violent crime. HIAs are an important platform for applying SDH to public health practice. This HIA specifically linked municipal zoning policy with promoting healthier neighborhoods. PMID:24179284

  5. Achievements and Challenges upon the Implementation of a Program for National Control of Congenital Chagas in Bolivia: Results 2004–2009

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Vega, Cristina; Billot, Claire; Torrico, Faustino

    2013-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the most endemic countries for Chagas disease. Data of 2005 shows that incidence is around 1.09‰ inhabitants and seroprevalence in children under 15 ranged from 10% in urban areas to 40% in rural areas. In this article, we report results obtained during the implementation of the congenital Chagas program, one of the biggest casuistry in congenital Chagas disease, led by National Program of Chagas and Belgian cooperation from 2004 to 2009. The program strategy was based on serological results during pregnancy and on the follow up of children born from positive mothers until one year old; if positive, treatment was done with Benznidazole, 10 mg/Kg/day/30 days with one post treatment control 6 months later. Throughout the length of the program, a total of 318,479 pregnant women were screened and 23.31% were detected positive. 42,538 children born from positive mothers were analyzed at birth by micromethod, of which 1.43% read positive. 10,120 children returned for their second micromethod control of which 2.29% read positive, 7,650 children returned for the serological control, of which 3.32% turned out positive. From the 1,093 positive children, 70% completed the 30 day-treatment and 122 returned for post treatment control with 96% showing a negative result. It has been seen that maternal-fetal transmission rates vary between 2% and 4%, with an average of 2.6% (about half of previously reported studies that reached 5%). In this work, we show that it is possible to implement, with limited resources, a National Congenital Chagas Program and to integrate it into the Bolivian health system. Keys of success are population awareness, health personnel motivation, and political commitment at all levels. PMID:23875039

  6. Achievement of Optimal Medical Therapy Goals for US Adults with Coronary Artery Disease: Results from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Todd M.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Bittner, Vera; Brenner, David A.; Cushman, Mary; Goff, David C.; Glasser, Stephen; Muntner, Paul; Tabereaux, Paul B.; Safford, Monika M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In a non-clinical trial setting, to determine the proportion of individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD) with optimal risk factor levels based on the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) trial. Background In COURAGE, the addition of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to optimal medical therapy did not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction in stable CAD patients but resulted in more revascularization procedures. Methods REGARDS is a national prospective cohort study of 30,239 African American and White community-dwelling individuals aged >45 years enrolled in 2003-7. We calculated the proportion of 3,167 participants with self-reported CAD meeting 7 risk factor goals based on COURAGE: 1) aspirin use, 2) systolic blood pressure <130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure <85 mmHg (<80 mmHg if diabetic), 3) low density lipoprotein cholesterol <85 mg/dL, high density lipoprotein cholesterol >40 mg/dL, and triglycerides <150 mg/dL, 4) fasting glucose <126 mg/dL, 5) nonsmoking status, 6) body mass index <25 kg/m,2 and 7) exercise ≥4 days per week. Results The mean age of participants was 69±9 years, 33% were African American, and 35% were female. Overall, the median number of goals met was 4. Less than a quarter met ≥5 of the 7 goals, and 16% met all 3 goals for aspirin, blood pressure, and LDL-C. Older age, white race, higher income, more education, and higher physical functioning were independently associated with meeting more goals. Conclusions There is substantial room for improvement in risk factor reduction among US individuals with CAD. PMID:24534599

  7. Hungry for money: the desire for caloric resources increases the desire for financial resources and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Briers, Barbara; Pandelaere, Mario; Dewitte, Siegfried; Warlop, Luk

    2006-11-01

    This report attempts to provide an evolutionary explanation for humans' motivation to strive for money in present-day societies. We propose that people's desire for money is a modern derivate of their desire for food. In three studies, we show the reciprocal association between the incentive value of food and of money. In Study 1, hungry participants were less likely than satiated participants to donate to charity. In Study 2, participants in a room with an olfactory food cue, known to increase the desire to eat, offered less money in a give-some game compared with participants in a room free of scent. In Study 3, participants' desire for money affected the amount of M&M's they ate in a subsequent taste test, but only among participants who were not restricting their food intake in order to manage their weight. PMID:17176423

  8. Psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics and desire for orthodontic treatment among Chinese undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Song; Zhang, Chuqin; Ni, Chulei; Qian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics in undergraduate students in the People’s Republic of China and to investigate the association between normal orthodontic treatment needs, psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics, and desire for orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in two universities in a city of the People’s Republic of China with 374 young adults aged between 19 years and 24 years. The students answered a Chinese version of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) and addressed their desire for orthodontic treatment. Objective malocclusion severity was assessed with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Statistical analysis was performed by the SPSS software (Version 15.0). Results There was no statistical sex difference in relation to the dental health component of IOTN (P=0.893) and PIDAQ scores (P=0.06), but it was found that the desire for orthodontic treatment was significantly stronger among females. The total and subscale PIDAQ scores and malocclusion severity differed significantly among the five grades of desire (P<0.01). Significant positive correlation was found among desire for orthodontic treatment, IOTN-dental health component grades, and total or subscale PIDAQ scores (P<0.01). High correlation was found between desire and PIDAQ score (r=0.93). Conclusion The desire for orthodontic treatment is higher among female young adults who have the same orthodontic treatment needs compared to males. The desire for orthodontic treatment has high positive correlation with PIDAQ scores and increases with the increase in self-perceived psychosocial impacts of malocclusion and the needs for orthodontic treatment. PMID:27354773

  9. Fertility desires and intentions of HIV-positive patients at a suburban specialist center.

    PubMed Central

    Oladapo, Olufemi T.; Daniel, Olusoji J.; Odusoga, Okanlawon L.; Ayoola-Sotubo, Oluwafayokemi

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent of fertility desires and intentions of HIV-positive patients receiving care at a suburban specialist clinic and assess how these may vary by their sociodemographic and health-related factors. METHODS: Questionnaire-based interview of a consecutive sample of HIV-positive men (18-55 years) and HIV-positive women (18-45 years) who presented at the HIV clinic of the Center for Special Studies, Sagamu, Nigeria, between November and December 2004. RESULTS: 63.3% of the 147 studied participants expressed the desire for childbearing, even though 50.4% of them already had > or = 2 children. Respectively, 71.5% and 93.8% of men and women who desired children intended to have > or = 2 in the near future. Only 4.3% of those who desired children did not intend to have any. All 30 individuals who had no children intended to bear children in the future, and they constituted 32.3% of those who expressed the desire for childbearing. Multivariate logistic regression analyses of associated factors indicated that decreasing age, shorter time since diagnosis of HIV infection and nondisclosure of serostatus to current partner significantly increase the odds of desire for childbearing, while having no children and a poor most-recent CD4 count significantly increase the odds of intention to have > or = 3 children instead of 1-2. CONCLUSION: The extent of the fertility desires and intentions of these patients poses a threat to the preventive strategies against vertical and heterosexual transmission of HIV in this region. In view of their compelling desire for parenthood, it may be wise for caregivers to desist from the conventional systematic advice against pregnancy but, in addition to laying emphasis on the risks, provide adequate information on practicable reproductive options for HIV-positive individuals. PMID:16396059

  10. Sexual desire, not hypersexuality, is related to neurophysiological responses elicited by sexual images

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Vaughn R.; Staley, Cameron; Fong, Timothy; Prause, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Background Modulation of sexual desires is, in some cases, necessary to avoid inappropriate or illegal sexual behavior (downregulation of sexual desire) or to engage with a romantic partner (upregulation of sexual desire). Some have suggested that those who have difficulty downregulating their sexual desires be diagnosed as having a sexual ‘addiction’. This diagnosis is thought to be associated with sexual urges that feel out of control, high-frequency sexual behavior, consequences due to those behaviors, and poor ability to reduce those behaviors. However, such symptoms also may be better understood as a non-pathological variation of high sexual desire. Hypersexuals are thought to be relatively sexual reward sensitized, but also to have high exposure to visual sexual stimuli. Thus, the direction of neural responsivity to sexual stimuli expected was unclear. If these individuals exhibit habituation, their P300 amplitude to sexual stimuli should be diminished; if they merely have high sexual desire, their P300 amplitude to sexual stimuli should be increased. Neural responsivity to sexual stimuli in a sample of hypersexuals could differentiate these two competing explanations of symptoms. Methods Fifty-two (13 female) individuals who self-identified as having problems regulating their viewing of visual sexual stimuli viewed emotional (pleasant sexual, pleasant-non-sexual, neutral, and unpleasant) photographs while electroencephalography was collected. Results Larger P300 amplitude differences to pleasant sexual stimuli, relative to neutral stimuli, was negatively related to measures of sexual desire, but not related to measures of hypersexuality. Conclusion Implications for understanding hypersexuality as high desire, rather than disordered, are discussed. PMID:24693355

  11. Gender Differences in Object of Desire Self-Consciousness Sexual Fantasies.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Visser, Beth A; Pozzebon, Julie A

    2015-11-01

    In a recent review article, Bogaert and Brotto (2014) discussed "object of desire self-consciousness," a perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. They argued that this perception is more relevant to women's sociosexual functioning than it is to men's. In the present study, we attempted to find direct evidence that object of desire themes are linked more to women's sexual desire and arousal than they are to men's by examining the differences in content between men's and women's sexual fantasies. A total of 198 men and women reported on arousing themes in sexual fantasies using three methodologies: endorsement of items on a sexual fantasy questionnaire, sentence completion of sexually-charged scenarios, and open-ended sexual fantasies. The men and women also rated their attractiveness and were rated for attractiveness by two female experimenters. On all three fantasy composites, women endorsed more object of desire themes than did men, and these effects occurred independent of the subjective and observer-rated attractiveness measures. The results were discussed in relation to theorizing that object of desire self-consciousness can function as part of many women's self-schemata or scripts related to romance and sexuality. PMID:25567072

  12. Testing the Level of Social Desirability During Job Interview on White-Collar Profession.

    PubMed

    Preiss, Marek; Mejzlíková, Tereza; Rudá, Adéla; Krámský, David; Pitáková, Jindra

    2015-01-01

    Social desirability as a tendency to present oneself in a better light rather than in a truthful manner is common feature presented during job interviews. Previous studies mainly focused on blue-collar professions and therefore authors researched contrary set of white-collar professions in three sub-studies with four different participant groups (legal professions; police officers; controls and university students influenced by scenarios; overall N = 636). It was hypothesized that candidates for legal profession would show similar tendency toward social desirability, when compared with controls. Furthermore, police officers were hypothesized to show similar levels of social desirability as legal professions. Lastly, participants in the instruction manipulation condition were hypothesized to show increased levels of social desirability in tender situation as compared to the honest situation. All groups were tested with balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR, Paulhus, 1984). Statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences for both subscales of BIDR when comparing legal professions and control group. Similarly, increased levels of social desirability were detected in police officer candidates as well as in university students in the tender situation compared with students in the honest situation. The overall results indicated that it is typical for white-collar candidates to adapt to the testing situation and it cannot be expected to see different behavior from legal profession candidates as was originally expected. PMID:26696944

  13. The good and bad of ambivalence: Desiring ambivalence under outcome uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Reich, Taly; Wheeler, S Christian

    2016-04-01

    Decades of past research point to the downside of evaluative inconsistency (i.e., ambivalence), suggesting that it is an unpleasant state that can result in negative affect. Consequently, people are often motivated to resolve their ambivalence in various ways. We propose that people sometimes desire to be ambivalent as a means of strategic self-protection. Across employment, educational and consumer choice settings, we demonstrate that when people are uncertain they can obtain a desired target, they will cultivate ambivalence in order to protect their feelings in the event that they fail to get what they want. Specifically, we show that people consciously desire to cultivate ambivalence as a way to emotionally hedge and that they seek out and process information in ways to deliberately cultivate ambivalence. We find that people are most likely to generate ambivalence when they are most uncertain that they can obtain their desired target. Depending on the outcome, this cultivated ambivalence can either be useful (when the desired target is not obtained) or backfire (when the desired target is obtained). (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078506

  14. Testing the Level of Social Desirability During Job Interview on White-Collar Profession

    PubMed Central

    Preiss, Marek; Mejzlíková, Tereza; Rudá, Adéla; Krámský, David; Pitáková, Jindra

    2015-01-01

    Social desirability as a tendency to present oneself in a better light rather than in a truthful manner is common feature presented during job interviews. Previous studies mainly focused on blue-collar professions and therefore authors researched contrary set of white-collar professions in three sub-studies with four different participant groups (legal professions; police officers; controls and university students influenced by scenarios; overall N = 636). It was hypothesized that candidates for legal profession would show similar tendency toward social desirability, when compared with controls. Furthermore, police officers were hypothesized to show similar levels of social desirability as legal professions. Lastly, participants in the instruction manipulation condition were hypothesized to show increased levels of social desirability in tender situation as compared to the honest situation. All groups were tested with balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR, Paulhus, 1984). Statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences for both subscales of BIDR when comparing legal professions and control group. Similarly, increased levels of social desirability were detected in police officer candidates as well as in university students in the tender situation compared with students in the honest situation. The overall results indicated that it is typical for white-collar candidates to adapt to the testing situation and it cannot be expected to see different behavior from legal profession candidates as was originally expected. PMID:26696944

  15. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  16. Can Energy Drinks Increase the Desire for More Alcohol?1234

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. PMID:25593148

  17. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. PMID:25593148

  18. Early results from an effort to downscale a global dissolved inorganic nitrogen model to achieve a regional assessment of nitrogen dynamics in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. C.; Harrison, J.

    2013-12-01

    Excessive nitrogen (N) export to coastal systems has increased dramatically since the early 20th century. The increase in N has been linked to significant environmental impacts such as eutrophication, fish kills, and harmful algal blooms and is caused in part by the increasing use and quantity of synthetic fertilizer on farmland. Significant portions of both the Willamette River Valley in Oregon and the Palouse region of eastern Washington are agricultural land, approximately 20% and 57% respectively. Nitrogen in the form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) can leach from farms and pasture land into ground and surface water systems. This leaching, combined with DIN in runoff, contributes to the environmental degradation of both waterways (i.e. streams, rivers) and coastal estuaries. Because of this it is important to understand what effects changes in DIN application will have on water quality and DIN export to the coast. DIN export data, retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System, was analyzed for 23 major subbasins in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) and estimates DIN export (per area yield) ranging from 5.0 to 883.1 kg N km-2 yr-1. Here we present early results from our effort to downscale the Global Nutrient Export from WaterSheds (Global NEWS) DIN model for application within the Columbia River Basin (CRB). This first attempt at downscaling Global NEWS is missing some key higher-resolution N inputs for the model as well as accurate dam retention and runoff factors which could account for the low correlation between model output and observed data (R2 = 0.21).Our regional model predicts DIN yields ranging from 7.9 to 1146.6 kg N km-2 yr-1. Both the model output and observed data predict the highest per area DIN yields occurring in the Willamette river subbasin. Total DIN export to the coast was modeled as 0.06 Tg N yr-1 compared to 0.07 Tg N yr-1 calculated from the measured data. Based on current model inputs biological N2

  19. Desired emotions across cultures: A value-based account.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Maya; Schwartz, Shalom H; Cieciuch, Jan; Riediger, Michaela; Torres, Claudio; Scollon, Christie; Dzokoto, Vivian; Zhou, Xiaolu; Vishkin, Allon

    2016-07-01

    Values reflect how people want to experience the world; emotions reflect how people actually experience the world. Therefore, we propose that across cultures people desire emotions that are consistent with their values. Whereas prior research focused on the desirability of specific affective states or 1 or 2 target emotions, we offer a broader account of desired emotions. After reporting initial evidence for the potential causal effects of values on desired emotions in a preliminary study (N = 200), we tested the predictions of our proposed model in 8 samples (N = 2,328) from distinct world cultural regions. Across cultural samples, we found that people who endorsed values of self-transcendence (e.g., benevolence) wanted to feel more empathy and compassion, people who endorsed values of self-enhancement (e.g., power) wanted to feel more anger and pride, people who endorsed values of openness to change (e.g., self-direction) wanted to feel more interest and excitement, and people who endorsed values of conservation (e.g., tradition) wanted to feel more calmness and less fear. These patterns were independent of differences in emotional experience. We discuss the implications of our value-based account of desired emotions for understanding emotion regulation, culture, and other individual differences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26524003

  20. On Competences and Values: From the Desire to Educate to Educating the Desire of Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrañaga, Roberto Sancho

    2015-01-01

    The competence discourse issued by the Colombian Ministry of National Education defines an ontological duty, a set of logics for the education of subjectivity. Some interesting elements result from this analysis. The first level, or denotative level, manages a management or business cultural code. This code is closely related to the second level…

  1. Medium optimization by combination of response surface methodology and desirability function: an application in glutamine production.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinshan; Ma, Cuiqing; Ma, Yanhe; Li, Yan; Zhou, Wei; Xu, Ping

    2007-03-01

    An optimization strategy based on desirability function approach (DFA) together with response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize production medium in L-glutamine fermentation. Fermentation problems often force to reach a compromise between different experimental variables in order to achieve the most suitable strategy applying in industrial production. The importance of the use of multi-objective optimization methods lies in the ability to cope with this kind of problems. A sequential RSM with different combinations of glucose and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was performed to attain the optimal medium (OM-1) in glutamine production. Based on the result of RSM and the evaluation of production cost, a more economical optimal medium (OM-2) was obtained with the aid of DFA. In DFA study, glutamate, the main by-product in glutamine fermentation as another response was considered. Compared with OM-1 in validated experiment, similar amounts of glutamine were obtained in OM-2 while the concentration of glutamate and the production cost decreased by 53.6 and 7.1%, respectively. PMID:17119957

  2. Developing appreciation for ambivalence: the understanding of concurrent conflicting desires in 4- to 7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Rostad, Kristin; Pexman, Penny M

    2014-06-01

    The current experiment examined the development of children's ability to comprehend concurrent conflicting desires (i.e., both wanting and not wanting something at the same time). Participants were 4- to 7-year-old children and a group of undergraduate students (N = 20 in each age group). Results showed that the 6- and 7-year-old children understood concurrent conflicting desires at levels that were well above chance. There was evidence that even some of the 5-year-olds exhibited an emerging comprehension of conflicting desires. However, the 4-year-old children showed little ability to appreciate conflicting desire states. As such, children showed appreciation for conflicting desires at younger ages than suggested by previous research. In addition, significant relationships were observed between children's concurrent conflicting desire understanding and their theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) skills, even after controlling for chronological and verbal age. PMID:24708406

  3. Elementary School Achievement Profiles. Portland Public Schools. A School-by-School Report of Basic Skills Test Results and School/Student/Staff Data: School Year 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Dept. of Research, Evaluation, and Testing.

    This report contains Portland Achievement Levels Tests results for 61 elementary schools, 18 middle schools, and one special program school in the Portland School District for the 1986-87 school year. Twelve different grade-level configurations are represented, from pre-kindergarten to grade 12. Tests are designed to be administered in accordance…

  4. Human Capital: Building the Information Technology Workforce To Achieve Results. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Technology and Procurement Policy, Committee on Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David M.

    The Comptroller General of the United States testified before Congress regarding the General Accounting Office's (GAO's) framework for building the information technology (IT) work force to achieve results. The following were among the key points of his testimony: (1) the federal government is facing pervasive human capital challenges that are…

  5. WWC Review of the Report "Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the 2014 report, "Closing the Achievement Gap Through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten," researchers examined the impacts of "Tools of the Mind" on cognitive and academic…

  6. Media Impacts on Women's Fertility Desires: A Prolonged Exposure Experiment.

    PubMed

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Willis, Laura E; Kennard, Ashley R

    2016-06-01

    Media exposure may have implications for family planning, a public health issue of key importance. Drawing on social comparison theory and social identity theory, a prolonged exposure experiment examined whether media portrayals of women's social roles affect fertility desires among 166 American, nonstudent, never married, childless women ages 21-35 years old. After sign-up and baseline sessions, participants viewed magazine pages five days in a row. Stimuli presented women in either mother/homemaker roles, beauty ideal roles, or professional roles. Three days later, participants again indicated their number of desired children and time planned until first birth. Exposure to mother/homemaker and beauty ideal portrayals increased the number of desired children across time. Exposure to professional portrayals increased the time planned until 1st birth compared to beauty ideal portrayals-this impact was partially mediated by a shift toward more progressive gender norms (per social identity theory) and assimilation (per social comparison theory). PMID:27166510

  7. How MDMA's pharmacology and pharmacokinetics drive desired effects and harms.

    PubMed

    Michael White, C

    2014-03-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an agent of abuse that has been used by over 16 million Americans. Increased energy, elevated mood, bonding with others, and psychedelic effects are desired effects while liver damage, extended depressed mood, sexual assault, rhabdomyolysis, serotonin syndrome, multiorgan failure, cardiovascular events, arrhythmias, and death are possible adverse effects. These desirable and adverse effects of MDMA are extensions of its fascinating pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic profile. In addition to methamphatemine like effects, MDMA also has mescaline like effects and increases the release of cortisol, oxytocin, and antidiuretic hormone. The desirable effects of MDMA are accentuated by the rave or electronic dance music scene where warm temperatures, vigorous dancing, loud music, and light shows accentuate some of the responses. However, the same environment increases the risk of certain harms. Knowledge of the constellation of these factors is needed for education, prevention of harm, and treatment. PMID:24431106

  8. Contributions of Social Desirability to Self-Reported Ageism.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Allen, Priscilla D; Denver, Jenny Y; Holland, Kayla R

    2015-09-01

    The authors examined the role of social desirability in 445 participants' responses to self-reported measures of ageism across two studies. In Study 1, college students and community adults completed the Relating to Older People Evaluation (ROPE) and a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-C SDS). Study 2 was a conceptual replication that included the Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA). Correlation analyses confirmed a small but significant relationship between scores on the positive ageist items and the social desirability scale in both studies. Ageist attitudes were correlated with negative ageist behaviors in Study 2. Implications for current views on ageism and strategies for reducing ageist attitudes and behaviors in everyday life are discussed. PMID:24652882

  9. Distraction, the desire to eat and food intake. Towards an expanded model of mindless eating.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Coop, Nicola; Cousins, Charlotte; Crump, Rebecca; Field, Laura; Hughes, Sarah; Woodger, Nigel

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the impact of different forms of distraction on eating behaviour with a focus on the mechanisms behind this association and the link between the amount consumed and changes in the desire to eat. Participants (n=81) were randomly allocated to four conditions: driving, television viewing, social interaction or being alone in which they took part in a taste test. Measures of the desire to eat (i.e. Hunger, fullness, motivation to eat) were assessed before and after the intervention. The results showed that those watching television consumed more than the social or driving conditions. Food intake was associated with a decreased desire to eat for those eating alone, but was unrelated to changes in the desire to eat for those driving. Watching television also created a decrease in the desire to eat commensurate with food intake whereas social eating resulted in the reverse relationship. The results are discussed in terms an expanded model of mindless eating and it is argued that eating more requires not only distraction away from the symptom of hunger but also sufficient cognitive capacity left to attend to the process of eating. PMID:23219989

  10. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2011. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report, issued by the Connecticut Department of Higher Education, reports on trends in higher education for the year 2011. Six goals are presented, each with at least two indicators. Each indicator is broken down into the following subsections: About This Indicator; Highlights; and In the Future. Most indicators also include statistical…

  11. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  12. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  13. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  14. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  15. Converting customer expectations into achievable results.

    PubMed

    Landis, G A

    1999-11-01

    It is not enough in today's environment to just meet customers' expectations--we must exceed them. Therefore, one must learn what constitutes expectations. These needs have expanded during the past few years from just manufacturing the product and looking at the outcome from a provincial standpoint. Now we must understand and satisfy the entire supply chain. To manage this process and satisfy the customer, the process now involves the supplier, the manufacturer, and the entire distribution system. PMID:10623140

  16. Patterns of workplace supervisor support desired by abused women.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Nancy A; Yragui, Nanette L; Hanson, Ginger C; Glass, Nancy

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand differences in patterns of supervisor support desired by female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) and to examine whether the pattern of support desired at work is reflective of a woman's stage of change in the abusive relationship, IPV-related work interference, and IPV-related job reprimands or job loss. We conducted interviews in Spanish or English with adult women working in low-income jobs who had been physically or sexually abused by an intimate partner/ ex-partner in the past year ( N = 133). Cluster analysis revealed three distinct clusters that form a hierarchy of type of support wanted: those who desired limited support; those who desired confidential, time-off, and emotional support; and those who desired support in wide variety of ways from their supervisor. The clusters appeared to reflect stages of behavior change in an abusive relationship. Specifically, the limited-support cluster may represent an early precontemplation stage, with women reporting the least interference with work. The support-in-every-way cluster may represent later stages of change, in which women are breaking away from the abusive partner and report the greatest interference with work. Women in the confidential-, time-off-, and emotional-support cluster are in a transition stage in which they are considering change and are exploring options in their abusive relationship. Understanding the hierarchy of the type of support desired, and its relationship to stages of change in the abusive relationship and work interference, may provide a strong foundation for developing appropriate and effective workplace interventions to guide supervisors in providing support to women experiencing IPV. PMID:20889534

  17. Fluoxetine attenuates alcohol intake and desire to drink.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, C A; Poulos, C X; Bremner, K E; Lanctot, K L

    1994-09-01

    Several serotonin uptake inhibitors, including the long-acting fluoxetine, have been found to decrease alcohol intake in moderately dependent alcoholics. While the mechanism of their effect is not fully elucidated, a previous study with citalopram indicated that decreased desire to drink may be an important factor. Therefore, we tested fluoxetine effects on alcohol intake and desire to drink in a placebo-controlled study. Subjects, recruited by advertisement, were mildly/moderately dependent alcoholics (12 male, four female, aged 19-59 years, healthy, non-depressed) who did not believe they had a drinking problem and were not requesting treatment. After a 1 week baseline they received, single-blind, 2 weeks placebo followed by 2 weeks fluoxetine 60 mg/day. As out-patients, subjects recorded daily standard drinks (13.6 g ethanol) and rated interest, desire, craving and liking for alcohol biweekly. Each out-patient period was immediately followed by a double-blind experimental drinking session. Out-patient daily drinks slightly decreased during fluoxetine to 6.6 +/- 0.9 (mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with during placebo (7.16 +/- 0.95, p = 0.07, N.S.) and baseline (7.18 +/- 1.0, p > 0.1, N.S.). Desire, interest and craving for alcohol decreased during fluoxetine vs placebo baseline (p < 0.05), but not vs placebo. Appetite loss and decrease in food intake (p < 0.01, fluoxetine vs placebo) correlated with each other (r = 0.91, p < 0.01) but neither correlated with decrease in alcohol intake (appetite: r = 0.26, N.S.; food intake: r = 0.22, N.S.). Weight loss occurred during fluoxetine (p < 0.05 vs placebo) but did not correlate with decrease in alcohol intake (r = 0.1, N.S.). In the experimental drinking sessions after placebo and fluoxetine treatments subjects rated their desire for each of 18 mini-drinks (each one-third of a standard drink) offered at 5 min intervals. Fluoxetine decreased desire to drink throughout the sessions; both mean and maximum desire ratings were

  18. A nuclear-weapon-free world: Desirable? Feasible?

    SciTech Connect

    Rotblat, J.; Steinberger, J.; Udgaonkar, B.

    1993-12-31

    The authors seeks answers to two key questions: Is an nuclear-weapons-free-world (NWFW) desirable, and is it feasible? Organized into six parts, the book begins with a historical review of attempts to abolish nuclear weapons. Five subsequent parts address the desirability of an NWFW, its feasibility, alternative routes to this goal, and intermediate steps to this end. The authors deals with many obstacles and difficulties facing those who wish to progress from today`s world of 50,000 or more nuclear weapons to one where none exist and strong international verification assures that no rogue state will resurrect these dread devices.

  19. Using rewards and penalties to obtain desired subject performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.; Jex, H. R.; Stein, A. C.; Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Operant conditioning procedures, specifically the use of negative reinforcement, in achieving stable learning behavior is described. The critical tracking test (CTT) a method of detecting human operator impairment was tested. A pass level is set for each subject, based on that subject's asymptotic skill level while sober. It is critical that complete training take place before the individualized pass level is set in order that the impairment can be detected. The results provide a more general basis for the application of reward/penalty structures in manual control research.

  20. Desiring Diversity and Backlash: White Property Rights in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    In this theoretical essay, I argue that the current incidences of backlash to diversity are best understood as a dynamic of complicated, historic and intertwined desires for racial diversity and white entitlement to property. I frame this argument in the theories of critical race theory and settler colonialism, each of which provide necessary but…

  1. Residual magnetism holds solenoid armature in desired position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. P.

    1967-01-01

    Holding solenoid uses residual magnetism to hold its armature in a desired position after excitation current is removed from the coil. Although no electrical power or mechanical devices are used, the solenoid has a low tolerance to armature displacement from the equilibrium position.

  2. Constructing Gender Pedagogies: Desire and Resistance in the "Alternative" Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooks, Leda; Sun, Chyng

    2002-01-01

    Examines the constructions of gender and sexuality, desire and resistance in students' reflections on a course (entitled, "Gender, Culture and Communication") and a curriculum which asked them not only to interrogate the reasons for their performance of gendered identity, but to question (and resist) the performance itself. Explores the boundaries…

  3. Desirable Attributes and Practices for Mentees: Mentor Teachers' Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates attributes and practices for mentor teachers that can be used for effective mentoring. Universities provide guidelines for preservice teacher (mentee) engagement in schools generally from anecdotal evidence, however, what are desirable attributes and practices for mentees? This qualitative study gathers data from 25 mentor…

  4. Public Education in Neoliberal Times: Memory and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects on the desire to defend and claim public education amidst the educational policy effects of contemporary neoliberal politics. The defence of public education, from schools to higher education, undoubtedly provides a powerful counter-veiling weight to the neoliberal policy logic of education-as-individual-value-accrual. At a…

  5. Desirable Leadership Behaviours of Multi-Cultural Managers in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littrell, Romie F.

    2002-01-01

    Hotel managers (both expatriate and indigenous) and supervisors (n=122) in China identified desirable and actual leadership traits in English and Chinese versions of the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire. Indigenous managers had more tolerance of freedom than expatriate managers. Supervisors were more tolerant than managers.…

  6. Social desirability, anonymity, and Internet-based questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Joinson, A

    1999-08-01

    It has been argued that behavior on the Internet differs from similar behavior in the "real world" (Joinson, 1998a). In the present study, participants completed measures of self-consciousness, social anxiety, self-esteem, and social desirability, using either the World-Wide Web (WWW) or pen and paper, and were assigned to either an anonymous or a nonanonymous condition. It was found that people reported lower social anxiety and social desirability and higher self-esteem when they were anonymous than when they were nonanonymous. Furthermore, participants also reported lower social anxiety and social desirability when they were using the Internet than when they were using paper-based methods. Contrast analyses supported the prediction that participants using the WWW anonymously would show the lowest levels of social desirability, whereas participants answering with pen and paper nonanonymously would score highest on the same measure. Implications for the use of the Internet for the collection of psychological data are discussed. PMID:10502866

  7. Women selectively guard their (desirable) mates from ovulating women.

    PubMed

    Krems, Jaimie Arona; Neel, Rebecca; Neuberg, Steven L; Puts, David A; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2016-04-01

    For women, forming close, cooperative relationships with other women at once poses important opportunities and possible threats-including to mate retention. To maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of same-sex social relationships, we propose that women's mate guarding is functionally flexible and that women are sensitive to both interpersonal and contextual cues indicating whether other women might be likely and effective mate poachers. Here, we assess one such cue: other women's fertility. Because ovulating (i.e., high-fertility) women are both more attractive to men and also more attracted to (desirable) men, ovulating women may be perceived to pose heightened threats to other women's romantic relationships. Across 4 experiments, partnered women were exposed to photographs of other women taken during either their ovulatory or nonovulatory menstrual-cycle phases, and consistently reported intentions to socially avoid ovulating (but not nonovulating) women-but only when their own partners were highly desirable. Exposure to ovulating women also increased women's sexual desires for their (highly desirable) partners. These findings suggest that women can be sensitive to subtle cues of other women's fertility and respond (e.g., via social exclusion, enhanced sexual attention to own mate) in ways that may facilitate their mate retention goals while not thwarting their affiliative goals. PMID:26766112

  8. Eliciting Change in Maltreating Fathers: Goals, Processes, and Desired Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena L.; Francis, Karen J.; Kelly, Tim; Reid, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    There has been a growing recognition of the need to provide appropriate intervention services to fathers who have been abusive in their families. This paper highlights four specific treatment goals for fathers who maltreat their children, along with therapeutic strategies necessary to accomplish desired outcomes. These goals were developed as part…

  9. Writing Queer across the Borders of Geography and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malagreca, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author merges biographical notes, autoethnography and experimental writing to situate his migrant self as a self that "performs through writing," i.e. planned, experimental writing that subverts the centrality of the monolingual heterosexual identity. He explores the intersections of time, desire, and power across time and…

  10. Adolescent Expectations and Desires about Marriage and Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Using data collected in 2000 on a racially and ethnically diverse sample of high school seniors, this study analyzes adolescents' expectations and desires about marriage and parenthood, including unwed parenthood. The conceptual framework combines family context, opportunity cost, and social-psychological perspectives. Each perspective receives…

  11. Characteristics of Athletic Training Students That Preceptors Find Desirable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Thomas, Spencer; Paulsen, Jenica; Chiu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic training students acquire clinical hours under the direct supervision of athletic training preceptors. Objective: The purpose of this project was to explore what characteristics preceptors desire in their athletic training students. Design and Setting: Online survey instrument. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 286…

  12. Sexuality Education and Desire: Still Missing after All These Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Michelle; McClelland, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Nearly twenty years after the publication of Michelle Fine's essay "Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire," the question of how sexuality education influences the development and health of adolescents remains just as relevant as it was in 1988. In this article, Michelle Fine and Sara McClelland examine the…

  13. Desired change in couples: gender differences and effects on communication.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Richard E; Hunt-Martorano, Ashley N; Malik, Jill; Slep, Amy M Smith

    2009-08-01

    Using a sample (N = 453) drawn from a representative sampling frame of couples who are married or living together and have a 3 to 7 year-old child, this study investigates (a) the amount and specific areas of change desired by men and women, (b) the relation between relationship adjustment and desired change; and (c) the ways in which partners negotiate change. On the Areas of Change Questionnaire, women compared with men, wanted greater increases in their partners' emotional and companionate behaviors, instrumental support, and parenting involvement; men wanted greater increases in sex. Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (Kenny, 1996), both men's and women's relationship adjustment predicted desired change (i.e., actor effects), over and above the effects of their partners' adjustment (i.e., partner effects); partner effects were not significant. Each couple was also observed discussing the man's and the woman's top desired change area. Both men and women behaved more positively during the partner-initiated conversations than during their own-initiated conversations. Women, compared with men, were more negative in their own and in their partners' conversations. PMID:19685983

  14. [Hyperprolactin as cause of hypoactive sexual desire in men].

    PubMed

    Baltzar, Mette Thing; Anholm, Christian; Petersen, Christina Damsted

    2012-06-18

    Algorithms previously focused primarily on the testosterone level and its role when diagnosing and managing hypoactive sexual desire (HSD) in men. The importance of prolactin in male sexuality is recognized and should be taken into account when investigating more complex cases of HSD in men. PMID:22713225

  15. 50 CFR 80.9 - Notice of desire to participate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.9 Notice of desire to... Federal Assistance which contains plans for the use of Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Program...

  16. Factors Influencing the Desire To Take Environmental Action in Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Chouinard, Omer; Musafiri, Jean-Pierre; IsaBelle, Claire

    In a coastal community, four social groups were chosen to participate in various educational programs designed to promote their desire to take environmental action. At the end of these educational programs, conducted by a scientist and an environmental educator, the participants were invited to get involved in the resolution of an environmental…

  17. Drawing Desire: Male Youth and Homoerotic Fan Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Jeffery P.

    2010-01-01

    Although Western mass media aimed at juvenile audiences aggressively eliminates any references to same-sex desire and behavior, it inspires a tremendous amount of homoerotic fan art. To determine how same-sex potential is portrayed in juvenile fan art, a content analysis was conducted of 872 male homoerotic images by 442 juvenile male and female…

  18. Feminine Desire in the Age of Satellite Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on global media conglomerates, cultural expression, and feminism. Delineates the corporate logic of culture industries in the neo-network era. Shows, using the television show "Absolutely Fabulous," how media firms benefit from transnational circulation of multiple and alternative representations of feminine desire.…

  19. Functional Family Therapy and the Treatment of Inhibited Sexual Desire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regas, Susan J.; Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the therapy, assessment, and education principles of Functional Family Therapy and applies them to the treatment of inhibited sexual desire, using a case illustration. Functional Family Therapy works at motivating the couple to want change, rather than providing an understanding of underlying causes of the problem. (JAC)

  20. Results, Results, Results?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dale

    2000-01-01

    Given the amount of time, energy, and money devoted to provincial achievement exams in Canada, it is disturbing that Alberta students and teachers feel so pressured and that the exams do not accurately reflect what students know. Research shows that intelligence has an (untested) emotional component. (MLH)

  1. The relationship between sex guilt and sexual desire in a community sample of Chinese and Euro-Canadian women.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jane S T; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have documented significant differences in sexual desire between individuals of European and Chinese descent, but few have examined the mechanisms that underlie these differences. A recent study of university students found that sex guilt is one mechanism by which culture influences sexual desire among Chinese and Euro-Canadian women. The goal of this study was to examine whether sex guilt also mediates the relationship between ethnicity and sexual desire in a sample that is more representative of women in the general population. Euro-Canadian (n = 78; mean age = 42.1 years) and Chinese (n = 87; mean age = 42.8 years) women were recruited from the community. Euro-Canadian women reported greater sexual desire and less sex guilt. In the entire sample, sex guilt mediated the relationship between ethnicity and sexual desire such that the Chinese women reported greater sex guilt, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual desire. Among the Chinese women, sex guilt mediated the relationship between mainstream acculturation (degree of Westernization) and sexual desire such that more Westernized Chinese women reported less sex guilt, which, in turn, was associated with greater sexual desire. These results support recent findings and further suggest that sex guilt may be one mechanism by which ethnicity affects sexual desire. PMID:21302175

  2. Sexual desire, sexual arousal and hormonal differences in premenopausal US and Dutch women with and without low sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Julia R; Rupp, Heather; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Brauer, Marieke; Laan, Ellen

    2011-05-01

    The interaction between women's hormonal condition and subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of desire or arousal remains only partially explored, in spite of frequent reports from women about problems with a lack of sexual desire. The present study recruited premenopausal women at two sites, one in the United States and the other in the Netherlands, and incorporated various measures of acute changes in sexual desire and arousal. A sample of 46 women who met criteria for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) was compared to 47 women who experienced no sexual problems (SF). Half of each group used oral contraceptives (OCs). The specific goal was to investigate whether there is a relationship between women's hormone levels and their genital and subjective sexual responsiveness. Background demographics and health variables, including oral contraceptive (OC) use, were recorded and hormones (total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), SHBG, and estradiol) were analyzed along with vaginal pulse amplitude and self-report measures of desire and arousal in response to sexual fantasy, visual sexual stimuli, and photos of men's faces. Self-reported arousal and desire were lower in the HSDD than the SF group, but only for women who were not using oral contraceptives. Relationships between hormones and sexual function differed depending on whether a woman was HSDD or not. In line with prior literature, FT was positively associated with physiological and subjective sexual arousal in the SF group. The HSDD women demonstrated the opposite pattern, in that FT was negatively associated with subjective sexual responsiveness. The findings suggest a possible alternative relationship between hormones and sexual responsiveness in women with HSDD who have characteristics similar to those in the present study. PMID:21514299

  3. Metacognitions about desire thinking predict the severity of binge eating in a sample of Italian women.

    PubMed

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Fernie, Bruce A; Nikčević, Ana V; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Boccaletti, Fabio; Dallari, Giulia; Sassaroli, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    In this study, our principal aim was to investigate whether metacognitions about desire thinking predict the severity of binge eating in women and, if so, whether this relationship is independent of age, self-reported body mass index (BMI), negative affect, irrational food beliefs and craving. One hundred and four women, consisting of 32 consecutive patients with binge eating disorder undergoing initial assessment for cognitive therapy for eating disorders, 39 moderate binge eaters, and 33 non-binge eaters (both from the general population), completed the following measures: Self-reported BMI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Irrational Food Beliefs Scale, General Craving Scale, Metacognitions about Desire Thinking Questionnaire, and Binge Eating Scale. A series of Spearman's rho correlation analyses revealed that self-reported BMI, anxiety, depression, irrational food beliefs, craving, and all three factors of the metacognitions about desire thinking questionnaire were significantly associated with the severity of binge eating. A stepwise regression analysis identified self-reported BMI, craving, and negative metacognitions about desire thinking as significant predictors of the severity of binge eating. These results, taken together, highlight the possible role of metacognitions about desire thinking in predicting the severity of binge eating. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26143571

  4. Neural Substrates of Sexual Desire in Individuals with Problematic Hypersexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Ji-Woo; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the characteristics of individuals with hypersexual disorder have been accumulating due to increasing concerns about problematic hypersexual behavior (PHB). Currently, relatively little is known about the underlying behavioral and neural mechanisms of sexual desire. Our study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of sexual desire with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-three individuals with PHB and 22 age-matched healthy controls were scanned while they passively viewed sexual and nonsexual stimuli. The subjects' levels of sexual desire were assessed in response to each sexual stimulus. Relative to controls, individuals with PHB experienced more frequent and enhanced sexual desire during exposure to sexual stimuli. Greater activation was observed in the caudate nucleus, inferior parietal lobe, dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the PHB group than in the control group. In addition, the hemodynamic patterns in the activated areas differed between the groups. Consistent with the findings of brain imaging studies of substance and behavior addiction, individuals with the behavioral characteristics of PHB and enhanced desire exhibited altered activation in the prefrontal cortex and subcortical regions. In conclusion, our results will help to characterize the behaviors and associated neural mechanisms of individuals with PHB. PMID:26648855

  5. The desire to utilize postmastectomy breast reconstruction in Saudi Arabian women

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Basim A.; Samargandi, Osama A.; Alghamdi, Hattan A.; Sayegh, Anas A.; Hakeem, Yasir J.; Merdad, Leena; Merdad, Adnan A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study factors that influence the desire to utilize breast reconstruction after mastectomy, and to investigate the barriers to reconstruction among women in Saudi Arabia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study at 2 surgical centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all breast cancer patients attending the surgery clinics for follow-up after mastectomy between January and March 2013. Ninety-one patients met the study inclusion criteria. The first part of the questionnaire covered the demographic and socioeconomic information regarding factors that might influence the desire to utilize breast reconstruction including possible barriers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the significant predictors of the desire to undergo reconstruction. Results: Overall, 16.5% of patients underwent breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Young age and high educational attainment were significantly associated with an increased desire to undergo reconstruction. The main barriers to reconstruction were the lack of adequate information on the procedure (63%), concerns on the complications of the procedure (68%), and concerns on the reconstruction interfering with the detection of recurrence (54%). Conclusion: Age and educational level were significant predictors of the desire to utilize breast reconstruction. Furthermore, modifiable barriers included the lack of knowledge and misconceptions on the procedure. Addressing these issues may increase the rate of breast reconstruction in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25737172

  6. The impact of sleep deprivation on food desire in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Stephanie M.; Goldstein, Andrea N.; Walker, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports a link between sleep loss and obesity. However, the detrimental impact of sleep deprivation on central brain mechanisms governing appetitive food desire remains unknown. Here we report that sleep deprivation significantly decreases activity in appetitive evaluation regions within the human frontal cortex and insula cortex during food desirability choices, combined with a converse amplification of activity within the amygdala. Moreover, this bi-directional change in the profile of brain activity is further associated with a significant increase in the desire for weight-gain promoting high-calorie foods following sleep deprivation, the extent of which is predicted by the subjective severity of sleep loss across participants. These findings provide an explanatory brain mechanism by which insufficient sleep may lead to the development/maintenance of obesity through diminished activity in higher-order cortical evaluation regions, combined with excess subcortical responsivity in the amygdala, resulting in selection of foods most capable of triggering weight-gain. PMID:23922121

  7. Intuiting the truth of what's happening: on Bion's "notes on memory and desire".

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2015-04-01

    Bion's "Notes on Memory and Desire" (1967a) is an impossible paper that this article's author has struggled with for decades. He views the paper, only two and a half pages in length, as a landmark contribution. Despite its title-and its infamous dictates to resist the impulse to remember past sessions and desire for "results"-the paper is not, most importantly, about memory and desire. It proposes a new analytic methodology that supplants awareness from its central role in the analytic process and, in its place, instates the analyst's (largely unconscious) work of intuiting the (unconscious) psychic reality of the present moment by becoming at one with it. This article's clinical examples, provided from the author's own work, illustrate something of his ways of talking with his patients. PMID:25876534

  8. Perceived and desired facilitativeness of one's closest friend, need for approval and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Cramer, D

    1993-03-01

    The hypothesis that the positive association between self-esteem and the perceived facilitativeness of one's closest friend can be explained by the presumed greater desire of low self-esteem individuals for a facilitative relationship was not confirmed in 262 16-17-year-old females, who completed the Rosenberg (1965) Self-Esteem Scale and a shortened version of the Barrett-Lennard (1964) Relationship Inventory. Although desired facilitativeness correlated significantly positively with self-esteem, the correlation between perceived facilitativeness and self-esteem remained significantly positive when desired facilitativeness was partialled out. The further prediction that the correlation between perceived facilitativeness and self-esteem would be more positive for those scoring higher on the Jones' (1969) Need for Approval Scale was also not confirmed. The opposite result was obtained in that this correlation was significantly positive for those with low need for approval but not for those with a high need. PMID:8485083

  9. Desire for sons and subsequent fertility in rural India. A 20-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Vlassoff, Carol

    2012-05-01

    This paper compares the desired fertility of rural Indian women in 1987 with their actual fertility in 2007. Seventy-one respondents who stated definite fertility intentions and had fewer children than desired in 1987 were re-interviewed 20 years later, as part of a larger study. The results indicated that these women had fewer children than intended and stopped childbearing once they reached, or approximated, their desired number of sons. The majority had been sterilized, indicating broad acceptance of lower fertility among rural women and the success of India's family planning efforts, although the practice of sex determination seems also to have played a role. These findings echo those of an earlier longitudinal study of reproductive intentions and outcomes in the same community, demonstrating the persistence of son preference in determining reproductive behaviour, even in the context of low overall fertility. The paper concludes with a discussion of the policy and programme implications of the study's findings. PMID:22047888

  10. "Deseos y Dolores": mapping desire, suffering, and (dis)loyalty within transnational partnerships.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Deborah A

    2011-01-01

    This piece considers the deseos -- wants, desires, needs -- and dolores -- pain or sorrow -- of individuals in US-Mexico transnational partnerships. For transnational Mexicans, “desire” manifests as diverse, even contradictory, expressions of emotion. Migration is intertwined with multiple desires within intimate relationships, but is also tied to suffering across borders. Conflicting articulations of deseos y dolores reveal gender politics as well as the broader socioeconomic inequalities that drive migration and result in the transborder movement that separates couples and family members in a transnational space. PMID:22180885

  11. Why We Think We Can't Dance: Theory of Mind and Children's Desire to Perform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Lan Nguyen; Norton, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) allows children to achieve success in the social world by understanding others' minds. A study with 3- to 12-year-olds, however, demonstrates that gains in ToM are linked to decreases in children's desire to engage in performative behaviors associated with health and well-being, such as singing and dancing. One hundred and…

  12. The attitudes of mental health professionals towards patients’ desire for children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When a patient with a serious mental illness expresses a desire for children, mental health professionals are faced with an ethical dilemma. To date, little research has been conducted into their strategies for dealing with these issues. Methods Seven focus groups with a total of 49 participants from all professional groups active in mental health (nurses, psychologists, social workers and psychiatrists) were conducted in a 330-bed psychiatric hospital. Group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed by the documentary method described by Bohnsack. Results Mental health professionals did not feel that their patients’ desire for children was as important in daily practice as were parenting issues. When discussing the desire for children on the part of patients, the following themes emerged: “the patient’s own decision”, “neutrality”, “the patient’s well-being”, “issues affecting the children of mentally ill parents” and “appropriate parenthood”. In order to cope with what they perceived as conflicting norms, mental health professionals developed the following (discursive) strategies: "subordination of child welfare", "de-professionalisation", "giving rational advice" and "resignation". Conclusions The theme of “reproductive autonomy” dominated mental health professionals’ discourse on the desire for children among psychiatric patients. “Reproductive autonomy” stood in conflict with another important theme (patient’s children). Treating reproductive issues as taboo is the result of the gap between MHPs’ perceptions of (conflicting) norms when dealing with a patient’s desire for children and the limited opportunities to cope with them appropriately. In order to support both patients with a desire for children and mental health professionals who are charged with providing counselling for such patients, there is a need to encourage ethical reflection and to focus on clinical recommendations in this important

  13. Educational differences in fertility desires, intentions and behaviour: A life course perspective.

    PubMed

    Berrington, Ann; Pattaro, Serena

    2014-09-01

    Despite a long tradition of studying the relationship between education and fertility outcomes less is known about how educational differences in fertility intentions are formed and translated into achieved births over the life course. This paper provides new insights using data from a large cohort study and Miller's Traits-Desires-Intentions-Behaviour framework for understanding childbearing. We examine how parental aspirations for education, educational ability in childhood, and educational attainment in young adulthood relate to: males' and females' fertility desires in adolescence; fertility intentions in early adulthood; and educational differences in the achievement of fertility intentions. We conclude that family building preferences expressed in adolescence, especially those for the timing of entry into parenthood are shaped by parental socio-economic background, mediated through educational ability and parental expectations for education. In young adulthood, no clear, consistent educational gradient in intended family size is found. However, there is a negative educational gradient in the likelihood of achieving intended births by age 46, especially for women. The findings indicate the importance of educational differences in employment and partnership behaviour in mediating these relationships. PMID:26047539

  14. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior and Popular Self-Report Instruments of Depression, Social Desirability, and Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, David K.; Meyer, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    College students (n=150) completed Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire and self-report inventories of depression, hopelessness, social desirability, and anxiety. Found significant correlations between self-report instruments and suicidal behaviors. Findings may be a result of the fact that anxiety and depression are often found together in clinical…

  15. Enhancing the Undergraduate Industrial Engineering Curriculum: Defining Desired Characteristics and Emerging Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskandari, Hamidreza; Sala-Diakanda, Serge; Furterer, Sandra; Rabelo, Luis; Crumpton-Young, Lesia; Williams, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the results of an initial research study conducted to identify the desired professional characteristics of an industrial engineer with an undergraduate degree and the emerging topic areas that should be incorporated into the curriculum to prepare industrial engineering (IE) graduates for the future workforce.…

  16. Power of the Desired Self: Influence of Induced Perceptions of the Self on Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustinova, Maria; Collange, Julie; Sanitioso, Rasyid Bo; Musca, Serban C.

    2011-01-01

    This research shows that the motivation to posses a desired characteristic (or to avoid an undesired one) results in self-perceptions that guide people's use of base rate in the Lawyer-Engineer problem (Kahneman & Tversky, 1973). In four studies, participants induced to believe (or recall, Exp. 2) that a rational cognitive style is…

  17. Competency Documentation Desired by Employers in Banks and Residential Construction Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Don; Chester, James

    A study was conducted to determine the type of documentation of students' skills desired by employers in the banking and residential carpentry industries. Data were collected by interviews with employers of random samples of banking institutions (thirty-one) and residential carpentry firms (thirty-five) in Oklahoma. Results of the study led to the…

  18. Use of anisotropy to guide acoustic waves along desired trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehranian, Aref; Amirkhizi, Alireza V.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2010-03-01

    Acoustic stress waves can be guided to follow pre-determined paths in solids, using elastic anisotropy. Recently, there has been intense interest to design materials and structures that can shield specific regions within the material by redirecting the incident stress-waves along desired paths. Some of the proposed techniques involve variable mass density and stiffness. We have designed a material with isotropic mass density but highly anisotropic elasticity that can guide incident waves along desired trajectories. Harmonic excitations are imposed, and it is shown that the stress-wave energy would travel around a protected central region. The model is also evaluated using numerical simulations, which confirm that majority of the stress-wave energy is guided around the central cavity and is delivered exactly to the opposing face in a location corresponding to the incident excitation location.

  19. Desirable role in a price-setting international mixed duopoly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we study the order of moves in a mixed international duopoly for differentiated goods, where firms choose whether to set prices sequentially or simultaneously. We discuss the desirable role of the public firm by comparing welfare among three games. We find that, in the three possible roles, the domestic public firm put a lower price, and then produces more than the foreign private firm.

  20. Desirable features of a "humanoid" robot-therapist.

    PubMed

    Morasso, Pietro; Casadio, Maura; Giannoni, Psiche; Masia, Lorenzo; Sanguineti, Vittorio; Squeri, Valentina; Vergaro, Elena

    2009-01-01

    In relation with a recent Cochrane review, the paper discusses desirable features of a "humanoid" robot-therapist: 1) high mechanical compliance, 2) large range of force, 3) minimum assistance level, 4) soft haptic interaction for proprioceptive awareness, 5) adaptative assistance properties. It also proposes a framework for addressing optimal assistance and learning paradigms in view of a consensus in the community of rehabilitation engineers about shared principles and common standards. PMID:19965200

  1. Correlates of the desired family size among Indian communities.

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, N V; Gadgil, M; Patil, S

    1996-01-01

    The People of India database of the Anthropological Survey of India documents 631 cultural, ecological, and economic traits of the 4635 communities to which the entire Indian population is assigned. Focusing on 1342 communities of South India, we looked for correlates of low (1 or 2 children) and high (4 or more children) desired family size (DFS) reported as the norm for any given community by key informants. We found 10 cultural and 18 economic traits to be significantly correlated to high DFS and 21 cultural and 9 economic traits to low DFS. The economic traits so identified are compatible with high family size being desired by parents who have little capability of investing in quality of offspring, but whose children contribute economically from an early age. In contrast, communities desiring low family size are part of the modern intensive agriculture/organized industry/services sector and invest heavily in educating their children. A composite index based on 27 economic traits (CEI) has a high predictive value with respect to the DFS for the entire set of 4635 Indian communities. The 31 cultural traits highly correlated to high or low DFS constitute 5 clusters that can be identified as characterizing scheduled tribes, scheduled castes, rural and landless lower castes, urban upper castes, and Moslems. Whereas economic traits have similar influence on DFS within each of these ethnic categories, Moslems demonstrate a significantly higher DFS for lower values of CEI. PMID:11607687

  2. Evaluating the User Experience of Exercising Reaching Motions With a Robot That Predicts Desired Movement Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2016-01-01

    The notion of an optimal difficulty during practice has been articulated in many areas of cognitive psychology: flow theory, the challenge point framework, and desirable difficulties. Delivering exercises at a participant's desired difficulty has the potential to improve both motor learning and users' engagement in therapy. Motivation and engagement are among the contributing factors to the success of exercise programs. The authors previously demonstrated that error amplification can be used to introduce levels of challenge into a robotic reaching task, and that machine-learning algorithms can dynamically adjust difficulty to the desired level with 85% accuracy. Building on these findings, we present the results of a proof-of-concept study investigating the impacts of practicing under desirable difficulty conditions. A control condition with a predefined random order for difficulty levels was deemed more suitable for this study (compared to constant or continuously increasing difficulty). By practicing the task at their desirable difficulties, participants in the experimental group perceived their performance at a significantly higher level and reported lower required effort to complete the task, in comparison to a control group. Moreover, based on self-reports, participants in the experimental group were willing, on average, to continue the training session for 4.6 more training blocks (∼45 min) compared to the control group's average. This study demonstrates the efficiency of delivering the exercises at the user's desired difficulty level to improve the user's engagement in exercise tasks. Future work will focus on clinical feasibility of this approach in increasing stroke survivors' engagement in their therapy programs. PMID:25945816

  3. Proven Strategies for Improving Learning & Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Duane

    The purpose of this book is to give student support personnel tools that: (1) will be recognized by educators as directly related to enhancing academic performance; (2) can be used with confidence that they will have the desired impact on achievement; and (3) are culturally sensitive. Chapters contain detailed presentation of the technology as…

  4. "Masculinity, Femininity, Achievement Conflicts and Health."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Debra Eaton

    The objective of this study is to measure achievement motivation in terms of psychological masculinity and femininity rather than in terms of biological gender. The terms, psychological masculinity and femininity, refer to sets of characteristics desirable for both sexes. Masculine characteristics include independence, self-confidence,…

  5. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  6. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  7. Achievement Orientation in Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.

    The suggestion is made that the flood of middle-aged women who have recently turned away from traditional approaches to achievement may have shifted their orientation to changing options, but have always had a great desire to achieve. The effect of the changing values of the women's movement is discussed, and a grid of achievement motivation…

  8. [Indicators in primary care: reality or desire. SESPAS report 2012].

    PubMed

    Ichaso Hernández-Rubio, M A de los Santos; García Armesto, Sandra

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this article is two-fold: firstly, to illustrate international experiences of assessing primary care performance by using examples of both cross-country comparisons and national assessment efforts and, secondly, to describe the progress achieved to date in the articulation of the Spanish Primary Care Information System. The central role assigned to primary care in conceptual frameworks clashes with the severe limitations in the quality and availability of the data required to construct the indicators. The lack of systematic and standardized databases covering diagnosis, procedures and intermediate results in individual patients is endemic across countries. Filling this gap has become a priority in most countries, especially during the last decade. In Spain, the concept of the Primary Care Information System appeared in 2003 and the first data/results were published in 2006. Since then, distinct elements have been progressively incorporated with the involvement of the various autonomous regions in Spain. Currently, the system includes various aspects such as the population assigned, the available resources, a national catalogue of primary care centers, and activity. The next challenge in this work in progress is to build a database of clinical information. PMID:22152924

  9. The desired moral attitude of the physician: (II) compassion.

    PubMed

    Gelhaus, Petra

    2012-11-01

    Professional medical ethics demands of health care professionals in addition to specific duties and rules of conduct that they embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired implied attitude of physicians. In a sequel of three articles, a set of three of these concepts is presented in an interpretation that is meant to characterise the morally emotional part of this attitude: "empathy", "compassion" and "care". In the first article of the series, "empathy" has been developed as a mainly cognitive and morally neutral capacity of understanding. In this article, the emotional and virtuous core of the desired professional attitude-compassion-is elaborated. Compassion is distinguished from sympathy, empathy and pity. Several problems of compassion as a spontaneous, warm emotion for being a professional virtue are discussed: especially questions of over-demand, of justice and of concerns because of a possible threat to the patient's dignity and autonomy. An interpretation of compassion as processed and learned professional attitude, that founds dignity on the general idea of man as a sentient being and on solidarity, not on his independence and capacities, is developed. It is meant to rule out the possible side effects and to make compassion as a professional attitude and as professional virtue attractive, teachable and acquirable. In order to reach the adequate warmth and closeness for the particular physician-patient-relation, professional compassion has to be combined with the capacity of empathy. If appropriate, the combination of both empathy and compassion as "empathic compassion" can demand a much warmer attitude towards the patient than each of the elements alone, or the simple addition of them can provide. The concept of "care" that will be discussed in a forthcoming article of this sequel is a missing necessary part to describe the active potential of the desired moral

  10. [Desire disorders in the couple: accident, dream, sexuality].

    PubMed

    Stauffacher, M; Godat, A

    2013-03-20

    Eros, as few only would doubt about it, takes part in the deepest and most intimate area of the human being. Our contemporaries attach great importance to sexuality, but feed the illusion that mastering it could lead to miracles in the couple. We suggest that giving up control and committing himself to fully listening to the patient, the physician will be able to orient him in the blind rules of desire and to accept fortuity. Unexpected (?) accident, dream, hypnosis, often powerfully catalyze changes. Some clinical situations are described in this article with their evolution as consultations develop, without foreseeing their interpretation. PMID:23547363

  11. Topology of sustainable management of dynamical systems with desirable states: from defining planetary boundaries to safe operating spaces in the Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzig, J.; Kittel, T.; Donges, J. F.; Molkenthin, N.

    2016-01-01

    To keep the Earth system in a desirable region of its state space, such as defined by the recently suggested "tolerable environment and development window", "guardrails", "planetary boundaries", or "safe (and just) operating space for humanity", one needs to understand not only the quantitative internal dynamics of the system and the available options for influencing it (management) but also the structure of the system's state space with regard to certain qualitative differences. Important questions are, which state space regions can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region, which regions are in a variety of senses "safe" to stay in when management options might break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this topological structure? In this article, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology of the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states, as a complement to the existing literature on optimal control which is more focussed on quantitative optimization and is much applied in both the engineering and the integrated assessment literature. We suggest a certain terminology for the various resulting regions of the state space and perform a detailed formal classification of the possible states with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region. Our results indicate that, before performing some form of quantitative optimization such as of indicators of human well-being for achieving certain sustainable development goals, a sustainable and resilient management of the Earth system may require decisions of a more discrete type that come in the form of several dilemmas, e.g. choosing between eventual safety and uninterrupted desirability, or between uninterrupted safety and larger flexibility. We illustrate the concepts and dilemmas drawing on conceptual models from climate science, ecology, coevolutionary Earth system

  12. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  13. The Enabling Role of Education in the Lives of Young People with Disabilities in India: Achieved and Desired Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singal, Nidhi; Jeffery, Roger; Jain, Aanchal; Sood, Neeru

    2011-01-01

    In India, the last few years have seen an increase in the school enrolment rates of children with disabilities; however, there are continuing concerns about the outcomes of these efforts, especially in terms of employment. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative enquiry into how young people (aged 15-30 years) with various impairments…

  14. Exposure to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) visual imagery increases smoking urge and desire.

    PubMed

    King, Andrea C; Smith, Lia J; Fridberg, Daniel J; Matthews, Alicia K; McNamara, Patrick J; Cao, Dingcai

    2016-02-01

    Use and awareness of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; also known as electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) has increased rapidly in recent years, particularly among young adults. As use of ENDS resembles traditional smoking in both hand-to-mouth movements and inhalation and exhalation behaviors, we determined whether exposure to e-cigarette use via video exposure would act as a cue to elicit urge and desire for a combustible cigarette. Young adult smokers (mean age of 26.3 ± 4.1 years) were randomized to view a brief video montage of advertisements depicting either e-cigarette vaping (n = 38) or bottled water drinking (n = 40). Pre- and postcue exposure assessments were conducted in a controlled laboratory setting without other smoking or vaping cues present or behaviors allowed. Primary outcomes included change from pre-exposure baseline in smoking urge (Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges) and desire for a combustible and e-cigarette (visual analogue scales). Results showed that relative to exposure to the bottled water video, exposure to the ENDS video significantly increased smoking urge (p < .001) as well as desire for a regular cigarette (p < .05) and an e-cigarette (p < .001). These findings provide preliminary evidence that passive exposure to video imagery of ENDS use may generalize as a condition cue and evoke urges for a combustible cigarette in young adult smokers. It remains to be determined whether such increases in urge and desire correspond to increases in actual smoking behavior. PMID:26618797

  15. Evidence suggesting that desire-state attribution may govern food sharing in Eurasian jays.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Shaw, Rachael C; Cheke, Lucy G; Clayton, Nicola S

    2013-03-01

    State-attribution is the ability to ascribe to others an internal life like one's own and to understand that internal, psychological states such as desire, hope, belief, and knowledge underlie others' actions. Despite extensive research, comparative studies struggle to adequately integrate key factors of state-attribution that have been identified by evolutionary and developmental psychology as well as research on empathy. Here, we develop a behavioral paradigm to address these issues and investigate whether male Eurasian jays respond to the changing desire-state of their female partners when sharing food. We demonstrate that males feed their mates flexibly according to the female's current food preference. Critically, we show that the males need to see what the female has previously eaten to know what food she will currently want. Consequently, the males' sharing pattern was not simply a response to their mate's behavior indicating her preference as to what he should share, nor was it a response to the males' own desire-state. Our results raise the possibility that these birds may be capable of ascribing desire to their mates. PMID:23382187

  16. Associations of Adolescent Hopelessness and Self-Worth With Pregnancy Attempts and Pregnancy Desire

    PubMed Central

    Fedorowicz, Anna R.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Bolland, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations of pregnancy desire (ambivalence or happiness about a pregnancy in the next year) and recent pregnancy attempts with hopelessness and self-worth among low-income adolescents. Methods. To evaluate independent associations among the study variables, we conducted gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression analyses with data derived from 2285 sexually experienced 9- to 18-year-old participants in the Mobile Youth Survey between 2006 and 2009. Results. Fifty-seven percent of youths reported a desire for pregnancy and 9% reported pregnancy attempts. In multivariable analyses, hopelessness was positively associated and self-worth was negatively associated with pregnancy attempts among both female and male youths. Hopelessness was weakly associated (P = .05) with pregnancy desire among female youths. Conclusions. The negative association of self-worth and the positive association of hopelessness with pregnancy attempts among young men as well as young women and the association of hopelessness with pregnancy desire among young women raise questions about why pregnancy is apparently valued by youths who rate their social and cognitive competence as low and who live in an environment with few options for material success. PMID:24922147

  17. The effect of social desirability and social approval on self-reports of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Adams, Swann Arp; Matthews, Charles E; Ebbeling, Cara B; Moore, Charity G; Cunningham, Joan E; Fulton, Jeanette; Hebert, James R

    2005-02-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine social desirability and social approval as sources of error in three self-reported physical activity assessments using objective measures of physical activity as reference measures. In 1997, women (n = 81) living in Worcester, Massachusetts, completed doubly labeled water measurements and wore an activity monitor for 14 days. They also completed seven interviewer-administered 24-hour physical activity recalls (PARs) and two different self-administered 7-day PARs. Measures of the personality traits "social desirability" and "social approval" were regressed on 1) the difference between physical activity energy expenditure estimated from doubly labeled water and each physical activity assessment instrument and 2) the difference between monitor-derived physical activity duration and each instrument. Social desirability was associated with overreporting of activity, resulting in overestimation of physical activity energy expenditure by 0.65 kcal/kg/day on the second 7-day PAR (95% confidence interval: 0.06, 1.25) and overestimation of activity durations by 4.15-11.30 minutes/day (both 7-day PARs). Social approval was weakly associated with underestimation of physical activity on the 24-hour PAR (-0.15 kcal/kg/day, 95% confidence interval: -0.30, 0.005). Body size was not associated with reporting bias in this study. The authors conclude that social desirability and social approval may influence self-reported physical activity on some survey instruments. PMID:15692083

  18. Comparing two books and establishing probably efficacious treatment for low sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Balzer, Alexandra M; Mintz, Laurie B

    2015-04-01

    Using a sample of 45 women, this study compared the effectiveness of a previously studied (Mintz, Balzer, Zhao, & Bush, 2012) bibliotherapy intervention (Mintz, 2009), a similar self-help book (Hall, 2004), and a wait-list control (WLC) group. To examine intervention effectiveness, between and within group standardized effect sizes (interpreted with Cohen's, 1988 benchmarks .20 = small, .50 = medium, .80+ = large) and their confidence limits are used. In comparison to the WLC group, both interventions yielded large between-group posttest effect sizes on a measure of sexual desire. Additionally, large between-group posttest effect sizes were found for sexual satisfaction and lubrication among those reading the Mintz book. When examining within-group pretest to posttest effect sizes, medium to large effects were found for desire, lubrication, and orgasm for both books and for satisfaction and arousal for those reading the Mintz book. When directly comparing the books, all between-group posttest effect sizes were likely obtained by chance. It is concluded that both books are equally effective in terms of the outcome of desire, but whether or not there is differential efficacy in terms of other domains of sexual functioning is equivocal. Tentative evidence is provided for the longer term effectiveness of both books in enhancing desire. Arguing for applying criteria for empirically supported treatments to self-help, results are purported to establish the Mintz book as probably efficacious and to comprise a first step in this designation for the Hall book. PMID:25730171

  19. Desires and management preferences of stakeholders regarding feral cats in the Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2014-04-01

    Feral cats are abundant in many parts of the world and a source of conservation conflict. Our goal was to clarify the beliefs and desires held by stakeholders regarding feral cat abundance and management. We measured people's desired abundance of feral cats in the Hawaiian Islands and identified an order of preference for 7 feral cat management techniques. In 2011 we disseminated a survey to 5407 Hawaii residents. Approximately 46% of preidentified stakeholders and 20% of random residents responded to the survey (1510 surveys returned). Results from the potential for conflict index revealed a high level of consensus (86.9% of respondents) that feral cat abundance should be decreased. The 3 most common explanatory variables for respondents' stated desires were enjoyment from seeing feral cats (84%), intrinsic value of feral cats (12%), and threat to native fauna (73%). The frequency with which respondents saw cats and change in the perceived abundance of cats also affected respondent's desired abundance of cats; 41.3% of respondents stated that they saw feral cats daily and 44.7% stated that the cat population had increased in recent years. Other potential environmental impacts of feral cats had little affect on desired abundance. The majority of respondents (78%) supported removing feral cats from the natural environment permanently. Consensus convergence models with data from 1388 respondents who completed the relevant questions showed live capture and lethal injection was the most preferred technique and trap-neuter-release was the least preferred technique for managing feral cats. However, the acceptability of each technique varied among stakeholders. Our results suggest that the majority of Hawaii's residents would like to see effective management that reduces the abundance of feral or free-roaming cats. PMID:24372971

  20. Fertility Desires and Intentions among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Hyma; Chowta, Nithyananda; Ramapuram, John; Bhaskaran, Unnikrishnan; Achappa, Basavaprabhu; Chandran, Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The desire of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to have children can have significant public health implications. Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) has increased the life expectancy of PLWHA as a result of which they may consider child bearing. There are hardly any studies from India addressing the fertility desires among PLWHA. Aim This study was done to assess the fertility desires of PLWHA in Southern India. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted among 230 HIV-positive men and women who presented to Kasturba Medical College (KMC), Mangalore, India. Study was conducted between October 2012 and October 2014. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 11.5. Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test and student t-test was used to find out the association of various factors affecting fertility desire. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The mean age of our study population was 36.3±5.5 years. The mean age of males was 37.3±6 years and for female 34.9±5 years. In our study 132 (57.4%) were males. Majority were literate 229 (99%). Majority of patients were employed 166 (72%). In our study 195 (84.7%) were on cART. Out of 230 PLWHA 39 (16.95%) were unmarried and 151(65.5%) married PLHIV were living with partners at the time of study. In our study 77 (33.5%) patients had fertility desire. Age, gender, marital status, number of children, partner’s fertility desire and HIV status of partner had an association with fertility desire. Conclusion Providing universal access to cART is the main aim of national programs. It is high time that these programs focus on fertility issues of PLWHA. Reproductive rights of PLWHA need to be respected. Physicians and HIV counselors should proactively discuss and address reproductive issues of PLWHA.

  1. Evaluation of the Relationship between Social Desirability and Minor Psychiatric Disorders among Nurses in Southern Iran: A Robust Regression Approach

    PubMed Central

    Roustaei, Narges; Jafari, Peyman; Sadeghi, Erfan; Jamali, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social desirability may affect different aspects of people’s quality of life. One of the impressive dimensions of quality of life is mental health. The prevalence of Minor Psychiatric Disorders (MPD) among health care workers is higher than other health workers. This article aims at evaluating the relationship between social desirability and MPD among nurses in southern Iran. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 765 nurses who had been employed in hospitals in the southern provinces of Iran. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS) were used for evaluating the MPD and social desirability in nurses, respectively. The Robust Regression was used to determine any quantified relationship between social desirability and the level of MPD with adjusted age, gender, work experience, marital status, and level of education. Result: The mean scores of GHQ-12 and MC-SDS were 13.02±5.64 (out of 36) and 20.17±4.76 (out of 33), respectively. The result of Robust Regression indicated that gender and social desirability were statistically significant in affecting MPD. Conclusion: The prevalence of MPD in female nurses was higher than males. Nurses with higher social desirability scores had the tendency to report lower levels of MPD. PMID:26448957

  2. From framework to action: the DESIRE approach to combat desertification.

    PubMed

    Hessel, R; Reed, M S; Geeson, N; Ritsema, C J; van Lynden, G; Karavitis, C A; Schwilch, G; Jetten, V; Burger, P; van der Werff Ten Bosch, M J; Verzandvoort, S; van den Elsen, E; Witsenburg, K

    2014-11-01

    It has become increasingly clear that desertification can only be tackled through a multi-disciplinary approach that not only involves scientists but also stakeholders. In the DESIRE project such an approach was taken. As a first step, a conceptual framework was developed in which the factors and processes that may lead to land degradation and desertification were described. Many of these factors do not work independently, but can reinforce or weaken one another, and to illustrate these relationships sustainable management and policy feedback loops were included. This conceptual framework can be applied globally, but can also be made site-specific to take into account that each study site has a unique combination of bio-physical, socio-economic and political conditions. Once the conceptual framework was defined, a methodological framework was developed in which the methodological steps taken in the DESIRE approach were listed and their logic and sequence were explained. The last step was to develop a concrete working plan to put the project into action, involving stakeholders throughout the process. This series of steps, in full or in part, offers explicit guidance for other organizations or projects that aim to reduce land degradation and desertification. PMID:25156863

  3. Social desirability bias in reporting of holiday season healthfulness.

    PubMed

    Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Byrd, Elizabeth S; Dominick, S R; Wolf, Christopher A; Acharya, Lalatendu

    2016-12-01

    Respondents participating in survey or interview based research often tend to give answers that put themselves in a favorable light, displaying social desirability bias (SDB). Understanding the susceptibility of individuals to underreport their perceived unhealthy holiday behaviors or over report holiday behaviors they perceive as healthy has important implications for health promotion and health policy surrounding the holiday season. This study examines SDB specific to the reporting of holiday food consumption and health-related behaviors. An online survey of 620 U.S. consumers was utilized to collect data in which SDB was accounted for via indirect questioning. The online survey was conducted by Purdue University from November 17-19, 2014. Up to 64% of respondents displayed SDB for the eight holiday health statements studied. Respondents over the age of 45 and without children more frequently displayed social desirability bias. Respondents who displayed SDB with respect to acceptable health related holiday food consumption behaviors may be more susceptible to social pressures surrounding other consumption decision making. Understanding SDB in health and behavior reporting, in particular for the traditionally challenging, in terms of health outcomes, holiday season is critical for health practitioners as they seek to promote healthy behaviors. PMID:27453811

  4. Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children’s engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap. PMID:25389751

  5. Misery loves company: when sadness increases the desire for social connectedness.

    PubMed

    Gray, Heather M; Ishii, Keiko; Ambady, Nalini

    2011-11-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the effects of sadness on the desire for social connectedness. They hypothesized that sadness serves an adaptive function by motivating people to reach out to others and preferentially attend to information related to one's current level of social connectedness, but only when it is instigated by social loss. Consistent with this hypothesis, the authors observed that sadness induced by an emotional depiction of social loss enhanced (a) attention to nonverbal cues, an important source of information concerning an individual's current level of social connectedness (Experiment 1), and (b) the desire to engage in social behaviors (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3 the authors found that sadness that results from imagined social loss uniquely produced this pattern of effects. Sadness that resulted from imagined failure had different effects on motivation and no effect on sensitivity to nonverbal cues. These results support and refine functional explanations for the universality of sadness. PMID:21873533

  6. Characteristics of High-density Lipoprotein Subclasses Distribution for Subjects with Desirable Total Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate alteration of high density lipoproteins (HDL) subclasses distribution in different total cholesterol (TC) levels, mainly the characteristics of HDL subclasses distribution in desirable TC levels and analyze the related mechanisms. Methods ApoA-I contents of plasma HDL subclasses were determined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with immunodetection. 486 Chinese Adults subjects were assigned to different TC groups according to the third Report of NCEP (ATP- III) guidelines. Results The increase in contents of small preβ1-HDL, HDL3c, HDL3b, and HDL3a particles clustered and reduce in HDL2b with increased of TC. The distribution of HDL subclasses have shown abnormality characterized by the lower HDL2b (324.2 mg/L) contents and the higher preβ1-HDL (90.4 mg/L) contents for desirable TC Chinese subjects. Among 176 desirable TC subjects, 58.6% subjects with triglyceride (TG) < 2.26 mmol/L, 61.2% subjects with HDL-C ≥1.03 mmol/L and 88.6% subjects with low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) < 3.34 mmol/L, and the profile of HDL subclasses distribution for above these subjects was reasonable. Conclusions The particles size of HDL subclasses shifted towards smaller with increased TC levels. The TC was liner with HDL2b contents and those can be reduced 17 mg/L for 0.5 mmol/L increment in TC levels. The HDL subclasses distribution phenotype was not expectation for Chinese Population with desirable TC levels. Thus, from the HDL subclasses distribution point, when assessing the coronary heart disease(CHD) risk not only rely on the TC levels, but also the concentrations of TG, HDL-C and LDL-C must considered in case the potential risk for desirable TC subjects with other plasma lipids metabolism disorders. PMID:21513524

  7. SU-E-T-357: Semi-Automated Knowledge-Based Radiation Therapy (KBRT) Planning for Head-And-Neck Cancer (HNC): Can KBRT Plans Achieve Better Results Than Manual Planning?

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzky, C; Grzetic, S; Lo, J; Das, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Knowledge Based Radiation Therapy Treatment (KBRT) planning can be used to semi-automatically generate IMRT plans for new patients using constraints derived from previously manually-planned, geometrically similar patients. We investigate whether KBRT plans can achieve greater dose sparing than manual plans using optimized, organspecific constraint weighting factors. Methods: KBRT planning of HNC radiotherapy cases geometrically matched each new (query) case to one of the 105 clinically approved plans in our database. The dose distribution of the planned match was morphed to fit the querys geometry. Dose-volume constraints extracted from the morphed dose distribution were used to run the IMRT optimization with no user input. In the first version, all constraints were multiplied by a weighting factor of 0.7. The weighting factors were then systematically optimized (in order of OARs with increasing separation from the target) to maximize sparing to each OAR without compromising other OARs. The optimized, second version plans were compared against the first version plans and the clinically approved plans for 45 unilateral/bilateral target cases using the dose metrics: mean, median and maximum (brainstem and cord) doses. Results: Compared to the first version, the second version significantly reduced mean/median contralateral parotid doses (>2Gy) for bilateral cases. Other changes between the two versions were not clinically meaningful. Compared to the original clinical plans, both bilateral and unilateral plans in the second version had lower average dose metrics for 5 of the 6 OARs. Compared to the original plans, the second version achieved dose sparing that was at least as good for all OARs and better for the ipsilateral parotid (bilateral) and oral cavity (bilateral/unilateral). Differences in planning target volume coverage metrics were not clinically significant. Conclusion: HNC-KBRT planning generated IMRT plans with at least equivalent dose sparing to

  8. How emotions expressed by adults' faces affect the desire to eat liked and disliked foods in children compared to adults.

    PubMed

    Barthomeuf, Laetitia; Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Rousset, Sylvie

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not pleasure, neutrality, and disgust expressed by eaters in photographs could affect the desire to eat food products to a greater extent in children than in adults. Children of 5 and 8 years of age, as well as adults, were presented with photographs of liked and disliked foods. These foods were presented either alone or with an eater who expressed three different emotions: pleasure, neutrality, or disgust. Results showed that, compared with food presented alone, food presented with a pleasant face increased the desire to eat disliked foods, particularly in children, and increased the desire to eat liked foods only in the 5-year-old children. In contrast, with a disgusted face, the desire to eat the liked foods decreased in all participants, although to a greater extent in children, while it had no effect on the desire to eat the disliked foods. Finally, food presented with a neutral face also increased and decreased the desire to eat disliked and liked foods, respectively, and in each case more for the 5-year-olds than for the older participants. In sum, the facial expressions of others influence the desire to eat liked and disliked foods and, to a greater extent, in younger children. PMID:22550947

  9. Is the desire to eat familiar and unfamiliar meat products influenced by the emotions expressed on eaters' faces?

    PubMed

    Rousset, S; Schlich, P; Chatonnier, A; Barthomeuf, L; Droit-Volet, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test if the social context represented by eaters' faces expressing emotions can modulate the desire to eat meat, especially for unfamiliar meat products. Forty-four young men and women were presented with two series of photographs. The first series (non-social context) was composed of eight meat pictures, four unfamiliar and four familiar. The second series (social context) consisted of the same pictures presented with eaters expressing three different emotions: disgust, pleasure or neutrality. For every picture, the participants were asked to estimate the intensity of their desire to eat the meat product viewed on the picture. Results showed that meat desire depended on interactions between product familiarity, social context and the participant's gender. In the non-social context, the men liked the familiar meat products more than the women, whereas their desire to eat unfamiliar meat products was similar. Compared to the non-social context, viewing another person eating with a neutral and a happy facial expression increased the desire to eat. Furthermore, the increase in the desire to eat meat associated with happy faces was greater for the unfamiliar than for the familiar meat products in men, and greater for the familiar than for the unfamiliar meats in women. In the presence of disgusted faces, the desire to eat meat remained constant for unfamiliar products in all participants whereas it only decreased for familiar products in men. PMID:17655970

  10. The Relationship between African American High School Students' Desire to Attend College, Their Perceived Likelihood to Attend College and Actual College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Makini Lateefah

    2013-01-01

    African American students continue to be an underrepresented population in institutions of higher education. This study uses Mickelson's Attitude-Achievement Paradox to explain the effect of individual and contextual SES, students' sense of belonging, achievement and engagement on student's desire to attend college and perceived likelihood of…

  11. How To Prepare Materials With a Desired Refraction Coefficient?

    SciTech Connect

    Ramm, A. G.

    2010-05-21

    In this talk a method is described for preparing materials with a desired refraction coefficient. The method consists of embedding into a material with known refraction coefficient many small particles of size a. The number of particles per unit volume around any point is prescribed, the distance between neighboring particles is O(a{sup (2-kappa/3)}) as a->0, 00. The refraction coefficient is the coefficient n{sup 2}(x) in the wave equation [nabla{sup 2}+kappa{sup 2}n{sup 2}(x)]u = 0.

  12. The impact of sexual trauma on sexual desire and function.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Barry; Farr, Emily

    2011-01-01

    The field of sexual trauma is one of the most controversial and value-laden in mental health. The three factors which most affect adult sexual desire and function are the type of sexual trauma, how the sexual incidents were dealt with at the time and, most important, whether the person views her/himself as a survivor or victim. The assessment and treatment program described focuses on couple sex therapy with a special focus on processing the sexual trauma, honoring the person's veto and being 'partners in healing'. The core therapeutic theme is valuing intimate, erotic sexuality, which reinforces being a proud survivor rather than a shameful, anxious or angry victim. It is crucial to create a relapse prevention program to ensure that the person with the sexual trauma history continues to experience the positive roles of adult couple sexuality. PMID:22005207

  13. Qualitative Simulator Study of Longitudinal Stick Forces and Displacements Desirable During Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faber, Stanley

    1958-01-01

    In this study in which an airplane simulator with one degree of freedom (pitch) was used, results were determined for three conditions of airplane dynamics. For an undamped natural frequency of 1/2 cps with a damping ratio of 0.18 and for an undamped natural frequency of 1 cps with a damping ratio of 0.11, moderate longitudinal stick forces and displacements were desired.

  14. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  15. Public policies, private choices: Consumer desire and the practice of energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deumling, Reuben Alexander

    refrigerator energy consumption---what factors influence it, how and why it fluctuated historically, how to take it seriously---in pursuit of increased sales. The a priori assumption that consumers desire certain styles of refrigerator has become a compulsion to trade up. In evaluating the results of energy policies celebrating technical achievements without paying attention to the social dynamics which these regulations encounter is insufficient.

  16. Business Simulations and Cognitive Learning: Developments, Desires, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Philip H.; Lawton, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the research associated with the assessment of the cognitive learning that occurs through participation in a simulation exercise. It summarizes the "objective" evidence regarding cognitive learning versus the "perceptions" of cognitive learning achieved as reported by participants and instructors. The authors also explain…

  17. Adolescents' implicit theories predict desire for vengeance after peer conflicts: correlational and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David S; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Tirri, Kirsi; Nokelainen, Petri; Dweck, Carol S

    2011-07-01

    Why do some adolescents respond to interpersonal conflicts vengefully, whereas others seek more positive solutions? Three studies investigated the role of implicit theories of personality in predicting violent or vengeful responses to peer conflicts among adolescents in Grades 9 and 10. They showed that a greater belief that traits are fixed (an entity theory) predicted a stronger desire for revenge after a variety of recalled peer conflicts (Study 1) and after a hypothetical conflict that specifically involved bullying (Study 2). Study 3 experimentally induced a belief in the potential for change (an incremental theory), which resulted in a reduced desire to seek revenge. This effect was mediated by changes in bad-person attributions about the perpetrators, feelings of shame and hatred, and the belief that vengeful ideation is an effective emotion-regulation strategy. Together, the findings illuminate the social-cognitive processes underlying reactions to conflict and suggest potential avenues for reducing violent retaliation in adolescents. PMID:21604865

  18. Generating Self-Reliant Teams of Autonomous Cooperating Robots: Desired design Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1999-05-01

    The difficulties in designing a cooperative team are significant. Several of the key questions that must be resolved when designing a cooperative control architecture include: How do we formulate, describe, decompose, and allocate problems among a group of intelligent agents? How do we enable agents to communicate and interact? How do we ensure that agents act coherently in their actions? How do we allow agents to recognize and reconcile conflicts? However, in addition to these key issues, the software architecture must be designed to enable multi-robot teams to be robust, reliable, and flexible. Without these capabilities, the resulting robot team will not be able to successfully deal with the dynamic and uncertain nature of the real world. In this extended abstract, we first describe these desired capabilities. We then briefly describe the ALLIANCE software architecture that we have previously developed for multi-robot cooperation. We then briefly analyze the ALLIANCE architecture in terms of the desired design qualities identified.

  19. Two novel combined drug treatments for women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Poels, Saskia; Bloemers, Jos; van Rooij, Kim; Koppeschaar, Hans; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2014-06-01

    Low sexual desire is the most common sexual complaint in women. As a result, many women suffer from sexual dissatisfaction which often negatively interferes with their quality of life. These complaints have been classified as the condition Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD), and have recently been merged with the condition Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD) into the diagnosis Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (FSIAD) in the DSM-5. To date, no drug treatment approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA)/European Medicines Agency (EMA) is available to treat women with HSDD/FSIAD. As a result, there is an unmet need for a drug treatment for HSDD/FSIAD. In our search for an adequate treatment we followed a different approach compared to other pharmaceutical companies. Based on a personalized sexual medicine approach we proposed that different mechanisms cause low sexual desire in women, namely an insensitive system for sexual cues or dysfunctional activation of sexual inhibitory mechanisms. Subsequently we developed two new on-demand drug treatments for women with HSDD/FSIAD based on these different causal mechanisms. One treatment (testosterone combined with a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor) has been developed for women with HSDD/FSIAD due to a relatively insensitive system for sexual cues, while the second treatment (testosterone combined with a 5-HT₁A receptor agonist) has been developed for women with HSDD/FSIAD due to dysfunctional activation of sexual inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:24534417

  20. Paying for performance: Performance incentives increase desire for the reward object.

    PubMed

    Hur, Julia D; Nordgren, Loran F

    2016-09-01

    The current research examines how exposure to performance incentives affects one's desire for the reward object. We hypothesized that the flexible nature of performance incentives creates an attentional fixation on the reward object (e.g., money), which leads people to become more desirous of the rewards. Results from 5 laboratory experiments and 1 large-scale field study provide support for this prediction. When performance was incentivized with monetary rewards, participants reported being more desirous of money (Study 1), put in more effort to earn additional money in an ensuing task (Study 2), and were less willing to donate money to charity (Study 4). We replicated the result with nonmonetary rewards (Study 5). We also found that performance incentives increased attention to the reward object during the task, which in part explains the observed effects (Study 6). A large-scale field study replicated these findings in a real-world setting (Study 7). One laboratory experiment failed to replicate (Study 3). (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27414236

  1. Preschool-aged children recognize ambivalence: emerging identification of concurrent conflicting desires

    PubMed Central

    Rostad, Kristin; Pexman, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the ability of preschool-aged children to identify conflicting, or ambivalent, desire states (e.g., “I want to go to the birthday party because there will be cake, but I also don’t want to go because I’m having fun playing at home”). Participants were 4- and 5-year-old children, and a group of undergraduate students (n = 20 in each age group). They were presented with 14 scenarios involving both “single desire” and “dual desire” states, including both approach (i.e., “want”) and avoidance (i.e., “not want”) desires. Our primary interest was children’s ability to identify concurrent conflicting “dual desire” states, and this ability was found in most of the 5-year-old age group tested and in about half of the 4-year-old age group. As such, these results provide evidence that children can identify ambivalence at earlier ages than previously reported. In addition, results showed that the challenge in recognizing ambivalence is the presence of desires of opposite valence directed at the same target. PMID:25914671

  2. The Association Between Belief in God and Fertility Desires in Slovenia and the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Cranney, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Context Research on the association between religiosity and fertility—and, particularly, on the effects of secularization on fertility desires and outcomes—has been concerned primarily with mechanisms that are fundamentally institutional and are embedded in formal religious structures. Supplementary explanations focused on noninstitutional dimensions of religiosity have never been tested. Methods Conventional ordinary least-squares regression was used to test the association between belief in God (i.e., a personal God or some sort of life force) and fertility desires among 2,251 women aged 18–45 in Slovenia and 951 women aged 15–44 in the Czech Republic who participated in the European Family and Fertility Survey in the mid-1990s. Results In both samples, substantial proportions of women either were nonbelievers or believed in God but were not institutionally religious. Belief in God was independently associated with fertility desires even in analyses controlling for self-reported religiosity. Women who believed in a personal God wanted approximately 0.2 more children, and those who believed in a life force wanted approximately 0.1 more children, than nonbelievers. Results were similar across several alternative measures of religiosity. Conclusions At least some of the connection between religiosity and fertility apparently is attributable to metaphysical beliefs. Future research on the effect of secularization on fertility decline should investigate the potentially distinct effects of different dimensions of religiosity. PMID:25682844

  3. Topology of sustainable management in dynamical Earth system models with desirable states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzig, J.; Kittel, T.

    2015-03-01

    To keep the Earth system in a desirable region of its state space, such as the recently suggested "tolerable environment and development window", "planetary boundaries", or "safe (and just) operating space", one not only needs to understand the quantitative internal dynamics of the system and the available options for influencing it (management), but also the structure of the system's state space with regard to certain qualitative differences. Important questions are: which state space regions can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region? Which regions are in a variety of senses "safe" to stay in when management options might break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this topological structure? In this article, as a complement to the existing literature on optimal control which is more focussed on quantitative optimization and is much applied in both the engineering and the integrated assessment literature, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology of the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states. We suggest a certain terminology for the various resulting regions of the state space and perform a detailed formal classification of the possible states with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region. Our results indicate that before performing some form of quantitative optimization, the sustainable management of the Earth system may require decisions of a more discrete type that come in the form of several dilemmata, e.g., choosing between eventual safety and uninterrupted desirability, or between uninterrupted safety and increasing flexibility. We illustrate the concepts and dilemmata with conceptual models from classical mechanics, climate science, ecology, economics, and coevolutionary Earth system modelling and discuss their potential relevance for the climate and sustainability debate.

  4. Can Multiple-Choice Testing Induce Desirable Difficulties? Evidence from the Laboratory and the Classroom.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon; Soderstrom, Nicholas C; Little, Jeri L

    2015-01-01

    The term desirable difficulties (Bjork, 1994) refers to conditions of learning that, though often appearing to cause difficulties for the learner and to slow down the process of acquisition, actually improve long-term retention and transfer. One known desirable difficulty is testing (as compared with restudy), although typically it is tests that clearly involve retrieval--such as free and cued recall tests--that are thought to induce these learning benefits and not multiple-choice tests. Nonetheless, multiple-choice testing is ubiquitous in educational settings and many other high-stakes situations. In this article, we discuss research, in both the laboratory and the classroom, exploring whether multiple-choice testing can also be fashioned to promote the type of retrieval processes known to improve learning, and we speculate about the necessary properties that multiple-choice questions must possess, as well as the metacognitive strategy students need to use in answering such questions, to achieve this goal. PMID:26255442

  5. The anatomy of a forbidden desire: men, penetration and semen exchange.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Dave; Warner, Dan

    2005-03-01

    The rising popularity of unprotected anal sex (bareback sex) among men who have sex with men (MSM) is perplexing healthcare providers working in sexual health clinics. Epidemiological research on the topic overlooks several socio-cultural and psychological dimensions. Our research attempts to construct an appropriate theoretical edifice by which we can understand this sexual practice. In order to achieve this objective, a qualitative design was selected and 18 semiconductive in-depth interviews were carried out with barebackers from five European and North American cities. We then analyzed the data using two theoretical approaches that were sensitive to the issues of desire, transgression and pleasure. These theories are those of the late French psychoanalyst, Jacques Lacan, and those of poststructural thinkers, Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. These theoretical frameworks helped shed light on the significance of bareback sex, and can potentially influence healthcare providers in gaining a better understanding not only of their clients, but also of their own role in the circuitry of desire at work within bareback. We found that while the exchange of semen constitutes a dangerous and irrational practice to healthcare professionals, it is nevertheless a significant variable in the sexual lives of barebackers that needs to be taken into consideration in the provision of healthcare services. PMID:15743438

  6. Desire, disease, and the origins of the dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Sillitoe, Roy V; Vogel, Michael W

    2008-03-01

    The dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain region of the central nervous system project an extensive network of connections throughout the forebrain, including the neocortex. The midbrain-forebrain dopaminergic circuits are thought to regulate a diverse set of behaviors, from the control of movement to modulation of cognition and desire--because they relate to mood, attention, reward, and addiction. Defects in these pathways, including neurodegeneration, are implicated in a variety of psychiatric and neurological diseases, such as schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction, and Parkinson disease. Based on the importance of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons to normal and pathological brain function, there is considerable interest in the molecular mechanisms that regulate their development. The goal of this short review is to outline new methods and recent advances in identifying the molecular networks that regulate midbrain dopaminergic neuron differentiation and fate. Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are descended from progenitor cells located near the ventral midline of the neural tube floor plate around the cephalic flexure. It is now clear that their initial formation is dependent on interactions between the signaling molecules Sonic hedgehog, WINGLESS 1, and FIBROBLAST growth factor 8, but there is still an extensive wider network of molecular interactions that must be resolved before the complete picture of dopaminergic neuron development can be described. PMID:18283047

  7. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    PubMed

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino. PMID:20513623

  8. The Dopaminergic Midbrain Encodes the Expected Certainty about Desired Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Mathys, Christoph; Dolan, Ray; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine plays a key role in learning; however, its exact function in decision making and choice remains unclear. Recently, we proposed a generic model based on active (Bayesian) inference wherein dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about optimal policies. Put simply, dopamine discharges reflect the confidence that a chosen policy will lead to desired outcomes. We designed a novel task to test this hypothesis, where subjects played a “limited offer” game in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Subjects had to decide how long to wait for a high offer before accepting a low offer, with the risk of losing everything if they waited too long. Bayesian model comparison showed that behavior strongly supported active inference, based on surprise minimization, over classical utility maximization schemes. Furthermore, midbrain activity, encompassing dopamine projection neurons, was accurately predicted by trial-by-trial variations in model-based estimates of precision. Our findings demonstrate that human subjects infer both optimal policies and the precision of those inferences, and thus support the notion that humans perform hierarchical probabilistic Bayesian inference. In other words, subjects have to infer both what they should do as well as how confident they are in their choices, where confidence may be encoded by dopaminergic firing. PMID:25056572

  9. Do great apes use emotional expressions to infer desires?

    PubMed

    Buttelmann, David; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Although apes understand others' goals and perceptions, little is known about their understanding of others' emotional expressions. We conducted three studies following the general paradigm of Repacholi and colleagues (1997, 1998). In Study 1, a human reacted emotionally to the hidden contents of two boxes, after which the ape was allowed to choose one of the boxes. Apes distinguished between two of the expressed emotions (happiness and disgust) by choosing appropriately. In Studies 2 and 3, a human reacted either positively or negatively to the hidden contents of two containers; then the ape saw him eating something. When given a choice, apes correctly chose the container to which the human had reacted negatively, based on the inference that the human had just eaten the food to which he had reacted positively - and so the other container still had food left in it. These findings suggest that great apes understand both the directedness and the valence of some human emotional expressions, and can use this understanding to infer desires. PMID:19702761

  10. Yeasts in table olive processing: desirable or spoilage microorganisms?

    PubMed

    Arroyo-López, F N; Romero-Gil, V; Bautista-Gallego, J; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Jiménez-Díaz, R; García-García, P; Querol, A; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2012-11-01

    Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms isolated from many foods, and are commonly found in table olive processing where they can play a double role. On one hand, these microorganisms can produce spoilage of fruits due to the production of bad odours and flavours, the accumulation of CO(2) leading to swollen containers, the clouding of brines, the softening of fruits and the degradation of lactic acid, which is especially harmful during table olive storage and packaging. But on the other hand, fortunately, yeasts also possess desirable biochemical activities (lipase, esterase, β-glucosidase, catalase, production of killer factors, etc.) with important technological applications in this fermented vegetable. Recently, the probiotic potential of olive yeasts has begun to be evaluated because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show beneficial effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve consumers' health by decreasing cholesterol levels, inhibiting pathogens, degrading non assimilated compounds, producing antioxidants and vitamins, adhering to intestinal cells or by maintaining epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually also found in table olive processing, such as Wicherhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens and Kluyveromyces lactis, have been reported to exhibit some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in a near future which might improve the added value of the commercialized product. PMID:23141644

  11. Central Nervous System Multiparameter Optimization Desirability: Application in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Wager, Travis T; Hou, Xinjun; Verhoest, Patrick R; Villalobos, Anabella

    2016-06-15

    Significant progress has been made in prospectively designing molecules using the central nervous system multiparameter optimization (CNS MPO) desirability tool, as evidenced by the analysis reported herein of a second wave of drug candidates that originated after the development and implementation of this tool. This simple-to-use design algorithm has expanded design space for CNS candidates and has further demonstrated the advantages of utilizing a flexible, multiparameter approach in drug discovery rather than individual parameters and hard cutoffs of physicochemical properties. The CNS MPO tool has helped to increase the percentage of compounds nominated for clinical development that exhibit alignment of ADME attributes, cross the blood-brain barrier, and reside in lower-risk safety space (low ClogP and high TPSA). The use of this tool has played a role in reducing the number of compounds submitted to exploratory toxicity studies and increasing the survival of our drug candidates through regulatory toxicology into First in Human studies. Overall, the CNS MPO algorithm has helped to improve the prioritization of design ideas and the quality of the compounds nominated for clinical development. PMID:26991242

  12. Topology of sustainable management of dynamical systems with desirable states: from defining planetary boundaries to safe operating spaces in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kittel, Tim; Donges, Jonathan; Molkenthin, Nora

    2016-04-01

    To keep the Earth System in a desirable region of its state space, such as defined by the recently suggested "tolerable environment and development window", "guardrails", "planetary boundaries", or "safe (and just) operating space for humanity", one not only needs to understand the quantitative internal dynamics of the system and the available options for influencing it (management), but also the structure of the system's state space with regard to certain qualitative differences. Important questions are: Which state space regions can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region? Which regions are in a variety of senses "safe" to stay in when management options might break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this topological structure? In this work, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology of the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states, as a complement to the existing literature on optimal control which is more focussed on quantitative optimization and is much applied in both the engineering and the integrated assessment literature. We suggest a certain terminology for the various resulting regions of the state space and perform a detailed formal classification of the possible states with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region. Our results indicate that before performing some form of quantitative optimization such as of indicators of human well-being for achieving certain sustainable development goals, a sustainable and resilient management of the Earth System may require decisions of a more discrete type that come in the form of several dilemmas, e.g., choosing between eventual safety and uninterrupted desirability, or between uninterrupted safety and larger flexibility. We illustrate the concepts and dilemmas drawing on conceptual models from climate science, ecology, coevolutionary Earth System modeling

  13. Using a digital game for training desirable behavior in cognitive-behavioral therapy of burnout syndrome: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zielhorst, Thomas; van den Brule, Daphne; Visch, Valentijn; Melles, Marijke; van Tienhoven, Sam; Sinkbaek, Helle; Schrieken, Bart; Tan, Eduard S-H; Lange, Alfred

    2015-02-01

    Burnout is a globally increasing illness, and as a result, many forms of burnout therapy have arisen. The use of digital games can be psychotherapeutically effective because they can transform exercises that are by themselves unattractive into intrinsically motivated action. This pilot study aims to test whether a specially designed game contributes to patients learning desired behavior and achieving other specific therapeutic goals in an online cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based burnout treatment context. In total, 101 participants took part in the experiment, under four conditions: (a) Game+Therapy, (b) Therapy Only, (c) Game Only, and (d) No Game+No Therapy. Pre- and postmeasures were taken online. Results showed that the two therapy conditions (Game+Therapy and Therapy Only) showed a greater decrease in complaints and disengagement, and a stronger increase in coping skills than the nontherapy conditions (Game Only and No Game+No Therapy). As expected, the Game+Therapy condition outperformed the Therapy Only condition on combined improvement measures of burnout symptoms. However, analyses of individual measures showed no effects. It can be cautiously concluded that the therapeutic digital game may be a useful tool when embedded in a therapeutic burnout treatment program and is probably more efficient than CBT, as it is used in current practice. PMID:25684611

  14. Why we think we can't dance: theory of mind and children's desire to perform.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Lan Nguyen; Norton, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) allows children to achieve success in the social world by understanding others' minds. A study with 3- to 12-year-olds, however, demonstrates that gains in ToM are linked to decreases in children's desire to engage in performative behaviors associated with health and well-being, such as singing and dancing. One hundred and fifty-nine middle-class children from diverse backgrounds in a Northeastern U.S. metropolitan area completed the study in 2011. The development of ToM is associated with decreases in self-esteem, which in turn predicts decreases in children's willingness to perform. This shift away from performance begins at age 4 (when ToM begins to develop), years before children enter puberty. PMID:25382670

  15. Designing nanomaterials with desired mechanical properties by constraining the evolution of their grain shapes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Grain shapes are acknowledged to impact nanomaterials' overall properties. Research works on this issue include grain-elongation and grain-strain measurements and their impacts on nanomaterials' mechanical properties. This paper proposes a stochastic model for grain strain undergoing severe plastic deformation. Most models deal with equivalent radii assuming that nanomaterials' grains are spherical. These models neglect true grain shapes. This paper also proposes a theoretical approach of extending existing models by considering grain shape distribution during stochastic design and modelling of nanomaterials' constituent structures and mechanical properties. This is achieved by introducing grain 'form'. Example 'forms' for 2-D and 3-D grains are proposed. From the definitions of form, strain and Hall-Petch-Relationship to Reversed-Hall-Petch-Relationship, data obtained for nanomaterials' grain size and conventional materials' properties are sufficient for analysis. Proposed extended models are solved simultaneously and tested with grain growth data. It is shown that the nature of form evolution depends on form choice and dimensional space. Long-run results reveal that grain boundary migration process causes grains to become spherical, grain rotation coalescence makes them deviate away from becoming spherical and they initially deviate away from becoming spherical before converging into spherical ones due to the TOTAL process. Percentage deviations from spherical grains depend on dimensional space and form: 0% minimum and 100% maximum deviations were observed. It is shown that the plots for grain shape functions lie above the spherical (control) value of 1 in 2-D grains for all considered grain growth mechanisms. Some plots lie above the spherical value, and others approach the spherical value before deviating below it when dealing with 3-D grains. The physical interpretations of these variations are explained from elementary principles about the different grain

  16. Designing nanomaterials with desired mechanical properties by constraining the evolution of their grain shapes.

    PubMed

    Tengen, Thomas Bobga

    2011-01-01

    Grain shapes are acknowledged to impact nanomaterials' overall properties. Research works on this issue include grain-elongation and grain-strain measurements and their impacts on nanomaterials' mechanical properties. This paper proposes a stochastic model for grain strain undergoing severe plastic deformation. Most models deal with equivalent radii assuming that nanomaterials' grains are spherical. These models neglect true grain shapes. This paper also proposes a theoretical approach of extending existing models by considering grain shape distribution during stochastic design and modelling of nanomaterials' constituent structures and mechanical properties. This is achieved by introducing grain 'form'. Example 'forms' for 2-D and 3-D grains are proposed. From the definitions of form, strain and Hall-Petch-Relationship to Reversed-Hall-Petch-Relationship, data obtained for nanomaterials' grain size and conventional materials' properties are sufficient for analysis. Proposed extended models are solved simultaneously and tested with grain growth data. It is shown that the nature of form evolution depends on form choice and dimensional space. Long-run results reveal that grain boundary migration process causes grains to become spherical, grain rotation coalescence makes them deviate away from becoming spherical and they initially deviate away from becoming spherical before converging into spherical ones due to the TOTAL process. Percentage deviations from spherical grains depend on dimensional space and form: 0% minimum and 100% maximum deviations were observed. It is shown that the plots for grain shape functions lie above the spherical (control) value of 1 in 2-D grains for all considered grain growth mechanisms. Some plots lie above the spherical value, and others approach the spherical value before deviating below it when dealing with 3-D grains. The physical interpretations of these variations are explained from elementary principles about the different grain

  17. The effects of ambivalent fertility desires on pregnancy risk in young women in Michigan, United States

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Warren B.; Barber, Jennifer S.; Gatny, Heather H.

    2012-01-01

    Many different definitions of the construct of motivational ambivalence have appeared in the literature on reproductive health. Using a theoretical framework in which motivational ambivalence is defined as an interaction between positive and negative pregnancy desires, we propose two hypotheses. The first is that positive and negative pregnancy desires independently predict the risk of an unplanned pregnancy. The second is that ambivalence and three related constructs that are also based on the interaction between positive and negative desires are each important predictors of pregnancy risk. We use weekly journal data collected from a U.S. sample of 1,003 women aged 18–19 years and conduct hazard model analysis to test our hypotheses. Using both dummy and continuous predictors, we report results that confirm both hypotheses. The proposed interaction framework has demonstrated validity, compares favorably with previously reported alternative approaches, and incorporates a set of constructs that have potential importance for further research directed at the prevention of unplanned pregnancy. PMID:23234316

  18. Fertility Desires among Men and Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi Slums: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Wekesa, Eliud; Coast, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fertility desires require new understanding in a context of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper studies the fertility desires and their rationales, of slum-dwelling Kenyan men and women living with HIV/AIDS who know their serostatus, but have different antiretroviral therapy treatment statuses. It addresses two research questions: How do people living with HIV/AIDS consider their future fertility? What factors contribute to an explanation of fertility desires among people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods A mixed methods study (survey [n = 513] and in-depth interviews [n = 41]) with adults living with HIV/AIDS living in Nairobi slums was conducted in 2010. Regression analyses assess independent relationships between fertility desires and socio-demographic factors. Analyses of in-depth interviews are used to interpret the statistical analyses of fertility desires. Results Our analyses show that fertility desires are complex and ambivalent, reflecting tensions between familial and societal pressures to have children versus pressures for HIV (re-)infection prevention. More than a third (34%) of men and women living with HIV expressed future fertility desires; however, this is significantly lower than in the general population. Factors independently associated with desiring a child among people living with HIV/AIDS were age, sex, number of surviving children, social support and household wealth of the respondent. Discussion Increasing access to ART is changing the context of future childbearing for people living with HIV/AIDS. Prevailing values mean that, for many people living with HIV/AIDS, having children is seen as necessary for a “normal” and healthy adult life. However, the social rewards of childbearing conflict with moral imperatives of HIV prevention, presenting dilemmas about the “proper” reproductive behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS. The health policy and

  19. Positioning actuators in efficient locations for rendering the desired sound field using inverse approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Wan-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon; Toi, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    For rendering a desired characteristics of a sound field, a proper conditioning of acoustic actuators in an array are required, but the source condition depends strongly on its position. Actuators located at inefficient positions for control would consume the input power too much or become too much sensitive to disturbing noise. These actuators can be considered redundant, which should be sorted out as far as such elimination does not damage the whole control performance significantly. It is known that the inverse approach based on the acoustical holography concept, employing the transfer matrix between sources and field points as core element, is useful for rendering the desired sound field. By investigating the information indwelling in the transfer matrix between actuators and field points, the linear independency of an actuator from the others in the array can be evaluated. To this end, the square of the right singular vector, which means the radiation contribution from the source, can be used as an indicator. Inefficient position for fulfilling the desired sound field can be determined as one having smallest indicator value among all possible actuator positions. The elimination process continues one by one, or group by group, until the remaining number of actuators meets the preset number. Control examples of exterior and interior spaces are taken for the validation. The results reveal that the present method for choosing least dependent actuators, for a given number of actuators and field condition, is quite effective in realizing the desired sound field with a noisy input condition, and in minimizing the required input power.

  20. Exposure to Electronic Nicotine Delivery Device (ENDS) Visual Imagery Increases Smoking Urge and Desire

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrea C.; Smith, Lia J.; Fridberg, Daniel J.; Matthews, Alicia K.; McNamara, Patrick J.; Cao, Dingcai

    2015-01-01

    Use and awareness of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; also known as electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) has increased rapidly in recent years, particularly among young adults. As use of ENDS resembles traditional smoking in both hand to mouth movements and inhalation and exhalation behaviors, we determined whether exposure to e-cigarette use via video exposure would act as a cue to elicit urge and desire for a combustible cigarette. Young adult smokers (mean age 26.3 ± 4.1 years) were randomized to view a brief video montage of advertisements depicting either e-cigarette vaping (n = 38) or bottled water drinking (n = 40). Pre- and post-cue exposure assessments were conducted in a controlled laboratory setting without other smoking or vaping cues present or behaviors allowed. Primary outcomes included change from pre-exposure baseline in smoking urge (Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges) and desire for a combustible and e-cigarette (visual analogue scales). Results showed that relative to exposure to the bottled water video, exposure to the ENDS video significantly increased smoking urge (p < 0.001) as well as desire for a regular cigarette (p < 0.05) and an e-cigarette (p < 0.001). These findings provide preliminary evidence that passive exposure to video imagery of ENDS use may generalize as a condition cue and evoke urges for a combustible cigarette in young adult smokers. It remains to be determined whether such increases in urge and desire correspond to increases in actual smoking behavior. PMID:26618797

  1. Touching moments: desire modulates the neural anticipation of active romantic caress

    PubMed Central

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J.; Ferri, Francesca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    A romantic caress is a basic expression of affiliative behavior and a primary reinforcer. Given its inherent affective valence, its performance also would imply the prediction of reward values. For example, touching a person for whom one has strong passionate feelings likely is motivated by a strong desire for physical contact and associated with the anticipation of hedonic experiences. The present study aims at investigating how the anticipatory neural processes of active romantic caress are modulated by the intensity of the desire for affective contact as reflected by passionate feelings for the other. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning was performed in romantically involved partners using a paradigm that allowed to isolate the specific anticipatory representations of active romantic caress, compared with control caress, while testing for the relationship between neural activity and measures of feelings of passionate love for the other. The results demonstrated that right posterior insula activity in anticipation of romantic caress significantly co-varied with the intensity of desire for union with the other. This effect was independent of the sensory-affective properties of the performed touch, like its pleasantness. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis showed that the same posterior insula cluster interacted with brain regions related to sensory-motor functions as well as to the processing and anticipation of reward. The findings provide insight on the neural substrate mediating between the desire for and the performance of romantic caress. In particular, we propose that anticipatory activity patterns in posterior insula may modulate subsequent sensory-affective processing of skin-to-skin contact. PMID:24616676

  2. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  3. Anti-miroestrol polyclonal antibodies: a comparison of immunogen preparations used to obtain desired antibody properties.

    PubMed

    Kitisripanya, Tharita; Jutathis, Kamonthip; Inyai, Chadathorn; Komaikul, Jukrapun; Udomsin, Orapin; Yusakul, Gorawit; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2016-04-01

    Immunogen quality is one important factor that contributes to desirable antibody characteristics. Highly specific antibodies against miroestrol can be used to develop a quality control immunoassay for Pueraria candollei products. In this study, we investigated how various immunogen preparations affect antibody properties. The results show that immunogen prepared using the Mannich reaction provides antibodies with higher specificity and sensitivity against miroestrol than immunogen prepared with the periodate reaction. The results suggest the Mannich reaction maintains the original structure of miroestrol and generates useful antibodies for developing immunoassays. PMID:26563142

  4. [New assessment scale based on the type of person desired by an employer].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kenichi; Toyoda, Hideki

    2011-10-01

    In many cases, aptitude tests used in the hiring process fail to connect the measurement scale with the emotional type of the person desired by an employer. This experimental study introduced a new measuring method, in which the measurement scale could be adjusted according to the type of person an employer is seeking. Then the effectiveness of this method was verified by comparing the results of an aptitude test utilizing the method and the results of the typical hiring process carried out by the new method in hiring. PMID:22117302

  5. Multiplex gene editing via CRISPR/Cas9 exhibits desirable muscle hypertrophy without detectable off-target effects in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolong; Niu, Yiyuan; Zhou, Jiankui; Yu, Honghao; Kou, Qifang; Lei, Anmin; Zhao, Xiaoe; Yan, Hailong; Cai, Bei; Shen, Qiaoyan; Zhou, Shiwei; Zhu, Haijing; Zhou, Guangxian; Niu, Wenzhi; Hua, Jinlian; Jiang, Yu; Huang, Xingxu; Ma, Baohua; Chen, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides a flexible approach for genome engineering of genetic loci. Here, we successfully achieved precise gene targeting in sheep by co-injecting one-cell-stage embryos with Cas9 mRNA and RNA guides targeting three genes (MSTN, ASIP, and BCO2). We carefully examined the sgRNAs:Cas9-mediated targeting effects in injected embryos, somatic tissues, as well as gonads via cloning and sequencing. The targeting efficiencies in these three genes were within the range of 27–33% in generated lambs, and that of simultaneously targeting the three genes was 5.6%, which demonstrated that micro-injection of zygotes is an efficient approach for generating gene-modified sheep. Interestingly, we observed that disruption of the MSTN gene resulted in the desired muscle hypertrophy that is characterized by enlarged myofibers, thereby providing the first detailed evidence supporting that gene modifications had occurred at both the genetic and morphological levels. In addition, prescreening for the off-target effect of sgRNAs was performed on fibroblasts before microinjection, to ensure that no detectable off-target mutations from founder animals existed. Our findings suggested that the CRISPR/Cas9 method can be exploited as a powerful tool for livestock improvement by simultaneously targeting multiple genes that are responsible for economically significant traits. PMID:27562433

  6. Multiplex gene editing via CRISPR/Cas9 exhibits desirable muscle hypertrophy without detectable off-target effects in sheep.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolong; Niu, Yiyuan; Zhou, Jiankui; Yu, Honghao; Kou, Qifang; Lei, Anmin; Zhao, Xiaoe; Yan, Hailong; Cai, Bei; Shen, Qiaoyan; Zhou, Shiwei; Zhu, Haijing; Zhou, Guangxian; Niu, Wenzhi; Hua, Jinlian; Jiang, Yu; Huang, Xingxu; Ma, Baohua; Chen, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides a flexible approach for genome engineering of genetic loci. Here, we successfully achieved precise gene targeting in sheep by co-injecting one-cell-stage embryos with Cas9 mRNA and RNA guides targeting three genes (MSTN, ASIP, and BCO2). We carefully examined the sgRNAs:Cas9-mediated targeting effects in injected embryos, somatic tissues, as well as gonads via cloning and sequencing. The targeting efficiencies in these three genes were within the range of 27-33% in generated lambs, and that of simultaneously targeting the three genes was 5.6%, which demonstrated that micro-injection of zygotes is an efficient approach for generating gene-modified sheep. Interestingly, we observed that disruption of the MSTN gene resulted in the desired muscle hypertrophy that is characterized by enlarged myofibers, thereby providing the first detailed evidence supporting that gene modifications had occurred at both the genetic and morphological levels. In addition, prescreening for the off-target effect of sgRNAs was performed on fibroblasts before microinjection, to ensure that no detectable off-target mutations from founder animals existed. Our findings suggested that the CRISPR/Cas9 method can be exploited as a powerful tool for livestock improvement by simultaneously targeting multiple genes that are responsible for economically significant traits. PMID:27562433

  7. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  8. Differences in the desire to eat in children and adults in the presence of an obese eater.

    PubMed

    Barthomeuf, Laetitia R D; Droit-Volet, Sylvie M N; Rousset, Sylvie M E

    2011-05-01

    Previous research has shown that the desire to eat foods decreases in adults in the presence of an obese eater compared to a normal-weight eater. This study investigated whether or not this decrease in eating desire was observed in younger children in the same way as in adults. Children aged 5 and 8 years old, as well as adults, were presented with photographs of liked and disliked foods presented either alone or with normal-weight and obese eaters expressing three different emotions--pleasure, disgust, and neutrality--toward these food products. The results showed that the eater's weight status had a greater effect on the adults' desire to eat than on that of the children. Adults were influenced by the eater's weight status, regardless of the facial expression or the food category. Compared to adults, the impact of the eater's weight status on the children's desire to eat depended on the emotional facial expression and the children's food preferences. Thus, when children did not like the foods, their eating desire was negatively influenced by the eater's obese status, as was that of adults. On the other hand, when children liked the food products, the eater's weight status had no effect on their eating desire. They were more influenced by the eater's facial expressions. Thus, an expression of pleasure increased the desire to eat the liked foods in the younger children, whereas an expression of disgust decreased it. These results are discussed in terms of the high sensitivity of young children to emotional facial expressions. PMID:21372805

  9. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  10. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  11. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  12. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  13. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  14. GETTING MORAL ENHANCEMENT RIGHT: THE DESIRABILITY OF MORAL BIOENHANCEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    We respond to a number of objections raised by John Harris in this journal to our argument that we should pursue genetic and other biological means of morally enhancing human beings (moral bioenhancement). We claim that human beings now have at their disposal means of wiping out life on Earth and that traditional methods of moral education are probably insufficient to achieve the moral enhancement required to ensure that this will not happen. Hence, we argue, moral bioenhancement should be sought and applied. We argue that cognitive enhancement and technological progress raise acute problems because it is easier to harm than to benefit. We address objections to this argument. We also respond to objections that moral bioenhancement: (1) interferes with freedom; (2) cannot be made to target immoral dispositions precisely; (3) is redundant, since cognitive enhancement by itself suffices. PMID:21797913

  15. A Computer Program to Create a Population with Any Desired Centroid and Covariance Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John D.

    1975-01-01

    A Computer program written in FORTRAN IV is presented which will create a population of desired size with marginally normal score vectors manifesting any desired centroid and covariance matrix. Uses and documentation are provided. (Author)

  16. Determining Desirable Cursor Control Device Characteristics for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will travel to the moon and Mars, and all future Exploration vehicles and habitats will be highly computerized, necessitating an accurate method of interaction with the computers. The design of a cursor control device will have to take into consideration g-forces, vibration, gloved operations, and the specific types of tasks to be performed. The study described here is being undertaken to begin identifying characteristics of cursor control devices that will work well for the unique Exploration mission environments. The objective of the study is not to identify a particular device, but to begin identifying design characteristics that are usable and desirable for space missions. Most cursor control devices have strengths and weaknesses; they are more appropriate for some tasks and less suitable for others. The purpose of this study is to collect some initial usability data on a large number of commercially available and proprietary cursor control devices. A software test battery was developed for this purpose. Once data has been collected using these low-level, basic point/click/drag tasks, higher fidelity, scenario-driven evaluations will be conducted with a reduced set of devices. The standard tasks used for testing cursor control devices are based on a model of human movement known as Fitts law. Fitts law predicts that the time to acquire a target is logarithmically related to the distance over the target size. To gather data for analysis with this law, fundamental, low-level tasks are used such as dragging or pointing at various targets of different sizes from various distances. The first four core tasks for the study were based on the ISO 9241-9:(2000) document from the International Organization for Standardization that contains the requirements for non-keyboard input devices. These include two pointing tasks, one dragging and one tracking task. The fifth task from ISO 9241-9, the circular tracking task was not used

  17. Composite materials with enhanced dimensionless Young’s modulus and desired Poisson’s ratio

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, H. X.; Fan, T. X.; Zhang, D.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a new type of composite materials which not only has a Young’s modulus much larger than the Voigt limit, but also is always nearly isotropic. Moreover, its Poisson’s ratio can be designed at a desired value, e.g. positive, or negative, or zero. We have also demonstrated that structural hierarchy can help to enhance the stiffness of this type of composite materials. The results obtained in this paper provide a very useful insight into the development of new functional materials and structures. PMID:26359910

  18. Composite materials with enhanced dimensionless Young's modulus and desired Poisson's ratio.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H X; Fan, T X; Zhang, D

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a new type of composite materials which not only has a Young's modulus much larger than the Voigt limit, but also is always nearly isotropic. Moreover, its Poisson's ratio can be designed at a desired value, e.g. positive, or negative, or zero. We have also demonstrated that structural hierarchy can help to enhance the stiffness of this type of composite materials. The results obtained in this paper provide a very useful insight into the development of new functional materials and structures. PMID:26359910

  19. Getting Beyond "It Just Happened": Adolescent Girls' Experiences of Sexual Desire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Deborah L.

    This document describes research pertaining to adolescent females' perceptions of sexual desire. It analyzes 30 interviews of girls, 15-18 years old, who are juniors in suburban and urban high schools. The key finding was identified as the dilemma of desire. Girls responded to the dilemma in three ways: simply not feeling the desire, resisting…

  20. Configurations of Identity among Sexual Minority Youth: Context, Desire, and Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Thompson, Elisabeth Morgan; Pilecki, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four case studies centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire.…

  1. Compared to men, women view professional advancement as equally attainable, but less desirable.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Wilmuth, Caroline Ashley; Brooks, Alison Wood

    2015-10-01

    Women are underrepresented in most high-level positions in organizations. Though a great deal of research has provided evidence that bias and discrimination give rise to and perpetuate this gender disparity, in the current research we explore another explanation: men and women view professional advancement differently, and their views affect their decisions to climb the corporate ladder (or not). In studies 1 and 2, when asked to list their core goals in life, women listed more life goals overall than men, and a smaller proportion of their goals related to achieving power at work. In studies 3 and 4, compared to men, women viewed high-level positions as less desirable yet equally attainable. In studies 5-7, when faced with the possibility of receiving a promotion at their current place of employment or obtaining a high-power position after graduating from college, women and men anticipated similar levels of positive outcomes (e.g., prestige and money), but women anticipated more negative outcomes (e.g., conflict and tradeoffs). In these studies, women associated high-level positions with conflict, which explained the relationship between gender and the desirability of professional advancement. Finally, in studies 8 and 9, men and women alike rated power as one of the main consequences of professional advancement. Our findings reveal that men and women have different perceptions of what the experience of holding a high-level position will be like, with meaningful implications for the perpetuation of the gender disparity that exists at the top of organizational hierarchies. PMID:26392533

  2. Compared to men, women view professional advancement as equally attainable, but less desirable

    PubMed Central

    Gino, Francesca; Wilmuth, Caroline Ashley; Brooks, Alison Wood

    2015-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in most high-level positions in organizations. Though a great deal of research has provided evidence that bias and discrimination give rise to and perpetuate this gender disparity, in the current research we explore another explanation: men and women view professional advancement differently, and their views affect their decisions to climb the corporate ladder (or not). In studies 1 and 2, when asked to list their core goals in life, women listed more life goals overall than men, and a smaller proportion of their goals related to achieving power at work. In studies 3 and 4, compared to men, women viewed high-level positions as less desirable yet equally attainable. In studies 5–7, when faced with the possibility of receiving a promotion at their current place of employment or obtaining a high-power position after graduating from college, women and men anticipated similar levels of positive outcomes (e.g., prestige and money), but women anticipated more negative outcomes (e.g., conflict and tradeoffs). In these studies, women associated high-level positions with conflict, which explained the relationship between gender and the desirability of professional advancement. Finally, in studies 8 and 9, men and women alike rated power as one of the main consequences of professional advancement. Our findings reveal that men and women have different perceptions of what the experience of holding a high-level position will be like, with meaningful implications for the perpetuation of the gender disparity that exists at the top of organizational hierarchies. PMID:26392533

  3. Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Matthijs; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Heiman, Julia R; Laan, Ellen

    2012-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive meaning, resulting in a limited number of incentives that have the capacity to elicit a sexual response. According to current information processing models of sexual arousal, sexual stimuli automatically activate meanings and if these are not predominantly positive, processes relevant to the activation of sexual arousal and desire may be interrupted. Premenopausal U.S. and Dutch women with acquired HSDD (n = 42) and a control group of sexually functional women (n = 42) completed a single target Implicit Association Task and a Picture Association Task assessing automatic affective associations with sexual stimuli and a dot detection task measuring attentional capture by sexual stimuli. Results showed that women with acquired HSDD displayed less positive (but not more negative) automatic associations with sexual stimuli than sexually functional women. The same pattern was found for self-reported affective sex-related associations. Participants were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images, irrespective of sexual function status. As such, the findings point to the relevance of affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with HSDD, and imply that the treatment of HSDD might benefit from a stronger emphasis on the strengthening of the association between sexual stimuli and positive meaning and sexual reward. PMID:21892693

  4. Theory of Mind, Social Desirability, and Unlikely Symptom Reporting in Offenders With and Without Psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Nentjes, Lieke; Bernstein, David P; Arntz, Arnoud; Slaats, Mariëtte E; Hannemann, Tina

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between psychopathy and theory of mind (ToM), by comparing the performance of nonpsychopathic offenders (n = 40), psychopathic offenders (n = 42), and nonoffender controls (n = 26) on Happé's test of ToM (Happé, 1994). In addition, we investigated whether offenders' ToM skills would moderate the association between the antisocial psychopathy component (Factor 2) and self-presentation (i.e., the tendency to report social desirability and unlikely symptoms). Results showed groups did not differ in ToM performance. As expected though, ToM moderated the association between psychopathy and self-presentation: only for offenders relatively high in ToM, Factor 2 was strongly related to less social desirability and more unlikely symptom reporting. These results could indicate that offenders who are high in both ToM and Factor 2 exaggerate their mental dysfunction to express their need for clinical attention. Results are used to critically evaluate the interpretation of occurrences in which offenders overplay their psychopathology. PMID:26164424

  5. Screening for anxiety symptoms and social desirability in children and adolescents living with chronic illnesses in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Arabiat, Diana H; Jabery, Mohammad Al; Wardam, Lina

    2013-03-01

    This research aims to investigate the rate and nature of anxiety symptoms in a group of children and adolescents living with chronic illnesses in Jordan, and their relation to social desirability in a cultural sample not previously researched. Using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS), anxiety and social desirability data were obtained from 114 children diagnosed with chronic illnesses and 162 healthy control participants. Based on children's self-report, participants were categorized according to their adaptive style paradigm as either high anxious, low anxious, or repressor. It was proposed that children who score high on social desirability and low on anxiety are repressors. The prevalence of these categories was compared across the two groups. Anxiety was reported in 9.64 percent of the chronic illnesses and 12.34 percent of the healthy peers. Using the data obtained in the present study, the rate and nature of anxiety in children with chronic illnesses were lower for children in Jordan when compared to previous studies. However, social desirability values were similar to those established in Western societies suggesting a significantly higher percentage of children identified as repressors in children with long-term illnesses. These results supported the hypothesis regarding the relationship between social desirability and expressed anxiety symptoms. PMID:23242812

  6. Desirability-based multi-criteria virtual screening of selective antimicrobial cyclic β-hairpin cationic peptidomimetics.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Monteagudo, Maykel; Romero, Yansy; Cordeiro, M Natália D S; Borges, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Today, emerging and increasing resistance to antibiotics has become a threat to public health worldwide. Antimicrobial peptides own unique action mechanisms making peptide antibiotics an attractive therapeutic option against resistant bacteria. However, their high haemolytic activity lacks the selectivity required for a human antibiotic. Therefore, additional efforts are needed to develop new antimicrobial peptides that possess greater selectivity for bacterial cells over erythrocytes. In this article, we introduce a chemoinformatics approach to simultaneously deal with these two conflicting properties consisting on a multi-criteria virtual screening strategy based on the use of a desirability-based multi-criteria classifier combined with similarity and chemometrics concepts. Here we propose a new quantitative feature encoding information related to the desirability, the degree of credibility ascribed to this desirability and the similarity of a candidate to a highly desirable query, which can be used as ranking criterion in a virtual screening campaign, the Desirability-Credibility- Similarity (DCS) Score. The enrichment ability of a multi-criteria virtual screening strategy based on the use of the DCS Score it is also assessed and compared to other virtual screening options. The results obtained evidenced that the use of the DCS score seems to be an efficient virtual screening strategy rendering promising overall and initial enrichment performance. Specifically, by using the DCS score it was possible to rank a selective antibacterial peptidomimetic earlier than a biologically inactive or non selective antibacterial peptidomimetic with a probability of ca. 0.9. PMID:23016843

  7. A Desire for the Personal: Student Perceptions of Electronic Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budge, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    An earlier study conducted into tertiary student perceptions of feedback on their work revealed a mixed response to the idea of electronic feedback. This result was surprising considering the attention given to Generation Y and the preference for digital technology in their lives. This paper reports on the results of a follow-up study exploring a…

  8. Elucidating women's (hetero)sexual desire: definitional challenges and content expansion.

    PubMed

    Meana, Marta

    2010-03-01

    The literature on women's sexual desire is reviewed with an emphasis on definitional challenges, an assessment of the empirical basis for the distinction between spontaneous and responsive desire, a reconsideration of the extent to which women's sexual desire is relational in nature, and an exploration of the incentive value of sex for women as a factor partially independent from the experience of sexual desire. Nine recommendations are made regarding research and diagnostic directions. The article concludes with an appeal for the inclusion of eroticism in research and clinical work on sexual desire. PMID:20358455

  9. The Cognitive Determinants of Achieving Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andy

    A cognitive explanation of achievement-related behavior is developed. It is suggested that high and low achievers diverge behaviorally in the achievement situation because they conceptualize the causes of success and failure in different ways. The results of a study are presented which show that subjects high in achievement needs tend to attribute…

  10. Sustainable weight loss among overweight and obese lactating women is achieved with an energy-reduced diet in line with dietary recommendations: results from the LEVA randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bertz, Fredrik; Winkvist, Anna; Brekke, Hilde K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary changes during and after a dietary treatment shown to result in significant and sustained weight loss among lactating overweight and obese women. This is crucial before clinical implementation. Data were collected from the LEVA (in Swedish: Livsstil för Effektiv Viktminskning under Amning [Lifestyle for Effective Weight Loss During Lactation]) randomized controlled factorial trial with a 12-week intervention and a 1-year follow up. At 10 to 14 weeks postpartum, 68 lactating Swedish women with a prepregnancy body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) of 25 to 35 were randomized to structured dietary treatment, physical exercise treatment, combined treatment, or usual care (controls) for a 12-week intervention, with a 1-year follow-up. Dietary intake was assessed with 4-day weighed dietary records. Recruitment took place between 2007 and 2010. The main outcome measures were changes in macro- and micronutrient intake from baseline to 12 weeks and 1 year. Main and interaction effects of the treatments were analyzed by a 2×2 factorial approach using a General Linear Model adjusted for relevant covariates (baseline intake and estimated underreporting). It was found that at baseline, the women had an intake of fat and sucrose above, and an intake of total carbohydrates and fiber below, recommended levels. At 12 weeks and 1 year, the dietary treatment led to reduced intake of energy (P<0.001 and P=0.005, respectively), fat (both P values <0.001), and sucrose (P<0.001 and P=0.050). At 12 weeks, total carbohydrates were reduced (P<0.001). A majority of women in all groups reported low intakes of vitamin D, folate, and/or iron. In conclusion, a novel dietary treatment led to reduced intake of fat and carbohydrates. Diet composition changed to decreased proportions of fat and sucrose, and increased proportions of complex carbohydrates, protein and fiber. Weight loss through dietary treatment was achieved with a diet in line with

  11. Rigor and academic achievement: Career academies versus traditional class structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyees, Linda L.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if students who attended high school Career Academy classes, as part of Career and Technical Education, showed greater academic achievement than students who attended traditional high school classes. While all participants attended schools in the same school district, and were seeking the same goal of graduation with a standard diploma, the Career Academy students had the benefit of all classes being directed by a team of teachers who helped them connect their learning to their desired career through collaborative learning projects and assignments. The traditional high school classes taught each subject independent of other subjects and did not have specific connections to desired career goals of the students. The study used a causal-comparative research design and the participants included 1,142 students from 11th and 12th grades who attended 9 high schools in a diversely populated area of central Florida with 571 enrolled in the Career Academies and 571 enrolled in traditional classes. The 10th-grade FCAT scores served as the dependent variable. All students attended similar classes with similar content, making the primary variable the difference in academic gains between students participating in the Career Academy design and the traditional design classes. Using the Man-Whitney U Test resulted in the Career Academy group achieving the higher scores overall. This resulted in rejection of the first null-hypothesis. Further examination determined that the 10th-grade FCAT scores were greater for the average students group, which comprised the largest portion of the participant group, also resulted in rejection of the second null-hypothesis. The gifted and at-risk student group scores resulted in failure to reject the third and fourth null-hypotheses.

  12. An endocannabinoid signal associated with desire for alcohol is suppressed in recently abstinent alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Mangieri, Regina A.; Hong, Kwang-Ik A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Alcoholics report persistent alcohol craving that is heightened by cognitive cues, stressful situations, and abstinence. The role of endogenous cannabinoids in human alcohol craving—though long suspected—remains elusive. Materials and methods We employed laboratory exposure to stress, alcohol cue, and neutral relaxed situations through guided imagery procedures to evoke alcohol desire and craving in healthy social drinkers (n=11) and in treatment-engaged, recently abstinent alcoholic subjects (n=12) and assessed alcohol craving, heart rate, and changes in circulating endocannabinoid levels. Subjective anxiety was also measured as a manipulation check for the procedures. Results In healthy social drinkers, alcohol cue imagery increased circulating levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide, whereas neutral and stress-related imagery had no such effect. Notably, baseline and response anandamide levels in these subjects were negatively and positively correlated with self-reported alcohol craving scores, respectively. Cue-induced increases in heart rate were also correlated with anandamide responses. By contrast, no imagery-induced anandamide mobilization was observed in alcoholics, whose baseline anandamide levels were markedly reduced compared to healthy drinkers and were uncorrelated to either alcohol craving or heart rate. Conclusions The results suggest that plasma anandamide levels provide a marker of the desire for alcohol in social drinkers, which is suppressed in recently abstinent alcoholics. PMID:19343330

  13. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Strizzi, Jenna; Olabarrieta Landa, Laiene; Pappadis, Monique; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Valdivia Tangarife, Edgar Ricardo; Fernandez Agis, Inmaculada; Perrin, Paul B.; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can substantially alter many areas of a person's life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls) from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL), Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS). Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p < 0.001), FSFI subscales of desire (p < 0.05), arousal (p < 0.05), lubrication (p < 0.05), orgasm (p < 0.05), and satisfaction (p < 0.05), and the ISS (p < 0.001) than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs. PMID:26556951

  14. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  15. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  16. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  17. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  18. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  19. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  13. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  14. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  15. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  18. SPEED READING--IS THE PRESENT EMPHASIS DESIRABLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERGER, ALLEN

    THE RESEARCH RESULTS FOR SEVEN AREAS OF THE SPEED READING CONTROVERSY ARE REPORTED. TERMINOLOGY FOR THE PROGRAM IS A PROBLEM AREA. MANY PEOPLE CONTEND THAT SPEED READING IS NOT READING IN THE TRADITIONAL SENSE. MEASUREMENT IS OFTEN LIMITED OR EMPHASIZES READING RATE ONLY. FIRMS, ESPECIALLY THOSE NOT CLOSELY CONNECTED WITH SCHOOLS, SOMETIMES MAKE…

  19. Recapturing Desired Family Routines: A Parent-Professional Behavioral Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschbacher, Pamelazita; Fox, Lise; Clarke, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    Children with complex disabilities such as autism spectrum disorders and Landau Kleffner syndrome often lack means to participate in everyday family routines. Serious problem behaviors may result from their challenges in responding to and initiating communicative interactions. These behaviors can change routine family activities such that the…

  20. The Consistency of the Opinions of 12th-Grade Biology Pupils on the Desirability of Biotechnologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Amos; Roth, Zvi

    1986-01-01

    This study examined 12th-grade biology students' opinions and beliefs on the desirability of the use and/or development of various biotechnologies. Describes the development of and presents results from the three questionnaires employed in the study. Includes a listing of the 15 biotechnology topics investigated in the study. (ML)

  1. Energy Management and Control System: Desired Capabilities and Functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Hatley, Darrel D.; Meador, Richard J.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.; Wouden, Carl

    2005-04-29

    This document discusses functions and capabilities of a typical building/facility energy management and control systems (EMCS). The overall intent is to provide a building operator, manager or engineer with basic background information and recommended functions, capabilities, and good/best practices that will enable the control systems to be fully utilized/optimized, resulting in improved building occupant quality of life and more reliable, energy efficient facilities.

  2. Desirable role in an international duopoly model with tariffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we study an international market model in which the home government imposes a tariff on the imported goods. The model has two stages. In the first stage, the home government chooses an import tariff to maximize a function that cares about the home firm's profit and the total revenue. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot or in a Stackelberg competition. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

  3. Dying on the Streets: Homeless Persons’ Concerns and Desires about End of Life Care

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Dianne M.; Ratner, Edward R.; Alderton, Lucy; Hudson, Brenda; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2007-01-01

    Background There is little understanding about the experiences and preferences at the end of life (EOL) for people from unique cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. Homeless individuals are extreme examples of these overlooked populations; they have the greatest risk of death, encounter barriers to health care, and lack the resources and relationships assumed necessary for appropriate EOL care. Exploring their desires and concerns will provide insight for the care of this vulnerable and disenfranchised population, as well as others who are underserved. Objective Explore the concerns and desires for EOL care among homeless persons. Design Qualitative study utilizing focus groups. Participants Fifty-three homeless persons recruited from agencies providing homeless services. Measurements In-depth interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed. Results We present 3 domains encompassing 11 themes arising from our investigation, some of which are previously unreported. Homeless persons worried about dying and EOL care; had frequent encounters with death; voiced many unique fears, such as dying anonymously and undiscovered; favored EOL documentation, such as advance directives; and demonstrated ambivalence towards contacting family. They also spoke of barriers to EOL care and shared interventions to improve dying among the very poor and estranged. Conclusions Homeless persons have significant personal experience and feelings about death, dying, and EOL care, much of which is different from those previously described in the EOL literature about other populations. These findings have implications not only for homeless persons, but for others who are poor and disenfranchised. PMID:17372789

  4. A Meta-Analytic Multitrait Multirater Separation of Substance and Style in Social Desirability Scales.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Brian S; Chang, Luye

    2016-06-01

    Though unlikely virtues scales have a long history in personality, clinical, and applied psychology for detecting socially desirable responding, using such social desirability (SD) scales has generally failed to improve the validity of personality measures. We examined whether this is because (a) response distortion itself has minimal impact on personality's validity, (b) SD scales are ineffective at assessing response distortion, or (c) SD scales are conflated with substantive trait variance. We compiled a meta-analytic multitrait multimethod matrix consisting of multirater personality traits, SD scales, and performance outcomes. We examined the influence of trait factors and self-report method factors on SD scales and performance. We found that self-report method variance (a) was negatively related to performance, (b) would suppress personality-performance relationships for self-report measures, and (c) was (partially) assessed by SD scales. However, relative to the effects of self-report method variance, SD scales are even more strongly influenced by Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Agreeableness. It is not the case that SD scales are insensitive to inflated responding but that their susceptibility to personality trait variance likely outweighs their benefits. We discuss the implications of these results for using SD scales in research and practice. PMID:25565409

  5. [Ethical and theoretical medical comments on the desire and reality of individualised medicine].

    PubMed

    Paul, N W; Mitzkat, A

    2013-11-01

    Starting from an epistemological position of individualized medicine this article deals with the ethical analysis of this complex topic. The need for evidence-based decisions--as opposed to interest-driven decisions--is emphasised. Based on the argument of social justifiability it can be first stated as an intermediate result that genome-based research, which aims to promote individualisation of medicine, does not exclude research that uses other diagnostic markers, and the appropriate ethical standards can be applied. Second, the development of individualised preventive medicine in the field of multifactorial diseases should increasingly study the potential cost savings of genetic risk diagnosis compared to the costs for the actual treatment options. For proper, medically reasonable, ethically justifiable and socially desired implementation of all areas of individualised medicine, clear separation between research and care as well as the simultaneous implementation of ethical, legal, methodological and technical standards is desirable; however these must be continuously developed in order to respond to possible boundary changes that may arise. Finally, the challenge remains to make the efficacy, operationalisation, performance, and affordability of individualised medicine plausible in the context of social justifiability. PMID:24170076

  6. Affect, Behavior, Cognition, and Desire in the Big Five: An Analysis of Item Content and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Wilt, Joshua; Revelle, William

    2015-01-01

    Personality psychology is concerned with affect (A), behavior (B), cognition (C) and desire (D), and personality traits have been defined conceptually as abstractions used to either explain or summarize coherent ABC (and sometimes D) patterns over time and space. However, this conceptual definition of traits has not been reflected in their operationalization, possibly resulting in theoretical and practical limitations to current trait inventories. Thus, the goal of this project was to determine the affective, behavioral, cognitive and desire (ABCD) components of Big-Five personality traits. The first study assessed the ABCD content of items measuring Big-Five traits in order to determine the ABCD composition of traits and identify items measuring relatively high amounts of only one ABCD content. The second study examined the correlational structure of scales constructed from items assessing ABCD content via a large, web-based study. An assessment of Big-Five traits that delineates ABCD components of each trait is presented, and the discussion focuses on how this assessment builds upon current approaches of assessing personality. PMID:26279606

  7. Setting the space for sex: architecture, desire and health issues in gay bathhouses.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Dave; O'Byrne, Patrick; Gastaldo, Denise

    2007-02-01

    This aim of this study was to describe and compare the physical design, as well as the atmosphere of urban gay bathhouses, and reflect on how desire operates within these premises when it intersects with the bathhouse environment and health imperatives. Three bathhouses were studied for a total of 147 h of observation. Men's desire for other men has created a landscape of spaces (real and virtual) where sex takes place in parks, alleys, restrooms, rest stops, adult theatres, video arcades, bookstores, bars, gay bathhouses and finally, the Internet. Although the Internet is perceived as an easy way for encountering sexual partners, gay bathhouses remain the most popular and convenient way, for men having sex with men to meet for regular or casual sex. This paper presents the descriptive results of an ethnographic nursing study that took place in three gay bathhouses located in two Canadian metropolitan areas. Gay bathhouses offer patrons a space within which a wide range of interactions, sensations and pleasure can be experienced. This paper highlights the specific features of three gay bathhouses, compares settings according to their specific architectural features and related sexual activities, and finally, proposes some changes in light of certain health issues. PMID:16426616

  8. Optimization on drying conditions of a solar electrohydrodynamic drying system based on desirability concept

    PubMed Central

    Dalvand, Mohammad Jafar; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Rafiee, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to present a new drying method for agricultural products. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) has been applied for drying of agricultural materials due to several advantages such as energy saving, low cost equipment, low drying temperatures, and superior material quality. To evaluate this method, an EHD dryer based on solar (photovoltaic) energy was designed and fabricated. Moreover, the optimum condition for the EHD drying of kiwi fruit was studied by applying the Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology. The desirability function was applied for optimization in case of single objective and multiobjective functions. By using the multiobjective optimization method, maximum desirability value of 0.865 was obtained based on the following: applied voltage of 15 kV, field strength of 5.2 kV cm−1, without forced air stream, and finally a combination of 17 discharge electrodes (needles). The results indicated that increasing the applied voltage from 6 to 15 kV, moisture ratio (MR) decreased, though energy efficiency and energy consumption were increasing. On the other hand, field strength of 5.2 kV cm−1 was the optimal point in terms of MR. PMID:25493195

  9. Modulations of mirroring activity by desire for social connection and relevance of movement.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Oriana R; Sharer, Elizabeth A; Bargh, John A; Pineda, Jaime A

    2014-11-01

    Mirroring neurons fire both when an individual moves and observes another move in kind. This simulation of others' movements is thought to effortlessly and ubiquitously support empathetic connection and social understanding. However, at times this could be maladaptive. How could a boxer mirror a losing opponent's expressions of fatigue, feeling his weariness, precisely when strength is required? Clearly, the boxer must emotionally disconnect from his opponent and those expressions of fatigue must become irrelevant and not mirrored. But, movements that inform of his opponent's intentions to deliver an incoming blow are quite relevant and still should require mirroring. We tested these dimensions of emotional connectedness and relevance of movement in an electroencephalography experiment, where participants' desires to socially connect with a confederate were manipulated. Before manipulation, all participants mirrored the confederate's purely kinematic (a hand opening and closing) and goal-directed (a hand opening and closing around a token that the participant desired) hand movements. After manipulation, unfairly treated subjects ceased to mirror the purely kinematic movements but continued to mirror goal-relevant movements. Those treated fairly continued to mirror all movements. The results suggest that social mirroring can be adaptive in order to meet the demands of a varied social environment. PMID:24194581

  10. Pregnancy desire and dual method contraceptive use among people living with HIV attending clinical care in Kenya, Namibia and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Antelman, Gretchen; Medley, Amy; Mbatia, Redempta; Pals, Sherri; Arthur, Gilly; Haberlen, Sabina; Ackers, Marta; Elul, Batya; Parent, Julie; Rwebembera, Anath; Wanjiku, Lucy; Muraguri, Nicholas; Gweshe, Justice; Mudhune, Sandra; Bachanas, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe factors associated with pregnancy desire and dual method use among people living with HIV in clinical care in sub-Saharan Africa. Design Sexually active HIV-positive adults were enrolled in 18 HIV clinics in Kenya, Namibia and Tanzania. Demographic, clinical and reproductive health data were captured by interview and medical record abstraction. Correlates of desiring a pregnancy within the next 6 months, and dual method use [defined as consistent condom use together with a highly effective method of contraception (hormonal, intrauterine device (IUD), permanent)], among those not desiring pregnancy, were identified using logistic regression. Results Among 3375 participants (median age 37 years, 42% male, 64% on antiretroviral treatment), 565 (17%) desired a pregnancy within the next 6 months. Of those with no short-term fertility desire (n=2542), 686 (27%) reported dual method use, 250 (10%) highly effective contraceptive use only, 1332 (52%) condom use only, and 274 (11%) no protection. Respondents were more likely to desire a pregnancy if they were from Namibia and Tanzania, male, had a primary education, were married/cohabitating, and had fewer children. Factors associated with increased likelihood of dual method use included being female, being comfortable asking a partner to use a condom, and communication with a health care provider about family planning. Participants who perceived that their partner wanted a pregnancy were less likely to report dual method use. Conclusions There was low dual method use and low use of highly effective contraception. Contraceptive protection was predominantly through condom-only use. These findings demonstrate the importance of integrating reproductive health services into routine HIV care. PMID:25512359

  11. The Effects of Extended Bedtimes on Sleep Duration and Food Desire in Overweight Young Adults: A Home-Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Tasali, Esra; Chapotot, Florian; Wroblewski, Kristen; Schoeller, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sleep curtailment is an endemic behavior in modern society. Well-controlled laboratory studies have shown that sleep loss in young adults is associated with increased desire for high-calorie food and obesity risk. However, the relevance of these laboratory findings to real life is uncertain. We conducted a 3 week, within-participant, intervention study to assess the effects of extended bedtimes on sleep duration and food desire under real life conditions in individuals who are at risk for obesity. Methods Ten overweight young adults reporting average habitual sleep duration of less than 6.5 hours were studied in the home environment. Habitual bedtimes for 1-week (baseline) were followed by bedtimes extended to 8.5 hours for 2-weeks (intervention). Participants were unaware of the intervention until after the baseline period. Participants received individualized behavioural counselling on sleep hygiene on the first day of the intervention period. Sleep duration was recorded by wrist actigraphy throughout the study. Participants rated their sleepiness, vigor and desire for various foods using visual analog scales at the end of baseline and intervention periods. Results On average, participants obtained 1.6 hours more sleep with extended bedtimes (5.6 vs. 7.1; p<0.001) and reported being less sleepy (p=0.004) and more vigorous (p=0.034). Additional sleep was associated with a 14% decrease in overall appetite (p=0.030) and a 62% decrease in desire for sweet and salty foods (p=0.017). Desire for fruits, vegetables and protein-rich nutrients was not affected by added sleep. Conclusions Sleep duration can be successfully increased in real life settings and obtaining adequate sleep is associated with less desire for high calorie foods in overweight young adults who habitually curtail their sleep. PMID:24858836

  12. Retrieval Practice and Spacing Effects in Young and Older Adults: An Examination of the Benefits of Desirable Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, Geoffrey B.; Balota, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined how the function relating continued retrieval practice (e.g., 1, 3, or 5 tests) and long-term memory retention is modulated by desirable difficulty (Bjork, 1994). Of particular interest was how retrieval difficulty differed across young and older adults and across manipulations of lag (Experiment 1) and spacing (Experiment 2). To extend on previous studies, acquisition phase response latency was used as a proxy for retrieval difficulty, and analysis of final test performance was conditionalized on acquisition phase retrieval success to more directly examine the influence of desirable difficulty on retention. Results from Experiment 1 revealed that continued testing in the short lag condition led to consistent increases in retention, whereas continued testing in the long lag condition led to increasingly smaller benefits in retention for both age groups. Results from Experiment 2 revealed that repeated spaced testing enhanced retention relative to taking one spaced test for both age groups; however, repeated massed testing only enhanced retention over taking one test for young adults. Across both experiments, the response latency results were overall consistent with an influence of desirable difficulty on retention. Discussion focuses on the role of desirable difficulty during encoding in producing the benefits of lag, spacing, and testing. PMID:25616776

  13. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  14. Head Start: Challenges in Monitoring Program Quality and Demonstrating Results. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    There has been increasing concern about the accountability of federal programs in complying with laws and regulations and in achieving desired results. At the request of Congress, the Government Accounting Office examined how the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) ensures Head Start accountability. Data were collected by means of…

  15. Achieving a Launch on Demand Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to place payloads [satellites] into orbit as and when required, often referred to as launch on demand, continues to be an elusive and yet largely unfulfilled goal. But what is the value of achieving launch on demand [LOD], and what metrics are appropriate? Achievement of a desired level of LOD capability must consider transportation system thruput, alternative transportation systems that comprise the transportation architecture, transportation demand, reliability and failure recovery characteristics of the alternatives, schedule guarantees, launch delays, payload integration schedules, procurement policies, and other factors. Measures of LOD capability should relate to the objective of the transportation architecture: the placement of payloads into orbit as and when required. Launch on demand capability must be defined in probabilistic terms such as the probability of not incurring a delay in excess of T when it is determined that it is necessary to place a payload into orbit. Three specific aspects of launch on demand are considered: [1] the ability to recover from adversity [i.e., a launch failure] and to keep up with the steady-state demand for placing satellites into orbit [this has been referred to as operability and resiliency], [2] the ability to respond to the requirement to launch a satellite when the need arises unexpectedly either because of an unexpected [random] on-orbit satellite failure that requires replacement or because of the sudden recognition of an unanticipated requirement, and [3] the ability to recover from adversity [i.e., a launch failure] during the placement of a constellation into orbit. The objective of this paper is to outline a formal approach for analyzing alternative transportation architectures in terms of their ability to provide a LOD capability. The economic aspect of LOD is developed by establishing a relationship between scheduling and the elimination of on-orbit spares while achieving the desired level of on

  16. An Advanced Electrospinning Method of Fabricating Nanofibrous Patterned Architectures with Controlled Deposition and Desired Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasel, Sheikh Md

    We introduce a versatile advanced method of electrospinning for fabricating various kinds of nanofibrous patterns along with desired alignment, controlled amount of deposition and locally variable density into the architectures. In this method, we employed multiple electrodes whose potentials have been altered in milliseconds with the help of microprocessor based control system. Therefore, key success of this method was that the electrical field as well as charge carrying fibers could be switched shortly from one electrode's location to another, as a result, electrospun fibers could be deposited on the designated areas with desired alignment. A wide range of nanofibrous patterned architectures were constructed using proper arrangement of multiple electrodes. By controlling the concurrent activation time of two adjacent electrodes, we demonstrated that amount of fibers going into the pattern can be adjusted and desired alignment in electrospun fibers can be obtained. We also revealed that the deposition density of electrospun fibers in different areas of patterned architectures can be varied. We showed that by controlling the deposition time between two adjacent electrodes, a number of functionally graded patterns can be generated with uniaxial alignment. We also demonstrated that this handy method was capable of producing random, aligned, and multidirectional nanofibrous mats by engaging a number of electrodes and switching them in desired patterns. A comprehensive study using finite element method was carried out to understand the effects of electrical field. Simulation results revealed that electrical field strength alters shortly based on electrode control switch patterns. Nanofibrous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds and its composite reinforced with wollastonite and wood flour were fabricated using rotating drum electrospinning technique. Morphological, mechanical, and thermal, properties were characterized on PVA/wollastonite and PVA/wood flour nanocomposites

  17. A PC program to optimize system configuration for desired reliability at minimum cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hills, Steven W.; Siahpush, Ali S.

    1994-01-01

    High reliability is desired in all engineered systems. One way to improve system reliability is to use redundant components. When redundant components are used, the problem becomes one of allocating them to achieve the best reliability without exceeding other design constraints such as cost, weight, or volume. Systems with few components can be optimized by simply examining every possible combination but the number of combinations for most systems is prohibitive. A computerized iteration of the process is possible but anything short of a super computer requires too much time to be practical. Many researchers have derived mathematical formulations for calculating the optimum configuration directly. However, most of the derivations are based on continuous functions whereas the real system is composed of discrete entities. Therefore, these techniques are approximations of the true optimum solution. This paper describes a computer program that will determine the optimum configuration of a system of multiple redundancy of both standard and optional components. The algorithm is a pair-wise comparative progression technique which can derive the true optimum by calculating only a small fraction of the total number of combinations. A designer can quickly analyze a system with this program on a personal computer.

  18. Eye Movements Reveal How Readers Infer Intentions From the Beliefs and Desires of Others.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Matthew; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    We examine how the beliefs and desires of a protagonist are used by readers to predict their intentions as a narrative vignette unfolds. Eye movement measures revealed that readers rapidly inferred an intention when the protagonist desired an outcome, even when this inference was not licensed by the protagonist's belief state. Reading was immediately disrupted when participants encountered a described action that contradicted this inference. During intermediate processing, desire inferences were moderated by the protagonist's belief state. Effects that emerged later in the text were again driven solely by the protagonist's desires. These data suggest that desire-based inferences are initially drawn irrespective of belief state, but are then quickly inhibited if not licensed by relevant beliefs. This inhibition of desire-based inferences may be an effortful process as it was not systematically sustained in later steps of processing. PMID:26089174

  19. Desirable and undesirable future thoughts call for different scene construction processes.

    PubMed

    de Vito, S; Neroni, M A; Gamboz, N; Della Sala, S; Brandimonte, M A

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the ability of foreseeing (episodic future thinking), it is still unclear how healthy people construct possible future scenarios. We suggest that different future thoughts require different processes of scene construction. Thirty-five participants were asked to imagine desirable and less desirable future events. Imagining desirable events increased the ease of scene construction, the frequency of life scripts, the number of internal details, and the clarity of sensorial and spatial temporal information. The initial description of general personal knowledge lasted longer in undesirable than in desirable anticipations. Finally, participants were more prone to explicitly indicate autobiographical memory as the main source of their simulations of undesirable episodes, whereas they equally related the simulations of desirable events to autobiographical events or semantic knowledge. These findings show that desirable and undesirable scenarios call for different mechanisms of scene construction. The present study emphasizes that future thinking cannot be considered as a monolithic entity. PMID:25017768

  20. Evaluation of Serum Concentrations Achieved With an Empiric Once-Daily Tobramycin Dosage Regimen in Children and Adults With Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    VandenBussche, Heather L.; Homnick, Douglas N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the ability of an empiric once-daily dosing (ODD) tobramycin regimen to achieve desired serum concentrations in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF); to determine an optimal dosage regimen, using pharmacodynamic parameters; and to evaluate clinical response, adverse effects, and patient/parent satisfaction with ODD. METHODS This was a prospective single-center trial in patients with CF who are 5 years of age and older requiring intravenous antibiotics. Tobramycin, 10 mg/kg every 24 hours, was infused over 60 minutes, and two serum concentrations were analyzed using 1-compartment pharmacokinetic modeling. Simulations were performed to identify dosage regimens that maximized desired pharmacodynamic parameters. Other data included demographics, symptoms, spirometry, adverse events, and satisfaction with ODD. RESULTS A total of 14 children and 11 adults completed the study. Empiric doses resulted in mean peak tobramycin concentrations of 28.7 ± 5.5 mg/L and undetectable trough concentrations. Only 42% of patients achieved desired peak serum concentrations (20-30 mg/L) with the empiric regimen. A regimen of 12 mg/kg every 24 hours would achieve modified pharmacodynamic goals with an acceptable peak range of 20 to 35 mg/L. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second improved in 15 of 20 (75%) patients with ODD. Two patients experienced reversible vestibular adverse effects attributed to tobramycin. All patients were satisfied or very satisfied with ODD because of convenience and ease of use. CONCLUSIONS An empiric tobramycin regimen of 10 mg/kg every 24 hours did not achieve desired serum concentrations for most patients, although all patients demonstrated clinical improvement. Desired tobramycin concentrations with modified pharmacodynamic goals could be achieved by using an empiric dosage of 12 mg/kg every 24 hours. Prospective evaluation of this regimen with individualized patient monitoring is needed to ensure safety and efficacy and to monitor the

  1. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  2. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  3. Reproductive desire in women with HIV infection in Spain, associated factors and motivations: a mixed-method study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy has created new expectations in the possibilities of procreation for persons living with HIV. Our objectives were to evaluate reproductive desire and to analyze the associated sociodemographic and clinical factors in HIV-infected women in the Spanish AIDS Research Network Cohort (CoRIS). Methods A mixed qualitative-quantitative approach was designed. Women of reproductive age (18–45) included in CoRIS were interviewed by phone, and data were collected between November 2010 and June 2012 using a specifically designed questionnaire. Reproductive desire was defined as having a desire to be pregnant at present or having unprotected sex with the purpose of having children or wanting to have children in the near future. Results Overall, 134 women were interviewed. Median age was 36 years (IQR 31–41), 55% were Spanish, and 35% were unemployed. 84% had been infected with HIV through unprotected sex, with a median time since diagnosis of 4.5 years (IQR 2.9-6.9). Reproductive desire was found in 49% of women and was associated with: 1) Age (women under 30 had higher reproductive desire than those aged 30–39; OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.4-14.3); 2) having no children vs. already having children (OR = 3.2; 1.3-7.7 3); Being an immigrant (OR = 2.2; 1.0-5.0); and 4) Not receiving antiretroviral treatment (OR = 3.6; 1.1-12.1). The main reasons for wanting children were related to liking children and wanting to form a family. Reasons for not having children were HIV infection, older age and having children already. Half of the women had sought or received information about how to have a safe pregnancy, 87% had disclosed their serostatus to their family circle, and 39% reported having experienced discrimination due to HIV infection. Conclusions The HIV-infected women interviewed in CoRIS have a high desire for children, and the factors associated with this desire are not fundamentally different from those of women in the general population

  4. [Desirable medical technologists in a community support hospital].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kyoko

    2008-07-01

    Recently, there have been marked advances in the technological strategies employed in medical examinations. The educational concept to nurture highly capable medical technologists is considered to be a priority issue by not only educators but also employers, even though the medical educational levels have markedly improved in every college and university. It is commonly acknowledged that the results of any examination in the clinical laboratory should be accurate and fed back to medical doctors as soon as possible. The business outline of medical technologists in our hospital is becoming more extensive because we act as a core hospital in the area, and so knowledge regarding many kinds of chemical and transfusion examinations is required in operations performed around the clock. Furthermore, medical doctors, clerical workers, nurses, and volunteers comprise a team of sophisticated workers in our hospital. To accomplish our daily work, character traits such as accuracy, honesty, perseverance, and ability to follow instruction manuals, are the most fundamental and valuable. To nurture a highly career-oriented medical technologist, we propose that the following should be focused on: self-responsibility, reduction of malpractices, economic profitability, brainstorming, education of subsequent generations, and the spirit of cooperativeness and reconciliation. Additionally, it is another basic requirement of competent medical technologists to learn to adapt to laboratory-based changes in their work throughout their career. In conclusion, how to adapt to any social demand and learn strategies in any era should be taught in college or university as well as after graduation because each hospital and institute has a different philosophy and requirements of newcomers. It is important for medical technologists and doctors to develop flexible ways of thinking, although we sometimes might accede to traditional ways. PMID:18709992

  5. Sex, desire and pleasure: considering the experiences of older Australian women

    PubMed Central

    Fileborn, Bianca; Thorpe, Rachel; Hawkes, Gail; Minichiello, Victor; Pitts, Marian; Dune, Tinashe

    2015-01-01

    Older age is often associated with asexuality. That is, older individuals are not viewed as desiring of sex, nor as sexually desirable to others. Broader social and cultural norms that downplay women's sexual desire and agency further compound these phenomena. Whether this popular image accurately reflects older women's sexual desires, behaviour and capacity to experience pleasure is unclear. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 43 partnered Australian women aged 55–81, this article considers women's sexual experiences and desires in older age. The findings of our research confirm that older women's experiences of sex and sexual desire are diverse and fluid. Some of the factors that influenced participants’ sexual behaviour and desire will be considered in this article, as will their understandings of what “counts” as sexual satisfaction and “successful sex”. The factors affecting sexual behaviour and desire also influence the way in which women are able to negotiate sexual interaction with their partners. Participants expressed a need for education and resources in order to gain greater control and to make autonomous choices over their sexual experiences, desire and ability to give and receive pleasure. The implications of these findings for practitioners are also considered. PMID:25544829

  6. Future desire for children among women living with HIV in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Lisa B; Machen, Leah Kathleen; Cordes, Sarah; Huylebroeck, Brian; Delaney, Augustina; Ofotokun, Igho; Nguyen, Minh Ly; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-04-01

    Little is known regarding family planning desires among women living with HIV in the United States. This study aimed to identify factors influencing desire for children in the future among HIV-infected women in Atlanta, Georgia. HIV-infected women ages 18-45 completed an ACASI (audio computer-assisted self-interview) questionnaire. Chi-square, t-tests, and multivariate logistic regression evaluated factors associated with desire for future children. Of 181 participants, 62 (34.3%) expressed desire for children in the future, with increased desire among younger women (age <26) and those with seronegative partners. Concerns for horizontal and vertical HIV transmission were deterrents to future childbearing. Condom use and overall knowledge of transmission risk was low. Over a third of women desiring a child never discussed their desire with a physician. Misinformation regarding HIV transmission risks persists and is a notable concern influencing desire for children. Providers should reassess family planning desires regularly through integrated HIV care. PMID:26702869

  7. The role of sex guilt in the relationship between culture and women's sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jane S T; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2011-04-01

    A large body of literature demonstrates that East Asian women report lower sexual desire than Caucasian women. Although most studies have explained these differences by referring to general culture-linked differences in sexual conservatism, none have examined the potential role of specific constructs such as sex guilt. The goals of the current study were to examine the supposition that sexual conservatism mediates the relationship between culture and sexual desire, and to explore the potential mediating role of sex guilt in the link between culture and sexual desire. Caucasian (n = 105) and East Asian (n = 137) female university students completed questionnaires online. Caucasian women reported significantly higher levels of sexual desire, significantly lower levels of sexual conservatism, and significantly less sex guilt. In the entire sample, sexual conservatism and sex guilt separately mediated the relationship between ethnicity and sexual desire such that women with more sex guilt and those who were more sexually conservative reported lower sexual desire. Among the East Asian women, sex guilt, but not sexual conservatism, mediated the relationship between mainstream acculturation (degree of westernization) and sexual desire such that women with more sex guilt reported lower sexual desire. These findings suggest that sex guilt may be one mechanism by which ethnic groups differ in sexual desire. PMID:20349208

  8. The DESIRE Airborne gravity project in the Dead Sea Basin and 3D numerical gravity modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S.; Goetze, H.; Meyer, U.; Group, D.

    2008-12-01

    This geo-scientific research focuses on the geological setting of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) and the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) and its resulting pull-apart basins. Since the late 1970s, crustal scale geophysical experiments have been carried out in this region. However, the nature of the crust underlying the eastern and western shoulders of the DSB and underneath the DST itself is still a hotly debated topic among researchers. To address one of the central questions of plate tectonics - How do large transform systems work and what are their typical features? - An international geoscientific Dead Sea Integrated Research project (DESIRE) is being conducted by colleagues from Germany, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan. In order to provide a high resolution gravity database that support 3D numerical modeling and hence a more comprehensive understanding of the nature and segmentation of the DST, an airborne gravity survey as a part of the DESIRE project has been carried out from February to March 2007. The airborne gravity survey covered the DST from Elat/Aqaba in the South to the northern rim of the Dead Sea. The low speed and terrain-following helicopter gravity flights were performed to acquire the highest possible data quality. In total, 32 north-south profiles and 16 west-east profiles crossing the DST have been measured. Most of the profiles concentrated in areas that lacked terrestrial gravity data coverage, e. g. over the shoulders of the DSB. The airborne gravity data are merged with existing conventional (terrestrial) data sets to provide a seamless gravity map of the area of interest. Using that combined gravity dataset and DESIRE wide angle refractions seismic interpretation we modified density structures in the DSB. As results we estimated that (1) the Moho depth varies from 26 km in the Israel side to 34 km in the Jordan side. (2) The maximum thickness of the Dead Sea sediment Basin is about 15 km. (3) The salt rock with an average thickness of about 5 km is

  9. What Do Patients Want? Survey of Patient Desires for Education in an Urban University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Seibert, Thomas; Veazey, Kathryn; Leccese, Paul; Druck, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study examines the emergency department (ED) waiting room (WR) population’s knowledge about the ED process and hospital function and explores the types of educational materials that might appeal to patients and their companions in an ED waiting room. Our goal was to identify potential high-impact opportunities for patient education. Methods A 32-question survey about demographics, usage of primary care physicians (PCP), understanding of the ED and triage process, desire to know about delays, health education and understanding of teaching hospitals was offered to all qualified individuals. Results Five hundred and forty-four surveys were returned. Fifty-five percent reported having a PCP, of which 53% (29% of all WR patients) called a PCP prior to coming to the ED. It was found that 51.2% can define triage; 51% as an acuity assessment and 17% as a vital signs check. Sixty-nine percent knew why patients were seen according to triage priority. Seventy-two percent wanted to know about delays, yet only 25% wanted to know others’ wait times. People wanted updates every 41 minutes and only three percent wanted a physician to do this. Forty-one percent wanted information on how the ED functions, 60% via handouts and 43% via video. Information on updates and common medical emergencies is significantly more important than material on common illnesses, finding a PCP, or ED function (p<0.05). Median estimated time for medical workup ranged from 35 minutes for radiographs, to one hour for lab results, computed tomography, specialist consult, and admission. Sixty-nine percent knew the definition of a teaching hospital and of those, 87% knew they were at a teaching hospital. Subgroup analysis between racial groups showed significantly reduced knowledge of the definitions of triage and teaching hospitals and significantly increased desire for information on ED function in minority groups (p<0.05). Conclusion The major findings in this study were that many

  10. Force and Moment Approach for Achievable Dynamics Using Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.; Bacon, Barton J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a general form of nonlinear dynamic inversion control for use in a generic nonlinear simulation to evaluate candidate augmented aircraft dynamics. The implementation is specifically tailored to the task of quickly assessing an aircraft's control power requirements and defining the achievable dynamic set. The achievable set is evaluated while undergoing complex mission maneuvers, and perfect tracking will be accomplished when the desired dynamics are achievable. Variables are extracted directly from the simulation model each iteration, so robustness is not an issue. Included in this paper is a description of the implementation of the forces and moments from simulation variables, the calculation of control effectiveness coefficients, methods for implementing different types of aerodynamic and thrust vectoring controls, adjustments for control effector failures, and the allocation approach used. A few examples illustrate the perfect tracking results obtained.

  11. Pathologies of desire and duty: freud, ricoeur, and castoriadis on transforming religious culture.

    PubMed

    Wahl, William H

    2008-09-01

    This article emphasizes an underappreciated aspect of Freud's critique of religion taken up in the writings of Ricoeur and Castoriadis: the degree to which pathologies of desire and duty imbue our relation to shared cultural forms, i.e., narratives, ideals, and values. Both thinkers find in Freud's anti-religious polemic a valuable attempt to address the intransigence, fanaticism, and violence that can result from an unreflected affirmation of Tradition. Alongside developing a respect and acceptance of other cultures, they argue for the need to establish a critical relation to 'sacred'meaning structures, one that mirrors interpretive strategies within the psychoanalytic process. Ricoeur and Castoriadis critique Freud's accentuation of neurosis while extending his thinking into personal-philosophical and social-political contexts. PMID:19105028

  12. Desirable airfoil characteristics for large variable-speed horizontal axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Giguere, P.; Selig, M.S.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to define the desirable airfoil characteristics for large variable-speed wind turbines, a systematic study was performed using a series of airfoils designed to have similar aerodynamic properties, except for the amount of lift, which varied over a wide range. For several airfoil combinations, blade shapes were designed for a 750-kW wind turbine with a 48.8-m diameter rotor using the optimization code PROPGA together with PROPID, which is an inverse design method for horizontal-axis wind turbines. Roughness effects, including the consideration of dirty-blade performance in the blade-shape optimization process, were also considered and are discussed. The results and conclusions reveal practical design implications that should aid in the aerodynamic blade design of not only large but also other sizes of variable-speed wind turbines.

  13. Love is in the gaze: an eye-tracking study of love and sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Bolmont, Mylene; Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2014-09-01

    Reading other people's eyes is a valuable skill during interpersonal interaction. Although a number of studies have investigated visual patterns in relation to the perceiver's interest, intentions, and goals, little is known about eye gaze when it comes to differentiating intentions to love from intentions to lust (sexual desire). To address this question, we conducted two experiments: one testing whether the visual pattern related to the perception of love differs from that related to lust and one testing whether the visual pattern related to the expression of love differs from that related to lust. Our results show that a person's eye gaze shifts as a function of his or her goal (love vs. lust) when looking at a visual stimulus. Such identification of distinct visual patterns for love and lust could have theoretical and clinical importance in couples therapy when these two phenomena are difficult to disentangle from one another on the basis of patients' self-reports. PMID:25031302

  14. Spatial solitons of desired intensity and width and their self-tapering/uptapering in cubic quintic nonlinear medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Sarkar, Ram; Medhekar, S.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the propagation behavior of a Gaussian beam in cubic quintic nonlinear medium with and without absorption or gain. A governing differential equation for the evolution of beam width with the distance of propagation has been derived using the standard parabolic equation approach. By solving the governing equation numerically for different sets of parameters, we have shown that spatial solitons of fixed width and desired intensity and of fixed intensity and desired width are possible. Such liberty does not exist in other saturable media. We have also investigated self-tapering and self-uptapering of spatial solitons in the presence of absorption or gain and showed that the rate of self-tapering/uptapering is not only controlled by the magnitude of absorption or gain but also by the values of cubic and quintic terms. It is revealed that by self-tapering, the smallest achievable soliton width decreases/increases by increasing the magnitude of the cubic/quintic term. It is also revealed that the smallest achievable soliton width by self-tapering, is smaller for a larger initial width.

  15. Predicting Desire for Institutional Placement Among Racially Diverse Dementia Family Caregivers: The Role of Quality of Care

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Literature on institutionalization of patients with dementia has not considered the role of caregivers’ quality of care, which encompasses caregivers’ exemplary care (EC) behaviors and caregivers’ potentially harmful behaviors (PHBs) toward care recipients. This study sought to understand the role of quality of care in mediating between caregiving stressors and caregiver desire to institutionalize (DTI) a patient with dementia. Design and Methods: A sample of 612 family caregivers from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds was drawn from the baseline data of the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer’s Caregiver Heath (REACH II) project. Multiple mediator models were run using Preacher and Hayes asymptotic and resampling strategies to assess direct and indirect effects of caregiver stressors (daily care bother, behavioral bother, and burden) on caregiver desire to institutionalize a patient with dementia. Results: Overall, PHB was positively related to caregiver desire to institutionalize their care recipients. Specifically, PHB was found to mediate the relationship between caregiving stressors and DTI in the Caucasian and Latino groups, whereas only the mediation effect of EC was significant in the African American group. Implications: Caregivers’ perceptions of quality of care helped explain their desire to institutionalize their care recipients with dementia. Including assessment of EC and PHB in clinical and social service settings is recommended for all ethnic groups. Interventions should facilitate EC behaviors among African American caregivers and address concerns of PHBs in Caucasian and Latino caregivers. PMID:22961466

  16. Children's Expectancy of Criticism for Classroom Achievement Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Ellen F.

    An expectancy of criticism scale was devised in order to measure children's expectations of giving criticism to and receiving criticism from different agents for public achievement efforts in class. Scores on the Children's Social Desirability Scale (CSD) and teacher ratings of amount of criticism the children received and of their participation…

  17. Temperament and Personality: A Mute Struggle for Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behjat, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    There has always been dissatisfaction by language teachers who observe different levels of achievement with students attending the same language class and taking the same instruction. This variation in attaining the desired level of proficiency can be caused by the learners' personality types. The present study was an attempt to explore the degree…

  18. Anti-Viral Therapy and Decreased Sexual Desire in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Po-Fan; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Su, Kuan-Pin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Peg-interferon (PegIFN)α2a or PegIFNα2b plus ribavirin (RBV) is the standard therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Taiwan and Asia. It is commonly associated with adverse effects, but the issue of sexual and mental health is not well reported. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of anti-viral therapy with PegIFNα plus RBV on sexual desire and depression. Methods This prospective cohort study from 2009 to 2014 enrolled 181 patients with HCV who received PegIFNα2a (180 mcg/week) or PegIFNα2b (1.5 mcg/Kg/week) plus RBV (800–1200 mg/day) according to response-guide therapy for 24 to 48 weeks in a tertiary medical center. Patients with decreased sexual desire (DSD) before PegIFNα plus RBV were excluded. Patients were evaluated at baseline (week 0) and after 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks of PegIFNα plus RBV treatment using the structured Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, for the diagnosis of a major depressive episode, and the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), for monitoring depressive symptoms. The 21st item of the BDI was used to evaluate DSD. Results During therapy, 124 (68.5%) patients had DSD. The BDI score peaked at 14.8 weeks. The severity of DSD was greatest at 16 weeks of treatment. The average score of the 21st item of the BDI correlated with DSD. Depression history and the prevalence of subsequent major depressive disorder after anti-viral therapy was correlated to DSD (p = 0.05 and 0.001). Male patients complained of DSD more significantly than females (p = 0.031). Conclusions Decreased sexual desire is common but is usually neglected in patients with chronic hepatitis C undergoing anti-viral therapy, especially among male patients. Physicians must be monitoring the side effects of sexual health and depression. PMID:27505293

  19. A Quantitative Review of the Effect of Computerized Testing on the Measurement of Social Desirability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwight, Stephen A.; Feigelson, Melissa E.

    2000-01-01

    Conducted a meta-analysis to determine the extent to which the computer administration of a measure influences socially desirable responding. Discusses implications of the findings about impression management in terms of how they contribute to the explication of the construct of social desirability and cross-mode equivalence. (Author/SLD)

  20. The Religious Orientation Scale: Review and Meta-Analysis of Social Desirability Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Douglas E.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of the reliability and validity of scores on the Religious Orientation Scale (G. Allport and J. Ross, 1967) were reviewed with respect to social desirability. Meta analysis shows that one scale correlates with social desirability, but another does not, suggesting that partialing out this variance is not recommended. (SLD)